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Sample records for large perpendicular anisotropy

  1. First-principles investigation of the very large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at Fe | MgO and Co | MgO interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, H. X.; Chshiev, M.; Dieny, B.; Lee, J. H.; Manchon, Aurelien; Shin, K. H.

    2011-01-01

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) arising at the interface between ferromagnetic transition metals and metallic oxides was investigated via first-principles calculations. In this work very large values of PMA, up to 3 erg/cm2, at Fe|MgO interfaces are reported, in agreement with recent experiments. The origin of PMA is attributed to overlap between O-pz and transition metal dz2 orbitals hybridized with dxz(yz) orbitals with stronger spin-orbit coupling-induced splitting around the Fermi level for perpendicular magnetization orientation. Furthermore, it is shown that the PMA value weakens in the case of over- or underoxidation due to the fact that oxygen pz and transition metal dz2 orbital overlap is strongly affected by disorder, in agreement with experimental observations in magnetic tunnel junctions.

  2. First-principles investigation of the very large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at Fe | MgO and Co | MgO interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, H. X.

    2011-08-01

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) arising at the interface between ferromagnetic transition metals and metallic oxides was investigated via first-principles calculations. In this work very large values of PMA, up to 3 erg/cm2, at Fe|MgO interfaces are reported, in agreement with recent experiments. The origin of PMA is attributed to overlap between O-pz and transition metal dz2 orbitals hybridized with dxz(yz) orbitals with stronger spin-orbit coupling-induced splitting around the Fermi level for perpendicular magnetization orientation. Furthermore, it is shown that the PMA value weakens in the case of over- or underoxidation due to the fact that oxygen pz and transition metal dz2 orbital overlap is strongly affected by disorder, in agreement with experimental observations in magnetic tunnel junctions.

  3. NANO-MULTILAYERS WITH HIGH PERPENDICULAR ANISOTROPY FOR MAGNETIC RECORDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Yang; B.H. Li; K. Kang; T. Suzuki

    2003-01-01

    (FePt/Ag)n nano-multilayers were deposited on MgO (100) single crystal with laser ablation and then subjected to annealing. FePt L1o grains with (001) texture and thus a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant Ku of the order of 106J/m3 were formed. A thick Ag layer is found to be favorable for decreasing the dispersion of the easy axis for magnetization. The measurement of time decay of magnetization gave rise to a small activation volume of the order of 10-25 m3, showing the promising of being the recording medium for future high density perpendicular recording.

  4. Nanoconstriction spin-Hall oscillator with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divinskiy, B.; Demidov, V. E.; Kozhanov, A.; Rinkevich, A. B.; Demokritov, S. O.; Urazhdin, S.

    2017-07-01

    We experimentally study spin-Hall nano-oscillators based on [Co/Ni] multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We show that these devices exhibit single-frequency auto-oscillations at current densities comparable to those for in-plane magnetized oscillators. The demonstrated oscillators exhibit large magnetization precession amplitudes, and their oscillation frequency is highly tunable by the electric current. These features make them promising for applications in high-speed integrated microwave circuits.

  5. Origin of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co/Ni multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, M.; Hübner, R.; Suess, D.; Heinrich, B.; Girt, E.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the variation in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of (111) textured Au /N ×[Co /Ni ]/Au films as a function of the number of bilayer repeats N . The ferromagnetic resonance and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer measurements show that the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Co/Ni multilayers first increases with N for N ≤10 and then moderately decreases for N >10 . The model we propose reveals that the decrease of the anisotropy for N reduction in the magnetoelastic and magnetocrystalline anisotropies. A moderate decrease in the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for N >10 is due to the reduction in the magnetocrystalline and the surface anisotropies. To calculate the contribution of magnetoelastic anisotropy in the Co/Ni multilayers, in-plane and out-of-plane x-ray diffraction measurements are performed to determine the spacing between Co/Ni (111) and (220) planes. The magnetocrystalline bulk anisotropy is estimated from the difference in the perpendicular and parallel g factors of Co/Ni multilayers that are measured using the in-plane and out-of-plane ferromagnetic resonance measurements. Transmission electron microscopy has been used to estimate the multilayer film roughness. These values are used to calculate the roughness-induced surface and magnetocrystalline anisotropy coefficients as a function of N .

  6. Tailoring perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with graphene oxide membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Keyu; Liu, Houfang; Li, Linsen; Li, Huanglong; Feng, Jiafeng; Yang, Baishun; Liu, Xiao; Li, Yuxing; Chen, Yanhui; Wei, Hongxiang; Han, Xiufeng; Mao, Shengcheng; Zhang, Xixiang; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-ling

    2017-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) membranes have been widely explored for their excellent physical and chemical properties, and abundant functional groups. In this work, we report the improvement of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of CoFeB thin films by applying a coating of GO membranes. We observe that the PMA of the CoFeB/MgAl–O stacks is strongly enhanced by the coating of GO membranes and even reaches 0.6 mJ m−2 at room temperature after an annealing process. The critical thickness of the membrane-coated CoFeB for switching the magnetization from the out-of-plane to the in-plane axis exceeds 1.6 nm. First-principle calculations are performed to investigate the contribution of the GO membranes to the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE). Due to changes in the hybridization of 3d orbitals, varying the location of the C atomic layer with Co changes the contribution of the Co–C stacks to PMA. Thus, the large PMA achieved with GO membranes can be attributed to the orbital hybridization of the C and O atoms with the Co orbitals. These results provide a comprehensive understanding of the PMA and point towards opportunities to achieve multifunctional graphene-composite spintronic devices.

  7. Tailoring perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with graphene oxide membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Keyu

    2017-11-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) membranes have been widely explored for their excellent physical and chemical properties, and abundant functional groups. In this work, we report the improvement of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of CoFeB thin films by applying a coating of GO membranes. We observe that the PMA of the CoFeB/MgAl–O stacks is strongly enhanced by the coating of GO membranes and even reaches 0.6 mJ m−2 at room temperature after an annealing process. The critical thickness of the membrane-coated CoFeB for switching the magnetization from the out-of-plane to the in-plane axis exceeds 1.6 nm. First-principle calculations are performed to investigate the contribution of the GO membranes to the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE). Due to changes in the hybridization of 3d orbitals, varying the location of the C atomic layer with Co changes the contribution of the Co–C stacks to PMA. Thus, the large PMA achieved with GO membranes can be attributed to the orbital hybridization of the C and O atoms with the Co orbitals. These results provide a comprehensive understanding of the PMA and point towards opportunities to achieve multifunctional graphene-composite spintronic devices.

  8. Effect of soft underlayer magnetic anisotropy on perpendicular recording process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.K.; Kim, E.S.; Yoon, S.Y.; Kong, S.H.; Lee, H.S.; Oh, H.S.; Kim, Y.S.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of the soft magnetic underlayer (SUL) in perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) media is essential for the application. It is commonly understood that the SUL provides the return flux path and enhances the writing field by enhancing the recording field from the write pole. However, SUL increases the magnetic noise during the read back process due to magnetic domain walls in the SUL. Hence, it is common to grow SUL with large uniaxial or unidirectional magnetic anisotropy field (H k ) to reduce domain wall noise. In this paper, we explore the effect of increasing SUL H k on the recording process. We studied this effect by using the finite element micromagnetic simulation. Our simulation results show that the contribution of SUL to the writing field amplitude is reduced with increasing H k . This reduction in magnetic field from high H k SUL actually improves the recording performance due to the better field gradient at SUL. The simulation results are qualitatively consistent with the actual experimental data obtained from the Guzik measurement

  9. CeCo5 thin films with perpendicular anisotropy grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Hildebrandt, E.; Major, M.; Komissinskiy, P.; Radulov, I.; Alff, L.

    2018-04-01

    Buffer-free, highly textured (0 0 1) oriented CeCo5 thin films showing perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were synthesized on (0 0 1) Al2O3 substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Ce exists in a mixture of Ce3+ and Ce4+ valence states as shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The first anisotropy constant, K1, as measured by torque magnetometry was 0.82 MJ/m3 (8.2 ×106erg /cm3) . A maximum coercivity of 5.16 kOe with a negative temperature coefficient of -0.304%K-1 and a magnetization of 527.30 emu/cm3 was measured perpendicular to the film plane at 5 K. In addition, a large anisotropy of the magnetic moment of 15.5% was observed. These magnetic parameters make CeCo5 a potential candidate material for spintronic and magnetic recording applications.

  10. Tunnel Junction with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy: Status and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxing Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ, which arises from emerging spintronics, has the potential to become the basic component of novel memory, logic circuits, and other applications. Particularly since the first demonstration of current induced magnetization switching in MTJ, spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM has sparked a huge interest thanks to its non-volatility, fast access speed, and infinite endurance. However, along with the advanced nodes scaling, MTJ with in-plane magnetic anisotropy suffers from modest thermal stability, high power consumption, and manufactural challenges. To address these concerns, focus of research has converted to the preferable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA based MTJ, whereas a number of conditions still have to be met before its practical application. This paper overviews the principles of PMA and STT, where relevant issues are preliminarily discussed. Centering on the interfacial PMA in CoFeB/MgO system, we present the fundamentals and latest progress in the engineering, material, and structural points of view. The last part illustrates potential investigations and applications with regard to MTJ with interfacial PMA.

  11. T=0 phase diagram and nature of domains in ultrathin ferromagnetic films with perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pighin, Santiago A.; Billoni, Orlando V.; Stariolo, Daniel A.; Cannas, Sergio A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the complete zero temperature phase diagram of a model for ultrathin films with perpendicular anisotropy. The whole parameter space of relevant coupling constants is studied in first order anisotropy approximation. Because the ground state is known to be formed by perpendicular stripes separated by Bloch walls, a standard variational approach is used, complemented with specially designed Monte Carlo simulations. We can distinguish four regimes according to the different nature of striped domains: a high anisotropy Ising regime with sharp domain walls, a saturated stripe regime with thicker walls inside which an in-plane component of the magnetization develops, a narrow canted-like regime, characterized by a sinusoidal variation of both the in-plane and the out of plane magnetization components, which upon further decrease of the anisotropy leads to an in-plane ferromagnetic state via a spin reorientation transition (SRT). The nature of domains and walls are described in some detail together with the variation of domain width with anisotropy, for any value of exchange and dipolar interactions. Our results, although strictly valid at T=0, can be valuable for interpreting data on the evolution of domain width at finite temperature, a still largely open problem.

  12. High Field Linear Magnetoresistance Sensors with Perpendicular Anisotropy L10-FePt Reference Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High field linear magnetoresistance is an important feature for magnetic sensors applied in magnetic levitating train and high field positioning measurements. Here, we investigate linear magnetoresistance in Pt/FePt/ZnO/Fe/Pt multilayer magnetic sensor, where FePt and Fe ferromagnetic layers exhibit out-of-plane and in-plane magnetic anisotropy, respectively. Perpendicular anisotropy L10-FePt reference layer with large coercivity and high squareness ratio was obtained by in situ substrate heating. Linear magnetoresistance is observed in this sensor in a large range between +5 kOe and −5 kOe with the current parallel to the film plane. This L10-FePt based sensor is significant for the expansion of linear range and the simplification of preparation for future high field magnetic sensors.

  13. Achieving perpendicular anisotropy in half-metallic Heusler alloys for spin device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munira, Kamaram; Romero, Jonathon; Butler, William H.

    2014-05-01

    Various full Heusler alloys are interfaced with MgO and the magnetic properties of the Heusler-MgO junctions are studied. Next to MgO, the cubic Heusler system distorts to a tetragonal one, thereby inducing an anisotropy. The half-metallicity and nature of anisotropy (in-plane or perpendicular) in the Heusler-MgO system is governed mostly by the interface Heusler layers. There is a trend that Mn-O bonding near the MgO-Heusler junction results in perpendicular anisotropy. The ability to remain half-metallic and have perpendicular anisotropy makes some of these alloys potential candidates as free-layers in Spin Transfer Torque Random Access Memory (STT-RAM) devices, particularly, Cr2MnAs-MgO system with MnAs interface layers and Co2MnSi-MgO system with Mn2 interface layers.

  14. Exchange bias energy in Co/Pt/IrMn multilayers with perpendicular and in-plane anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czapkiewicz, M. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: czapkiew@agh.edu.pl; Stobiecki, T. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Rak, R. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Zoladz, M. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Dijken, S. van [CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2007-09-15

    The magnetization reversal process in perpendicularly biased [Pt/Co]{sub 3}/d{sub Pt} Pt/IrMn and in-plane biased Co/d{sub Pt} Pt/IrMn multilayers with 0nm=anisotropy, the exchange bias field decreases monotonically with Pt insertion layer thickness, while its coercivity remains constant. The samples with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, on the other hand, exhibit maximum exchange bias and minimum coercivity for d{sub Pt}=0.1nm. In both cases, the existence of large exchange bias fields correlates with a high domain density during magnetization reversal. The interface exchange coupling energy is larger for the in-plane biased films than for the perpendicularly biased multilayers.

  15. Angular dependence of magnetization reversal in epitaxial chromium telluride thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanik, Tanmoy, E-mail: pramanik.tanmoy@utexas.edu; Roy, Anupam, E-mail: anupam@austin.utexas.edu; Dey, Rik, E-mail: rikdey@utexas.edu; Rai, Amritesh; Guchhait, Samaresh; Movva, Hema C.P.; Hsieh, Cheng-Chih; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2017-09-01

    Highlights: • Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial Cr{sub 2}Te{sub 3} has been investigated. • Presence of a relatively strong second order anisotropy contribution is observed. • Magnetization reversal is explained quantitatively using a 1D defect model. • Relative roles of nucleation and pinning in magnetization reversal are discussed. • Domain structures and switching process are visualized by micromagnetic simulation. - Abstract: We investigate magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal mechanism in chromium telluride thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We report existence of strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in these thin films, along with a relatively strong second order anisotropy contribution. The angular variation of the switching field observed from the magnetoresistance measurement is explained quantitatively using a one-dimensional defect model. The model reveals the relative roles of nucleation and pinning in the magnetization reversal, depending on the applied field orientation. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to visualize the domain structure and switching process.

  16. Origin of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of SmCo5 thin films with Cu underlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayama, Junichi; Mizutani, Kazuki; Asahi, Toru; Ariake, Jun; Ouchi, Kazuhiro; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2006-01-01

    Effects of the Cu underlayer thickness and the addition of Cu to a Sm-Co layer on magnetic properties and microstructure of SmCo 5 thin films exhibiting perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were studied. The origin of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was discussed from these experimental results. A thick Cu underlayer of more than 100 nm brought about high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy leading to the squareness ratio equal to unity. The Cu addition enhanced the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and reduced the Cu underlayer thickness required to obtain the squareness ratio of unity. X-ray diffractometry showed that the crystalline orientation of the Sm-Co layer did not correlate with that of the Cu underlayer. Auger electron spectroscopy revealed that Cu atoms were diffused up to the Sm-Co layer from the Cu underlayer. From the results, Cu atoms existing in the Sm-Co layer were suggested to be strongly related with an appearance of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by introducing the Cu underlayer

  17. Nanocrystalline iron nitride films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ajay; Dubey, Ranu; Leitenberger, W.; Pietsch, U.

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline α-iron nitride films have been prepared using reactive ion-beam sputtering. Films develop significant perpendicualr magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with increasing thickness. A comparison of x-ray diffraction patterns taken with scattering vectors in the film plane and out of the film plane provides a clear evidence for development of compressive strain in the film plane with thickness. Thermal annealing results in relaxation of the strain, which correlates very well with the relaxation of PMA. This suggests that the observed PMA is a consequence of the breaking of the symmetry of the crystal structure due to the compressive strain

  18. Magneto-Seebeck effect in magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyu Ning

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As one invigorated filed of spin caloritronics combining with spin, charge and heat current, the magneto-Seebeck effect has been experimentally and theoretically studied in spin tunneling thin films and nanostructures. Here we analyze the tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect in magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy (p-MTJs under various measurement temperatures. The large tunnel magneto-Seebeck (TMS ratio up to −838.8% for p-MTJs at 200 K is achieved, with Seebeck coefficient S in parallel and antiparallel states of 6.7 mV/K and 62.9 mV/K, respectively. The temperature dependence of the tunnel magneto-Seebeck can be attributed to the contributing transmission function and electron states at the interface between CoFeB electrode and MgO barrier.

  19. Magnetotransport properties of Cr1−δTe thin films with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available P-type ferromagnetic Cr1-δTe thin films with the Curie temperature of 170K were epitaxially grown on GaAs substrate. Low-temperature magnetotransport study reveals that the film has a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA and an anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR ratio up to 8.1%. Furthermore, reduced anomalous Hall effect is observed at low temperatures in Cr1-δTe, suggesting the possible crossover of the contribution to AHE from the intrinsic mechanism to extrinsic skew scattering. Distinctive from conventional transition metal ferromagnets, the AMR ratio is also greatly suppressed at low temperatures. Our work demonstrates that epitaxial Cr1-δTe films are interesting platforms for studying the physics underlying the strong PMA and large AMR.

  20. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and magnetization dynamics in oxidized CoFeAl films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Le; Zhang, Zongzhi; Zhao, H. B.; Wang, J.; Ma, B.; Jin, Q. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Half-metallic Co-based full-Heusler alloys with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), such as Co2FeAl in contact with MgO, are receiving increased attention recently due to its full spin polarization for high density memory applications. However, the PMA induced by MgO interface can only be realized for very thin magnetic layers (usually below 1.3 nm), which would have strong adverse effects on the material properties of spin polarization, Gilbert damping parameter, and magnetic stability. In order to solve this issue, we fabricated oxidized Co50Fe25Al25 (CFAO) films with proper thicknesses without employing the MgO layer. The samples show controllable PMA by tuning the oxygen pressure (PO2) and CFAO thickness (tCFAO), large perpendicular anisotropy field of ~8.0 kOe can be achieved at PO2 = 12% for the sample of tCFAO = 2.1 nm or at PO2 = 7% for tCFAO = 2.8 nm. The loss of PMA at thick tCFAO or high PO2 results mainly from the formation of large amount of CoFe oxides, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature but become hard magnetic at low temperatures. The magnetic CFAO films, with strong PMA in a relatively wide thickness range and small intrinsic damping parameter below 0.028, would find great applications in developing advanced spintronic devices.

  1. Origin of interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shouzhong; Wang, Mengxing; Yang, Hongxin; Zeng, Lang; Nan, Jiang; Zhou, Jiaqi; Zhang, Youguang; Hallal, Ali; Chshiev, Mairbek; Wang, Kang L; Zhang, Qianfan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2015-12-11

    Spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) attracts extensive attentions due to its non-volatility, high density and low power consumption. The core device in STT-MRAM is CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), which possesses a high tunnel magnetoresistance ratio as well as a large value of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). It has been experimentally proven that a capping layer coating on CoFeB layer is essential to obtain a strong PMA. However, the physical mechanism of such effect remains unclear. In this paper, we investigate the origin of the PMA in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures by using a first-principles computation scheme. The trend of PMA variation with different capping materials agrees well with experimental results. We find that interfacial PMA in the three-layer structures comes from both the MgO/CoFe and CoFe/capping layer interfaces, which can be analyzed separately. Furthermore, the PMAs in the CoFe/capping layer interfaces are analyzed through resolving the magnetic anisotropy energy by layer and orbital. The variation of PMA with different capping materials is attributed to the different hybridizations of both d and p orbitals via spin-orbit coupling. This work can significantly benefit the research and development of nanoscale STT-MRAM.

  2. Symmetry mismatch-driven perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for perovskite/brownmillerite heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Zhicheng; Guan, Xiangxiang; Shen, Xi; Zhang, Jine; Han, Furong; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Hongrui; Yan, Xi; Zhang, Qinghua; Gu, Lin; Hu, Fengxia; Yu, Richeng; Shen, Baogen; Sun, Jirong

    2018-05-15

    Grouping different transition metal oxides together by interface engineering is an important route toward emergent phenomenon. While most of the previous works focused on the interface effects in perovskite/perovskite heterostructures, here we reported on a symmetry mismatch-driven spin reorientation toward perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in perovskite/brownmillerite heterostructures, which is scarcely seen in tensile perovskite/perovskite heterostructures. We show that alternately stacking perovskite La 2/3 Sr 1/3 MnO 3 and brownmillerite LaCoO 2.5 causes a strong interface reconstruction due to symmetry discontinuity at interface: neighboring MnO 6 octahedra and CoO 4 tetrahedra at the perovskite/brownmillerite interface cooperatively relax in a manner that is unavailable for perovskite/perovskite interface, leading to distinct orbital reconstructions and thus the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Moreover, the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is robust, with an anisotropy constant two orders of magnitude greater than the in-plane anisotropy of the perovskite/perovskite interface. The present work demonstrates the great potential of symmetry engineering in designing artificial materials on demand.

  3. Ferromagnetic resonance linewidth and damping in perpendicular-anisotropy magnetic multilayers thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujour, Jean-Marc

    2010-03-01

    Transition metal ferromagnetic films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) have ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidths that are one order of magnitude larger than soft magnetic materials, such as pure iron (Fe) and permalloy (NiFe) thin films. We have conducted systematic studies of a variety of thin film materials with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy to investigate the origin of the enhanced FMR linewidths, including Ni/Co and CoFeB/Co/Ni multilayers. In Ni/Co multilayers the PMA was systematically reduced by irradiation with Helium ions, leading to a transition from out-of-plane to in-plane easy axis with increasing He ion fluence [1,2]. The FMR linewidth depends linearly on frequency for perpendicular applied fields and increases significantly when the magnetization is rotated into the film plane with an applied in-plane magnetic field. Irradiation of the film with Helium ions decreases the PMA and the distribution of PMA parameters, leading to a large reduction in the FMR linewidth for in-plane magnetization. These results suggest that fluctuations in the PMA lead to a large two magnon scattering contribution to the linewidth for in-plane magnetization and establish that the Gilbert damping is enhanced in such materials (α˜0.04, compared to α˜0.002 for pure Fe) [2]. We compare these results to those on CoFeB/Co/Ni and published results on other thin film materials with PMA [e.g., Ref. 3]. [1] D. Stanescu et al., J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07B529 (2008). [2] J-M. L. Beaujour, D. Ravelosona, I. Tudosa, E. Fullerton, and A. D. Kent, Phys. Rev. B RC 80, 180415 (2009). [3] N. Mo, J. Hohlfeld, M. ulIslam, C. S. Brown, E. Girt, P. Krivosik, W. Tong, A. Rebel, and C. E. Patton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 022506 (2008). *Research done in collaboration with: A. D. Kent, New York University, D. Ravelosona, Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Universit'e Paris Sud, E. E. Fullerton, Center for Magnetic Recording Research, UCSD, and supported by NSF

  4. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoXPd100-X alloys for magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. D.; Natarajarathinam, A.; Tadisina, Z. R.; Chen, P. J.; Shull, R. D.; Gupta, S.

    2017-08-01

    CoFeB/MgO-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJ's) with high anisotropy and low damping are critical for spin-torque transfer random access memory (STT-RAM). Most schemes of making the pinned CoFeB fully perpendicular require ferrimagnets with high damping constants, a high temperature-grown L10 alloy, or an overly complex multilayered synthetic antiferromagnet (SyAF). We report a compositional study of perpendicular CoxPd alloy-pinned Co20Fe60B20/MgO based MTJ stacks, grown at moderate temperatures in a planetary deposition system. The perpendicular anisotropy of the CoxPd alloy films can be tuned based on the layer thickness and composition. The films were characterized by alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM), energy-dispersive X-rays (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) measurements have also been performed on the compositionally varied CoxPd MTJ stacks. The CoxPd alloy becomes fully perpendicular at approximately x = 30% (atomic fraction) Co. Full-film MTJ stacks of Si/SiO2/MgO (13)/CoXPd100-x (50)/Ta (0.3)/CoFeB (1)/MgO (1.6)/CoFeB (1)/Ta (5)/Ru (10), with the numbers enclosed in parentheses being the layer thicknesses in nm, were sputtered onto thermally oxidized silicon substrates and in-situ lamp annealed at 400 °C for 5 min. CIPT measurements indicate that the highest TMR is observed for the CoPd composition with the highest perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  5. Magnetic stripes and holes: Complex domain patterns in perforated films with weak perpendicular anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Valdés-Bango

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal antidot arrays have been patterned on weak perpendicular magnetic anisotropy NdCo films by e-beam lithography and lift off. Domain structure has been characterized by Magnetic Force Microscopy at remanence. On a local length scale, of the order of stripe pattern period, domain configuration is controlled by edge effects within the stripe pattern: stripe domains meet the hole boundary at either perpendicular or parallel orientation. On a longer length scale, in-plane magnetostatic effects dominate the system: clear superdomains are observed in the patterned film with average in-plane magnetization along the easy directions of the antidot array, correlated over several antidot array cells.

  6. Magnetic stripes and holes: Complex domain patterns in perforated films with weak perpendicular anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Bango, F.; Vélez, M.; Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Alameda, J. M.; Martín, J. I.

    2017-05-01

    Hexagonal antidot arrays have been patterned on weak perpendicular magnetic anisotropy NdCo films by e-beam lithography and lift off. Domain structure has been characterized by Magnetic Force Microscopy at remanence. On a local length scale, of the order of stripe pattern period, domain configuration is controlled by edge effects within the stripe pattern: stripe domains meet the hole boundary at either perpendicular or parallel orientation. On a longer length scale, in-plane magnetostatic effects dominate the system: clear superdomains are observed in the patterned film with average in-plane magnetization along the easy directions of the antidot array, correlated over several antidot array cells.

  7. Failure Analysis in Magnetic Tunnel Junction Nanopillar with Interfacial Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

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    Weisheng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic tunnel junction nanopillar with interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA-MTJ becomes a promising candidate to build up spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM for the next generation of non-volatile memory as it features low spin transfer switching current, fast speed, high scalability, and easy integration into conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS circuits. However, this device suffers from a number of failure issues, such as large process variation and tunneling barrier breakdown. The large process variation is an intrinsic issue for PMA-MTJ as it is based on the interfacial effects between ultra-thin films with few layers of atoms; the tunneling barrier breakdown is due to the requirement of an ultra-thin tunneling barrier (e.g., <1 nm to reduce the resistance area for the spin transfer torque switching in the nanopillar. These failure issues limit the research and development of STT-MRAM to widely achieve commercial products. In this paper, we give a full analysis of failure mechanisms for PMA-MTJ and present some eventual solutions from device fabrication to system level integration to optimize the failure issues.

  8. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the magnetization process in CoFeB/Pd multilayer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Duc-The; Quach, Duy-Truong; Hung, Tran Quang

    2014-01-01

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and dynamic magnetization-reversal process in [CoFeB t nm/Pd 1.0 nm]n(t = 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 nm; n = 2 − 20) multilayer films have been studied by means of magnetic hysteresis and Kerr effect measurements. Strong and controllable PMA with an eff...

  9. Interfacial tuning of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and spin magnetic moment in CoFe/Pd multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, D.-T., E-mail: ndthe82@gmail.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Meng, Z.L. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Tahmasebi, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, A-STAR (Agency for Science Technology and Research), 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Yu, X. [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source, National University of Singapore, 5 Research Link, Singapore 117603 (Singapore); Thoeng, E. [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source, National University of Singapore, 5 Research Link, Singapore 117603 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Yeo, L.H. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Rusydi, A., E-mail: phyandri@nus.edu.sg [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source, National University of Singapore, 5 Research Link, Singapore 117603 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Han, G.C [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Teo, K.-L., E-mail: eleteokl@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-01-15

    We report on a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in [CoFe 0.4 nm/Pd t]{sub 6} (t=1.0–2.0 nm) multilayers fabricated by DC sputtering in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber. Saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, and uniaxial anisotropy, K{sub u}, of the multilayers decrease with increasing the spacing thickness; with a M{sub s} of 155 emu/cc and a K{sub u} of 1.14×10{sup 5} J/m{sup 3} at a spacing thickness of t=2 nm. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements reveal that spin and orbital magnetic moments of Co and Fe in CoFe film decrease as a function of Pd thickness, indicating the major contribution of surface/interfacial magnetism to the magnetic properties of the film. - Highlights: • Strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy essentially contributed by interfacial anisotropy. • Controllably magnetic properties with low M{sub s}, high K{sub u}, high P. • Interfacial magnetic moments modified by CoFe/Pd interfaces with strong spin–orbit coupling. • Narrow Bloch walls with Néel caps. • Superior magnetic characteristics for spin-torque applications.

  10. Tunnel magnetoresistance in thermally robust Mo/CoFeB/MgO tunnel junction with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on tunnel magnetoresistance and electric-field effect in the Mo buffered and capped CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. A large tunnel magnetoresistance of 120% is achieved. Furthermore, this structure shows greatly improved thermal stability and stronger electric-field-induced modulation effect in comparison with the Ta/CoFeB/MgO-based MTJs. These results suggest that the Mo-based MTJs are more desirable for next generation spintronic devices.

  11. Enhancement in the interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy by heavy metal doping at the Fe/MgO interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Nozaki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of heavy metal doping at the Fe/MgO interface on the interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA and the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA in magnetic tunnel junctions prepared by sputtering-based deposition. The interfacial PMA was increased by tungsten doping and a maximum intrinsic interfacial PMA energy, Ki,0 of 2.0 mJ/m2 was obtained. Ir doping led to a large increase in the VCMA coefficient by a factor of 4.7 compared with that for the standard Fe/MgO interface. The developed technique provides an effective approach to enhancing the interfacial PMA and VCMA properties in the development of voltage-controlled spintronic devices.

  12. YCo5±x thin films with perpendicular anisotropy grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Hildebrandt, E.; Sharath, S. U.; Radulov, I.; Alff, L.

    2017-06-01

    The synthesis conditions of buffer-free (00l) oriented YCo5 and Y2Co17 thin films onto Al2O3 (0001) substrates have been explored by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The manipulation of the ratio of individual atomic beams of Yttrium, Y and Cobalt, Co, as well as growth rate variations allows establishing a thin film phase diagram. Highly textured YCo5±x thin films were stabilized with saturation magnetization of 517 emu/cm3 (0.517 MA/m), coercivity of 4 kOe (0.4 T), and anisotropy constant, K1, equal to 5.34 ×106 erg/cm3 (0.53 MJ/m3). These magnetic parameters and the perpendicular anisotropy obtained without additional underlayers make the material system interesting for application in magnetic recording devices.

  13. Spin torque switching of 20 nm magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, M.; Nowak, J. J.; Sun, J. Z.; Trouilloud, P. L.; O'Sullivan, E. J.; Abraham, D. W.; Gaidis, M. C.; Hu, G.; Brown, S.; Zhu, Y.; Robertazzi, R. P.; Gallagher, W. J.; Worledge, D. C.

    2012-03-01

    Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) is one of the most promising emerging non-volatile memory technologies. MRAM has so far been demonstrated with a unique combination of density, speed, and non-volatility in a single chip, however, without the capability to replace any single mainstream memory. In this paper, we demonstrate the basic physics of spin torque switching in 20 nm diameter magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy materials. This deep scaling capability clearly indicates the STT MRAM device itself may be suitable for integration at much higher densities than previously proven.

  14. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the magnetization process in CoFeB/Pd multilayer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Duc-The; Tran, Quang-Hung; Møhave, Kristian; Quach, Duy-Truong; Phan, The-Long; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and dynamic magnetization-reversal process in [CoFeB t nm/Pd 1.0 nm] n (t = 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 nm; n = 2 − 20) multilayer films have been studied by means of magnetic hysteresis and Kerr effect measurements. Strong and controllable PMA with an effective uniaxial anisotropy up to 7.7 × 10 6  Jm −3 and a saturation magnetization as low as 200 emu cm −3 are achieved. The surface/interfacial anisotropy of the CoFeB/Pd interfaces—the main contribution to the PMA—is separated from the effective uniaxial anisotropy of the films and appears to increase with the number of CoFeB/Pd bilayers. Observation of the magnetic domains during a magnetization-reversal process, using polar magneto-optical Kerr microscopy, reveals the detailed behavior of the nucleation and displacement of the domain walls. (paper)

  15. Enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and anomalous hall effect in Co/Ni multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yiwei; Zhang, Jingyan, E-mail: jyzhang@ustb.edu.cn; Jiang, Shaolong; Liu, Qianqian; Li, Xujing; Yu, Guanghua, E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in Co/Ni multilayer were optimized by manipulating its interface structure (inducing HfO{sub 2} capping layer and Pt insertion) and post-annealing treatment. A strong PMA can be obtained in Co/Ni multilayers with HfO{sub 2} capping layer even after annealing at 400 °C. The heavy metal Hf may improve the interfacial spin-orbit coupling, which responsible for the enhanced PMA and high annealing stability. Moreover, the multilayer containing HfO{sub 2} capping layer also exhibited high saturation anomalous Hall resistivity through post-annealing, which is 0.85 μΩ cm after annealing at 375 °C, 211% larger than in the sample at deposited state which is only 0.27 μΩ cm. The enhancement of AHE is mainly attributed to the interface scattering through post-annealing treatment. - Highlights: • The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and anomalous Hall effect of Co/Ni multilayer films were studied. • The PMA thermal stability of the Co/Ni ML can be enhanced by HfO{sub 2} capping layer and Pt insertion. • The anomalous Hall resistivity of Co/Ni ML covered by HfO{sub 2} was enhanced by post-annealing treatment.

  16. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in Heusler Alloy Films and Their Magnetoresistive Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsufumi Hirohata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the sustainable development of spintronic devices, a half-metallic ferromagnetic film needs to be developed as a spin source with exhibiting 100% spin polarisation at its Fermi level at room temperature. One of the most promising candidates for such a film is a Heusler-alloy film, which has already been proven to achieve the half-metallicity in the bulk region of the film. The Heusler alloys have predominantly cubic crystalline structures with small magnetocrystalline anisotropy. In order to use these alloys in perpendicularly magnetised devices, which are advantageous over in-plane devices due to their scalability, lattice distortion is required by introducing atomic substitution and interfacial lattice mismatch. In this review, recent development in perpendicularly-magnetised Heusler-alloy films is overviewed and their magnetoresistive junctions are discussed. Especially, focus is given to binary Heusler alloys by replacing the second element in the ternary Heusler alloys with the third one, e.g., MnGa and MnGe, and to interfacially-induced anisotropy by attaching oxides and metals with different lattice constants to the Heusler alloys. These alloys can improve the performance of spintronic devices with higher recording capacity.

  17. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in FePt Patterned Media Employing a CrV Seed Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Dong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A thin FePt film was deposited onto a CrV seed layer at 400°C and showed a high coercivity (~3,400 Oe and high magnetization (900–1,000 emu/cm3 characteristic of L10 phase. However, the magnetic properties of patterned media fabricated from the film stack were degraded due to the Ar-ion bombardment. We employed a deposition-last process, in which FePt film deposited at room temperature underwent lift-off and post-annealing processes, to avoid the exposure of FePt to Ar plasma. A patterned medium with 100-nm nano-columns showed an out-of-plane coercivity fivefold larger than its in-plane counterpart and a remanent magnetization comparable to saturation magnetization in the out-of-plane direction, indicating a high perpendicular anisotropy. These results demonstrate the high perpendicular anisotropy in FePt patterned media using a Cr-based compound seed layer for the first time and suggest that ultra-high-density magnetic recording media can be achieved using this optimized top-down approach.

  18. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of amorphous ferromagnetic CoSiB/[Pt,Au] multilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, S.; Yim, H. I.

    2012-01-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is being widely studied as a possible candidate for a high density spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory. The key issues of a high-density spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory are decreasing the switching current and the high thermal stability. In order to solve these problems, two approaches are suggested: One is the development a new amorphous ferromagnetic material as a pinned layer for a multilayer with a low saturated magnetization (M s ) value because of the interface roughness between the two layers. The other is a search for the most suitable materials with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in order to have high thermal stability. In this work, we present an amorphous ferromagnetic Co 75 Si 15 B 10 material and compare the magnetic properties of a [CoSiB (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 nm)/Pt (1.4 nm)] 5 multilayer and new combinations [CoSiB (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 nm)/Au (1.5 nm)] 5 .

  19. Hysteresis, critical fields and superferromagnetism of the film with perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, V.M.; Kulyk, M.M.; Ryabchenko, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on the analysis of hysteresis and critical phenomena of magnetization reversal of superferromagnetic (SFM) state in nanogranular (NG) Co/Al 2 O 3 film with perpendicular anisotropy. It was demonstrated that the transition from the multidomain SFM state to the homogeneous SFM state, during the magnetization process, occurs critically. The value of the field of critical transition to the homogeneous state depends on the demagnetization field, granular anisotropy and interparticle exchange anisotropy. It turned out that the temperature dependence of the coercive force of the film, despite its SFM state, accords with the Neel–Brown formula for anisotropic single-domain ferromagnetic particles, but has an anomalous angular dependence. It was concluded that domain wall motion affects these features of the coercive field. The domain wall movement may occur due to the overturn of magnetic moments of particles in the boundaries between the superdomains. At the same time, the main factors influencing the coercivity are the anisotropy of the particles, which blocks their magnetic moment reorientation, and demagnetizing factor of the film. Together they lead to the anomalous angular dependence of the coercive field. - Highlights: • The transition from the multidomain SFM to homogeneous SFM state occurs critically. • The value of the critical field depends on the direction of the magnetizing field. • Critical transition field depends on the anisotropy of the interparticle exchange. • Dependence of H c (θ H ) differs from expected one for an ensemble of the particles. • Magnetization reversal occurs by turning the particle's moments in domain borders.

  20. Some remarks about large p/sub perpendicular/ spin effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of the ingredients necessary to make predictions concerning single and double spin measurements in large p/sub perpendicular to/ inclusive processes is presented. Remarks are made as to what might be expected and what might be learned from such measurements. Various models for the production of large p/sub perpendicular to/ mesons have quite different spin structure and hence can be expected to give differing predictions. However, it is not possible at this time to make quantitative calculations, and it is possible (not probable) that the interesting spin observables will be negligibly small

  1. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of CoFeB\\Ta bilayers on ALD HfO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart F. Vermeulen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA is an essential condition for CoFe thin films used in magnetic random access memories. Until recently, interfacial PMA was mainly known to occur in materials stacks with MgO\\CoFe(B interfaces or using an adjacent crystalline heavy metal film. Here, PMA is reported in a CoFeB\\Ta bilayer deposited on amorphous high-κ dielectric (relative permittivity κ=20 HfO2, grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD. PMA with interfacial anisotropy energy Ki up to 0.49 mJ/m2 appears after annealing the stacks between 200°C and 350°C, as shown with vibrating sample magnetometry. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the decrease of PMA starting from 350°C coincides with the onset of interdiffusion in the materials. High-κ dielectrics are potential enablers for giant voltage control of magnetic anisotropy (VCMA. The absence of VCMA in these experiments is ascribed to a 0.6 nm thick magnetic dead layer between HfO2 and CoFeB. The results show PMA can be easily obtained on ALD high-κ dielectrics.

  2. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipporah, Muthui; Robinson, Musembi; Julius, Mwabora; Arti, Kashyap

    2018-05-01

    First principles study of the magnetic anisotropy of Mn2VIn (001) films show perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), which increases as a function of the thickness of the film. Density functional theory (DFT) as implemented in the Vienna Ab initio simulation package (VASP) is employed here to perform a comprehensive theoretical investigation of the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the Mn2VIn(001) films of varying thickness. Our calculations were performed on fully relaxed structures, with five to seventeen mono layers (ML). The degree of spin polarization is higher in the (001) Mn2VIn thin films as compared to the bulk in contrast to what is usually the case and as in Mn2VAl, which is isoelectronic to Mn2VIn as well as inCo2VIn (001) films studied for comparison. Tetragonal distortions are found in all the systems after relaxation. The distortion in the Mn2VIn system persists even for the 17ML thin film, resulting in PMA in the Mn2VIn system. This significant finding has potential to contribute to spin transfer torque (STT) and magnetic random access memory MRAM applications, as materials with PMA derived from volume magnetocrystalline anisotropy are being proposed as ideal magnetic electrodes.

  3. Magnetic ground and remanent states of synthetic metamagnets with perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, N S; Roessler, U K; Bogdanov, A N; Hellwig, O

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we summarize our theoretical results within a phenomenological micromagnetic approach for magnetic ground state and nonequilibrium states as topological magnetic defects in multilayers with strong perpendicular anisotropy and antiferromagnetic (AF) interlayer exchange coupling (IEC), e.g. [Co/Pt(Pd)]/Ru(Ir, NiO). We give detailed analysis of our model together with the most representative results which elucidate common features of such systems. We discuss phase diagrams of the magnetic ground state, and compare solutions of our model with experimental data. A model to assess the stability of so-called tiger tail patterns is presented. It is found that these modulated topological defect cannot be stabilized by an interplay between magnetostatic and IEC energies only. It is argued that tiger tail patterns arise as nuclei of ferro-stripe structure in AF domain walls and that they are stabilized by domain wall pinning.

  4. Stochastic simulation of thermally assisted magnetization reversal in sub-100 nm dots with perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnama, Budi; Koga, Masashi; Nozaki, Yukio; Matsuyama, Kimihide

    2009-01-01

    Thermally assisted magnetization reversal of sub-100 nm dots with perpendicular anisotropy has been investigated using a micromagnetic Langevin model. The performance of the two different reversal modes of (i) a reduced barrier writing scheme and (ii) a Curie point writing scheme are compared. For the reduced barrier writing scheme, the switching field H swt decreases with an increase in writing temperature but is still larger than that of the Curie point writing scheme. For the Curie point writing scheme, the required threshold field H th , evaluated from 50 simulation results, saturates at a value, which is not simply related to the energy barrier height. The value of H th increases with a decrease in cooling time owing to the dynamic aspects of the magnetic ordering process. Dependence of H th on material parameters and dot sizes has been systematically studied

  5. Relaxation dynamics of magnetization transitions in synthetic antiferromagnet with perpendicular anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talantsev, A.; Lu, Y.; Fache, T.; Lavanant, M.; Hamadeh, A.; Aristov, A.; Koplak, O.; Morgunov, R.; Mangin, S.

    2018-04-01

    Two synthetic antiferromagnet bilayer systems with strong perpendicular anisotropy CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB and Pt/Co/Ir/Co/Pt have been grown using sputtering techniques. For both systems two types of magnetization transitions have been studied. The first one concerns transitions from a state where magnetizations of the two magnetic layers are parallel (P state) to a state where magnetizations of the two layers are aligned antiparallel (AP state). The second one concerns transitions between the two possible antiparallel alignments (AP+  to AP-). For both systems and both transitions after-effect measurements can be understood in the frame of nucleation—propagation model. Time derivative analysis of magnetic relaxation curves and mapping of the first order reversal curves at different temperature allowed us to demonstrate the presence of different pinning centers, which number can be controlled by magnetic field and temperature.

  6. Large Friction Anisotropy of a Polydiacetylene Monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, A.R.; Carpick, R.W.; Sasaki, D.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Friction force microscopy measurements of a polydiacetylene monolayer film reveal a 300% friction anisotropy that is correlated with the film structure. The film consists of a monolayer of the red form of N-(2-ethanol)- 10,12 pentacosadiynamide, prepared on a Langmuir trough and deposited on a mica substrate. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the monolayer consists of domains of linearly oriented conjugated backbones with pendant hydrocarbon side chains above and below the backbones. Maximum friction occurs when the sliding direction is perpendicular to the backbone. We propose that the backbones impose anisotropic packing of the hydrocarbon side chains which leads to the observed friction anisotropy. Friction anisotropy is therefore a sensitive, optically-independent indicator of polymer backbone direction and monolayer structural properties

  7. Magnetization reversal mechanism of Nd-Fe-B films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoxi; Ishida, Go; Morisako, Akimitsu

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B films with thicknesses from 100 nm to 3 nm have been investigated. All the films show excellent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a squareness ratio of 1 in the perpendicular direction and almost zero coercivity in the in-plane direction. Of particular interest is that the initial magnetization curves sensitively depended on the film thickness. Films thicker than 15 nm show steep initial magnetization curve. Although the films have coercivities larger than 21 kOe, the films can be fully magnetized from the thermally demagnetized state with a field as small as 5 kOe. With the decrease of film thickness to 5 nm, the initial magnetization curve becomes flat. The evolution of initial magnetization curves with film thickness can be understood by the microstructure of the films. Films with thickness of 15 nm show close-packed grains without any intergranular phases. Such microstructures lead to steep initial magnetization curves. On the other hand, when the film thickness decreased to 3 nm, the film thickness became nonuniform. Such microstructure leads to flat initial magnetization curves.

  8. Micromagnetic study of skyrmion stability in confined magnetic structures with perpendicular anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, R. L.; Garcia, F.; Novais, E. R. P.; Sinnecker, J. P.; Guimarães, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    Skyrmions are emerging topological spin structures that are potentially revolutionary for future data storage and spintronics applications. The existence and stability of skyrmions in magnetic materials is usually associated to the presence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) in bulk magnets or in magnetic thin films lacking inversion symmetry. While some methods have already been proposed to generate isolated skyrmions in thin films with DMI, a thorough study of the conditions under which the skyrmions will remain stable in order to be manipulated in an integrated spintronic device are still an open problem. The stability of such structures is believed to be a result of ideal combinations of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), DMI and the interplay between geometry and magnetostatics. In the present work we show some micromagnetic results supporting previous experimental observations of magnetic skyrmions in spin-valve stacks with a wide range of DMI values. Using micromagnetic simulations of cobalt-based disks, we obtain the magnetic ground state configuration for several values of PMA, DMI and geometric parameters. Skyrmion numbers, corresponding to the topological charge, are calculated in all cases and confirm the occurrence of isolated, stable, axially symmetric skyrmions for several combinations of DMI and anisotropy constant. The stability of the skyrmions in disks is then investigated under magnetic field and spin-polarized current, in finite temperature, highlighting the limits of applicability of these spin textures in spintronic devices.

  9. High quality TmIG films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy grown by sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. N.; Tseng, C. C.; Yeh, S. L.; Lin, K. Y.; Cheng, C. K.; Fanchiang, Y. T.; Hong, M.; Kwo, J.

    Ferrimagnetic thulium iron garnet (TmIG) films grown on gadolinium gallium garnet substrates recently showed stress-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), attractive for realization of quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) of topological insulator (TI) films via the proximity effect. Moreover, current induced magnetization switching of Pt/TmIG has been demonstrated for the development of room temperature (RT) spintronic devices. In this work, high quality TmIG films (about 25nm) were grown by sputtering at RT followed by post-annealing. We showed that the film composition is tunable by varying the growth parameters. The XRD results showed excellent crystallinity of stoichiometric TmIG films with an out-of-plane lattice constant of 1.2322nm, a narrow film rocking curve of 0.017 degree, and a film roughness of 0.2 nm. The stoichiometric films exhibited PMA and the saturation magnetization at RT was 109 emu/cm3 (RT bulk value 110 emu/cm3) with a coercive field of 2.7 Oe. In contrast, TmIG films of Fe deficiency showed in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The high quality sputtered TmIG films will be applied to heterostructures with TIs or metals with strong spin-orbit coupling for novel spintronics.

  10. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in granular multilayers of CoPd alloyed nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, L. G.; Rubín, J.; Figueroa, A. I.; Bartolomé, F.; García, L. M.; Deranlot, C.; Petroff, F.; Ruiz, L.; González-Calbet, J. M.; Pascarelli, S.; Brookes, N. B.; Wilhelm, F.; Chorro, M.; Rogalev, A.; Bartolomé, J.

    2016-05-01

    Co-Pd multilayers obtained by Pd capping of pre-deposited Co nanoparticles on amorphous alumina are systematically studied by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, SQUID-based magnetometry, and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The films are formed by CoPd alloyed nanoparticles self-organized across the layers, with the interspace between the nanoparticles filled by the non-alloyed Pd metal. The nanoparticles show atomic arrangements compatible with short-range chemical order of L 10 strucure type. The collective magnetic behavior is that of ferromagnetically coupled particles with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, irrespective of the amount of deposited Pd. For increasing temperature three magnetic phases are identified: hard ferromagnetic with strong coercive field, soft-ferromagnetic as in an amorphous asperomagnet, and superparamagnetic. Increasing the amount of Pd in the system leads to both magnetic hardness increment and higher transition temperatures. Magnetic total moments of 1.77(4) μB and 0.45(4) μB are found at Co and Pd sites, respectively, where the orbital moment of Co, 0.40(2) μB, is high, while that of Pd is negligible. The effective magnetic anisotropy is the largest in the capping metal series (Pd, Pt, W, Cu, Ag, Au), which is attributed to the interparticle interaction between de nanoparticles, in addition to the intraparticle anisotropy arising from hybridization between the 3 d -4 d bands associated to the Co and Pd chemical arrangement in a L 10 structure type.

  11. The stochastic nature of the domain wall motion along high perpendicular anisotropy strips with surface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The domain wall dynamics along thin ferromagnetic strips with high perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy driven by either magnetic fields or spin-polarized currents is theoretically analyzed by means of full micromagnetic simulations and a one-dimensional model, including both surface roughness and thermal effects. At finite temperature, the results show a field dependence of the domain wall velocity in good qualitative agreement with available experimental measurements, indicating a low field, low velocity creep regime, and a high field, linear regime separated by a smeared depinning region. Similar behaviors were also observed under applied currents. In the low current creep regime the velocity-current characteristic does not depend significantly on the non-adiabaticity. At high currents, where the domain wall velocity becomes insensitive to surface pinning, the domain wall shows a precessional behavior even when the non-adiabatic parameter is equal to the Gilbert damping. These analyses confirm the relevance of both thermal fluctuations and surface roughness for the domain wall dynamics, and that complete micromagnetic modeling and one-dimensional studies taking into account these effects are required to interpret the experimental measurements in order to get a better understanding of the origin, the role and the magnitude of the non-adiabaticity. (paper)

  12. Spin-orbit torque induced switching in a magnetic insulator thin film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. X.; Yu, G. Q.; Tang, C.; Wang, K. L.; Shi, J.

    Spin-orbit torque (SOT) has been demonstrated to be efficient to manipulate the magnetization in heavy-metal/ferromagnetic metal (HM/FMM) heterostructures. In HM/magnetic insulator (MI) heterostructures, charge currents do not flow in MI, but pure spin currents generated by the spin Hall effect in HM can enter the MI layer to cause magnetization dynamics. Here we report SOT-induced magnetization switching in Tm3Fe5O12/Pt heterostructures, where Tm3Fe5O12 (TmIG) is a MI grown by pulsed laser deposition with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The anomalous Hall signal in Pt is used as a probe to detect the magnetization switching. Effective magnetic fields due to the damping-like and field-like torques are extracted using a harmonic Hall detection method. The experiments are carried out in heterostructures with different TmIG film thicknesses. Both the switching and harmonic measurements indicate a more efficient SOT generation in HM/MI than in HM/FMM heterostructures. Our comprehensive experimental study and detailed analysis will be presented. This work was supported as part of the SHINES, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. SC0012670.

  13. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/MgO bottom electrodes for magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.Q.; Wu, Y.; Gao, S.; Xu, X.G.; Miao, J.; Jiang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) was achieved in annealed Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 (CFAS)/MgO-based multilayers with good thermal stability up to 400 °C and a large anisotropy energy density K u over 2.0 × 10 5 J/m 3 . The thickness of the full-Heusler CFAS film to maintain PMA is up to 4.8 nm in which the co-existence of disordered A2, ordered B2 and fully ordered L2 1 structures is observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrates that the origin of the PMA is the hybridization between Co 3d and O 2p orbitals at the CFAS/MgO interface. - Highlights: • We achieved perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 (4.8 nm) film; • L2 1 , B2 and A2 phases coexist in perpendicular magnetic anisotropic Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 ; • Magnetic properties have strong dependence on the annealing temperature; • The PMA is induced by the hybridization between Co-3d and O-2p orbitals

  14. Magnetic droplets in nano-contact spin-torque oscillators with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerman, Johan

    2013-03-01

    The theoretical prediction, by Ivanov and Kosevich, of ``magnon drop'' solitons in thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and zero damping, dates back to the 1970s. More recently, Hoefer, Silva and Keller, demonstrated analytically and numerically that related ``magnetic droplet'' solitons should be possible to excite in nano-contact spin-torque oscillators (NC-STOs) based on PMA materials, where spin transfer torque locally realizes the zero-damping condition required in. In my talk, I will present the first experimental demonstration of such magnetic droplets, realized using 50-100 nm diameter nano-contacts (NCs) fabricated on top of orthogonal GMR stacks of Co8/Cu/Co0.3[Ni0.8/Co0.4]x4 (thicknesses in nm). The nucleation of a magnetic droplet manifests itself as a dramatic 10 GHz drop in microwave signal frequency at a drive-current dependent critical perpendicular field of the order of 0.5 - 1 T. The drop in frequency is accompanied by a simultaneous sharp resistance increase of the device and a sign change of its magnetoresistance, directly indicating the existence of a reversed magnetization in a region of the [Co/Ni] free layer underneath the NC. As predicted by numerical simulations the droplet exhibits rich magnetodynamic properties, experimentally observed as auto-modulation at approximately 1 GHz and sometimes sidebands at 1/2 and 3/2 of the fundamental droplet frequency. The 1 GHz modulation can be shown numerically to be related to the drift instability of the droplet, albeit with enough restoring force to make the droplet perform a periodic motion instead of leaving the NC region. The sidebands at 1/2 and 3/2 the droplet frequency are related to eigenmodes of the droplet perimeter. Magnetic droplet nucleation is found to be robust and reproducible over a wide number of NC-STOs with different NC sizes, making this new nanomagnetic object as fundamental and potentially useful to nanomagnetism as e.g. domain walls and vortices. Support

  15. Evidence for nanoscale two-dimensional Co clusters in CoPt{sub 3} films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J O [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newville, M [Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Maranville, B B; Hellman, F [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Bordel, C [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Harris, V G, E-mail: cbordel@berkeley.ed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2010-04-14

    The length scale of the local chemical anisotropy responsible for the growth-temperature-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of face-centered cubic CoPt{sub 3} alloy films was investigated using polarized extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). These x-ray measurements were performed on a series of four (111) CoPt{sub 3} films epitaxially grown on (0001) sapphire substrates. The EXAFS data show a preference for Co-Co pairs parallel to the film plane when the film exhibits magnetic anisotropy, and random chemical order otherwise. Furthermore, atomic pair correlation anisotropy was evidenced only in the EXAFS signal from the next neighbors to the absorbing Co atoms and from multiple scattering paths focused through the next neighbors. This suggests that the Co clusters are no more than a few atoms in extent in the plane and one monolayer in extent out of the plane. Our EXAFS results confirm the correlation between perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and two-dimensional Co segregation in CoPt{sub 3} alloy films, and establish a length scale on the order of 10 A for the Co clusters.

  16. Asymmetric driven dynamics of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Tejerina, L. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Alejos, Ó., E-mail: oscaral@ee.uva.es [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Martínez, E. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37011 Salamanca (Spain); Muñoz, J.M. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is studied from both numerical and analytical micromagnetics. The influence of a moderate interfacial Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction associated to a bi-layer strip arrangement has been considered, giving rise to the formation of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls. Such walls possess under equilibrium conditions an inner magnetization structure defined by a certain orientation angle that make them to be considered as intermediate configurations between Bloch and Néel walls. Two different dynamics are considered, a field-driven and a current-driven dynamics, in particular, the one promoted by the spin torque due to the spin-Hall effect. Results show an inherent asymmetry associated with the rotation of the domain wall magnetization orientation before reaching the stationary regime, characterized by a constant terminal speed. For a certain initial DW magnetization orientation at rest, the rotation determines whether the reorientation of the DW magnetization prior to reach stationary motion is smooth or abrupt. This asymmetry affects the DW motion, which can even reverse for a short period of time. Additionally, it is found that the terminal speed in the case of the current-driven dynamics may depend on either the initial DW magnetization orientation at rest or the sign of the longitudinally injected current. - Highlights: • The asymmetric response of domain walls in bilayer strips with PMA is studied. • Out-of-plane fields and SHE longitudinal currents are applied. • The response is associated to the rotation of the domain wall inner magnetization. • Clockwise and counter-clockwise magnetization rotations are not equivalent. • The asymmetry results in different travelled distances and/or terminal speeds.

  17. Asymmetric driven dynamics of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Tejerina, L.; Alejos, Ó.; Martínez, E.; Muñoz, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is studied from both numerical and analytical micromagnetics. The influence of a moderate interfacial Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction associated to a bi-layer strip arrangement has been considered, giving rise to the formation of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls. Such walls possess under equilibrium conditions an inner magnetization structure defined by a certain orientation angle that make them to be considered as intermediate configurations between Bloch and Néel walls. Two different dynamics are considered, a field-driven and a current-driven dynamics, in particular, the one promoted by the spin torque due to the spin-Hall effect. Results show an inherent asymmetry associated with the rotation of the domain wall magnetization orientation before reaching the stationary regime, characterized by a constant terminal speed. For a certain initial DW magnetization orientation at rest, the rotation determines whether the reorientation of the DW magnetization prior to reach stationary motion is smooth or abrupt. This asymmetry affects the DW motion, which can even reverse for a short period of time. Additionally, it is found that the terminal speed in the case of the current-driven dynamics may depend on either the initial DW magnetization orientation at rest or the sign of the longitudinally injected current. - Highlights: • The asymmetric response of domain walls in bilayer strips with PMA is studied. • Out-of-plane fields and SHE longitudinal currents are applied. • The response is associated to the rotation of the domain wall inner magnetization. • Clockwise and counter-clockwise magnetization rotations are not equivalent. • The asymmetry results in different travelled distances and/or terminal speeds.

  18. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co{sub X}Pd{sub 100−X} alloys for magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, B.D.; Natarajarathinam, A.; Tadisina, Z.R. [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Chen, P.J.; Shull, R.D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Gupta, S., E-mail: Sgupta@eng.ua.edu [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • CoPd alloy perpendicular anisotropy dependent on composition and thickness. • CIPT results show that TMR tracks with PMA of CoPd. • Potential replacement for Co/Pd multilayers. - Abstract: CoFeB/MgO-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJ’s) with high anisotropy and low damping are critical for spin-torque transfer random access memory (STT-RAM). Most schemes of making the pinned CoFeB fully perpendicular require ferrimagnets with high damping constants, a high temperature-grown L1{sub 0} alloy, or an overly complex multilayered synthetic antiferromagnet (SyAF). We report a compositional study of perpendicular Co{sub x}Pd alloy-pinned Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}/MgO based MTJ stacks, grown at moderate temperatures in a planetary deposition system. The perpendicular anisotropy of the Co{sub x}Pd alloy films can be tuned based on the layer thickness and composition. The films were characterized by alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM), energy-dispersive X-rays (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) measurements have also been performed on the compositionally varied Co{sub x}Pd MTJ stacks. The Co{sub x}Pd alloy becomes fully perpendicular at approximately x = 30% (atomic fraction) Co. Full-film MTJ stacks of Si/SiO{sub 2}/MgO (13)/Co{sub X}Pd{sub 100−x} (50)/Ta (0.3)/CoFeB (1)/MgO (1.6)/CoFeB (1)/Ta (5)/Ru (10), with the numbers enclosed in parentheses being the layer thicknesses in nm, were sputtered onto thermally oxidized silicon substrates and in-situ lamp annealed at 400 °C for 5 min. CIPT measurements indicate that the highest TMR is observed for the CoPd composition with the highest perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  19. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the interface between ultrathin Fe film and MgO studied by angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabayashi, J. [Research Center for Spectrochemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Koo, J. W.; Mitani, S. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Sukegawa, H. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Takagi, Y.; Yokoyama, T. [Institute of Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan)

    2014-09-22

    Interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in ultrathin Fe/MgO (001) has been investigated using angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). We found that anisotropic orbital magnetic moments deduced from the analysis of XMCD contribute to the large PMA energies, whose values depend on the annealing temperature. The large PMA energies determined from magnetization measurements are related to those estimated from the XMCD and the anisotropic orbital magnetic moments through the spin-orbit interaction. The enhancement of anisotropic orbital magnetic moments can be explained mainly by the hybridization between the Fe 3d{sub z}{sup 2} and O 2p{sub z} states.

  20. Tuning the effective parameters in (Ta/Cu/[Ni/Co]x/Ta) multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayareh, Zohreh; Moradi, Mehrdad; Mahmoodi, Saman

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we report perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in a (Ta/Cu/[Ni/Co]x/Ta) multilayers structure. These typical structures usually include a multilayer of ferromagnetic and transition metal thin films. Usually, magnetic anisotropy is characterized by magnetization loops determined by magnetometer or magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). The interface between ferromagnetic and metallic layers plays an important role in magnetic anisotropy evolution from out-of-plane to in-plane in (Ta/Cu/[Ni/Co]/Ta) structure. Obtained results from MOKE and magnetometry of these samples show that they have different easy axes due to change in thickness of Cu as spacer layer and difference in number of repetition of [Ni/Co] stacks.

  1. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy influence on voltage-driven spin-diode effect in magnetic tunnel junctions: A micromagnetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankowski, Marek, E-mail: mfrankow@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, Department of Electronics, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Chȩciński, Jakub [AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, Department of Electronics, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Skowroński, Witold; Stobiecki, Tomasz [AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, Department of Electronics, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-05-01

    We study the influence of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy on the voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). An MTJ response to the applied radio-frequency voltage excitation is investigated using micromagnetic calculations with the free layer oriented both in-plane and out-of-plane. Our model allows for a quantitative description of the magnetic system parameters such as resonance frequency, sensitivity or quality factor and for a distinction between material-dependent internal damping and disorder-dependent effective damping. We find that the sensitivity abruptly increases up to three orders of magnitude near the anisotropy transition regime, while the quality factor declines due to effective damping increase. We attribute the origin of this behaviour to the changes of the exchange energy in the system, which is calculated using micromagnetic approach. - Highlights: • Micromagnetic approach is used for modelling of voltage-induced spin-diode effect. • Voltage-induced switching simulations are performed. • Spin-diode line is analyzed as a function of perpendicular anisotropy energy. • Effective damping, quality factor and sensitivity are calculated.

  2. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy and its electric-field-assisted switching of Heusler-compound-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Zhaoqiang; Wu, Qingyun; Zeng, Minggang; Feng, Yuan Ping; Shen, Lei; Cai, Yongqing; Han, Guchang

    2014-01-01

    Employing density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we systematically investigate the structural, magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of the Co 2 FeAl(CFA)/MgO interface, as well as the spin-dependent transport characteristics of the CFA/MgO/CFA perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs). We find that the structure of the CFA/MgO interface with the oxygen-top FeAl termination has high thermal stability, which is protected by the thermodynamic equilibrium limit. Furthermore, this structure is found to have perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA). Giant electric-field-assisted modifications of this interfacial MCA through magnetoelectric coupling are demonstrated with an MCA coefficient of up to 10 −7 erg V −1 cm. In addition, our non-collinear spin transport calculations of the CFA/MgO/CFA p-MTJ predict a good magnetoresistance performance of the device. (paper)

  3. Exchange bias and perpendicular anisotropy study of ultrathin Pt-Co-Pt-IrMn multilayers sputtered on float glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, M.; Lüders, U.; Bobo, J. F.

    2007-09-01

    We have prepared ultrathin Pt-Co-Pt-IrMn polycrystalline multilayers on float-glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. We have determined the optimal set of thickness for both Pt layers, the Co layer and the IrMn biasing layer so that these samples exhibit at the same time out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and exchange bias. Kerr microscopy domain structure imaging evidences an increase of nucleation rate accompanied with inhomogeneous magnetic behavior in the case of exchange-biased films compared to Pt-Co-Pt trilayers. Polar hysteresis loops are measured in obliquely applied magnetic field conditions, allowing us to determine both perpendicular anisotropy effective constant Keff and exchange-bias coupling JE, which are significantly different from the ones determined by standard switching field measurements.

  4. Exchange bias and perpendicular anisotropy study of ultrathin Pt-Co-Pt-IrMn multilayers sputtered on float glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, M.; Lueders, U.; Bobo, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    We have prepared ultrathin Pt-Co-Pt-IrMn polycrystalline multilayers on float-glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. We have determined the optimal set of thickness for both Pt layers, the Co layer and the IrMn biasing layer so that these samples exhibit at the same time out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and exchange bias. Kerr microscopy domain structure imaging evidences an increase of nucleation rate accompanied with inhomogeneous magnetic behavior in the case of exchange-biased films compared to Pt-Co-Pt trilayers. Polar hysteresis loops are measured in obliquely applied magnetic field conditions, allowing us to determine both perpendicular anisotropy effective constant K eff and exchange-bias coupling J E , which are significantly different from the ones determined by standard switching field measurements

  5. Voltage control of a magnetic switching field for magnetic tunnel junctions with low resistance and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, N.; Oikawa, S.; Matsuura, M.; Sugimoto, S.; Nishimura, K.; Irisawa, T.; Nagamine, Y.; Tsunekawa, K.

    2018-05-01

    The authors investigated the voltage control of a magnetic anisotropy field for perpendicular-magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with low and high resistance-area (RA) products and for synthetic antiferromagnetic free and pinned layers. It was found that the sample with low RA products was more sensitive to the applied bias voltage than the sample with high RA products. The bias voltage effect was less pronounced for our sample with the synthetic antiferromagnetic layer for high RA products compared to the MTJs with single free and pinned layers.

  6. Exchange bias energy in Co/Pt/IrMn multilayers with perpendicular and in-plane anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czapkiewicz, M.; Stobiecki, T.; Rak, R.; Zoladz, M.; Dijken, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The magnetization reversal process in perpendicularly biased [Pt/Co] 3 /d Pt Pt/IrMn and in-plane biased Co/d Pt Pt/IrMn multilayers with 0nm= Pt = Pt =0.1nm. In both cases, the existence of large exchange bias fields correlates with a high domain density during magnetization reversal. The interface exchange coupling energy is larger for the in-plane biased films than for the perpendicularly biased multilayers

  7. Manipulation of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of single Fe atom adsorbed graphene via MgO(1 1 1) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingming; Tang, Weiqing; Wu, Yaping; Ke, Congming; Guo, Fei; Zhang, Chunmiao; Yang, Weihuang; Wu, Zhiming; Kang, Junyong

    2018-05-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is significantly important for realizing a long-term retention of information for spintronics devices. Inspired by 2D graphene with its high charge carrier mobility and long spin diffusion length, we report a first-principles design framework on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy engineering of a Fe atom adsorbed graphene by employing a O-terminated MgO (1 1 1) substrate. Determined by the adsorption sites of the Fe atom, a tunable magnetic anisotropy is realized in Fe/graphene/MgO (1 1 1) structure, with the magnetic anisotropy energy of  ‑0.48 meV and 0.23 meV, respectively, corresponding to the in-plane and out of plane easy magnetizations. Total density of states suggest a half-metallicity with a 100% spin polarization in the system. Decomposed densities of Fe-3d states reveal the orbital contributions to the magnetic anisotropy for different Fe adsorption sites. Bonding interaction and charge redistribution regulated by MgO substrate are found responsible for the novel perpendicular magnetic anisotropy engineering in the system. The effective manipulation of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in present work offers some references for the design and construction of 2D spintronics devices.

  8. Observation of the domain structure in Fe-Au superlattices with perpendicular anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoladz, M. E-mail: zoladz@uci.agh.edu.pl; Slezak, T.; Wilgocka-Slezak, D.; Spiridis, N.; Korecki, J.; Stobiecki, T. E-mail: stobieck@uci.agh.edu.pl; Roell, K

    2004-05-01

    Polar Kerr Microscopy was used to visualize characteristic transitions and external magnetic field driven domain structure evolution in a perpendicularly magnetized Fe-Au AF/FM double multilayer structure. Real time imaging performed in the external magnetic field allowed for identification of all sublayers magnetization reversal in accordance with measured PMOKE magnetization curve, showing strong dependence of transition character on the interlayer coupling type and adjacent sublayers magnetization orientation.

  9. Observation of the domain structure in Fe-Au superlattices with perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoladz, M.; Slezak, T.; Wilgocka-Slezak, D.; Spiridis, N.; Korecki, J.; Stobiecki, T.; Roell, K.

    2004-01-01

    Polar Kerr Microscopy was used to visualize characteristic transitions and external magnetic field driven domain structure evolution in a perpendicularly magnetized Fe-Au AF/FM double multilayer structure. Real time imaging performed in the external magnetic field allowed for identification of all sublayers magnetization reversal in accordance with measured PMOKE magnetization curve, showing strong dependence of transition character on the interlayer coupling type and adjacent sublayers magnetization orientation

  10. Antidot patterned single and bilayer thin films based on ferrimagnetic Tb-Co alloy with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesh, N. A.; Vázquez, M.; Lepalovskij, V. N.; Vas'kovskiy, V. O.

    2018-02-01

    Hysteresis properties and magnetization reversal in TbCo(30 nm) and FeNi(10 nm)/TbCo(30 nm) films with nanoscale antidot lattices are investigated to test the effect of nanoholes on the perpendicular anisotropy in the TbCo layer and the induced exchange bias in the FeNi layer. The antidots are introduced by depositing the films on top of hexagonally ordered porous anodic alumina substrates with pore diameter and interpore distance fixed to 75 nm and 105 nm, respectively. The analysis of combined vibrating sample magnetometry, Kerr microscopy and magnetic force microscopy imaging measurements has allowed us to link macroscopic and local magnetization reversal processes. For magnetically hard TbCo films, we demonstrate the tunability of magnetic anisotropy and coercive field (i.e., it increases from 0.2 T for the continuous film to 0.5 T for the antidot film). For the antidot FeNi/TbCo film, magnetization of FeNi is confirmed to be in plane. Although an exchange bias has been locally detected in the FeNi layer, the integrated hysteresis loop has increased coercivity and zero shift along the field axis due to the significantly decreased magnetic anisotropy of TbCo layer.

  11. Lack of dependence between intrinsic magnetic damping and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Cu(t{sub Cu})/[Ni/Co]{sub N} multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Minghong [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Ren, Yang [School of Physics and Astronomy, Yunnan University, Kunming 650000 (China); Zhang, Zongzhi, E-mail: zzzhang@fudan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Jin, Q.Y. [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2017-04-15

    The correlation between magnetic damping and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy has been investigated in Cu(t{sub Cu})/[Ni/Co]{sub N} multilayers by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect. The uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant K{sub u} is varied in the range of 3.0–3.6 Merg/cm{sup 3} by tuning either multilayer repetition number N or Cu thickness t{sub Cu}. It is found that the PMA strength K{sub u} increases with the increase of N, while the damping constant α{sub 0} keeps nearly a constant of 0.025, implying the intrinsic damping is independent of the K{sub u} tuned by N. In contrast, as t{sub Cu} increases from 2.5 to 20 nm, the α{sub 0} value rises continuously up to 0.040, in spite of the rather weak enhancement in K{sub u} and its non-monotonic variation behavior. We consider the constant α{sub 0} with N is due to the unchanged spin-orbit coupling strength at each Co/Ni interface, while the obvious enhancement in α{sub 0} with t{sub Cu} results mainly from the increased degree of spin disordering at the rougher Cu/Ni interface. - Highlights: • The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy K{sub u} is tuned in Cu(t{sub Cu})/[Ni/Co]{sub N} system. • The intrinsic magnetic damping is found to be independent K{sub u}. • Extrinsic damping increases with t{sub Cu} due to large interfacial spin disordering.

  12. Influence of domain structure induced coupling on magnetization reversal of Co/Pt/Co film with perpendicular anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matczak, Michał [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Schäfer, Rudolf [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, PO 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Dresden University of Technology, Institute for Materials Science, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Urbaniak, Maciej; Kuświk, Piotr; Szymański, Bogdan; Schmidt, Marek; Aleksiejew, Jacek [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Stobiecki, Feliks, E-mail: Feliks.Stobiecki@ifmpan.poznan.pl [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2017-01-15

    A magnetic multilayer of substrate/Pt-15 nm/Co-0.8 nm/Pt-wedge 0–7 nm/Co-0.6 nm/Pt-2 nm structure is characterized by a perpendicular anisotropy of the Co layers and by graded interlayer coupling between them. Using magnetooptical Kerr microscopy we observed a distinct influence of magnetic domains in one Co layer on the nucleation field and positions of nucleation sites of reversed domains in the second Co layer. For sufficiently strong interlayer coupling a replication of magnetic domains from the magnetically harder layer to the magnetically softer layer is observed. - Highlights: • Co/Pt-wedge/Co layered film is characterized by a gradient of interlayer coupling. • Magnetic field controls propagation of straight domain wall. • Replication of magnetic domains in multilayers with strong ferromagnetic coupling. • Coupling induced by domains influences magnetization reversal of spin valves.

  13. Role of polarizer-tilting-angle in zero-field spin-transfer nano-oscillators with perpendicular anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Fuentes, C.; Gallardo, R. A., E-mail: rodolfo.gallardo@usm.cl; Landeros, P. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, 2390123 Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-10-05

    An analytical model for studying the stability of a single domain ferromagnetic layer under the influence of a spin-polarized current is presented. The theory is applied to bias-field-free nano-oscillators with perpendicular anisotropy, which allows to obtain a polarizer-angle vs. current phase diagram that describes the stability of magnetic states. Explicit formulae for the critical current densities unveil the influence of the relative orientation between free and polarizer layers, allowing the emergence of precessional steady-states, and also the possibility to reduce the magnitude of the threshold current density to produce microwave oscillations. It is shown that oscillating steady-states arise in a broad angular region, and the dependence of their boundaries is fully specified by the model. The reliability of the analytical results has been corroborated by comparison to numerical calculations. Such structures are currently under intense research because of remarkable properties offering new prospects for microwave applications in communication technologies.

  14. Ta thickness-dependent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy features in Ta/CoFeB/MgO/W free layer stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, SeungMo; Lee, JaBin; An, GwangGuk [Novel Functional Materials and Devices Lab, The Research Institute for Natural Science, Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, JaeHong [Division of Nano-Scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, WooSeong [Nano Quantum Electronics Lab, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, JinPyo, E-mail: jphong@hanyang.ac.kr [Novel Functional Materials and Devices Lab, The Research Institute for Natural Science, Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Nano-Scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    We describe Ta underlayer thickness influence on thermal stability of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Ta/CoFeB/MgO/W stacks. It is believed that thermal stability based on Ta underlay is associated with thermally-activated Ta atom diffusion during annealing. The difference in Ta thickness-dependent diffusion behaviors was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Along with a feasible Ta thickness model, our observations suggest that an appropriate seed layer choice is needed for high temperature annealing stability, a critical issue in the memory industry. - Highlights: • We observed changes in the diffusion behavior with regard to Ta seed layer thickness. • It was observed that a thinner Ta seed layer induced more annealing-stable features. • However, ultra-thin (0.75 nm) Ta shows unstable characteristics about the annealing process. • It was possibly due to a rugged interface of the Ta layer by the island growth process.

  15. Electric-field tunable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in tetragonal Fe4N/BiFeO3 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; Wang, Xiaocha; Mi, Wenbo

    2017-07-01

    Electric field control on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is indispensable for spintronic devices. Herewith, in tetragonal Fe4N/BiFeO3 heterostructures with the FeAFeB/Fe-O2 interface, PMA in each Fe4N layer, not merely interfacial layers, is modulated by the electric field, which is attributed to the broken spin screening of the electric field in highly spin-polarized Fe4N. Moreover, the periodical dx y+dy z+dz2 and dx y+dx2-y2 orbital-PMA oscillation enhances the interactions between adjacent FeAFeB and (FeB)2N atomic layers, which benefits the electric field modulation on PMA in the whole Fe4N atomic layers. The electric-field control on PMA in Fe4N/BiFeO3 heterostructures is favored by the electric-field-lifted potential in Fe4N.

  16. Determination of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy based on the magnetic droplet nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tomoe; Kim, Duck-Ho; Okuno, Takaya; Hirata, Yuushou; Futakawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshikawa, Hiroki; Kim, Sanghoon; Tsukamoto, Arata; Shiota, Yoichi; Moriyama, Takahiro; Ono, Teruo

    2018-05-01

    We propose an alternative method of determining the magnetic anisotropy field μ0 H K in ferro-/ferrimagnets. On the basis of the droplet nucleation model, there exists linearity between domain-wall (DW) energy density and in-plane magnetic field. We find that the slope is simply represented by μ0 H K and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI). By measuring the in-plane magnetic field dependence of the coercivity field, closely corresponding to the DW energy density, a robust value for μ0 H K can be quantified. This robust value can be used to determine μ0 H K over a wide range of values, overcoming the limitations caused by the small strength of the external magnetic field typically used in experiments.

  17. Direct Observation of Field and Temperature Induced Domain Replication in Dipolar Coupled Perpendicular Anisotropy Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauet, T.; Gunther, C.M.; Pfau, B.; Eisebitt, S.; Fischer, P.; Rick, R. L.; Thiele, J.-U.; Hellwig, O.; Schabes, M.E.

    2007-07-01

    Dipolar interactions in a soft/Pd/hard [CoNi/Pd]{sub 30}/Pd/[Co/Pd]{sub 20} multilayer system, where a thick Pd layer between two ferromagnetic units prevents direct exchange coupling, are directly revealed by combining magnetometry and state-of-the-art layer resolving soft x-ray imaging techniques with sub-100-nm spatial resolution. The domains forming in the soft layer during external magnetic field reversal are found to match the domains previously trapped in the hard layer. The low Curie temperature of the soft layer allows varying its intrinsic parameters via temperature and thus studying the competition with dipolar fields due to the domains in the hard layer. Micromagnetic simulations elucidate the role of [CoNi/Pd] magnetization, exchange, and anisotropy in the duplication process. Finally, thermally driven domain replication in remanence during temperature cycling is demonstrated.

  18. Termination layer compensated tunnelling magnetoresistance in ferrimagnetic Heusler compounds with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jaewoo; Ferrante, Yari; Faleev, Sergey V; Samant, Mahesh G; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2016-01-18

    Although high-tunnelling spin polarization has been observed in soft, ferromagnetic, and predicted for hard, ferrimagnetic Heusler materials, there has been no experimental observation to date of high-tunnelling magnetoresistance in the latter. Here we report the preparation of highly textured, polycrystalline Mn3Ge films on amorphous substrates, with very high magnetic anisotropy fields exceeding 7 T, making them technologically relevant. However, the small and negative tunnelling magnetoresistance that we find is attributed to predominant tunnelling from the lower moment Mn-Ge termination layers that are oppositely magnetized to the higher moment Mn-Mn layers. The net spin polarization of the current reflects the different proportions of the two distinct termination layers and their associated tunnelling matrix elements that result from inevitable atomic scale roughness. We show that by engineering the spin polarization of the two termination layers to be of the same sign, even though these layers are oppositely magnetized, high-tunnelling magnetoresistance is possible.

  19. Growth and characterization of MnGa thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy on BiSb topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy Khang, Nguyen Huynh; Ueda, Yugo; Yao, Kenichiro; Hai, Pham Nam

    2017-10-01

    We report on the crystal growth as well as the structural and magnetic properties of Bi0.8Sb0.2 topological insulator (TI)/MnxGa1-x bi-layers grown on GaAs(111)A substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. By optimizing the growth conditions and Mn composition, we were able to grow MnxGa1-x thin films on Bi0.8Sb0.2 with the crystallographic orientation of Bi0.8Sb0.2(001)[1 1 ¯ 0]//MnGa (001)[100]. Using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy, we detected both the L10 phase ( x 0.6 ) of MnxGa1-x. For 0.50 ≤ x ≤ 0.55 , we obtained ferromagnetic L10-MnGa thin films with clear perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, which were confirmed by MCD hysteresis, anomalous Hall effect as well as superconducting quantum interference device measurements. Our results show that the BiSb/MnxGa1-x bi-layer system is promising for perpendicular magnetization switching using the giant spin Hall effect in TIs.

  20. Thick CoFeB with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB-MgO based magnetic tunnel junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Naik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effect of an ultra-thin Ta insertion in the CoFeB (CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB free layer (FL on magnetic and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR properties of a CoFeB-MgO system with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA. It is found that the critical thickness (tc to sustain PMA is doubled (tc = 2.6 nm in Ta-inserted CoFeB FL as compared to single CoFeB layer (tc = 1.3 nm. While the effective magnetic anisotropy is found to increase with Ta insertion, the saturation magnetization showed a slight reduction. As the CoFeB thickness increasing, the thermal stability of Ta inserted structure is significantly increased by a factor of 2.5 for total CoFeB thickness less than 2 nm. We have observed a reasonable value of TMR for a much thicker CoFeB FL (thickness = 2-2.6 nm with Ta insertion, and without significant increment in resistance-area product. Our results reveal that an ultra-thin Ta insertion in CoFeB might pay the way towards developing the high-density memory devices with enhanced thermal stability.

  1. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of non-epitaxial hexagonal Co{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} thin films prepared at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, F.T., E-mail: ftyuan@gmail.com [iSentek Ltd., Advanced Sensor Laboratory, New Taipei City 22101, Taiwan (China); Chang, H.W., E-mail: wei0208@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Tunghai University, Taichung 40704, Taiwan (China); Lee, P.Y.; Chang, C.Y. [Department of Applied Physics, Tunghai University, Taichung 40704, Taiwan (China); Chi, C.C. [Department of Materials Sciences and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Ouyang, H., E-mail: houyang@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Sciences and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • In this paper, we propose a non-epitaxially grown PMA thin film of disorder hexagonal Co{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} which can satisfy all the requirements at once. • Although the preparation temperature is at room temperature and no post annealing is required, the film also shows good thermal stability up to 400 °C. • Moreover, the easy-controlling single layer deposition process of the film largely enhances the feasibility of practical production. • Significant PMA is achieved in a wide range of film thickness from 2 nm to 20 nm, which expands the usage form a GMR or TMR magnetic junctions to perpendicular spin polarizer for spin current related engineering. • The presented results may open new opportunities for advanced spintronic devices. - Abstract: Non-epitaxially induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of Co{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} thin films at room temperature (RT) is reported. The CoPt film having a disordered hcp structure shows a magnetocrystalline anisotropy (K{sub u}{sup RT}) of 1–2 × 10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3} in a wide range of layer thickness from 2 to 20 nm. K{sub u}{sup RT} of about 1 × 10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3} can be preserved after a 400 °C-thermal cycle in the 5-nm-thick sample. Moderate PMA, large thickness range, simple preparation process, low formation temperature but good thermal stability make presented hcp CoPt become a remarkable option for advanced spintronic devices.

  2. Spin-Orbit Torque-Assisted Switching in Magnetic Insulator Thin Films with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingzhong

    As an in-plane charge current flows in a heavy metal film with spin-orbit coupling, it produces a torque that can induce magnetization switching in a neighboring ferromagnetic metal film. Such spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced switching has been studied extensively in recent years and has shown higher efficiency than switching using conventional spin-transfer torque. This presentation reports the SOT-assisted switching in heavy metal/magnetic insulator systems.1 The experiments made use of Pt/BaFe12O19 bi-layered structures. Thanks to its strong spin-orbit coupling, Pt has been widely used to produce pure spin currents in previous studies. BaFe12O19 is an M-type barium hexagonal ferrite and is often referred as BaM. It is one of the few magnetic insulators with strong magneto-crystalline anisotropy and shows an effective uniaxial anisotropy field of about 17 kOe. It's found that the switching response in the BaM film strongly depends on the charge current applied to the Pt film. When a constant magnetic field is applied in the film plane, the charge current in the Pt film can switch the normal component of the magnetization (M⊥) in the BaM film between the up and down states. The current also dictates the up and down states of the remnant magnetization when the in-plane field is reduced to zero. When M⊥ is measured by sweeping an in-plane field, the response manifests itself as a hysteresis loop, which evolves in a completely opposite manner if the sign of the charge current is flipped. When the coercivity is measured by sweeping an out-of-plane field, its value can be reduced or increased by as much as about 500 Oe if an appropriate charge current is applied. 1. P. Li, T. Liu, H. Chang, A. Kalitsov, W. Zhang, G. Csaba, W. Li, D. Richardson, A. Demann, G. Rimal, H. Dey, J. S. Jiang, W. Porod, S. Field, J. Tang, M. C. Marconi, A. Hoffmann, O. Mryasov, and M. Wu, Nature Commun. 7:12688 doi: 10.1038/ncomms12688 (2016).

  3. In-plane current induced domain wall nucleation and its stochasticity in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Hall cross structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, P.; Murapaka, C.; Lim, G. J.; Lew, W. S.

    2015-01-01

    Hall cross structures in magnetic nanowires are commonly used for electrical detection of magnetization reversal in which a domain wall (DW) is conventionally nucleated by a local Oersted field. In this letter, we demonstrate DW nucleation in Co/Ni perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire at the magnetic Hall cross junction. The DWs are nucleated by applying an in-plane pulsed current through the nanowire without the need of a local Oersted field. The change in Hall resistance, detected using anomalous Hall effect, is governed by the magnetic volume switched at the Hall junction, which can be tuned by varying the magnitude of the applied current density and pulse width. The nucleated DWs are driven simultaneously under the spin transfer torque effect when the applied current density is above a threshold. The possibility of multiple DW generation and variation in magnetic volume switched makes nucleation process stochastic in nature. The in-plane current induced stochastic nature of DW generation may find applications in random number generation

  4. Tailoring of Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in Dy13Fe87 Thin Films with Hexagonal Antidot Lattice Nanostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Salaheldeen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the magnetic properties of hexagonally ordered antidot arrays made of Dy13Fe87 alloy are studied and compared with corresponding ones of continuous thin films with the same compositions and thicknesses, varying between 20 nm and 50 nm. Both samples, the continuous thin films and antidot arrays, were prepared by high vacuum e-beam evaporation of the alloy on the top-surface of glass and hexagonally self-ordered nanoporous alumina templates, which serve as substrates, respectively. By using a highly sensitive magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM measurements an interesting phenomenon has been observed, consisting in the easy magnetization axis transfer from a purely in-plane (INP magnetic anisotropy to out-of-plane (OOP magnetization. For the 30 nm film thickness we have measured the volume hysteresis loops by VSM with the easy magnetization axis lying along the OOP direction. Using magnetic force microscopy measurements (MFM, there is strong evidence to suggest that the formation of magnetic domains with OOP magnetization occurs in this sample. This phenomenon can be of high interest for the development of novel magnetic and magneto-optic perpendicular recording patterned media based on template-assisted deposition techniques.

  5. Chromium-induced ferromagnetism with perpendicular anisotropy in topological crystalline insulator SnTe (111) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Hongrui; Jiang, Jue; Zhao, Yi-Fan; Yu, Jia; Liu, Wei; Li, Da; Chan, Moses H. W.; Sun, Jirong; Zhang, Zhidong; Chang, Cui-Zu

    2018-03-01

    Topological crystalline insulator is a recently discovered topological phase of matter. It possesses multiple Dirac surface states, which are protected by the crystal symmetry. This is in contrast to the time-reversal symmetry that is operative in the well-known topological insulators. In the presence of a Zeeman field and/or strain, the multiple Dirac surface states are gapped. The high-Chern-number quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state is predicted to emerge if the chemical potential resides in all the Zeeman gaps. Here, we use molecular-beam epitaxy to grow 12 double-layer (DL) pure and Cr-doped SnTe (111) thin film on heat-treated SrTi O3 (111) substrate using a quintuple layer of insulating (Bi0.2Sb0.8 ) 2T e3 topological insulator as a buffer film. The Hall traces of Cr-doped SnTe film at low temperatures display square hysteresis loops indicating long-range ferromagnetic order with perpendicular anisotropy. The Curie temperature of the 12 DL S n0.9C r0.1Te film is ˜110 K. Due to the chemical potential crossing the bulk valence bands, the anomalous Hall resistance of 12 DL S n0.9C r0.1Te film is substantially lower than the predicted quantized value (˜1 /4 h /e2 ). It is possible that with systematic tuning the chemical potential via chemical doping and electrical gating, the high-Chern-number QAH state can be realized in the Cr-doped SnTe (111) thin film.

  6. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Ta|Co40Fe40B20|MgAl2O4 structures and perpendicular CoFeB|MgAl2O4|CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, B. S.

    2014-09-08

    Magnetic properties of Co40Fe40B20(CoFeB) thin films sandwiched between Ta and MgAl2O4layers have been systematically studied. For as-grown state, Ta/CoFeB/MgAl2O4structures exhibit good perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with interface anisotropy Ki=1.22erg/cm2, which further increases to 1.30erg/cm2after annealing, while MgAl2O4/CoFeB/Ta multilayer shows in-plane magnetic anisotropy and must be annealed in order to achieve PMA. For bottom CoFeB layer, the thickness window for PMA is from 0.6 to 1.0nm, while that for top CoFeB layer is between 0.8 and 1.4nm. Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with a core structure of CoFeB/MgAl2O4/CoFeB have also been fabricated and tunneling magnetoresistance ratio of about 36% at room temperature and 63% at low temperature have been obtained. The intrinsic excitations in the p-MTJs have been identified by inelastic electron-tunneling spectroscopy.

  7. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Ta|Co40Fe40B20|MgAl2O4 structures and perpendicular CoFeB|MgAl2O4|CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, B. S.; Li, D. L.; Yuan, Z. H.; Liu, H. F.; Ali, S. S.; Feng, J. F.; Wei, H. X.; Han, X. F.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y. G.; Zhang, Q.; Guo, Zaibing; Zhang, Xixiang

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic properties of Co40Fe40B20(CoFeB) thin films sandwiched between Ta and MgAl2O4layers have been systematically studied. For as-grown state, Ta/CoFeB/MgAl2O4structures exhibit good perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with interface anisotropy Ki=1.22erg/cm2, which further increases to 1.30erg/cm2after annealing, while MgAl2O4/CoFeB/Ta multilayer shows in-plane magnetic anisotropy and must be annealed in order to achieve PMA. For bottom CoFeB layer, the thickness window for PMA is from 0.6 to 1.0nm, while that for top CoFeB layer is between 0.8 and 1.4nm. Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with a core structure of CoFeB/MgAl2O4/CoFeB have also been fabricated and tunneling magnetoresistance ratio of about 36% at room temperature and 63% at low temperature have been obtained. The intrinsic excitations in the p-MTJs have been identified by inelastic electron-tunneling spectroscopy.

  8. Depth-Dependent Anisotropies of Amides and Sugar in Perpendicular and Parallel Sections of Articular Cartilage by Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging (FTIRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Mittelstaedt, Daniel; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan; Szarko, Matthew; Bidthanapally, Aruna

    2010-01-01

    Full thickness blocks of canine humeral cartilage were microtomed into both perpendicular sections and a series of 100 parallel sections, each 6 μm thick. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging (FTIRI) was used to image each tissue section eleven times under different infrared polarizations (from 0° to 180° polarization states in 20° increments and with an additional 90° polarization), at a spatial resolution of 6.25 μm and a wavenumber step of 8 cm−1. With increasing depth from the articular surface, amide anisotropies increased in the perpendicular sections and decreased in the parallel sections. Both types of tissue sectioning identified a 90° difference between amide I and amide II in the superficial zone of cartilage. The fibrillar distribution in the parallel sections from the superficial zone was shown to not be random. Sugar had the greatest anisotropy in the upper part of the radial zone in the perpendicular sections. The depth-dependent anisotropic data were fitted with a theoretical equation that contained three signature parameters, which illustrate the arcade structure of collagens with the aid of a fibril model. Infrared imaging of both perpendicular and parallel sections provides the possibility of determining the three-dimensional macromolecular structures in articular cartilage. Being sensitive to the orientation of the macromolecular structure in healthy articular cartilage aids the prospect of detecting the early onset of the tissue degradation that may lead to pathological conditions such as osteoarthritis. PMID:21274999

  9. Current induced domain wall motion and tilting in Pt/Co/Ta structures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the presence of the Dyzaloshinskii–Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jijun; Li, Dong; Cui, Baoshan; Guo, Xiaobin; Wu, Kai; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yupei; Mao, Jian; Zuo, Yalu; Xi, Li

    2018-04-01

    Current induced domain wall motion (CIDWM) was studied in Pt/Co/Ta structures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the Dyzaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) by the spin-orbit torque (SOT). We measured the strength of DMI and SOT efficiency in Pt/Co/Ta with the variation of the thickness of Ta using a current induced hysteresis loop shift method. The results indicate that the DMI stabilizes a chiral Néel-type domain wall (DW), and the DW motion can be driven by the enhanced large SOT generated from Pt and Ta with opposite signs of spin Hall angle in Pt/Co/Ta stacks. The CIDWM velocity, which is 104 times larger than the field driven DW velocity, obeys a creep law, and reaches around tens of meters per second with current density of ~106 A cm‑2. We also found that the Joule heating accompanied with current also accelerates the DW motion. Meanwhile, a domain wall tilting was observed, which increases with current density increasing. These results can be explained by the spin Hall effect generated from both heavy metals Pt and Ta, inherent DMI, and the current accompanying Joule heating effect. Our results could provide some new designing prospects to move multiple DWs by SOT for achieving racetrack memories.

  10. Spin-torque oscillation in large size nano-magnet with perpendicular magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Linqiang, E-mail: LL6UK@virginia.edu [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Kabir, Mehdi [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Dao, Nam; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Cyberey, Michael [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Institute of Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA 22311 (United States); Stan, Mircea [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Lu, Jiwei [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • 500 nm size nano-pillar device was fabricated by photolithography techniques. • A magnetic hybrid structure was achieved with perpendicular magnetic fields. • Spin torque switching and oscillation was demonstrated in the large sized device. • Micromagnetic simulations accurately reproduced the experimental results. • Simulations demonstrated the synchronization of magnetic inhomogeneities. - Abstract: DC current induced magnetization reversal and magnetization oscillation was observed in 500 nm large size Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}/Cu/Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} pillars. A perpendicular external field enhanced the coercive field separation between the reference layer (Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}) and free layer (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) in the pseudo spin valve, allowing a large window of external magnetic field for exploring the free-layer reversal. A magnetic hybrid structure was achieved for the study of spin torque oscillation by applying a perpendicular field >3 kOe. The magnetization precession was manifested in terms of the multiple peaks on the differential resistance curves. Depending on the bias current and applied field, the regions of magnetic switching and magnetization precession on a dynamical stability diagram has been discussed in details. Micromagnetic simulations are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results and provide insight for synchronization of inhomogeneities in large sized device. The ability to manipulate spin-dynamics on large size devices could be proved useful for increasing the output power of the spin-transfer nano-oscillators (STNOs).

  11. Gigantic perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of heavy transition metal cappings on Fe/MgO(0 0 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taivansaikhan, P.; Odkhuu, D.; Rhim, S. H.; Hong, S. C.

    2017-11-01

    Effects of capping layer by 5d transition metals (TM = Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au) on Fe/MgO(0 0 1), a typical magnetic tunneling junction, are systematically investigated using first-principles calculation for magnetism and magnetocrystalline-anisotropy (MCA). The early TMs having less than half-filled d bands favor magnetization antiparallel to Fe, whereas the late TMs having more than half-filled d bands favor parallel, which is explained in the framework of kinetic exchange energy. The Os capping, isovalent to Fe, enhances MCA significantly to gigantic energy of +11.31 meV/cell, where positive contribution is mostly from the partially filled majority d bands of magnetic quantum number of |m| = 1 along with stronger spin-orbit coupling of Os than Fe. Different TM cappings give different MCA energies as the Fermi level shifts according to the valence of TM: Re and Ir, just one valence more or less than Os, have still large PMCA but smaller than the Os. In the W and Pt cappings, valence difference by two, PMCA are further reduced; MCAs are lowered compared to Fe/MgO(0 0 1) by the cappings of the very early TMs (Hf and Ta), while the very late TM (Au) switches sign to in-plane MCA.

  12. Freezing field dependence of the exchange bias in uniaxial FeF sub 2 -CoPt heterosystems with perpendicular anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Kagerer, B; Kleemann, W

    2000-01-01

    The exchange bias effect is measured for the first time in FeF sub 2 -CoPt heterosystems with perpendicular anisotropy. The exchange field exhibits a strong dependence on the axial freezing field. This behavior is explained in terms of the microscopic spin structure at the interface, which is established on cooling to below T sub N. We calculate the dependence of the spin structure on the freezing field within the framework of an Ising model. It takes into account the Zeeman energy as well as an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the adjacent layers at the interface.

  13. Scale breaking effects in the quark-parton model for large P perpendicular phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, R.; Petersson, B.

    1977-01-01

    We discuss how the scaling violations suggested by an asymptotically free parton model, i.e., the Q 2 -dependence of the transverse momentum of partons within hadrons may affect the parton model description of large p perpendicular phenomena. We show that such a mechanism can provide an explanation for the magnitude of the opposite side correlations and their dependence on the trigger momentum. (author)

  14. The large scale microwave background anisotropy in decaying particle cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, M.

    1987-06-01

    We investigate the large-scale anisotropy of the microwave background radiation in cosmological models with decaying particles. The observed value of the quadrupole moment combined with other constraints gives an upper limit on the redshift of the decay z/sub d/ < 3-5. 12 refs., 2 figs

  15. Interactions controlled evolution of complex magnetoresistance in as-deposited Ag100−xCox nanogranular films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of a complex magnetoresistance and dc-magnetization behavior of as-deposited co-sputtered Ag 100−x Co x films with the variation of cobalt concentration ‘x’ from 25.2 to 45.1 at% is presented. At 20 K, a transition from normal to complex magnetoresistance behavior, in conjunction with magnetic force microscopy evidence of the existence of a magnetic microstructure resulting in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is observed for x=32.6 cobalt concentration film. The dc-magnetization studies provide additional support to the presence of PMA in film that gets reduced with the increase of cobalt concentration. The complex magnetoresistance (MR) behavior also decreases with the increase of ‘x’. The room temperature MR, coercivity behavior and remanence to saturation magnetization ratio indicate the presence of direct ferromagnetic interactions due to the presence of ferromagnetic particles for x≥32.6 films. The observed complex MR behavior and presence of PMA are interpreted in terms of manifestation of the transition of interparticle magnetic interaction nature from dipolar to direct ferromagnetic. - Highlights: • Complex MR with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is observed. • MFM evidenced the presence of PMA. • Complex MR and PMA decreases with the increase of cobalt concentration. • Observed results are correlated with the nature of magnetic interactions

  16. Surface-termination-dependent magnetism and strong perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy of an FeRh(001) thin film

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jekal, S.; Rhim, S.H.; Hong, S.C.; Son, W.-J.; Shick, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 6 (2015), " 064410-1"-" 064410-6" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-07172S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic anisotropy * magnetic recording * surface science Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  17. Feasibility of studying large p/sub perpendicular to/ in ISABELLE's wide-angle hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, S.; Danby, G.; Engelmann, R.; Foley, K.; McCarthy, R.; Paige, F.; Pope, B.; Thorndike, A.

    1979-01-01

    The experimental area at 6 o'clock in the present ISABELLE site plan has a configuration suitable for studying particles produced at large angles relative to the beam lines. It is natural to think of housing a program of large p/perpendicular to/ studies in this area. A particular device has been considered, namely a pair of multiparticle spectrometers back-to-back at 90 0 to the beams, as a vehicle for carrying out this program. Enough details are presented to allow for a reasonable test of the planned 6 o'clock area as a site for such experiments. In summer, this study shows that a rather ambitious program of experiments can be performed in this area with some relatively easily implemented changes in the hall design

  18. Controlling magnetic domain wall motion in the creep regime in He+-irradiated CoFeB/MgO films with perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Diez, L.; García-Sánchez, F.; Adam, J.-P.; Devolder, T.; Eimer, S.; El Hadri, M. S.; Ravelosona, D.; Lamperti, A.; Mantovan, R.; Ocker, B.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the effective tuning of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB/MgO thin films by He + ion irradiation and its effect on domain wall motion in a low field regime. Magnetic anisotropy and saturation magnetisation are found to decrease as a function of the irradiation dose which can be related to the observed irradiation-induced changes in stoichiometry at the CoFeB/MgO interface. These changes in the magnetic intrinsic properties of the film are reflected in the domain wall dynamics at low magnetic fields (H) where irradiation is found to induce a significant decrease in domain wall velocity (v). For all irradiation doses, domain wall velocities at low fields are well described by a creep law, where Ln(v) vs. H −1∕4 behaves linearly, up to a maximum field H*, which has been considered as an approximation to the value of the depinning field H dep . In turn, H* ≈ H dep is seen to increase as a function of the irradiation dose, indicating an irradiation-induced extension of the creep regime of domain wall motion

  19. Current induced multi-mode propagating spin waves in a spin transfer torque nano-contact with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, S. Morteza; Yazdi, H. F.; Hamdi, M.; Brächer, T.; Mohseni, S. Majid

    2018-03-01

    Current induced spin wave excitations in spin transfer torque nano-contacts are known as a promising way to generate exchange-dominated spin waves at the nano-scale. It has been shown that when these systems are magnetized in the film plane, broken spatial symmetry of the field around the nano-contact induced by the Oersted field opens the possibility for spin wave mode co-existence including a non-linear self-localized spin-wave bullet and a propagating mode. By means of micromagnetic simulations, here we show that in systems with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the free layer, two propagating spin wave modes with different frequency and spatial distribution can be excited simultaneously. Our results indicate that in-plane magnetized spin transfer nano-contacts in PMA materials do not host a solitonic self-localized spin-wave bullet, which is different from previous studies for systems with in plane magnetic anisotropy. This feature renders them interesting for nano-scale magnonic waveguides and crystals since magnon transport can be configured by tuning the applied current.

  20. Controlling magnetic domain wall motion in the creep regime in He{sup +}-irradiated CoFeB/MgO films with perpendicular anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera Diez, L., E-mail: liza.herrera-diez@ief.u-psud.fr; García-Sánchez, F.; Adam, J.-P.; Devolder, T.; Eimer, S.; El Hadri, M. S.; Ravelosona, D. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, Université Paris-Sud, UMR CNRS 8622, 91405 Orsay (France); Lamperti, A.; Mantovan, R. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate (MB) (Italy); Ocker, B. [Singulus Technology AG, Hanauer Landstrasse 103, 63796 Kahl am Main (Germany)

    2015-07-20

    This study presents the effective tuning of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB/MgO thin films by He{sup +} ion irradiation and its effect on domain wall motion in a low field regime. Magnetic anisotropy and saturation magnetisation are found to decrease as a function of the irradiation dose which can be related to the observed irradiation-induced changes in stoichiometry at the CoFeB/MgO interface. These changes in the magnetic intrinsic properties of the film are reflected in the domain wall dynamics at low magnetic fields (H) where irradiation is found to induce a significant decrease in domain wall velocity (v). For all irradiation doses, domain wall velocities at low fields are well described by a creep law, where Ln(v) vs. H{sup −1∕4} behaves linearly, up to a maximum field H*, which has been considered as an approximation to the value of the depinning field H{sub dep}. In turn, H* ≈ H{sub dep} is seen to increase as a function of the irradiation dose, indicating an irradiation-induced extension of the creep regime of domain wall motion.

  1. Giant Spin Hall Effect and Switching Induced by Spin-Transfer Torque in a W /Co40Fe40B20/MgO Structure with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiang; Xiao, Gang

    2015-03-01

    We obtain robust perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in a β -W /Co40Fe40B20/MgO structure without the need of any insertion layer between W and Co40Fe40B20 . This is achieved within a broad range of W thicknesses (3.0-9.0 nm), using a simple fabrication technique. We determine the spin Hall angle (0.40) and spin-diffusion length for the bulk β form of tungsten with a large spin-orbit coupling. As a result of the giant spin Hall effect in β -W and careful magnetic annealing, we significantly reduce the critical current density for the spin-transfer-torque-induced magnetic switching in Co40Fe40B20 . The elemental β -W is a superior candidate for magnetic memory and spin-logic applications.

  2. Influence of Pt thickness on magnetization reversal processes in (Pt/Co)3 multilayers with perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhi, R.; Adanlété Adjanoh, A.; Vogel, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the magnetization reversal in perpendicularly magnetized (Pt/Co) 3 multilayers with different values of the platinum interlayer thickness t Pt . To study the magnetization reversal in our samples we combined measurements of relaxation curves with the direct visualization of domain structures. Magnetization reversal was dominated by domain wall propagation for t Pt =1 nm and by domain nucleation for t Pt =0.2 nm, while a mixed process was observed for t Pt =0.8 nm. We interpret our results within the framework of a model of thermally activated reversal where a distribution of activation energy barriers is taken into account. The reversal process was correlated with the energy barrier distribution. - Highlights: ► We show that the coercivity decreases with the Pt interlayer thickness. ► The reversal process is sensitively dependent on platinum interlayer thickness. ► We interpreted the results by taking into account of an energy barrier distribution. ► The reversal process was correlated with the energy barrier distribution width. ► The energy barrier distribution width varies linearly with the applied field.

  3. 3D and 1D calculation of hysteresis loops and energy products for anisotropic nanocomposite films with perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, X.H.; Zhao, G.P.; Yue, Ming; Ye, L.N.; Xia, J.; Zhang, X.C.; Chang, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the magnetic reversal process, hysteresis loops and energy products for exchange-coupled Nd 2 Fe 14 B/α-Fe bilayers are studied systematically by a three-dimensional (3D) model. The 3D calculations are numerically solved using the finite difference method, where the results are carefully compared with those calculated by one-dimensional (1D) model. It is found that the calculated hysteresis loops and energy products based on the two methods are consistent with each other. Both nucleation fields and coercivities decrease monotonically as the soft layer thickness L s increases. In addition, the calculated spatial distributions of magnetization orientations in the thickness direction at various applied fields based on both methods signify a three-step magnetic reversal process, which are nucleation, growth and displacement of the domain wall. The calculated magnetic orientations within the film plane, however, are totally different according to the two methods. The 3D calculation exhibits a process of vortex formation and annihilation. On the other hand, the 1D calculation gives a quasi-coherent one, where magnetization orientation is coherent in the film plane and varies in the thickness direction. This new reversal mechanism displayed in the film plane has a systematic influence on the nucleation fields, coercivity and energy products. - Highlights: • Consistent hysteresis loops and energy products for 3D and 1D calculation. • Domain wall formation, evolution and displacement perpendicular to the film plane. • Vortex formation, annihilation and better loop squareness in 3D calculation. • Larger nucleation fields, remanence and smaller coercivity in 3D calculation

  4. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mo/Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/MgO/Mo multilayers with optimal Mo buffer layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, L.; Raja, M. Manivel; Prabhu, D.; Pandiyarasan, V.; Ikeda, H.; Therese, H. A.

    2018-05-01

    Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy (PMA) was realized in as-deposited Mo(10)/Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5(CFAS)(3)/MgO(0.5)/Mo multilayer stacks with large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy (Keff). PMA of this multilayer is found to be strongly dependent on the thickness of the individual CFAS (tCFAS), Mo (tMo) and MgO (tMgO) layers and annealing temperatures. The interactions at the Mo/CFAS/MgO interfaces are critical to induce PMA and are tuned by the interfacial oxidation. The major contribution to PMA is due to iron oxide at the CFAS/MgO interface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) studies further ascertain this. However, an adequate oxidation of MgO and the formation of (0 2 4) and (0 1 8) planes of α-Fe2O3 at the optimal Mo buffer layer thickness is mainly inducing PMA in Mo/CFAS/MgO/Mo stack. Microstructural changes in the films are observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrates the oxidation of CFAS/MgO interface and the formation of Fe-O bonds confirming that the real origin of PMA in Mo/CFAS/MgO is due to hybridization of Fe (3dz2) and O (2pz) orbitals and the resulted spin-orbit interaction at their interface. The half-metallic nature CFAS with Mo layer exhibiting PMA can be a potential candidate as p-MTJs electrodes for the new generation spintronic devices.

  5. Laser-driven, magnetized quasi-perpendicular collisionless shocks on the Large Plasma Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Tripathi, S. K. P.; Gekelman, W.; Niemann, C.; Winske, D.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of a laser-driven super-Alfvénic magnetic piston with a large, preformed magnetized ambient plasma has been studied by utilizing a unique experimental platform that couples the Raptor kJ-class laser system [Niemann et al., J. Instrum. 7, P03010 (2012)] to the Large Plasma Device [Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] at the University of California, Los Angeles. This platform provides experimental conditions of relevance to space and astrophysical magnetic collisionless shocks and, in particular, allows a detailed study of the microphysics of shock formation, including piston-ambient ion collisionless coupling. An overview of the platform and its capabilities is given, and recent experimental results on the coupling of energy between piston and ambient ions and the formation of collisionless shocks are presented and compared to theoretical and computational work. In particular, a magnetosonic pulse consistent with a low-Mach number collisionless shock is observed in a quasi-perpendicular geometry in both experiments and simulations

  6. High thermal stability in W/MgO/CoFeB/W/CoFeB/W stacks via ultrathin W insertion with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi; Yu, Tao [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhu, Zhengyong; Zhong, Huicai [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Khamis, Khamis Masoud [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhu, Kaigui, E-mail: kgzhu@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Measurement-Manipulation and Physics, Ministry of Education, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of a series of top MgO/CoFeB/W stacks were studied. In these stacks, the thickness of CoFeB is limited in a range of 1.1–2.2 nm. It was found that the stack can still maintain PMA in a 1.9 nm thick CoFeB free layer. Besides, we investigated the thermal stability factor ∆ of a spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) by inserting an ultra-thin W film of 0.8 nm between two CoFeB films. The result shows a clear PMA behavior for the samples with CoFeB thickness up to 2.5 nm, and an in-plane magnetic anisotropy (IMA) when the CoFeB is thicker than 2.5 nm. Moreover, the thermal stability factor ∆ of the CoFeB stack with W insertion is about 132 for a 50 nm size STT-MRAM device, which is remarkably improved compared to 112 for a sample without W insertion. Our results represent an alternative way to realize the endurance at high annealing temperature, high-density and high ∆ in STT-MRAM device by ultra-thin W insertion. - Highlights: • The MgO/CoFeB/W multilayer can still maintain PMA in a CoFeB thickness of 1.9 nm. • The sample with 2.5 nm thickness of CoFeB by W insertion can still maintain PMA. • The sample with W insertion can still maintain PMA until the annealing temperature as high as 350 °C. • The thermal stability factor ∆ of sample with W insertion could be increase to about 132 for a 50 nm size STT-MRAM device.

  7. Microstructural and domain effects in epitaxial CoFe2O4 films on MgO with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comes, Ryan; Gu Man; Khokhlov, Mikhail; Lu Jiwei; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    CoFe 2 O 4 (CFO) epitaxial thin films of various thicknesses were grown on MgO substrates using the pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. The films have excellent in-plane coherence with the substrate, exhibit layer-by-layer growth and have well-defined thickness fringes in x-ray diffraction measurements. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements indicate that misfit dislocations form in thicker films and the critical thickness for the dislocation formation is estimated. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CFO due to epitaxial in-plane tensile strain from the substrate was found. A stripe-like domain structure in the demagnetized state is demonstrated using magnetic force microscopy (MFM), in agreement with previous predictions. Coercivity increased in thicker films, which is explained by domain wall pinning due to misfit dislocations at the CFO/MgO interface. - Highlights: → X-ray diffraction and rocking curves indicate films are amongst highest quality in the literature. → Domain structure of CoFe 2 O 4 films on MgO was found to be stripe-like using MFM. → Critical thickness for misfit dislocations estimated and agrees with experiment. → Effect of misfit dislocations on surface morphology explained. → Role of dislocations and antiphase boundaries in domain wall formation and motion explained.

  8. Fast switching and signature of efficient domain wall motion driven by spin-orbit torques in a perpendicular anisotropy magnetic insulator/Pt bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Can Onur; Rosenberg, Ethan; Baumgartner, Manuel; Beran, Lukáš; Quindeau, Andy; Gambardella, Pietro; Ross, Caroline A.; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2017-08-01

    We report fast and efficient current-induced switching of a perpendicular anisotropy magnetic insulator thulium iron garnet by using spin-orbit torques (SOT) from the Pt overlayer. We first show that, with quasi-DC (10 ms) current pulses, SOT-induced switching can be achieved with an external field as low as 2 Oe, making TmIG an outstanding candidate to realize efficient switching in heterostructures that produce moderate stray fields without requiring an external field. We then demonstrate deterministic switching with fast current pulses (≤20 ns) with an amplitude of ˜1012 A/m2, similar to all-metallic structures. We reveal that, in the presence of an initially nucleated domain, the critical switching current is reduced by up to a factor of five with respect to the fully saturated initial state, implying efficient current-driven domain wall motion in this system. Based on measurements with 2 ns-long pulses, we estimate the domain wall velocity of the order of ˜400 m/s per j = 1012 A/m2.

  9. Model of inter-cell interference phenomenon in 10 nm magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular anisotropy array due to oscillatory stray field from neighboring cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuchida, Satoshi; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a new model of inter-cell interference phenomenon in a 10 nm magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular anisotropy (p-MTJ) array and investigated the interference effect between a program cell and unselected cells due to the oscillatory stray field from neighboring cells by Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert micromagnetic simulation. We found that interference brings about a switching delay in a program cell and excitation of magnetization precession in unselected cells even when no programing current passes through. The origin of interference is ferromagnetic resonance between neighboring cells. During the interference period, the precession frequency of the program cell is 20.8 GHz, which synchronizes with that of the theoretical precession frequency f = γH eff in unselected cells. The disturbance strength of unselected cells decreased to be inversely proportional to the cube of the distance from the program cell, which is in good agreement with the dependence of stray field on the distance from the program cell calculated by the dipole approximation method.

  10. Highly (001) oriented L1{sub 0}-CoPt/TiN multilayer films on glass substrates with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Hongyu; Sannomiya, Takumi; Muraishi, Shinji; Nakamura, Yoshio; Shi, Ji, E-mail: shi.j.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Xie, Qian; Zhang, Zhengjun [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jian [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    To obtain strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) based on L1{sub 0} structure for magnetic storage devices, costly single crystalline substrates are generally required to achieve (001) texture. Recently, various studies also have focused on depositing different kinds of seed layers on glass or other amorphous substrates to promote (001) preferred orientation of L1{sub 0} CoPt and FePt. TiN is a very promising seed layer material because of its cubic crystalline structure (similar to MgO) and excellent diffusion barring property even at high temperatures. In the present work, highly (001) oriented L1{sub 0}-CoPt/TiN multilayer films have been successfully deposited on glass substrates. After annealing at 700 °C, the film exhibits PMA, and a strong (001) peak is detected from the x-ray diffraction profiles, indicating the ordering transformation of CoPt layers from fcc (A1) to L1{sub 0} structure. It also is found that alternate deposition of cubic TiN and CoPt effectively improves the crystallinity and (001) preferred orientation of CoPt layers. This effect is verified by the substantial enhancement of (001) reflection and PMA with increasing the period number of the multilayer films.

  11. Observations of large-amplitude MHD waves in Jupiter's foreshock in connection with a quasi-perpendicular shock structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavassano-Cattaneo, M. B.; Moreno, G.; Scotto, M. T.; Acuna, M.

    1987-01-01

    Plasma and magnetic field observations performed onboard the Voyager 2 spacecraft have been used to investigate Jupiter's foreshock. Large-amplitude waves have been detected in association with the quasi-perpendicular structure of the Jovian bow shock, thus proving that the upstream turbulence is not a characteristic signature of the quasi-parallel shock.

  12. Large scale anisotropy studies with the Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing Auger surface array data sample of the highest energy cosmic rays, large scale anisotropy studies at this part of the spectrum become a promising path towards the understanding of the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic particles. We describe the methods underlying the search for distortions in the cosmic rays arrival directions over large angular scales, that is, bigger than those commonly employed in the search for correlations with point-like sources. The widely used tools, known as coverage maps, are described and some of the issues involved in their calculations are presented through Monte Carlo based studies. Coverage computation requires a deep knowledge on the local detection efficiency, including the influence of weather parameters like temperature and pressure. Particular attention is devoted to a new proposed method to extract the coverage, based upon the assumption of time factorization of an extensive air shower detector acceptance. We use Auger monitoring data to test the goodness of such a hypothesis. We finally show the necessity of using more than one coverage to extract any possible anisotropic pattern on the sky, by pointing to some of the biases present in commonly used methods based, for example, on the scrambling of the UTC arrival times for each event. (author)

  13. Large Magnetic Anisotropy in HfMnP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David; Lamichhane, Tej; Taufour, Valentin; Masters, Morgan; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Bud'Ko, Ser'gey; Canfield, Paul

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of two little-studied manganese phosphide ferromagnets, HfMnP and ZrMnP, with Curie temperatures above room temperature. We find an anisotropy field in HfMnP approaching 10 T - larger than that of the permanent magnet workhorse NdFeB magnets. From theory we determine the source of this anisotropy. Our results show the potential of 3d-element-based magnetic materials for magnetic applications.

  14. On the Origin of the Large Magnetic Anisotropy of Rare Earth-Cobalt Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szpunar, B.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1979-01-01

    Experimental data on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy in Co, YCo5, GdCo5, SmCo5 and Y2Co17 is analysed using a single-ion crystal field and isotropic exchange interaction. The large magnetic anisotropy at high temperatures in the alloys is due to significant deviations in the alloy lattices...

  15. Wave and particle evolution downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckean, M. E.; Omidi, N.; Krauss-Varban, D.; Karimabadi, H.

    1995-01-01

    Distributions of ions heated in quasi-perpendicular bow shocks have large perpendicular temperature anisotropies that provide free energy for the growth of Alfven ion cyclotron (AIC) and mirror waves. These modes are often obsreved in the Earth's magnetosheath. Using two-dimensional hybrid simulations, we show that these waves are produced near the shock front and convected downstream rather than being produced locally downstream. The wave activity reduces the proton anisotropy to magnetosheath levels within a few tens of gyroradii of the shock but takes significantly longer to reduce the anisotropy of He(++) ions. The waves are primarily driven by proton anisotropy and the dynamics of the helium ions is controlled by the proton waves. Downstream of high Mach number shocks, mirror waves compete effectively with AIC waves. Downstream of low Mach number shocks, AIC waves dominate.

  16. Large-scale Cosmic-Ray Anisotropy as a Probe of Interstellar Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacinti, Gwenael; Kirk, John G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the large-scale cosmic-ray (CR) anisotropies predicted for a range of Goldreich–Sridhar (GS) and isotropic models of interstellar turbulence, and compare them with IceTop data. In general, the predicted CR anisotropy is not a pure dipole; the cold spots reported at 400 TeV and 2 PeV are consistent with a GS model that contains a smooth deficit of parallel-propagating waves and a broad resonance function, though some other possibilities cannot, as yet, be ruled out. In particular, isotropic fast magnetosonic wave turbulence can match the observations at high energy, but cannot accommodate an energy dependence in the shape of the CR anisotropy. Our findings suggest that improved data on the large-scale CR anisotropy could provide a valuable probe of the properties—notably the power-spectrum—of the interstellar turbulence within a few tens of parsecs from Earth.

  17. Gluon bremstrahlung effects in large P/sub perpendicular/ hadron-hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, G.C.; Kelly, R.L.

    1982-02-01

    We consider effects of parton (primarily gluon) bremstrahlung in the initial and final states of high transverse momentum hadron-hadron scattering. Monte Carlo calculations based on conventional QCD parton branching and scattering processes are presented. The calculations are carried only to the parton level in the final state. We apply the model to the Drell-Yan process and to high transverse momentum hadron-hadron scattering triggered with a large aperture calorimeter. We show that the latter triggers are biased in that they select events with unusually large bremstrahlung effects. We suggest that this trigger bias explains the large cross section and non-coplanar events observed in the NA5 experiment at the SPS

  18. Current-induced magnetization switching in atom-thick tungsten engineered perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with large tunnel magnetoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengxing; Cai, Wenlong; Cao, Kaihua; Zhou, Jiaqi; Wrona, Jerzy; Peng, Shouzhong; Yang, Huaiwen; Wei, Jiaqi; Kang, Wang; Zhang, Youguang; Langer, Jürgen; Ocker, Berthold; Fert, Albert; Zhao, Weisheng

    2018-02-14

    Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions based on MgO/CoFeB structures are of particular interest for magnetic random-access memories because of their excellent thermal stability, scaling potential, and power dissipation. However, the major challenge of current-induced switching in the nanopillars with both a large tunnel magnetoresistance ratio and a low junction resistance is still to be met. Here, we report spin transfer torque switching in nano-scale perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with a magnetoresistance ratio up to 249% and a resistance area product as low as 7.0 Ω µm 2 , which consists of atom-thick W layers and double MgO/CoFeB interfaces. The efficient resonant tunnelling transmission induced by the atom-thick W layers could contribute to the larger magnetoresistance ratio than conventional structures with Ta layers, in addition to the robustness of W layers against high-temperature diffusion during annealing. The critical switching current density could be lower than 3.0 MA cm -2 for devices with a 45-nm radius.

  19. Time scales of bias voltage effects in FE/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions with voltage-dependent perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytvynenko, Ia.M.; Hauet, T.; Montaigne, F.; Bibyk, V.V.; Andrieu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Interplay between voltage-induced magnetic anisotropy transition and voltage-induced atomic diffusion is studied in epitaxial V/Fe (0.7 nm)/ MgO/ Fe(5 nm)/Co/Au magnetic tunnel junction where thin Fe soft electrode has in-plane or out-of-plane anisotropy depending on the sign of the bias voltage. We investigate the origin of the slow resistance variation occurring when switching bias voltage in opposite polarity. We demonstrate that the time to reach resistance stability after voltage switching is reduced when increasing the voltage amplitude or the temperature. A single energy barrier of about 0.2 eV height is deduced from temperature dependence. Finally, we demonstrate that the resistance change is not correlated to a change in soft electrode anisotropy. This conclusion contrasts with observations recently reported on analogous systems. - Highlights: • Voltage-induced time dependence of resistance is studied in epitaxial Fe/MgO/Fe. • Resistance change is not related to the bottom Fe/MgO interface. • The effect is thermally activated with an energy barrier of the order of 0.2 eV height

  20. THE EFFECT OF LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC TURBULENCE ON THE ACCELERATION OF ELECTRONS BY PERPENDICULAR COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Fan; Giacalone, Joe

    2010-01-01

    We study the physics of electron acceleration at collisionless shocks that move through a plasma containing large-scale magnetic fluctuations. We numerically integrate the trajectories of a large number of electrons, which are treated as test particles moving in the time-dependent electric and magnetic fields determined from two-dimensional hybrid simulations (kinetic ions and fluid electron). The large-scale magnetic fluctuations effect the electrons in a number of ways and lead to efficient and rapid energization at the shock front. Since the electrons mainly follow along magnetic lines of force, the large-scale braiding of field lines in space allows the fast-moving electrons to cross the shock front several times, leading to efficient acceleration. Ripples in the shock front occurring at various scales will also contribute to the acceleration by mirroring the electrons. Our calculation shows that this process favors electron acceleration at perpendicular shocks. The current study is also helpful in understanding the injection problem for electron acceleration by collisionless shocks. It is also shown that the spatial distribution of energetic electrons is similar to in situ observations. The process may be important to our understanding of energetic electrons in planetary bow shocks and interplanetary shocks, and explaining herringbone structures seen in some type II solar radio bursts.

  1. Large-Scale Corrections to the CMB Anisotropy from Asymptotic de Sitter Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojasi, A.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, large-scale effects from asymptotic de Sitter mode on the CMB anisotropy are investigated. Besides the slow variation of the Hubble parameter onset of the last stage of inflation, the recent observational constraints from Planck and WMAP on spectral index confirm that the geometry of the universe can not be pure de Sitter in this era. Motivated by these evidences, we use this mode to calculate the power spectrum of the CMB anisotropy on the large scale. It is found that the CMB spectrum is dependent on the index of Hankel function ν which in the de Sitter limit ν → 3/2, the power spectrum reduces to the scale invariant result. Also, the result shows that the spectrum of anisotropy is dependent on angular scale and slow-roll parameter and these additional corrections are swept away by a cutoff scale parameter H ≪ M ∗ < M P .

  2. Origin of variation of shift field via annealing at 400°C in a perpendicular-anisotropy magnetic tunnel junction with [Co/Pt]-multilayers based synthetic ferrimagnetic reference layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Honjo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated properties of perpendicular-anisotropy magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs with [Co/Pt]-multilayer based synthetic ferrimagnetic reference (SyF layer at elevated annealing temperature Ta from 350°C to 400°C. Shift field HS defined as center field of minor resistance versus magnetic field curve of the MTJs increased with increase of Ta from 350°C to 400°C. The variation of HS is attributed to the variation of saturation magnetic moment in the SyF reference layer. Cross sectional energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed that Fe element of CoFeB in the reference layer diffuses to Co/Pt multilayers in the SyF reference layer.

  3. Study of the high energy Cosmic Rays large scale anisotropies with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illuminati, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis method used to search for an anisotropy in the high energy Cosmic Rays arrival distribution using data collected by the ANTARES telescope. ANTARES is a neutrino detector, where the collected data are dominated by a large background of cosmic ray muons. Therefore, the background data are suitable for high-statistics studies of cosmic rays in the Northern sky. The main challenge for this analysis is accounting for those effects which can mimic an apparent anisotropy in the muon arrival direction: the detector exposure asymmetries, non-uniform time coverage, diurnal and seasonal variation of the atmospheric temperature. Once all these effects have been corrected, a study of the anisotropy profiles along the right ascension can be performed. (paper)

  4. Exploring the Large Scale Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation at 170 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganga, Kenneth Matthew

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis, data from the Far Infra-Red Survey (FIRS), a balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the large scale anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation, are analyzed. The FIRS operates in four frequency bands at 170, 280, 480, and 670 GHz, using an approximately Gaussian beam with a 3.8 deg full-width-at-half-maximum. A cross-correlation with the COBE/DMR first-year maps yields significant results, confirming the DMR detection of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Analysis of the FIRS data alone sets bounds on the amplitude of anisotropy under the assumption that the fluctuations are described by a Harrison-Peebles-Zel'dovich spectrum and further analysis sets limits on the index of the primordial density fluctuations for an Einstein-DeSitter universe. Galactic dust emission is discussed and limits are set on the magnitude of possible systematic errors in the measurement.

  5. Large eddy simulation of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume dispersion in an urban street canyon under perpendicular wind flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, L.H., E-mail: hlh@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Huo, R.; Yang, D. [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The dispersion of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume in and above an idealized street canyon of 18 m (width) x 18 m (height) x 40 m (length) with a wind flow perpendicular to its axis was investigated by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Former studies, such as that by Oka [T.R. Oke, Street design and urban canopy layer climate, Energy Build. 11 (1988) 103-113], Gayev and Savory [Y.A. Gayev, E. Savory, Influence of street obstructions on flow processes within street canyons. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 82 (1999) 89-103], Xie et al. [S. Xie, Y. Zhang, L. Qi, X. Tang, Spatial distribution of traffic-related pollutant concentrations in street canyons. Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 3213-3224], Baker et al. [J. Baker, H. L. Walker, X. M. Cai, A study of the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in and above street canyons-a large eddy simulation, Atmos. Environ. 38 (2004) 6883-6892] and Baik et al. [J.-J. Baik, Y.-S. Kang, J.-J. Kim, Modeling reactive pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon, Atmos. Environ. 41 (2007) 934-949], focus on the flow pattern and pollutant dispersion in the street canyon with no buoyancy effect. Results showed that with the increase of the wind flow velocity, the dispersion pattern of a buoyant plume fell into four regimes. When the wind flow velocity increased up to a certain critical level, the buoyancy driven upward rising plume was re-entrained back into the street canyon. This is a dangerous situation as the harmful fire smoke will accumulate to pollute the environment and thus threaten the safety of the people in the street canyon. This critical re-entrainment wind velocity, as an important parameter to be concerned, was further revealed to increase asymptotically with the heat/buoyancy release rate of the fire.

  6. Large eddy simulation of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume dispersion in an urban street canyon under perpendicular wind flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L H; Huo, R; Yang, D

    2009-07-15

    The dispersion of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume in and above an idealized street canyon of 18 m (width) x 18 m (height) x 40 m (length) with a wind flow perpendicular to its axis was investigated by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Former studies, such as that by Oka [T.R. Oke, Street design and urban canopy layer climate, Energy Build. 11 (1988) 103-113], Gayev and Savory [Y.A. Gayev, E. Savory, Influence of street obstructions on flow processes within street canyons. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 82 (1999) 89-103], Xie et al. [S. Xie, Y. Zhang, L. Qi, X. Tang, Spatial distribution of traffic-related pollutant concentrations in street canyons. Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 3213-3224], Baker et al. [J. Baker, H. L. Walker, X. M. Cai, A study of the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in and above street canyons--a large eddy simulation, Atmos. Environ. 38 (2004) 6883-6892] and Baik et al. [J.-J. Baik, Y.-S. Kang, J.-J. Kim, Modeling reactive pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon, Atmos. Environ. 41 (2007) 934-949], focus on the flow pattern and pollutant dispersion in the street canyon with no buoyancy effect. Results showed that with the increase of the wind flow velocity, the dispersion pattern of a buoyant plume fell into four regimes. When the wind flow velocity increased up to a certain critical level, the buoyancy driven upward rising plume was re-entrained back into the street canyon. This is a dangerous situation as the harmful fire smoke will accumulate to pollute the environment and thus threaten the safety of the people in the street canyon. This critical re-entrainment wind velocity, as an important parameter to be concerned, was further revealed to increase asymptotically with the heat/buoyancy release rate of the fire.

  7. Large eddy simulation of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume dispersion in an urban street canyon under perpendicular wind flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, L.H.; Huo, R.; Yang, D.

    2009-01-01

    The dispersion of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume in and above an idealized street canyon of 18 m (width) x 18 m (height) x 40 m (length) with a wind flow perpendicular to its axis was investigated by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Former studies, such as that by Oka [T.R. Oke, Street design and urban canopy layer climate, Energy Build. 11 (1988) 103-113], Gayev and Savory [Y.A. Gayev, E. Savory, Influence of street obstructions on flow processes within street canyons. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 82 (1999) 89-103], Xie et al. [S. Xie, Y. Zhang, L. Qi, X. Tang, Spatial distribution of traffic-related pollutant concentrations in street canyons. Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 3213-3224], Baker et al. [J. Baker, H. L. Walker, X. M. Cai, A study of the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in and above street canyons-a large eddy simulation, Atmos. Environ. 38 (2004) 6883-6892] and Baik et al. [J.-J. Baik, Y.-S. Kang, J.-J. Kim, Modeling reactive pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon, Atmos. Environ. 41 (2007) 934-949], focus on the flow pattern and pollutant dispersion in the street canyon with no buoyancy effect. Results showed that with the increase of the wind flow velocity, the dispersion pattern of a buoyant plume fell into four regimes. When the wind flow velocity increased up to a certain critical level, the buoyancy driven upward rising plume was re-entrained back into the street canyon. This is a dangerous situation as the harmful fire smoke will accumulate to pollute the environment and thus threaten the safety of the people in the street canyon. This critical re-entrainment wind velocity, as an important parameter to be concerned, was further revealed to increase asymptotically with the heat/buoyancy release rate of the fire.

  8. Application of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility to large-scale fault kinematics: an evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Antonio M.; Roman-Berdiel, Teresa; Marcén, Marcos; Oliva-Urcia, Belen; Soto, Ruth; Garcia-Lasanta, Cristina; Calvin, Pablo; Pocovi, Andres; Gil-Imaz, Andres; Pueyo-Anchuela, Oscar; Izquierdo-Llavall, Esther; Vernet, Eva; Santolaria, Pablo; Osacar, Cinta; Santanach, Pere; Corrado, Sveva; Invernizzi, Chiara; Aldega, Luca; Caricchi, Chiara; Villalain, Juan Jose

    2017-04-01

    Major discontinuities in the Earth's crust are expressed by faults that often cut across its whole thickness favoring, for example, the emplacement of magmas of mantelic origin. These long-lived faults are common in intra-plate environments and show multi-episodic activity that spans for hundred of million years and constitute first-order controls on plate evolution, favoring basin formation and inversion, rotations and the accommodation of deformation in large segments of plates. Since the post-Paleozoic evolution of these large-scale faults has taken place (and can only be observed) at shallow crustal levels, the accurate determination of fault kinematics is hampered by scarcely developed fault rocks, lack of classical structural indicators and the brittle deformation accompanying fault zones. These drawbacks are also found when thick clayey or evaporite levels, with or without diapiric movements, are the main detachment levels that facilitate large displacements in the upper crust. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) provides a useful tool for the analysis of fault zones lacking fully developed kinematic indicators. However, its meaning in terms of deformational fabrics must be carefully checked by means of outcrop and thin section analysis in order to establish the relationship between the orientation of magnetic ellipsoid axes and the transport directions, as well as the representativity of scalar parameters regarding deformation mechanisms. Timing of faulting, P-T conditions and magnetic mineralogy are also major constraints for the interpretation of magnetic fabrics and therefore, separating ferro- and para-magnetic fabric components may be necessary in complex cases. AMS results indicate that the magnetic lineation can be parallel (when projected onto the shear plane) or perpendicular (i.e. parallel to the intersection lineation) to the transport direction depending mainly on the degree of shear deformation. Changes between the two end-members can

  9. THE LARGE-SCALE COSMIC-RAY ANISOTROPY AS OBSERVED WITH MILAGRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Allen, B. T.; Chen, C.; Aune, T.; Berley, D.; Goodman, J. A.; Hopper, B.; Lansdell, C. P.; Casanova, S.; Dingus, B. L.; Hoffman, C. M.; Huentemeyer, P. H.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Fleysher, L.; Fleysher, R.; Kolterman, B. E.; Mincer, A. I.; Gonzalez, M. M.; Linnemann, J. T.; McEnery, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Results are presented of a harmonic analysis of the large-scale cosmic-ray (CR) anisotropy as observed by the Milagro observatory. We show a two-dimensional display of the sidereal anisotropy projections in right ascension (R.A.) generated by the fitting of three harmonics to 18 separate declination bands. The Milagro observatory is a water Cherenkov detector located in the Jemez mountains near Los Alamos, New Mexico. With a high duty cycle and large field of view, Milagro is an excellent instrument for measuring this anisotropy with high sensitivity at TeV energies. The analysis is conducted using a seven-year data sample consisting of more than 95 billion events, the largest such data set in existence. We observe an anisotropy with a magnitude around 0.1% for CRs with a median energy of 6 TeV. The dominant feature is a deficit region of depth (2.49 ± 0.02 stat. ± 0.09 sys.) x10 -3 in the direction of the Galactic north pole centered at 189 deg R.A. We observe a steady increase in the magnitude of the signal over seven years.

  10. Large diffusion anisotropy and orientation sorting of phosphorene nanoflakes under a temperature gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yingyan; Chang, Tienchong; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Cai, Yongqing; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2018-01-25

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the motion of phosphorene nanoflakes on a large graphene substrate under a thermal gradient. It is found that the atomic interaction between the graphene substrate and the phosphorene nanoflake generates distinct rates of motion for phosphorene nanoflakes with different orientations. Remarkably, for square phosphorene nanoflakes, the motion of zigzag-oriented nanoflakes is 2-fold faster than those of armchair-oriented and randomly-oriented nanoflakes. This large diffusion anisotropy suggests that sorting of phosphorene nanoflakes into specific orientations can be realized by a temperature gradient. The findings here provide interesting insights into strong molecular diffusion anisotropy and offer a novel route for manipulating two-dimensional materials.

  11. Nonlinear δf Simulation Studies of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Temperature Anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Qin, Hong

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a 3-D nonlinear perturbative particle simulation code (BEST) [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson and W.W. Lee, Physical Review Special Topics on Accelerators and Beams 3 (2000) 084401] is used to systematically study the stability properties of intense nonneutral charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy (T perpendicularb >> T parallelb ). The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure, and nonlinear dynamics are determined for axisymmetric perturbations with ∂/∂θ = 0

  12. Large-angle cosmic microwave background anisotropies in an open universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Spergel, David N.

    1994-01-01

    If the universe is open, scales larger than the curvature scale may be probed by observation of large-angle fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We consider primordial adiabatic perturbations and discuss power spectra that are power laws in volume, wavelength, and eigenvalue of the Laplace operator. Such spectra may have arisen if, for example, the universe underwent a period of `frustated' inflation. The resulting large-angle anisotropies of the CMB are computed. The amplitude generally increases as Omega is decreased but decreases as h is increased. Interestingly enough, for all three Ansaetze, anisotropies on angular scales larger than the curvature scale are suppressed relative to the anisotropies on scales smaller than the curvature scale, but cosmic variance makes discrimination between various models difficult. Models with 0.2 approximately less than Omega h approximately less than 0.3 appear compatible with CMB fluctuations detected by Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) and the Tenerife experiment and with the amplitude and spectrum of fluctuations of galaxy counts in the APM, CfA, and 1.2 Jy IRAS surveys. COBE normalization for these models yields sigma(sub 8) approximately = 0.5 - 0.7. Models with smaller values of Omega h when normalized to COBE require bias factors in excess of 2 to be compatible with the observed galaxy counts on the 8/h Mpc scale. Requiring that the age of the universe exceed 10 Gyr implies that Omega approximately greater than 0.25, while requiring that from the last-scattering term in the Sachs-Wolfe formula, large-angle anisotropies come primarily from the decay of potential fluctuations at z approximately less than 1/Omega. Thus, if the universe is open, COBE has been detecting temperature fluctuations produced at moderate redshift rather than at z approximately 1300.

  13. Measurement of anisotropy in the cosmic background radiation on a large angular scale at 33 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M.V.

    1978-11-01

    Results of a measurement of anisotropy in the 3 0 K cosmic background radiation on a large-angular-scale are presented. Observations were carried out with a dual-antenna microwave radiometer operating at 33 GHz (0.89 cm wavelength) flown on board a U-2 aircraft to 20-km altitude. In eleven flights, between December 1976 and May 1978, the radiometer measured differential intensity between pairs of directions distributed over most of the northern celestial hemisphere with an rms sensitivity of +- 46m 0 K/√Hz. The measurements show clear evidence of anisotropy that is readily interpreted as due to the motion of the earth relative to the sources of the radiation; the anisotropy is well fit by a cosine distribution of amplitude 3.61 +- 0.54 millireverse arrowreverse arrow-degrees Kelvin (m 0 K), one part in 800 of 3 0 K, implying a velocity of 361 +- 54 km/sec toward the direction 11.23 +- 0.46 hours right ascension, and 19.0 +- 7.5 0 declination. A simultaneous fit to a combined hypothesis of dipole (cos theta) and quadrupole (cos 2 theta) angular distributions places a 1 m 0 K limit on the amplitude of most components of quadruple anisotropy with 90% confidence. Additional analysis places a 0.5 m 0 K limit on uncorrelated fluctuations (sky-roughness) in the 3 0 K background on an angular scale of the antenna beam width, about 7 0 . This thesis describes the equipment development through three engineering flights and the data acquisition in eleven additional flights. The astrophysical results are then presented from the statistical analysis of the reduced data

  14. Electromagnetic Weible Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    In plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions, collective instabilities may develop if there is sufficient coupling between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Our previous numerical and theoretical studies of intense charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson and H. Qin, PRSTAB, 6, 084401 (2003); Phys. Plasmas 9, 3138 (2002)] demonstrated that a fast, electrostatic, Harris-like instability develops, and saturates nonlinearly, for sufficiently large temperature anisotropy (T perpendi c ular b /T parallelb >> 1). The total distribution function after saturation, however, is still far from equipartitioned. In this paper the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to investigate detailed properties of the transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instability for a long charge bunch propagating through a cylindrical pipe of radius r w . The kinetic stability analysis is carried out for azimuthally symmetric perturbations about a two-temperature thermal equilibrium distribution in the smooth-focusing approximation. The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure and instability thresholds are determined. The stability analysis shows that, although there is free energy available to drive the electromagnetic Weibel instability, the finite transverse geometry of the charged particle beam introduces a large threshold value for the temperature anisotropy ((T perpendi c ularb /T parallelb ) Weibel >> (T perpendi c ularb /T parallelb ) Harris ) below which the instability is absent. Hence, unlike the case of an electrically neutral plasma, the Weibel instability is not expected to play as significant a role in the process of energy isotropization of intense unneutralized charged particle beams as the electrostatic Harris-type instability

  15. Search for Anisotropy Changes Associated with Two Large Earthquakes in Japan and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. K.; Graham, K.; Aoki, Y.; Arnold, R.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic anisotropy is often considered to be an indicator of stress in the crust, because the closure of cracks due to differential stress leads to waves polarized parallel to the cracks travelling faster than the orthogonal direction. Changes in shear wave splitting have been suggested to result from stress changes at volcanoes and earthquakes. However, the effects of mineral or structural alignment, and the difficulty of distinguishing between changes in anisotropy along an earthquake-station path from distinguishing changes in the path itself, have made such findings controversial. Two large earthquakes in 2016 provide unique datasets to test the use of shear wave splitting for measuring variations in stress because clusters of closely-spaced earthquakes occurred both before and after a mainshock. We use the automatic, objective splitting analysis code MFAST to speed process and minimize unwitting observer bias when determining time variations. The sequence of earthquakes related to the M=7.2 Japanese Kumamoto earthquake of 14 April 2016 includes both foreshocks, mainshocks and aftershocks. The sequence was recorded by the NIED permanent network, which already contributed background seismic anisotropy measurements in a previous study of anisotropy and stress in Kyushu. Preliminary measurements of shear wave splitting from earthquakes that occurred in 2016 show results at some stations that clearly differ from those of the earlier study. They also change between earthquakes recorded before and after the mainshock. Further work is under way to determine whether the changes are more likely due to changes in stress during the observation time, or due to spatial changes in anisotropy combined with changes in earthquake locations. Likewise, background seismicity and also foreshocks and aftershocks in the 2013 Cook Strait earthquake sequence including two M=6.5 earthquakes in 2013 in New Zealand were in the same general region as aftershocks of the M=7.8 Kaikoura

  16. Numerical Studies of Electromagnetic Instabilities in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Startsev, Edward; Lee, Wei-li

    2005-01-01

    In intense charged particle beams with large energy anisotropy, free energy is available to drive transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instabilities. Such slow-wave transverse electromagnetic instabilities can be described by the so-called Darwin model, which neglects the fast-wave portion of the displacement current. The Weibel instability may also lead to an increase in the longitudinal velocity spread, which would make the focusing of the beam difficult and impose a limit on the minimum spot size achievable in heavy ion fusion experiments. This paper reports the results of recent numerical studies of the Weibel instability using the Beam Eigenmode And Spectra (bEASt) code for space-charge-dominated, low-emittance beams with large tune depression. To study the nonlinear stage of the instability, the Darwin model is being developed and incorporated into the Beam Equilibrium Stability and Transport(BEST) code.

  17. Measurement of the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation at 3mm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, G.L.

    1983-12-01

    A balloon-borne differential radiometer has measured the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) with high sensitivity. The antenna temperature dipole anistropy at 90 GHz (3 mm wavelength) is 2.82 +- 0.19 mK, corresponding to a thermodynamic anistropy of 3.48 +- mK for a 2.7 K blackbody CBR. The dipole direction, 11.3 +- 0.1 hours right ascension and -5.7 0 +- 1.8 0 declination, agrees well with measurements at other frequencies. Calibration error dominates magnitude uncertainty, with statistical errors on dipole terms being under 0.1 mK. No significant quadrupole power is found, placing a 90% confidence-level upper limit of 0.27 mK on the RMS thermodynamic quadrupolar anistropy. 22 figures, 17 tables

  18. Search for Cosmic-Ray Electron and Positron Anisotropies with Seven Years of Fermi Large Area Telescope Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdollahi, S.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope that has collected the largest ever sample of high-energy cosmic-ray electron and positron events since the beginning of its operation. Potential anisotropies in the arrival directions of cosmic-ray electrons or positrons could be a signature of the presence of nearby sources. We use almost seven years of data with energies above 42 GeV processed with the Pass 8 reconstruction. The present data sample can probe dipole anisotropies down to a level of 10"-"3. We take into account systematic effects that could mimic true anisotropies at this level. We present a detailed study of the event selection optimization of the cosmic-ray electrons and positrons to be used for anisotropy searches. Since no significant anisotropies have been detected on any angular scale, we present upper limits on the dipole anisotropy. Lastly, the present constraints are among the strongest to date probing the presence of nearby young and middle-aged sources.

  19. Cold dark matter confronts the cosmic microwave background - Large-angular-scale anisotropies in Omega sub 0 + lambda 1 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Silk, Joseph; Vittorio, Nicola

    1992-01-01

    A new technique is used to compute the correlation function for large-angle cosmic microwave background anisotropies resulting from both the space and time variations in the gravitational potential in flat, vacuum-dominated, cold dark matter cosmological models. Such models with Omega sub 0 of about 0.2, fit the excess power, relative to the standard cold dark matter model, observed in the large-scale galaxy distribution and allow a high value for the Hubble constant. The low order multipoles and quadrupole anisotropy that are potentially observable by COBE and other ongoing experiments should definitively test these models.

  20. Magnetic anisotropies in SmCo thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.

    1993-01-01

    A systemic study of the deposition processes and magnetic properties for the Sm-Co film system has been carried out. Films of Sm-Co system with various magnetic anisotropies have been synthesized through sputter deposition in both crystalline and amorphous phases. The origins of various anisotropies have been studied. Thermalized sputter deposition process control was used to synthesize Fe enriched Sm-Co films with rhombohedral Th 2 Zn 17 type structure. The film exhibited unusually strong textures with the crystallographic c axes of the crystallites aligned in the film plane. A large anisotropy was resulted with easy axis in the film plane. A well defined and large in-the-film-plane anisotropy of exceptionally high value of 3.3 x 10 6 erg/cm 3 has been obtained in the amorphous SmCo films by applying a magnetic field in the film plane during deposition. It was found that the in-the-film-plane anisotropy depended essentially on the applied field and Sm concentration. For films not synthesized through thermallized sputtering, the easy axis of the film could reoriented. A perpendicular anisotropy was also presented in the film synthesized through thermallized sputtering deposition. A large in-plane anisotropy was obtained in films deposited above ambient temperatures. It was concluded that the surface induced short range ordering was the origin of the in-the-film-phase anisotropy observed in amorphous film deposited in the presence of a magnetic field. The formation mechanism was different from that of the short range ordering induced by field annealing. The perpendicular anisotropy was shown to be growth induced. Large in-plane anisotropy in amorphous films was resulted form partial crystallization in the film. Both the formation of growth induced structure and partial crystallization in the film prevented the formation of the pair ordering and decreased in-the-film-plane anisotropy

  1. Magnetic and transport properties of single and double perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuchet, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Due to their advantageous properties in terms of data retention, storage density and critical current density for Spin Transfer Torque (STT) switching, the magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy have become predominant in the developments for MRAM applications. The aim of this thesis is to improve the anisotropy and transport properties of such structures and to realize even more complex stacks such as perpendicular double junctions. Studies on the magnetic properties and Tunnel Magnetoresistance (TMR) measurements showed that to optimize the performances of the junctions, all the thicknesses of the different layers constituting the stack have to be adapted. To guaranty both a large TMR as well a strong perpendicular anisotropy, compromises are most of the time needed. Studies as a function of magnetic thickness enabled to extract the saturation magnetization, the critical thickness and the magnetic dead layer thickness both in the bottom reference and the top storage layer in structures capped with Ta. This type of junction could be tested electrically after patterning the sample into nano-pillars. Knowing that perpendicular anisotropy mostly arises at the metal/oxide interface, the Ta capping layer was replaced by a MgO one, leading to a huge increase in the anisotropy of the free layer. A second top reference was then added on such a stack to create functional perpendicular double junctions. CoFeB/insertion/CoFeB synthetic antiferromagnetic storage layers could be developed and were proved to be stable enough to replace the standard Co/Pt-based reference layers. (author) [fr

  2. Discovery of ferromagnetism with large magnetic anisotropy in ZrMnP and HfMnP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamichhane, Tej N.; Taufour, Valentin; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Bud' ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); The Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Masters, Morgan W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Parker, David S. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Thimmaiah, Srinivasa [The Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2016-08-29

    ZrMnP and HfMnP single crystals are grown by a self-flux growth technique, and structural as well as temperature dependent magnetic and transport properties are studied. Both compounds have an orthorhombic crystal structure. ZrMnP and HfMnP are ferromagnetic with Curie temperatures around 370 K and 320 K, respectively. The spontaneous magnetizations of ZrMnP and HfMnP are determined to be 1.9 μ{sub B}/f.u. and 2.1 μ{sub B}/f.u., respectively, at 50 K. The magnetocaloric effect of ZrMnP in terms of entropy change (ΔS) is estimated to be −6.7 kJ m{sup −3} K{sup −1} around 369 K. The easy axis of magnetization is [100] for both compounds, with a small anisotropy relative to the [010] axis. At 50 K, the anisotropy field along the [001] axis is ∼4.6 T for ZrMnP and ∼10 T for HfMnP. Such large magnetic anisotropy is remarkable considering the absence of rare-earth elements in these compounds. The first principle calculation correctly predicts the magnetization and hard axis orientation for both compounds, and predicts the experimental HfMnP anisotropy field within 25%. More importantly, our calculations suggest that the large magnetic anisotropy comes primarily from the Mn atoms, suggesting that similarly large anisotropies may be found in other 3d transition metal compounds.

  3. Discovery of ferromagnetism with large magnetic anisotropy in ZrMnP and HfMnP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamichhane, Tej N.; Taufour, Valentin; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Masters, Morgan W.; Parker, David S.; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa

    2016-01-01

    ZrMnP and HfMnP single crystals are grown by a self-flux growth technique, and structural as well as temperature dependent magnetic and transport properties are studied. Both compounds have an orthorhombic crystal structure. ZrMnP and HfMnP are ferromagnetic with Curie temperatures around 370 K and 320 K, respectively. The spontaneous magnetizations of ZrMnP and HfMnP are determined to be 1.9 μ_B/f.u. and 2.1 μ_B/f.u., respectively, at 50 K. The magnetocaloric effect of ZrMnP in terms of entropy change (ΔS) is estimated to be −6.7 kJ m"−"3 K"−"1 around 369 K. The easy axis of magnetization is [100] for both compounds, with a small anisotropy relative to the [010] axis. At 50 K, the anisotropy field along the [001] axis is ∼4.6 T for ZrMnP and ∼10 T for HfMnP. Such large magnetic anisotropy is remarkable considering the absence of rare-earth elements in these compounds. The first principle calculation correctly predicts the magnetization and hard axis orientation for both compounds, and predicts the experimental HfMnP anisotropy field within 25%. More importantly, our calculations suggest that the large magnetic anisotropy comes primarily from the Mn atoms, suggesting that similarly large anisotropies may be found in other 3d transition metal compounds.

  4. Small-scale microwave background anisotropies implied by large-scale data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the absence of reheating microwave background radiation (MBR) anisotropies on arcminute scales depend uniquely on the amplitude and the coherence length of the primordial density fluctuations (PDFs). These can be determined from the recent data on galaxy correlations, xi(r), on linear scales (APM survey). We develop here expressions for the MBR angular correlation function, C(theta), on arcminute scales in terms of the power spectrum of PDFs and demonstrate their accuracy by comparing with detailed calculations of MBR anisotropies. We then show how to evaluate C(theta) directly in terms of the observed xi(r) and show that the APM data give information on the amplitude, C(O), and the coherence angle of MBR anisotropies on small scales.

  5. Large-scale anisotropy in the extragalactic gamma-ray background as a probe for cosmological antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi-Tian; Stecker, Floyd W.; Gleiser, Marcelo; Cline, David B.

    1990-01-01

    Intrinsic anisotropies in the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB), which should be detectable with the forthcoming Gamma Ray Observatory, can be used to examine some of the mechanisms proposed to explain its origin, one of which, the baryon-symmetric big bang (BSBB) model, is investigated here. In this simulation, large domains containing matter and antimatter galaxies produce gamma rays by annihilation at the domain boundaries. This mechanism can produce mountain-chain-shaped angular fluctuations in the EGB flux.

  6. Spin waves in two-dimensional ferromagnet with large easy-plane anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu.A.; Spirin, D.V.

    2002-01-01

    Spin waves in easy-plane two-dimensional ferromagnet when anisotropy is much stronger than exchange are investigated. The spectra of magnons, the spin-spin and quadrupolar correlation functions have been derived. It is shown that in such a system there exist spin waves at low temperatures. Some properties of the quadrupolar ordering in ferromagnets are discussed

  7. Three-Dimensional Interaction of a Large Number of Dense DEP Particles on a Plane Perpendicular to an AC Electrical Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanchuan Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of dielectrophoresis (DEP particles in an electric field has been observed in many experiments, known as the “particle chains phenomenon”. However, the study in 3D models (spherical particles is rarely reported due to its complexity and significant computational cost. In this paper, we employed the iterative dipole moment (IDM method to study the 3D interaction of a large number of dense DEP particles randomly distributed on a plane perpendicular to a uniform alternating current (AC electric field in a bounded or unbounded space. The numerical results indicated that the particles cannot move out of the initial plane. The similar particles (either all positive or all negative DEP particles always repelled each other, and did not form a chain. The dissimilar particles (a mixture of positive and negative DEP particles always attracted each other, and formed particle chains consisting of alternately arranged positive and negative DEP particles. The particle chain patterns can be randomly multitudinous depending on the initial particle distribution, the electric properties of particles/fluid, the particle sizes and the number of particles. It is also found that the particle chain patterns can be effectively manipulated via tuning the frequency of the AC field and an almost uniform distribution of particles in a bounded plane chip can be achieved when all of the particles are similar, which may have potential applications in the particle manipulation of microfluidics.

  8. Magnetic anisotropy of Ni/Cr multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.; Xia, H.

    1997-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of Ni/Cr multilayers has been investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and ferromagnetic resonance techniques (FMR). The FMR spectra are obtained as a function of the orientation of the applied magnetic field from in-plane to out-of-plane. The results are fitted theoretically to determine the magnetic anisotropy. From VSM and FMR, a positive value for Ni/Cr interface anisotropy is obtained, which favours a perpendicular easy axis. The possible mechanism for the perpendicular anisotropy has been discussed and it may be attributed to the magnetostriction, caused by intrinsic stress due to lattice mismatch. (orig.). With 005 figs., 001 tabs

  9. Measurement of heavy flavor production and azimuthal anisotropy in small and large systems with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Qipeng; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of heavy flavor hadron production and their correlations in A+A collisions provide insight into the energy loss mechanism and transport properties of heavy quarks in the QGP. From this perspective, the same measurements in $p$+A collisions thus serve as a necessary baseline for understanding the observations in A+A collisions. Additionally, detailed studies of the azimuthal anisotropy for heavy flavor hadrons in $p$+A may help address the question of whether the observed long-range ``ridge'' correlation arises from hard or semi-hard processes, or if it is the result of mechanisms unrelated to the initial hardness scale. This talk presents ATLAS measurements of heavy flavor production, via their semi-leptonic decay to muons in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV Pb+Pb and $pp$ collisions, and via identified prompt $D$ mesons in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 8.16$ TeV $p$+Pb collisions. Heavy flavor muon yields are observed to be strongly suppressed in Pb+Pb collisions compared to that in $pp$ collisions. ...

  10. Electrical anisotropy in the presence of oceans—a sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembrowski, Marcel; Junge, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    Electrical anisotropy in the presence of oceans is particularly relevant at continent-ocean subduction zones (e.g. Cascadian and Andean Margin), where seismic anisotropy has been found with trench-parallel or perpendicular fast direction. The identification of electrical anisotropy at such locations sheds new light on the relation between seismic and electrical anisotropies. At areas confined by two opposite oceans, for example the Pyrenean Area and Central America, we demonstrate that the superposed responses of both oceans generate a uniform and large phase split of the main phase tensor axes. The pattern of the tipper arrows is comparatively complicated and it is often difficult to associate their length and orientation to the coast effect. On the basis of simple forward models involving opposite oceans and anisotropic layers, we show that both structures generate similar responses. In the case of a deep anisotropic layer, the resistivity and phase split generated by the oceans alone will be increased or decreased depending on the azimuth of the conducting horizontal principal axes. The 3-D isotropic inversion of the anisotropic forward responses reproduces the input data reasonably well. The anisotropy is explained by large opposed conductors outside the station grid and by tube-like elongated conductors representing a macroscopic anisotropy. If the conductive direction is perpendicular to the shorelines, the anisotropy is not recovered by 3-D isotropic inversion.

  11. The amplitude and spectral index of the large angular scale anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganga, Ken; Page, Lyman; Cheng, Edward; Meyer, Stephan

    1994-01-01

    In many cosmological models, the large angular scale anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background is parameterized by a spectral index, n, and a quadrupolar amplitude, Q. For a Harrison-Peebles-Zel'dovich spectrum, n = 1. Using data from the Far Infrared Survey (FIRS) and a new statistical measure, a contour plot of the likelihood for cosmological models for which -1 less than n less than 3 and 0 equal to or less than Q equal to or less than 50 micro K is obtained. Depending upon the details of the analysis, the maximum likelihood occurs at n between 0.8 and 1.4 and Q between 18 and 21 micro K. Regardless of Q, the likelihood is always less than half its maximum for n less than -0.4 and for n greater than 2.2, as it is for Q less than 8 micro K and Q greater than 44 micro K.

  12. Large spin relaxation anisotropy and valley-Zeeman spin-orbit coupling in WSe2/graphene/h -BN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlmann, Simon; Cummings, Aron W.; Garcia, Jose H.; Kedves, Máté; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Schönenberger, Christian; Makk, Péter

    2018-02-01

    Large spin-orbital proximity effects have been predicted in graphene interfaced with a transition-metal dichalcogenide layer. Whereas clear evidence for an enhanced spin-orbit coupling has been found at large carrier densities, the type of spin-orbit coupling and its relaxation mechanism remained unknown. We show an increased spin-orbit coupling close to the charge neutrality point in graphene, where topological states are expected to appear. Single-layer graphene encapsulated between the transition-metal dichalcogenide WSe2 and h -BN is found to exhibit exceptional quality with mobilities as high as 1 ×105 cm2 V-1 s-1. At the same time clear weak antilocalization indicates strong spin-orbit coupling, and a large spin relaxation anisotropy due to the presence of a dominating symmetric spin-orbit coupling is found. Doping-dependent measurements show that the spin relaxation of the in-plane spins is largely dominated by a valley-Zeeman spin-orbit coupling and that the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling plays a minor role in spin relaxation. The strong spin-valley coupling opens new possibilities in exploring spin and valley degree of freedom in graphene with the realization of new concepts in spin manipulation.

  13. Compensation for large tensor modes with iso-curvature perturbations in CMB anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro, E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: shu@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    Recently, BICEP2 has reported the large tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.2{sup +0.07}{sub −0.05} from the observation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode at degree-scales. Since tensor modes induce not only CMB B-mode but also the temperature fluctuations on large scales, to realize the consistent temperature fluctuations with the Planck result we should consider suppression of scalar perturbations on corresponding large scales. To realize such a suppression, we consider anti-correlated iso-curvature perturbations which could be realized in the simple curvaton model.

  14. Exchange coupling in hybrid anisotropy magnetic multilayers quantified by vector magnetometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, C., E-mail: C.Morrison.2@warwick.ac.uk; Miles, J. J.; Thomson, T. [School of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Anh Nguyen, T. N. [Materials Physics, School of ICT, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Spintronics Research Group, Laboratory for Nanotechnology (LNT), VNU-HCM, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Fang, Y.; Dumas, R. K. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Åkerman, J. [Materials Physics, School of ICT, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-05-07

    Hybrid anisotropy thin film heterostructures, where layers with perpendicular and in-plane anisotropy are separated by a thin spacer, are novel materials for zero/low field spin torque oscillators and bit patterned media. Here, we report on magnetization reversal and exchange coupling in a archetypal Co/Pd (perpendicular)-NiFe (in-plane) hybrid anisotropy system studied using vector vibrating sample magnetometry. This technique allows us to quantify the magnetization reversal in each individual magnetic layer, and measure of the interlayer exchange as a function of non-magnetic spacer thickness. At large (>1 nm) spacer thicknesses Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida-like exchange dominates, with orange-peel coupling providing a significant contribution only for sub-nm spacer thickness.

  15. Thermal fluctuations in perpendicular recording media: New methodology for estimation of activation moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamiya, H; Oba, Y; Ohnuma, M; Hagiya, H; Oku, T; Suzuki, J; Yokoyama, M; Nishihara, Y; Katayama, T; Awano, H; Koda, T

    2011-01-01

    In nanoparticulate films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, a large demagnetizing field almost compensates for the experimentally designed change in the magnetic field applied parallel to the film normal. We propose a new method based on field-cycling to eliminate the uncertainty in the demagnetizing response from the analysis of the activation volume of the reversal or magnetic activation moment in such films. In this method, the applied field induced variation in the magnetic relaxation rate is measured before the effect of the demagnetizing field becomes dominant. We also discuss an analogical thermal-cycling method to clarify the temperature dependence of the barrier height for magnetization reversal in a magnetic field. We apply these methods to a Co 74 Pt 16 Cr 10 -SiO 2 nanoparticulate film as an example. The results demonstrate that these methods are useful for studying thermal fluctuations in perpendicular recording media.

  16. Ion temperature anisotropy limitation in high beta plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scime, Earl E.; Keiter, Paul A.; Balkey, Matthew M.; Boivin, Robert F.; Kline, John L.; Blackburn, Melanie; Gary, S. Peter

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of parallel and perpendicular ion temperatures in the Large Experiment on Instabilities and Anisotropies (LEIA) space simulation chamber display an inverse correlation between the upper bound on the ion temperature anisotropy and the parallel ion beta (β=8πnkT/B 2 ). Fluctuation measurements indicate the presence of low frequency, transverse, electromagnetic waves with wave numbers and frequencies that are consistent with predictions for Alfven Ion Cyclotron instabilities. These observations are also consistent with in situ spacecraft measurements in the Earth's magnetosheath and with a theoretical/computational model that predicts that such an upper bound on the ion temperature anisotropy is imposed by scattering from enhanced fluctuations due to growth of the Alfven ion cyclotron instability. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  17. Large Deformation of an Elastic Rod with Structural Anisotropy Subjected to Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Masoud; Mureithi, Njuki; Gosselin, Frederick

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, we seek to understand the fundamental mechanisms of three-dimensional reconfiguration of plants by studying the large deformation of a flexible rod in fluid flow. Flexible rods made of Polyurethane foam and reinforced with Nylon fibers are tested in a wind tunnel. The rods have bending-torsion coupling which induces a torsional deformation during asymmetric bending. A mathematical model is also developed by coupling the Kirchhoff rod theory with a semi-empirical drag formulation. Different alignments of the material frame with respect to the flow direction and a range of structural properties are considered to study their effect on the deformation of the flexible rod and its drag scaling. Results show that twisting causes the flexible rods to reorient and bend with the minimum bending rigidity. It is also found that the drag scaling of the rod in the large deformation regime is not affected by torsion. Finally, using a proper set of dimensionless numbers, the state of a bending and twisting rod is characterized as a beam undergoing a pure bending deformation.

  18. Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation on Large and Medium Angular Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Anthony; Timbie, Peter

    1998-01-01

    This grant has supported work at Brown University on measurements of the 2.7 K Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB). The goal has been to characterize the spatial variations in the temperature of the CMB in order to understand the formation of large-scale structure in the universe. We have concurrently pursued two measurements using millimeter-wave telescopes carried aloft by scientific balloons. Both systems operate over a range of wavelengths, chosen to allow spectral removal of foreground sources such as the atmosphere, Galaxy, etc. The angular resolution of approx. 25 arcminutes is near the angular scale at which the most structure is predicted by current models to be visible in the CMB angular power spectrum. The main goal is to determine the angular scale of this structure; in turn we can infer the density parameter, Omega, for the universe as well as other cosmological parameters, such as the Hubble constant.

  19. Methods for the reconstruction of large scale anisotropies of the cosmic ray flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Over, Sven

    2010-01-15

    In cosmic ray experiments the arrival directions, among other properties, of cosmic ray particles from detected air shower events are reconstructed. The question of uniformity in the distribution of arrival directions is of large importance for models that try to explain cosmic radiation. In this thesis, methods for the reconstruction of parameters of a dipole-like flux distribution of cosmic rays from a set of recorded air shower events are studied. Different methods are presented and examined by means of detailed Monte Carlo simulations. Particular focus is put on the implications of spurious experimental effects. Modifications of existing methods and new methods are proposed. The main goal of this thesis is the development of the horizontal Rayleigh analysis method. Unlike other methods, this method is based on the analysis of local viewing directions instead of global sidereal directions. As a result, the symmetries of the experimental setup can be better utilised. The calculation of the sky coverage (exposure function) is not necessary in this analysis. The performance of the method is tested by means of further Monte Carlo simulations. The new method performs similarly good or only marginally worse than established methods in case of ideal measurement conditions. However, the simulation of certain experimental effects can cause substantial misestimations of the dipole parameters by the established methods, whereas the new method produces no systematic deviations. The invulnerability to certain effects offers additional advantages, as certain data selection cuts become dispensable. (orig.)

  20. The Large Scale Structure of the Galactic Magnetic Field and High Energy Cosmic Ray Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Muniz, Jaime [Department de Fisica de PartIculas, University de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago, SPAIN (Spain); Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    Measurements of the magnetic field in our Galaxy are complex and usually difficult to interpret. A spiral regular field in the disk is favored by observations, however the number of field reversals is still under debate. Measurements of the parity of the field across the Galactic plane are also very difficult due to the presence of the disk field itself. In this work we demonstrate that cosmic ray protons in the energy range 10{sup 18} to 10{sup 19}eV, if accelerated near the center of the Galaxy, are sensitive to the large scale structure of the Galactic Magnetic Field (GMF). In particular if the field is of even parity, and the spiral field is bi-symmetric (BSS), ultra high energy protons will predominantly come from the Southern Galactic hemisphere, and predominantly from the Northern Galactic hemisphere if the field is of even parity and axi-symmetric (ASS). There is no sensitivity to the BSS or ASS configurations if the field is of odd parity.

  1. Temperature dependence of the interfacial magnetic anisotropy in W/CoFeB/MgO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Min Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in W/CoFeB (1.2 ∼ 3 nm/MgO thin film structures is strongly dependent on temperature, and is significantly reduced at high temperature. The interfacial magnetic anisotropy is generally proportional to the third power of magnetization, but an additional factor due to thermal expansion is required to explain the temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy of ultrathin CoFeB films. The reduction of the magnetic anisotropy is more prominent for the thinner films; as the temperature increases from 300 K to 400 K, the anisotropy is reduced ∼50% for the 1.2-nm-thick CoFeB, whereas the anisotropy is reduced ∼30% for the 1.7-nm-thick CoFeB. Such a substantial reduction of magnetic anisotropy at high temperature is problematic for data retention when incorporating W/CoFeB/MgO thin film structures into magneto-resistive random access memory devices. Alternative magnetic materials and structures are required to maintain large magnetic anisotropy at elevated temperatures.

  2. On the Acceleration and Anisotropy of Ions Within Magnetotail Dipolarizing Flux Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Runov, Andrei; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Artemyev, Anton V.; Birn, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Dipolarizing flux bundles (DFBs), earthward propagating structures with enhanced northward magnetic field Bz, are usually believed to carry a distinctly different plasma population from that in the ambient magnetotail plasma sheet. The ion distribution functions within the DFB, however, have been recently found to be largely controlled by the ion adiabaticity parameter κ in the ambient plasma sheet outside the DFB. According to these observations, the ambient κ values of 2-3 usually correspond to a strong perpendicular anisotropy of suprathermal ions within the DFB, whereas for lower κ values the DFB ions become more isotropic. Here we utilize a simple, test particle model to explore the nature of the anisotropy and its dependence on the ambient κ values. We find that the anisotropy originates from successive ion reflections and reentries to the DFB, during which the ions are consecutively accelerated in the perpendicular direction by the DFB-associated electric field. This consecutive acceleration may be interrupted, however, when magnetic field lines are highly curved in the ambient plasma sheet. In this case, the ion trajectories become stochastic outside the DFB, which makes the reflected ions less likely to return to the DFB for another cycle of acceleration; as a consequence, the perpendicular ion anisotropy does not appear. Given that the DFB ions are a free energy source for instabilities when they are injected toward Earth, our simple model (that reproduces most observational features on the anisotropic DFB ion distributions) may shed new lights on the coupling process between magnetotail and inner magnetosphere.

  3. Observation of a large-scale anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays above 8 x 10.sup.18./sup. eV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Blažek, Jiří; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Juryšek, Jakub; Mandát, Dušan; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 357, č. 6357 (2017), s. 1266-1270 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015038; GA MŠk LG15014; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cosmic rays * Pierre Auger Observatory * ultrahigh energy * large-scale anisotropy Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 37.205, year: 2016

  4. Cosmic microwave background anisotropies in cold dark matter models with cosmological constant: The intermediate versus large angular scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompor, Radoslaw; Gorski, Krzysztof M.

    1994-01-01

    We obtain predictions for cosmic microwave background anisotropies at angular scales near 1 deg in the context of cold dark matter models with a nonzero cosmological constant, normalized to the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) detection. The results are compared to those computed in the matter-dominated models. We show that the coherence length of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy is almost insensitive to cosmological parameters, and the rms amplitude of the anisotropy increases moderately with decreasing total matter density, while being most sensitive to the baryon abundance. We apply these results in the statistical analysis of the published data from the UCSB South Pole (SP) experiment (Gaier et al. 1992; Schuster et al. 1993). We reject most of the Cold Dark Matter (CDM)-Lambda models at the 95% confidence level when both SP scans are simulated together (although the combined data set renders less stringent limits than the Gaier et al. data alone). However, the Schuster et al. data considered alone as well as the results of some other recent experiments (MAX, MSAM, Saskatoon), suggest that typical temperature fluctuations on degree scales may be larger than is indicated by the Gaier et al. scan. If so, CDM-Lambda models may indeed provide, from a point of view of CMB anisotropies, an acceptable alternative to flat CDM models.

  5. Anisotropic perpendicular axis magnetostriction in twinned TbxDy1-xFe1.95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teter, J.P.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Clark, A.E.; Mahoney, K.

    1990-01-01

    The longitudinal magnetostriction (Δl/l) for twinned Tb x Dy 1-x Fe 1.95 material, prepared by the free-standing float-zone method, has been previously measured and found to be very large (2000x10 -6 ) at room temperature. The magnetostrictions for the [111] and [1 bar 10] crystallographic axes perpendicular to the applied stress and magnetic-field [11 bar 2] direction are presented as functions of temperature, applied stress, and applied magnetic field. The temperature range is ±60 degree C centered about the anisotropy compensation temperature of Terfenol-D (+10 degree C). The stress ranges from 2 to 32 MPa and the magnetic field to ±2000 Oe. The temperature dependence of the perpendicular axes magnetostriction is similar to that of the conventional magnetostriction measured parallel to the [11 bar 2] growth axis. Relative values for the saturation magnetostriction exhibit a large anisotropy in the perpendicular direction, ranging from -117% for the [111] to +19% for the [1 bar 10] direction. This ratio stays constant as a function of temperature above the compensation temperature for a given prestress above 8 MPa. The largest absolute value of magnetostriction (2260x10 -6 ) occurs in the [111] direction at 10 degree C at a prestress pressure of 12 MPa. Above this temperature the magnetostriction falls at a rate of -8.5x10 -6 /degree C. The volume magnetostriction is shown to be small and highly sample dependent. All data is consistent with the parent-twin magnetization model and also the magnetostriction values along nonprincipal axes

  6. Large anisotropy in colossal magnetoresistance of charge orbital ordered epitaxial Sm(0.5)Ca(0.5)MnO(3) films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y Z; Sun, J R; Zhao, J L; Wang, J; Shen, B G; Pryds, N

    2009-11-04

    We investigated the structure and magnetotransport properties of Sm(0.5)Ca(0.5)MnO(3) (SCMO) films epitaxially grown on (011)-oriented SrTiO(3) substrates, which exhibited clear charge/orbital ordering transition. A significant anisotropy of ∼1000 in the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) effect was observed in the films with a thickness between 50 and 80 nm, which was distinctly different from the basically isotropic CMR effect in bulk SCMO. The large anisotropy in the CMR can be ascribed to the intrinsic asymmetric strain in the film, which plays an important role in tuning the spin-orbit coupling in manganite films. The origin of the peculiar CMR effect is discussed.

  7. Anisotropy of domain wall resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viret; Samson; Warin; Marty; Ott; Sondergard; Klein; Fermon

    2000-10-30

    The resistive effect of domain walls in FePd films with perpendicular anisotropy was studied experimentally as a function of field and temperature. The films were grown directly on MgO substrates, which induces an unusual virgin magnetic configuration composed of 60 nm wide parallel stripe domains. This allowed us to carry out the first measurements of the anisotropy of domain wall resistivity in the two configurations of current perpendicular and parallel to the walls. At 18 K, we find 8.2% and 1.3% for the domain wall magnetoresistance normalized to the wall width (8 nm) in these two respective configurations. These values are consistent with the predictions of Levy and Zhang.

  8. Heterogeneous seismic anisotropy in the transition zone and uppermost lower mantle: evidence from South America, Izu-Bonin and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynner, Colton; Long, Maureen D.

    2015-06-01

    Measurements of seismic anisotropy are commonly used to constrain deformation in the upper mantle. Observations of anisotropy at mid-mantle depths are, however, relatively sparse. In this study we probe the anisotropic structure of the mid-mantle (transition zone and uppermost lower mantle) beneath the Japan, Izu-Bonin, and South America subduction systems. We present source-side shear wave splitting measurements for direct teleseismic S phases from earthquakes deeper than 300 km that have been corrected for the effects of upper mantle anisotropy beneath the receiver. In each region, we observe consistent splitting with delay times as large as 1 s, indicating the presence of anisotropy at mid-mantle depths. Clear splitting of phases originating from depths as great as ˜600 km argues for a contribution from anisotropy in the uppermost lower mantle as well as the transition zone. Beneath Japan, fast splitting directions are perpendicular or oblique to the slab strike and do not appear to depend on the propagation direction of the waves. Beneath South America and Izu-Bonin, splitting directions vary from trench-parallel to trench-perpendicular and have an azimuthal dependence, indicating lateral heterogeneity. Our results provide evidence for the presence of laterally variable anisotropy and are indicative of variable deformation and dynamics at mid-mantle depths in the vicinity of subducting slabs.

  9. Induced anisotropy in amorphous Sm-Co sputtered films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.; Hegde, H.; Cadieu, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    The variation of the in-the-film-plane anisotropy constant, K u , with composition and the magnitude of the field, H s , applied in plane during the sputter deposition of amorphous Sm x Co 1-x , 0.08≤x≤0.40, thin films has been studied. We demonstrate here that with a large H s , 5.0 kOe, a well defined and large in-the-film-plane anisotropy can be obtained. An exceptionally high value of K u =3.3x10 6 erg/cm 3 has been obtained. For the loop measured along the in-plane hard direction, the opening of the loop was undetectable, and the loop along the easy axis was a perfect rectangle. For certain conditions, the anisotropy field measured perpendicular to the film plane when corrected for demagnetization (N d =4π) was the same as that for the in-plane measurements. It is concluded that surface induced short range ordering was the origin of the anisotropy observed in amorphous films deposited in a magnetic field. The formation mechanism is different from that of the short range ordering induced by field annealing

  10. Nanosized perpendicular organic spin-valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Göckeritz, Robert; Homonnay, Nico; Müller, Alexander; Richter, Tim [Institut für Physik, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Fuhrmann, Bodo [Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Materialwissenschaften, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Schmidt, Georg, E-mail: georg.schmidt@physik.uni-halle.de [Institut für Physik, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Materialwissenschaften, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2015-03-09

    A fabrication process for perpendicular organic spin-valve devices based on the organic semiconductor Alq3 has been developed which offers the possibility to achieve active device areas of less than 500 × 500 nm{sup 2} and is flexible in terms of material choice for the active layers. Characterization of the resulting devices shows a large magnetoresistance of sometimes more than 100%, however with equally large variation from device to device. Comparison with large area spin-valves indicates that the magnetoresistance of both large and small devices most likely originates from tunneling through pinholes and tunneling magnetoresistance.

  11. Large magnetic anisotropy and tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in bi-metallic layered nanostructures: Case study of Mn/W(001)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shick, Alexander; Máca, František; Ondráček, Martin; Mryasov, O. N.; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 5 (2008), 054413/1-054413/5 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0456; GA MŠk LC510; GA ČR GEFON/06/E002; GA ČR GA202/07/0644 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 015728 - NANOSPIN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : magnetic anisotropy energy * surface * mangan * tungsten * calculations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  12. Tuning the Magnetic Anisotropy at a Molecule-Metal Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bairagi, K.; Bellec, A.; Repain, V.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that a C60 overlayer enhances the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of a Co thin film, inducing an inverse spin reorientation transition from in plane to out of plane. The driving force is the C60/Co interfacial magnetic anisotropy that we have measured quantitatively in situ...

  13. Development and anisotropy of three-dimensional turbulence in a current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofri, M.; Veltri, P.; Malara, F.

    2007-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of three-dimensional reconnection instabilities are studied in a current sheet where many resonant surfaces are simultaneously present at different locations of the simulation domain. The nonlinear evolution produces the development of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The development of the energy spectrum is followed until the energy is transported to the dissipative length scale and the anisotropy of the spectrum is analyzed. The energy cascade is affected by the Alfven effect and it takes place mainly in the direction perpendicular to the local average magnetic field. Anisotropy is also affected by propagation of perturbations across the main magnetic field, due to the growth of a transverse component related to reconnection. The direction of anisotropy varies with the position in space. The spectral index is different both from what is found in homogeneous isotropic turbulence and from the values predicted for magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with a uniform large-scale magnetic field

  14. Magnetic anisotropy, damping, and interfacial spin transport in Pt/LSMO bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report ferromagnetic resonance measurements of magnetic anisotropy and damping in epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO and Pt capped LSMO thin films on SrTiO3 (001 substrates. The measurements reveal large negative perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a weaker uniaxial in-plane anisotropy that are unaffected by the Pt cap. The Gilbert damping of the bare LSMO films is found to be low α = 1.9(1 × 10−3, and two-magnon scattering is determined to be significant and strongly anisotropic. The Pt cap increases the damping by 50% due to spin pumping, which is also directly detected via inverse spin Hall effect in Pt. Our work demonstrates efficient spin transport across the Pt/LSMO interface.

  15. Magnetic anisotropy, damping, and interfacial spin transport in Pt/LSMO bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. K., E-mail: hankl@uci.edu; Barsukov, I.; Yang, L.; Krivorotov, I. N. [Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Swartz, A. G.; Kim, B. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hwang, H. Y. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We report ferromagnetic resonance measurements of magnetic anisotropy and damping in epitaxial La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) and Pt capped LSMO thin films on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrates. The measurements reveal large negative perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a weaker uniaxial in-plane anisotropy that are unaffected by the Pt cap. The Gilbert damping of the bare LSMO films is found to be low α = 1.9(1) × 10{sup −3}, and two-magnon scattering is determined to be significant and strongly anisotropic. The Pt cap increases the damping by 50% due to spin pumping, which is also directly detected via inverse spin Hall effect in Pt. Our work demonstrates efficient spin transport across the Pt/LSMO interface.

  16. ARGO-YBJ OBSERVATION OF THE LARGE-SCALE COSMIC RAY ANISOTROPY DURING THE SOLAR MINIMUM BETWEEN CYCLES 23 AND 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Piazzoli, B. D’Ettorre; Girolamo, T. Di [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; D’Amone, A.; Mitri, I. De [Dipartimento Matematica e Fisica ”Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Gou, Q. B. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Cui, S. W.; Gao, W. [Hebei Normal University, 050024, Shijiazhuang Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z. [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Road, 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); Sciascio, G. Di [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Feng, C. F. [Shandong University, 250100 Jinan, Shandong (China); Feng, Zhenyong, E-mail: cuisw@ihep.ac.cn [Southwest Jiaotong University, 610031 Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2015-08-10

    This paper reports on the measurement of the large-scale anisotropy in the distribution of cosmic-ray arrival directions using the data collected by the air shower detector ARGO-YBJ from 2008 January to 2009 December, during the minimum of solar activity between cycles 23 and 24. In this period, more than 2 × 10{sup 11} showers were recorded with energies between ∼1 and 30 TeV. The observed two-dimensional distribution of cosmic rays is characterized by two wide regions of excess and deficit, respectively, both of relative intensity ∼10{sup −3} with respect to a uniform flux, superimposed on smaller size structures. The harmonic analysis shows that the large-scale cosmic-ray relative intensity as a function of R.A. can be described by the first and second terms of a Fouries series. The high event statistics allow the study of the energy dependence of the anistropy, showing that the amplitude increases with energy, with a maximum intensity at ∼10 TeV, and then decreases while the phase slowly shifts toward lower values of R.A. with increasing energy. The ARGO-YBJ data provide accurate observations over more than a decade of energy around this feature of the anisotropy spectrum.

  17. Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction with a strained Mn-based nanolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K. Z.; Ranjbar, R.; Okabayashi, J.; Miura, Y.; Sugihara, A.; Tsuchiura, H.; Mizukami, S.

    2016-07-01

    A magnetic tunnel junction with a perpendicular magnetic easy-axis (p-MTJ) is a key device for spintronic non-volatile magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM). Co-Fe-B alloy-based p-MTJs are being developed, although they have a large magnetisation and medium perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), which make it difficult to apply them to a future dense MRAM. Here, we demonstrate a p-MTJ with an epitaxially strained MnGa nanolayer grown on a unique CoGa buffer material, which exhibits a large PMA of more than 5 Merg/cm3 and magnetisation below 500 emu/cm3 these properties are sufficient for application to advanced MRAM. Although the experimental tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio is still low, first principles calculations confirm that the strain-induced crystal lattice distortion modifies the band dispersion along the tetragonal c-axis into the fully spin-polarised state; thus, a huge TMR effect can be generated in this p-MTJ.

  18. Read/write performance of perpendicular double-layered cylindrical media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, H.; Shimatsu, T.; Watanabe, I.; Tsuchiyama, R.; Aoi, H.; Muraoka, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A cylindrical magnetic storage system using perpendicular double-layered media has been developed. CoCrTa/CoZrNb deposited on a rotating cylindrical substrate shows perpendicular anisotropy and magnetic properties, which have almost the same characteristics as conventional disk-media. The fundamental read/write characteristics of perpendicular double-layered cylindrical media were measured using a single-pole-type (SPT) writer with a sliding-contact-type slider and a merged giant magneto-resistive (GMR) reader with a one-pad-type slider designed for use with cylindrical media. Preliminary studies for improving the characteristics of the recording layer are also described

  19. Tuning giant anomalous Hall resistance ratio in perpendicular Hall balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Yang, G. [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Magnetism, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, S. G., E-mail: sgwang@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetism, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, J. L. [State Key Laboratory of Magnetism, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, R. M. [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Amsellem, E.; Kohn, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Yu, G. H., E-mail: sgwang@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-04-13

    Anomalous Hall effect at room temperature in perpendicular Hall balance with a core structure of [Pt/Co]{sub 4}/NiO/[Co/Pt]{sub 4} has been tuned by functional CoO layers, where [Pt/Co]{sub 4} multilayers exhibit perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. A giant Hall resistance ratio up to 69 900% and saturation Hall resistance (R{sub S}{sup P}) up to 2590 mΩ were obtained in CoO/[Pt/Co]{sub 4}/NiO/[Co/Pt]{sub 4}/CoO system, which is 302% and 146% larger than that in the structure without CoO layers, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy shows highly textured [Co/Pt]{sub 4} multilayers and oxide layers with local epitaxial relations, indicating that the crystallographic structure has significant influence on spin dependent transport properties.

  20. The effect of the geomagnetic field on cosmic ray energy estimates and large scale anisotropy searches on data from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /IFSI, Turin; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; /Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Nijmegen U., IMAPP

    2011-11-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the influence of the geomagnetic field on the energy estimation of extensive air showers with a zenith angle smaller than 60{sup o}, detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The geomagnetic field induces an azimuthal modulation of the estimated energy of cosmic rays up to the {approx} 2% level at large zenith angles. We present a method to account for this modulation of the reconstructed energy. We analyse the effect of the modulation on large scale anisotropy searches in the arrival direction distributions of cosmic rays. At a given energy, the geomagnetic effect is shown to induce a pseudo-dipolar pattern at the percent level in the declination distribution that needs to be accounted for. In this work, we have identified and quantified a systematic uncertainty affecting the energy determination of cosmic rays detected by the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This systematic uncertainty, induced by the influence of the geomagnetic field on the shower development, has a strength which depends on both the zenith and the azimuthal angles. Consequently, we have shown that it induces distortions of the estimated cosmic ray event rate at a given energy at the percent level in both the azimuthal and the declination distributions, the latter of which mimics an almost dipolar pattern. We have also shown that the induced distortions are already at the level of the statistical uncertainties for a number of events N {approx_equal} 32 000 (we note that the full Auger surface detector array collects about 6500 events per year with energies above 3 EeV). Accounting for these effects is thus essential with regard to the correct interpretation of large scale anisotropy measurements taking explicitly profit from the declination distribution.

  1. MHD turbulence in the solar wind: evolution and anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbury, T. S.; Forman, M. A.; Oughton, S.

    2005-01-01

    Spacecraft measurements in the solar wind offer the opportunity to study magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in a collisionless plasma in great detail. We review some of the key results of the study of this medium: the presence of large amplitude Alfven waves propagating predominantly away from the Sun; the existence of an active turbulent cascade; and intermittency similar to that in neutral fluids. The presence of a magnetic field leads to anisotropy of the fluctuations, which are predominantly perpendicular to this direction, as well as anisotropy of the spectrum. Some models suggest that MHD turbulence can evolve to a state with power predominantly in wave vectors either parallel to the magnetic field (slab fluctuations) or approximately perpendicular to it (2D). We present results of a new, wavelet-based analysis of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind, and demonstrate that the 2D component has a spectral index near the Kolmogorov value of 5/3, while slab fluctuations have a spectral index near 2. We also estimate the relative power levels in slab and 2D fluctuations, as well as the level of compressive fluctuations. Deviations of the data from the simple slab/2D model suggest the presence of power in intermediate directions and we compare our data with critical balance models. (Author)

  2. Interfacial exchange coupling and magnetization reversal in perpendicular [Co/Ni]N/TbCo composite structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M H; Zhang, Zongzhi; Tian, S Y; Wang, J; Ma, B; Jin, Q Y

    2015-06-15

    Interfacial exchange coupling and magnetization reversal characteristics in the perpendicular heterostructures consisting of an amorphous ferrimagnetic (FI) TbxCo(100-x) alloy layer exchange-coupled with a ferromagnetic (FM) [Co/Ni]N multilayer have been investigated. As compared with pure TbxCo(100-x) alloy, the magnetization compensation composition of the heterostructures shift to a higher Tb content, implying Co/Ni also serves to compensate the Tb moment in TbCo layer. The net magnetization switching field Hc⊥ and interlayer interfacial coupling field Hex, are not only sensitive to the magnetization and thickness of the switched TbxCo(100-x) or [Co/Ni]N layer, but also to the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy strength of the pinning layer. By tuning the layer structure we achieve simultaneously both large Hc⊥ = 1.31 T and Hex = 2.19 T. These results, in addition to the fundamental interest, are important to understanding of the interfacial coupling interaction in the FM/FI heterostructures, which could offer the guiding of potential applications in heat-assisted magnetic recording or all-optical switching recording technique.

  3. In-plane current-driven spin-orbit torque switching in perpendicularly magnetized films with enhanced thermal tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Di; Yu, Guoqiang; Shao, Qiming; Li, Xiang; Wong, Kin L.; Wang, Kang L.; Wu, Hao; Han, Xiufeng; Zhang, Zongzhi; Khalili Amiri, Pedram

    2016-01-01

    We study spin-orbit-torque (SOT)-driven magnetization switching in perpendicularly magnetized Ta/Mo/Co_4_0Fe_4_0B_2_0 (CoFeB)/MgO films. The thermal tolerance of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is enhanced, and the films sustain the PMA at annealing temperatures of up to 430 °C, due to the ultra-thin Mo layer inserted between the Ta and CoFeB layers. More importantly, the Mo insertion layer also allows for the transmission of the spin current generated in the Ta layer due to spin Hall effect, which generates a damping-like SOT and is able to switch the perpendicular magnetization. When the Ta layer is replaced by a Pt layer, i.e., in a Pt/Mo/CoFeB/MgO multilayer, the direction of the SOT-induced damping-like effective field becomes opposite because of the opposite sign of spin Hall angle in Pt, which indicates that the SOT-driven switching is dominated by the spin current generated in the Ta or Pt layer rather than the Mo layer. Quantitative characterization through harmonic measurements reveals that the large SOT effective field is preserved for high annealing temperatures. This work provides a route to applying SOT in devices requiring high temperature processing steps during the back-end-of-line processes.

  4. Determination of the components of three dimensional vector and tensor anisotropy of cosmic radiation with application to the results of the Musala experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, A.J.

    1976-09-01

    The paper proves that it is possible to interpret the experimental results of the Musala experiment as being consequences of a vector anisotropy with maximum in the direction of the galactic centre and a tensor anisotropy with principal axes in the physically plausible directions of the galactic arm, the normal direction of the galactic plane and the direction perpendicular them, respectively. It is underlined that the interpretation is not the only possible one and, in addition to this, statistical errors are rather large. The results favour the galactic origin of the particles concerned (E=6x10 13 eV). (Sz.N.Z.)

  5. Perpendicular STT_RAM cell in 8 nm technology node using Co1/Ni3(1 1 1)||Gr2||Co1/Ni3(1 1 1) structure as magnetic tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghani, Ali; Peiravi, Ali; Moradi, Farshad

    2018-04-01

    The perpendicular anisotropy Spin-Transfer Torque Random Access Memory (P-STT-RAM) is considered to be a promising candidate for high-density memories. Many distinct advantages of Perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junction (P-MTJ) compared to the conventional in-plane MTJ (I-MTJ) such as lower switching current, circular cell shape that facilitates manufacturability in smaller technology nodes, large thermal stability, smaller cell size, and lower dipole field interaction between adjacent cells make it a promising candidate as a universal memory. However, for small MTJ cell sizes, the perpendicular technology requires new materials with high polarization and low damping factor as well as low resistance area product of a P-MTJ in order to avoid a high write voltage as technology is scaled down. A new graphene-based STT-RAM cell for 8 nm technology node that uses high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy cobalt/nickel (Co/Ni) multilayer as magnetic layers is proposed in this paper. The proposed junction benefits from enough Tunneling Magnetoresistance Ratio (TMR), low resistance area product, low write voltage, and low power consumption that make it suitable for 8 nm technology node.

  6. Studies in perpendicular magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcu, Bogdan F.

    This dissertation uses both micromagnetic simulation and analytical methods to analyze several aspects of a perpendicular recording system. To increase the head field amplitude, the recording layer is grown on top of a soft magnetic layer (keeper). There is concern about the ability of the keeper to conduct the magnetic flux from the head at high data rates. We compute numerically the magnetization motion of the soft underlayer during the reversal process. Generation of non-linear spin waves characterizes the magnetization dynamics in the keeper, the spins are oscillating with a frequency higher than that of the reversal current. However, the recording field applied to the data layer follows the time dependence of the input wave form. The written transition shape is determined by the competition between the head field gradient and the demagnetizing field gradient. An analytical slope model that takes into consideration the angular orientation of the applied field is used to estimate the transition parameter; agreement is shown with the micromagnetic results. On the playback side, the reciprocity principle is applied to calculate the read out signal from a single magnetic transition in the perpendicular medium. The pulse shape is close to an error-function, going through zero when the sensor is above the transition center and decaying from the peak to an asymptotic value when the transition center is far away. Analytical closed forms for both the slope in the origin and the asymptotic value show the dependence on the recording geometry parameters. The Signal-to-Noise Ratio is calculated assuming that the noise is dominated by the medium jitter. To keep the SNR at a readable level while increasing the areal density, the average magnetic grain diameter must decrease; consequently grain size fluctuations will affect the thermal decay. We performed Transmission Electron Microscopy measurements and observed differences in the grain size distribution between various types

  7. Large scale anisotropy studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays using data taken with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigat, Marius

    2011-06-10

    The distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays is remarkably uniform over the complete spectrum of energies. At large angular scales only tiny deviations from isotropy have been observed and huge statistics are required to quantify the corresponding amplitudes. The measurement of cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 15} eV is only feasible with large, earthbound observatories: The cosmic ray primary particles initiate cascades of secondary particles in the Earth's atmosphere. Every aspect of the development of these air showers down to the measurement of the resulting particles at ground level needs to be well understood and controlled in order to precisely reconstruct the properties of the primary particle. The development of air showers is subject to systematic distortions caused by the magnetic field of the Earth. Both this and other local effects are capable of inducing false anisotropy into the distribution of arrival directions. In this thesis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the energy measurement is modelled and quantified; consequently, a correction of the energy estimator is derived. Furthermore, a method is introduced to fit dipolar patterns to the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays as observed from the field of view of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. After correcting for all relevant local effects the method is applied to data and the parameters of a potentially underlying dipole are determined and evaluated. (orig.)

  8. Large scale anisotropy studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays using data taken with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigat, Marius

    2011-06-10

    The distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays is remarkably uniform over the complete spectrum of energies. At large angular scales only tiny deviations from isotropy have been observed and huge statistics are required to quantify the corresponding amplitudes. The measurement of cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 15} eV is only feasible with large, earthbound observatories: The cosmic ray primary particles initiate cascades of secondary particles in the Earth's atmosphere. Every aspect of the development of these air showers down to the measurement of the resulting particles at ground level needs to be well understood and controlled in order to precisely reconstruct the properties of the primary particle. The development of air showers is subject to systematic distortions caused by the magnetic field of the Earth. Both this and other local effects are capable of inducing false anisotropy into the distribution of arrival directions. In this thesis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the energy measurement is modelled and quantified; consequently, a correction of the energy estimator is derived. Furthermore, a method is introduced to fit dipolar patterns to the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays as observed from the field of view of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. After correcting for all relevant local effects the method is applied to data and the parameters of a potentially underlying dipole are determined and evaluated. (orig.)

  9. Large scale anisotropy studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays using data taken with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigat, Marius

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays is remarkably uniform over the complete spectrum of energies. At large angular scales only tiny deviations from isotropy have been observed and huge statistics are required to quantify the corresponding amplitudes. The measurement of cosmic rays with energies above 10 15 eV is only feasible with large, earthbound observatories: The cosmic ray primary particles initiate cascades of secondary particles in the Earth's atmosphere. Every aspect of the development of these air showers down to the measurement of the resulting particles at ground level needs to be well understood and controlled in order to precisely reconstruct the properties of the primary particle. The development of air showers is subject to systematic distortions caused by the magnetic field of the Earth. Both this and other local effects are capable of inducing false anisotropy into the distribution of arrival directions. In this thesis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the energy measurement is modelled and quantified; consequently, a correction of the energy estimator is derived. Furthermore, a method is introduced to fit dipolar patterns to the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays as observed from the field of view of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. After correcting for all relevant local effects the method is applied to data and the parameters of a potentially underlying dipole are determined and evaluated. (orig.)

  10. Large Differences in the Optical Spectrum Associated with the Same Complex: The Effect of the Anisotropy of the Embedding Lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aramburu, José Antonio; García-Fernández, Pablo; García Lastra, Juan Maria

    2017-01-01

    of the electric field created by the rest of lattice ions over the complex. To illustrate this concept we analyze the origin of the surprisingly large differences in the d–d optical transitions of two systems containing square-planar CuF42– complexes, CaCuF4, and center II in Cu2+-doped Ba2ZnF6, even though...... the Cu2+–F–distance difference is just found to be 1%. Using a minimalist first-principles model we show that the different morphology of the host lattices creates an anisotropic field that red-shifts the in vacuo complex transitions to the 1.25–1.70 eV range in CaCuF4, while it blue-shifts them to the 1...

  11. Nano-patterning of perpendicular magnetic recording media by low-energy implantation of chemically reactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Gonzalez, M.S.; Briones, F.; Garcia-Martin, J.M.; Montserrat, J.; Vila, L.; Faini, G.; Testa, A.M.; Fiorani, D.; Rohrmann, H.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic nano-patterning of perpendicular hard disk media with perpendicular anisotropy, but preserving disk surface planarity, is presented here. Reactive ion implantation is used to locally modify the chemical composition (hence the magnetization and magnetic anisotropy) of the Co/Pd multilayer in irradiated areas. The procedure involves low energy, chemically reactive ion irradiation through a resist mask. Among N, P and As ions, P are shown to be most adequate to obtain optimum bit density and topography flatness for industrial Co/Pd multilayer media. The effect of this ion contributes to isolate perpendicular bits by destroying both anisotropy and magnetic exchange in the irradiated areas. Low ion fluences are effective due to the stabilization of atomic displacement levels by the chemical effect of covalent impurities.

  12. Bidirectional recording performance of a perpendicular evaporated Co-CoO tape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motohashi, K. [Sony Corporation, 3-4-1 Sakuragi, Tagajo-shi, Miyagi 985-0842 (Japan)], E-mail: Kazunari.Motohashi@jp.sony.com; Ikeda, N.; Sato, T.; Shiga, D.; Ono, H.; Onodera, S. [Sony Corporation, 3-4-1 Sakuragi, Tagajo-shi, Miyagi 985-0842 (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    It is the first report on the recording performance of a perpendicular metal evaporated (ME) tape measured with a giant magnetoresistive head. To solve the application difficulty of oblique evaporated tape media to linear scan tape systems, a perpendicular evaporated Co-CoO tape was proposed instead. The prepared sample showed perpendicular anisotropy with coercivity of 107.3 kA/m, M{sub r}t of 3.9 mA and squareness of 0.25. Identical recording characteristics were obtained for both head-media moving directions, which enables the application of perpendicular evaporated Co-CoO tape to linear scan tape systems. The better carrier-to-noise ratio was also confirmed by comparison with a current advanced product of metal particulate tape, which can realize the higher recording density of linear scan tape systems using ME tape.

  13. Bidirectional recording performance of a perpendicular evaporated Co-CoO tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, K.; Ikeda, N.; Sato, T.; Shiga, D.; Ono, H.; Onodera, S.

    2008-01-01

    It is the first report on the recording performance of a perpendicular metal evaporated (ME) tape measured with a giant magnetoresistive head. To solve the application difficulty of oblique evaporated tape media to linear scan tape systems, a perpendicular evaporated Co-CoO tape was proposed instead. The prepared sample showed perpendicular anisotropy with coercivity of 107.3 kA/m, M r t of 3.9 mA and squareness of 0.25. Identical recording characteristics were obtained for both head-media moving directions, which enables the application of perpendicular evaporated Co-CoO tape to linear scan tape systems. The better carrier-to-noise ratio was also confirmed by comparison with a current advanced product of metal particulate tape, which can realize the higher recording density of linear scan tape systems using ME tape

  14. Effects of ion temperature anisotropy on the interhemispheric plasma transport during plasmaspheric refilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Torr, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Effects of temperature anisotropies on the early stage refilling of the outer plasmasphere are studied by solving an appropriate set of hydrodynamic equations. The anisotropies result from the supersonic outflows from the conjugate ionospheres and from the perpendicular ion heating in the equatorial region. The equatorial ion heating affected by wave-particle interaction is included phenomenologically. Even for the equatorial heating associated with moderate wave levels, the mirror force on the flows severely limits the interhemispheric plasma exchange. The temporal evolution of the flow developing in an empty flux tube is characterized by: (1) supersonic plasma outflows from the conjugate ionospheres, (2) reflections of the flows by the mirror force as they begin to penetrate into the opposite hemispheres, (3) formation of shocks in the reflection region and (4) propagations of the shocks to the ionospheres of the origins of the flows. In the quasi-steady state when flow completely subsides, the density distribution in the flux tube shows distinctive large-scale features, determined by the balance between electric, pressure and anisotropy forces. The latter force becomes significant in a broad equatorial region where T t >> T p and also at relatively high geomagnetic latitudes where T t p ; T t and T p are the perpendicular and parallel ion temperatures, respectively

  15. Effect of small in-plane anisotropy in the large-D phase systems based on Ni{sup 2+} (S=1) ions in Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudowicz, Czesław, E-mail: crudowicz@zut.edu.pl

    2014-03-01

    Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains based on Ni{sup 2+} ions with integer spin S=1 exhibit intriguing behavior, e.g. the Haldane gap phase and the large-D phase. The predicted transitions between the two phases and the Neel phase has generated search for real candidate systems. Crucial to this search is the interplay between the ‘in-plane anisotropy’, i.e. the rhombic zero-field splitting (ZFS) E-term, and the ‘planar anisotropy’, i.e. the axial ZFS D-term. This paper clarifies intricate properties of orthorhombic ZFS Hamiltonians (H{sub ZFS}) and inconsistencies revealed by critical survey of pertinent studies. Reporting the non-standard (D, E) sets with λ=E/D out of the standard range (0, 1/3) alongside the standard sets with λ∝(0, 1/3) indicates that these properties are not recognized. We show that direct comparisons of the non-standard and standard sets are meaningless and lead to incorrect conclusions on the strength of the ‘in-plane anisotropy’ (E) as compared with the ‘planar anisotropy’ (D). To remedy such problems, the ZFSP sets reported for the large-D phase candidate systems are reanalyzed using orthorhombic standardization. The six physically equivalent ZFSP sets are determined in the conventional (D, E) and Stevens (b{sub 2}{sup 0}, b{sub 2}{sup 2}) notation. These considerations help understanding intricacies inherent in orthorhombic H{sub ZFS} and provide consistent data for future modeling of ZFS parameters in the large-D phase and Haldane gap systems.

  16. Friction Anisotropy with Respect to Topographic Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengjiao; Wang, Q. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Friction characteristics with respect to surface topographic orientation were investigated using surfaces of different materials and fabricated with grooves of different scales. Scratching friction tests were conducted using a nano-indentation-scratching system with the tip motion parallel or perpendicular to the groove orientation. Similar friction anisotropy trends were observed for all the surfaces studied, which are (1) under a light load and for surfaces with narrow grooves, the tip motion parallel to the grooves offers higher friction coefficients than does that perpendicular to them, (2) otherwise, equal or lower friction coefficients are found under this motion. The influences of groove size relative to the diameter of the mating tip (as a representative asperity), surface contact stiffness, contact area, and the characteristic stiction length are discussed. The appearance of this friction anisotropy is independent of material; however, the boundary and the point of trend transition depend on material properties. PMID:23248751

  17. Experimental investigation of ultrasonic velocity anisotropy in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/077/02/0345-0355. Keywords. Magnetic fluids; ultrasonic wave; sound velocity; anisotropy. Abstract. Magnetic field-induced dispersion of ultrasonic velocity in a Mn0.7Zn0.3Fe2O4 fluid (applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the ultrasonic propagation vector) is ...

  18. Planar isotropy of passive scalar turbulent mixing with a mean perpendicular gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaila, L; Dusek, J; Le Gal, P; Anselmet, F; Brun, C; Pumir, A

    1999-08-01

    A recently proposed evolution equation [Vaienti et al., Physica D 85, 405 (1994)] for the probability density functions (PDF's) of turbulent passive scalar increments obtained under the assumptions of fully three-dimensional homogeneity and isotropy is submitted to validation using direct numerical simulation (DNS) results of the mixing of a passive scalar with a nonzero mean gradient by a homogeneous and isotropic turbulent velocity field. It is shown that this approach leads to a quantitatively correct balance between the different terms of the equation, in a plane perpendicular to the mean gradient, at small scales and at large Péclet number. A weaker assumption of homogeneity and isotropy restricted to the plane normal to the mean gradient is then considered to derive an equation describing the evolution of the PDF's as a function of the spatial scale and the scalar increments. A very good agreement between the theory and the DNS data is obtained at all scales. As a particular case of the theory, we derive a generalized form for the well-known Yaglom equation (the isotropic relation between the second-order moments for temperature increments and the third-order velocity-temperature mixed moments). This approach allows us to determine quantitatively how the integral scale properties influence the properties of mixing throughout the whole range of scales. In the simple configuration considered here, the PDF's of the scalar increments perpendicular to the mean gradient can be theoretically described once the sources of inhomogeneity and anisotropy at large scales are correctly taken into account.

  19. Temperature dependence of microwave oscillations in magnetic tunnel junctions with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Peng; Feng, Jiafeng; Wei, Hongxiang; Han, Xiufeng; Fang, Bin; Zhang, Baoshun; Zeng, Zhongming

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally study the temperature dependence of the spin-transfer-torque-induced microwave oscillations in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction nanopillars with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer. We demonstrate that the oscillation frequency increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, which is mainly ascribed to the temperature dependence of both the saturation magnetization and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We also find that a strong temperature dependence of the output power while a nonmonotonic temperature dependence of spectral linewidth are maintained for a constant dc bias in measured temperature range. Possible mechanisms leading to the different dependences of oscillation frequency, output power, and linewidth are discussed

  20. Supernovae anisotropy power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodsi, Hoda; Baghram, Shant [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Habibi, Farhang, E-mail: h.ghodsi@mehr.sharif.ir, E-mail: baghram@sharif.edu, E-mail: habibi@lal.in2p3.fr [LAL-IN2P3/CNRS, BP 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2017-10-01

    We contribute another anisotropy study to this field of research using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In this work, we utilise the power spectrum calculation method and apply it to both the current SNe Ia data and simulation. Using the Union2.1 data set at all redshifts, we compare the spectrum of the residuals of the observed distance moduli to that expected from an isotropic universe affected by the Union2.1 observational uncertainties at low multipoles. Through this comparison we find a dipolar anisotropy with tension of less that 2σ towards l = 171° ± 21° and b = −26° ± 28° which is mainly induced by anisotropic spatial distribution of the SNe with z > 0.2 rather than being a cosmic effect. Furthermore, we find a tension of ∼ 4σ at ℓ = 4 between the two spectra. Our simulations are constructed with the characteristics of the upcoming surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which shall bring us the largest SNe Ia collection to date. We make predictions for the amplitude of a possible dipolar anisotropy that would be detectable by future SNe Ia surveys.

  1. PLT and PDX perpendicular charge-exchange analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Hammett, G.W.; McCune, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The perpendicular charge-exchange systems used on the poloidal divertor experiment and the Princeton large torus are comprised of ten-channel, mass-resolved, charge-exchange analyzers. Results from these systems indicate that instrumental effects can lead to erroneous temperature measurements during deuterium neutral beam injection or at low hydrogen concentrations

  2. Anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CBR) are reviewed, focusing on intrinsic anisotropies caused by primordial matter fluctuations. The basic elements of the CBR are outlined and the contributions to anisotropy at different angular scales are discussed. Possible fluctuation spectra that can generate the observed large-scale structure of the universe through gravitational instability and nonlinear evolution are examined and compared with observational searches for cosmic microwave anisotropies. 21 refs

  3. Domain wall motion in ferromagnetic systems with perpendicular magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szambolics, H.; Toussaint, J.-Ch.; Marty, A.; Miron, I.M.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    Although we lack clear experimental evidence, apparently out-of-plane magnetized systems are better suited for spintronic applications than the in-plane magnetized ones, mainly due to the smaller current densities required for achieving domain wall motion. [Co/Pt] multilayers belong to the first category of materials, the out-of-plane magnetization orientation arising from the strong perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy. If the magnetization arranges itself out-of-plane narrow Bloch walls occur. In the present paper, both field and current-driven domain wall motion have been investigated for this system, using micromagnetic simulations. Three types of geometries have been taken into account: bulk, thin film and wire, and for all of them a full comparison is done between the effect of the applied field and injected current. The reduction of the system's dimension induces the decrease of the critical field and the critical current, but it does not influence the domain wall displacement mechanism.

  4. Room temperature deposition of perpendicular magnetic anisotropic Co{sub 3}Pt thin films on glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Shen; Dai, Hong-Yu; Hsu, Yi-Wei [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan-Ze University, Chung-Li 32003, Taiwan (China); Ou, Sin-Liang, E-mail: slo@mail.dyu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 51591, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shi-Wei [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lu, Hsi-Chuan; Wang, Sea-Fue [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sun, An-Cheng, E-mail: acsun@saturn.yzu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan-Ze University, Chung-Li 32003, Taiwan (China)

    2017-03-01

    Co{sub 3}Pt alloy thin films were deposited on the glass substrate at room temperature (RT) and 300 °C, which showed high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and isotropy magnetic behaviors, respectively. Co{sub 3}Pt HCP (0002) planes grew along the substrate plane for the films deposited at RT. The easy axis [0001] was consequently vertical to the substrate surface and obtained the predominant PMA. Large magnetic domains and sharp boundary also supported high PMA in RT-deposited samples. On the other hand, the PMA was significantly decreased with increasing the deposition temperature from RT to 300 °C. Hard HCP(0002) and soft A1(111) co-existed in the film and the magnetic exchanged coupling between these two phases induced isotropy magnetic behavior. In addition, the various thicknesses (t) of the RT-deposited Co{sub 3}Pt films were deposited with different base pressures prior to sputtering. The Kerr rotation loops showed high PMA and out-of-plane squareness (S{sub ⊥}) of ~0.9 were found in low base pressure chamber. Within high base pressure chamber, Co{sub 3}Pt films just show magnetic isotropy behaviors. This study provides a fabrication method for the preparation of high PMA HCP-type Co{sub 3}Pt films on the glass substrate without any underlayer at RT. The results could be the base for future development of RT-deposited magnetic alloy thin film with high PMA. - Highlights: • Fabricated high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Co{sub 3}Pt thin film on glass substrate. • Prepared HCP Co{sub 3}Pt thin film at room temperature. • The key to enhance the PMA of the Co{sub 3}Pt films. • Thinner film is good to fabricate PMA Co{sub 3}Pt thin films.

  5. Large anisotropy in colossal magnetoresistance of charge orbital ordered epitaxial Sm0.5Ca0.5MnO3 films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunzhong; Sun, J.R.; Zhao, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the structure and magnetotransport properties of Sm0.5Ca0.5MnO3 (SCMO) films epitaxially grown on (011)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates, which exhibited clear charge/orbital ordering transition. A significant anisotropy of ~1000 in the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) effect was observ...

  6. The transition from longitudinal to perpendicular recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H J

    2007-01-01

    After more than 30 years of research, hard disk drives using perpendicular recording are finally commercially available. This review is a follow-up of a review written in 1999 and addresses the basic physics of perpendicular recording with special emphasis on the read and the write process and the magnetic aspects of the recording media. The paper also surveys various technical difficulties which prevented an earlier implementation of perpendicular recording. The paper closes with a short overview of alternative technologies that allow even higher storage densities. (topical review)

  7. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic ballistic conductance of thin magnetic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirianov, R.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of thin magnetic wires of iron and cobalt is quite different from the bulk phases. The spin moment of monatomic Fe wire may be as high as 3.4 μ B , while the orbital moment as high as 0.5 μ B . The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) was calculated for wires up to 0.6 nm in diameter starting from monatomic wire and adding consecutive shells for thicker wires. I observe that Fe wires exhibit the change sign with the stress applied along the wire. It means that easy axis may change from the direction along the wire to perpendicular to the wire. We find that ballistic conductance of the wire depends on the direction of the applied magnetic field, i.e. shows anisotropic ballistic magnetoresistance. This effect occurs due to the symmetry dependence of the splitting of degenerate bands in the applied field which changes the number of bands crossing the Fermi level. We find that the ballistic conductance changes with applied stress. Even for thicker wires the ballistic conductance changes by factor 2 on moderate tensile stain in our 5x4 model wire. Thus, the ballistic conductance of magnetic wires changes in the applied field due to the magnetostriction. This effect can be observed as large anisotropic BMR in the experiment

  8. Elastic anisotropy of crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Kube

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An anisotropy index seeks to quantify how directionally dependent the properties of a system are. In this article, the focus is on quantifying the elastic anisotropy of crystalline materials. Previous elastic anisotropy indices are reviewed and their shortcomings discussed. A new scalar log-Euclidean anisotropy measure AL is proposed, which overcomes these deficiencies. It is based on a distance measure in a log-Euclidean space applied to fourth-rank elastic tensors. AL is an absolute measure of anisotropy where the limiting case of perfect isotropy yields zero. It is a universal measure of anisotropy applicable to all crystalline materials. Specific examples of strong anisotropy are highlighted. A supplementary material provides an anisotropy table giving the values of AL for 2,176 crystallite compounds.

  9. Size dependence of spin-torque induced magnetic switching in CoFeB-based perpendicular magnetization tunnel junctions (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J. Z.; Trouilloud, P. L.; Gajek, M. J.; Nowak, J.; Robertazzi, R. P.; Hu, G.; Abraham, D. W.; Gaidis, M. C.; Brown, S. L.; O'Sullivan, E. J.; Gallagher, W. J.; Worledge, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    CoFeB-based magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are used as a model system for studies of size dependence in spin-torque-induced magnetic switching. For integrated solid-state memory applications, it is important to understand the magnetic and electrical characteristics of these magnetic tunnel junctions as they scale with tunnel junction size. Size-dependent magnetic anisotropy energy, switching voltage, apparent damping, and anisotropy field are systematically compared for devices with different materials and fabrication treatments. Results reveal the presence of sub-volume thermal fluctuation and reversal, with a characteristic length-scale of the order of approximately 40 nm, depending on the strength of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and exchange stiffness. To have the best spin-torque switching efficiency and best stability against thermal activation, it is desirable to optimize the perpendicular anisotropy strength with the junction size for intended use. It also is important to ensure strong exchange-stiffness across the magnetic thin film. These combine to give an exchange length that is comparable or larger than the lateral device size for efficient spin-torque switching.

  10. Dependence of magnetic anisotropy on MgO sputtering pressure in Co20Fe60B20/MgO stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidatzis, A.; Serletis, C.; Niarchos, D.

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the dependence of magnetic anisotropy of Ta/Co20Fe60B20/MgO stacks on the Ar partial pressure during MgO deposition, in the range between 0.5 and 15 mTorr. The stacks are studied before and after annealing at 300°C and it is shown that magnetic anisotropy significantly depends on Ar partial pressure. High pressure results in stacks with very low perpendicular magnetic anisotropy even after annealing, while low pressure results in stacks with perpendicular anisotropy even at the as-deposited state. A monotonic increase of magnetic anisotropy energy is observed as Ar partial pressure is decreased.

  11. Crustal anisotropy from Moho converted Ps wave splitting and geodynamic implications in Northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z.; Wu, Q.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Collision between Indian and Eurasian result in intense deformation and crustal shortening in the Tibetan Plateau. NE margin of Tibetan Plateau experienced complex deformation between Qilian orogen and its adjacent blocks, Alxa Block in the north and Ordos Block in the east. We focus on if there any evidences exist in the NE margin of Tibetan Plateau, which can support crustal channel flow model. China Earthquake Administration had deployed temporary seismic array which is called ChinaArray Phase Ⅱ, dense seismic stations covered NE margin of Tibetan Plateau. Seismic data recorded by 81 seismic stations is applied in this research. We calculated receiver functions with time-domain deconvolution. We selected RFs which have clear Ps phase both in radial and transverse components to measure Ps splitting owing to crustal anisotropy, and 130 pairs of anisotropy parameters of 51 seismic stations were obtained. We would like to discuss about dynamic mechanism of this area using crustal anisotropy associated with the result of SKS-splitting and surface constrains like GPS velocity. The result can be summarized as follows. The large scale of delay time imply that the crustal anisotropy mainly derives from middle to lower crust rather than upper crust. In the southeastern part of the research area, crustal anisotropy is well agree with the result computed form SKS-splitting and GPS velocity directions trending NWW-SEE or E-W direction. This result imply a vertically coherent deformation in the area as the directions of crustal anisotropy trend to be perpendicular to the direction of normal stress. In the middle and north part of the research area, the fast polarization direction of crustal anisotropy is NEE-SWW or E-W direction, parallels with direction of GPS velocity, but differ to the direction of the result of SKS-splitting. This result may imply that decoupled deformation in this area associated with middle to lower crustal flow.

  12. Ultrahigh Tunneling-Magnetoresistance Ratios in Nitride-Based Perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junctions from First Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baishun; Tao, Lingling; Jiang, Leina; Chen, Weizhao; Tang, Ping; Yan, Yu; Han, Xiufeng

    2018-05-01

    We report a first-principles study of electronic structures, magnetic properties, and the tunneling-magnetoresistance (TMR) effect of a series of ferromagnetic nitride M4N (M =Fe , Co, Ni)-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). It is found that bulk Fe4 N reveals a half-metal nature in terms of the Δ1 state. A perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is observed in the periodic system Fe4 N /MgO . In particular, the ultrahigh TMR ratio of over 24 000% is predicted in the Fe4 N /MgO /Fe4N MTJ due to the interface resonance tunneling and relatively high transmission for states of other symmetry. Besides, the large TMR can be maintained with the change of atomic details at the interface, such as the order-disorder interface, the change of thickness of the MgO barrier, and different in-plane lattice constants of the MTJ. The physical origin of the TMR effect can be well understood by analyzing the band structure and transmission channel of bulk Fe4 N as well as the transmission in momentum space of Fe4 N /MgO /Fe4N . Our results suggest that the Fe4 N /MgO /Fe4N MTJ is a benefit for spintronic applications.

  13. Magnetic anisotropy of heteronuclear dimers in the gas phase and supported on graphene: relativistic density-functional calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błoński, Piotr; Hafner, Jürgen

    2014-04-09

    The structural and magnetic properties of mixed PtCo, PtFe, and IrCo dimers in the gas phase and supported on a free-standing graphene layer have been calculated using density-functional theory, both in the scalar-relativistic limit and self-consistently including spin-orbit coupling. The influence of the strong magnetic moments of the 3d atoms on the spin and orbital moments of the 5d atoms, and the influence of the strong spin-orbit coupling contributed by the 5d atom on the orbital moments of the 3d atoms have been studied in detail. The magnetic anisotropy energy is found to depend very sensitively on the nature of the eigenstates in the vicinity of the Fermi level, as determined by band filling, exchange splitting and spin-orbit coupling. The large magnetic anisotropy energy of free PtCo and IrCo dimers relative to the easy direction parallel to the dimer axis is coupled to a strong anisotropy of the orbital magnetic moments of the Co atom for both dimers, and also on the Ir atom in IrCo. In contrast the PtFe dimer shows a weak perpendicular anisotropy and only small spin and orbital anisotropies of opposite sign on the two atoms. For dimers supported on graphene, the strong binding within the dimer and the stronger interaction of the 3d atom with the substrate stabilizes an upright geometry. Spin and orbital moments on the 3d atom are strongly quenched, but due to the weaker binding within the dimer the properties of the 5d atom are more free-atom-like with increased spin and orbital moments. The changes in the magnetic moment are reflected in the structure of the electronic eigenstates near the Fermi level, for all three dimers the easy magnetic direction is now parallel to the dimer axis and perpendicular to the graphene layer. The already very large magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of IrCo is further enhanced by the interaction with the support, the MAE of PtFe changes sign, and that of the PtCo dimer is reduced. These changes are discussed in relation to

  14. Anisotropy in the deep Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, Barbara; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2017-08-01

    Seismic anisotropy has been found in many regions of the Earth's interior. Its presence in the Earth's crust has been known since the 19th century, and is due in part to the alignment of anisotropic crystals in rocks, and in part to patterns in the distribution of fractures and pores. In the upper mantle, seismic anisotropy was discovered 50 years ago, and can be attributed for the most part, to the alignment of intrinsically anisotropic olivine crystals during large scale deformation associated with convection. There is some indication for anisotropy in the transition zone, particularly in the vicinity of subducted slabs. Here we focus on the deep Earth - the lower mantle and core, where anisotropy is not yet mapped in detail, nor is there consensus on its origin. Most of the lower mantle appears largely isotropic, except in the last 200-300 km, in the D″ region, where evidence for seismic anisotropy has been accumulating since the late 1980s, mostly from shear wave splitting measurements. Recently, a picture has been emerging, where strong anisotropy is associated with high shear velocities at the edges of the large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) in the central Pacific and under Africa. These observations are consistent with being due to the presence of highly anisotropic MgSiO3 post-perovskite crystals, aligned during the deformation of slabs impinging on the core-mantle boundary, and upwelling flow within the LLSVPs. We also discuss mineral physics aspects such as ultrahigh pressure deformation experiments, first principles calculations to obtain information about elastic properties, and derivation of dislocation activity based on bonding characteristics. Polycrystal plasticity simulations can predict anisotropy but models are still highly idealized and neglect the complex microstructure of polyphase aggregates with strong and weak components. A promising direction for future progress in understanding the origin of seismic anisotropy in the deep mantle

  15. Highly tunable perpendicularly magnetized synthetic antiferromagnets for biotechnology applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vemulkar, T; Mansell, Rhodri; Petit, Dorothee Celine; Cowburn, Russell Paul; Lesniak, MS

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic micro and nanoparticles are increasingly used in biotechnological applications due to the ability to control their behavior through an externally applied field. We demonstrate the fabrication of particles made from ultrathin perpendicularly magnetized CoFeB/Pt layers with antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling. The particles are characterized by zero moment at remanence, low susceptibility at low fields, and a large saturated moment created by the stacking of the basic coupled bilayer...

  16. Perpendicular recording: the promise and the problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Roger; Sonobe, Yoshiaki; Jin Zhen; Wilson, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    Perpendicular recording has long been advocated as a means of achieving the highest areal densities. In particular, in the context of the 'superparamagnetic limit', perpendicular recording with a soft underlayer promises several key advantages. These advantages include a higher coercivity, thicker media that should permit smaller diameter grains and higher signal-to-noise ratio. Also, the sharper edge-writing will facilitate recording at very high track densities (lower bit aspect ratio). Recent demonstrations of the technology have shown densities comparable with the highest densities reported for longitudinal recording. This paper further examines the promise that perpendicular recording will deliver an increase in areal density two to eight times higher than that achievable with longitudinal recording. There are a number of outstanding issues but the key challenge is to create a low-noise medium with a coercivity that is high and is much larger than the remanent magnetization

  17. Anisotropy effect on strengths of metamorphic rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Özbek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the effect of anisotropy on strengths of several metamorphic rocks of southern (Çine submassif of Menderes metamorphic massif in southwest Turkey. Four different metamorphic rocks including foliated phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist were selected and examined. Discontinuity surveys were made along lines for each rock and evaluated with DIPS program. L-type Schmidt hammer was applied in the directions parallel and perpendicular to foliation during the field study. Several hand samples and rock blocks were collected during the field study for measurements of dry and saturated densities, dry and saturated unit weights and porosity, and for petrographic analysis and strength determination in laboratory. L- and N-type Schmidt hammers were applied in the directions perpendicular (anisotropy angle of 0° and parallel (anisotropy angle of 90° to the foliation on selected blocks of phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist. The phyllite and schist have higher porosity and lower density values than the other rocks. However, coarse crystalline gneiss and marble (calcschist have higher rebound values and strengths, and they are classified as strong–very strong rocks. Generally, the rebound values in the direction perpendicular to the foliation are slightly higher than that in the direction parallel to foliation. Rebound values of N-type Schmidt hammer are higher than the L-type values except for phyllite. Sometimes, the rebound values of laboratory and field applications gave different results. This may result from variable local conditions such as minerals differentiation, discontinuities, water content, weathering degree and thickness of foliated structure.

  18. Strongly coupled modes of M and H for perpendicular resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Saslow, Wayne M.

    2018-05-01

    We apply the equations for the magnetization M ⃗ and field H ⃗ to study their coupled modes for a semi-infinite ferromagnet, conductor, or insulator with magnetization M0 and field H0 normal to the plane (perpendicular resonance) and wave vector normal to the plane, which makes the modes doubly degenerate. With dimensionless damping constant α and dimensionless transverse susceptibility χ⊥=M0/He(He≡H0-M0) , we derive an analytic expression for the wave vector squared, showing that M ⃗ and H ⃗ are nearly decoupled only if α ≫χ⊥ . This is violated in the ferromagnetic regime, although a first correction is found to give good agreement away from resonance. Emphasizing the conductor permalloy as a function of H0 we study the eigenvalues and eigenmodes and the dissipation rate due to absorption both from the total effective field and from the Joule heating. (We include the contribution of the nonuniform exchange energy term, needed for energy conservation.) Using these modes we then apply, for a semi-infinite ferromagnet, a range of boundary conditions (i.e., surface anisotropies) on M⊥ to find the reflection coefficient R and the reflectivity |R| 2. As a function of H0, absorption is dominated by the the skin depth mode (primarily H ⃗) except near the resonance and at a higher-field Hd associated with a dip in the reflectivity, whose position above the main resonance varies quadratically with the surface anisotropy Ks. The dip is driven by the boundary condition on M ⃗; the coefficient of the (primarily) M ⃗ mode becomes very small at the dip, being compensated by an increase in the amplitude of the M ⃗ mode, which has a Lorentzian line shape of height ˜α-1 and width ˜α .

  19. Collagen-based mechanical anisotropy of the tectorial membrane: implications for inter-row coupling of outer hair cell bundles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Gavara

    Full Text Available The tectorial membrane (TM in the mammalian cochlea displays anisotropy, where mechanical or structural properties differ along varying directions. The anisotropy arises from the presence of collagen fibrils organized in fibers of approximately 1 microm diameter that run radially across the TM. Mechanical coupling between the TM and the sensory epithelia is required for normal hearing. However, the lack of a suitable technique to measure mechanical anisotropy at the microscale level has hindered understanding of the TM's precise role.Here we report values of the three elastic moduli that characterize the anisotropic mechanical properties of the TM. Our novel technique combined Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, modeling, and optical tracking of microspheres to determine the elastic moduli. We found that the TM's large mechanical anisotropy results in a marked transmission of deformations along the direction that maximizes sensory cell excitation, whereas in the perpendicular direction the transmission is greatly reduced.Computational results, based on our values of elastic moduli, suggest that the TM facilitates the directional cooperativity of sensory cells in the cochlea, and that mechanical properties of the TM are tuned to guarantee that the magnitude of sound-induced tip-link stretching remains similar along the length of the cochlea. Furthermore, we anticipate our assay to be a starting point for other studies of biological tissues that require directional functionality.

  20. Shape anisotropy: tensor distance to anisotropy measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeselassie, Yonas T.; El-Hilo, Saba; Atkins, M. S.

    2011-03-01

    Fractional anisotropy, defined as the distance of a diffusion tensor from its closest isotropic tensor, has been extensively studied as quantitative anisotropy measure for diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images (DT-MRI). It has been used to reveal the white matter profile of brain images, as guiding feature for seeding and stopping in fiber tractography and for the diagnosis and assessment of degenerative brain diseases. Despite its extensive use in DT-MRI community, however, not much attention has been given to the mathematical correctness of its derivation from diffusion tensors which is achieved using Euclidean dot product in 9D space. But, recent progress in DT-MRI has shown that the space of diffusion tensors does not form a Euclidean vector space and thus Euclidean dot product is not appropriate for tensors. In this paper, we propose a novel and robust rotationally invariant diffusion anisotropy measure derived using the recently proposed Log-Euclidean and J-divergence tensor distance measures. An interesting finding of our work is that given a diffusion tensor, its closest isotropic tensor is different for different tensor distance metrics used. We demonstrate qualitatively that our new anisotropy measure reveals superior white matter profile of DT-MR brain images and analytically show that it has a higher signal to noise ratio than fractional anisotropy.

  1. Zn(3)(4-OOCC(6)H(4)PO(3))(2): A polar metal phosphonate with pillared layered structure showing SHG-activity and large dielectric anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Tang; Cao, Deng-Ke; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki; Zheng, Li-Min

    2010-10-07

    A new metal phosphonate Zn(3)(4-OOCC(6)H(4)PO(3))(2) (1) is reported which crystallizes in orthorhombic space group Pca2(1). It shows a pillared layered structure in which the {ZnO(4)}, {ZnO(5)} and {PO(3)C} polyhedra are connected through corner- or edge-sharing to form an inorganic layer in the ab plane which contains 4- and 5-member rings. These layers are pillared by the uni-oriented 4-carboxylatephenylphosphonate ligands, thus leading to a polar 3D architecture. The dielectric anisotropy measurements of a single crystal of 1 reveal that dielectric constant along the inter-layer is larger than that along the intra-layer with a ratio of about 2.3. Second harmonic generation (SHG) activity is observed.

  2. Azimuthal anisotropy and correlations at large transverse momenta in p + p and Au + Au collisions at square root sNN=200 GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bharadwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhatia, V S; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Bystersky, M; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopdhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; de Moura, M M; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dogra, S M; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Mazumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Foley, K J; Fomenko, K; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gans, J; Ganti, M S; Gaudichet, L; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gonzalez, J E; Grachov, O; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Guertin, S M; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gutierrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Hepplemann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Jiang, H; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R Kh; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lehocka, S; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Q J; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J N; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Moore, C F; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potrebenikova, E; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Shao, W; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskiy, S S; Sichtermann, E; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Urkinbaev, A; Van Buren, G; van Leeuwen, M; Vander Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasiliev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vznuzdaev, M; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, E; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Y V; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zolnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N

    2004-12-17

    Results on high transverse momentum charged particle emission with respect to the reaction plane are presented for Au + Au collisions at square root s(NN)=200 GeV. Two- and four-particle correlations results are presented as well as a comparison of azimuthal correlations in Au + Au collisions to those in p + p at the same energy. The elliptic anisotropy v(2) is found to reach its maximum at p(t) approximately 3 GeV/c, then decrease slowly and remain significant up to p(t) approximately 7-10 GeV/c. Stronger suppression is found in the back-to-back high-p(t) particle correlations for particles emitted out of plane compared to those emitted in plane. The centrality dependence of v(2) at intermediate p(t) is compared to simple models based on jet quenching.

  3. A perturbative DFT approach for magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoo, Khoong Hong; Laskowski, Robert, E-mail: rolask@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg

    2017-04-15

    We develop a perturbative formalism for computing magnetocrystalline anisotropy within density functional theory and the magnetic force theorem. Instead of computing eigenvalues of the spin–orbit Hamiltonian for selected spin polarizations, as in the conventional “force theorem” approach, we show that the effect can be cast into a redefined form of the spin–orbit operator. This allows to separate the large eigenvalue shift due to spin-orbit interaction common for both polarizations from the much smaller magnetic anisotropy splitting. As a consequence the anisotropy splitting may by considered as a perturbation.

  4. Magnetic anisotropy of ultrafine 316L stainless steel fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyr, Tien-Wei, E-mail: twshyr@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Shih-Ju [Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wur, Ching-Shuei [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-12-01

    An as-received 316L stainless steel fiber with a diameter of 20 μm was drawn using a bundle drawing process at room temperature to form ultrafine stainless steel fibers with diameters of 12, 8, and 6 μm. The crystalline phases of the fibers were analyzed using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile fitting technique. The grain sizes of γ-austenite and α′-martensite were reduced to nanoscale sizes after the drawing process. XRD analysis and focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope observations showed that the newly formed α′-martensitic grains were closely arrayed in the drawing direction. The magnetic property was measured using a superconducting quantum interference device vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetic anisotropy of the fibers was observed by applying a magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the fiber axis. The results showed that the microstructure anisotropy including the shape anisotropy, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and the orientation of the crystalline phases strongly contributed to the magnetic anisotropy. - Highlights: • The martensitic transformation of the 316L SS fiber occurred during the cold drawn. • The grain sizes of γ-austenite and α′-martensite were reduced to the nanoscale. • The newly formed martensitic grains were closely arrayed in the drawing direction. • The drawing process caused the magnetic easy axis to be aligned with the fiber axis. • The microstructure anisotropy strongly contributed to the magnetic anisotropy.

  5. Primordial anisotropies in gauged hybrid inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar Abolhasani, Ali; Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2014-05-01

    We study primordial anisotropies generated in the model of gauged hybrid inflation in which the complex waterfall field is charged under a U(1)gauge field. Primordial anisotropies are generated either actively during inflation or from inhomogeneities modulating the surface of end of inflation during waterfall transition. We present a consistent δN mechanism to calculate the anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum. We show that the primordial anisotropies generated at the surface of end of inflation do not depend on the number of e-folds and therefore do not produce dangerously large anisotropies associated with the IR modes. Furthermore, one can find the parameter space that the anisotropies generated from the surface of end of inflation cancel the anisotropies generated during inflation, therefore relaxing the constrains on model parameters imposed from IR anisotropies. We also show that the gauge field fluctuations induce a red-tilted power spectrum so the averaged power spectrum from the gauge field can change the total power spectrum from blue to red. Therefore, hybrid inflation, once gauged under a U(1) field, can be consistent with the cosmological observations.

  6. Primordial anisotropies in gauged hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    We study primordial anisotropies generated in the model of gauged hybrid inflation in which the complex waterfall field is charged under a U(1)gauge field. Primordial anisotropies are generated either actively during inflation or from inhomogeneities modulating the surface of end of inflation during waterfall transition. We present a consistent δN mechanism to calculate the anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum. We show that the primordial anisotropies generated at the surface of end of inflation do not depend on the number of e-folds and therefore do not produce dangerously large anisotropies associated with the IR modes. Furthermore, one can find the parameter space that the anisotropies generated from the surface of end of inflation cancel the anisotropies generated during inflation, therefore relaxing the constrains on model parameters imposed from IR anisotropies. We also show that the gauge field fluctuations induce a red-tilted power spectrum so the averaged power spectrum from the gauge field can change the total power spectrum from blue to red. Therefore, hybrid inflation, once gauged under a U(1) field, can be consistent with the cosmological observations

  7. Tilted spin torque-driven ferromagnetic resonance in a perpendicular-analyzer magnetic trilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rixing; He Pengbin; Liu Quanhui; Li Zaidong; Pan Anlian; Zou Bingsuo; Wang Yanguo

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented on the current-driven ferromagnetic resonance in the magnetic trilayers. On the basis of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation, we derive the output dc voltage for arbitrary anisotropy in the free and pinned layers by the linearization method. As an example, the resonance spectra of the tilted-polarizer and perpendicular-analyzer trilayer show that the equilibrium position, the resonant linewidth and the resonant location can be tuned by changing the magnitude and the direction of spin torque. The effective damping can be minimized through adjusting the current and the pinned-layer magnetization direction.

  8. Momentum transfer resolved memory in a magnetic system with perpendicular anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seu, Keoki; Roy, Sujoy; Su, Run; Parks, Daniel; Shipton, Erik; Fullerton, Eric; Kevan, Stephen

    2011-01-28

    We have used resonant, coherent soft x-ray scattering to measure wave vector re- solved magnetic domain memory in Co/Pd multilayers. The technique uses angular cross correlation functions and can be applied to any system with circular annuli of constant values of scattering wave vector q. In our Co/Pd film, the memory exhibits a maximum at q = 0.0384 nm-1 near initial reversal that decreases in magnitude as the magnetization is further reversed. The peak is attributed to bubble domains that nucleate reproducibly near initial reversal and which grow into a labyrinth domain structure that is not reproduced from one magnetization cycle to the next.

  9. Finite-element modeling and micromagnetic modeling of perpendicular writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Olle; Bozeman, Steven P.

    2006-04-01

    We compare finite-element modeling (FEM) and fully micromagnetic modeling results of four prototypical writers for perpendicular recording. In general, the agreement between the two models is quite good in the vicinity of saturated or near-saturated magnetic material, such as the pole tip, for quantities such as the magnetic field, the gradient of the magnetic field and the write width. However, in the vicinity of magnetic material far from saturation, e.g., return pole or trailing edge write shield, there can be large qualitative and quantitative differences.

  10. NON-AXISYMMETRIC PERPENDICULAR DIFFUSION OF CHARGED PARTICLES AND THEIR TRANSPORT ACROSS TANGENTIAL MAGNETIC DISCONTINUITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, R. D.; Engelbrecht, N. E.; Dunzlaff, P. [Center for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom, 2522 (South Africa); Roux, J. A. le [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 3585 (United States); Ruffolo, D., E-mail: dutoit.strauss@nwu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the transport of charged particles across magnetic discontinuities, focusing specifically on stream interfaces associated with co-rotating interaction regions in the solar wind. We argue that the magnetic field fluctuations perpendicular to the magnetic discontinuity, and usually also perpendicular to the mean magnetic field, are strongly damped in the vicinity of such a magnetic structure, leading to anisotropic perpendicular diffusion. Assuming that perpendicular diffusion arises from drifts in a turbulent magnetic field, we adopt a simplified approach to derive the relevant perpendicular diffusion coefficient. This approach, which we believe gives the correct principal dependences as expected from more elaborate calculations, allows us to investigate transport in different turbulent geometries, such as longitudinal compressional turbulence that may be present near the heliopause. Although highly dependent on the (possibly anisotropic) perpendicular length scales and turbulence levels, we generally find perpendicular diffusion to be strongly damped at magnetic discontinuities, which may in turn provide an explanation for the large particle gradients associated with these structures.

  11. Low-field magnetoresistance anisotropy in strained ultrathin Pr0.67Sr0.33MnO3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.S.; Li, Q.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have studied the anisotropic low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) in ultrathin Pr 0.67 sr 0.33 MnO 3 (PSMO) films epitaxially grown on LaAlO 3 (LAO), STiO 3 (STO), and NdGaO 3 (NGO) substrates which impose compressive, tensile, and nearly-zero strains in the films. The compressively-strained films show a very large negative LFMR in a perpendicular magnetic field and a much smaller MR in a parallel field, while the tensile-strain films show positive LFMR in a perpendicular field and negative MR in a parallel field. The results are interpreted based on the strain-induced magnetic anisotropy

  12. Perpendicular exchange coupling effects in ferrimagnetic TbFeCo/GdFeCo hard/soft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Yahong; Ling, Fujin; Xu, Zhan

    2018-04-01

    Bilayers consisting of magnetically hard TbFeCo and soft GdFeCo alloy were fabricated. Exchange-spring and sharp switching in a step-by-step fashion were observed in the TbFeCo/GdFeCo hard/soft bilayers with increasing GdFeCo thickness. A perpendicular exchange bias field of several hundred Oersteds is observed from the shift of minor loops pinned by TbFeCo layer. The perpendicular exchange energy is derived to be in the range of 0.18-0.30 erg/cm2. The exchange energy is shown to increase with the thickness of GdFeCo layer in the bilayers, which can be attributed to the enhanced perpendicular anisotropy of GdFeCo layer in our experimental range.

  13. Determination of the out-of-plane anisotropy contributions (first and second anisotropy terms) in amorphous Nd-Co thin films by micromagnetic numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Cid, R.; Morales, R.; Diaz, J.; Vélez, M.; Rubio, H.; Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Alameda, J. M.

    2018-06-01

    Amorphous Nd-Co thin films exhibit stripe shaped periodic magnetic domains with local out-of-plane magnetization components due to their perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. This anisotropy has been quantified in a fairly simple way by reproducing the experimental magnetization curves by means of micromagnetic numerical simulations. The simulations show that the first (K1) and second (K2) anisotropy constants must be used to properly describe the variation of the stripe domains with the in plane applied magnetic field. A strong temperature dependence of both K1 and K2 has been obtained between 10 K and room temperature. This anisotropy behavior is characteristic of two magnetically coupled 3d-4f sublattices with competing anisotropies.

  14. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  15. Perpendicular relativistic shocks in magnetized pair plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Illya; Grassi, Anna; Grech, Mickael

    2018-04-01

    Perpendicular relativistic (γ0 = 10) shocks in magnetized pair plasmas are investigated using two dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations. A systematic survey, from unmagnetized to strongly magnetized shocks, is presented accurately capturing the transition from Weibel-mediated to magnetic-reflection-shaped shocks. This transition is found to occur for upstream flow magnetizations 10-3 10-2, it leaves place to a purely electromagnetic precursor following from the strong emission of electromagnetic waves at the shock front. Particle acceleration is found to be efficient in weakly magnetized perpendicular shocks in agreement with previous works, and is fully suppressed for σ > 10-2. Diffusive Shock Acceleration is observed only in weakly magnetized shocks, while a dominant contribution of Shock Drift Acceleration is evidenced at intermediate magnetizations. The spatial diffusion coefficients are extracted from the simulations allowing for a deeper insight into the self-consistent particle kinematics and scale with the square of the particle energy in weakly magnetized shocks. These results have implications for particle acceleration in the internal shocks of AGN jets and in the termination shocks of Pulsar Wind Nebulae.

  16. Perpendicularity misjudgments caused by contextual stimulus elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatov, Aleksandr; Bulatova, Natalija; Surkys, Tadas

    2012-10-15

    It has been demonstrated in previous studies that the illusions of extent of the Brentano type can be explained by the perceptual positional shifts of the stimulus terminators in direction of the centers-of-masses (centroids) of adjacent contextual flanks [Bulatov, A. et al. (2011). Contextual flanks' tilting and magnitude of illusion of extent. Vision Research, 51(1), 58-64]. In the present study, the applicability of the centroid approach to explain the right-angle misjudgments was tested psychophysically using stimuli composed of three small disks (dots) forming an imaginary rectangular triangle. Stimuli comprised the Müller-Lyer wings or line segments (bars) as the contextual distracters rotated around the vertices of the triangle, and changes in the magnitude of the illusion of perpendicularity were measured in a set of experiments. A good resemblance between the experimental data and theoretical predictions obtained strongly supports the suggestion regarding the common "centroid" origin of the illusions of extent of the Brentano type and misperception of the perpendicularity investigated. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  17. Magnetic and structural properties of L1{sub 1} type CoPt-C ordered alloy perpendicular films as a function of C content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimatsu, T; Kataoka, H; Aoi, H [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Sato, H; Okamoto, S; Kitakami, O, E-mail: shimatsu@riec.tohoku.ac.j [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic and structural properties of L1{sub 1} type (Co{sub 0.5}Pt{sub 0.5}){sub 100-X}-C{sub X} ordered alloy perpendicular films, fabricated on 2.5 inch size glass disks by sputter deposition, were examined as a function of C content, X. L1{sub 1} type Co{sub 0.5}Pt{sub 0.5}-C polycrystalline films (10 nm thickness), with <111> axis (the easy axis) perpendicular to the film plane, were successfully fabricated even for a 30 vol% C content. Structural analysis indicated the segregation of C to the grain boundaries. Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, K{sub u}, of Co{sub 0.5}Pt{sub 0.5} films without C addition was relatively low, about 1.5x10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} under the present deposition conditions. However, the addition of 5 vol.% C to Co-Pt films enhanced the ordering, resulting in an increase in K{sub u} to around 2.5 x10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3}. A further increase in C content reduced K{sub u}; however, K{sub u} maintained a relatively large value of about 1.8x10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} even for a 20vol% C content, without degrading the easy axis orientation perpendicular to the film plane. Experimental results demonstrated the potential of the L1{sub 1} type Co{sub 0.5}Pt{sub 0.5}-C films for use in granular media applications, due to their very high K{sub u}, the relatively low fabrication temperature, and good controllability of the grain orientation.

  18. Magnetic anisotropy of (Sm, Y)2Fe17Ny compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.; Tegus, O.; Li, Q.A.; Tang, N.; Yu, M.J.; Zhao, R.W.; Kuang, J.P.; Yang, F.M.; Zhou, G.F.; Li, X.; Boer, F.R. de

    1992-01-01

    A study of the crystal structure and the magnetic properties, especially the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of (Sm 1-x Y x ) 2 Fe 17 N y compounds (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0, 2 2 Zn 17 - or Th 2 Ni 17 -type structure as the original compounds. The Curie temperatures decrease from 750 to 700 K as x increases from 0 to 1. The anisotropy field decreases linearly with increasing yttrium content. The spin reorientation has been investigated by means of high field magnetization measurements, AC-susceptibility measurements and thermomagnetic analysis, combined with X-ray diffraction. The anisotropy constants K 1 , K 2 and K 3 were derived by a phenomenological analysis, using magnetization curves measured in high fields, applied perpendicular to the alignment direction of the powder samples. A tentative spin phase diagram of the series is presented. (orig.)

  19. Fatigue in tension perpendicular to the grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1999-01-01

    Traditinally fatigue resistance is quantified as number of cycles to failure at a given stress level. A previous study by the authors showed that fatigue in compression parallel to the grain is governed partly by duration of load and partly by an effect of loading, i.e. a combination of a creep...... mechanism and a mechanism connected to damage introduce in the loading sequences. The purpose of the present study is to disentangle the effect of duration of load from the effect of load oscillation in fatigue in tension perpendicular to the grain. Fatigue experiments are made on small specimens...... and on dowel type joints with slotted in steel plates. In series of ten, the small specimens are taken to fatigue failure in uniform tension at square wave shaped load cycles at 0.01 Hz and 0.1 Hz. In order to test the predictive validity of the result from the small tension specimens, fatigue experiments...

  20. Fatigue In Tension Perpendicular to the Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally fatigue resistance is quantified as number of cycles to failure at a given stress level. A previous study by the authors showed that fatigue in compression parallel to the grain is governed partly by duration of load and partly by an effect of loading, i.e. a combination of a creep...... mechanism and a mechanism connected to damage introduced in the loading sequences. The purpose of the present study is to disentangle the effect of duration of load from the effect of load oscillation in fatigue in tension perpendicular to the grain. Fatigue experiments are made on small specimens...... and on dowel type joints with slotted in steel plates. In series of ten, the small specimens are taken to fatigue failure in uniform tension at square wave shaped load cycles at 0.01 Hz and 0.1 Hz. In arder to test the predictive validity of the result from the small tension specimens, fatigue experiments...

  1. Counterstreaming magnetized plasmas. II. Perpendicular wave propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tautz, R.C.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2006-01-01

    The properties of longitudinal and transverse oscillations in magnetized symmetric counterstreaming Maxwellian plasmas with equal thermal velocities for waves propagating perpendicular to the stream direction are investigated on the basis of Maxwell equations and the nonrelativistic Vlasov equation. With the constraint of vanishing particle flux in the stream direction, three distinct dispersion relations are known, which are the ordinary-wave mode, the Bernstein wave mode, and the extraordinary electromagnetic wave mode, where the latter two are only approximations. In this article, all three dispersion relations are evaluated for a counterstreaming Maxwellian distribution function in terms of the hypergeometric function 2 F 2 . The growth rates for the ordinary-wave mode are compared to earlier results by Bornatici and Lee [Phys. Fluids 13, 3007 (1970)], who derived approximate results, whereas in this article the exact dispersion relation is solved numerically. The original results are therefore improved and show differences of up to 21% to the results obtained in this article

  2. Recording performances in perpendicular magnetic patterned media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbahi, M; Moritz, J; Dieny, B; Gourgon, C; Perret, C; Van de Veerdonk, R J M

    2010-01-01

    We report on the recording performances and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analyses of perpendicular magnetic bit-patterned media. Two different types of magnetic samples are investigated. They differ by the way that they were patterned (nano-imprint versus e-beam lithography) as well as their magnetic properties (Co/Pt multilayers and CoCrPt alloy are the recording layers).Using a contact read/write quasi-static tester, we were able to characterize the write windows, the bit error rates and measure the SNR. The influence of magnetic properties and media microstructure on the writing processes is studied. We show also that the lithographical method used to replicate the media induces more or less noise due to structural distributions.

  3. Tuning stress-induced magnetic anisotropy and high frequency properties of FeCo films deposited on different curvature substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.K.; Feng, E.X.; Liu, Q.F.; Wang, J.B.; Xue, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    It is important to control magnetic anisotropy of ferromagnetic materials. In this work, FeCo thin films are deposited on the curving substrates by electrochemical deposition to adjust the stress-induced magnetic anisotropy. The compressive stress is produced in the as-deposited films after the substrates are flattened. A simplified theoretical model of ferromagnetic resonance is utilized to measure the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy field and saturation magnetization. The results show that the stress-induced magnetic anisotropy and the resonance frequency increase with the increase of substrate curvature. The induced easy axis is perpendicular to the compressive stress direction.

  4. Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction with thin CoFeB/Ta/Co/Pd/Co reference layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Huadong, E-mail: huadong@avalanche-technology.com; Malmhall, Roger; Wang, Zihui; Yen, Bing K; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xiaobin; Zhou, Yuchen; Hao, Xiaojie; Jung, Dongha; Satoh, Kimihiro; Huai, Yiming [Avalanche Technology, 46600 Landing Parkway, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    Integration of high density spin transfer torque magnetoresistance random access memory requires a thin stack (less than 15 nm) of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (p-MTJ). We propose an innovative approach to solve this challenging problem by reducing the thickness and/or moment of the reference layer. A thin reference layer structure of CoFeB/Ta/Co/Pd/Co has 60% magnetic moment of the conventional thick structure including [Co/Pd] multilayers. We demonstrate that the perpendicular magnetization of the CoFeB/Ta/Co/Pd/Co structure can be realized by anti-ferromagnetically coupling to a pinned layer with strong perpendicular anisotropy via Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange interaction. The pMTJ with thin CoFeB/Ta/Co/Pd/Co reference layer has a comparable TMR ratio (near 80%) as that with thick reference layer after annealing at 280 °C. The pMTJ with thin reference layer has a total thickness less than 15 nm, thereby significantly increasing the etching margin required for integration of high density pMTJ array on wafers with form factor of 300 mm and beyond.

  5. COSMIC-RAY TRANSPORT AND ANISOTROPIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Peter L. [MPI for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Becker Tjus, Julia; Mandelartz, Matthias [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Theoretische Physik I, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Seo, Eun-Suk [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    We show that the large-scale cosmic-ray anisotropy at {approx}10 TeV can be explained by a modified Compton-Getting effect in the magnetized flow field of old supernova remnants. Cosmic rays arrive isotropically to the flow field and are then carried along with the flow to produce a large-scale anisotropy in the arrival direction. This approach suggests an optimum energy scale for detecting the anisotropy. Two key assumptions are that propagation is based on turbulence following a Kolmogorov law and that cosmic-ray interactions are dominated by transport via cosmic-ray-excited magnetic irregularities through the stellar wind of an exploding star and its shock shell. A prediction is that the amplitude is smaller at lower energies due to incomplete sampling of the velocity field and also smaller at larger energies due to smearing.

  6. Variable substrate temperature deposition of CoFeB film on Ta for manipulating the perpendicular coercive forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Saravanan; Rao, Subha Krishna; Muthuvel, Manivel Raja; Chandrasekaran, Gopalakrishnan; Therese, Helen Annal

    2017-08-01

    Magnetization of Ta/CoFeB/Ta trilayer films with thick layer of CoFeB deposited under different substrate temperatures (Ts) via ultra-high vacuum DC sputtering technique has been measured with the applied magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the film respectively to study the perpendicular coercive forces of the film. The samples were further analyzed for its structural, topological, morphological, and electrical transport properties. The core chemical states for the elements present in the CoFeB thin film were analyzed by XPS studies. Magnetization studies reveal the existence of perpendicular coercive forces in CoFeB films deposited only at certain temperatures such as RT, 450 °C, 475 °C and 500 °C. CoFeB film deposited at 475 °C exhibited a maximum coercivity of 315 Oe and a very low saturation magnetization (Ms) of 169 emu/cc in perpendicular direction. This pronounced effect in perpendicular coercive forces observed for CoFeB475 could be attributed to the effect of temperature in enhancing the crystallization of the film at the Ta/CoFeB interfaces. However at temperatures higher than 475 °C the destruction of the Ta/CoFeB interface due to intermixing of Ta and CoFeB results in the disappearance of magnetic anisotropy.

  7. Recent results on the giant magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayers (anisotropy, thermal variation and CCP-GMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieny, B.; Granovsky, A.; Vedyaev, A.; Ryzhanova, N.; Cowache, C.; Pereira, L. G.

    1995-12-01

    We present some recent results obtained on the electrical transport properties in magnetic multilayers. Three points are addressed. The first one is an experimental demonstration of the existence of an intrinsic anisotropy of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR). The experiments have been carried out on spin-valve samples for which there is no contribution of the usual anisotropic magnetoresistance to the observed magnetoresistance. The GMR amplitude is found to be larger (lower) in the direction perpendicular (parallel) to the sensing current. The second point concerns a quantitative analysis of the thermal variation of the CIP (current-in-plane) GMR in magnetic multilayers. This analysis is based on a semi-classical theory including the spin-intermixing due to spin-flip scattering by magnons. This approach allows quantitatively evaluation of the respective weights of the various contributions to the thermal decrease in GMR: (i) scattering by magnons in the bulk of the ferromagnetic layers; (ii) phonon scattering in the non-magnetic spacer layer; and (iii) interfacial scattering by paramagnetic interfacial layers which may form as the temperature is increased. The third point is a theoretical investigation of the CPP (current perpendicular to the plane) electrical transport through an interface between two semi-infinite metallic materials. It is shown that when a potential step U exists at such an interface, this step gives rise to an interfacial resistance proportional to U2. It also leads to the existence of large oscillations in the electric fields on both sides of the interface.

  8. Enhancement of phase space density by increasing trap anisotropy in a magneto-optical trap with a large number of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengalattore, M.; Conroy, R.S.; Prentiss, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    The phase space density of dense, cylindrical clouds of atoms in a 2D magneto-optic trap is investigated. For a large number of trapped atoms (>10 8 ), the density of a spherical cloud is limited by photon reabsorption. However, as the atom cloud is deformed to reduce the radial optical density, the temperature of the atoms decreases due to the suppression of multiple scattering leading to an increase in the phase space density. A density of 2x10 -4 has been achieved in a magneto-optic trap containing 2x10 8 atoms

  9. Electric anisotropy in high density polyethylene + carbon black composites induced by mechanical deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigueras-Santiago, E; Hernandez-Lopez, S; Camacho-Lopez, M A; Lara-Sanjuan, O, E-mail: eviguerass@uaemex.m [Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados (LIDMA), Facultad de Quimica, UAEM. Paseo Colon esq. con Paseo Tollocan, s/n. C.P. 50000, Toluca (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    High density polyethylene + carbon black composites with electrical anisotropy was studied. Electrical anisotropy was induced by uniaxial mechanical deformation and injection moulding. We show that anisotropy depends on the carbon black concentration and percentage deformation. Resistivity had the highest anisotropy resistivity around the percolation threshold. Perpendicular resistivity showed two magnitude orders higher than parallel resistivity for injected samples, whereas resistivity showed an inverse behaviour for 100% tensile samples. Both directions were set respect to the deformation axe. Anisotropy could be explained in terms of the molecular deformation (alignment) of the polymer chains as a response of the deformation process originating a redistribution of the carbon black particles in both directions. Alignment of the polymer chains was evidenced by polarized Raman spectroscopy.

  10. Effect of Pressure Anisotropy on the m = 1 Small Wavelength Modes in Z-Pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, M.

    1987-05-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m = 1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (rΣB2)' = 0.

  11. Perpendicular magnetic recording-Its development and realization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Shun-ichi, E-mail: iwasaki@tohtech.ac.jp [Tohoku Institute of Technology, 35-1 Yagiyamakasumi-cho, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-8577 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Development of perpendicular magnetic recording is summarized along with learning from the research study. The early stage of perpendicular recording was conducted with the research philosophy of complementarity between perpendicular and horizontal recordings. Although present production of the perpendicular recording HDDs exceeds 600 million per year, development of perpendicular recording experienced the valley of death in the 1990s. The difficult period was overcome by the collaboration system of industrial and academic communities. The research on perpendicular recording brought about development of new research model as well as the historical view of the development of technology and innovation. The huge influence of perpendicular recording on society also taught us the relationship between science and technology with culture and civilization. - Research Highlights: > Discovery of circular magnetization led to idea of perpendicular recording. > SPT head and Co-Cr media were realized for practical perpendicular recording. > The complementarity between perpendicular and in-plane recording helped progress. > Death valley of research has been overcome by cooperation with potent companies. > Present mass production of HDDs is making a new civilization of the society.

  12. Preferred Orientation and Anisotropy of Clay minerals and Pores in Posidonia Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitpanyacharoen, W.; Chen, K.; Wenk, H.

    2010-12-01

    Shales compose a large part of sedimentary basins and form the seal and source rocks for hydrocarbon reservoirs. They are also of great interest in context of repositories for nuclear waste and carbon sequestration. A comprehensive study of shale properties is thus crucial for seismic prospecting, particularly due to high elastic anisotropy that is contributed by the alignment of constituent clay minerals during compaction and diagenesis. In this study, we quantitatively analyze composition, crystal preferred orientation (or texture), and the 3D porosity structure in four Posidonia shales from Germany using high energy synchrotron x-rays. We can infer texture information from x-ray diffraction images relying on the Rietveld method, as well as determine the 3D porosity structure from tomography images. We observed that quartz and calcite are dominating phases while illite-smectite, illite-mica and kaolinite are the major clay minerals. The texture strength of clays range from 4.22 to 6.12 m.r.d. A comparison of shallow Posidonia shales with deep shales from the North Sea, Saudi Arabia, and the Gulf of Mexico documents that P-wave anisotropy increases with increasing phyllosilicate content (mainly illite-smectite and kaolinite) and increasing burial. Low absorption features in microtomography images indicate porosity (including kerogen and fractures), which is estimated at 1 vol% and observed to be anisotropic, mainly organized parallel to bedding with little connectivity of flat pores in direction perpendicular to the bedding plane.

  13. Plasma sheet pressure anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiles, G.S.; Hones, E.W. Jr; Bame, S.J.; Asbridge, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The ecliptic plane components of the pressure tensors for low-energy ( or =1.2 approximately 25% of the time. Due to the low energy density of the electrons, however, this anisotropy is not itself sufficient to balance the tension of the magnetic field

  14. CMB anisotropies interpolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinger, S.; Delabrouille, Jacques; Roux, Michel; Maitre, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of the interpolation of irregularly spaced spatial data, applied to observation of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. The well-known interpolation methods and kriging are compared to the binning method which serves as a reference approach. We analyse kriging

  15. 3D Anisotropy of Solar Wind Turbulence, Tubes, or Ribbons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdini, Andrea; Grappin, Roland; Alexandrova, Olga; Lion, Sonny

    2018-01-01

    We study the anisotropy with respect to the local magnetic field of turbulent magnetic fluctuations at magnetofluid scales in the solar wind. Previous measurements in the fast solar wind obtained axisymmetric anisotropy, despite that the analysis method allows nonaxisymmetric structures. These results are probably contaminated by the wind expansion that introduces another symmetry axis, namely, the radial direction, as indicated by recent numerical simulations. These simulations also show that while the expansion is strong, the principal fluctuations are in the plane perpendicular to the radial direction. Using this property, we separate 11 yr of Wind spacecraft data into two subsets characterized by strong and weak expansion and determine the corresponding turbulence anisotropy. Under strong expansion, the small-scale anisotropy is consistent with the Goldreich & Sridhar critical balance. As in previous works, when the radial symmetry axis is not eliminated, the turbulent structures are field-aligned tubes. Under weak expansion, we find 3D anisotropy predicted by the Boldyrev model, that is, turbulent structures are ribbons and not tubes. However, the very basis of the Boldyrev phenomenology, namely, a cross-helicity increasing at small scales, is not observed in the solar wind: the origin of the ribbon formation is unknown.

  16. Enhanced post-annealing stability of perpendicular Ta/CoFeB/Mg/MgO multilayers by inhibiting Ta diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xu-Jing; Jiang, Shao-Long; Zhang, Jing-Yan; Liu, Qian-Qian; Liu, Yi-Wei; Zhao, Jian-Cheng; Wu, Zheng-Long; Feng, Chun; Li, Ming-Hua; Yu, Guang-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: To reveal the underlying mechanism of Mg influence on the enhanced post-annealing stability of perpendicular Ta/CoFeB/Mg/MgO multilayers, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis have been performed. It is found that a certain amount of Mg interlayer at the CoFeB/MgO interface could prevent the Ta oxidation to some extent due to the oxygen deficit MgO_x (x < 1), and consequently lower the diffusion motivation of Ta from the bottom layer to the CoFeB/MgO interfaces to some extent during the annealing process. The prevention of Ta diffusion realizes the effective hybridization of Fe and O at the CoFeB/MgO interface and maintains interfacial magnetic anisotropy (K_C_o_F_e_B_/_M_g_O). As a result, the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at high annealing temperatures was maintained. - Highlights: • High annealing stability of perpendicular Ta/CoFeB/Mg/MgO multilayers was realized. • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis has been performed to explore the reasons. • The prevention of Ta diffusion was realized by introducing Mg at the CoFeB/MgO interface. - Abstracts: To reveal the underlying mechanism of Mg influence on the enhanced post-annealing stability of perpendicular Ta/CoFeB/Mg/MgO multilayers, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis has been performed. It is found that a certain amount of Mg interlayer at the CoFeB/MgO interface could prevent the Ta oxidation, and consequently lower the diffusion motivation of Ta from the bottom layer to the CoFeB/MgO interfaces to some extent in the annealing process. The prevention of Ta diffusion realizes the effective hybridization of Fe and O at the CoFeB/MgO interface and maintains interfacial magnetic anisotropy (KCoFeB/MgO). As a result, the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at high annealing temperatures is maintained

  17. Enhanced post-annealing stability of perpendicular Ta/CoFeB/Mg/MgO multilayers by inhibiting Ta diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xu-Jing; Jiang, Shao-Long; Zhang, Jing-Yan; Liu, Qian-Qian; Liu, Yi-Wei; Zhao, Jian-Cheng [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wu, Zheng-Long [Analytical and Testing Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Feng, Chun, E-mail: fengchun@ustb.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Ming-Hua [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yu, Guang-Hua, E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: To reveal the underlying mechanism of Mg influence on the enhanced post-annealing stability of perpendicular Ta/CoFeB/Mg/MgO multilayers, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis have been performed. It is found that a certain amount of Mg interlayer at the CoFeB/MgO interface could prevent the Ta oxidation to some extent due to the oxygen deficit MgO{sub x} (x < 1), and consequently lower the diffusion motivation of Ta from the bottom layer to the CoFeB/MgO interfaces to some extent during the annealing process. The prevention of Ta diffusion realizes the effective hybridization of Fe and O at the CoFeB/MgO interface and maintains interfacial magnetic anisotropy (K{sub CoFeB/MgO}). As a result, the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at high annealing temperatures was maintained. - Highlights: • High annealing stability of perpendicular Ta/CoFeB/Mg/MgO multilayers was realized. • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis has been performed to explore the reasons. • The prevention of Ta diffusion was realized by introducing Mg at the CoFeB/MgO interface. - Abstracts: To reveal the underlying mechanism of Mg influence on the enhanced post-annealing stability of perpendicular Ta/CoFeB/Mg/MgO multilayers, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis has been performed. It is found that a certain amount of Mg interlayer at the CoFeB/MgO interface could prevent the Ta oxidation, and consequently lower the diffusion motivation of Ta from the bottom layer to the CoFeB/MgO interfaces to some extent in the annealing process. The prevention of Ta diffusion realizes the effective hybridization of Fe and O at the CoFeB/MgO interface and maintains interfacial magnetic anisotropy (KCoFeB/MgO). As a result, the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at high annealing temperatures is maintained.

  18. Implementing an empirical scalar constitutive relation for ice with flow-induced polycrystalline anisotropy in large-scale ice sheet models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Felicity S.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Warner, Roland C.; Treverrow, Adam

    2018-03-01

    The microstructure of polycrystalline ice evolves under prolonged deformation, leading to anisotropic patterns of crystal orientations. The response of this material to applied stresses is not adequately described by the ice flow relation most commonly used in large-scale ice sheet models - the Glen flow relation. We present a preliminary assessment of the implementation in the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) of a computationally efficient, empirical, scalar, constitutive relation which addresses the influence of the dynamically steady-state flow-compatible induced anisotropic crystal orientation patterns that develop when ice is subjected to the same stress regime for a prolonged period - sometimes termed tertiary flow. We call this the ESTAR flow relation. The effect on ice flow dynamics is investigated by comparing idealised simulations using ESTAR and Glen flow relations, where we include in the latter an overall flow enhancement factor. For an idealised embayed ice shelf, the Glen flow relation overestimates velocities by up to 17 % when using an enhancement factor equivalent to the maximum value prescribed in the ESTAR relation. Importantly, no single Glen enhancement factor can accurately capture the spatial variations in flow across the ice shelf generated by the ESTAR flow relation. For flow line studies of idealised grounded flow over varying topography or variable basal friction - both scenarios dominated at depth by bed-parallel shear - the differences between simulated velocities using ESTAR and Glen flow relations depend on the value of the enhancement factor used to calibrate the Glen flow relation. These results demonstrate the importance of describing the deformation of anisotropic ice in a physically realistic manner, and have implications for simulations of ice sheet evolution used to reconstruct paleo-ice sheet extent and predict future ice sheet contributions to sea level.

  19. Shape-induced anisotropy in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomonay, O.; Kondovych, S.; Loktev, V.

    2014-01-01

    High fraction of the surface atoms considerably enhances the influence of size and shape on the magnetic and electronic properties of nanoparticles. Shape effects in ferromagnetic nanoparticles are well understood and allow us to set and control the parameters of a sample that affect its magnetic anisotropy during production. In the present paper we study the shape effects in the other widely used magnetic materials – antiferromagnets, – which possess vanishingly small or zero macroscopic magnetization. We take into account the difference between the surface and bulk magnetic anisotropy of a nanoparticle and show that the effective magnetic anisotropy depends on the particle shape and crystallographic orientation of its faces. The corresponding shape-induced contribution to the magnetic anisotropy energy is proportional to the particle volume, depends on magnetostriction, and can cause formation of equilibrium domain structure. Crystallographic orientation of the nanoparticle surface determines the type of domain structure. The proposed model allows us to predict the magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles depending on their shape and treatment. - Highlights: • We demonstrate that the shape effects in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles stem from the difference of surface and bulk magnetic properties combined with strong magnetoelastic coupling. • We predict shape-induced anisotropy in antiferromagnetic particles with large aspect ratio. • We predict different types of domain structures depending on the orientation of the particle faces

  20. Texture and anisotropy analysis of Qusaiba shales

    KAUST Repository

    Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn

    2011-02-17

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, microtomography and ultrasonic velocity measurements were used to characterize microstructures and anisotropy of three deeply buried Qusaiba shales from the Rub\\'al-Khali basin, Saudi Arabia. Kaolinite, illite-smectite, illite-mica and chlorite show strong preferred orientation with (001) pole figure maxima perpendicular to the bedding plane ranging from 2.4-6.8 multiples of a random distribution (m.r.d.). Quartz, feldspars and pyrite crystals have a random orientation distribution. Elastic properties of the polyphase aggregate are calculated by averaging the single crystal elastic properties over the orientation distribution, assuming a nonporous material. The average calculated bulk P-wave velocities are 6.2 km/s (maximum) and 5.5 km/s (minimum), resulting in a P-wave anisotropy of 12%. The calculated velocities are compared with those determined from ultrasonic velocity measurements on a similar sample. In the ultrasonic experiment, which measures the effects of the shale matrix as well as the effects of porosity, velocities are smaller (P-wave maximum 5.3 km/s and minimum 4.1 km/s). The difference between calculated and measured velocities is attributed to the effects of anisotropic pore structure and to microfractures present in the sample, which have not been taken into account in the matrix averaging. © 2011 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  1. The build up of the correlation between halo spin and the large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Kang, Xi

    2018-01-01

    Both simulations and observations have confirmed that the spin of haloes/galaxies is correlated with the large-scale structure (LSS) with a mass dependence such that the spin of low-mass haloes/galaxies tend to be parallel with the LSS, while that of massive haloes/galaxies tend to be perpendicular with the LSS. It is still unclear how this mass dependence is built up over time. We use N-body simulations to trace the evolution of the halo spin-LSS correlation and find that at early times the spin of all halo progenitors is parallel with the LSS. As time goes on, mass collapsing around massive halo is more isotropic, especially the recent mass accretion along the slowest collapsing direction is significant and it brings the halo spin to be perpendicular with the LSS. Adopting the fractional anisotropy (FA) parameter to describe the degree of anisotropy of the large-scale environment, we find that the spin-LSS correlation is a strong function of the environment such that a higher FA (more anisotropic environment) leads to an aligned signal, and a lower anisotropy leads to a misaligned signal. In general, our results show that the spin-LSS correlation is a combined consequence of mass flow and halo growth within the cosmic web. Our predicted environmental dependence between spin and large-scale structure can be further tested using galaxy surveys.

  2. Elastic Anisotropy of Basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Shapiro, S.; Stanchits, S.; Dresen, G.; Kaselow, A.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2005-12-01

    Elastic properties of rocks are sensitive to changes of the in-situ stress and damage state. In particular, seismic velocities are strongly affected by stress-induced formation and deformation of cracks or shear-enhanced pore collapse. The effect of stress on seismic velocities as a result of pore space deformation in isotropic rock at isostatic compression may be expressed by the equation: A+K*P-B*exp (-D*P) (1), where P=Pc-Pp is the effective pressure, the pure difference between confining pressure and pore pressure. The parameter A, K, B and D describe material constants determined using experimental data. The physical meaning of the parameters is given by Shapiro (2003, in Geophysics Vol.68(Nr.2)). Parameter D is related to the stress sensitivity of the rock. A similar relation was derived by Shapiro and Kaselow (2005, in Geophysics in press) for weak anisotropic rocks under arbitrary load. They describe the stress dependent anisotropy in terms of Thomson's (1986, in Geophysics, Vol. 51(Nr.10)) anisotropy parameters ɛ and γ as a function of stress in the case of an initially isotropic rock: ɛ ∝ E2-E3, γ ∝ E3-E2 (2) with Ei=exp (D*Pi). The exponential terms Ei are controlled by the effective stress components Pi. To test this relation, we have conducted a series of triaxial compression tests on dry samples of initially isotropic Etnean Basalt in a servo-controlled MTS loading frame equipped with a pressure cell. Confining pressure was 60, 40 and 20 MPa. Samples were 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length. Elastic anisotropy was induced by axial compression of the samples through opening and growth of microcracks predominantly oriented parallel to the sample axis. Ultrasonic P- and S- wave velocities were monitored parallel and normal to the sample axis by an array of 20 piezoceramic transducers glued to the surface. Preamplified full waveform signals were stored in two 12 channel transient recorders. According to equation 2 the anisotropy parameters are

  3. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, Elena; Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe; Deb, Marwan; Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte; Kachkachi, Hamid; Gendron, François; Ott, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films were grown epitaxially on structure-matching substrates. ► Magnetic properties of Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 were studied down to the thickness of 2.5 nm. ► Reorientation of easy magnetization axis as a function of film thickness was observed

  4. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, Elena, E-mail: popova@physique.uvsq.fr [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS/Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe [Laboratoire PROcédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), CNRS/Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Deb, Marwan [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS/Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [Centre d' Elaboration de Matériaux et d' Etudes Structurales (CEMES), CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), CEMES-INA, CNRS–Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Kachkachi, Hamid [Laboratoire PROcédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), CNRS/Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Gendron, François [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris (INSP), CNRS/Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, Boîte courrier 840, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ott, Frédéric [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (LLB), CNRS/CEA, Bâtiment 563, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2013-06-15

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were grown epitaxially on structure-matching substrates. ► Magnetic properties of Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} were studied down to the thickness of 2.5 nm. ► Reorientation of easy magnetization axis as a function of film thickness was observed.

  5. Solar Wind Proton Temperature Anisotropy: Linear Theory and WIND/SWE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, P.; Travnicek, P.; Kasper, J. C.; Lazarus, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comparison between WIND/SWE observations (Kasper et al., 2006) of beta parallel to p and T perpendicular to p/T parallel to p (where beta parallel to p is the proton parallel beta and T perpendicular to p and T parallel to p are the perpendicular and parallel proton are the perpendicular and parallel proton temperatures, respectively; here parallel and perpendicular indicate directions with respect to the ambient magnetic field) and predictions of the Vlasov linear theory. In the slow solar wind, the observed proton temperature anisotropy seems to be constrained by oblique instabilities, by the mirror one and the oblique fire hose, contrary to the results of the linear theory which predicts a dominance of the proton cyclotron instability and the parallel fire hose. The fast solar wind core protons exhibit an anticorrelation between beta parallel to c and T perpendicular to c/T parallel to c (where beta parallel to c is the core proton parallel beta and T perpendicular to c and T parallel to c are the perpendicular and parallel core proton temperatures, respectively) similar to that observed in the HELIOS data (Marsch et al., 2004).

  6. Magnetic anisotropy and chemical long-range order in epitaxial ferrimagnetic CrPt sub 3 films

    CERN Document Server

    Maret, M; Köhler, J; Poinsot, R; Ulhaq-Bouillet, C; Tonnerre, J M; Berar, J F; Bucher, E

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of CrPt sub 3 were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy on both Al sub 2 O sub 3 (0 0 0 1) and MgO(0 0 1) substrates, either directly by co-deposition of Cr and Pt at high temperatures or after in situ annealing of superlattices [Cr(2 A)/Pt(7 A)]. In situ RHEED observations and X-ray diffraction measurements have allowed us to check the single-crystal quality of CrPt sub 3 films and to determine the degree of L1 sub 2 -type long-range order (LRO). In films co-deposited between 850 deg. C and 950 deg. C a nearly perfect LRO has been observed. As in bulk alloys, such ordering yields a ferrimagnetic order, while the disordered films are non-magnetic. In contrast with the ferromagnetic L1 sub 2 -type ordered CoPt sub 3 (1 1 1) films, the ferrimagnetic CrPt sub 3 (1 1 1) films exhibit perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with quality factors, K sub u /K sub d , as large as 5 and large coercivities around 450 kA/m. Such anisotropy could be related to the arrangement of Cr atoms, which owing to their large mag...

  7. Controlling the competing magnetic anisotropy energies in FineMET amorphous thin films with ultra-soft magnetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar Masood

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thickness dependent competing magnetic anisotropy energies were investigated to explore the global magnetic behaviours of FineMET amorphous thin films. A dominant perpendicular magnetization component in the as-deposited state of thinner films was observed due to high magnetoelastic anisotropy energy which arises from stresses induced at the substrate-film interface. This perpendicular magnetization component decreases with increasing film thickness. Thermal annealing at elevated temperature revealed a significant influence on the magnetization state of the FineMET thin films and controlled annealing steps leads to ultra-soft magnetic properties, making these thin films alloys ideal for a wide range of applications.

  8. Some device implications of voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy in Co/Gd2O3 thin films through REDOX chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guanhua; Noviasky, Nicholas; Cao, Shi; Sabirianov, Ildar; Yin, Yuewei; Ilie, Carolina C.; Kirianov, Eugene; Sharma, Nishtha; Sokolov, Andrei; Marshall, Andrew; Xu, Xiaoshan; Dowben, Peter A.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of intermediate interfacial oxidation on the in-plane magnetization of multilayer stack Pt/Co/Gd2O3, on a p-type silicon substrate, has been investigated by magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements, the anomalous Hall effect, and magnetoresistance measurements. While voltage controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of a metal/oxide heterostructure is known, this heterostructure displays an inverse relationship between voltage and coercivity. The anomalous Hall effect demonstrates a significant change in hysteresis, with the applied bias sign. There is a higher perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with positive bias exposure.

  9. Quarkonium dissociation by anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Fernández, Daniel; Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    We compute the screening length for quarkonium mesons moving through an anisotropic, strongly coupled mathcal{N} = 4 super Yang-Mills plasma by means of its gravity dual. We present the results for arbitrary velocities and orientations of the mesons, as well as for arbitrary values of the anisotropy. The anisotropic screening length can be larger or smaller than the isotropic one, and this depends on whether the comparison is made at equal temperatures or at equal entropy densities. For generic motion we find that: (i) mesons dissociate above a certain critical value of the anisotropy, even at zero temperature; (ii) there is a limiting velocity for mesons in the plasma, even at zero temperature; (iii) in the ultra-relativistic limit the screening length scales as (1 - v 2)ɛ with ɛ = 1 /2, in contrast with the isotropic result ɛ = 1 /4.

  10. Layering and temperature-dependent magnetization and anisotropy of naturally produced Ni/NiO multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, S. D.; Trachylis, D.; Velgakis, M. J. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Kapaklis, V.; Joensson, P. E.; Papaioannou, E. Th. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Delimitis, A. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute (CPERI), Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Poulopoulos, P. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Materials Science Department, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Fumagalli, P. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Politis, C. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Ni/NiO multilayers were grown by magnetron sputtering at room temperature, with the aid of the natural oxidation procedure. That is, at the end of the deposition of each single Ni layer, air is let to flow into the vacuum chamber through a leak valve. Then, a very thin NiO layer ({approx}1.2 nm) is formed. Simulated x-ray reflectivity patterns reveal that layering is excellent for individual Ni-layer thickness larger than 2.5 nm, which is attributed to the intercalation of amorphous NiO between the polycrystalline Ni layers. The magnetization of the films, measured at temperatures 5-300 K, has almost bulk-like value, whereas the films exhibit a trend to perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with an unusual significant positive interface anisotropy contribution, which presents a weak temperature dependence. The power-law behavior of the multilayers indicates a non-negligible contribution of higher order anisotropies in the uniaxial anisotropy. Bloch-law fittings for the temperature dependence of the magnetization in the spin-wave regime show that the magnetization in the multilayers decreases faster as a function of temperature than the one of bulk Ni. Finally, when the individual Ni-layer thickness decreases below 2 nm, the multilayer stacking vanishes, resulting in a dramatic decrease of the interface magnetic anisotropy and consequently in a decrease of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  11. RAPID COSMIC-RAY ACCELERATION AT PERPENDICULAR SHOCKS IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamoto, Makoto; Kirk, John G., E-mail: mtakamoto@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: john.kirk@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-08-10

    Perpendicular shocks are shown to be rapid particle accelerators that perform optimally when the ratio u{sub s} of the shock speed to the particle speed roughly equals the ratio 1/η of the scattering rate to the gyro frequency. We use analytical methods and Monte-Carlo simulations to solve the kinetic equation that governs the anisotropy generated at these shocks, and find, for ηu{sub s} ≈ 1, that the spectral index softens by unity and the acceleration time increases by a factor of two compared to the standard result of the diffusive shock acceleration theory. These results provide a theoretical basis for the 30 year old conjecture that a supernova exploding into the wind of a Wolf–Rayet star may accelerate protons to an energy exceeding 10{sup 15} eV.

  12. Stability analysis of perpendicular magnetic trilayers with a field-like spin torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ri-Xing; Zhao, Jing-Li; He, Peng-Bin; Gu, Guan-Nan; Li, Zai-Dong; Pan, An-Lian; Liu, Quan-Hui

    2013-01-01

    We have analytically studied the magnetization dynamics in magnetic trilayers with perpendicular anisotropy for both free and pinned layers. By linear stability analysis, we obtain the phase diagram parameterized by the current, magnetic field and relative strength of the field-like spin torque to Slonczewski torque. Under the control of the current and external magnetic field, several magnetic states, such as quasi-parallel and quasi-antiparallel stable states, out-of-plane precession, and bistable states can be realized. The precession frequency can be expressed as a function of the current and external magnetic field. In addition, the presence of field-like spin torque can change the switching current and precession frequency. - Highlights: ► The phase diagram is obtained by linear stability analysis. ► The precession frequency can be controlled by the current and magnetic field. ► Field-like spin torque can change instability current and precession frequency.

  13. Laser heating and oxygen partial pressure effects on the dynamic magnetic properties of perpendicular CoFeAlO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy and Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Tang, Minghong [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang, Zongzhi, E-mail: zzzhang@fudan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lou, Shitao [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy and Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Jin, Q.Y. [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy and Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2016-07-01

    The impact of oxidation and laser heating on the dynamic magnetic properties of perpendicularly magnetized Co{sub 50}Fe{sub 25}Al{sub 25}O films has been studied by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect in a fs-laser pump-probe setup. We find that pump laser fluence F{sub p} can affect the effective magnetic anisotropy field and thus the precession frequency f seriously, leading to an increased dependence of effective magnetic damping factor α{sub eff} on the external field at higher fluences. Moreover, the α{sub eff} increases with increasing the oxygen partial pressure P{sub O2} while the uniaxial anisotropy energy K{sub u} and Landau factor g decrease, owing to the increased proportion of superparamagnetic CoFe oxides formed by over-oxidation. By optimizing both the F{sub p} and P{sub O2}, the intrinsic damping factor is determined to be lower than 0.028 for the perpendicular film showing a uniaxial anisotropy energy as high as 4.3×10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3}. The results in this study provide a promising approach to manipulate the magnetic parameters for possible applications in spintronic devices. - Highlights: • A new kind of perpendicular thin film material, oxidized CoFeAl, has been fabricated. • The precession frequency and effective damping are strongly affected by higher fluence. • The effective damping factor increases with oxygen partial pressure. • The intrinsic damping factor is below 0.028 for the CFAO film with K{sub u}=4.3×10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3}.

  14. Role of an ultrathin platinum seed layer in antiferromagnet-based perpendicular exchange coupling and its electrical manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.Y., E-mail: wangyy@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, C., E-mail: songcheng@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, J.Y. [Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Pan, F. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-04-15

    The requirement for low-power consumption advances the development of antiferromagnetic (AFM) spintronics manipulated by electric fields. Here we report an electrical manipulation of metallic AFM moments within IrMn/[Co/Pt] by interface engineering, where ultrathin non-magnetic metals are highlighted between IrMn and ferroelectric substrates. Ultrathin Pt seed layers are proved to be vital in elevating the blocking temperature and enhancing the perpendicular exchange coupling through modulating the domain structures of as-prepared IrMn AFM. Further electrical manipulations of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy crucially verify the indispensable role of pre-deposited ultrathin Pt layers in modulating IrMn antiferromagnetic moments, which is confirmed by the intimate correlation between the electrically manipulating AFM and improving its blocking temperature. Instead of immediate contact between IrMn AFM and ferroelectric substrates in a conventional way, interface engineering by adopting ultrathin seed layers here adds a new twist to the electrical modulation of AFM metals. This would provide scientific basis on how to manipulate AFM moments and optimize the design of practical AFM spintronics. - Highlights: • An alternative for manipulating antiferromagnet by interface engineering is provided. • Ultrathin Pt seed layers are vital in elevating the blocking temperature of IrMn. • Perpendicular exchange coupling in IrMn/[Co/Pt] can be modulated by seed layers. • Ultrathin Pt seed layers enable electrical control of perpendicular exchange coupling.

  15. Role of an ultrathin platinum seed layer in antiferromagnet-based perpendicular exchange coupling and its electrical manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.Y.; Song, C.; Zhang, J.Y.; Pan, F.

    2017-01-01

    The requirement for low-power consumption advances the development of antiferromagnetic (AFM) spintronics manipulated by electric fields. Here we report an electrical manipulation of metallic AFM moments within IrMn/[Co/Pt] by interface engineering, where ultrathin non-magnetic metals are highlighted between IrMn and ferroelectric substrates. Ultrathin Pt seed layers are proved to be vital in elevating the blocking temperature and enhancing the perpendicular exchange coupling through modulating the domain structures of as-prepared IrMn AFM. Further electrical manipulations of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy crucially verify the indispensable role of pre-deposited ultrathin Pt layers in modulating IrMn antiferromagnetic moments, which is confirmed by the intimate correlation between the electrically manipulating AFM and improving its blocking temperature. Instead of immediate contact between IrMn AFM and ferroelectric substrates in a conventional way, interface engineering by adopting ultrathin seed layers here adds a new twist to the electrical modulation of AFM metals. This would provide scientific basis on how to manipulate AFM moments and optimize the design of practical AFM spintronics. - Highlights: • An alternative for manipulating antiferromagnet by interface engineering is provided. • Ultrathin Pt seed layers are vital in elevating the blocking temperature of IrMn. • Perpendicular exchange coupling in IrMn/[Co/Pt] can be modulated by seed layers. • Ultrathin Pt seed layers enable electrical control of perpendicular exchange coupling.

  16. Gaps, tears and seismic anisotropy around the subducting slabs of the Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaphorst, David; Kendall, J.-Michael; Baptie, Brian; Latchman, Joan L.; Tait, Steve

    2017-02-01

    Seismic anisotropy in and beneath the subducting slabs of the Antilles is investigated using observations of shear-wave splitting. We use a combination of teleseismic and local events recorded at three-component broadband seismic stations on every major island in the area to map anisotropy in the crust, the mantle wedge and the slab/sub-slab mantle. To date this is the most comprehensive study of anisotropy in this region, involving 52 stations from 8 seismic networks. Local event delay times (0.21 ± 0.12 s) do not increase with depth, indicating a crustal origin in anisotropy and an isotropic mantle wedge. Teleseismic delay times are much larger (1.34 ± 0.47 s), with fast shear-wave polarisations that are predominantly parallel to trend of the arc. These observations can be interpreted three ways: (1) the presence of pre-existing anisotropy in the subducting slab; (2) anisotropy due to sub-slab mantle flow around the eastern margin of the nearly stationary Caribbean plate; (3) some combination of both mechanisms. However, there are two notable variations in the trench-parallel pattern of anisotropy - trench-perpendicular alignment is observed in narrow regions east of Puerto Rico and south of Martinique. These observations support previously proposed ideas of eastward sublithospheric mantle flow through gaps in the slab. Furthermore, the pattern of anisotropy south of Martinique, near Saint Lucia is consistent with a previously proposed location for the boundary between the North and South American plates.

  17. Non-Gaussianity and the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, N; Riotto, A

    2010-01-01

    We review in a pedagogical way the present status of the impact of non-Gaussianity (NG) on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. We first show how to set the initial conditions at second-order for the (gauge invariant) CMB anisotropies when some primordial NG is present. However, there are many sources of NG in CMB anisotropies, beyond the primordial one, which can contaminate the primordial signal. We mainly focus on the NG generated from the post-inflationary evolution of the CMB anisotropies at second-order in perturbation theory at large and small angular scales, such as the ones generated at the recombination epoch. We show how to derive the equations to study the second-order CMB anisotropies and provide analytical computations to evaluate their contamination to primordial NG (complemented with numerical examples). We also offer a brief summary of other secondary effects. This review requires basic knowledge of the theory of cosmological perturbations at the linear level.

  18. Non-Gaussianity and the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bartolo

    2010-01-01

    microwave background (CMB anisotropies. We first show how to set the initial conditions at second order for the CMB anisotropies when some primordial NG is present. However, there are many sources of NG in CMB anisotropies, beyond the primordial one, which can contaminate the primordial signal. We mainly focus on the NG generated from the post inflationary evolution of the CMB anisotropies at second order in perturbation theory at large and small angular scales, such as the ones generated at the recombination epoch. We show how to derive the equations to study the second-order CMB anisotropies and provide analytical computations to evaluate their contamination to primordial NG (complemented with numerical examples. We also offer a brief summary of other secondary effects. This paper requires basic knowledge of the theory of cosmological perturbations at the linear level.

  19. Magnetization switching diagram of a perpendicular synthetic ferrimagnet CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplak, O. [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 236041 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow (Russian Federation); Talantsev, A. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lu, Y.; Hamadeh, A.; Pirro, P.; Hauet, T. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS, Université de Lorraine (France); Morgunov, R., E-mail: morgunov2005@yandex.ru [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tambov State Technical University, 392000 Tambov (Russian Federation); Mangin, S. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS, Université de Lorraine (France)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Anisotropy, Zeeman and exchange energy determine sequence of magnetic transitions. • Three temperature ranges manifest different shapes of the hysteresis loop. • The critical transition fields are temperature dependent. - Abstract: Magnetic configurations in synthetic ferrimagnet CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB bilayer with strong perpendicular anisotropy have been systematically studied. Magnetization versus field hysteresis loop has been measured for different temperature ranging from 5 to 300 K. The applied field – temperature (H-T) magnetization switching diagram has been constructed by extracting the different switching fields as a function of temperature. This switching diagram can be well explained by considering the competition between energy barrier of layer’s magnetization reversal, interlayer exchange coupling, and Zeeman energy.

  20. Magnetization switching diagram of a perpendicular synthetic ferrimagnet CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplak, O.; Talantsev, A.; Lu, Y.; Hamadeh, A.; Pirro, P.; Hauet, T.; Morgunov, R.; Mangin, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Anisotropy, Zeeman and exchange energy determine sequence of magnetic transitions. • Three temperature ranges manifest different shapes of the hysteresis loop. • The critical transition fields are temperature dependent. - Abstract: Magnetic configurations in synthetic ferrimagnet CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB bilayer with strong perpendicular anisotropy have been systematically studied. Magnetization versus field hysteresis loop has been measured for different temperature ranging from 5 to 300 K. The applied field – temperature (H-T) magnetization switching diagram has been constructed by extracting the different switching fields as a function of temperature. This switching diagram can be well explained by considering the competition between energy barrier of layer’s magnetization reversal, interlayer exchange coupling, and Zeeman energy.

  1. Enhanced emission of high-energy photons perpendicular to the reaction plane in α+Th reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegner, P.; Marianski, B.; Morsch, H.P.; Rogge, M.; Bargholtz, C.; Decowski, P.; Zemlo, L.

    1991-01-01

    High-energy photon and neutron emission has been measured in coincidence with fission fragments in α+ 232 Th reactions at 170 MeV. From measurements parallel and perpendicular to the fission plane, anisotropies relative to the reaction plane were determined. The in-plane/out-of-plane intensity ratio is 0.72(7) for photons with energies above 20 MeV and 11(3) for neutrons at 35 MeV. The result for high-energy photons can be explained by nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung if the initial flow of nucleons has a correlation to the reaction plane similar to the one observed for fast neutrons

  2. Uniaxial anisotropy in magnetite thin film-Magnetization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechec, A.; Korecki, J.; Handke, B.; Kakol, Z.; Owoc, D.; Antolak, D.A.; Kozlowski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetization and electrical resistivity measurements have been performed on a stoichiometric single crystalline magnetite Fe 3 O 4 thin film (thickness of ca. 500 nm) MBE deposited on MgO (1 0 0) substrate. The aim of these studies was to check the influence of preparation method and sample form (bulk vs. thin film) on magnetic anisotropy properties in magnetite. The film magnetization along versus applied magnetic field has been determined both in the direction parallel and perpendicular to the film surface, and at temperatures above and below the Verwey transition. We have found, in agreement with published results, that the in-plane field of 10 kOe was not sufficient to saturate the sample. This can be understood if some additional factor, on top of the bulk magnetocrystalline anisotropy, is taken into account

  3. Magnetic anisotropy in GaMnAs; Magnetische Anisotropie in GaMnAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daeubler, Joachim

    2009-07-02

    The goal of the present work was the detailed investigation of the impact of parameters like vertical strain, hole concentration, substrate orientation and patterning on the MA in GaMnAs. At first a method is introduced enabling us to determine the MA from angle-dependent magnetotransport measurements. This method was used to analyze the impact of vertical strain {epsilon}{sub zz} on the MA in a series of GaMnAs layers with a Mn content of 5% grown on relaxed InGaAs-templates. While hole concentration and Curie temperature were found to be unaffected by vertical strain, a significant dependence of the MA on {epsilon}{sub zz} was found. The most pronounced dependence was observed for the anisotropy parameter B{sub 2} {sub perpendicular} {sub to}, representing the intrinsic contribution to the MA perpendicular to the layer plane. For this parameter a linear dependence on {epsilon}{sub zz} was found, resulting in a strain-induced transition of the magnetic easy axis with increasing strain from in-plane to out-of-plane at {epsilon}{sub zz} {approx} -0.13%. Post-growth annealing of the samples leads to an outdiffusion and/or regrouping of the highly mobile Mn interstitial donor defects, resulting in an increase in both p and T{sub C}. For the annealed samples, the transition from in-plane to out-of-plane easy axis takes place at {epsilon}{sub zz} {approx} -0.07%. From a comparison of as-grown and annealed samples, B{sub 2} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} was found to be proportional to both p and {epsilon}{sub zz}, B{sub 2} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} {proportional_to} p .{epsilon}{sub zz}. To study the influence of substrate orientation on the magnetic properties of GaMnAs, a series of GaMnAs layers with Mn contents up to 5% was grown on (001)- and (113)A-oriented GaAs substrates. The hole densities and Curie temperatures, determined from magnetotransport measurements, are drastically reduced in the (113)A layers. The differences in the magnetic properties of (113)A- and

  4. Flow stress anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, G.

    1996-01-01

    stress Variation in the rolling plane, which may be as high as 20%, are presented. The traditional Taylor model is applied to the data to account for the effect of texture. However, texture effects alone are not enough to explain all of the observed anisotropy. New models which take the combined effects...... of texture and deformation microstructure into account are presented. The models are based on the Taylor and Sachs models but modified with an anisotropic critical shear stress to account for the effect of the microstructure. The agreement between experimental data and model predictions is definitely better...

  5. Magnetic Anisotropy by Rashba Spin-Orbit Coupling in Antiferromagnetic Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieda, Jun'ichi; Barnes, Stewart E.; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic anisotropy in an antiferromagnet (AFM) with inversion symmetry breaking (ISB) is investigated. The magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) resulting from the Rashba spin-orbit and s-d type exchange interactions is determined for two different models of AFMs. The global ISB model, representing the effect of a surface, an interface, or a gating electric field, results in an easy-plane magnetic anisotropy. In contrast, for a local ISB model, i.e., for a noncentrosymmetric AFM, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) arises. Both results differ from the ferromagnetic case, in which the result for PMA depends on the band structure and dimensionality. These MAE contributions play a key role in determining the direction of the Néel order parameter in antiferromagnetic nanostructures, and reflect the possibility of electrical-field control of the Néel vector.

  6. Geometry anisotropy and mechanical property isotropy in titanium foam fabricated by replica impregnation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manonukul, Anchalee, E-mail: anchalm@mtec.or.th [National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Srikudvien, Pathompoom [National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Tange, Makiko [Taisei Kogyo Thailand Co., Ltd., Room INC2d-409, Innovation Cluster 2 Building, Tower D, 141 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Puncreobutr, Chedtha [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-02-08

    Polyurethane (PU) foams have both geometry and mechanical property anisotropy. Metal foams, which are manufacturing by investment casting or melt deposition method and using PU foam as a template, also have mechanical property anisotropy. This work studied the mechanical properties in two directions of titanium foam with four different cell sizes fabricated using the replica impregnation method. The two directions are (1) the loading direction parallel to the foaming direction where the cells are elongated (EL direction) and (2) the loading direction perpendicular to the foaming direction where the cell are equiaxed (EQ direction). The results show that the compression responses for both EL and EQ directions are isotropy. Micrographs and X-ray micro-computed tomography show that the degree of geometry anisotropy is not strong enough to results in mechanical property anisotropy.

  7. Geometry anisotropy and mechanical property isotropy in titanium foam fabricated by replica impregnation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manonukul, Anchalee; Srikudvien, Pathompoom; Tange, Makiko; Puncreobutr, Chedtha

    2016-01-01

    Polyurethane (PU) foams have both geometry and mechanical property anisotropy. Metal foams, which are manufacturing by investment casting or melt deposition method and using PU foam as a template, also have mechanical property anisotropy. This work studied the mechanical properties in two directions of titanium foam with four different cell sizes fabricated using the replica impregnation method. The two directions are (1) the loading direction parallel to the foaming direction where the cells are elongated (EL direction) and (2) the loading direction perpendicular to the foaming direction where the cell are equiaxed (EQ direction). The results show that the compression responses for both EL and EQ directions are isotropy. Micrographs and X-ray micro-computed tomography show that the degree of geometry anisotropy is not strong enough to results in mechanical property anisotropy.

  8. Correlation between physical structure and magnetic anisotropy of a magnetic nanoparticle colloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, C. L.; Jackson, A. J.; Borchers, J. A.; Gruettner, C.; Ivkov, R.

    2018-05-01

    We show the effects of a time-invariant magnetic field on the physical structure and magnetic properties of a colloid comprising 44 nm diameter magnetite magnetic nanoparticles, with a 24 nm dextran shell, in water. Structural ordering in this colloid parallel to the magnetic field occurs simultaneously with the onset of a colloidal uniaxial anisotropy. Further increases in the applied magnetic field cause the nanoparticles to order perpendicular to the field, producing unexpected colloidal unidirectional and trigonal anisotropies. This magnetic behavior is distinct from the cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the magnetite and has its origins in the magnetic interactions among the mobile nanoparticles within the colloid. Specifically, these field-induced anisotropies and colloidal rearrangements result from the delicate balance between the magnetostatic and steric forces between magnetic nanoparticles. These magnetic and structural rearrangements are anticipated to influence applications that rely upon time-dependent relaxation of the magnetic colloids and fluid viscosity, such as magnetic hyperthermia and shock absorption.

  9. Seismic Anisotropy of Soft Sands, Offshore Western AUstralia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urosevic, M.; Gurevich, B.

    2007-05-01

    the VSP data. Further analysis of the soft sand anisotropy was conducted on surface seismic data. Magnitude of the overlain shale anisotropy was first established by measurements in the dominant horizontal stress direction. Subsequently pre-stack reflection amplitudes measured along several azimuths were matched to expected amplitudes from anisotropic AVO modelling. The results indicate that the anisotropy of the reservoir sands is high (more than 10%) at sonic frequencies but weak (about 2-3%), at seismic frequencies. We think this anisotropy is caused by the preferential closure of compliant inter-granular contacts oriented perpendicular to the principal horizontal stress. The effect is weaker at seismic frequencies since the wavelength in this case involves shales as well as sand. Furthermore, sonic anisotropy could have also been affected by the local stress conditions around the wellbore.

  10. Discoveries that guided the beginning of perpendicular magnetic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, S.

    2001-01-01

    The speculations and discoveries that guided the beginning of perpendicular magnetic recording, which have never been systematically discussed before, are described in this paper. Especially, four important discoveries of perpendicular magnetization, Co-Cr film, effect of double layered medium, and complementarity law are described in detail. The studies on thin film media and recording mechanisms at short wavelengths aiming at the advancement of longitudinal magnetic recording in the 1960's lead to the realization of the new perpendicular magnetic recording through these discoveries. None of these works was on any list of research targets in the 1960's. The study of perpendicular magnetic recording has taught us that research should proceed systematically with definite targets and that it is important to have an attitude not to neglect phenomena that are different from the common sense at the time

  11. Electric field scales at quasi-perpendicular shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Walker

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the short scale structures that are observed in the electric field during crossings of the quasi-perpendicular bow shock using data from the Cluster satellites. These structures exhibit large amplitudes, as high as 70 m Vm-1 and so make a significant contribution to the overall change in potential at the shock front. It is shown that the scale size of these short-lived electric field structures is of the order of a few cpe. The relationships between the scale size and the upstream Mach number and θBn are studied. It is found that the scale size of these structures decreases with increasing plasma β and as θBn→90°. The amplitude of the spikes remains fairly constant with increasing Ma and appears to increase as θBn→90°.

  12. Modeling of Perpendicularly Driven Dual-Frequency Capacitively Coupled Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongyu; Sun Peng; Zhao Shuangyun; Li Yang; Jiang Wei

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed perpendicularly configured dual-frequency (DF) capacitively coupled plasmas (CCP). In this configuration, two pairs of electrodes are arranged oppositely, and the discharging is perpendicularly driven by two radio frequency (RF) sources. Particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo (PIC/MC) simulation showed that the configuration had some advantages as this configuration eliminated some dual frequency coupling effects. Some variation and potential application of the discharging configuration is discussed briefly. (paper)

  13. Effect of pressure anisotropy on the m=1 small wavelength modes in Z-pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, M. (Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm, Sweden. Dept. of Plasma Physics and Fusion Research)

    1987-05-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (r{SIGMA}B{sup 2})' {le} 0, where {SIGMA} = 1 - (P{sub parallel} - P{sub perpendicular} {sub to})/B/sup 2/. It cannot be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition {SIGMA} {ge} 0.

  14. Effect of pressure anisotropy on the m=1 small wavelength modes in Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.

    1987-01-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (rΣB 2 )' ≤ 0, where Σ = 1 - (P parallel - P perpendicular to )/B 2 . It cannot be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition Σ ≥ 0. (orig.)

  15. Anisotropy in electron-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden van den Heuvel, H.B. van.

    1982-01-01

    Most of the work described in this thesis deals with studies using coincidence experiments, particularly for investigating the electron impact excitation of the 2 1 P and 3 1 D states in helium. A peculiarity is that in the 3 1 D studies the directly emitted 3 1 D → 2 1 P photons are not observed but the 2 1 P → 1 1 S photons resulting from the 3 1 D → 2 1 P → 1 1 S cascade instead. Another interesting point is the choice of the quantisation axis. The author demonstrates that it is of great advantage to take the quantisation axis perpendicular to the scattering plane rather than in the direction of the incident beam, as was done (on historical grounds) in previously reported electron-photon coincidence experiments. Contrary to the incident beam direction the axis perpendicular to the scattering plane really represents an axis of symmetry in the coincidence experiment. In Chapter II the so-called 'parity unfavoured' excitation of the (2p 2 ) 3 P state of helium by electrons is studied. In chapter III the anisotropy parameters for the electron impact excitation of the 2 1 P state of helium in the energy range from 26.6 to 40 eV and in the angular range from 30 0 to 110 0 are determined. Chapter IV contains a description of a scattered electron cascaded-photon coincidence experiment on the electron impact excitation of helium's 3 1 D state. The measurement of complex scattering amplitudes for electron impact excitation of the 3 1 D and 3 1 P states of helium is discussed in Chapter V. (Auth./C.F.)

  16. Transport current anisotropy in oriented grained bulk YBa2Cu3O(x) superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Salama, K.

    1990-01-01

    The anisotropy in transport current density has been studied on bulk YBa2Cu3O(x) superconductor. The transport current density measurements were performed on oriented grained YBa2Cu3O(x) superconductor with the current aligned at different angles to the a-b plane. The angular dependence of Jc shows a rapid drop when the transport current is misaligned from the a-b plane at small angles and then a slow decrease at higher angles. An anisotropy ratio of about 25 is observed at 77 K and zero field between the Jc along a-b plane and that perpendicular to the plane. 15 refs

  17. Transport current anisotropy in oriented grained bulk YBa2Cu3Ox superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Salama, K.

    1990-01-01

    The anisotropy in transport current density has been studied on bulk YBa 2 Cu 3 O x superconductor. The transport current density measurements were performed on oriented grained YBa 2 Cu 3 O x superconductor with the current aligned at different angles to the a endash b plane. The angular dependence of J c shows a rapid drop when the transport current is misaligned from the a endash b plane at small angles and then a slow decrease at higher angles. An anisotropy ratio of about 25 is observed at 77 K and zero field between the J c along a endash b plane and that perpendicular to the plane

  18. Manipulating magnetic anisotropy of the ultrathin Co{sub 2}FeAl full-Heusler alloy film via growth orientation of the Pt buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, F.S., E-mail: wenfsh03@126.com [State Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Xiang, J.Y.; Hao, C.X.; Zhang, F.; Lv, Y.F. [State Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, W.H. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080 (China); Hu, W.T.; Liu, Z.Y. [State Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2013-12-15

    The ultrathin films of Co{sub 2}FeAl (CFA) full-Heusler alloy were prepared between two Pt layers on MgO single crystals by magnetron sputtering. By controlling the substrate temperature, different growth orientations of the Pt underlayers were realized, and their effects were investigated on the magnetic anisotropy of the ultrathin CFA film. It was revealed that different Pt orientations lead to distinctly different magnetic anisotropy for the sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. The Pt (111) orientation favors the perpendicular anisotropy, while the appearance of partial Pt (001) orientation leads to the quick decrease of perpendicular anisotropy and the complete Pt (001) orientation gives rise to the in-plane anisotropy. With the Pt (111) orientation, the temperature and thickness-induced spin reorientation transitions were investigated in the sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. - Highlights: • Different Pt orientations lead to different magnetic anisotropy for sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. • The Pt (111) orientation favors the perpendicular anisotropy for CFA layer. • Temperature and thickness-induced spin reorientation transitions were investigated in sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. • 0.8 nm CFA film is good candidate as electrode in magnetic tunnel junctions.

  19. Manipulating magnetic anisotropy of the ultrathin Co2FeAl full-Heusler alloy film via growth orientation of the Pt buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, F.S.; Xiang, J.Y.; Hao, C.X.; Zhang, F.; Lv, Y.F.; Wang, W.H.; Hu, W.T.; Liu, Z.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The ultrathin films of Co 2 FeAl (CFA) full-Heusler alloy were prepared between two Pt layers on MgO single crystals by magnetron sputtering. By controlling the substrate temperature, different growth orientations of the Pt underlayers were realized, and their effects were investigated on the magnetic anisotropy of the ultrathin CFA film. It was revealed that different Pt orientations lead to distinctly different magnetic anisotropy for the sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. The Pt (111) orientation favors the perpendicular anisotropy, while the appearance of partial Pt (001) orientation leads to the quick decrease of perpendicular anisotropy and the complete Pt (001) orientation gives rise to the in-plane anisotropy. With the Pt (111) orientation, the temperature and thickness-induced spin reorientation transitions were investigated in the sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. - Highlights: • Different Pt orientations lead to different magnetic anisotropy for sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. • The Pt (111) orientation favors the perpendicular anisotropy for CFA layer. • Temperature and thickness-induced spin reorientation transitions were investigated in sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. • 0.8 nm CFA film is good candidate as electrode in magnetic tunnel junctions

  20. Seismic anisotropies of the Songshugou peridotites (Qinling orogen, central China) and their seismic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Jung, Haemyeong; Song, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    Though extensively studied, the roles of olivine crystal preferred orientations (CPOs or fabrics) in affecting the seismic anisotropies in the Earth's upper mantle are rather complicated and still not fully known. In this study, we attempted to address this issue by analyzing the seismic anisotropies [e.g., P-wave anisotropy (AVp), S-wave polarization anisotropy (AVs), radial anisotropy (ξ), and Rayleigh wave anisotropy (G)] of the Songshugou peridotites (dunite dominated) in the Qinling orogen in central China, based on our previously reported olivine CPOs. The seismic anisotropy patterns of olivine aggregates in our studied samples are well consistent with the prediction for their olivine CPO types; and the magnitude of seismic anisotropies shows a striking positive correlation with equilibrium pressure and temperature (P-T) conditions. Significant reductions of seismic anisotropies (AVp, max. AVs, and G) are observed in porphyroclastic dunite compared to coarse- and fine-grained dunites, as the results of olivine CPO transition (from A-/D-type in coarse-grained dunite, through AG-type-like in porphyroclastic dunite, to B-type-like in fine-grained dunite) and strength variation (weakening: A-/D-type → AG-type-like; strengthening: AG-type-like → B-type-like) during dynamic recrystallization. The transition of olivine CPOs from A-/D-type to B-/AG-type-like in the forearc mantle may weaken the seismic anisotropies and deviate the fast velocity direction and the fast S-wave polarization direction from trench-perpendicular to trench-oblique direction with the cooling and aging of forearc mantle. Depending on the size and distribution of the peridotite body such as the Songshugou peridotites, B- and AG-type-like olivine CPOs can be an additional (despite minor) local contributor to the orogen-parallel fast velocity direction and fast shear-wave polarization direction in the orogenic crust such as in the Songshugou area in Qinling orogen.

  1. State diagram of a perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction driven by spin transfer torque: A power dissipation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavanant, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198 – Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Petit-Watelot, S. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198 – Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Kent, A.D. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Mangin, S., E-mail: stephane.mangin@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198 – Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France)

    2017-04-15

    The state diagram of a magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicularly magnetized electrodes in the presence of spin-transfer torques is computed in a macrospin approximation using a power dissipation model. Starting from the macrospin's energy we determine the stability of energy extremum in terms of power received and dissipated, allowing the consideration of non-conservative torques associated with spin transfer and damping. The results are shown to be in agreement with those obtained by direct integration of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation. However, the power dissipation model approach is faster and shows the reason certain magnetic states are stable, such as states that are energy maxima but are stabilized by spin transfer torque. Breaking the axial system, such as by a tilted applied field or tilted anisotropy, is shown to dramatically affect the state diagrams. Finally, the influence of a higher order uniaxial anisotropy that can stabilize a canted magnetization state is considered and the results are compared to experimental data. - Highlights: • Methods to compute state Diagram (Voltage Versus Field) for perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junctions. • Comparison between the conventional LLG model and a model based on Power dissipation to study magnetization reversal in magnetic tunnel junction.

  2. Induced moment due to perpendicular field cycling in trained ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in trained exchange bias system. AMITESH PAUL1,∗ and S ... in a phenomenological picture takes the form of a unidirectional magnetic anisotropy, is known as exchange ..... [19] C V Haesendonck, private communication. Pramana – J. Phys.

  3. No Giant Two-Ion Anisotropy in the Heavy-Rare-Earth Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1976-01-01

    A new Bose-operator expansion of tensor operators is applied to the heavy-rare-earth metals. The Er data for the cone phase have been analyzed successfully with single-ion anisotropy and isotropic exchange interaction. The Tb data can be understood on the same basis. The previously found large two......-ion anisotropy was due to an inadequate treatment of the large single-ion anisotropy leading to an incorrect expression for the spin-wave energy....

  4. Magnetic anisotropy of thin sputtered MgB2 films on MgO substrates in high magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savio Fabretti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the magnetic anisotropy ratio of thin sputtered polycrystalline MgB2 films on MgO substrates. Using high magnetic field measurements, we estimated an anisotropy ratio of 1.35 for T = 0 K with an upper critical field of 31.74 T in the parallel case and 23.5 T in the perpendicular case. Direct measurements of a magnetic-field sweep at 4.2 K show a linear behavior, confirmed by a linear fit for magnetic fields perpendicular to the film plane. Furthermore, we observed a change of up to 12% of the anisotropy ratio in dependence of the film thickness.

  5. Tuning the electrical and optical anisotropy of a monolayer black phosphorus magnetic superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. J.; Yu, J. H.; Luo, K.; Wu, Z. H.; Yang, W.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate theoretically the effects of modulated periodic perpendicular magnetic fields on the electronic states and optical absorption spectrum in monolayer black phosphorus (phosphorene). We demonstrate that different phosphorene magnetic superlattice (PMS) orientations can give rise to distinct energy spectra, i.e. tuning the intrinsic electronic anisotropy. Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) develops a spin-splitting energy dispersion in this phosphorene magnetic superlattice. Anisotropic momentum-dependent carrier distributions along/perpendicular to the magnetic strips are demonstrated. The manipulations of these exotic electronic properties by tuning superlattice geometry, magnetic field and the RSOC term are addressed systematically. Accordingly, we find bright-to-dark transitions in the ground-state electron-hole pair transition rate spectrum and the PMS orientation-dependent anisotropic optical absorption spectrum. This feature offers us a practical way of modulating the electronic anisotropy in phosphorene by magnetic superlattice configurations and detecting this modulation capability by using an optical technique.

  6. Microwave background anisotropies in quasiopen inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bellido, Juan; Garriga, Jaume; Montes, Xavier

    1999-10-01

    Quasiopenness seems to be generic to multifield models of single-bubble open inflation. Instead of producing infinite open universes, these models actually produce an ensemble of very large but finite inflating islands. In this paper we study the possible constraints from CMB anisotropies on existing models of open inflation. The effect of supercurvature anisotropies combined with the quasiopenness of the inflating regions make some models incompatible with observations, and severely reduces the parameter space of others. Supernatural open inflation and the uncoupled two-field model seem to be ruled out due to these constraints for values of Ω0<~0.98. Others, such as the open hybrid inflation model with suitable parameters for the slow roll potential can be made compatible with observations.

  7. Variation of the fractal dimension anisotropy of two major Cenozoic normal fault systems over space and time around the Snake River Plain, Idaho and SW Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    system in domain I. The CF system in the S1T5 domain has the highest fractal dimension (Db=1.37) and the lowest anisotropy eccentricity (1.23) among the five temporal domains. These values positively correlate with the observed maxima on the fault trace density maps. The major axis of the anisotropy ellipses is consistently perpendicular to the average trend of the normal fault system in each domain, and therefore approximates the orientation of extension for normal faulting in each domain. This fact gives a NE-SW and NW-SE extension direction for the BR system in domains I and II, respectively. The observed NE-SW orientation of the major axes of the anisotropy ellipses in the youngest T4 and T5 temporal domains, oriented perpendicular to the mean trend of the normal faults in the these domains, suggests extension along the NE-SW direction for cross faulting in these areas. The spatial trajectories (form lines) of the minor axes of the anisotropy ellipses, and the mean trend of fault traces in the T4 and T5 temporal domains, define a large parabolic pattern about the axis of the eastern SRP, with its apex at the Yellowstone plateau.

  8. The Effect of Cumulus Cloud Field Anisotropy on Domain-Averaged Solar Fluxes and Atmospheric Heating Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkelman, Laura M.; Evans, K. Franklin; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Cumulus clouds can become tilted or elongated in the presence of wind shear. Nevertheless, most studies of the interaction of cumulus clouds and radiation have assumed these clouds to be isotropic. This paper describes an investigation of the effect of fair-weather cumulus cloud field anisotropy on domain-averaged solar fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles. A stochastic field generation algorithm was used to produce twenty three-dimensional liquid water content fields based on the statistical properties of cloud scenes from a large eddy simulation. Progressively greater degrees of x-z plane tilting and horizontal stretching were imposed on each of these scenes, so that an ensemble of scenes was produced for each level of distortion. The resulting scenes were used as input to a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. Domain-average transmission, reflection, and absorption of broadband solar radiation were computed for each scene along with the average heating rate profile. Both tilt and horizontal stretching were found to significantly affect calculated fluxes, with the amount and sign of flux differences depending strongly on sun position relative to cloud distortion geometry. The mechanisms by which anisotropy interacts with solar fluxes were investigated by comparisons to independent pixel approximation and tilted independent pixel approximation computations for the same scenes. Cumulus anisotropy was found to most strongly impact solar radiative transfer by changing the effective cloud fraction, i.e., the cloud fraction when the field is projected on a surface perpendicular to the direction of the incident solar beam.

  9. Theoretical analysis of low-energy proton and helium anisotropies in the outer heliosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, M.A.; McDonald, F.B.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of the anisotropies of low-energy protons and helium near the ecliptic plane at 12 AU in 1977 reported by McDonald and Forman, in terms of the standard convection-diffusion and drift expressions, and using the observed gradients and spectral indices, shows that their mean free paths are approximately 10 AU parallel to the mean magnetic field, that k perpendicular may be substantially larger than k transverse 2 /k parallel and that these particles may be flowing radially

  10. Dark matter electron anisotropy. A universal upper limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borriello, Enrico; Maccione, Luca; Cuoco, Alessandro

    2010-12-01

    Indirect searches of particle Dark Matter (DM) with high energy Cosmic Rays (CR) are affected by large uncertainties, coming both from the DM side, and from poor understanding of the astrophysical backgrounds. We show that, on the contrary, the DM intrinsic degree of anisotropy in the arrival directions of high energy CR electrons and positrons does not suffer from these unknowns. Furthermore, if contributions from possible local sources are neglected, the intrinsic DM anisotropy sets the maximum degree of total anisotropy. As a consequence, if some anisotropy larger than the DM upper bound is detected, its origin could not be ascribed to DM, and would constitute an unambiguous evidence for the presence of astrophysical local discrete sources of high energy electrons and positrons. The Fermi-LAT will be able to probe such scenarios in the next years. (orig.)

  11. Compression strength perpendicular to grain of structural timber and glulam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Pedersen, Torben N.

    1998-01-01

    The characteristic strength values for compression perpendicular to grain as they appear in EN 338 (structural timber) and EN 1194 (glulam) are currently up for discussion. The present paper provides experimental results based on EN 1193 that may assist in the correct assignment of such strength...... values. The dominant failure mode of glulam specimens is shown to be fundamentally different from that of structural timber specimens. Glulam specimens often show tension perpendicular to grain failure before the compression strength value is reached. Such failure mode is not seen for structural timber....... Nonetheless test results show that the levels of characteristic compression strength perpendicular to grain are of the same order for structural timber and glulam. The values are slightly lower than those appearing in EN 1194 and less than half of those appearing in EN 338. The paper presents a numerical...

  12. Anisotropy in electromagnetic field variations and its implication for lateral inhomogeneity of the electrical conductivity structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkura, Y.; Watanabe, N.; Kaneko, Y.; Oshima, S.

    1989-03-01

    Two-dimensional analyses of magnetotelluric data provide information on anisotropic response for two different polarization cases; the so-called B-polarization and E-polarization cases. Similar anisotropy should also be observed in the horizontal components of magnetic field variations. On the assumption that a reference station provides the normal magnetic field, transfer functions for the horizontal magnetic fields can be derived in a fashion similar to the impedance analysis for magnetotelluric data. We applied this method to magnetic data obtained at some observation sites in a geothermal area in Japan. Transfer functions for the horizontal magnetic fields exhibit a strong anisotropy with the preferred direction nearly perpendicular to that for the electric field. This result implies the existence of strong electric currents flowing in the direction perpendicular to the above preferred direction for the magnetic field. The present method was also applied to the horizontal components of magnetic field variations observed at the seafloor. In this case, a magnetic observatory on land was taken as the reference station, and attenuation of the amplitude of horizontal magnetic field variation was examined. Anisotropy in attenuation was then found with the preferred direction perpendicular to the axis of the Okinawa trough where the seafloor measurement was undertaken.

  13. Some design considerations for perpendicular biased ferrite tuners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enchevich, I.B.; Poirier, R.L.

    1994-10-01

    Recently remarkable progress has been achieved in the development of perpendicular biased ferrite tuned rf resonators for fast cycled synchrotrons. Compared with the broadly used parallel biased rf cavities they provide higher resonator quality factor Q. However when designing perpendicular biased cavities, special attention should be paid to the methods to provide eddy current suppression in the resonator walls, the ferrite nonlinearity influence, the generated heat removal, the fast self resonant frequency control. The prospective of a faster additional biasing system are discussed and conclusions are drawn. (author). 8 refs., 6 figs

  14. Shear bands and anisotropy of the mechanical properties of an MA2-1pch magnesium alloy after equal-channel angular pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryany, V. N.; Khar'kova, M. A.; D'yakonov, G. S.; Kopylov, V. I.; Dobatkin, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    Effect of structure and texture on the anisotropy of the mechanical properties of the MA2-1pch magnesium alloy subjected to equal-channel angular pressing and subsequent annealing has been studied in two mutually perpendicular planes Y and X (along and across the pressing direction). The anisotropy of the mechanical properties is shown to be due to various orientations of shear bands and various types of texture inside the bands and outside them in planes X and Y.

  15. Anomalous Hall effect assisted by interfacial chemical reaction in perpendicular Co/Pt multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Jiang, Shaolong; Teng, Jiao

    2018-05-01

    To uncover the underlying mechanism of Mg effect on the improved anomalous Hall effect (AHE) of perpendicular [Pt/Co]3/Mg/HfO2 multilayers, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis has been carried out. It is found that Mg interlayer at the Co/HfO2 interface could prevent the Co oxidation to some extent via interfacial chemical reaction. As a result, A large anomalous Hall resistivity (ρAH) is obtained in perpendicular [Pt/Co]3/Mg/HfO2 multilayers, with a maximum ρAH of 3.02 μΩ cm, which is 59% larger than that in Co/Pt multilayers without Mg insertion. This effective modification of the AHE based on interfacial chemical reaction provides a promising pathway for spintronic applications.

  16. Antiferromagnetic iridium-manganese intermediate layers for perpendicular recording media (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Kumar; Piramanayagam, S. N.; Sbiaa, Rachid; Kay, Yew Seng; Tan, Hang Khume; Wong, Seng Kai

    2009-04-01

    Current generation of cobalt-oxide-based perpendicular magnetic recording media uses single or dual ruthenium intermediate layers in order to grow crystallographically textured, and magnetically isolated granular media. In this work, the potential advantages of an antiferromagnetic iridium-manganese intermediate layer directly under the recording layer are highlighted. Owing to its close lattice matching with hexagonal cobalt, iridium-manganese which has the L12, or AuCu3-type crystal structure, can support the heteroepitaxial growth of the cobalt-based recording layer. In one of the media schemes described here, (111) textured iridium-manganese thin film was grown on 7.5 nm thick ruthenium layer. On the iridium-manganese as segregation layer, the Co-oxide-based magnetic recording layer showed perpendicular texture with Δθ50 below 4°, coercivity of over 4000 Oe alongside magnetic exchange decoupling, average grain sizes of 6 nm with distributions under 14%, and improved thermal stability. Measurements of the anisotropy constant did not show any significant change and even an IrMn capping layer was observed to improve the thermal stability. The possible mechanisms through which the IrMn layer could affect the thermal stability are hypothesized. The initial layers of the magnetic recording layer on IrMn segregation layers also showed exchange-decoupled and segregated grains, which is unlike that observed on Ru segregation layers. In a second media scheme, (111) textured iridium-manganese thin film was grown on a crystalline soft magnetic underlayer belonging on top of amorphous soft underlayers. In this scheme, partial pinning of the soft underlayer due to exchange-bias interaction with the IrMn layer was observed. This scheme offers the possibility to reduce the intermediate layer thickness, thus improve media writability, and with further optimization, could potentially facilitate the approach toward 1 Tbits/in.2.

  17. Origin and spectroscopic determination of trigonal anisotropy in a heteronuclear single-molecule magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorace, L.; Boulon, M.-E.; Totaro, P.; Cornia, A.; Fernandes-Soares, J.; Sessoli, R.

    2013-09-01

    W-band (ν ≅ 94 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used for a single-crystal study of a star-shaped Fe3Cr single-molecule magnet (SMM) with crystallographically imposed trigonal symmetry. The high resolution and sensitivity accessible with W-band EPR allowed us to determine accurately the axial zero-field splitting terms for the ground (S = 6) and first two excited states (S = 5 and S = 4). Furthermore, spectra recorded by applying the magnetic field perpendicular to the trigonal axis showed a π/6 angular modulation. This behavior is a signature of the presence of trigonal transverse magnetic anisotropy terms whose values had not been spectroscopically determined in any SMM prior to this work. Such in-plane anisotropy could only be justified by dropping the so-called “giant spin approach” and by considering a complete multispin approach. From a detailed analysis of experimental data with the two models, it emerged that the observed trigonal anisotropy directly reflects the structural features of the cluster, i.e., the relative orientation of single-ion anisotropy tensors and the angular modulation of single-ion anisotropy components in the hard plane of the cluster. Finally, since high-order transverse anisotropy is pivotal in determining the spin dynamics in the quantum tunneling regime, we have compared the angular dependence of the tunnel splitting predicted by the two models upon application of a transverse field (Berry-phase interference).

  18. THE EFFECT OF INTERMITTENT GYRO-SCALE SLAB TURBULENCE ON PARALLEL AND PERPENDICULAR COSMIC-RAY TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier work based on nonlinear guiding center (NLGC) theory suggested that perpendicular cosmic-ray transport is diffusive when cosmic rays encounter random three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence dominated by uniform two-dimensional (2D) turbulence with a minor uniform slab turbulence component. In this approach large-scale perpendicular cosmic-ray transport is due to cosmic rays microscopically diffusing along the meandering magnetic field dominated by 2D turbulence because of gyroresonant interactions with slab turbulence. However, turbulence in the solar wind is intermittent and it has been suggested that intermittent turbulence might be responsible for the observation of 'dropout' events in solar energetic particle fluxes on small scales. In a previous paper le Roux et al. suggested, using NLGC theory as a basis, that if gyro-scale slab turbulence is intermittent, large-scale perpendicular cosmic-ray transport in weak uniform 2D turbulence will be superdiffusive or subdiffusive depending on the statistical characteristics of the intermittent slab turbulence. In this paper we expand and refine our previous work further by investigating how both parallel and perpendicular transport are affected by intermittent slab turbulence for weak as well as strong uniform 2D turbulence. The main new finding is that both parallel and perpendicular transport are the net effect of an interplay between diffusive and nondiffusive (superdiffusive or subdiffusive) transport effects as a consequence of this intermittency.

  19. THE EFFECT OF INTERMITTENT GYRO-SCALE SLAB TURBULENCE ON PARALLEL AND PERPENDICULAR COSMIC-RAY TRANSPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, J. A. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    Earlier work based on nonlinear guiding center (NLGC) theory suggested that perpendicular cosmic-ray transport is diffusive when cosmic rays encounter random three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence dominated by uniform two-dimensional (2D) turbulence with a minor uniform slab turbulence component. In this approach large-scale perpendicular cosmic-ray transport is due to cosmic rays microscopically diffusing along the meandering magnetic field dominated by 2D turbulence because of gyroresonant interactions with slab turbulence. However, turbulence in the solar wind is intermittent and it has been suggested that intermittent turbulence might be responsible for the observation of 'dropout' events in solar energetic particle fluxes on small scales. In a previous paper le Roux et al. suggested, using NLGC theory as a basis, that if gyro-scale slab turbulence is intermittent, large-scale perpendicular cosmic-ray transport in weak uniform 2D turbulence will be superdiffusive or subdiffusive depending on the statistical characteristics of the intermittent slab turbulence. In this paper we expand and refine our previous work further by investigating how both parallel and perpendicular transport are affected by intermittent slab turbulence for weak as well as strong uniform 2D turbulence. The main new finding is that both parallel and perpendicular transport are the net effect of an interplay between diffusive and nondiffusive (superdiffusive or subdiffusive) transport effects as a consequence of this intermittency.

  20. Timber beams loaded perpendicular to grain by multiple connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, A.J.M.; Schoenmakers, J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    In timber structures, beams which are loaded perpendicular to grain by connections along the span may fail by splitting, resulting in the collapse of the beam. In the past, empirical, semi-empirical and fracture mechanical models have been developed aiming at predicting the splitting failure load.

  1. Streamer discharges can move perpendicularly to the electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, S.; Takahashi, E.; Teunissen, J.; Ebert, U.

    2014-01-01

    Streamer discharges are a primary mode of electric breakdown in thunderstorms and high voltage technology; they are generally believed to grow along electric field lines. However, we here give experimental and numerical evidence that streamers can propagate nearly perpendicularly to the background

  2. Pressure anisotropy and radial stress balance in the Jovian neutral sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranicas, C. P.; Mauk, B. H.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    By examining particle and magnetic field data from the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft, signatures were found indicating that the (greater than about 28 keV) particle pressure parallel to the magnetic field is greater than the pressure perpendicular to the field within the nightside neutral sheet (three nightside neutral sheet crossings, with favorable experimental conditions, were used). By incorporating the pressure anisotropy into the calculation of radial forces within the hightside neutral sheet, it is found that (1) force balance is approximately achieved and (2) the anisotropy force term provides the largest contribution of the other particle forces considered (pressure gradients and the corotation centrifugal force). With regard to the problem of understanding the balance of radial forces within the dayside neutral sheet (McNutt, 1984; Mauk and Krimigis, 1987), the nightside pressure anisotropy force is larger than the dayside pressure gradient forces at equivalent radial distances; however, a full accounting of the dayside regions remains to be achieved.

  3. Development of a tensile-stress-induced anisotropy in amorphous magnetic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, K.; Vazquez, M.; Garcia, D.; Castano, F.J.; Prados, C.; Hernando, A.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic anisotropy was induced in positive magnetostrictive Fe 80 B 20 and negative magnetostrictive Co 75 Si 15 B 10 thin films by developing a tensile stress within the samples. The films were grown on the concave surfaces of mechanically bowed glass substrates. On releasing the substrates from the substrate holders, a tensile stress was developed within the samples that modified the domain structure. As a result of it, a magnetic easy axis parallel to the direction of the stress was induced in FeB sample whereas in CoSiB sample the induced easy axis was perpendicular to the direction of the developed stress. To produce magnetic multilayers with crossed anisotropy, FeB/CoSiB bilayers and FeB/Cu/CoSiB trilayers were grown on bowed substrates. The study of magnetic properties of the multilayers indicates the development of crossed anisotropy within them, particularly when the magnetic layers are separated by a nonmagnetic Cu layer

  4. Effect of anisotropy on anomalous Hall effect in Tb-Fe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, V. Hari; Markandeyulu, G.; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2009-01-01

    The electrical and Hall resistivities of Tb x Fe 100-x thin films in the temperature range 13-300 K were investigated. The sign of Hall resistivity at 300 K is found to change from positive for x=28 film to negative for x=30 film, in accordance with the compensation of Tb and Fe moments. All the films are seen to have planar magnetic anisotropy at 13 K. The temperature coefficients of electrical resistivities of the amorphous films with 19≤x≤51 are seen to be negative. The temperature dependence of Hall resistivity of these films is explained on the basis of random magnetic anisotropy model. The temperature dependences of Hall resistivities of the x=22 and 41 films are seen to exhibit a nonmonotonous behavior due to change in anisotropy from perpendicular to planar. The same behavior is considered for the explanation regarding the probable formation of Berry phase curvature in these films.

  5. Preliminary results of characteristic seismic anisotropy beneath Sunda-Banda subduction-collision zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiyono, Samsul H., E-mail: samsul.wiyono@bmkg.go.id [Study Program of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Indonesia’s Agency for Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics, Jakarta 10610 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Indonesia’s Agency for Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics, Jakarta 10610 (Indonesia); Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung 40132, Indonesia, Phone: +62-22 2534137 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Determining of seismic anisotropy allowed us for understanding the deformation processes that occured in the past and present. In this study, we performed shear wave splitting to characterize seismic anisotropy beneath Sunda-Banda subduction-collision zone. For about 1,610 XKS waveforms from INATEWS-BMKG networks have been analyzed. From its measurements showed that fast polarization direction is consistent with trench-perpendicular orientation but several stations presented different orientation. We also compared between fast polarization direction with absolute plate motion in the no net rotation and hotspot frame. Its result showed that both absolute plate motion frame had strong correlation with fast polarization direction. Strong correlation between the fast polarization direction and the absolute plate motion can be interpreted as the possibility of dominant anisotropy is in the asthenosphere.

  6. Effect of anisotropy on the magnon energy gap in a two-layer ferromagnetic superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Rongke; Liang Jing; Li Qingfeng; Zhang Zhidong; Song Panpan; Hong Xiaomin

    2009-01-01

    The magnon energy bands or spectra in a two-layer ferromagnetic superlattice are studied. It is found that a modulated energy gap exists in the magnon energy band along K x direction perpendicular to the superlattice plane, which is different from the optical magnon gap at K x =0. The anisotropy, the spin quantum numbers and the interlayer exchange couplings all affect the magnon energy gap. If the anisotropy exists, there will be no acoustic energy branch in the system. There is a competition effect of the anisotropy and the spin quantum number on the magnon energy gap. The competition achieves a balance at the zero energy gap, at which the symmetry of the system is higher. The two energy spectra of the two-layer ferromagnetic superlattice are lowered with increasing temperature.

  7. Field driven ferromagnetic phase nucleation and propagation from the domain boundaries in antiferromagnetically coupled perpendicular anisotropy films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauet, Thomas; Gunther, Christian M.; Hovorka, Ondrej; Berger, Andreas; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Hellwig, Olav

    2008-12-09

    We investigate the reversal process in antiferromagnetically coupled [Co/Pt]{sub X-1}/{l_brace}Co/Ru/[Co/Pt]{sub X-1}{r_brace}{sub 16} multilayer films by combining magnetometry and Magnetic soft X-ray Transmission Microscopy (MXTM). After out-of-plane demagnetization, a stable one dimensional ferromagnetic (FM) stripe domain phase (tiger-tail phase) for a thick stack sample (X=7 is obtained), while metastable sharp antiferromagnetic (AF) domain walls are observed in the remanent state for a thinner stack sample (X=6). When applying an external magnetic field the sharp domain walls of the thinner stack sample transform at a certain threshold field into the FM stripe domain wall phase. We present magnetic energy calculations that reveal the underlying energetics driving the overall reversal mechanisms.

  8. Variable substrate temperature deposition of CoFeB film on Ta for manipulating the perpendicular coercive forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, Saravanan; Rao, Subha Krishna [Nanotechnology Research Centre, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India); Muthuvel, Manivel Raja [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL), Hyderabad 500058 (India); Chandrasekaran, Gopalakrishnan [Nanotechnology Research Centre, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India); Therese, Helen Annal, E-mail: helen.a@ktr.srmuniv.ac.in [Nanotechnology Research Centre, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Ta/CoFeB(50 nm)/Ta thin films were deposited at various substrate temperatures (T{sub s}). • CoFeB films deposited at T{sub s} such as RT, 450 °C, 475 °C and 500 °C exhibited perpendicular coercivity. • CoFeB deposited at 475 °C displayed a higher coercivity of 315 Oe and a low M{sub s} of 169 emu/cc. • The enhanced crystallization of CoFeB at the Ta/CoFeB interface results in higher H{sub c} (⟂). - Abstract: Magnetization of Ta/CoFeB/Ta trilayer films with thick layer of CoFeB deposited under different substrate temperatures (T{sub s}) via ultra-high vacuum DC sputtering technique has been measured with the applied magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the film respectively to study the perpendicular coercive forces of the film. The samples were further analyzed for its structural, topological, morphological, and electrical transport properties. The core chemical states for the elements present in the CoFeB thin film were analyzed by XPS studies. Magnetization studies reveal the existence of perpendicular coercive forces in CoFeB films deposited only at certain temperatures such as RT, 450 °C, 475 °C and 500 °C. CoFeB film deposited at 475 °C exhibited a maximum coercivity of 315 Oe and a very low saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of 169 emu/cc in perpendicular direction. This pronounced effect in perpendicular coercive forces observed for CoFeB475 could be attributed to the effect of temperature in enhancing the crystallization of the film at the Ta/CoFeB interfaces. However at temperatures higher than 475 °C the destruction of the Ta/CoFeB interface due to intermixing of Ta and CoFeB results in the disappearance of magnetic anisotropy.

  9. Searches for Large-Scale Anisotropy in the Arrival Directions of Cosmic Rays Detected above Energy of $10^{19}$ eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, Alexander; et al,

    2014-10-07

    Spherical harmonic moments are well-suited for capturing anisotropy at any scale in the flux of cosmic rays. An unambiguous measurement of the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients requires full-sky coverage. This can be achieved by combining data from observatories located in both the northern and southern hemispheres. To this end, a joint analysis using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory above 1019 eV is presented in this work. The resulting multipolar expansion of the flux of cosmic rays allows us to perform a series of anisotropy searches, and in particular to report on the angular power spectrum of cosmic rays above 1019 eV. No significant deviation from isotropic expectations is found throughout the analyses performed. Upper limits on the amplitudes of the dipole and quadrupole moments are derived as a function of the direction in the sky, varying between 7% and 13% for the dipole and between 7% and 10% for a symmetric quadrupole.

  10. Feasibilty of a Multi-bit Cell Perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junction Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Soo

    deposition because the high sputtering power can degrade perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the bottom L1 0 FePt film and also increase RMS film surface roughness of the MgO tunnel barrier layer. From a lithographically unpatterned PMTJ sample, MR ratio and RA were measured at room temperature by the CIPT method and found to be 138% and 6.4 kOmicrom2, respectively. A completed PMTJ test pattern with a junction size of 80x40 microm2 was fabricated and showed a measured MR ratio and RA product of 108% and 4~6 kOmicrom 2, respectively. These values agree relatively well with the corresponding values of 138% and 6.4 kOmicrom2 obtained from the unpatterned PMTJ sample measured by a current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) method.

  11. Measuring the cosmological lepton asymmetry through the CMB anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Kinney, W H; Kinney, William H.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    A large lepton asymmetry in the Universe is still a viable possibility and leads to many interesting phenomena such as gauge symmetry nonrestoration at high temperature. We show that a large lepton asymmetry changes the predicted cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and that any degeneracy in the relic neutrino sea will be measured to a precision of 1% or better when the CMB anisotropy is measured at the accuracy expected to result from the planned satellite missions MAP and Planck. In fact, the current measurements already put an upper limit on the lepton asymmetry of the Universe which is stronger than the one coming from considerations of primordial nucleosynthesis and structure formation.

  12. Metallic transport and large anomalous Hall effect at room temperature in ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 4}N epitaxial thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xi; Shigematsu, Kei [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Chikamatsu, Akira, E-mail: chikamatsu@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Fukumura, Tomoteru [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)

    2014-08-18

    We report the electrical transport properties of ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 4}N (001) epitaxial thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on MgO (001) substrates. The Mn{sub 4}N thin films were tetragonally distorted with a ratio of out-of-plane to in-plane lattice constants of 0.987 and showed perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with an effective magnetic anisotropy constant of 0.16 MJ/m{sup 3}, which is comparable with that of a recently reported molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown film. The thin films exhibited metallic transport with a room temperature resistivity of 125 μΩ cm in addition to a large anomalous Hall effect with a Hall angle tangent of 0.023.

  13. Metallic transport and large anomalous Hall effect at room temperature in ferrimagnetic Mn4N epitaxial thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Xi; Shigematsu, Kei; Chikamatsu, Akira; Fukumura, Tomoteru; Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    We report the electrical transport properties of ferrimagnetic Mn 4 N (001) epitaxial thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on MgO (001) substrates. The Mn 4 N thin films were tetragonally distorted with a ratio of out-of-plane to in-plane lattice constants of 0.987 and showed perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with an effective magnetic anisotropy constant of 0.16 MJ/m 3 , which is comparable with that of a recently reported molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown film. The thin films exhibited metallic transport with a room temperature resistivity of 125 μΩ cm in addition to a large anomalous Hall effect with a Hall angle tangent of 0.023.

  14. Spin-orbit torques for current parallel and perpendicular to a domain wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Tomek; Lee, Kyujoon; Karnad, Gurucharan V. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Alejos, Oscar [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belen, 7, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Martinez, Eduardo; Moretti, Simone [Departamento Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de los Caidos s/n, E-38008 Salamanca (Spain); Hals, Kjetil M. D. [Niels Bohr International Academy and the Center for Quantum Devices, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Garcia, Karin; Ravelosona, Dafiné [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Vila, Laurent [Institut Nanosciences et Cryogénie, Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Institut Nanosciences et Cryogénie, CEA, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Lo Conte, Roberto; Kläui, Mathias [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Graduate School of Excellence “Materials Science in Mainz” (MAINZ), Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Ocker, Berthold [Singulus Technologies AG, 63796 Kahl am Main (Germany); Brataas, Arne [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2015-09-21

    We report field- and current-induced domain wall (DW) depinning experiments in Ta\\Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}\\MgO nanowires through a Hall cross geometry. While purely field-induced depinning shows no angular dependence on in-plane fields, the effect of the current depends crucially on the internal DW structure, which we manipulate by an external magnetic in-plane field. We show depinning measurements for a current sent parallel to the DW and compare its depinning efficiency with the conventional case of current flowing perpendicularly to the DW. We find that the maximum efficiency is similar for both current directions within the error bars, which is in line with a dominating damping-like spin-orbit torque (SOT) and indicates that no large additional torques arise for currents perpendicular to the DW. Finally, we find a varying dependence of the maximum depinning efficiency angle for different DWs and pinning levels. This emphasizes the importance of our full angular scans compared with previously used measurements for just two field directions (parallel and perpendicular to the DW) to determine the real torque strength and shows the sensitivity of the SOT to the precise DW structure and pinning sites.

  15. Spin-orbit torques for current parallel and perpendicular to a domain wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Tomek; Lee, Kyujoon; Karnad, Gurucharan V.; Alejos, Oscar; Martinez, Eduardo; Moretti, Simone; Hals, Kjetil M. D.; Garcia, Karin; Ravelosona, Dafiné; Vila, Laurent; Lo Conte, Roberto; Kläui, Mathias; Ocker, Berthold; Brataas, Arne

    2015-01-01

    We report field- and current-induced domain wall (DW) depinning experiments in Ta\\Co 20 Fe 60 B 20 \\MgO nanowires through a Hall cross geometry. While purely field-induced depinning shows no angular dependence on in-plane fields, the effect of the current depends crucially on the internal DW structure, which we manipulate by an external magnetic in-plane field. We show depinning measurements for a current sent parallel to the DW and compare its depinning efficiency with the conventional case of current flowing perpendicularly to the DW. We find that the maximum efficiency is similar for both current directions within the error bars, which is in line with a dominating damping-like spin-orbit torque (SOT) and indicates that no large additional torques arise for currents perpendicular to the DW. Finally, we find a varying dependence of the maximum depinning efficiency angle for different DWs and pinning levels. This emphasizes the importance of our full angular scans compared with previously used measurements for just two field directions (parallel and perpendicular to the DW) to determine the real torque strength and shows the sensitivity of the SOT to the precise DW structure and pinning sites

  16. Surface energy anisotropy of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R; Grenga, H E [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta (USA). School of Chemical Engineering

    1976-10-01

    Field-ion microscopy was used to study the faceting behavior and/or surface energy anisotropy of tungsten in vacuum and in hydrogen. In vacuum below 1700 K the activation energy for (110) facet growth agreed with values previously reported for surface diffusion on tungsten. The observed anisotropy values at 0.5 Tsub(m), where Tsub(m) is the absolute melting temperature of tungsten (approximately 3680 K), were different from those previously reported at higher temperatures and more nearly agreed with broken bond calculations based on Mie potential using m=5, n=8, and a 1.5% lattice expansion. Hydrogen appeared to have a negligible effect on surface energy anisotropy, but did preferentially increase surface diffusion rates on (310) regions.

  17. Tunable anomalous hall effect induced by interfacial catalyst in perpendicular multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Peng, W. L.; Sun, Q. Y.; Liu, Y. W.; Dong, B. W.; Zheng, X. Q.; Yu, G. H.; Wang, C.; Zhao, Y. C.; Wang, S. G.

    2018-04-01

    The interfacial structures, playing a critical role on the transport properties and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in thin films and multilayers, can be modified by inserting an ultrathin functional layer at the various interfaces. The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in the multilayers with core structure of Ta/CoFeB/X/MgO/Ta (X: Hf or Pt) is tuned by interfacial catalytic engineering. The saturation anomalous Hall resistance (RAH) is increased by 16.5% with 0.1 nm Hf insertion compared with the reference sample without insertion. However, the RAH value is decreased by 9.0% with 0.1 nm Pt insertion. The interfacial states were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS results indicate that a strong bonding between Hf and O for Hf insertion, but no bonding between Pt and O for Pt insertion. The bonding between metal and oxygen leads to various oxygen migration behavior at the interfaces. Therefore, the opposite behavior about the RAH originates from the different oxygen behavior due to various interfacial insertion. This work provides a new approach to manipulate spin transport property for the potential applications.

  18. Electric-field control of magnetic domain-wall velocity in ultrathin cobalt with perpendicular magnetization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, D; Kawaguchi, M; Fukami, S; Ishiwata, N; Shimamura, K; Kobayashi, K; Ono, T

    2012-06-06

    Controlling the displacement of a magnetic domain wall is potentially useful for information processing in magnetic non-volatile memories and logic devices. A magnetic domain wall can be moved by applying an external magnetic field and/or electric current, and its velocity depends on their magnitudes. Here we show that the applying an electric field can change the velocity of a magnetic domain wall significantly. A field-effect device, consisting of a top-gate electrode, a dielectric insulator layer, and a wire-shaped ferromagnetic Co/Pt thin layer with perpendicular anisotropy, was used to observe it in a finite magnetic field. We found that the application of the electric fields in the range of ± 2-3 MV cm(-1) can change the magnetic domain wall velocity in its creep regime (10(6)-10(3) m s(-1)) by more than an order of magnitude. This significant change is due to electrical modulation of the energy barrier for the magnetic domain wall motion.

  19. Quantifying the effects of disorder on switching of perpendicular spin ice arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempinger, Susan; Fraleigh, Robert; Lammert, Paul; Crespi, Vincent; Samarth, Nitin; Zhang, Sheng; Schiffer, Peter

    There is much contemporary interest in probing custom designed, frustrated systems such as artificial spin ice. To that end, we study arrays of lithographically patterned, single-domain Pt/Co multilayer islands. Due to the perpendicular anisotropy of these materials, we are able to use diffraction-limited magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy to access the magnetic state in situ with an applied field. As we tune the interaction strength by adjusting the lattice spacing, we observe the switching field distribution broadening with increasing dipolar interactions. Using a simple mathematical analysis we extract the intrinsic disorder (the disorder that would be present without interactions) from these switching field distributions. We also characterize the intrinsic disorder by systematically removing neighbor effects from the switching field distribution. Understanding this disorder contribution as well as the interaction strength allows us to more accurately characterize the moment correlation. This project was funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division under Grant No. DE- SC0010778

  20. Ferrimagnetic Properties of Bond Dilution Mixed Blume-Capel Model with Random Single-Ion Anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lei; Yan Shilei

    2005-01-01

    We study the ferrimagnetic properties of spin 1/2 and spin-1 systems by means of the effective field theory. The system is considered in the framework of bond dilution mixed Blume-Capel model (BCM) with random single-ion anisotropy. The investigation of phase diagrams and magnetization curves indicates the existence of induced magnetic ordering and single or multi-compensation points. Special emphasis is placed on the influence of bond dilution and random single-ion anisotropy on normal or induced magnetic ordering states and single or multi-compensation points. Normal magnetic ordering states take on new phase diagrams with increasing randomness (bond and anisotropy), while anisotropy induced magnetic ordering states are always occurrence no matter whether concentration of anisotropy is large or small. Existence and disappearance of compensation points rely strongly on bond dilution and random single-ion anisotropy. Some results have not been revealed in previous papers and predicted by Neel theory of ferrimagnetism.

  1. Momentum anisotropy at freeze out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feld, S.; Borghini, N.; Lang, C.

    2017-01-01

    The transition from a hydrodynamical modeling to a particle-based approach is a crucial element of the description of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Assuming this “freeze out” happens instantaneously at each point of the expanding medium, we show that the local phase-space distribution of the emitted particles is asymmetric in momentum space. This suggests the use of anisotropic hydrodynamics for the last stages of the fluid evolution. We discuss how observables depend on the amount of momentum-space anisotropy at freeze out and how smaller or larger anisotropies allow for different values of the freeze-out temperature. (paper)

  2. Effect of grain boundary phase on the magnetization reversal process of nanocrystalline magnet using large-scale micromagnetic simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tsukahara

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of grain boundary phases on magnetization reversal in permanent magnets by performing large-scale micromagnetic simulations based on Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation under a periodic boundary. We considered planar grain boundary phases parallel and perpendicular to an easy axis of the permanent magnet and assumed the saturation magnetization and exchange stiffness constant of the grain boundary phase to be 10% and 1%, respectively, for Nd2Fe14B grains. The grain boundary phase parallel to the easy axis effectively inhibits propagation of magnetization reversal. In contrast, the domain wall moves across the grain boundary perpendicular to the easy axis. These properties of the domain wall motion are explained by dipole interaction, which stabilizes the antiparallel magnetic configuration in the direction perpendicular to the magnetization orientation. On the other hand, the magnetization is aligned in the same direction by the dipole interaction parallel to the magnetization orientation. This anisotropy of the effect of the grain boundary phase shows that improvement of the grain boundary phase perpendicular to the easy axis effectively enhances the coercivity of permanent magnets.

  3. Plagioclase-dominated Seismic Anisotropy in the Basin and Range Lower Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, R. E.; Behr, W. M.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of seismic anisotropy have the ability to provide important information on deformation and structures within the lithosphere. While the mechanisms controlling seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle are fairly well understood (i.e., olivine "lattice preferred orientation" or LPO), less is known about the minerals and structures controlling regional lower crustal anisotropy. We use lower crustal xenoliths from young cinder cones in the eastern Mojave/western Basin and Range to investigate mineral LPOs and their effect on seismic anisotropy. Lower crustal gabbros were collected from two areas roughly 80 km apart — the Cima and Deadman Lake Volcanic Fields. Lower crustal fabrics measured using EBSD are dominated by LPOs in plagioclase associated with both plastic deformation and magmatic flow. In all fabric types, plagioclase LPOs produce seismic fast axes oriented perpendicular to the foliation plane. This is in contrast to mantle peridotite xenoliths from the same locations, which preserve olivine LPOs with fast axes aligned parallel to the foliation plane. The orthogonal orientations of mantle and lower crustal fast axes relative to foliation implies that even where fabric development in both layers is coeval and kinematically compatible, their measured anisotropies can be perpendicular to each other, therefore appearing anti-correlated when measured seismically. Furthermore, our observation of plagioclase-dominated LPO and negligible concentrations of mica is at odds with the common assumption that lower crustal anisotropy is dominated by micaceous minerals, whose slow axes reliably align parallel to lineation or flow. In contrast, our data show that for plagioclase, fast axes align perpendicular to flow and the slow axes are variably aligned within the foliation plane. Therefore, for a crustal section dominated by plagioclase LPO with assumed horizontal foliation, there would be a vertical rather than a horizontal axis of symmetry, resulting in a

  4. Magneto-optical measurement of anisotropy energy constant(s) for amorphous rare earth, transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uber, R.E.; Mansuripur, M.

    1988-01-01

    Optical investigation of magneto-optical films is complementary to conventional torque and VSM magnetometry. In the authors' laboratory, they are now measuring anisotropy energy constants of RE-TM thin films at temperatures from ambient to 150 0 C. An in-plane magnetic field (up to 16.5 KOe) is applied to a saturated sample with perpendicular magnetization. The movement away from the perpendicular direction is monitored using the polar Kerr effect. At the HeNe wavelength, the Kerr effect is principally due to the top 500 angstroms of the transition metal subnetwork in the films

  5. Exchange bias in nearly perpendicularly coupled ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu, K.M.; Kwon, H.Y.; Oh, S.W.; Won, C.

    2012-01-01

    Exchange bias phenomena appear not only in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic systems but also in ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic systems in which two layers are nearly perpendicularly coupled. We investigated the origin of the symmetry-breaking mechanism and the relationship between the exchange bias and the system's energy parameters. We compared the results of computational Monte Carlo simulations with those of theoretical model calculation. We found that the exchange bias exhibited nonlinear behaviors, including sign reversal and singularities. These complicated behaviors were caused by two distinct magnetization processes depending on the interlayer coupling strength. The exchange bias reached a maximum at the transition between the two magnetization processes. - Highlights: ► Exchange bias phenomena are found in perpendicularly coupled F/F systems. ► Exchange bias exhibits nonlinear behaviors, including sign reversal and singularities. ► These complicated behaviors were caused by two distinct magnetization processes. ► Exchange bias reached a maximum at the transition between the two magnetization processes. ► We established an equation to maximize the exchange bias in perpendicularly coupled F/F system.

  6. Double-layered perpendicular magnetic recording media of granular-type FePt-MgO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhengang; Singh, Amarendra K.; Yin Jinhua; Perumal, A.; Suzuki, Takao

    2005-01-01

    The recording performance of double-layered granular-type FePt-MgO perpendicular magnetic recording media fabricated onto glass discs by sputtering is investigated. The (0 0 1)-textured FePt granular films are obtained by annealing FePt/MgO multilayers. Three different multilayer structures are compared in their magnetic properties and recording SNR performances. To evaluate thermal stability property of these granular-type FePt disks, the time-dependent magnetic force microscope (MFM) signal from the written bits on one of these disks is recorded in the temperature range 25-200 degree sign C. The signal decay at high observation temperature is interpreted based on the temperature dependence of magnetic anisotropy (K u )

  7. Interplay of Rashba effect and spin Hall effect in perpendicular Pt/Co/MgO magnetic multilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云驰; 杨光; 董博闻; 王守国; 王超; 孙阳; 张静言; 于广华

    2016-01-01

    The interplay of the Rashba effect and the spin Hall effect originating from current induced spin–orbit coupling was investigated in the as-deposited and annealed Pt/Co/MgO stacks with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The above two effects were analyzed based on Hall measurements under external magnetic fields longitudinal and vertical to dc current, respectively. The coercive field as a function of dc current in vertical mode with only the Rashba effect involved decreases due to thermal annealing. Meanwhile, spin orbit torques calculated from Hall resistance with only the spin Hall effect involved in the longitudinal mode decrease in the annealed sample. The experimental results prove that the bottom Pt/Co interface rather than the Co/MgO top one plays a more critical role in both Rashba effect and spin Hall effect.

  8. A magneto-optic technique for studying magnetization reversal processes and anisotropies applied to Co/Cu/Co trilayer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daboo, C.; Bland, J. A. C.; Hicken, R. J.; Ives, A. J. R.; Baird, M. J.; Walker, M. J.

    1993-05-01

    We report the magnetization reversal and magnetic anisotropy behavior of ultrathin Co/Cu(111)/Co (dCu=20 and 27 Å) trilayer structures prepared by MBE on a 500-Å Ge/GaAs(110) epilayer. We describe an arrangement in which the magnetization components parallel and perpendicular to the applied field are both determined from longitudinal MOKE measurements. For the samples examined, coherent rotation of the magnetization vector is observed when the magnetic field is applied along the hard in-plane anisotropy axis, with the magnitude of the magnetization vector constant and close to its bulk value. Results of micromagnetic calculations closely reproduce the observed parallel and perpendicular magnetization loops, and yield strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropies in both layers while the interlayer coupling appears to be absent or negligible in comparison with the anisotropy strengths. An absence of antiferromagnetic (AF) coupling has been observed previously [W. F. Egelhoff, Jr. and M. T. Kief, Phys. Rev. B 45, 7795 (1992)] in contrast to recent results, indicating that AF coupling [M. T. Johnson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 969 (1992)] and GMR [D. Grieg et al., J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 110, L239 (1992)] can occur in Co/Cu(111)/Co structures grown by MBE, but these properties are sensitively dependent on growth conditions. The absence of coupling in our samples is attributed to the presence of a significant interface roughness induced by the Ge epilayer. The uniaxial anisotropies are assumed to arise from strain or defects induced in the film.

  9. Anisotropy, magnetostriction and local chemical order in amorphous TbxFe1-x (0.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernando, A.; Prados, C.; Prieto, C.

    1996-01-01

    Local chemical order in amorphous TbFe thin films has been investigated in a variety of compositions, using EXAFS, magnetostriction and anisotropy measurements. Data reported here are consistent with a density of Fe-Tb pairs in the film plane larger than in the perpendicular direction. (orig.)

  10. The anisotropy of Hf diffusion in α-Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, G.M.; Zou, H.; Roy, J.A.; Schultz, R.J.; Matsuura, N.; Jackson, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    Hf diffusion coefficients (D) have been measured in the temperature interval 870-1100 K, in directions parallel (D pa ) and perpendicular (D pe ) to the c-axis of double-faced, single crystal specimens of both high-purity (HP) and nominally pure (NP) α-Zr single crystals. The diffusion profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Hf diffusion in HP α-Zr is characterised by an activation energy of about 3.0 eV and a pre-exponential factor of about 10 -5 m 2 /s. The anisotropy ratio, D pa /D pe is ∼ 1.0 for the NP specimens. A dependence of D on diffusion time/depth is indicated for some NP experiments on NP Zr. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  11. Fabrication and characterization of nano-particulate PtCo media for ultra-high density perpendicular magnetic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Dave M; Wears, M Lesley; Jollie, Michael; Choo, Desmond

    2007-01-01

    The year-on-year growth in areal recording density maintained now for half a century by the hard disk industry has required a corresponding reduction in the size of the magnetic grains comprising the storage media employed. Grain dimensions are now such that the performance of materials which thus far have served the industry well can no longer be maintained as further reduction in their volume risks breaching the superparamagnetic limit with the attendant loss of data integrity. The high magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the Ll 0 phase of PtCo allows particles as small as 4 nm diameter to remain magnetically stable in the elevated temperature environment typical of disk drive systems. A non-interacting dispersion of nanomagnetic particles suspended in an inert non-magnetic host such that each has its anisotropy axis directed perpendicular to the surface of the medium now constitutes the new ideal for a recording medium. Fabrication by a novel combination of conventional sputtering and thermal processing technologies of a medium closely approximating this ideal is demonstrated. An optimized two-stage fabrication process produces a near mono-dispersion of particles with magnetic activation volumes centred about 5 x 10 23 and crystallized in the L1 0 phase with an orientated tetragonal structure. The characteristics of this medium are discussed as a function of composition and crystalline structure. In the absence of a thermally assisted recording head, experiments are conducted on a degraded form of the medium that is shown to support perpendicular recording at linear densities in excess of 240 kfci (D50 point)

  12. Fabrication of field-effect transistor utilizing oriented thin film of octahexyl-substituted phthalocyanine and its electrical anisotropy based on columnar structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Masashi; Nakatani, Mitsuhiro; Kajii, Hirotake; Miyamoto, Ayano; Yoneya, Makoto; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2018-03-01

    Field-effect transistors with molecularly oriented thin films of metal-free non-peripherally octahexyl-substituted phthalocyanine (C6PcH2), which characteristically form a columnar structure, have been fabricated, and the electrical anisotropy of C6PcH2 has been investigated. The molecularly oriented thin films of C6PcH2 were prepared by the bar-coating technique, and the uniform orientation in a large area and the surface roughness at a molecular level were observed by polarized spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The field effect mobilities parallel and perpendicular to the column axis of C6PcH2 were estimated to be (1.54 ± 0.24) × 10-2 and (2.10 ± 0.23) × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. The electrical anisotropy based on the columnar structure has been discussed by taking the simulated results obtained by density functional theory calculation into consideration.

  13. Flow stress anisotropy in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, D.; Hansen, N.

    1990-01-01

    The plastic anisotropy of cold-rolled high purity aluminum (99.996%) and commercially pure aluminum (99.6%) has been investigated. Sample parameters were the initial grain size and the degree of plastic strain (ϵ < 3.00). Flow stresses (0.2% offset) were measured at room temperature by uniaxial t...

  14. The Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. L.

    1994-12-01

    The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation provide unique constraints on the history and evolution of the universe. The first detection of anisotropy of the microwave radiation was reported by the COBE Team in 1992, based on the first year of flight data. The latest analyses of the first two years of COBE data are reviewed in this talk, including the amplitude of the microwave anisotropy as a function of angular scale and the statistical nature of the fluctuations. The two-year results are generally consistent with the earlier first year results, but the additional data allow for a better determination of the key cosmological parameters. In this talk the COBE results are compared with other observational anisotropy results and directions for future cosmic microwave anisotropy observations will be discussed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Scientific guidance is provided by the COBE Science Working Group.

  15. Photoinduced Circular Anisotropy in Side-Chain Azobenzene Polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Todorov, T.; Ivanov, M.

    1997-01-01

    We report for the first time the inducing of large circular anisotropy in previously unoriented films of side-chain azobenzene polyesters on illumination with circularly polarized light at a wavelength of 488 nm. The circular dichroism and optical activity are measured simultaneously in real time...

  16. Angular anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1982-01-01

    The theory of fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation is reviewed. Anisotropy on large-scale (dipole and quadrupole) and on small scales is discussed. The smoothing effects of secondary ionization (fractional ionization x) are found to be unimportant over an angular scale greater than approx.= 5(OMEGAx)sup(1/3) degrees. (author)

  17. Anisotropy of acoustic properties in paratellurite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parygin, Vladimir N.

    1996-01-01

    One of the peculiarities of the TeO 2 crystal consists of its strong acoustic anisotropy. This anisotropy demonstrates itself by acoustic energy walk-off and anisotropic distortion of an acoustic beam. Four constants completely characterise the acoustic anisotropy of the medium. In this paper these constants are calculated for various directions of the acoustic beam in crystal. (authors)

  18. Effects of scattering anisotropy approximation in multigroup radiation shielding calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altiparmakov, D.

    1983-01-01

    Expansion of the scattering cross sections into Legendre series is the usual way of solving neutron transport problems. Because of the large space gradients of the neutron flux, the effects of that approximation become especially remarkable in the radiation shielding calculations. In this paper, a method taking into account the scattering anisotropy is presented. From the point od view of the accuracy and computing rate, the optimal approximation of the scattering anisotropy is established for the basic protective materials on the basis of simple problem calculations. (author)

  19. Magnetic anisotropies and magnetic switching in Co films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, J. A. C.; Baird, M. J.; Leung, H. T.; Ives, A. J. R.; Mackay, K. D.; Hughes, H. P.

    1992-07-01

    We have used the magneto-optical Kerr effect to investigate the role of the substrate and growth conditions in determining the magnetic switching behaviour of Co films in the thickness range 100-200 Å supported by GaAs(001) and Si(111) substrates. We discuss the anisotropic magnetic hysteresis behaviour observed for Co/GaAs and Co/Si films in terms of coherent rotation of the magnetisation vector during magnetic switching. Equivalent films supported by glass substrates are found to be almost isotropic in-plane. The in-plane coercive and saturation fields are observed to lie in the range 20-80 Oe but perpendicular saturation fields of 25 and 19 kOe are found for the Co/Si and Co/GaAs systems respectively which substantially exceed the demagnetising field in each case. The measured perpendicular anisotropy fields differ strongly from the values for hcp and bcc Co and are attributed to the details of the interface and film structure. We also report strongly frequency dependent magnetic switching behaviour in these Co films.

  20. Cosmic-ray anisotropy studies with IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Frank

    2014-03-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory detects tens of billions of energetic muons per year produced by cosmic-ray interactions with the atmosphere. The size of this sample has allowed IceCube to observe a significant anisotropy in arrival direction for cosmic rays with median energies between 20 and 400 TeV. This anisotropy is characterized by a large scale structure of per-mille amplitude accompanied by structures with smaller amplitudes and with typical angular sizes between 10° and 20°. IceTop, the surface component of IceCube, has observed a similar anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays, extending the study to PeV energies. The better energy resolution of IceTop allows for additional studies of the anisotropy, for example a comparison of the energy spectrum in regions of a cosmic-ray excess or deficit to the rest of the sky. We present an update on the cosmic-ray anisotropy observed with IceCube and IceTop and the results of first studies of the energy spectrum at locations of cosmic-ray excess or deficit.

  1. Irradiation creep induced anisotropy in a/2 dislocation populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1984-05-01

    The contribution of anisotropy in Burgers vector distribution to irradiation creep behavior has been largely ignored in irradiation creep models. However, findings on Frank loops suggest that it may be very important. Procedures are defined to identify the orientations of a/2 Burgers vectors for dislocations in face-centered cubic crystals. By means of these procedures the anisotropy in Burgers vector populations was determined for three Nimonic PE16 pressurized tube specimens irradiated under stress. Considerable anisotropy in Burgers vector population develops during irradiation creep. It is inferred that dislocation motion during irradiation creep is restricted primarily to a climb of a/2 dislocations on 100 planes. Effect of these results on irradiation creep modeling and deformation induced irradiation growth is considered

  2. Search for positron anisotropies in cosmic rays with AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machate, Fabian [1. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) on the International Space Station has observed a significant excess of cosmic ray positrons over the background expected from secondary production at energies above 10 GeV. Nearby pulsars and annihilating dark matter particles as a primary source of electrons and positrons have been discussed as an explanation. A possible way of distinguishing between pulsar and dark matter origin is the measurement of dipole anisotropies in the positron flux or the positron to electron ratio. Any anisotropy will be reduced by diffusion in galactic magnetic fields to below the percent level. AMS-02 is the leading space-based experiment for cosmic ray detection and well suited for this search. A new analysis procedure for anisotropies using an event sample with large acceptance is presented. It relies on the ability of the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) to separate positrons from the proton background.

  3. Magnetic anisotropy of lecithin membranes. A new anisotropy susceptometer

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, F.; Boroske, E.; Helfrich, W.

    1984-01-01

    Cylindrical giant vesicles prepared from egg lecithin and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) are oriented in an external magnetic field and observed by phase contrast microscopy. The anisotropic part of the diamagnetic susceptibility of the lecithin membrane is determined from the distribution of angles between the magnetic field and the long cylinder axis due to thermal fluctuations. The anisotropy of DMPC is found to be larger by a factor of 2 than that of egg lecithin. This...

  4. Spin structure factors of Heisenberg spin chain in the presence of anisotropy and magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezania, H.

    2017-01-01

    We have theoretically studied the spin structure factors of spin chain in the presence of longitudinal field and transverse anisotropy. The possible effects of easy axis magnetization are investigated in terms of anisotropy in the Heisenberg interactions. This anisotropy is considered for exchange coupling constants perpendicular to magnetic field direction. The original spin model hamiltonian is mapped to a bosonic model via a hard core bosonic transformation where an infinite hard core repulsion is imposed to constrain one boson occupation per site. Using Green's function approach, the energy spectrum of quasiparticle excitation has been obtained. The spectrum of the bosonic gas has been implemented in order to obtain two particle propagator which corresponds to spin structure factor of original Heisenberg chain model Hamiltonian. The results show the position of peak in the longitudinal structure factor at fixed value for anisotropy moves to higher frequency with magnetic field. Also the intensity of dynamical structure factor decreases with magnetic field. A small dependence of longitudinal dynamical spin structure factor on the anisotropy is observed for fixed value of magnetic field. Our results show longitudinal static structure factor is found to be monotonically increasing with magnetic field due to increase of spins aligning along magnetic field. Furthermore the dispersion behaviors of static longitudinal and transverse structure factors for different magnetic fields and anisotropy parameters are addressed. - Highlights: • Theoretical calculation of spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain. • The investigation of the effect of anisotropy spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain. • The investigation of the effect of magnetic field on spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain.

  5. Spin structure factors of Heisenberg spin chain in the presence of anisotropy and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezania, H., E-mail: rezania.hamed@gmail.com

    2017-02-01

    We have theoretically studied the spin structure factors of spin chain in the presence of longitudinal field and transverse anisotropy. The possible effects of easy axis magnetization are investigated in terms of anisotropy in the Heisenberg interactions. This anisotropy is considered for exchange coupling constants perpendicular to magnetic field direction. The original spin model hamiltonian is mapped to a bosonic model via a hard core bosonic transformation where an infinite hard core repulsion is imposed to constrain one boson occupation per site. Using Green's function approach, the energy spectrum of quasiparticle excitation has been obtained. The spectrum of the bosonic gas has been implemented in order to obtain two particle propagator which corresponds to spin structure factor of original Heisenberg chain model Hamiltonian. The results show the position of peak in the longitudinal structure factor at fixed value for anisotropy moves to higher frequency with magnetic field. Also the intensity of dynamical structure factor decreases with magnetic field. A small dependence of longitudinal dynamical spin structure factor on the anisotropy is observed for fixed value of magnetic field. Our results show longitudinal static structure factor is found to be monotonically increasing with magnetic field due to increase of spins aligning along magnetic field. Furthermore the dispersion behaviors of static longitudinal and transverse structure factors for different magnetic fields and anisotropy parameters are addressed. - Highlights: • Theoretical calculation of spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain. • The investigation of the effect of anisotropy spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain. • The investigation of the effect of magnetic field on spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain.

  6. Channel modeling, signal processing and coding for perpendicular magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zheng

    With the increasing areal density in magnetic recording systems, perpendicular recording has replaced longitudinal recording to overcome the superparamagnetic limit. Studies on perpendicular recording channels including aspects of channel modeling, signal processing and coding techniques are presented in this dissertation. To optimize a high density perpendicular magnetic recording system, one needs to know the tradeoffs between various components of the system including the read/write transducers, the magnetic medium, and the read channel. We extend the work by Chaichanavong on the parameter optimization for systems via design curves. Different signal processing and coding techniques are studied. Information-theoretic tools are utilized to determine the acceptable region for the channel parameters when optimal detection and linear coding techniques are used. Our results show that a considerable gain can be achieved by the optimal detection and coding techniques. The read-write process in perpendicular magnetic recording channels includes a number of nonlinear effects. Nonlinear transition shift (NLTS) is one of them. The signal distortion induced by NLTS can be reduced by write precompensation during data recording. We numerically evaluate the effect of NLTS on the read-back signal and examine the effectiveness of several write precompensation schemes in combating NLTS in a channel characterized by both transition jitter noise and additive white Gaussian electronics noise. We also present an analytical method to estimate the bit-error-rate and use it to help determine the optimal write precompensation values in multi-level precompensation schemes. We propose a mean-adjusted pattern-dependent noise predictive (PDNP) detection algorithm for use on the channel with NLTS. We show that this detector can offer significant improvements in bit-error-rate (BER) compared to conventional Viterbi and PDNP detectors. Moreover, the system performance can be further improved by

  7. Voltage fluctuations in granular superconductors in the perpendicular configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerashchenko, O V

    2003-01-01

    The spectral density of voltage fluctuations in granular YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconductors in the perpendicular configuration has been studied in the flux flow mode. It has been found that, in this case, the 1/f-voltage noise observed depends weakly on temperature and is associated with motion of a magnetic flux in the superconductor. A comparison of the data obtained with the results of previous measurements in parallel configuration has shown that voltage noise is produced by a single common source, which is presumably associated with self-organization of the critical state in granular superconductors

  8. Superparamagnetic perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions for true random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Bradley; Bapna, Mukund; Igbokwe, Julianne; Almasi, Hamid; Wang, Weigang; Majetich, Sara A.

    2018-05-01

    Superparamagnetic perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions are fabricated and analyzed for use in random number generators. Time-resolved resistance measurements are used as streams of bits in statistical tests for randomness. Voltage control of the thermal stability enables tuning the average speed of random bit generation up to 70 kHz in a 60 nm diameter device. In its most efficient operating mode, the device generates random bits at an energy cost of 600 fJ/bit. A narrow range of magnetic field tunes the probability of a given state from 0 to 1, offering a means of probabilistic computing.

  9. Current perpendicular to plane giant magnetoresistance in laminated nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedyayev, A.; Zhukov, I.; Dieny, B.

    2005-01-01

    We theoretically studied spin-dependent electron transport perpendicular-to-plain (CPP) in magnetic laminated multilayered structures by using Kubo formalism. We took into account not only bulk scattering, but the interface resistance due to both specular and diffuse reflection and also spin conserving and spin-flip processes. It was shown that spin-flip scattering at interfaces substantially reduces the value of giant magnetoresistance (GMR). This can explain the experimental observations that the CPP GMR ratio for laminated structures only slightly increases as compared to non-laminated ones even though lamination induces a significant increase in CPP resistance

  10. Reionization on large scales. IV. Predictions for the 21 cm signal incorporating the light cone effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Plante, P.; Battaglia, N.; Natarajan, A.; Peterson, J. B.; Trac, H. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Cen, R. [Department of Astrophysical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Loeb, A., E-mail: plaplant@andrew.cmu.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We present predictions for the 21 cm brightness temperature power spectrum during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). We discuss the implications of the 'light cone' effect, which incorporates evolution of the neutral hydrogen fraction and 21 cm brightness temperature along the line of sight. Using a novel method calibrated against radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, we model the neutral hydrogen density field and 21 cm signal in large volumes (L = 2 Gpc h {sup –1}). The inclusion of the light cone effect leads to a relative decrease of about 50% in the 21 cm power spectrum on all scales. We also find that the effect is more prominent at the midpoint of reionization and later. The light cone effect can also introduce an anisotropy along the line of sight. By decomposing the 3D power spectrum into components perpendicular to and along the line of sight, we find that in our fiducial reionization model, there is no significant anisotropy. However, parallel modes can contribute up to 40% more power for shorter reionization scenarios. The scales on which the light cone effect is relevant are comparable to scales where one measures the baryon acoustic oscillation. We argue that due to its large comoving scale and introduction of anisotropy, the light cone effect is important when considering redshift space distortions and future application to the Alcock-Paczyński test for the determination of cosmological parameters.

  11. Temperature anisotropy instabilities in a plasma containing cold and hot species in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renuka, G.; Viswanathan, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    The nature of convective instability has been investigated for an electromagnetic wave, either right circularly polarised or left circularly polarised, propagating along a magnetic line of force in a plasma whose distribution function exhibits a temperature anisotropy in the hot species, a loss cone structure and a beam of cold electrons or ions travelling along the line of force with velocity V 1 . Detailed numerical calculations have been made using a computer for the growth and decay of the wave for different values of the anisotropy ratio Tsub(perpendicular to)/Tsub(parallel to) delta of the perpendicular and parallel temperatures, the McIlwain parameter L, the loss cone index j, velocity V 1 of the streaming particle and the particle density ratio epsilon. The ranges of the values of epsilon and delta for which the waves becomes unstable have been studied in detail. It is found that wave propagation shows no dependence on the loss cone index but shows very strong dependence on the temperature anisotropy delta. (author)

  12. Numerical modeling of the 22-year variation of the cosmic ray intensity and anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadokura, A.; Nishida, A.

    1986-01-01

    We have solved the two-dimensional time-dependent diffusion-convection equation numerically to obtain the distribution and anisotropy of cosmic rays in the heliosphere. We have assumed that the parallel and perpendicular mean free paths are proportional to the particle Larmor radius, and we have treated each proportionality constant (a,b) as a parameter. We have found that the set (a,b) = (4,2) gives the steady state solution compatible with observations on the intensity and the solar diurnal anisotropy of cosmic rays in 0.5- to 10-GeV range as obtained at the earth. This set of (a,b) corresponds to the ratio of the diffusion coefficients D/sub parallel//D/sub perpendicular/ = 10. In our solution the intensity for the (pre-1980) interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) state where the solar magnetic dipole and the angular velocity vector are parallel is higher than for the (post-1980) state where they are antiparallel, while the phase of the diurnal anisotropy is about 15 hours for the parallel state and about 18 hours for the antiparallel state. We have also reproduced the observed small radial gradient for each IMF state. We discuss the nature of the solution in order to understand the effect of the density gradient drift motion on the cosmic ray distribution

  13. Influence of planar macrodefects on the anisotropy of magnetic-flux penetration in YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuche, E.; Indenbom, M. V.; André, M.-O.; Richard, P.; Benoit, W.; Wolf, Th.

    1996-02-01

    The magnetic flux penetration in a high-quality YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ single crystal with an external field applied perpendicular to the crystalline c axis is directly visualized by means of the magneto-optical technique. The observations show that the field penetrates preferentially along the ab planes. Scanning acoustic microscopy reveals macrodefects along ab planes which strongly affect this anisotropy of the field penetration.

  14. Physics in a general length space-time geometry: Call for experimental revision of the light speed anisotropy

    OpenAIRE

    Exirifard, Qasem

    2013-01-01

    We present a phenomenological model for the nature in the Finsler and Randers space-time geometries. We show that the parity-odd light speed anisotropy perpendicular to the gravitational equipotential surfaces encodes the deviation from the Riemann geometry toward the Randers geometry. We utilize an asymmetrical ring resonator and propose a setup in order to directly measure this deviation. We address the constraints that the current technology will impose on the deviation should the anisotro...

  15. Effects of pressure anisotropy on plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawaideh, E.; Najmabadi, F.; Conn, R.W.

    1986-03-01

    In a recent paper a new set of generalized two-field equations is derived which describes plasma transport along the field lines of a space and time dependent magnetic field. These equations are valid for collisional to weakly collisional plasmas; they reduce to the conventional fluid equations of Braginskii for highly collisional plasmas. An important feature of these equations is that the anisotropy in the ion pressure is explicitly included. In this paper, these generalized transport equations are applied to a model problem of plasma flow through a magnetic mirror field. The profiles of the plasma parameters (density, flow speed, and pressures) are numerically calculated for plasma in different collisionality regimes. These profiles are explained by examining the competing terms in the transport equation. The pressure anisotropy is found to profoundly impact the plasma flow behavior. As a result, the new generalized equations predict flow behavior more accurately than the conventional transport equations. A large density and pressure drop is predicted as the flow passes through a magnetic mirror. Further, the new equations uniquely predict oscillations in the density profile, an effect missing in results from the conventional equations

  16. Non-stationarity of the quasi-perpendicular bow shock: comparison between Cluster observations and simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Comişel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We have performed full particle electromagnetic simulations of a quasi-perpendicular shock. The shock parameters have been chosen to be appropriate for the quasi-perpendicular Earth's bow shock observed by Cluster on 24 January 2001 (Lobzin et al., 2007. We have performed two simulations with different ion to electron mass ratio: run 1 with mi/me=1840 and run 2 with mi/me=100. In run 1 the growth rate of the modified two-stream instability (MTSI is large enough to get excited during the reflection and upstream gyration of part of the incident solar wind ions. The waves due to the MTSI are on the whistler mode branch and have downstream directed phase velocities in the shock frame. The Poynting flux (and wave group velocity far upstream in the foot is also directed in the downstream direction. However, in the density and magnetic field compression region of the overshoot the waves are refracted and the Poynting flux in the shock frame is directed upstream. The MTSI is suppressed in the low mass ratio run 2. The low mass ratio run shows more clearly the non-stationarity of the shock with a larger time scale of the order of an inverse ion gyrofrequency (Ωci: the magnetic field profile flattens and steepens with a period of ~1.5Ωci−1. This non-stationarity is different from reformation seen in previous simulations of perpendicular or quasi-perpendicular shocks. Beginning with a sharp shock ramp the large electric field in the normal direction leads to high reflection rate of solar wind protons. As they propagate upstream, the ion bulk velocity decreases and the magnetic field increases in the foot, which results in a flattening of the magnetic field profile and in a decrease of the normal electric field. Subsequently the reflection rate decreases and the whole shock profile steepens again. Superimposed on this 'breathing' behavior are in the realistic mass ratio case the waves due to the MTSI. The simulations lead us to a re-interpretation of

  17. Ginzburg-Landau theory of the superheating field anisotropy of layered superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liarte, Danilo B.; Transtrum, Mark K.; Sethna, James P.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the effects of material anisotropy on the superheating field of layered superconductors. We provide an intuitive argument both for the existence of a superheating field, and its dependence on anisotropy, for κ =λ /ξ (the ratio of magnetic to superconducting healing lengths) both large and small. On the one hand, the combination of our estimates with published results using a two-gap model for MgB2 suggests high anisotropy of the superheating field near zero temperature. On the other hand, within Ginzburg-Landau theory for a single gap, we see that the superheating field shows significant anisotropy only when the crystal anisotropy is large and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ is small. We then conclude that only small anisotropies in the superheating field are expected for typical unconventional superconductors near the critical temperature. Using a generalized form of Ginzburg Landau theory, we do a quantitative calculation for the anisotropic superheating field by mapping the problem to the isotropic case, and present a phase diagram in terms of anisotropy and κ , showing type I, type II, or mixed behavior (within Ginzburg-Landau theory), and regions where each asymptotic solution is expected. We estimate anisotropies for a number of different materials, and discuss the importance of these results for radio-frequency cavities for particle accelerators.

  18. DRIFT-INDUCED PERPENDICULAR TRANSPORT OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, M. S.; Dalla, S.; Kelly, J.; Laitinen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Drifts are known to play a role in galactic cosmic ray transport within the heliosphere and are a standard component of cosmic ray propagation models. However, the current paradigm of solar energetic particle (SEP) propagation holds the effects of drifts to be negligible, and they are not accounted for in most current SEP modeling efforts. We present full-orbit test particle simulations of SEP propagation in a Parker spiral interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), which demonstrate that high-energy particle drifts cause significant asymmetric propagation perpendicular to the IMF. Thus in many cases the assumption of field-aligned propagation of SEPs may not be valid. We show that SEP drifts have dependencies on energy, heliographic latitude, and charge-to-mass ratio that are capable of transporting energetic particles perpendicular to the field over significant distances within interplanetary space, e.g., protons of initial energy 100 MeV propagate distances across the field on the order of 1 AU, over timescales typical of a gradual SEP event. Our results demonstrate the need for current models of SEP events to include the effects of particle drift. We show that the drift is considerably stronger for heavy ion SEPs due to their larger mass-to-charge ratio. This paradigm shift has important consequences for the modeling of SEP events and is crucial to the understanding and interpretation of in situ observations

  19. Switching a Perpendicular Ferromagnetic Layer by Competing Spin Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinli; Li, Yufan; Gopman, D. B.; Kabanov, Yu. P.; Shull, R. D.; Chien, C. L.

    2018-03-01

    An ultimate goal of spintronics is to control magnetism via electrical means. One promising way is to utilize a current-induced spin-orbit torque (SOT) originating from the strong spin-orbit coupling in heavy metals and their interfaces to switch a single perpendicularly magnetized ferromagnetic layer at room temperature. However, experimental realization of SOT switching to date requires an additional in-plane magnetic field, or other more complex measures, thus severely limiting its prospects. Here we present a novel structure consisting of two heavy metals that delivers competing spin currents of opposite spin indices. Instead of just canceling the pure spin current and the associated SOTs as one expects and corroborated by the widely accepted SOTs, such devices manifest the ability to switch the perpendicular CoFeB magnetization solely with an in-plane current without any magnetic field. Magnetic domain imaging reveals selective asymmetrical domain wall motion under a current. Our discovery not only paves the way for the application of SOT in nonvolatile technologies, but also poses questions on the underlying mechanism of the commonly believed SOT-induced switching phenomenon.

  20. Interaction of Mutually Perpendicular Magnetic Fields in HTSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Aleksandr Fedorovich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article a problem of interaction of the crossed magnetic fields in superconductors is considered. Superconducting materials have nonlinear magnetic properties. It allows using a non-linear magnetic susceptibility for measurement of feeble magnetic fields. We place a wire of superconducting material in a constant parallel uniform magnetic field. Then we let through a wire the alternating current leak. Interaction of mutual and perpendicular variation magnetic fields, with adequate accuracy is described by Ginzburg-Landau's equations. Approximate solution of the written equations is received. The component of a magnetic field parallel to a wire contains a variable component. Frequency of a variable component of the magnetic field is equal to the doubled current frequency. Amplitude of the variable component of the magnetic field is proportional to strength of the constant magnetic field. The experimental installation for research of interaction of mutually perpendicular magnetic fields is created. The cylinder from HTSC of ceramics of the YBa2Cu3O7-x was used as a sensor. Dependence of amplitude of the second harmonica of a variation magnetic field on strength of a constant magnetic field is received.

  1. Solar energetic particle anisotropies and insights into particle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leske, R. A., E-mail: ral@srl.caltech.edu; Cummings, A. C.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Labrador, A. W.; Stone, E. C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wiedenbeck, M. E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Christian, E. R.; Rosenvinge, T. T. von [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    As solar energetic particles (SEPs) travel through interplanetary space, their pitch-angle distributions are shaped by the competing effects of magnetic focusing and scattering. Measurements of SEP anisotropies can therefore reveal information about interplanetary conditions such as magnetic field strength, topology, and turbulence levels at remote locations from the observer. Onboard each of the two STEREO spacecraft, the Low Energy Telescope (LET) measures pitch-angle distributions for protons and heavier ions up to iron at energies of about 2-12 MeV/nucleon. Anisotropies observed using LET include bidirectional flows within interplanetary coronal mass ejections, sunward-flowing particles when STEREO was magnetically connected to the back side of a shock, and loss-cone distributions in which particles with large pitch angles underwent magnetic mirroring at an interplanetary field enhancement that was too weak to reflect particles with the smallest pitch angles. Unusual oscillations in the width of a beamed distribution at the onset of the 23 July 2012 SEP event were also observed and remain puzzling. We report LET anisotropy observations at both STEREO spacecraft and discuss their implications for SEP transport, focusing exclusively on the extreme event of 23 July 2012 in which a large variety of anisotropies were present at various times during the event.

  2. Solar energetic particle anisotropies and insights into particle transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Labrador, A. W.; Stone, E. C.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Christian, E. R.; Rosenvinge, T. T. von

    2016-03-01

    As solar energetic particles (SEPs) travel through interplanetary space, their pitch-angle distributions are shaped by the competing effects of magnetic focusing and scattering. Measurements of SEP anisotropies can therefore reveal information about interplanetary conditions such as magnetic field strength, topology, and turbulence levels at remote locations from the observer. Onboard each of the two STEREO spacecraft, the Low Energy Telescope (LET) measures pitch-angle distributions for protons and heavier ions up to iron at energies of about 2-12 MeV/nucleon. Anisotropies observed using LET include bidirectional flows within interplanetary coronal mass ejections, sunward-flowing particles when STEREO was magnetically connected to the back side of a shock, and loss-cone distributions in which particles with large pitch angles underwent magnetic mirroring at an interplanetary field enhancement that was too weak to reflect particles with the smallest pitch angles. Unusual oscillations in the width of a beamed distribution at the onset of the 23 July 2012 SEP event were also observed and remain puzzling. We report LET anisotropy observations at both STEREO spacecraft and discuss their implications for SEP transport, focusing exclusively on the extreme event of 23 July 2012 in which a large variety of anisotropies were present at various times during the event.

  3. Designing electronic anisotropy of three-dimensional carbon allotropes for the all-carbon device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Li-Chun, E-mail: xulichun@tyut.edu.cn; Song, Xian-Jiang; Yang, Zhi; Li, Xiu-Yan [College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Wang, Ru-Zhi; Yan, Hui [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2015-07-13

    Extending two-dimensional (2D) graphene nanosheets to a three-dimensional (3D) network can enhance the design of all-carbon electronic devices. Based on the great diversity of carbon atomic bonding, we have constructed four superlattice-type carbon allotrope candidates, containing sp{sup 2}-bonding transport channels and sp{sup 3}-bonding insulating layers, using density functional theory. It was demonstrated through systematic simulations that the ultra-thin insulating layer with only three-atom thickness can switch off the tunneling transport and isolate the electronic connection between the adjacent graphene strips, and these alternating perpendicular strips also extend the electron road from 2D to 3D. Designing electronic anisotropy originates from the mutually perpendicular π bonds and the rare partial charge density of the corresponding carriers in insulating layers. Our results indicate the possibility of producing custom-designed 3D all-carbon devices with building blocks of graphene and diamond.

  4. Strength and Anisotropy in Tournemire Shale: Temperature, Pressure and Time Dependences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnelye, A.; Schubnel, A.; Zhi, G.; David, C.; Dick, P.

    2017-12-01

    Time and temperature dependent rock deformation has both scientific and socio-economic implications for natural hazards, the oil and gas industry and nuclear waste disposal. During the past decades, most studies on brittle creep have focused on igneous rocks and porous sedimentary rocks. To our knowledge, only few studies have been carried out on the brittle creep behavior of shale. We conducted a series of creep experiments on shale specimens coming from the French Institute for Nuclear Safety (IRSN) underground research laboratory located in Tournemire, France, under two different temperatures (26°C, 75°C) and confining pressures (10 MPa, 80 MPa), for three orientations (σ1along, perpendicular and 45° to bedding). In these long-term experiments (approximately 10 days), stress and strains were recorded continuously, while ultrasonic acoustic velocities were recorded every 1 15 minutes. The brittle creep failure stress of our Tournemire shale samples was systematically observed 50% higher than its short-term peak strength, with larger final axial strain accumulated. During creep, ultrasonic wave velocities first decreased, and then increased gradually. The magnitude of elastic wave velocity variations showed an important orientation and temperature dependence: velocities measured perpendicular to bedding showed increased variation, variation that was enhanced at higher temperature and higher pressure. The case of complete elastic anisotropy reversal was observed for sample deformed perpendicular to bedding, with amount of axial strain needed to reach anisotropy reversal reduced at higher temperature. SEM observations highlight the competition between crack growth, sealing/healing, and possibly mineral rotation, pressure solution or anisotropic compaction during creep defromation. Our study highlights that the short-term peak strength has little meaning in shale material, which can over-consolidate importantly by `plastic' flow. In addition, we show that elastic

  5. Classical anisotropies in models of open inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga, J.; Mukhanov, V.F.

    1997-01-01

    In the simplest model of open inflation there are two inflaton fields decoupled from each other. One of them, the tunneling field, produces a first stage of inflation which prepares the ground for the nucleation of a highly symmetric bubble. The other, a free field, drives a second period of slow-roll inflation inside the bubble. However, the second field also evolves during the first stage of inflation, which to some extent breaks the needed symmetry. We show that this generates large supercurvature anisotropies which, together with the results of Tanaka and Sasaki, rule out this class of simple models (unless, of course, Ω 0 is sufficiently close to 1). The problem does not arise in modified models where the second field does not evolve in the first stage of inflation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Spin-reorientation and anisotropy of the magnetization in single crystalline Ho2Co15Si2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegus, O.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties of a Ho 2 Co 15 Si 2 single crystal. The easy magnetization direction is parallel to the c-axis in an extended temperature region below the Curie temperature. A spin-reorientation transition takes place at 323 K, leading to an easy magnetization direction perpendicular to the c-axis below this temperature. We have compared the present results with those obtained previously on various R 2 Co 17 single crystals and found that Si substitution not only leads to a sign reversal in the Co sublattice anisotropy but also leads to a substantial anisotropy of the saturation magnetization. Sign and magnitude of the magnetization anisotropy are conserved during the spin-reorientation transition. (orig.)

  7. Properties of a Bound Polaron under a Perpendicular Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jia; Chen Ziyu; Xiao Jinglin; Huo Shufen

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the influence of a perpendicular magnetic field on a bound polaron near the interface of a polar-polar semiconductor with Rashba effect. The external magnetic field strongly changes the ground state binding energy of the polaron and the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) interaction originating from the inversion asymmetry in the heterostructure splits the ground state binding energy of the bound polaron. In this paper, we have shown how the ground state binding energy will be with the change of the external magnetic field, the location of a single impurity, the wave vector of the electron and the electron areal density, taking into account the SO coupling. Due to the presence of the phonons, whose energy gives negative contribution to the polaron's, the spin-splitting states of the bound polaron are more stable, and we find that in the condition of week magnetic field, the Zeeaman effect can be neglected.

  8. Size effect in tension perpendicular to the grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars

    1999-01-01

    The strength in tension perpendicular to the grain is known to decrease with an increase in the stressed volume. Usually this size effect is explained on a stochastic basis, that is an explanation relying on an increased probability of encountering a strength reducing flaw when the volume...... of the material under stress is increased. This paper presents a small experimental investigation on specimens with well defined structural orientation of the material. The experiments exhibit a larger size effect than expected and furthermore the data and the nature of the failures encountered suggest...... that the size effect can be explained on a deterministic basis. Arguments for such a simple deterministic explanation of size effect is found in finite element modelling using the orthotropic stiffness characteristics in the transverse plane of wood....

  9. Perpendicular eν mass from W decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barger, V.; Martin, A.G.; Phillips, R.J.N.

    1983-01-01

    Properties of the perpendicular eν mass, defined in terms of transverse momenta p-vectorsub(T) by Msub(T)sup(2)(eν) = 2|p-vectorsub(eT)| |p-vectorsub(νT)| - 2p-vectorsub(eT).p-vectorsub(νT), that make it particularly well suited to W mass and width determinations are examined. An analytic expression for its distribution in W production and subsequent W → eν decay at p-barp colliders, accurate to order approximately equal to 1% is given. A maximum likelihood fit of this formula to the five UA1 events gives Msub(W) = 80.3 +- 3 6 GeV. (author)

  10. Characteristics of thermally assisted magnetic recording in granular perpendicular media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiino, Hirotaka; Kawana, Mayumi; Miyashita, Eiichi; Hayashi, Naoto; Watanabe, Sadayuki

    2009-01-01

    The effect of thermally assisted magnetic recording using granular perpendicular media with a single-pole-trimmed head has been investigated. A read/write experiment using a spin stand in which the media were heated by laser irradiation demonstrated that the track average amplitude strongly depends on both the position of the write head relative to the center of the laser spot in the down-track direction and on the laser power. Although the signal-to-noise ratio increased with the coercivity of the media, the increment was small; this is thought to be caused by an increase in the switching field distribution of the media with temperature. Our results suggest that the magnetic constant of the media must be optimized with respect to the temperature of writing in order for high-density thermally assisted magnetic recording to be realized

  11. High-Q perpendicular-biased ferrite-tuned cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlini, R.D.; Thiessen, H.A.; Potter, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rapid-cycling proton synchrotrons, such as the proposed LAMPF II accelerator, require approximately 10 MV per turn rf with 17% tuning range near 50 MHz. The traditional approach to ferrite-tuned cavities uses a ferrite which is longitudinally biased (rf magnetic field parallel to bias field). This method leads to unacceptably high losses in the ferrite. At Los Alamos, we are developing a cavity with transverse bias (rf magnetic field perpendicular to the bias field) that makes use of the tensor permeability of the ferrite. Modest power tests of a small (10-cm-dia) quarter-wave singly re-entrant cavity tuned by nickel-zinc ferrites and aluminum-doped garnets indicate that the losses in the ferrite can be made negligible compared with the losses due to the surface resistivity of the copper cavity at power levels from 2 to 200 watts

  12. Mapping Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropies of White Matter in vivo in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Vikram, Deepti S; Lim, Issel Anne L; Jones, Craig K; Farrell, Jonathan A.D.; van Zijl, Peter C. M.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic resonance phase- or frequency- shift images acquired at high field show contrast related to magnetic susceptibility differences between tissues. Such contrast varies with the orientation of the organ in the field, but the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has made it possible to reproducibly image the intrinsic tissue susceptibility contrast. However, recent studies indicate that magnetic susceptibility is anisotropic in brain white matter and, as such, needs to be described by a symmetric second-rank tensor (χ¯¯). To fully determine the elements of this tensor, it would be necessary to acquire frequency data at six or more orientations. Assuming cylindrical symmetry of the susceptibility tensor in myelinated white matter fibers, we propose a simplified method to reconstruct the susceptibility tensor in terms of a mean magnetic susceptibility, MMS = (χ∥ + 2χ⊥)/3 and a magnetic susceptibility anisotropy, MSA = χ∥ − χ⊥, where χ∥ and χ⊥ are susceptibility parallel and perpendicular to the white matter fiber direction, respectively. Computer simulations show that with a practical head rotation angle of around 20°–30°, four head orientations suffice to reproducibly reconstruct the tensor with good accuracy. We tested this approach on whole brain 1×1×1 mm3 frequency data acquired from five healthy subjects at 7 T. The frequency information from phase images collected at four head orientations was combined with the fiber direction information extracted from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to map the white matter susceptibility tensor. The MMS and MSA were quantified for regions in several large white matter fiber structures, including the corona radiata, posterior thalamic radiation and corpus callosum. MMS ranged from −0.037 to −0.053 ppm (referenced to CSF being about zero). MSA values could be quantified without the need for a reference and ranged between 0.004 and 0.029 ppm, in line with

  13. Giant magnetic anisotropy and tunnelling of the magnetization in Li2(Li_{1-x}Fe_x)N

    OpenAIRE

    Jesche, A.; McCallum, R. W.; Thimmaiah, S.; Jacobs, J. L.; Taufour, V.; Kreyssig, A.; Houk, R. S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Large magnetic anisotropy and coercivity are key properties of functional magnetic materials and are generally associated with rare earth elements. Here we show an extreme, uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and the emergence of magnetic hysteresis in Li2(Li1-xFex)N. An extrapolated, magnetic anisotropy field of 220 Tesla and a coercivity field of over 11 Tesla at 2 Kelvin outperform all known hard-ferromagnets and single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Steps in the hysteresis loops and relaxation phenome...

  14. Two-phonon absorption spectra and lattice vibration anisotropy in HfS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riede, V.; Neumann, H.; Sobotta, H.

    1983-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra for E-vector perpendicular to c-vector in the two-phonon combination mode range is measured and analysed in order to get additional information about the A/sub 2u/ mode frequencies in HfS 2 . The lattice vibrational properties have been analysed in terms of the polarizable ion model. This model accounts for the long-range Coulomb terms of the charge and the static dipole induced by the structural anisotropy at each anion site

  15. Monte-Carlo calculation of perpendicular neutral-beam injection in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanatani, K.; Wakatani, M.; Uo, K.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of a helical field ripple on the slowing-down process of the fast ions created by neutral injection is investigated numerically. For this purpose, the guiding-centre orbits are followed in a model magnetic field without plasma current, on the assumption that the slowing-down process is to be classical. Optimum injection angles in two types of helical magnetic traps are compared. One is the Heliotron-E configuration with a large rotational transform and deep helical ripple; the other one is the conventional stellarator field with a small rotational transform and shallow helical ripple. In contrast to the stellarator, the heating efficiency as calculated for Heliotron-E does not decrease monotonically when the injection angle is perpendicular to the toroidal direction; a heating efficiency of above 70% was obtained for perpendicular injection into a high-density plasma with negligible charge-exchange loss. The difference in heating efficiency versus injection angle between heliotron and conventional stellarator fields is explained by a difference in drift motion of the helically trapped fast ions. (author)

  16. INJECTION TO RAPID DIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION AT PERPENDICULAR SHOCKS IN PARTIALLY IONIZED PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohira, Yutaka, E-mail: ohira@phys.aoyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan)

    2016-08-10

    We present a three-dimensional hybrid simulation of a collisionless perpendicular shock in a partially ionized plasma for the first time. In this simulation, the shock velocity and upstream ionization fraction are v {sub sh} ≈ 1333 km s{sup −1} and f {sub i} ∼ 0.5, which are typical values for isolated young supernova remnants (SNRs) in the interstellar medium. We confirm previous two-dimensional simulation results showing that downstream hydrogen atoms leak into the upstream region and are accelerated by the pickup process in the upstream region, and large magnetic field fluctuations are generated both in the upstream and downstream regions. In addition, we find that the magnetic field fluctuations have three-dimensional structures and the leaking hydrogen atoms are injected into the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at the perpendicular shock after the pickup process. The observed DSA can be interpreted as shock drift acceleration with scattering. In this simulation, particles are accelerated to v ∼ 100 v {sub sh} ∼ 0.3 c within ∼100 gyroperiods. The acceleration timescale is faster than that of DSA in parallel shocks. Our simulation results suggest that SNRs can accelerate cosmic rays to 10{sup 15.5} eV (the knee) during the Sedov phase.

  17. Anisotropy indices and the effects on the hydric behaviour of natural stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Rafael; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Varas, Maria Jose; Gomez-Heras, Miguel

    2010-05-01

    anisotropy are those with the highest capillarity coefficient. It can also be observed that for each petrological variety, this capillarity coefficient is higher in the specimens classified as a high level anisotropy class. At the same time, when capillary water is absorbed along the direction perpendicular to the anisotropic planes, the absorption capacity diminishes, no matter the anisotropy level of the stone is. On the contrary, capillary coefficients are higher when measurements are performed in a parallel direction to that of the greatest anisotropy of the stone specimen, where absorption tends to be faster with higher coefficients according to the porosity size and its geometry. These increments are more significant in the stone varieties in which anisotropy is mainly due to fissuring or schistosity planes, or related to stromatolitic planes or oriented minerals accumulation. The arrangement and placing of rocks used as building materials with a significant anisotropy will highly condition the durability and lifetime of a considered element. For that reason, is essential to determine anisotropy indices to obtain the best and most adequate arrangement of stone elements in building works, minimizing water entry and thus, the material decay. Acknowledgements: to both MATERNAS (0505/MAT/0094) and GEOMATERIALES (2009-1629) research programmes, funded by the Regional Government of Madrid; to the CONSOLIDER-INGENIO programme (CSD2007-0058), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science; and to the Spanish Geological and Mining Institute (IGME) for the specimens preparation and hydric behaviour measurements.

  18. Pressure-anisotropy-induced nonlinearities in the kinetic magnetorotational instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, J.; Quataert, E.; Kunz, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    In collisionless and weakly collisional plasmas, such as hot accretion flows onto compact objects, the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can differ significantly from the standard (collisional) MRI. In particular, pressure anisotropy with respect to the local magnetic-field direction can both change the linear MRI dispersion relation and cause nonlinear modifications to the mode structure and growth rate, even when the field and flow perturbations are very small. This work studies these pressure-anisotropy-induced nonlinearities in the weakly nonlinear, high-ion-beta regime, before the MRI saturates into strong turbulence. Our goal is to better understand how the saturation of the MRI in a low-collisionality plasma might differ from that in the collisional regime. We focus on two key effects: (i) the direct impact of self-induced pressure-anisotropy nonlinearities on the evolution of an MRI mode, and (ii) the influence of pressure anisotropy on the `parasitic instabilities' that are suspected to cause the mode to break up into turbulence. Our main conclusions are: (i) The mirror instability regulates the pressure anisotropy in such a way that the linear MRI in a collisionless plasma is an approximate nonlinear solution once the mode amplitude becomes larger than the background field (just as in magnetohyrodynamics). This implies that differences between the collisionless and collisional MRI become unimportant at large amplitudes. (ii) The break up of large-amplitude MRI modes into turbulence via parasitic instabilities is similar in collisionless and collisional plasmas. Together, these conclusions suggest that the route to magnetorotational turbulence in a collisionless plasma may well be similar to that in a collisional plasma, as suggested by recent kinetic simulations. As a supplement to these findings, we offer guidance for the design of future kinetic simulations of magnetorotational turbulence.

  19. CMB statistical anisotropy from noncommutative gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Ricciardone, Angelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Mota, David F. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Arroja, Frederico, E-mail: maresuke.shiraishi@pd.infn.it, E-mail: d.f.mota@astro.uio.no, E-mail: angelo.ricciardone@pd.infn.it, E-mail: arroja@pd.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Primordial statistical anisotropy is a key indicator to investigate early Universe models and has been probed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. In this paper, we examine tensor-mode CMB fluctuations generated from anisotropic gravitational waves, parametrised by P{sub h}(k) = P{sub h}{sup (0)}(k) [ 1 + ∑{sub LM} f{sub L}(k) g{sub LM} Y{sub LM} ( k-circumflex )], where P{sub h}{sup (0)}(k) is the usual scale-invariant power spectrum. Such anisotropic tensor fluctuations may arise from an inflationary model with noncommutativity of fields. It is verified that in this model, an isotropic component and a quadrupole asymmetry with f{sub 0}(k) = f{sub 2}(k) ∝ k{sup -2} are created and hence highly red-tilted off-diagonal components arise in the CMB power spectra, namely ℓ{sub 2} = ℓ{sub 1} ± 2 in TT, TE, EE and BB, and ℓ{sub 2} = ℓ{sub 1} ± 1 in TB and EB. We find that B-mode polarisation is more sensitive to such signals than temperature and E-mode polarisation due to the smallness of large-scale cosmic variance and we can potentially measure g{sub 00} = 30 and g{sub 2M} = 58 at 68% CL in a cosmic-variance-limited experiment. Such a level of signal may be measured in a PRISM like experiment, while the instrumental noise contaminates it in the Planck experiment. These results imply that it is impossible to measure the noncommutative parameter if it is small enough for the perturbative treatment to be valid. Our formalism and methodology for dealing with the CMB tensor statistical anisotropy are general and straightforwardly applicable to other early Universe models.

  20. Azimuthal anisotropy measurements by STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Li

    2014-06-01

    The recent study of centrality and transverse momentum (pT) dependence of inclusive charged hardron elliptic anisotropy (v2) at midrapidity (|η|<1.0) in Au+Au collision at √{sNN}=7.7,11.5,19.6,27, and 39 GeV in STAR Beam Energy Scan program is presented. We show that the observed increase of inclusive v2 is mainly due to the average pT increase with energy. In Au+Au 200 GeV collisions, the triangular anisotropy (v3) measurements highly depend on measurement methods; v3 is strongly dependent on Δη. The difference between two- and four-particle cumulants v2{2} and v2{4} for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collision at √{sNN}=62.4 and 200 GeV is used to explore flow fluctuations. Furthermore, by exploiting the symmetry of average flow in pseudorapidity η about midrapidity, the Δη-dependent and independent components are separated using v2{2} and v2{4}.

  1. Azimuthal anisotropy measurements by STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Li

    2014-06-15

    The recent study of centrality and transverse momentum (p{sub T}) dependence of inclusive charged hardron elliptic anisotropy (v{sub 2}) at midrapidity (|η|<1.0) in Au+Au collision at √(s{sub NN})=7.7,11.5,19.6,27, and39 GeV in STAR Beam Energy Scan program is presented. We show that the observed increase of inclusive v{sub 2} is mainly due to the average p{sub T} increase with energy. In Au+Au 200 GeV collisions, the triangular anisotropy (v{sub 3}) measurements highly depend on measurement methods; v{sub 3} is strongly dependent on Δη. The difference between two- and four-particle cumulants v{sub 2}{2} and v{sub 2}{4} for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collision at √(s{sub NN})=62.4 and 200 GeV is used to explore flow fluctuations. Furthermore, by exploiting the symmetry of average flow in pseudorapidity η about midrapidity, the Δη-dependent and independent components are separated using v{sub 2}{2} and v{sub 2}{4}.

  2. Azimuthal anisotropy measurements by STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Li

    2014-01-01

    The recent study of centrality and transverse momentum (p T ) dependence of inclusive charged hardron elliptic anisotropy (v 2 ) at midrapidity (|η|<1.0) in Au+Au collision at √(s NN )=7.7,11.5,19.6,27, and39 GeV in STAR Beam Energy Scan program is presented. We show that the observed increase of inclusive v 2 is mainly due to the average p T increase with energy. In Au+Au 200 GeV collisions, the triangular anisotropy (v 3 ) measurements highly depend on measurement methods; v 3 is strongly dependent on Δη. The difference between two- and four-particle cumulants v 2 {2} and v 2 {4} for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collision at √(s NN )=62.4 and 200 GeV is used to explore flow fluctuations. Furthermore, by exploiting the symmetry of average flow in pseudorapidity η about midrapidity, the Δη-dependent and independent components are separated using v 2 {2} and v 2 {4}

  3. A map of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), showing the large-scale fluctuations (the quadrupole and octopole) isolated by an analysis done partly by theorists at CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A recent analysis, in part by theorists working at CERN, suggests a new view of the cosmic microwave background radiation. It seems the solar system, rather than the universe, causes the radiation's large-scale fluctuations, similar to the bass in a song.

  4. Exploring the Tectonic Evolution of the Seafloor using Roughness, Covariance, and Anisotropy in Bathymetry and Marine Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnins, L. M.; Simons, F.

    2017-12-01

    Between the vastness of the oceans and the technological challenges water poses, data scarcity is frequently a limiting factor in studying the tectonic and morphological evolution of the seafloor. It is therefore essential to extract maximum information from the available gravity and bathymetry data, whilst also retaining realistic estimates of uncertainties. Here, we use a frequency-domain maximum-likelihood procedure to map the roughness structure and the nature of the topographic covariance of the seafloor. Rather than requiring us to assume the covariance is Gaussian or exponential, the flexibility of the Matérn form's parameterisation (variance, range, and differentiability) lets us solve for the shape of the covariance and map out its changes without a priori assumptions.We also examine the relationship between gravity and bathymetry through their coherence and admittance, particularly the anisotropy in the relationship. We extend the robust analysis developed to map anisotropy in lithospheric strength in the continents (Kalnins et al., 2015) to the oceanic domain. This method lets us separate out measurements of anisotropy likely to be linked to anisotropy in the long-term mechanical strength of the lithosphere itself; those aligned with anisotropies in the input gravity and bathymetry data; and those that are mathematically significant, but unexplained. Ultimately, we aim to use the statistical analyses to infer geophysical parameters of interest, such as oceanic spreading rate, level of volcanic activity, and potential for energy dissipation in ocean circulation. Our first results show a general alignment of strong directions ridge-parallel and weak directions ridge-perpendicular, suggesting widespread mechanical anisotropy derived from the lithosphere's highly anisotropic formation at mid-ocean ridges. However, this pattern changes markedly near sites of significant intraplate volcanism, where little to no robust anisotropy in strength is recovered. This

  5. ON TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF THE MULTI-TeV COSMIC RAY ANISOTROPY USING THE TIBET III AIR SHOWER ARRAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Ding, L. K.; Fan, C.; Feng Zhaoyang; Gou, Q. B.; He, H. H.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, X. H.; Guo, H. W.; Hu Haibing; Feng, C. F.; He, M.; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the large-scale two-dimensional sidereal anisotropy of multi-TeV cosmic rays (CRs) by the Tibet Air Shower Array, with the data taken from 1999 November to 2008 December. To explore temporal variations of the anisotropy, the data set is divided into nine intervals, each with a time span of about one year. The sidereal anisotropy of magnitude, about 0.1%, appears fairly stable from year to year over the entire observation period of nine years. This indicates that the anisotropy of TeV Galactic CRs remains insensitive to solar activities since the observation period covers more than half of the 23rd solar cycle.

  6. Effect of defects, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and shape anisotropy on magnetic structure of iron thin films by magnetic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microstructures of magnetic materials, including defects and crystallographic orientations, are known to strongly influence magnetic domain structures. Measurement techniques such as magnetic force microscopy (MFM thus allow study of correlations between microstructural and magnetic properties. The present work probes effects of anisotropy and artificial defects on the evolution of domain structure with applied field. Single crystal iron thin films on MgO substrates were milled by Focused Ion Beam (FIB to create different magnetically isolated squares and rectangles in [110] crystallographic orientations, having their easy axis 45° from the sample edge. To investigate domain wall response on encountering non-magnetic defects, a 150 nm diameter hole was created in the center of some samples. By simultaneously varying crystal orientation and shape, both magnetocrystalline anisotropy and shape anisotropy, as well as their interaction, could be studied. Shape anisotropy was found to be important primarily for the longer edge of rectangular samples, which exaggerated the FIB edge effects and provided nucleation sites for spike domains in non-easy axis oriented samples. Center holes acted as pinning sites for domain walls until large applied magnetic fields. The present studies are aimed at deepening the understanding of the propagation of different types of domain walls in the presence of defects and different crystal orientations.

  7. A Simple Size Effect Model for Tension Perpendicular to the Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. U.; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The strength in tension perpendicular to the grain is known to decrease with an increase in the stressed volume. Usually this size effect is explained on a stochastic basis, that is, an explanation relying on the increased probability of encountering a strength reducing flaw when the volume...... of the material under stress is increased. This paper presents an experimental investigation on specimens with a well-defined structural orientation of the material. The experiments exhibit a large size effect and the nature of the failures encountered suggests that the size effect can be explained...... on a deterministic basis. Arguments for such a simple deterministic explanation of size effect is found in finite element modelling, using the orthotropic stiffness characteristics in the transverse plane of wood....

  8. State diagram of spin-torque oscillator with perpendicular reference layer and planar field generation layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengwei Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The state diagram of spin-torque oscillator (STO with perpendicular reference layer (REF and planar field generation layer (FGL was studied by a macrospin model and a micro-magnetic model. The state diagrams are calculated versus the current density, external field and external field angle. It was found that the oscillation in FGL could be controlled by current density combined with external field so as to achieve a wide frequency range. An optimized current and applied field region was given for microwave assisted magnetic recording (MAMR, considering both frequency and output field oscillation amplitude. The results of the macro-spin model were compared with those of the micro-magnetic model. The macro-spin model was qualitatively different from micro-magnetics and experimental results when the current density was large and the FGL was non-uniform.

  9. Reversible electron heating vs. wave-particle interactions in quasi-perpendicular shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, P.; Mangeney, A.; Scudder, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The energy necessary to explain the electron heating in quasi-perpendicular collisionless shocks can be derived either from the electron acceleration in the d.c. cross shock electric potential, or by the interactions between the electrons and the waves existing in the shock. A Monte Carlo simulation has been performed to study the electron distribution function evolution through the shock structure, with and without particle diffusion on waves. This simulation has allowed us to clarify the relative importance of the two possible energy sources; in particular it has been shown that the electron parallel temperature is determined by the d.c. electromagnetic field and not by any wave-particle-induced heating. Wave particle interactions are effective in smoothing out the large gradients in phase space produced by the 'reversible' motion of the electrons, thus producing a 'cooling' of the electrons.

  10. Temperature dependence of interlayer coupling in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with GdOX barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse-Illige, T.; Xu, Y. H.; Liu, Y. H.; Huang, S.; Kato, H.; Bi, C.; Xu, M.; LeRoy, B. J.; Wang, W. G.

    2018-02-01

    Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with GdOX tunneling barriers have shown a unique voltage controllable interlayer magnetic coupling effect. Here, we investigate the quality of the GdOX barrier and the coupling mechanism in these junctions by examining the temperature dependence of the tunneling magnetoresistance and the interlayer coupling from room temperature down to 11 K. The barrier is shown to be of good quality with the spin independent conductance only contributing a small portion, 14%, to the total room temperature conductance, similar to AlOX and MgO barriers. The interlayer coupling, however, shows an anomalously strong temperature dependence including sign changes below 80 K. This non-trivial temperature dependence is not described by previous models of interlayer coupling and may be due to the large induced magnetic moment of the Gd ions in the barrier.

  11. Two-Channel Metal Detector Using Two Perpendicular Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Nam Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-channel metal detector, having two sets of perpendicularly oriented sensor antennas, is proposed to expand detectable size, ranging from mm through cm scale, of metal sensor, while conventional metal sensor is dedicated for detection only in mm or cm scale. The characteristics of the two metal detection sensor channels were investigated, respectively, and the interference effect, while in simultaneous operation, between two sensor channels was discussed. Metal detection channel, having sensitivity in mm scale, showed detectable sensitivity to moving ferrous sphere, with diameter down to 0.7 mm, at 50 kHz exciting frequency and enhanced sensitivity distribution. And metal detection channel having sensitivity in cm scale showed more uniform sensitivity distribution with the flexibility for future modular construction. The effect of interference, while in simultaneous operation of two sensors, resulted in reduced output response, but still within usable detection range. Thus it was feasible to operate two sensors, having different sensitivity range, simultaneously and to extend detection range from mm to cm scale, within practically acceptable interference.

  12. Symmetry breaking of adjacent tracks in perpendicular recording system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Huang; Wei Dan

    2007-01-01

    The track density increase in a perpendicular magnetic recording system is limited by the adjacent-track interference (ATI). In this work, a composite micromagnetic simulation model of the read/write process is developed to analyse ATI by the symmetry of signal and noise in two adjacent W = 60 nm tracks with the track pitch of the order of 100 nm. Based on the two-dimensional medium noise distribution of dibit recording, it is found that the noise in the first and later recorded tracks start to be asymmetric when the track pitch is lower than 2 W; if the read width is limited within 2/3 of the write width, the asymmetry of noise appears when the track pitch is less than 1.5 W. At higher recording densities, the signal-to-noise ratio degradation is mainly due to the noise caused by the interference from the signal of the adjacent track. Side writing can be effectively eliminated by the use of a guard band whose width is at least half the track width

  13. Quasi-perpendicular/quasi-parallel divisions of Earth's bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstadt, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    Computer-drawn diagrams of the boundaries between quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel areas of Earth's bow shock are displayed for a few selected cone angles of static interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The effect on the boundary of variable IMF in the foreshock is also discussed and shown for one nominal case. The boundaries demand caution in applying them to the realistic, dynamic conditions of the solar wind and in interpreting the effects of small cone angles on the distributions of structures at the shock. However, the calculated, first-order boundaries are helpful in defining areas of the shock where contributions from active structures inherent in quasi-parallel geometry may be distinguishable from those derived secondarily from upstream reflected ion dynamics. The boundaries are also compatible with known behavior of daytime ULF geomagnetic waves and pulsations according to models postulating that cone angle-controlled, time-dependent ULF activity around the subsolar point of the bow shock provides the source of geomagnetic excitation

  14. A method to detect positron anisotropies with Pamela data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panico, B. [INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Adriani, O. [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Barbarino, G.C. [INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); University of Naples Federico II”, Department of Physics, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Bazilevskaya, G.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, RU-119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bellotti, R. [University of Bari, Department of Physics, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Boezio, M. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bogomolov, E.A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bongi, M. [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Bonvicini, V. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bottai, S. [University of Naples Federico II”, Department of Physics, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Bruno, A. [University of Bari, Department of Physics, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cafagna, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Campana, D. [INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Carbone, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Carlson, P. [KTH, Department of Physics, and the Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Casolino, M. [INFN, Sezione di Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); RIKEN, Advanced Science Institute, Wako-shi, Saitama (Japan); Castellini, G. [IFAC, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); De Donato, C. [INFN, Sezione di Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); and others

    2014-11-15

    The PAMELA experiment is collecting data since 2006; its results indicate the presence of a large flux of positron with respect to electrons in the CR spectrum above 10 GeV. This excess might also be originated in objects such as pulsars and microquasars or through dark matter annihilation. Here the electrons and positrons events collected by PAMELA have been analized searching for anisotropies. The analysis is performed at different angular scales and results will be presented at the conference.

  15. Higher-order anisotropies in the blast-wave model: Disentangling flow and density field anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimerman, Jakub [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Comenius University, FMPI, Bratislava (Slovakia); Tomasik, Boris [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Univerzita Mateja Bela, FPV, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Csanad, Mate; Loekoes, Sandor [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-08-15

    We formulate a generalisation of the blast-wave model which is suitable for the description of higher-order azimuthal anisotropies of the hadron production. The model includes anisotropy in the density profile as well as an anisotropy in the transverse expansion velocity field. We then study how these two kinds of anisotropies influence the single-particle distributions and the correlation radii of two-particle correlation functions. Particularly we focus on the third-order anisotropy and consideration is given averaging over different orientations of the event plane. (orig.)

  16. Seismic velocity anisotropy of phyllosilicate-rich rocks: characteristics inferred from experimental and crack-model studies of biotite-rich schist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, O.; Kanagawa, K.

    2010-07-01

    Seismic velocity anisotropy of biotite schist (30 per cent-mode biotite) was measured under confining pressures up to 150 MPa. The rock shows weak orthotropy which was altered from transverse isotropy (TI) generated by biotite-preferred orientation. The orthotropy was caused by microfolding in the rock. The velocity increase under confining pressure indicates that most crack planes are aligned parallel to the cleavage planes (silicate sheet) of the oriented biotite minerals. The anisotropy of the rock is basically TI due to both the aligned biotite minerals and cracks, which have a common symmetry axis. We found that other sheet silicate-rich rocks have a similar anisotropy with the biotite schist, in which the TI-type anisotropy is characterized by the slow P- and S-wave velocities along the symmetry axis. This is caused by the preferred orientation of sheet silicate minerals and the extremely slow P- and S-wave velocities along the axis perpendicular to the silicate sheet compared to the directions along the silicate sheet. When rock contains a large percentage of highly oriented sheet silicates, the fast and slow shear waves exchange their polarities at some off-symmetry axis directions, indicating that the qS-wave (quasi-S wave) velocity exceeds the SH-wave velocity. The phase velocity distribution of qS wave shows an asymmetry with respect to the angle from the symmetry axis, which is characterized by a bulge in this distribution located near the symmetric axis. This is inherent to most sheet silicate minerals. When crack density of aligned cracks increases, the P-wave velocity along the symmetry axis decreases considerably. The qS-wave phase velocity in the off-axis directions also decreases, in accordance with the decrease of the P velocity along the symmetry axis. The asymmetry of the qS-wave phase velocity distribution increases as the P-wave velocity decreases along the symmetry axis. This relationship can be well understood by means of Berryman

  17. Interplay between magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange bias in epitaxial CoO/Co films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hao-Liang; Zeng, Yu-Jia; Van Haesendonck, Chris; Brems, Steven; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André

    2016-01-01

    The interplay between magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange bias is investigated in CoO/Co bilayer films, which are grown epitaxially on MgO (0 0 1), by magnetization reversal measurements based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect. While an asymmetric magnetization reversal survives after training for cooling field (CF) along the hard axis, the magnetization reversal becomes symmetric and is dominated in both branches of the hysteresis loop by domain wall motion before and after training for CF along the easy axis. When performing an in-plane hysteresis loop perpendicular to the CF, the hysteresis loop along the easy axis becomes asymmetric: magnetization rotation dominates in the ascending branch, while there is a larger contribution of domain wall motion in the descending branch. Furthermore, the azimuthal angular dependence of the AMR shows two minima after performing a perpendicular hysteresis loop, instead of only one minimum after training. Relying on the extended Fulcomer and Charap model, these effects can be related to an increased deviation of the average uncompensated antiferromagnetic magnetization from the CF direction. This model provides a consistent interpretation of training and asymmetry of the magnetization reversal for epitaxial films with pronounced magnetocrystalline anisotropy as well as for the previously investigated polycrystalline films. (paper)

  18. Fourfold magnetic anisotropy, coercivity and magnetization reversal of Co/V bilayers grown on MgO(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja, J F; Muro, M GarcIa del; Presa, B; Matarranz, R; Corrales, J A; Labarta, A; Contreras, M C

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal of Al/Co/V/MgO(0 0 1) thin films have been investigated. The films were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The roles of both Co and V layers thicknesses have been studied. Magnetic characterization has been carried out by transverse susceptibility (TS) measurements and hysteresis loops. Cobalt is grown in the hcp structure on V with the c axis parallel to the film plane. Two types of hcp Co crystal are grown with the c axes perpendicular to each other. This structure gives rise to a fourfold magnetic anisotropy. When the V layer thickness is below 40 A a superimposed uniaxial anisotropy develops, the effect of which is a depression in the TS, in agreement with theoretical calculations. This uniaxial anisotropy is induced by the substrate and due to a discontinuous growth of the V layer. For hcp Co grown on V, the magnetic anisotropy rapidly increases with Co layer thickness. In this case, unexpected shifted hysteresis loops along the hard axes were observed when the films were not saturated. This has been explained by taking into account the magnetization reversal along the hard axis: it proceeds via magnetization rotation of some portions of the film at high fields, and by domain wall motion of the rest of the film at lower field values

  19. Fourfold magnetic anisotropy, coercivity and magnetization reversal of Co/V bilayers grown on MgO(0 0 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, J F [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Muro, M GarcIa del [Departament de Fisica Fonamental and Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia IN2UB de la Universitat de Barcelona, MartIi Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Presa, B [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Matarranz, R [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Corrales, J A [Departmento de Informatica, Universidad de Oviedo, Edificio Departamental 1, Campus de Viesques s/n, 33204 Gijon (Spain); Labarta, A [Departament de Fisica Fonamental and Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia IN2UB de la Universitat de Barcelona, MartIi Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Contreras, M C [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-11-21

    Magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal of Al/Co/V/MgO(0 0 1) thin films have been investigated. The films were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The roles of both Co and V layers thicknesses have been studied. Magnetic characterization has been carried out by transverse susceptibility (TS) measurements and hysteresis loops. Cobalt is grown in the hcp structure on V with the c axis parallel to the film plane. Two types of hcp Co crystal are grown with the c axes perpendicular to each other. This structure gives rise to a fourfold magnetic anisotropy. When the V layer thickness is below 40 A a superimposed uniaxial anisotropy develops, the effect of which is a depression in the TS, in agreement with theoretical calculations. This uniaxial anisotropy is induced by the substrate and due to a discontinuous growth of the V layer. For hcp Co grown on V, the magnetic anisotropy rapidly increases with Co layer thickness. In this case, unexpected shifted hysteresis loops along the hard axes were observed when the films were not saturated. This has been explained by taking into account the magnetization reversal along the hard axis: it proceeds via magnetization rotation of some portions of the film at high fields, and by domain wall motion of the rest of the film at lower field values.

  20. Dynamic Behavior of Spicules Inferred from Perpendicular Velocity Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rahul; Verth, Gary; Erdélyi, Robertus [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-10

    Understanding the dynamic behavior of spicules, e.g., in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave mode(s), is key to unveiling their role in energy and mass transfer from the photosphere to corona. The transverse, torsional, and field-aligned motions of spicules have previously been observed in imaging spectroscopy and analyzed separately for embedded wave-mode identification. Similarities in the Doppler signatures of spicular structures for both kink and torsional Alfvén wave modes have led to the misinterpretation of the dominant wave mode in these structures and is a subject of debate. Here, we aim to combine line- of-sight (LOS) and plane-of-sky (POS) velocity components using the high spatial/temporal resolution H α imaging-spectroscopy data from the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter based at the Swedish Solar Telescope to achieve better insight into the underlying nature of these motions as a whole. The resultant three-dimensional velocity vectors and the other derived quantities (e.g., magnetic pressure perturbations) are used to identify the MHD wave mode(s) responsible for the observed spicule motion. We find a number of independent examples where the bulk transverse motion of the spicule is dominant either in the POS or along the LOS. It is shown that the counterstreaming action of the displaced external plasma due to spicular bulk transverse motion has a similar Doppler profile to that of the m = 0 torsional Alfvén wave when this motion is predominantly perpendicular to the LOS. Furthermore, the inferred magnetic pressure perturbations support the kink wave interpretation of observed spicular bulk transverse motion rather than any purely incompressible MHD wave mode, e.g., the m = 0 torsional Alfvén wave.

  1. Effect of Ligand Substitution around the Dy(III) on the SMM Properties of Dual-Luminescent Zn-Dy and Zn-Dy-Zn Complexes with Large Anisotropy Energy Barriers: A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Magnetostructural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Jean Pierre; Titos-Padilla, Silvia; Oyarzabal, Itziar; Gupta, Tulika; Duhayon, Carine; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Colacio, Enrique

    2016-05-02

    The new dinuclear Zn(II)-Dy(III) and trinuclear Zn(II)-Dy(III)-Zn(II) complexes of formula [(LZnBrDy(ovan) (NO3)(H2O)](H2O)·0.5(MeOH) (1) and [(L(1)ZnBr)2Dy(MeOH)2](ClO4) (3) (L and L(1) are the dideprotonated forms of the N,N'-2,2-dimethylpropylenedi(3-methoxysalicylideneiminato and 2-{(E)-[(3-{[(2E,3E)-3-(hydroxyimino)butan-2-ylidene ]amino}-2,2-dimethylpropyl)imino]methyl}-6-methoxyphenol Schiff base compartmental ligands, respectively) have been prepared and magnetostructurally characterized. The X-ray structure of 1 indicates that the Dy(III) ion exhibits a DyO9 coordination sphere, which is made from four O atoms coming from the compartmental ligand (two methoxy terminal groups and two phenoxido bridging groups connecting Zn(II) and Dy(III) ions), other four atoms belonging to the chelating nitrato and ovanillin ligands, and the last one coming to the coordinated water molecule. The structure of 3 shows the central Dy(III) ion surrounded by two L(1)Zn units, so that the Dy(III) and Zn(II) ions are linked by phenoxido/oximato bridging groups. The Dy ion is eight-coordinated by the six O atoms afforded by two L(1) ligands and two O atoms coming from two methanol molecules. Alternating current (AC) dynamic magnetic measurements of 1, 3, and the previously reported dinuclear [LZnClDy(thd)2] (2) complex (where thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato ligand) indicate single molecule magnet (SMM) behavior for all these complexes with large thermal energy barriers for the reversal of the magnetization and butterfly-shaped hysteresis loops at 2 K. Ab initio calculations on 1-3 show a pure Ising ground state for all of them, which induces almost completely suppressed quantum tunnelling magnetization (QTM), and thermally assisted quantum tunnelling magnetization (TA-QTM) relaxations via the first excited Kramers doublet, leading to large energy barriers, thus supporting the observation of SMM behavior. The comparison between the experimental and theoretical

  2. Evaluation of electrical resistivity anisotropy in geological mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Key words: Electrical resistivity anisotropy, radial vertical electrical sounding, anisotropy polygons. INTRODUCTION ... electrical resistivity survey in the geological interpretation ... resistivity and other electrical or electromagnetic based.

  3. Upper Mantle Seismic Anisotropy Beneath West Antarctica from Shear Wave Splitting Analysis of POLENET/ANET Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, N.; Wiens, D. A.; Hernandez, S.; Aster, R. C.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Huerta, A. D.; Wilson, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    subparallel to the inferred WARS extension direction. Stations located in the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains (EWM) show fast directions parallel to those found within WARS. Furthermore, results from WARS and from EWM all show relatively large splitting times of 0.6 - 1.33 s. These results suggest upper mantle anisotropy that results from mantle flow and deformation related to the extensional deformation of the region. Two stations were installed in the Pensacola Mountains which are located grid-north of the EWM. The results from this region deviate from the dominant fast orientation seen in WARS but appear to be approximately perpendicular to the strike of the mountain range. Stations in Marie Byrd Land (MBL) show inconsistent fast directions and a wide range of delay times (0.3 - 0.9 s), perhaps as a result of complex mantle fabric related to a possible MBL hotspot.

  4. Seismic and resistivity anisotropy analysis at the Low-Noise Underground Laboratory (LSBB) of Rustrel (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyen, H. J.; Bereš, J.; Gaffet, S.; Sénéchal, G.; Rousset, D.; Pessel, M.

    2011-12-01

    Many geological materials exhibit anisotropic behaviour. A limestone massif, especially if cracked with fractures and faults in a predominant orientation is expected to manifest seismic and electric resistivity anisotropy. Seismic velocity within air- or water-filled cracks is smaller than in the rock matrix. Therefore, the velocity parallel to fractures, controlled mainly by the rock matrix, is expected to be faster than perpendicular to the fractures, where waves have to cross fractures and rock matrix. Seismic and resistivity measurements were conducted in three underground galleries of the Low-Noise Underground Gallery (LSBB) in southern France forming a horse-shoe setting. The galleries are located inside a karstic limestone massif. Around 22500 first arrival travel-times were picked and different types of pole-pole and dipole-dipole resistivity measurement were carried out in parallel. Resistivities and velocities vary strongly with direction of observation. The direction of fast velocities is at right angle with the one of slow velocities, a typical sign for anisotropy. Observation of a system of subparallel fractures allows to approximate the actual rock anisotropy by a horizontal transverse isotropy model. The dataset was treated by different approaches, including simple cosine fit, inversion of average anisotropy parameters using a Monte-Carlo approach, isotropic and anisotropic tomography inversion. All of the above confirm the directions of fast and slow velocities (30°N and 120°N respectively) and an anisotropy of about 10%. Common measurements of seismic and resistivity data at different periods of the year will have the potential to determine quantitatively the fracture density and the free water content in this karst massif.

  5. D" anisotropy and slip systems in post-perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Andy; Wookey, James; Kendall, J.-Michael

    2010-05-01

    The lowermost few hundred kilometres of the Earth's mantle-known as D″-form the boundary between it and the core below, control the Earth's convective system, and are the site of probable large thermochemical heterogeneity. Seismic observations of D″ show a large (~2%) increase in S-wave velocity and significant seismic anisotropy (the variation of wave speed with direction) are present in many parts of the region. On the basis of continuous regions of fast shear velocity (V S) anomalies in global models, it is also proposed as the resting place of subducted slabs, notably the Farallon beneath North America. The MgSiO3-post-perovskite mineral phase is the most compelling explanation for observations of anisotropy, though an outstanding question is how post-perovskite and other mineral phases may deform to produce this: different mechanisms are possible. With knowledge either of mantle flow or which slip system is responsible for causing deformation, we can determine the other with the seismic anisotropy which is created. We investigate the dynamics at the CMB beneath North America using differential shear wave splitting in S and ScS phases from earthquakes of magnitude MW > 5.5 in South and Central America, Hawaii the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and East Pacific Rise. They are detected on ~500 stations in North America, giving ~700 measurements of anisotropy in D″. We achieve this by correcting for anisotropy in the upper mantle (UM) beneath both the source and receiver. The measurements cover three regions beneath western USA, the Yucatan peninsula and Florida. In each case, two different, crossing ray paths are used, so that the style of anisotropy can be constrained-only one azimuth cannot distinguish differing cases. Our results showing ~1% anisotropy dependent on azimuth are not consistent with transverse isotropy with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) anywhere. The same but with a tilted axis is possible (TTI) and would be consistent with inclusions of seismically

  6. Ultra-fast three terminal perpendicular spin-orbit torque MRAM (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulle, Olivier; Cubukcu, Murat; Hamelin, Claire; Lamard, Nathalie; Buda-Prejbeanu, Liliana; Mikuszeit, Nikolai; Garello, Kevin; Gambardella, Pietro; Langer, Juergen; Ocker, Berthold; Miron, Mihai; Gaudin, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    The discovery that a current flowing in a heavy metal can exert a torque on a neighboring ferromagnet has opened a new way to manipulate the magnetization at the nanoscale. This "spin orbit torque" (SOT) has been demonstrated in ultrathin magnetic multilayers with structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) and high spin orbit coupling, such as Pt/Co/AlOx multilayers. We have shown that this torque can lead to the magnetization switching of a perpendicularly magnetized nanomagnet by an in-plane current injection. The manipulation of magnetization by SOT has led to a novel concept of magnetic RAM memory, the SOT-MRAM, which combines non volatility, high speed, reliability and large endurance. These features make the SOT-MRAM a good candidate to replace SRAM for non-volatile cache memory application. We will present the proof of concept of a perpendicular SOT-MRAM cell composed of a Ta/FeCoB/MgO/FeCoB magnetic tunnel junction and demonstrate ultra-fast (down to 300 ps) deterministic bipolar magnetization switching. Macrospin and micromagnetic simulations including SOT cannot reproduce the experimental results, which suggests that additional physical mechanisms are at stacks. Our results show that SOT-MRAM is fast, reliable and low power, which is promising for non-volatile cache memory application. We will also discuss recent experiments of magnetization reversal in ultrathin multilayers Pt/Co/AlOx by very short (<200 ps) current pulses. We will show that in this material, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moryia interaction plays a key role in the reversal process.

  7. Membranes with highly ordered straight nanopores by selective swelling of fast perpendicularly aligned block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Yao, Xueping; Liou, Jiun-You; Sun, Wei; Sun, Ya-Sen; Wang, Yong

    2013-11-26

    Membranes with uniform, straight nanopores have important applications in diverse fields, but their application is limited by the lack of efficient producing methods with high controllability. In this work, we reported on an extremely simple and efficient strategy to produce such well-defined membranes. We demonstrated that neutral solvents were capable of annealing amphiphilic block copolymer (BCP) films of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) with thicknesses up to 600 nm to the perpendicular orientation within 1 min. Annealing in neutral solvents was also effective to the perpendicular alignment of block copolymers with very high molecular weights, e.g., 362 000 Da. Remarkably, simply by immersing the annealed BCP films in hot ethanol followed by drying in air, the originally dense BCP films were nondestructively converted into porous membranes containing highly ordered, straight nanopores traversing the entire thickness of the membrane (up to 1.1 μm). Grazing incident small-angle X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the hexagonal ordering of the nanopores over large areas. We found that the overflow of P2VP chains from their reservoir P2VP cylinders and the deformation of the PS matrix in the swelling process contributed to the transformation of the solid P2VP cylinders to empty straight pores. The pore diameters can be tuned by either changing the swelling temperatures or depositing thin layers of metal oxides on the preformed membranes via atomic layer deposition with a subnanometer accuracy. To demonstrate the application of the obtained porous membranes, we used them as templates and produced centimeter-scale arrays of aligned nanotubes of metal oxides with finely tunable wall thicknesses.

  8. Late time CMB anisotropies constrain mini-charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, C.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Jaeckel, J. [Univ. of Durham, Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Observations of the temperature anisotropies induced as light from the CMB passes through large scale structures in the late universe are a sensitive probe of the interactions of photons in such environments. In extensions of the Standard Model which give rise to mini-charged particles, photons propagating through transverse magnetic fields can be lost to pair production of such particles. Such a decrement in the photon flux would occur as photons from the CMB traverse the magnetic fields of galaxy clusters. Therefore late time CMB anisotropies can be used to constrain the properties of mini- charged particles. We outline how this test is constructed, and present new constraints on mini-charged particles from observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the Coma cluster. (orig.)

  9. Fracture Anisotropy and Toughness in the Mancos Shale: Implications for crack-growth geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, M. R.; Meredith, P. G.; Brantut, N.; Crawford, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    The hydraulic fracturing of gas-shales has drawn attention to the fundamental fracture properties of shales. Fracture propagation is dependent on a combination of the in-situ stress field, the fracturing fluid and pressure, and the mechanical properties of the shale. However, shales are strongly anisotropic, and there is a general paucity of available experimental data on the anisotropic mechanical properties of shales in the scientific literature. The mode-I stress intensity factor, KI, quantifies the concentration of stress at crack tips. The Fracture Toughness of a linear elastic material is then defined as the critical value of this stress intensity factor; KIc, beyond which rapid catastrophic crack growth occurs. However, shales display significant non-linearity, which produces hysteresis during experimental cyclic loading. This allows for the calculation of a ductility coefficient using the residual displacement after successive loading cycles. From this coefficient, a ductility corrected Fracture Toughness value, KIcc can be determined. In the Mancos Shale this ductility correction can be as large as 60%, giving a Divider orientation KIcc value of 0.8 MPa.m0.5. Tensile strength and mode-I Fracture Toughness have been experimentally determined for the Mancos Shale using the Brazil Disk and Short-Rod methodologies respectively. The three principal fracture orientations; Arrester, Divider and Short-Transverse were all analysed. A significant anisotropy is observed in the tensile strength, with the Arrester value being 1.5 times higher than the Short-Transverse value. Even larger anisotropy is observed in the Fracture Toughness, with KIcc in the Divider and Arrester orientations being around 1.8 times that in the Short-Transverse orientation. For both tensile strength and fracture toughness, the Short-Transverse orientation, where the fracture propagates in the bedding plane in a direction parallel to the bedding, is found to have significantly lower values than

  10. Electric field dependence of the spin relaxation anisotropy in (111) GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balocchi, A; Amand, T; Renucci, P; Duong, Q H; Marie, X; Wang, G; Liu, B L

    2013-01-01

    Time-resolved optical spectroscopy experiments in (111)-oriented GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (QWs) show a strong electric field dependence of the conduction electron spin relaxation anisotropy. This results from the interplay between the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin splitting in this system with C 3v symmetry. By varying the electric field applied perpendicular to the QW plane from 20 to 50 kV cm −1 the anisotropy of the spin relaxation time parallel (τ s ∥ ) and perpendicular (τ s ⊥ ) to the growth axis can be first canceled and eventually inversed with respect to the one usually observed in III–V zinc-blende QW (τ s ⊥ = 2τ s ∥ ). This dependence stems from the nonlinear contributions of the k-dependent conduction band spin splitting terms which begin to play the dominant spin relaxing role while the linear Dresselhaus terms are compensated by the Rashba ones through the applied bias. A spin density matrix model for the conduction band spin splitting including both linear and cubic terms of the Dresselhaus Hamiltonian is used which allows a quantitative description of the measured electric field dependence of the spin relaxation anisotropy. The existence of an isotropic point where the spin relaxation tensor reduces to a scalar is predicted and confirmed experimentally. The spin splitting compensation electric field and collision processes type in the QW can be likewise directly extracted from the model without complementary measurements. (paper)

  11. Magnetization Switching of a Co /Pt Multilayered Perpendicular Nanomagnet Assisted by a Microwave Field with Time-Varying Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Hirofumi; Kanao, Taro; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2018-05-01

    Microwave-assisted magnetization switching (MAS) is attracting attention as a method for reversing nanomagnets with a high magnetic anisotropy by using a small-amplitude magnetic field. We experimentally study MAS of a perpendicularly magnetized nanomagnet by applying a microwave magnetic field with a time-varying frequency. Because the microwave field frequency can follow the nonlinear decrease of the resonance frequency, larger magnetization excitation than that in a constant-frequency microwave field is induced, which enhances the MAS effect. The switching field decreases almost linearly as the start value of the time-varying microwave field frequency increases, and it becomes smaller than the minimum switching field in a constant-frequency microwave field. To obtain this enhancement of the MAS effect, the end value of the time-varying microwave field frequency needs to be almost the same as or lower than the critical frequency for MAS in a constant-frequency microwave field. In addition, the frequency change typically needs to take 1 ns or longer to make the rate of change slow enough for the magnetization to follow the frequency change. This switching behavior is qualitatively explained by the theory based on the macrospin model.

  12. Electric-field assisted switching of magnetization in perpendicularly magnetized (Ga,Mn)As films at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Ma, Jialin; Yu, Xueze; Yu, Zhifeng; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    The electric-field effects on the magnetism in perpendicularly magnetized (Ga,Mn)As films at high temperatures have been investigated. An electric-field as high as 0.6 V nm-1 is applied by utilizing a solid-state dielectric Al2O3 film as a gate insulator. The coercive field, saturation magnetization and magnetic anisotropy have been clearly changed by the gate electric-field, which are detected via the anomalous Hall effect. In terms of the Curie temperature, a variation of about 3 K is observed as determined by the temperature derivative of the sheet resistance. In addition, electrical switching of the magnetization assisted by a fixed external magnetic field at 120 K is demonstrated, employing the gate-controlled coercive field. The above experimental results have been attributed to the gate voltage modulation of the hole density in (Ga,Mn)As films, since the ferromagnetism in (Ga,Mn)As is carrier-mediated. The limited modulation magnitude of magnetism is found to result from the strong charge screening effect introduced by the high hole concentration up to 1.10  ×  1021 cm-3, while the variation of the hole density is only about 1.16  ×  1020 cm-3.

  13. Effect of spin structure transition in IrMn on the CoPd/IrMn perpendicular exchange biased system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjua, Muhammad Bilal; Guentherodt, Gernot [II. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The exchange bias (EB) phenomenon is studied in MBE grown Pd(10 nm)/CoPd(x=8,16,30 nm)/IrMn(15 nm)/Pd(4 nm) samples, which exhibit a perpendicular anisotropy of Co22Pd78. These samples are field cooled along the out-of-plane direction and hysteresis loops are measured along both the out-of-plane and in-plane directions. It is observed that there is a transition temperature where the out-of-plane EB becomes greater than the in-plane EB. This behavior of EB is an evidence of the change in the spin structure of the given system, which is also revealed by the magnetization versus temperature measurements of the exchange biased and of the sole IrMn samples. It is found that with increasing temperature there is a spin structure transition in Ir25Mn75 (15nm) related to the 2Q to 3Q transition in the bulk, which is responsible for the increase in out-of-plane EB. A vertical shift in the hysteresis loop is also observed in these exchange biased samples at low temperatures (T<50 K).

  14. An analytic study of the perpendicularly propagating electromagnetic drift instabilities in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yansong; Kulsrud, Russell; Ji, Hantao

    2008-01-01

    A local linear theory is proposed for a perpendicularly propagating drift instability driven by relative drifts between electrons and ions. The theory takes into account local cross-field current, pressure gradients, and modest collisions as in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment [M. Yamada et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)]. The unstable waves have very small group velocities in the direction of the pressure gradient, but have a large phase velocity near the relative drift velocity between electrons and ions in the direction of the cross-field current. By taking into account the electron-ion collisions and applying the theory in the Harris sheet, we establish that this instability could be excited near the center of the Harris sheet and have enough e-foldings to grow to large amplitude before it propagates out of the unstable region. Comparing with the other magnetic reconnection related instabilities (lower-hybrid-drift instability, modified two-stream instability, etc.) studied previously, we believe the instability we found is a favorable candidate to produce anomalous resistivity because of its unique wave characteristics, such as electromagnetic component, large phase velocity, and small group velocity in the cross-current-layer direction.

  15. An Analytic Study of the Perpendicularly Propagating Electromagnetic Drift Instabilities in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Kulsrud, R.; Ji, H.

    2008-01-01

    A local linear theory is proposed for a perpendicularly propagating drift instability driven by relative drifts between electrons and ions. The theory takes into account local cross-field current, pressure gradients and modest collisions as in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) (10). The unstable waves have very small group velocities in the direction of the pressure gradient, but have a large phase velocity near the relative drift velocity between electrons and ions in the direction of cross-field current. By taking into account the electron-ion collisions and applying the theory in the Harris sheet, we establish that this instability could be excited near the center of the Harris sheet and have enough efoldings to grow to large amplitude before it propagates out of the unstable region. Comparing with the other magnetic reconnection related instabilities (LHDI, MTSI et.) studied previously, we believe the instability we find is a favorable candidate to produce anomalous resistivity because of its unique wave characteristics, such as electromagnetic component, large phase velocity, and small group velocity in the cross current layer direction

  16. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 13, Perpendiculars and Parallels (I), Chapter 14, Similarity. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The first chapter of the seventh unit in this SMSG series discusses perpendiculars and parallels; topics covered include the relationship between parallelism and perpendicularity, rectangles, transversals, parallelograms, general triangles, and measurement of the circumference of the earth. The second chapter, on similarity, discusses scale…

  17. Experimental and numerical analysis of toughness anisotropy in AA2139 Al-alloy sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgeneyer, T.F.; Besson, J.; Proudhon, H.; Starink, M.J.; Sinclair, I.

    2009-01-01

    Toughness anisotropy of AA2139 (Al-Cu-Mg) in T351 and T8 conditions has been studied via mechanical testing of smooth and notched specimens of different geometries, loaded in the rolling direction (L) or in the transverse direction (T). Fracture mechanisms were investigated via scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation computed tomography. Contributions to failure anisotropy are identified as: (i) anisotropic initial void shape and growth; (ii) plastic behaviour including isotropic/kinematic hardening and plastic anisotropy; and (iii) nucleation at a second population of second-phase particles leading to coalescence via narrow crack regions. A model based in part on the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman approach is constructed to describe and predict deformation behaviour, crack propagation and, in particular, toughness anisotropy. Model parameters are fitted using microstructural data and data on deformation and crack propagation for a range of small test samples. Its transferability has been shown by simulating tests of large M(T) samples.

  18. Experimental and numerical analysis of toughness anisotropy in AA2139 Al-alloy sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgeneyer, T.F., E-mail: thilo.morgeneyer@mines-paristech.fr [Mines ParisTech, Centre des materiaux, CNRS UMR 7633, BP87 91003 Evry Cedex (France)] [Alcan Centre de Recherches de Voreppe, BP 27, 38341 Voreppe Cedex (France); Besson, J.; Proudhon, H. [Mines ParisTech, Centre des materiaux, CNRS UMR 7633, BP87 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Starink, M.J.; Sinclair, I. [Materials Research Group, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Toughness anisotropy of AA2139 (Al-Cu-Mg) in T351 and T8 conditions has been studied via mechanical testing of smooth and notched specimens of different geometries, loaded in the rolling direction (L) or in the transverse direction (T). Fracture mechanisms were investigated via scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation computed tomography. Contributions to failure anisotropy are identified as: (i) anisotropic initial void shape and growth; (ii) plastic behaviour including isotropic/kinematic hardening and plastic anisotropy; and (iii) nucleation at a second population of second-phase particles leading to coalescence via narrow crack regions. A model based in part on the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman approach is constructed to describe and predict deformation behaviour, crack propagation and, in particular, toughness anisotropy. Model parameters are fitted using microstructural data and data on deformation and crack propagation for a range of small test samples. Its transferability has been shown by simulating tests of large M(T) samples.

  19. Strong crustal seismic anisotropy in the Kalahari Craton based on Receiver Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Hans; Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Earlier seismic studies of the Kalahari Craton in southern Africa infer deformation of upper mantle by flow with fast direction of seismic anisotropy being parallel to present plate motion, and/or report anisotropy frozen into the lithospheric mantle. We present evidence for very strong seismic...... is uniform within tectonic units and parallel to orogenic strike in the Limpopo and Cape fold belts. It is further parallel to the strike of major dyke swarms which indicates that a large part of the observed anisotropy is controlled by lithosphere fabrics and macroscopic effects. The directions of the fast...... that the crust and lithospheric mantle may have been coupled since cratonisation. If so, the apparent match between mantle anisotropy and the present plate motion is coincidental....

  20. Deformation in D″ Beneath North America From Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, A. J.; Wookey, J.; Kendall, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The lowermost few hundred kilometres of the Earth's mantle—known as D″—form the boundary between it and the core below, control the Earth's convective system, and are the site of probable large thermochemical heterogeneity. Seismic observations of D″ show a strong heterogeneity in seismic wave velocity and significant seismic anisotropy (the variation of wave speed with direction) are present in many parts of the region. On the basis of continuous regions of fast shear velocity (VS) anomalies in global models, it is also proposed as the resting place of subducted slabs, notably the Farallon beneath North America. A phase change of MgSiO3-perovskite (pv) to a post-perovskite (ppv) structure at near-core-mantle boundary (CMB) conditions is a compelling mechanism to explain the seismic features of D″. An outstanding question is how this and other mineral phases may deform to produce anisotropy, with different mechanisms possible. With knowledge either of mantle flow or which slip system is responsible for causing deformation, we can potentially determine the other with observations of the resulting seismic anisotropy. We investigate the dynamics at the CMB beneath North America using differential shear wave splitting in S and ScS phases from earthquakes of magnitude MW>5.5 in South and Central America, Hawaii the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and East Pacific Rise. They are detected on ~500 stations in North America, giving ~700 measurements of anisotropy in D″. We achieve this by correcting for anisotropy in the upper mantle (UM) beneath both the source and receiver. The measurements cover three regions beneath western USA, the Yucatan peninsula and Florida. In each case, two different, crossing ray paths are used, so that the style of anisotropy can be constrained—a single azimuth cannot distinguish differing cases. Our results showing ~1% anisotropy dependent on azimuth are not consistent with transverse isotropy with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) anywhere. The

  1. Solvent induced supramolecular anisotropy in molecular gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Michael A., E-mail: mroger09@uoguelph.ca [Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N3C3X9 (Canada); Corradini, Maria G. [Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Emge, Thomas [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Herein is the first report of solvent induced anisotropy in 12-hydroxystearic acid self-assembled fibrillar networks. Increasing the chain length of polar solvent, such as nitriles and ketones, tailored the anisotropy of the fibrillar aggregates. 12HSA molecular gels, comprised of alkanes, exhibited an isotropic fibrillar network irrespective of the alkane chain length. In polar solvents, anisotropy, observed using 2D powder x-ray diffraction profiles, is correlated to a fibrillar supramolecular morphologies in long chain nitriles and ketones while sphereulitic crystals are correlated to x-ray diffraction patterns with an isotropic scatter intensity in short chain ketones and nitriles. These changes directly modify the final physical properties of the gels. - Highlights: • 12-HSA self-assembles into crystalline supramolecular morphologies depending on the solvent. • Alkanes, short chain nitriles and ketones led to 12-HSA displaying supramolecular isotropy. • In long chain nitriles and ketones, 12-HSA displays supramolecular anisotropy.

  2. Solvent induced supramolecular anisotropy in molecular gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Michael A.; Corradini, Maria G.; Emge, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Herein is the first report of solvent induced anisotropy in 12-hydroxystearic acid self-assembled fibrillar networks. Increasing the chain length of polar solvent, such as nitriles and ketones, tailored the anisotropy of the fibrillar aggregates. 12HSA molecular gels, comprised of alkanes, exhibited an isotropic fibrillar network irrespective of the alkane chain length. In polar solvents, anisotropy, observed using 2D powder x-ray diffraction profiles, is correlated to a fibrillar supramolecular morphologies in long chain nitriles and ketones while sphereulitic crystals are correlated to x-ray diffraction patterns with an isotropic scatter intensity in short chain ketones and nitriles. These changes directly modify the final physical properties of the gels. - Highlights: • 12-HSA self-assembles into crystalline supramolecular morphologies depending on the solvent. • Alkanes, short chain nitriles and ketones led to 12-HSA displaying supramolecular isotropy. • In long chain nitriles and ketones, 12-HSA displays supramolecular anisotropy.

  3. Texture and anisotropy analysis of Qusaiba shales

    KAUST Repository

    Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Kets, Frans; Lehr, Christian; Wirth, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, microtomography and ultrasonic velocity measurements were used to characterize microstructures and anisotropy of three deeply buried Qusaiba shales from the Rub

  4. Cellulose and the Control of Growth Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias I. Baskin

    2004-04-01

    The authors research aims to understand morphogenesis, focusing on growth anisotropy, a process that is crucial to make organs with specific and heritable shapes. For the award, the specific aims were to test hypotheses concerning how growth anisotropy is controlled by cell wall structure, particularly by the synthesis and alignment of cellulose microfibrils, the predominant mechanical element in the cell wall. This research has involved characterizing the basic physiology of anisotropic expansion, including measuring it at high resolution; and second, characterizing the relationship between growth anisotropy, and cellulose microfibrils. Important in this relationship and also to the control of anisotropic expansion are structures just inside the plasma membrane called cortical microtubules, and the research has also investigated their contribution to controlling anisotropy and microfibril alignment. In addition to primary experimental papers, I have also developed improved methods relating to these objectives as well as written relevant reviews. Major accomplishments in each area will now be described.

  5. Polyaniline/TiO{sub 2}/kaolinite: The composite material with high electrical anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokarský, Jonáš, E-mail: jonas.tokarsky@vsb.cz [Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Neuwirthová, Lucie; Peikertová, Pavlína [Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Kulhánková, Lenka [Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Mamulová Kutláková, Kateřina; Matějka, Vlastimil [Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Čapková, Pavla [Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkyně University, České mládeže 8, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic)

    2014-07-01

    Kaolinite–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite matrix (KATI) coated with polyaniline (PANI) layer has been prepared in powder form and pressed into tablets. The conductivity was studied in dependence on (1) wt.% of TiO{sub 2} in KATI matrix and (2) thermal pre-treatment of KATI matrix. The anisotropy factor α, i.e. the ratio of in-plane conductivity and conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the tablet plane, was found to be very high for PANI/KATI tablet (α is of the order of 10{sup 3}–10{sup 4}) in comparison with pure PANI tablet (α is of the order of 10{sup 2}). Structure has been studied using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy and molecular modeling. The possibility of using the tablets as a load sensors have been tested and tablets pressed from composites containing calcined KATI seem to be promising material for this purpose. - Graphical abstract: Tablets pressed from powder form of polyaniline/TiO{sub 2}/kaolinite composites exhibit very high electrical anisotropy and were found to be suitable as load sensors. - Highlights: • Kaolinite/TiO{sub 2}/polyaniline composites exhibit very high electrical anisotropy. • Presence of TiO{sub 2} helps polyaniline to fully cover the kaolinite particles. • Tablets pressed from these composites can be used as load sensors. • Calcination of kaolinite/TiO{sub 2} matrix improves the sensing properties.

  6. Synchronous Measurement of Ultrafast Anisotropy Decay of the B850 in Bacterial LH2 Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun-Peng; Du Lu-Chao; Zhu Gang-Bei; Wang Zhuan; Weng Yu-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast anisotropic decay is a prominent parameter revealing ultrafast energy and electron transfer; however, it is difficult to be determined reliably owing to the requirement of a simultaneous availability of the parallel and perpendicular polarized decay kinetics. Nowadays, any measurement of anisotropic decay is a kind of approach to the exact simultaneity. Here we report a novel method for a synchronous ultrafast anisotropy decay measurement, which can well determine the anisotropy, even at a very early time, as the rising phase of the excitation laser pulse. The anisotropic decay of the B850 in bacterial light harvesting antenna complex LH2 of Rhodobacter sphaeroides in solution at room temperature with coherent excitation is detected by this method, which shows a polarization response time of 30 fs, and the energy transfer from the initial excitation to the bacteriochlorophylls in B850 ring takes about 70 fs. The anisotropic decay that is probed at the red side of the absorption spectrum, such as 880 nm, has an initial value of 0.4, corresponding to simulated emission, while the blue side with an anisotropy of 0.1 contributes to the ground-state bleaching. Our results show that the coherent excitation covering the whole ring might not be realized owing to the symmetry breaking of LH2: from C_9 symmetry in membrane to C_2 symmetry in solution. (atomic and molecular physics)

  7. Synchronous Measurement of Ultrafast Anisotropy Decay of the B850 in Bacterial LH2 Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Peng; Du, Lu-Chao; Zhu, Gang-Bei; Wang, Zhuan; Weng, Yu-Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Ultrafast anisotropic decay is a prominent parameter revealing ultrafast energy and electron transfer; however, it is difficult to be determined reliably owing to the requirement of a simultaneous availability of the parallel and perpendicular polarized decay kinetics. Nowadays, any measurement of anisotropic decay is a kind of approach to the exact simultaneity. Here we report a novel method for a synchronous ultrafast anisotropy decay measurement, which can well determine the anisotropy, even at a very early time, as the rising phase of the excitation laser pulse. The anisotropic decay of the B850 in bacterial light harvesting antenna complex LH2 of Rhodobacter sphaeroides in solution at room temperature with coherent excitation is detected by this method, which shows a polarization response time of 30 fs, and the energy transfer from the initial excitation to the bacteriochlorophylls in B850 ring takes about 70 fs. The anisotropic decay that is probed at the red side of the absorption spectrum, such as 880 nm, has an initial value of 0.4, corresponding to simulated emission, while the blue side with an anisotropy of 0.1 contributes to the ground-state bleaching. Our results show that the coherent excitation covering the whole ring might not be realized owing to the symmetry breaking of LH2: from C9 symmetry in membrane to C2 symmetry in solution.

  8. Polyaniline/TiO2/kaolinite: The composite material with high electrical anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarský, Jonáš; Neuwirthová, Lucie; Peikertová, Pavlína; Kulhánková, Lenka; Mamulová Kutláková, Kateřina; Matějka, Vlastimil; Čapková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Kaolinite–TiO 2 nanocomposite matrix (KATI) coated with polyaniline (PANI) layer has been prepared in powder form and pressed into tablets. The conductivity was studied in dependence on (1) wt.% of TiO 2 in KATI matrix and (2) thermal pre-treatment of KATI matrix. The anisotropy factor α, i.e. the ratio of in-plane conductivity and conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the tablet plane, was found to be very high for PANI/KATI tablet (α is of the order of 10 3 –10 4 ) in comparison with pure PANI tablet (α is of the order of 10 2 ). Structure has been studied using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy and molecular modeling. The possibility of using the tablets as a load sensors have been tested and tablets pressed from composites containing calcined KATI seem to be promising material for this purpose. - Graphical abstract: Tablets pressed from powder form of polyaniline/TiO 2 /kaolinite composites exhibit very high electrical anisotropy and were found to be suitable as load sensors. - Highlights: • Kaolinite/TiO 2 /polyaniline composites exhibit very high electrical anisotropy. • Presence of TiO 2 helps polyaniline to fully cover the kaolinite particles. • Tablets pressed from these composites can be used as load sensors. • Calcination of kaolinite/TiO 2 matrix improves the sensing properties

  9. Effects of anisotropies in turbulent magnetic diffusion in mean-field solar dynamo models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipin, V. V. [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk 664033 (Russian Federation); Kosovichev, A. G. [Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    We study how anisotropies of turbulent diffusion affect the evolution of large-scale magnetic fields and the dynamo process on the Sun. The effect of anisotropy is calculated in a mean-field magnetohydrodynamics framework assuming that triple correlations provide relaxation to the turbulent electromotive force (so-called the 'minimal τ-approximation'). We examine two types of mean-field dynamo models: the well-known benchmark flux-transport model and a distributed-dynamo model with a subsurface rotational shear layer. For both models, we investigate effects of the double- and triple-cell meridional circulation, recently suggested by helioseismology and numerical simulations. To characterize the anisotropy effects, we introduce a parameter of anisotropy as a ratio of the radial and horizontal intensities of turbulent mixing. It is found that the anisotropy affects the distribution of magnetic fields inside the convection zone. The concentration of the magnetic flux near the bottom and top boundaries of the convection zone is greater when the anisotropy is stronger. It is shown that the critical dynamo number and the dynamo period approach to constant values for large values of the anisotropy parameter. The anisotropy reduces the overlap of toroidal magnetic fields generated in subsequent dynamo cycles, in the time-latitude 'butterfly' diagram. If we assume that sunspots are formed in the vicinity of the subsurface shear layer, then the distributed dynamo model with the anisotropic diffusivity satisfies the observational constraints from helioseismology and is consistent with the value of effective turbulent diffusion estimated from the dynamics of surface magnetic fields.

  10. Higher-order anisotropies in the Buda-Lund model: Disentangling flow and density field anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loekoes, Sandor [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Csanad, Mate [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Tomasik, Boris [Univerzita Mateja Bela, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Csoergo, Tamas [Wigner RCP, Budapest (Hungary); KRF, Gyoengyoes (Hungary)

    2016-10-15

    The Buda-Lund hydro model describes an expanding ellipsoidal fireball, and fits the observed elliptic flow and oscillating HBT radii successfully. Due to fluctuations in energy depositions, the fireball shape however fluctuates on an event-by-event basis. The transverse plane asymmetry can be translated into a series of multipole anisotropy coefficients. These anisotropies then result in measurable momentum-space anisotropies, to be measured with respect to their respective symmetry planes. In this paper we detail an extension of the Buda-Lund model to multipole anisotropies and investigate the resulting flow coefficients and oscillations of HBT radii. (orig.)

  11. Slow electron contribution to inelastic reflection anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podsvirov, O.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.A.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated is electron contribution with low energy (up to 1 keV) to the anisotropy of electron inelastic reflection (IRE) from silicon monocrystal (111) within 12-50 keV energy range of primary electrons. Experimental data on IRE anisotropy are presented: delay curves for silicon monocrystal, permitting to separate electrons with the energy up to 1 keV, dependences of IRE anisotropy on the energy of primary electrons for the systems - monocrystalline silicon-amorphous silicon film and delay curves for such systems (film thickness varies from 20 to 2000 A). Suggested is a phenomenologic model, permitting to take into account the contribution of slow electrons to IRE anisotropy: it is supposed, that three groups of electrons take part in the formation of the latter: elastic and inelastic reflected electrons, slow electrons, excited by primary electrons and slow electrons, generated by the reverse flow of the scattered electrons. Contribution of electrons, different by origin, to IRE anisotropy is evaluated in accordance with the experimental data on the basis of this model. It is stated, that slow electrons constitute approximately one half of the IRE anisotropy value, the contribution of both groups of slow electrons being approximately equal

  12. Green function theory of random ferromagnets with large exchange anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Spin 1/2 systems which are coupled with an Ising-like Hamiltonian with fluctuating exchange are discussed by the use of thermodynamic Green functions in four different approximations. The first is equivalent to a local mean field approximation and the second is an approximation to the first in which the local mean field is assumed to be proportional to the overall magnetization and to the sum of the neighboring exchange 'bonds'. The third is also a special case of the first, but the local mean field is approximated in such a way as to be appropriate for the discussion of spin glasses. The fourth is a coherent potential-like approximation (CPA). The second approximation can be shown to imply no reduction of the Curie temperature (T sub(c)) due to exchange fluctuations, while the CPA does result in a lowering of T sub(c) (assuming small fluctuations about an average positive exchange in both cases). However, the CPA that was used is also an approximation to the second method. Hence, even though the CPA does result in a lowering of T sub(c) (which is generally conceded to be correct for the original model), this fact cannot be used as an argument for the validity of the CPA. This calculation thus emphasizes the necessity of critically examining any CPA-like calculation before accepting its predictions as valid [pt

  13. Kinetic instabilities in the solar wind driven by temperature anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2017-12-01

    The present paper comprises a review of kinetic instabilities that may be operative in the solar wind, and how they influence the dynamics thereof. The review is limited to collective plasma instabilities driven by the temperature anisotropies. To limit the scope even further, the discussion is restricted to the temperature anisotropy-driven instabilities within the model of bi-Maxwellian plasma velocity distribution function. The effects of multiple particle species or the influence of field-aligned drift will not be included. The field-aligned drift or beam is particularly prominent for the solar wind electrons, and thus ignoring its effect leaves out a vast portion of important physics. Nevertheless, for the sake of limiting the scope, this effect will not be discussed. The exposition is within the context of linear and quasilinear Vlasov kinetic theories. The discussion does not cover either computer simulations or data analyses of observations, in any systematic manner, although references will be made to published works pertaining to these methods. The scientific rationale for the present analysis is that the anisotropic temperatures associated with charged particles are pervasively detected in the solar wind, and it is one of the key contemporary scientific research topics to correctly characterize how such anisotropies are generated, maintained, and regulated in the solar wind. The present article aims to provide an up-to-date theoretical development on this research topic, largely based on the author's own work.

  14. Anisotropy of Single-Crystal Silicon in Nanometric Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguo; Chen, Jiaxuan; Wang, Guilian; Bai, Qingshun; Liang, Yingchun

    2017-12-01

    The anisotropy exhibited by single-crystal silicon in nanometric cutting is very significant. In order to profoundly understand the effect of crystal anisotropy on cutting behaviors, a large-scale molecular dynamics model was conducted to simulate the nanometric cutting of single-crystal silicon in the (100)[0-10], (100)[0-1-1], (110)[-110], (110)[00-1], (111)[-101], and (111)[-12-1] crystal directions in this study. The simulation results show the variations of different degrees in chip, subsurface damage, cutting force, and friction coefficient with changes in crystal plane and crystal direction. Shear deformation is the formation mechanism of subsurface damage, and the direction and complexity it forms are the primary causes that result in the anisotropy of subsurface damage. Structurally, chips could be classified into completely amorphous ones and incompletely amorphous ones containing a few crystallites. The formation mechanism of the former is high-pressure phase transformation, while the latter is obtained under the combined action of high-pressure phase transformation and cleavage. Based on an analysis of the material removal mode, it can be found that compared with the other crystal direction on the same crystal plane, the (100)[0-10], (110)[-110], and (111)[-101] directions are more suitable for ductile cutting.

  15. Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.; Radhika, R.; Kozakov, A.T.; Pandian, R.; Chakravarty, S.; Ravindran, T.R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite is observed in macroscopic sliding condition. • Low friction coefficient is observed in basal plane and becomes high in prismatic direction. • 3D phase of boronated graphite transformed into 2D structure after friction test. • Chemical activity is high in prismatic plane forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces. - Abstract: Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1–0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2–0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient

  16. Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N., E-mail: niranjan@igcar.gov.in [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Radhika, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai (India); Kozakov, A.T. [Research Institute of Physics, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Pandian, R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Chakravarty, S. [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam (India); Ravindran, T.R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite is observed in macroscopic sliding condition. • Low friction coefficient is observed in basal plane and becomes high in prismatic direction. • 3D phase of boronated graphite transformed into 2D structure after friction test. • Chemical activity is high in prismatic plane forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces. - Abstract: Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1–0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2–0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient.

  17. Ising versus XY anisotropy in frustrated R(2)Ti(2)O(7) compounds as "Seen" by Polarized Neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, H; Gukasov, A; Mirebeau, I; Bonville, P; Decorse, C; Dhalenne, G

    2009-07-31

    We studied the field induced magnetic order in R(2)Ti(2)O(7) pyrochlore compounds with either uniaxial (R=Ho, Tb) or planar (R=Er, Yb) anisotropy, by polarized neutron diffraction. The determination of the local susceptibility tensor {chi(parallel to),chi(perpendicular)} provides a universal description of the field induced structures in the paramagnetic phase (2-270 K), whatever the field value (1-7 T) and direction. Comparison of the thermal variations of chi(parallel to) and chi(perpendicular) with calculations using the rare earth crystal field shows that exchange and dipolar interactions must be taken into account. We determine the molecular field tensor in each case and show that it can be strongly anisotropic.

  18. Anisoft - Advanced Treatment of Magnetic Anisotropy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadima, M.

    2017-12-01

    Since its first release, Anisoft (Anisotropy Data Browser) has gained a wide popularity in magnetic fabric community mainly due to its simple and user-friendly interface enabling very fast visualization of magnetic anisotropy tensors. Here, a major Anisoft update is presented transforming a rather simple data viewer into a platform offering an advanced treatment of magnetic anisotropy data. The updated software introduces new enlarged binary data format which stores both in-phase and out-of-phase (if measured) susceptibility tensors (AMS) or tensors of anisotropy of magnetic remanence (AMR) together with their respective confidence ellipses and values of F-tests for anisotropy. In addition to the tensor data, a whole array of specimen orientation angles, orientation of mesoscopic foliation(s) and lineation(s) is stored for each record enabling later editing or corrections. The input data may be directly acquired by AGICO Kappabridges (AMS) or Spinner Magnetometers (AMR); imported from various data formats, including the long-time standard binary ran-format; or manually created. Multiple anisotropy files can be combined together or split into several files by manual data selection or data filtering according to their values. Anisotropy tensors are conventionally visualized as principal directions (eigenvectors) in equal-area projection (stereoplot) together with a wide array of quantitative anisotropy parameters presented in histograms or in color-coded scatter plots showing mutual relationship of up to three quantitative parameters. When dealing with AMS in variable low fields, field-independent and field-dependent components of anisotropy can be determined (Hrouda 2009). For a group of specimens, individual principal directions can be contoured, or a mean tensor and respective confidence ellipses of its principal directions can be calculated using either the Hext-Jelinek (Jelinek 1978) statistics or the Bootstrap method (Constable & Tauxe 1990). Each graphical

  19. Tunable magnetic properties by interfacial manipulation of L1(0)-FePt perpendicular ultrathin film with island-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, C; Wang, S G; Yang, M Y; Zhang, E; Zhan, Q; Jiang, Y; Li, B H; Yu, G H

    2012-02-01

    Based on interfacial manipulation of the MgO single crystal substrate and non-magnetic AIN compound, a L1(0)-FePt perpendicular ultrathin film with the structure of MgO/FePt-AIN/Ta was designed, prepared, and investigated. The film is comprised of L1(0)-FePt "magnetic islands," which exhibits a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), tunable coercivity (Hc), and interparticle exchange coupling (IEC). The MgO substrate promotes PMA of the film because of interfacial control of the FePt lattice orientation. The AIN compound is doped to increase the difference of surface energy between FePt layer and MgO substrate and to suppress the growth of FePt grains, which takes control of island growth mode of FePt atoms. The AIN compound also acts as isolator of L1(0)-FePt islands to pin the sites of FePt domains, resulting in the tunability of Hc and IEC of the films.

  20. Electric-field-control of magnetic anisotropy of Co0.6Fe0.2B0.2/oxide stacks using reduced voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Koji; Abraham, David W.; Gajek, Martin J.; Worledge, D. C.

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated purely electrical manipulation of the magnetic anisotropy of a Co0.6Fe0.2B0.2 film by applying only 8 V across the CoFeB/oxide stack. A clear transition from in-plane to perpendicular anisotropy was observed. The quantitative relationship between interface anisotropy energy and the applied electric-field was determined from the linear voltage dependence of the saturation field. By comparing the dielectric stacks of MgO/Al2O3 and MgO/HfO2/Al2O3, enhanced voltage control was also demonstrated, due to the higher dielectric constant of the HfO2. These results suggest the feasibility of purely electrical control of magnetization with small voltage bias for spintronics applications.

  1. Perpendicular diffusion of a dilute beam of charged dust particles in a strongly coupled dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Goree, J.

    2014-06-01

    The diffusion of projectiles drifting through a target of strongly coupled dusty plasma is investigated in a simulation. A projectile's drift is driven by a constant force F. We characterize the random walk of the projectiles in the direction perpendicular to their drift. The perpendicular diffusion coefficient Dp⊥ is obtained from the simulation data. The force dependence of Dp⊥ is found to be a power law in a high force regime, but a constant at low forces. A mean kinetic energy Wp for perpendicular motion is also obtained. The diffusion coefficient is found to increase with Wp with a linear trend at higher energies, but an exponential trend at lower energies.

  2. Magnetic anisotropy of MnAs-films on GaAs(0 0 1) studied with ferromagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, J.; Tolinski, T.; Lenz, K.; Kosubek, E.; Wende, H.; Baberschke, K.; Ney, A.; Hesjedal, T.; Pampuch, C.; Koch, R.; Daeweritz, L.; Ploog, K.H.

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of MnAs grown on GaAs(0 0 1) show a self-organized structure of coexisting ferromagnetic α- and paramagnetic β-MnAs stripes in the temperature interval from 10 to 40 deg. C. We quantify the magnetic anisotropies of the α-stripes via ferromagnetic resonance and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry for samples with thicknesses of 57 and 165 nm. The easy axis of magnetization is found to be located perpendicular to the stripe direction, whereas the direction parallel to the stripes is a hard one. While the intrinsic anisotropies show a bulk-like behavior and explain the direction of the hard axis, the key to understanding the direction of the easy axis is given by the demagnetizing fields due to the stripe formation

  3. Measurement of the distribution of anisotropy constants in magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhie, A. A.; Marquina, C.; O'Grady, K.; Vallejo-Fernandez, G.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we have applied theoretical calculations to new experimental measurements of the effect of the anisotropy distribution in magnetite nanoparticles, which in turn controls hysteresis heating for hyperthermia applications. Good agreement between theory and experiment is reported where the theoretical calculation is based upon the detailed measurement of the particle elongation generally observed in the nanoparticles. The elongation has been measured from studies via transmission electron microscopy. We find that particle elongation is responsible for the anisotropy dispersion, which can be obtained by analysis and fitting to a measurement of the temperature decay of remanence. A median value of the anisotropy constant of 1.5  ×  105 erg/cc was obtained. A very wide distribution of anisotropy constants is present with a Gaussian standard deviation of 1.5  ×  105 erg/cc. From our measurements, deviations in the value of the saturation magnetisation from particle to particle are most likely the main factor giving rise to this large distribution, with 33% arising from the error in the measured elongation. The lower limit to the anisotropy constant of the nanoparticles is determined by the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the material, 1.1  ×  105 erg/cc for magnetite, which was studied in this work.

  4. Anisotropy of Solid Breast Lesions in 2D Shear Wave Elastography is an Indicator of Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerl, Katrin; Vinnicombe, Sarah; Thomson, Kim; McLean, Denis; Giannotti, Elisabetta; Evans, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    To investigate if anisotropy at two-dimensional shear wave elastography (SWE) suggests malignancy and whether it correlates with prognostic and predictive factors in breast cancer. Study group A of 244 solid breast lesions was imaged with SWE between April 2013 and May 2014. Each lesion was imaged in radial and in antiradial planes, and the maximum elasticity, mean elasticity, and standard deviation were recorded and correlated with benign/malignant status, and if malignant, correlated with conventional predictive and prognostic factors. The results were compared to a study group B of 968 solid breast lesions, which were imaged in sagittal and in axial planes between 2010 and 2013. Neither benign nor malignant lesion anisotropy is plane dependent. However, malignant lesions are more anisotropic than benign lesions (P ≤ 0.001). Anisotropy correlates with increasing elasticity parameters, breast imaging-reporting and data system categories, core biopsy result, and tumor grade. Large cancers are significantly more anisotropic than small cancers (P ≤ 0.001). The optimal anisotropy cutoff threshold for benign/malignant differentiation of 150 kPa(2) achieves the best sensitivity (74%) with a reasonable specificity (63%). Anisotropy may be useful during benign/malignant differentiation of solid breast masses using SWE. Anisotropy also correlates with some prognostic factors in breast cancer. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling elastic anisotropy in strained heteroepitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Gopal Krishna; Ranganathan, Madhav

    2017-09-20

    Using a continuum evolution equation, we model the growth and evolution of quantum dots in the heteroepitaxial Ge on Si(0 0 1) system in a molecular beam epitaxy unit. We formulate our model in terms of evolution due to deposition, and due to surface diffusion which is governed by a free energy. This free energy has contributions from surface energy, curvature, wetting effects and elastic energy due to lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. In addition to anisotropy due to surface energy which favors facet formation, we also incorporate elastic anisotropy due to an underlying crystal lattice. The complicated elastic problem of the film-substrate system subjected to boundary conditions at the free surface, interface and the bulk substrate is solved by perturbation analysis using a small slope approximation. This permits an analysis of effects at different orders in the slope and sheds new light on the observed behavior. Linear stability analysis shows the early evolution of the instability towards dot formation. The elastic anisotropy causes a change in the alignment of dots in the linear regime, whereas the surface energy anisotropy changes the dot shapes at the nonlinear regime. Numerical simulation of the full nonlinear equations shows the evolution of the surface morphology. In particular, we show, for parameters of the [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] on Si(0 0 1), the surface energy anisotropy dominates the shapes of the quantum dots, whereas their alignment is influenced by the elastic energy anisotropy. The anisotropy in elasticity causes a further elongation of the islands whose coarsening is interrupted due to [Formula: see text] facets on the surface.

  6. Modeling elastic anisotropy in strained heteroepitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Dixit, Gopal; Ranganathan, Madhav

    2017-09-01

    Using a continuum evolution equation, we model the growth and evolution of quantum dots in the heteroepitaxial Ge on Si(0 0 1) system in a molecular beam epitaxy unit. We formulate our model in terms of evolution due to deposition, and due to surface diffusion which is governed by a free energy. This free energy has contributions from surface energy, curvature, wetting effects and elastic energy due to lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. In addition to anisotropy due to surface energy which favors facet formation, we also incorporate elastic anisotropy due to an underlying crystal lattice. The complicated elastic problem of the film-substrate system subjected to boundary conditions at the free surface, interface and the bulk substrate is solved by perturbation analysis using a small slope approximation. This permits an analysis of effects at different orders in the slope and sheds new light on the observed behavior. Linear stability analysis shows the early evolution of the instability towards dot formation. The elastic anisotropy causes a change in the alignment of dots in the linear regime, whereas the surface energy anisotropy changes the dot shapes at the nonlinear regime. Numerical simulation of the full nonlinear equations shows the evolution of the surface morphology. In particular, we show, for parameters of the Ge0.25 Si0.75 on Si(0 0 1), the surface energy anisotropy dominates the shapes of the quantum dots, whereas their alignment is influenced by the elastic energy anisotropy. The anisotropy in elasticity causes a further elongation of the islands whose coarsening is interrupted due to facets on the surface.

  7. Anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino background after Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe five-year data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Pagano, Luca; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Serra, Paolo; Cooray, Asantha

    2008-01-01

    We search for the presence of cosmological neutrino background (CNB) anisotropies in recent Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) five-year data using their signature imprinted on modifications to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectrum. By parameterizing the neutrino background anisotropies with the speed viscosity parameter c vis , we find that the WMAP five-year data alone provide only a weak indication for CNB anisotropies with c vis 2 >0.06 at the 95% confidence level. When we combine CMB anisotropy data with measurements of galaxy clustering, the SN-Ia Hubble diagram, and other cosmological information, the detection increases to c vis 2 >0.16 at the same 95% confidence level. Future data from Planck, combined with a weak lensing survey such as the one expected with DUNE from space, will be able to measure the CNB anisotropy parameter at about 10% accuracy. We discuss the degeneracy between neutrino background anisotropies and other cosmological parameters such as the number of effective neutrinos species and the dark energy equation of state

  8. Skyrmion robustness in noncentrosymmetric magnets with axial symmetry: The role of anisotropy and tilted magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, A. O.; Kézsmárki, I.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the stability of Néel skyrmions against tilted magnetic fields in polar magnets with uniaxial anisotropy ranging from easy-plane to easy-axis type. We construct the corresponding phase diagrams and investigate the internal structure of skewed skyrmions with displaced cores. We find that moderate easy-plane anisotropy increases the stability range of Néel skyrmions for fields along the symmetry axis, while moderate easy-axis anisotropy enhances their robustness against tilted magnetic fields. We stress that the direction along which the skyrmion cores are shifted depends on the symmetry of the underlying crystal lattice. The cores of Néel skyrmions, realized in polar magnets with Cn v symmetry, are displaced either along or opposite to the off-axis (in-plane) component of the magnetic field depending on the rotation sense of the magnetization, dictated by the sign of the Dzyaloshinskii constant. The core shift of antiskyrmions, present in noncentrosymmetric magnets with D2 d symmetry, depends on the in-plane orientation of the magnetic field and can be parallel, antiparallel, or perpendicular to it. We argue that the role of anisotropy in magnets with axially symmetric crystal structure is different from that in cubic helimagnets. Our results can be applied to address recent experiments on polar magnets with C3 v symmetry, GaV4S8 and GaV4Se8 , and Mn1.4Pt0.9Pd0.1Sn with D2 d symmetry.

  9. Structure in the lowermost mantle from seismic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, J.; Wookey, J. M.; Nowacki, A.; Walker, A.; Kendall, J. M.; Masters, G.; Forte, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Anisotropy is well established in D'' and places important constraints on the nature and dynamics of this elusive region. We present the results of a recent study probing anisotropy in D'', over a large area, using shear wave splitting on core-reflected ScS phases. Our dataset contains laterally continuous coverage beneath a large swath of east Asia - extending about 3000 km along the CMB - from south-east Asia to the north-east Pacific. The centre of this area represents a large down-welling core for subduction that has occurred over several super-continent cycles. In the centre of this region we observe a clear VSV}>V{SH fabric, in direct conflict with the prevailing view that fast, `cold', regions are associated with VSH}>V{SV fabric. Furthermore, systematic rotation of the fast axis traces out an apparent dome-like feature extending over thousands of km, albeit complicated by some short-scale variability. The dataset also samples regions where slab material may be actively impinging on the CMB; and a region corresponding to the edge of the Pacific LLSVP. We interpret our results in light of a combined computational geodynamic-petrofabric-seismic study designed to test the possibility that anisotropy is caused by the lattice preferred orientation of post-perovskite. We take into account the important finite-frequency effects of wave propagation in our synthetics by using the SPECFEM3D_GLOBE code; this can lead to drastically different results when compared to the less accurate ray theory.

  10. Current perpendicular to plane giant magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance treated with unified model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, PAE

    2002-01-01

    The conceptual similarity between current perpendicular to plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) is exploited by utilizing a unified single-particle model accounting for both types of magnetoresistance. By defining structures composed of ferromagnetic,

  11. The role of magnetic loops in particle acceleration at nearly perpendicular shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R. B.

    1993-01-01

    The acceleration of superthermal ions is investigated when a planar shock that is on average nearly perpendicular propagates through a plasma in which the magnetic field is the superposition of a constant uniform component plus a random field of transverse hydromagnetic fluctuations. The importance of the broadband nature of the transverse magnetic fluctuations in mediating ion acceleration at nearly perpendicular shocks is pointed out. Specifically, the fluctuations are composed of short-wavelength components which scatter ions in pitch angle and long-wavelength components which are responsible for a spatial meandering of field lines about the mean field. At nearly perpendicular shocks the field line meandering produces a distribution of transient loops along the shock. As an application of this model, the acceleration of a superthermal monoenergetic population of seed protons at a perpendicular shock is investigated by integrating along the exact phase-space orbits.

  12. Influence of Equilibrium Perpendicular Shear Flow on Peeling-ballooning Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, P. W.; Xu, X. Q.

    2011-10-01

    The influence of perpendicular ExB shear flow on peeling-ballooning instabilities is investigated with BOUT++ code. In our simulation, a set of reduced MHD equations are solved for a very unstable equilibrium and a marginal unstable equilibrium in shifted-circular tokamak geometry. For ideal MHD cases without diamagnetic terms and resistivity, we find that flow shear shows dramatic stabilizing effect on peeling-ballooning modes and the stabilizing degree increases with mode number. When the flow shear is large enough, we find the curvature of growth rate verse mode number has the same shape like that for the case with only diamagnetic term, and this implies that diamagnetic term and the shear flow have the same mechanism acting on peeling-ballooning instabilities. The role of Kelvin-Helmholtz term is also investigated and we find it is destabilizing and the effect depends on both flow shear and mode number. For cases with both diamagnetic term and the applied shear flow, modes with intermediate mode number are strongest stabilized while high n and low n mode keep unstable. Based on these results, an ELM trigger sketch is proposed. Performed for USDoE by LLNL Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Strong ion accelerating by collisionless magnetosonic shock wave propagating perpendicular to a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Yukiharu.

    1984-12-01

    A 2-1/2 dimensional fully relativistic, fully electromagnetic particle code is used to study a time evolution of nonlinear magnetosonic pulse propagating in the direction perpendicular to a magnetic field. The pulse is excited by an instantaneous piston acceleration, and evolves totally self-consistently. Large amplitude pulse traps some ions and accelerates them parallel to the wave front. They are detrapped when their velocities become of the order of the sum of the ExB drift velocity and the wave phase velocity, where E is the electric field in the direction of wave propagation. The pulse develops into a quasi-shock wave in a collisionless plasma by a dissipation due to the resonant ion acceleration. Simple nonlinear wave theory for a cold plasma well describes the shock properties observed in the simulation except for the effects of resonant ions. In particular, magnitude of an electric potential across the shock region is derived analytically and is found to be in good agreement with our simulations. The potential jump is proportional to B 2 , and hence the ExB drift velocity of the trapped ions is proportional to B. (author)

  14. Comparison of Classical Linear Regression and Orthogonal Regression According to the Sum of Squares Perpendicular Distances

    OpenAIRE

    KELEŞ, Taliha; ALTUN, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Regression analysis is a statistical technique for investigating and modeling the relationship between variables. The purpose of this study was the trivial presentation of the equation for orthogonal regression (OR) and the comparison of classical linear regression (CLR) and OR techniques with respect to the sum of squared perpendicular distances. For that purpose, the analyses were shown by an example. It was found that the sum of squared perpendicular distances of OR is smaller. Thus, it wa...

  15. Measurements of magnetic anisotropy in sickle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvo Souza, L.H. de.

    1982-03-01

    Room temperature magnetic measurements in deoxigenated sickle cells showed the existence of magnetic anisotropy, Δchi=1,29 x 10 -3 . This effect was supposed paramagnetic and considered to be due to the iron atoms of the hemoglobin molecules which are one over the other, forming ordered chains inside the erythrocytes. Low temperature (liquid He - 4,2K) measurements of the magnetic anisotropy of sickle cells and normal red blood cells diluted in a cryoprotector was made to confirm the paramagnetic origin of the fenomena. For that purpose it was used a superconductor magnetometer coupled to a SQUID, developed in the 'Laboratorio do Estado Solido do Departamento de Fisica da PUC-RJ'. The results obtained seem to confirm the expected paramagnetic anisotropy and, furthermore, suggest the presence of magnetic interactions among the iron atoms in the sickle cells samples. (Author) [pt

  16. Voltage-Controllable Colossal Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy in Single Layer Dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xuelei; Hu, Tao; Wang, Jianfeng; Gu, Bing-Lin; Duan, Wenhui; Miao, Mao-Sheng

    Materials with large magnetocrystalline anisotropy and strong electric field effects are in great need for new types of memory devices that are based on electric field control of spin orientations. Instead of using modified transition metal films, we propose that some monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are ideal candidate materials for this purpose. Using density functional calculations, we illustrate that they exhibit not only exceedingly large magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) but also colossal voltage modulation under external field. Especially, spins in some materials like CrSe2 and FeSe2, which is strongly preferred to in-plane orientation, can be totally switched to out-of-plane direction. The effect is attributed to the large band character alteration of transition metal d-states around the Fermi level by electric field. We further demonstrate that strain can also greatly change MCA, and can help to improve the modulation efficiency while combining with electric field. Acknowledge the support of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No.2016YFA0301001), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No. 11674188 and 11334006), NSF-funded XSEDE resources (TG-DMR130005) especially on Stampede.

  17. Optical anisotropy of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. H.; Bozovic, I.; Mitzi, D. B.; Kapitulnik, A.; Harris, J. S., Jr.

    1990-04-01

    The optical anisotropy of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 in the 0.08-0.5-eV region is investigated by polarized reflectance measurements on single crystals. A very large anisotropy is found in this spectral region. The in-plane reflectance exhibits metallic behavior, while the c-axis reflectance exhibits insulatorlike behavior. This result is consistent with the large anisotropy found in the resistivity of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8. Our spectroscopic data suggest that Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 is a quasi-two-dimensional metal similar to La2-xSrxCuO4.

  18. Cold dark matter and degree-scale cosmic microwave background anisotropy statistics after COBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Stompor, Radoslaw; Juszkiewicz, Roman

    1993-01-01

    We conduct a Monte Carlo simulation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy in the UCSB South Pole 1991 degree-scale experiment. We examine cold dark matter cosmology with large-scale structure seeded by the Harrison-Zel'dovich hierarchy of Gaussian-distributed primordial inhomogeneities normalized to the COBE-DMR measurement of large-angle CMB anisotropy. We find it statistically implausible (in the sense of low cumulative probability F lower than 5 percent, of not measuring a cosmological delta-T/T signal) that the degree-scale cosmological CMB anisotropy predicted in such models could have escaped a detection at the level of sensitivity achieved in the South Pole 1991 experiment.

  19. Anisotropy of dilepton emission from nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratkovskaya, E.L.; Teryaev, O.V.; Toneev, V.D.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna

    1994-01-01

    Attention is paid to studying the angular characteristics of e + e - pairs created in collisions with nuclear targets at intermediate and relativistic energies. Arising due to general spin and angular momentum constraints, the dilepton anisotropy seems to be quite sensitive to the contribution of different sources and may be used for disentangling these sources (or models) as well as an additional signature of a possible chiral symmetry restoration and phase transition of hadrons into the quark-gluon plasma. An anisotropy estimate for some dilepton sources is given and its relevance to the problems mentioned is discussed

  20. Anisotropy of dilepton emission from nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratkovskaya, E.L.; Teryaev, O.V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogolubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics; Toneev, V.D. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory]|[Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogolubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    1994-11-07

    Attention is paid to studying the angular characteristics of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} pairs created in collisions with nuclear targets at intermediate and relativistic energies. Arising due to general spin and angular momentum constraints, the dilepton anisotropy seems to be quite sensitive to the contribution of different sources and may be used for disentangling these sources (or models) as well as an additional signature of a possible chiral symmetry restoration and phase transition of hadrons into the quark-gluon plasma. An anisotropy estimate for some dilepton sources is given and its relevance to the problems mentioned is discussed.

  1. Anisotropy of the Topopah Spring Member Tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.J. III; Boyd, P.J.; Haupt, R.W.; Price, R.H.

    1992-07-01

    Mechanical properties of the tuffaceous rocks within Yucca Mountain are needed for near and far-field modeling of the potential nuclear waste repository. If the mechanical properties are significantly anisotropic (i.e., direction-dependent), a more complex model is required. Relevant data from tuffs tested in earlier studies indicate that elastic and strength properties are anisotropic. This scoping study confirms the elastic anisotropy and concludes some tuffs are transversely isotropic. An approach for sampling and testing the rock to determine the magnitude of the anisotropy is proposed

  2. Magnetocrystalline and configurational anisotropies in Fe nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavassori, P.; Bisero, D.; Carace, F.; Liberati, M.; Di Bona, A.; Gazzadi, G.C.; Valeri, S.

    2005-01-01

    Arrays of single-crystal Fe micron and submicron squares and disks, have been fabricated using a focused ion beam apparatus from a film epitaxially grown on MgO. The hysteresis loops of the patterned areas differ from those of the continuous film as a consequence of the different reversal determined by the lateral confinement of the Fe film. By means of modulated field magneto-optical anisometry measurements we studied the symmetry and the strength of the overall anisotropy. For the smaller square elements we observed a higher-order term in the overall anisotropy with eightfold symmetry arising from the configurational contribution

  3. Anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Noorian Bidgoli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anisotropy of the strength and deformation behaviors of fractured rock masses is a crucial issue for design and stability assessments of rock engineering structures, due mainly to the non-uniform and non-regular geometries of the fracture systems. However, no adequate efforts have been made to study this issue due to the current practical impossibility of laboratory tests with samples of large volumes containing many fractures, and the difficulty for controlling reliable initial and boundary conditions for large-scale in situ tests. Therefore, a reliable numerical predicting approach for evaluating anisotropy of fractured rock masses is needed. The objective of this study is to systematically investigate anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks, which has not been conducted in the past, using a numerical modeling method. A series of realistic two-dimensional (2D discrete fracture network (DFN models were established based on site investigation data, which were then loaded in different directions, using the code UDEC of discrete element method (DEM, with changing confining pressures. Numerical results show that strength envelopes and elastic deformability parameters of tested numerical models are significantly anisotropic, and vary with changing axial loading and confining pressures. The results indicate that for design and safety assessments of rock engineering projects, the directional variations of strength and deformability of the fractured rock mass concerned must be treated properly with respect to the directions of in situ stresses. Traditional practice for simply positioning axial orientation of tunnels in association with principal stress directions only may not be adequate for safety requirements. Outstanding issues of the present study and suggestions for future study are also presented.

  4. Full particle simulations of quasi-perpendicular shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembège, B.

    This tutorial-style review is dedicated to the different strategies and constraints used for analysing the dynamics of a collisionless shocks with full particle simulations. Main results obtained with such simulations can be found in published materials (recent references are provided in this text); these will be only quoted herein in order to illustrate a few aspects of these simulations. Thanks to the large improvement of super computers, full particle simulations reveal to be quite helpful for analyzing in details the dynamics of collisionless shocks. The main characteristics of such codes can be shortly reminded as follows: one resolves the full set of Poisson and Maxwell's equations without any approximation. Two approaches are commonly used for resolving this equation's set, more precisely the space derivatives: (i) the finite difference approach and (ii) the use of FFT's (Fast Fourier Transform). Two advantages of approach (ii) are that FFT's are highly optimized in supercomputers libraries, and these allow to separate all fields components into two groups: the longitudinal electrostatic component El (solution of Poisson equation) and the transverse electromagnetic components Et and Bt solutions of the Maxwell's equations (so called "fields pusher"). Such a separation is quite helpful in the post processing stage necessary for the data analysis, as will be explained in the presentation. both ions and electrons populations are treated as individual finite-size particles and suffer the effects of all fields via the Lorentz force, so called "particle pusher", which is applied to each particle. Because of the large number of particles commonly used, the particle pusher represents the most expensive part of the calculations on which most efforts of optimisation needs to be performed (in terms of "vectorisation" or of "parallelism"). Relativistic effects may be included in this force via the use of particle momemtum. Each particle has three velocity components (vx

  5. Anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background from dark matter with Fermi LAT: a closer look

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuoco, Alessandro; Sellerholm, A.; Conrad, J.

    2011-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the sensitivity to the anisotropies related to dark matter (DM) annihilation in the isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi LAT). For the first time, we take into account the effects of the Galactic foregrounds...... of the detector are taken into account by convolving the model maps with the Fermi LAT instrumental response. We then use the angular power spectrum to characterize the anisotropy properties of the simulated data and to study the sensitivity to DM. We consider DM anisotropies of extragalactic origin...

  6. Moessbauer and neutron scattering studies of magnetic properties of random mixtures with competing spin anisotropies. Fesub(x)Cosub(1-x)TiO/sub 3/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Atsuko [Ochanomizu Univ., Tokyo, Japan; Morimoto, Setsu; Someya, Yoshiko; Syono, Yasuhiko; Takei, Humihiko

    1982-10-01

    The physics of random mixtures with competing spin anisotropies is found to be much more complex than ever considered. According to our neutron scattering study of Fesub(x)Cosub(1-x)TiO/sub 3/, orderings of the orthogonal spin components S sub(parallel) and S vector sub(perpendicular) seem to be decoupled with each other though not complete; two antiferromagnetic (AF) phases and a mixed ordering phase appear on the concentration vs temperature phase diagram. However, according to Moessbauer study, S sub(parallel) and S vector sub(perpendicular) seem to be closely coupled in the AF phases; the boundary between the AF and the mixed ordering phase is not found. This apparently contradictory result is interpreted as follows. In the S sub(parallel) (S vector sub(perpendicular)) ordered AF phase, orientational distribution of S vector sub(perpendicular) (S sub(parallel))'s is such that it does not produce coherent scatterings of neutrons, but each S vector sub(perpendicular) S sub(parallel) stays statically at least in the time scale of the Larmor precession time tau sub(L) of /sup 57/Fe.

  7. Ion Thermalization and Electron Heating across Quasi-Perpendicular Shocks Observed by the MMS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. J.; Wilson, L. B., III; Wang, S.; Bessho, N.; Figueroa-Vinas, A.; Lai, H.; Russell, C. T.; Schwartz, S. J.; Hesse, M.; Moore, T. E.; Burch, J.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Ergun, R.; Dorelli, J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Paterson, W. R.; Lavraud, B.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.

    2017-12-01

    Collisionless shocks often involve intense plasma heating in space and astrophysical systems. Despite decades of research, a number of key questions concerning electron and ion heating across collisionless shocks remain unanswered. We `image' 20 supercritical quasi-perpendicular bow shocks encountered by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft with electron and ion distribution functions to address how ions are thermalized and how electrons are heated. The continuous burst measurements of 3D plasma distribution functions from MMS reveal that the primary thermalization phase of ions occurs concurrently with the main temperature increase of electrons as well as large-amplitude wave fluctuations. Approaching the shock from upstream, the ion temperature (Ti) increases due to the reflected ions joining the incoming solar wind population, as recognized by prior studies, and the increase of Ti precedes that of the electrons. Thermalization in the form of merging between the decelerated solar wind ions and the reflected component often results in a decrease in Ti. In most cases, the Ti decrease is followed by a gradual increase further downstream. Anisotropic, energy-dependent, and/or nongyrotropic electron energization are observed in association with large electric field fluctuations in the main electron temperature (Te) gradient, motivating a renewed scrutiny of the effects from the electrostatic cross-shock potential and wave fluctuations on electron heating. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are carried out to assist interpretations of the MMS observations. We assess the roles of instabilities and the cross-shock potential in thermalizing ions and heating electrons based on the MMS measurements and PIC simulation results. Challenges will be posted for future computational studies and laboratory experiments on collisionless shocks.

  8. Magnetic anisotropy of graphene quantum dots decorated with a ruthenium adatom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Beljakov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The creation of magnetic storage devices by decoration of a graphene sheet by magnetic transition-metal adatoms, utilizing the high in-plane versus out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE, has recently been proposed. This concept is extended in our density-functional-based modeling study by incorporating the influence of the graphene edge on the MAE. We consider triangular graphene flakes with both armchair and zigzag edges in which a single ruthenium adatom is placed at symmetrically inequivalent positions. Depending on the edge-type, the graphene edge was found to influence the MAE in opposite ways: for the armchair flake the MAE increases close to the edge, while the opposite is true for the zigzag edge. Additionally, in-plane pinning of the magnetization direction perpendicular to the edge itself is observed for the first time.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization and Photoinduction of Optical Anisotropy in Liquid Crystalline Diblock Azo-Copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcén, P; Oriol, L; Sánchez, C

    2007-01-01

    Diblock copolymers with polymethyl methacrylate and side chain liquid crystalline WC) azopolymethacrylate blocks were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The azobeazene content in these copolymers ranges from 52 to 7 wt %. For an azo conteat dowri to 20% they exhibit a LC...... anisotropy induced in these films by illumination with linearly polarized 488 nm light was studied and the resuits compared with those of the azo homopolymer and of a random copolymer with a similar composition. The formation of azo aggregates inside the azo blocks is strongly reduced in going from...... the homopolymer to the copolymers. Photoinduced azo orientation perpendicular to the 488 nm light polarization was found in aH the polymers. The orientational order parameter is very similar in the homopolymer and in the block copolymers with an azo content down to 20 wt %, while it is much lower in the random...

  10. Longitudinal Spin Excitations and Magnetic Anisotropy in Antiferromagnetically Ordered BaFe_{2}As_{2}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a spin-polarized inelastic neutron-scattering study of spin waves in the antiferromagnetically ordered state of BaFe_{2}As_{2}. Three distinct excitation components are identified, with spins fluctuating along the c axis, perpendicular to the ordering direction in the ab plane and parallel to the ordering direction. While the first two “transverse” components can be described by a linear spin-wave theory with magnetic anisotropy and interlayer coupling, the third “longitudinal” component is generically incompatible with the local-moment picture. It points toward a contribution of itinerant electrons to the magnetism that is already in the parent compound of this family of Fe-based superconductors.

  11. Non-gyrotropic pressure anisotropy induced by velocity shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenerani, A.; Del Sarto, D.; Pegoraro, F.; Califano, F.

    2015-12-01

    We discuss how, in a collisionless magnetized plasma, a sheared velocity field may lead to the anisotropization of an initial Maxwellian state. By including the full pressure tensor dynamics in a fluid plasma model, we show, analytically and numerically, that a sheared velocity field makes an initial isotropic state anisotropic and non-gyrotropic [1], i.e., makes the plasma pressure tensor anisotropic also in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The propagation of transverse magneto-elastic waves in the anisotropic plasma affects the process of formation of a non-gyrotropic pressure and can lead to its spatial filamentation. This plasma dynamics implies in particular that isotropic MHD equilibria cease to be equilibria in presence of a stationary sheared flow. Similarly, in the case of turbulence, where small-scale spatial inhomogeneities are naturally developed during the direct cascade, we may expect that isotropic turbulent states are not likely to exist whenever a full pressure tensor evolution is accounted for. These results may be relevant to understanding the agyrotropic pressure configurations which are well documented in solar wind measurements and possibly correlated to plasma flows (see e.g. Refs.[2,3]), and which have also been measured in Vlasov simulations of Alfvenic turbulence [4]. [1] D. Del Sarto, F. Pegoraro, F. Califano, "Pressure anisotropy and small spatial scales induced by a velocity shear", http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.04895 [2] H.F. Astudillo, E. Marsch, S. Livi, H. Rosenbauer, "TAUS measurements of non-gyrotropic distribution functions of solar wind alpha particles", AIP Conf. Proc. 328, 289 (1996). [3] A. Posner, M.W. Liemhon, T.H. Zurbuchen, "Upstream magnetospheric ion flux tube within a magnetic cloud: Wind/STICS", Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, (2003). [4] S. Servidio, F. Valentini, F. Califano, P. Veltri, "Local kinetic effects in Two-Dimensional Plasma Turbulence", Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045001 (2012).

  12. Azimuthal anisotropy: The higher harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poskanzer, Arthur M.; STAR Collaboration

    2004-01-01

    We report the first observations of the fourth harmonic (v 4 ) in the azimuthal distribution of particles at RHIC. The measurement was done taking advantage of the large elliptic flow generated at RHIC. The integrated v 4 is about a factor of 10 smaller than v 2 . For the sixth (v 6 ) and eighth (v 8 ) harmonics upper limits on the magnitudes are reported

  13. Enhancement of L10 ordering with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate in FePt alloy film by using an epitaxial cap-layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Ohtake

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available FePt alloy thin films with cap-layers of MgO or C are prepared on MgO(001 single-crystal substrates by using a two-step method consisting of low-temperature deposition at 200 °C followed by high-temperature annealing at 600 °C. The FePt film thickness is fixed at 10 nm, whereas the cap-layer thickness is varied from 1 to 10 nm. The influences of cap-layer material and cap-layer thickness on the variant structure and the L10 ordering are investigated. Single-crystal FePt(001 films with disordered fcc structure (A1 grow epitaxially on the substrates at 200 °C. Single-crystal MgO(001 cap-layers grow epitaxially on the FePt films, whereas the structure of C cap-layers is amorphous. The phase transformation from A1 to L10 occurs when the films are annealed at 600 °C. The FePt films with MgO cap-layers thicker than 2 nm consist of L10(001 variant with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface, whereas those with C cap-layers involve small volumes of L10(100 and (010 variants with the c-axis lying in the film plane. The in-plane and the out-of-plane lattices are respectively more expanded and contracted in the continuous-lattice MgO/FePt/MgO structure due to accommodations of misfits of FePt film with respect to not only the MgO substrate but also the MgO cap-layer. The lattice deformation promotes phase transformation along the perpendicular direction and L10 ordering. The FePt films consisting of only L10(001 variant show strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropies and low in-plane coercivities. The present study shows that an introduction of epitaxial cap-layer is effective in controlling the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface.

  14. Diffusive propagation of cosmic rays from supernova remnants in the Galaxy. II: anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasi, Pasquale; Amato, Elena, E-mail: blasi@arcetri.astro.it, E-mail: amato@arcetri.astro.it [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5 — 50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effects of stochasticity in the spatial and temporal distribution of supernova remnants on the anisotropy of cosmic rays observed at Earth. The calculations are carried out for different choices of the diffusion coefficient D(E) experienced by cosmic rays during propagation in the Galaxy. The propagation and spallation of nuclei (with charge 1 ≤ Z ≤ 26) are taken into account. At high energies (E > 1 TeV) we assume that D(E)∝(E/Z){sup δ}, with δ = 1/3 and δ = 0.6 being the reference scenarios. The large scale distribution of supernova remnants in the Galaxy is modeled following the distribution of pulsars with and without accounting for the spiral structure of the Galaxy. Our calculations allow us to determine the contribution to anisotropy resulting from both the large scale distribution of SNRs in the Galaxy and the random distribution of the nearest remnants. The naive expectation that the anisotropy amplitude scales as δ{sub A}∝D(E) is shown to be a wild oversimplification of reality which does not reflect in the predicted anisotropy for any realistic distribution of the sources. The fluctuations in the anisotropy pattern are dominated by nearby sources, so that predicting or explaining the observed anisotropy amplitude and phase becomes close to impossible. Nevertheless, the results of our calculations, when compared to the data, allow us to draw interesting conclusions in terms of the propagation scenario to be preferred both in terms of the energy dependence of the diffusion coefficient and of the size of the halo. We find that the very weak energy dependence of the anisotropy amplitude below 10{sup 5} GeV, as observed by numerous experiments, as well as the rise at higher energies, can best be explained if the diffusion coefficient is D(E)∝E{sup 1/3}. Faster diffusion, for instance with δ = 0.6, leads in general to an exceedingly large anisotropy amplitude. The spiral structure introduces interesting trends in

  15. Diffusive propagation of cosmic rays from supernova remnants in the Galaxy. II: anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasi, Pasquale; Amato, Elena

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effects of stochasticity in the spatial and temporal distribution of supernova remnants on the anisotropy of cosmic rays observed at Earth. The calculations are carried out for different choices of the diffusion coefficient D(E) experienced by cosmic rays during propagation in the Galaxy. The propagation and spallation of nuclei (with charge 1 ≤ Z ≤ 26) are taken into account. At high energies (E > 1 TeV) we assume that D(E)∝(E/Z) δ , with δ = 1/3 and δ = 0.6 being the reference scenarios. The large scale distribution of supernova remnants in the Galaxy is modeled following the distribution of pulsars with and without accounting for the spiral structure of the Galaxy. Our calculations allow us to determine the contribution to anisotropy resulting from both the large scale distribution of SNRs in the Galaxy and the random distribution of the nearest remnants. The naive expectation that the anisotropy amplitude scales as δ A ∝D(E) is shown to be a wild oversimplification of reality which does not reflect in the predicted anisotropy for any realistic distribution of the sources. The fluctuations in the anisotropy pattern are dominated by nearby sources, so that predicting or explaining the observed anisotropy amplitude and phase becomes close to impossible. Nevertheless, the results of our calculations, when compared to the data, allow us to draw interesting conclusions in terms of the propagation scenario to be preferred both in terms of the energy dependence of the diffusion coefficient and of the size of the halo. We find that the very weak energy dependence of the anisotropy amplitude below 10 5 GeV, as observed by numerous experiments, as well as the rise at higher energies, can best be explained if the diffusion coefficient is D(E)∝E 1/3 . Faster diffusion, for instance with δ = 0.6, leads in general to an exceedingly large anisotropy amplitude. The spiral structure introduces interesting trends in the energy

  16. Anisotropy of the apparent frequency dependence of backscatter in formalin fixed human myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C S; Verdonk, E D; Wickline, S A; Perez, J E; Miller, J G

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the frequency dependence of ultrasonic backscatter are presented for specific angles of insonification for regions of infarcted and noninfarcted human myocardium. A 5-MHz transducer was used to insonify cylindrical cores taken from 7 noninfarcted regions and 12 infarcted regions of the left ventricular free wall of 6 formalin-fixed human hearts explanted because of ischemic cardiomyopathy. The dependence of apparent (uncompensated for diffraction effects and attenuation) backscatter on frequency was approximated by a power-law dependence, magnitude of B(f)2 = afn. Under ideal conditions in a lossless medium, the effect of not compensating for the effects of diffraction and attenuation leads to the value of n to be 2.0 for Rayleigh scatterers while the frequency dependence of the fully compensated backscatter coefficient would be f4. The value of n was determined over the frequency range, 3-7 MHz. Both nonifarcted and infarcted myocardium exhibited anisotropy of the frequency dependence of backscatter, with maxima occurring at angles that were perpendicular to the predominant myofiber direction and minima when parallel to the fibers. Perpendicular insonification yielded results for n of 1.8 +/- 0.1 for noninfarcted myocardium and 1.2 +/- 0.1 for infarcted myocardium while parallel insonification yielded results of 0.4 +/- 0.1 for noninfarcted and 0.0 +/- 0.1 for infarcted myocardium. The functional form of the angle-dependent backscatter is similar for both noninfarcted and infarcted myocardium, although the frequency dependence is clearly different for both tissue states for all angles of insonification. The results of this study indicate that the anisotropy of the frequency dependence of backscatter may play a significant role in ultrasonic imaging and is an important consideration for ultrasonic tissue characterization in myocardium.

  17. Value and Anisotropy of the Electron and Hole Mass in Pure Wurtzite InP Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, D; De Luca, M; Granados Del Águila, A; Gao, Q; Ambrosio, G; Capizzi, M; Tan, H H; Christianen, P C M; Jagadish, C; Polimeni, A

    2016-10-12

    The effective mass of electrons and holes in semiconductors is pivotal in determining the dynamics of carriers and their confinement energy in nanostructured materials. Surprisingly, this quantity is still unknown in wurtzite (WZ) nanowires (NWs) made of III-V compounds (e.g., GaAs, InAs, GaP, InP), where the WZ phase has no bulk counterpart. Here, we investigate the magneto-optical properties of InP WZ NWs grown by selective-area epitaxy that provides perfectly ordered NWs featuring high-crystalline quality. The combined analysis of the energy of free exciton states and impurity levels under magnetic field (B up to 29 T) allows us to disentangle the dynamics of oppositely charged carriers from the Coulomb interaction and thus to determine the values of the electron and hole effective mass. By application of B⃗ along different crystallographic directions, we also assess the dependence of the transport properties with respect to the NW growth axis (namely, the WZ ĉ axis). The effective mass of electrons along ĉ is m e ∥ = (0.078 ± 0.002) m 0 (m 0 is the electron mass in vacuum) and perpendicular to ĉ is m e ⊥ = (0.093 ± 0.001) m 0 , resulting in a 20% mass anisotropy. Holes exhibit a much larger (∼320%) and opposite mass anisotropy with their effective mass along and perpendicular to ĉ equal to m h ∥ = (0.81 ± 0.18) m 0 and m h ⊥ = (0.250 ± 0.016) m 0 , respectively. While no full consensus is found with current theoretical results on WZ InP, our findings show trends remarkably similar to the experimental data available in WZ bulk materials, such as InN, GaN, and ZnO.

  18. A Laboratory Goniometer System for Measuring Reflectance and Emittance Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan de Jong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a laboratory goniometer system for performing multi-angular measurements under controlled illumination conditions is described. A commercially available robotic arm enables the acquisition of a large number of measurements over the full hemisphere within a short time span making it much faster than other goniometers. In addition, the presented set-up enables assessment of anisotropic reflectance and emittance behaviour of soils, leaves and small canopies. Mounting a spectrometer enables acquisition of either hemispherical measurements or measurements in the horizontal plane. Mounting a thermal camera allows directional observations of the thermal emittance. This paper also presents three showcases of these different measurement set-ups in order to illustrate its possibilities. Finally, suggestions for applying this instrument and for future research directions are given, including linking the measured reflectance anisotropy with physically-based anisotropy models on the one hand and combining them with field goniometry measurements for joint analysis with remote sensing data on the other hand. The speed and flexibility of the system offer a large added value to the existing pool of laboratory goniometers.

  19. Acoustic axes in weak triclinic anisotropy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 2 (2005), s. 629-638 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : elastic-wave theory * perturbation methods * seismic anisotropy Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2005

  20. Empirical evidence for inertial mass anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Siemieniec, G.

    1985-01-01

    A several attempts at measuring the possible deviations from inertial mass isotropy caused by a non-uniform distribution of matter are reviewed. A simple model of the inertial mass anisotropy and the results of the currently performed measurements concerning this effect are presented. 34 refs. (author)