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Sample records for large magnetic entropy

  1. Giant irreversible positive to large reversible negative magnetic entropy change evolution in Tb-based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Qiang; Schwarz, Bjoern; Mattern, Norbert; Eckert, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    We study the effects of amorphous structure and random anisotropy on the magnetic entropy change in a series of Tb-based amorphous alloys. The amorphous structure broadens the peak of magnetic entropy change and facilitates the adjustment of properties. The peak magnetic entropy change above the spin freezing temperature first depends on the average magnetic moment approximately linearly and second on the exchange interaction and random anisotropy. Large and broad reversible negative magnetic entropy changes are observed above the spin freezing temperature and giant positive irreversible magnetic entropy changes which associate with the internal entropy production are obtained well below.

  2. Large magnetic entropy change in melt-spun LaFe11.5Si1.5 ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Kun; Song Xiaoping; Zhu Yaoming; Lv Weipeng; Sun Zhanbo

    2004-01-01

    The microstructure transformation and the magnetic entropy change of LaFe 11.5 Si 1.5 melt-spun ribbons were investigated. The melt-spun ribbons show a homogeneous distribution of elements, and the homogeneity develops further after 5 h annealing. XRD results show that the ribbons are composed of NaZn 13 -type LaFe 11.5 Si 1.5 compounds and an α-Fe phase. After annealing, the ribbons crystallize well in the NaZn 13 -type structure and exhibit a very large magnetic entropy change. A first-order magnetic transition is observed in the annealed ribbons, and this is believed to be the origin of the large magnetic entropy. These results suggest that NaZn 13 -type LaFe 11.5 Si 1.5 compounds with a large magnetic entropy change can be produced by melt-spinning, the annealing time can be shortened significantly and the production cost of the magnetic refrigerant will be cut down accordingly

  3. Magnetic phase transitions and large magnetic entropy change with a wide temperature span in HoZn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingwei, E-mail: wei0396@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universität Münster, Corrensstrasse 30, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Yuan, Ye [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Zhang, Yikun [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Pöttgen, Rainer [Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universität Münster, Corrensstrasse 30, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Zhou, Shengqiang [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Magnetic phase transitions and magnetocaloric effect in HoZn were studied. • The critical properties of HoZn were systematically investigated. • The obtained critical exponents are satisfied with scaling theory. • A large reversible magnetocaloric effect in HoZn was observed. • HoZn could be a promising candidate for magnetic refrigeration. - Abstract: CsCl-type HoZn undergoes two successive magnetic phase transitions: (i) paramagnetic to ferromagnetic (FM) at T{sub C} ∼ 72 K and (ii) a spin reorientation (SR) at T{sub SR} ∼ 26 K. Magnetization and modified Arrott plots indicate that HoZn undergoes a second-order magnetic phase transition around T{sub C}. The obtained critical exponents have some small deviations from the mean-field theory, indicating a short range or a local magnetic interaction which is properly related to the coexistence of FM and SR transitions at low temperature. Two successive magnetic transitions in HoZn induce one broad pronounced peak together with a shoulder in the temperature dependence of the magnetic entropy change −ΔS{sub M}(T) curves, resulting in a wide temperature range with a large relative cooling power (RCP). For a field change of 0–7 T, the maximum value of −ΔS{sub M} is 15.2 J/kg K around T{sub C} with a large RCP value of 1124 J/kg. The large reversible magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and RC indicate that HoZn is a good candidate for active magnetic refrigeration.

  4. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  5. Magnetic entropy and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Some manifestations of magnetism are well-known and utilized on an everyday basis, e.g. using a refrigerator magnet for hanging that important note on the refrigerator door. Others are, so far, more exotic, such as cooling by making use of the magnetocaloric eect. This eect can cause a change...... in the temperature of a magnetic material when a magnetic eld is applied or removed. For many years, experimentalists have made use of dilute paramagnetic materials to achieve milliKelvin temperatures by use of the magnetocaloric eect. Also, research is done on materials, which might be used for hydrogen, helium...... or nitrogen liquefaction or for room-temperature cooling. The magnetocaloric eect can further be used to determine phase transition boundaries, if a change in the magnetic state occurs at the boundary.In this talk, I will introduce the magnetocaloric eect (MCE) and the two equations, which characterize...

  6. The large deviation principle and steady-state fluctuation theorem for the entropy production rate of a stochastic process in magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yong; Ge, Hao; Xiong, Jie; Xu, Lihu

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuation theorem is one of the major achievements in the field of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics during the past two decades. There exist very few results for steady-state fluctuation theorem of sample entropy production rate in terms of large deviation principle for diffusion processes due to the technical difficulties. Here we give a proof for the steady-state fluctuation theorem of a diffusion process in magnetic fields, with explicit expressions of the free energy function and rate function. The proof is based on the Karhunen-Loève expansion of complex-valued Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process.

  7. Large Field Inflation and Gravitational Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Kleban, Matthew; Lawrence, Albion

    2016-01-01

    species will lead to a violation of the covariant entropy bound at large $N$. If so, requiring the validity of the covariant entropy bound could limit the number of light species and their couplings, which in turn could severely constrain axion-driven inflation. Here we show that there is no such problem...... entropy of de Sitter or near-de Sitter backgrounds at leading order. Working in detail with $N$ scalar fields in de Sitter space, renormalized to one loop order, we show that the gravitational entropy automatically obeys the covariant entropy bound. Furthermore, while the axion decay constant is a strong...... in this light, and show that they are perfectly consistent with the covariant entropy bound. Thus, while quantum gravity might yet spoil large field inflation, holographic considerations in the semiclassical theory do not obstruct it....

  8. Direct measurements of the magnetic entropy change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Neves Bez, Henrique; von Moos, Lars

    2015-01-01

    An experimental device that can accurately measure the magnetic entropy change, Δs, as a function of temperature, T, and magnetic field, H, is presented. The magnetic field source is in this case a set of counter-rotating concentric Halbach-type magnets, which produce a highly homogeneous applied...... to the ambient are negligible in terms of the calorimetric determination of the magnetic entropy change, while the losses cannot be ignored when correcting for the actual sample temperature. We apply the device to two different types of samples; one is commercial grade Gd, i.e., a pure second-order phase...

  9. High-entropy bulk metallic glasses as promising magnetic refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Juntao; Huo, Lishan; Li, Jiawei; Men, He; Wang, Xinmin; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Jun-Qiang; Li, Run-Wei; Inoue, Akihisa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Ho 20 Er 20 Co 20 Al 20 RE 20 (RE = Gd, Dy, and Tm) high-entropy bulk metallic glasses (HE-BMGs) with good magnetocaloric properties are fabricated successfully. The HE-BMGs exhibit a second-order magnetic phase transition. The peak of magnetic entropy change (ΔS M pk ) and refrigerant capacity (RC) reaches 15.0 J kg −1 K −1 and 627 J kg −1 at 5 T, respectively, which is larger than most rare earth based BMGs. The heterogeneous nature of glasses also contributes to the large ΔS M pk and RC. In addition, the magnetic ordering temperature, ΔS M pk and RC can be widely tuned by alloying different rare earth elements. These results suggest that the HE-BMGs are promising magnetic refrigerant at low temperatures

  10. Magnetic entropy of the mixed and sintered compound of the RAl/sub 2/ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzuhara, T.; Wakabayashi, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Hashimoto, T.; Sahashi, M.; Inomata, K.; Tomokiyo, A.; Yayama, H.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic refrigerant for the Ericsson type magnetic refrigerator should have a constant magnetic entropy difference ΔS/sub J/ between two constant magnetic field processes. However, the magnetic entropy change of an homogeneous ferromagnet exhibits a sharp peak at the Curie temperature. In the present investigation the authors succeeded to make the layer structural sintered composite composed of several kinds of RAl/sub 2/ compounds having large entropy change near their Curie temperatures and made clear that this composite has the constant πS/sub J/ in the wide temperature range suitable for the Ericsson cycle

  11. Magnetization and isothermal magnetic entropy change of a mixed spin-1 and spin-2 Heisenberg superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Du, An

    2017-09-01

    A superlattice composed of spin-1 and spin-2 with ABAB … structure was described with Heisenberg model. The magnetizations and magnetic entropy changes under different magnetic fields were calculated by the Green's function method. The magnetization compensation phenomenon could be observed by altering the intralayer exchange interactions and the single-ion anisotropies of spins. Along with the temperature increasing, the system in the absence of magnetization compensation shows normal magnetic entropy change and displays a peak near the critical temperature, and yet the system with magnetization compensation shows normal magnetic entropy change near the compensation temperature but inverse magnetic entropy change near the critical temperature. Finally, we illustrated the reasons of different behaviors of magnetic entropy change by analyzing the contributions of two sublattices to the total magnetic entropy change.

  12. Evanescent magnetic field effects on entropy generation at the onset ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    application of evanescent magnetic field not only suppresses the fluctuation of the ..... the Prigogine's theorem of minimum entropy production is unproven. ... consists in a double spiral configuration and viscous boundary layers in close ...

  13. Absence of log correction in entropy of large black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, A., E-mail: amit.ghosh@saha.ac.in; Mitra, P., E-mail: parthasarathi.mitra@saha.ac.in

    2014-06-27

    Earlier calculations of black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity led to a dominant term proportional to the area, but there was a correction involving the logarithm of the area, the Chern–Simons level being assumed to be large. We find that the calculations yield an entropy proportional to the area eigenvalue with no such correction if the Chern–Simons level is finite, so that the area eigenvalue can be relatively large.

  14. On the determination of the magnetic entropy change in materials with first-order transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, L.; Ou, Z.Q.; Nguyen, T.T.; Cam Thanh, D.T.; Tegus, O.; Brueck, E.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate method to determine the magnetic entropy change in materials with hysteretic first-order transitions is presented, which is needed to estimate their potential for applications. We have investigated the effect of the maximal entropy change derived from magnetization measurements performed in different measurement processes. The results show that the isothermal entropy change can be derived from the Maxwell relations even for samples with large thermal hysteresis. In the temperature region with hysteresis, overestimating the entropy change can be avoided by measuring the isothermal magnetization of the sample after it is cooled from the paramagnetic state to the measurement temperature. In this way the so-called peak effect is not observed as shown here for a few compounds.

  15. Entropy Generation in Natural Convection Under an Evanescent Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magherbi, Mourad; El Jery, Atef; Ben Brahim, Ammar

    2009-01-01

    We numerically study the effect of an externally-evanescent magnetic field on total entropy generation in conducting and non-reactive fluid enclosed in a square cavity. The horizontal walls of the enclosure are assumed to be insulated while the vertical walls are kept isothermal. A control volume finite element method is used to solve the conservation equations at Prandtl number of 0.71. The values of relaxation time of the magnetic field are chosen, so that the Lorentz force acts only in the transient state of entropy generation in natural convection. The total entropy generation was calculated for fixed value of irreversibility distribution ratio, different relaxation time varying from 0 to 1/5 and Grashof number equal to 10 5

  16. Influence of higher sodium substitutions on magnetic entropy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The change in entropy also decreases with increase in substitution of sodium. A notable change ... of substituting elements for A and B ions, valence states of. Mn and the oxygen ... applied external magnetic field of 7 T.17 Sodium substitu- ..... Bohigas X, Tejada J, Del Barco E, Zhang X X and Sales M. 1998 Appl. Phys. Lett.

  17. Formation of soft magnetic high entropy amorphous alloys composites containing in situ solid solution phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Sun, Huan; Chen, Chen; Tao, Juan; Li, Fushan

    2018-03-01

    Fe-Co-Ni-Si-B high entropy amorphous alloys composites (HEAACs), which containing high entropy solid solution phase in amorphous matrix, show good soft magnetic properties and bending ductility even in optimal annealed state, were successfully developed by melt spinning method. The crystallization phase of the HEAACs is solid solution phase with body centered cubic (BCC) structure instead of brittle intermetallic phase. In addition, the BCC phase can transformed into face centered cubic (FCC) phase with temperature rise. Accordingly, Fe-Co-Ni-Si-B high entropy alloys (HEAs) with FCC structure and a small amount of BCC phase was prepared by copper mold casting method. The HEAs exhibit high yield strength (about 1200 MPa) and good plastic strain (about 18%). Meanwhile, soft magnetic characteristics of the HEAs are largely reserved from HEAACs. This work provides a new strategy to overcome the annealing induced brittleness of amorphous alloys and design new advanced materials with excellent comprehensive properties.

  18. Diffusion coefficient and Kolmogorov entropy of magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbardo, G.; Veltri, P.; Malara, F.

    1984-01-01

    A diffusion equation for magnetic field lines of force in a turbulent magnetic field, which describes both the random walk of a single line and how two nearby lines separate from each other, has been obtained using standard statistical techniques. Starting from such an equation, a closed set of equations for the moments may be obtained, in general, with suitable assumptions. From such a set of equations the Kolmogorov entropy may be explicitly calculated. The results have been applied to the most interesting examples of magnetic field geometries. (author)

  19. Scaling of the magnetic entropy change of Fe3−xMnxSi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, M.R.; Hamam, Y.A.; Abu-Aljarayesh, I.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic entropy change of Fe 3−x Mn x Si (for x=1.15, 1.3 and 1.5) has been extracted from isothermal magnetization measurements near the Curie temperature. We used the scaling hypotheses of the thermodynamic potentials to scale the magnetic entropy change to a single universal curve for each sample. The effect of the exchange field and the Curie temperature on the maximum entropy change is discussed. - Highlights: • The maximum of the magnetic entropy change occurs at temperatures T>T C . • The exchange field enhances the magnetic entropy change. • The magnetic entropy change at T C is inversely proportional to T C . • Scaling hypothesis is used to scale the magnetic entropy change

  20. Large Superconducting Magnet Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Védrine, P.

    2014-07-17

    The increase of energy in accelerators over the past decades has led to the design of superconducting magnets for both accelerators and the associated detectors. The use of Nb−Ti superconducting materials allows an increase in the dipole field by up to 10 T compared with the maximum field of 2 T in a conventional magnet. The field bending of the particles in the detectors and generated by the magnets can also be increased. New materials, such as Nb$_{3}$Sn and high temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors, can open the way to higher fields, in the range 13–20 T. The latest generations of fusion machines producing hot plasma also use large superconducting magnet systems.

  1. Large Superconducting Magnet Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Védrine, P [Saclay (France)

    2014-07-01

    The increase of energy in accelerators over the past decades has led to the design of superconducting magnets for both accelerators and the associated detectors. The use of Nb−Ti superconducting materials allows an increase in the dipole field by up to 10 T compared with the maximum field of 2 T in a conventional magnet. The field bending of the particles in the detectors and generated by the magnets can also be increased. New materials, such as Nb3Sn and high temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors, can open the way to higher fields, in the range 13–20 T. The latest generations of fusion machines producing hot plasma also use large superconducting magnet systems.

  2. Handling mixed-state magnetization data for magnetocaloric studies-a solution to achieve realistic entropy behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S; Amaral, J S; Amaral, V S

    2010-01-01

    We present an approach to extract a realistic magnetic entropy value from non-equilibrium magnetization data near the transition temperature of a typical first-order system with a mixed-phase state, influenced by the phase transformation, which is responsible for large values reported, even higher than the theoretical limit. The effect of the mixed-phase state is modelled in the magnetization and its non-physical contribution is removed to obtain the magnetic entropy in accordance with calorimetric experiment and theoretical simulation. This approach gives a reliable estimation of the magnetic entropy value incorporating experimental non-equilibrium magnetization data and correcting the use of Maxwell's relation. (fast track communication)

  3. The Dynameomics Entropy Dictionary: A Large-Scale Assessment of Conformational Entropy across Protein Fold Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, Clare-Louise; Akke, Mikael; Daggett, Valerie

    2017-04-27

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations contain considerable information with regard to the motions and fluctuations of a protein, the magnitude of which can be used to estimate conformational entropy. Here we survey conformational entropy across protein fold space using the Dynameomics database, which represents the largest existing data set of protein MD simulations for representatives of essentially all known protein folds. We provide an overview of MD-derived entropies accounting for all possible degrees of dihedral freedom on an unprecedented scale. Although different side chains might be expected to impose varying restrictions on the conformational space that the backbone can sample, we found that the backbone entropy and side chain size are not strictly coupled. An outcome of these analyses is the Dynameomics Entropy Dictionary, the contents of which have been compared with entropies derived by other theoretical approaches and experiment. As might be expected, the conformational entropies scale linearly with the number of residues, demonstrating that conformational entropy is an extensive property of proteins. The calculated conformational entropies of folding agree well with previous estimates. Detailed analysis of specific cases identifies deviations in conformational entropy from the average values that highlight how conformational entropy varies with sequence, secondary structure, and tertiary fold. Notably, α-helices have lower entropy on average than do β-sheets, and both are lower than coil regions.

  4. Quenches in large superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, P.H.; Alston-Garnjost, M.; Green, M.A.; Lecomte, P.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.; Vuillemin, V.

    1977-08-01

    The development of large high current density superconducting magnets requires an understanding of the quench process by which the magnet goes normal. A theory which describes the quench process in large superconducting magnets is presented and compared with experimental measurements. The use of a quench theory to improve the design of large high current density superconducting magnets is discussed

  5. Bias correction for magnetic resonance images via joint entropy regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Xia, Yong; Dong, Pei; Luo, Jianhua; Huang, Qiu; Feng, Dagan; Li, Yuanxiang

    2014-01-01

    Due to the imperfections of the radio frequency (RF) coil or object-dependent electrodynamic interactions, magnetic resonance (MR) images often suffer from a smooth and biologically meaningless bias field, which causes severe troubles for subsequent processing and quantitative analysis. To effectively restore the original signal, this paper simultaneously exploits the spatial and gradient features of the corrupted MR images for bias correction via the joint entropy regularization. With both isotropic and anisotropic total variation (TV) considered, two nonparametric bias correction algorithms have been proposed, namely IsoTVBiasC and AniTVBiasC. These two methods have been applied to simulated images under various noise levels and bias field corruption and also tested on real MR data. The test results show that the proposed two methods can effectively remove the bias field and also present comparable performance compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Magnetically-charged black branes and viscosity/entropy ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hai-Shan [Institute for Advanced Physics & Mathematics,Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023 (China); George P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Lü, H. [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); Pope, C.N. [George P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences,Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-19

    We consider asymptotically-AdS n-dimensional black brane solutions in a theory of gravity coupled to a set of Np-form field strengths, in which the field strengths carry magnetic charges. For appropriately chosen charges, the metrics are isotropic in the (n−2) transverse directions. However, in general the field strength configurations break the full Euclidean symmetry of the (n−2)-dimensional transverse space, and the shear viscosity tensor in the dual theory is no longer isotropic. We study the linearised equations for transverse traceless metric perturbations in these backgrounds, and by employing the Kubo formula we obtain expressions for the ratios η/S of the shear viscosity components divided by the entropy density. We find that the KSS bound on the ratios η/S is generally violated in these solutions. We also extend the discussion by including a dilatonic scalar field in the theory, leading to solutions that are asymptotically Lifshitz with hyperscaling violation.

  7. Logarithmic corrections to entropy of magnetically charged AdS4 black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtak Jeon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Logarithmic terms are quantum corrections to black hole entropy determined completely from classical data, thus providing a strong check for candidate theories of quantum gravity purely from physics in the infrared. We compute these terms in the entropy associated to the horizon of a magnetically charged extremal black hole in AdS×4S7 using the quantum entropy function and discuss the possibility of matching against recently derived microscopic expressions.

  8. Entropy Filtered Density Function for Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mehdi

    Analysis of local entropy generation is an effective means to optimize the performance of energy and combustion systems by minimizing the irreversibilities in transport processes. Large eddy simulation (LES) is employed to describe entropy transport and generation in turbulent reacting flows. The entropy transport equation in LES contains several unclosed terms. These are the subgrid scale (SGS) entropy flux and entropy generation caused by irreversible processes: heat conduction, mass diffusion, chemical reaction and viscous dissipation. The SGS effects are taken into account using a novel methodology based on the filtered density function (FDF). This methodology, entitled entropy FDF (En-FDF), is developed and utilized in the form of joint entropy-velocity-scalar-turbulent frequency FDF and the marginal scalar-entropy FDF, both of which contain the chemical reaction effects in a closed form. The former constitutes the most comprehensive form of the En-FDF and provides closure for all the unclosed filtered moments. This methodology is applied for LES of a turbulent shear layer involving transport of passive scalars. Predictions show favor- able agreements with the data generated by direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the same layer. The marginal En-FDF accounts for entropy generation effects as well as scalar and entropy statistics. This methodology is applied to a turbulent nonpremixed jet flame (Sandia Flame D) and predictions are validated against experimental data. In both flows, sources of irreversibility are predicted and analyzed.

  9. Nearly constant magnetic entropy change involving two closely spaced transitions in the compound LaFe11.375Al1.625

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, F X; Qian, X L; Wang, G J; Wang, J; Sun, J R; Zhang, X X; Cheng, Z H; Shen, B G

    2003-01-01

    A large change in the magnetic entropy, |ΔS|, was observed in the Fe-based NaZn 13 -type compound LaFe 11.375 Al 1.625 , which was nearly temperature independent over a wide temperature range (an about 70 K span from ∼ 140 to 210 K). This behaviour of the magnetic entropy change is associated with two closely spaced magnetic transitions. X-ray diffraction investigation at different temperatures indicates that the crystal structure remains cubic, of NaZn 13 type, when the magnetic state changes with temperature, but the cell parameter changes dramatically at the first-order transition point

  10. Studies on entanglement entropy for Hubbard model with hole-doping and external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, K.L.; Li, Y.C.; Sun, X.Z.; Liu, Q.M.; Qin, Y.; Fu, H.H.; Gao, G.Y.

    2005-01-01

    By using the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method for the one-dimensional (1D) Hubbard model, we have studied the von Neumann entropy of a quantum system, which describes the entanglement of the system block and the rest of the chain. It is found that there is a close relation between the entanglement entropy and properties of the system. The hole-doping can alter the charge-charge and spin-spin interactions, resulting in charge polarization along the chain. By comparing the results before and after the doping, we find that doping favors increase of the von Neumann entropy and thus also favors the exchange of information along the chain. Furthermore, we calculated the spin and entropy distribution in external magnetic filed. It is confirmed that both the charge-charge and the spin-spin interactions affect the exchange of information along the chain, making the entanglement entropy redistribute

  11. Evanescent magnetic field effects on entropy generation at the onset ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper numerically investigates the effect of an externally evanescent magnetic field on total entropy generation in a fluid enclosed in a square cavity by using a control volume finite element method to solve the conservation equations at Prandtl number of 0·71. The values of relaxation time of the magnetic field are ...

  12. Large Eddy Simulation of Entropy Generation in a Turbulent Mixing Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Reza H.; Safari, Mehdi; Hadi, Fatemeh

    2013-11-01

    Entropy transport equation is considered in large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flows. The irreversible entropy generation in this equation provides a more general description of subgrid scale (SGS) dissipation due to heat conduction, mass diffusion and viscosity effects. A new methodology is developed, termed the entropy filtered density function (En-FDF), to account for all individual entropy generation effects in turbulent flows. The En-FDF represents the joint probability density function of entropy, frequency, velocity and scalar fields within the SGS. An exact transport equation is developed for the En-FDF, which is modeled by a system of stochastic differential equations, incorporating the second law of thermodynamics. The modeled En-FDF transport equation is solved by a Lagrangian Monte Carlo method. The methodology is employed to simulate a turbulent mixing layer involving transport of passive scalars and entropy. Various modes of entropy generation are obtained from the En-FDF and analyzed. Predictions are assessed against data generated by direct numerical simulation (DNS). The En-FDF predictions are in good agreements with the DNS data.

  13. Large entropy derived from low-frequency vibrations and its implications for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hongshan

    2018-02-01

    Adsorption and desorption are driven by the energy and entropy competition, but the entropy effect is often ignored in hydrogen storage and the optimal adsorption strength for the ambient storage is controversial in the literature. This letter investigated the adsorption states of the H2 molecule on M-B12C6N6 (M = Li, Na, Mg, Ca, and Sc) and analyzed the correlation among the zero point energy (ZPE), the entropy change, and the adsorption energy and their effects on the delivery capacities. The ZPE has large correction to the adsorption energy due to the light mass of hydrogen. The computations show that the potential energies along the spherical surface centered at the alkali metals are very flat and it leads to large entropy (˜70 J/mol.K) of the adsorbed H2 molecules. The entropy change can compensate the enthalpy change effectively, and the ambient storage can be realized with relatively weak adsorption of ΔH = -12 kJ/mol. The results are encouraging and instructive for the design of hydrogen storage materials.

  14. Effect of oxygen deficiency on the magnetic field-dependent entropy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moreover, to account for the applicability of the theory at high field, we have incorporated the effect of vortex overlapping in the London theory done by Nanda (1995). Here, we have presented the variation of change in entropy (S) with magnetic field for different oxygen deficiencies = 0, 0.04, and 0.06. On comparison ...

  15. Analysis of the Magnetic Field Effect on Entropy Generation at Thermosolutal Convection in a Square Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Ben Brahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermosolutal convection in a square cavity filled with air and submitted to an inclined magnetic field is investigated numerically. The cavity is heated and cooled along the active walls with a mass gradient whereas the two other walls of the cavity are adiabatic and insulated. Entropy generation due to heat and mass transfer, fluid friction and magnetic effect has been determined in transient state for laminar flow by solving numerically the continuity, momentum energy and mass balance equations, using a Control Volume Finite—Element Method. The structure of the studied flows depends on four dimensionless parameters which are the Grashof number, the buoyancy ratio, the Hartman number and the inclination angle. The results show that the magnetic field parameter has a retarding effect on the flow in the cavity and this lead to a decrease of entropy generation, Temperature and concentration decrease with increasing value of the magnetic field parameter.

  16. Large time behavior of entropy solutions to one-dimensional unipolar hydrodynamic model for semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feimin; Li, Tianhong; Yu, Huimin; Yuan, Difan

    2018-06-01

    We are concerned with the global existence and large time behavior of entropy solutions to the one-dimensional unipolar hydrodynamic model for semiconductors in the form of Euler-Poisson equations in a bounded interval. In this paper, we first prove the global existence of entropy solution by vanishing viscosity and compensated compactness framework. In particular, the solutions are uniformly bounded with respect to space and time variables by introducing modified Riemann invariants and the theory of invariant region. Based on the uniform estimates of density, we further show that the entropy solution converges to the corresponding unique stationary solution exponentially in time. No any smallness condition is assumed on the initial data and doping profile. Moreover, the novelty in this paper is about the unform bound with respect to time for the weak solutions of the isentropic Euler-Poisson system.

  17. Local entropy generation analysis of a rotary magnetic heat pump regenerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, M.K.; White, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    The rotary magnetic heat pump has attractive thermodynamic performance but it is strongly influenced by the effectiveness of the regenerator. This paper uses local entropy generation analysis to evaluate the regenerator design and to suggest design improvements. The results show that performance of the proposed design is dominated by heat transfer related entropy generation. This suggests that enhancement concepts that improve heat transfer should be considered, even if the enhancement causes a significant increase in viscous losses (pressure drop). One enhancement technique, the use of flow disruptors, was evaluated and the results showed that flow disruptors can significantly reduce thermodynamic losses

  18. High-entropy ejections from magnetized proto-neutron star winds: implications for heavy element nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Todd A.; ud-Doula, Asif

    2018-06-01

    Although initially thought to be promising for production of the r-process nuclei, standard models of neutrino-heated winds from proto-neutron stars (PNSs) do not reach the requisite neutron-to-seed ratio for production of the lanthanides and actinides. However, the abundance distribution created by the r-, rp-, or νp-processes in PNS winds depends sensitively on the entropy and dynamical expansion time-scale of the flow, which may be strongly affected by high magnetic fields. Here, we present results from magnetohydrodynamic simulations of non-rotating neutrino-heated PNS winds with strong dipole magnetic fields from 1014 to 1016 G, and assess their role in altering the conditions for nucleosynthesis. The strong field forms a closed zone and helmet streamer configuration at the equator, with episodic dynamical mass ejections in toroidal plasmoids. We find dramatically enhanced entropy in these regions and conditions favourable for third-peak r-process nucleosynthesis if the wind is neutron-rich. If instead the wind is proton-rich, the conditions will affect the abundances from the νp-process. We quantify the distribution of ejected matter in entropy and dynamical expansion time-scale, and the critical magnetic field strength required to affect the entropy. For B ≳1015 G, we find that ≳10-6 M⊙ and up to ˜10-5 M⊙ of high-entropy material is ejected per highly magnetized neutron star birth in the wind phase, providing a mechanism for prompt heavy element enrichment of the universe. Former binary companions identified within (magnetar-hosting) supernova remnants, the remnants themselves, and runaway stars may exhibit overabundances. We provide a comparison with a semi-analytic model of plasmoid eruption and discuss implications and extensions.

  19. Confining gauge theories and holographic entanglement entropy with a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudal, David [KU Leuven Campus Kortrijk - KULAK, Department of Physics,Etienne Sabbelaan 51 bus 7800, Kortrijk, 8500 (Belgium); Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy,Krijgslaan 281-S9, Gent, 9000 (Belgium); Mahapatra, Subhash [KU Leuven Campus Kortrijk - KULAK, Department of Physics,Etienne Sabbelaan 51 bus 7800, Kortrijk, 8500 (Belgium)

    2017-04-06

    We consider the soft wall model for a heuristic holographical modelling of a confining gauge theory and discuss how the introduction of a (constant) magnetic field influences the (de)confinement phase structure. We use the entanglement entropy as a diagnostic tool in terms of the length of an entangling strip geometry. Due to the anisotropy introduced by the magnetic field, we find that the results depend on the orientation of the strip relative to the field. This allows to identify a richer, anisotropic, interplay between confinement and a magnetic field than possibly can be extracted from a more standard order parameter as, for example, the Polyakov loop expectation value.

  20. Soft Magnetic Properties of High-Entropy Fe-Co-Ni-Cr-Al-Si Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chung Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft magnetic properties of Fe-Co-Ni-Al-Cr-Si thin films were studied. As-deposited Fe-Co-Ni-Al-Cr-Si nano-grained thin films showing no magnetic anisotropy were subjected to field-annealing at different temperatures to induce magnetic anisotropy. Optimized magnetic and electrical properties of Fe-Co-Ni-Al-Cr-Si films annealed at 200 °C are saturation magnetization 9.13 × 105 A/m, coercivity 79.6 A/m, out-of-plane uniaxial anisotropy field 1.59 × 103 A/m, and electrical resistivity 3.75 μΩ·m. Based on these excellent properties, we employed such films to fabricate magnetic thin film inductor. The performance of the high entropy alloy thin film inductors is superior to that of air core inductor.

  1. Superconducting magnets technologies for large accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, Toru

    2017-01-01

    The first hadron collider with superconducting magnet technologies was built at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory as TEVATRON. Since then, the superconducting magnet technologies are widely used in large accelerator applications. The paper summarizes the superconducting magnet technologies used for large accelerators. (author)

  2. Making the most of the magnetic and lattice entropy changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecharsky, V.K.; Gschneidner, K.A.; Mudryk, Ya.; Paudyal, Durga

    2009-01-01

    Recent discoveries of novel materials exhibiting a magnetocaloric effect that is strongly enhanced by the magnetoelastic coupling-the so-called giant magnetocaloric effect materials-stimulated an unprecedented expansion of research related both to the fundamentals of the phenomenon and potential future applications of these materials in continuous magnetic cooling near room temperature. The subject of this work is twofold. On one hand, systems exhibiting the giant magnetocaloric effect may be prone to hysteresis, and may exist in nonequilibrium, phase-separated states, thus requiring a special care when their intrinsic physical properties are of interest. On the other hand, in order to harvest most of the magnetocaloric potential of a specific compound, both the magnetic and lattice degrees of freedom of the material must be precisely controlled.

  3. Maximum Entropy Method in Moessbauer Spectroscopy - a Problem of Magnetic Texture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satula, D.; Szymanski, K.; Dobrzynski, L.

    2011-01-01

    A reconstruction of the three dimensional distribution of the hyperfine magnetic field, isomer shift and texture parameter z from the Moessbauer spectra by the maximum entropy method is presented. The method was tested on the simulated spectrum consisting of two Gaussian hyperfine field distributions with different values of the texture parameters. It is shown that proper prior has to be chosen in order to arrive at the physically meaningful results. (authors)

  4. Magnetic entropy change and critical exponents in double perovskite Y2NiMnO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G.; Tripathi, T. S.; Saha, J.; Patnaik, S.

    2014-11-01

    We report the magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) and the critical exponents in the double perovskite manganite Y2NiMnO6 with a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition TC~85 K. For a magnetic field change ΔH=80 kOe, a maximum magnetic entropy change ΔSM=-6.57 J/kg K is recorded around TC. The critical exponents β=0.363±0.05 and γ=1.331±0.09 obtained from power law fitting to spontaneous magnetization MS(T) and the inverse initial susceptibility χ0-1(T) satisfy well to values derived for a 3D-Heisenberg ferromagnet. The critical exponent δ=4.761±0.129 is determined from the isothermal magnetization at TC. The scaling exponents corresponding to second order phase transition are consistent with the exponents from Kouvel-Fisher analysis and satisfy Widom's scaling relation δ=1+(γ/β). Additionally, they also satisfy the single scaling equation M(H,ɛ)=ɛβf±(H/ɛ) according to which the magnetization-field-temperature data around TC should collapse into two curves for temperatures below and above TC.

  5. Transient heating and entropy generation of a fluid inside a large aspect ratio cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajas, J.C.; Trevino, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the transient heating of a fluid inside a vertical cavity of large aspect ratio (height/length) was studied numerically by the use of the SIMPLE algorithm. The heat sources are two vertical plates localized in the side walls of the cavity near the bottom. Calculations were performed for a fixed value of the Prandtl number, Pr = 7, aspect ratio of 12 and six different Rayleigh numbers between 10 3 and 10 6 . The temperature and entropy production fields, the non-dimensional heat flux on the heated plates (given by the average Nusselt number) have been obtained. From a clear dependence on the Rayleigh number, different mechanisms of symmetry break and heat transfer in the cavity were found, where vortices dynamics play a very important role. A universal behavior of the mean values of the overall reduced entropy production rate was found, valid after a short initial transient. (authors)

  6. Magnetic entropy-change in La0.67-xBixCa0.33MnO3 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalay, S.; Kolat, V.S.; Gencer, H.; Adiguzel, H.I.

    2006-01-01

    Bi doped lanthanum manganites with the chemical composition of La 0.67-x Bi x Ca 0.33 MnO 3 (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2) were prepared by the standard solid-state process. The Curie temperatures were measured to be 267K for x=0, 248K for x=0.05, 244K for x=0.1 and 229K for x=0.2 samples. It was found that the maximum value of the magnetic entropy change |ΔS m | has reached the highest value of 6.08J/kgK at 3T for the composition with x=0.05. Nearly the same maximum entropy change was observed for the x=0 sample. A large decrease in the magnitude of the entropy change was observed for the x=0.2 sample

  7. Magnetic properties of the CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Friák, Martin; Dudová, Marie; Holec, D.; Šob, Mojmír; Kriegner, D.; Holý, V.; Beran, Přemysl; George, E. P.; Neugebauer, J.; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 014437. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22834S; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : high-entropy alloys * magnetism * low-temperatures * quantum-mechanical calculations * magnetic transitions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (UJF-V) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) (UFM-A); Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) (UJF-V) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  8. Refrigeration Performance and Entropy Generation Analysis for Reciprocating Magnetic Refrigerator with Gd Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua You

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current work, a novel 2D numerical model of stationary grids was developed for reciprocating magnetic refrigerators, with Gd plates, in which the magneto-caloric properties, derived from the Weiss molecular field theory, were adopted for the built-in energy source of the magneto-caloric effect. The numerical simulation was conducted under the conditions of different structural and operational parameters, and the effects of the relative fluid displacement (φ on the specific refrigeration capacity (qref and the Coefficient of Performance (COP were obtained. Besides the variations of entropy, the generation rate and number were studied and the contours of the local entropy generation rate are presented for discussion. From the current work, it is found that with an increase in φ, both the qref and COP followed the convex variation trend, while the entropy generation number (Ns varied concavely. As for the current cases, the maximal qref and COP were equal to 151.2 kW/m3 and 9.11, respectively, while the lowest Ns was the value of 2.4 × 10−4 K−1. However, the optimal φ for the largest qref and COP, and for the lowest Ns, were inconsistent, thus, some compromises need be made in the optimization of magnetic refrigerators.

  9. Optimization and large scale computation of an entropy-based moment closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristopher Garrett, C.; Hauck, Cory; Hill, Judith

    2015-12-01

    We present computational advances and results in the implementation of an entropy-based moment closure, MN, in the context of linear kinetic equations, with an emphasis on heterogeneous and large-scale computing platforms. Entropy-based closures are known in several cases to yield more accurate results than closures based on standard spectral approximations, such as PN, but the computational cost is generally much higher and often prohibitive. Several optimizations are introduced to improve the performance of entropy-based algorithms over previous implementations. These optimizations include the use of GPU acceleration and the exploitation of the mathematical properties of spherical harmonics, which are used as test functions in the moment formulation. To test the emerging high-performance computing paradigm of communication bound simulations, we present timing results at the largest computational scales currently available. These results show, in particular, load balancing issues in scaling the MN algorithm that do not appear for the PN algorithm. We also observe that in weak scaling tests, the ratio in time to solution of MN to PN decreases.

  10. Magnetic properties of the CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Friák, Martin; Masaryk University, Brno; Dudová, Marie; Holec, David

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present experimental data showing that the equiatomic CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy undergoes two magnetic transformations at temperatures below 100 K while maintaining its fcc structure down to 3 K. The first transition, paramagnetic to spin glass, was detected at 93 K and the second transition of the ferromagnetic type occurred at 38 K. Field-assisted cooling below 38 K resulted in a systematic vertical shift of the hysteresis curves. Strength and direction of the associated magnetization bias was proportional to the strength and direction of the cooling field and shows a linear dependence with a slope of 0.006 ± 0.001 emu T. The local magnetic moments of individual atoms in the CrMnFeCoNi quinary fcc random solid solution were investigated by ab initio (electronic density functional theory) calculations. Results of the numerical analysis suggest that, irrespective of the initial configuration of local magnetic moments, the magnetic moments associated with Cr atoms align antiferromagnetically with respect to a cumulative magnetic moment of their first coordination shell. The ab initio calculations further showed that the magnetic moments of Fe and Mn atoms remain strong (between 1.5 and 2 μ B ), while the local moments of Ni atoms effectively vanish. Finally, these results indicate that interactions of Mn- and/or Fe-located moments with the surrounding magnetic structure account for the observed macroscopic magnetization bias.

  11. Magnetoresistances and magnetic entropy changes associated with negative lattice expansions in NaZn13-type compounds LaFeCoSi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng-Xia; Qian, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Guang-Jun; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Gao, Ju

    2005-11-01

    Magnetoresistances and magnetic entropy changes in NaZn13-type compounds La(Fe1-xCox)11.9Si1.1 (x=0.04, 0.06 and 0.08) with Curie temperatures of 243 K, 274 K and 301 K, respectively, are studied. The ferromagnetic ordering is accompanied by a negative lattice expansion. Large magnetic entropy changes in a wide temperature range from ~230 K to ~320 K are achieved. Raising Co content increases the Curie temperature but weakens the magnetovolume effect, thereby causing a decrease in magnetic entropy change. These materials exhibit a metallic character below TC, whereas the electrical resistance decreases abruptly and then recovers the metal-like behaviour above TC. Application of a magnetic field retains the transitions via increasing the ferromagnetic ordering temperature. An isothermal increase in magnetic field leads to an increase in electrical resistance at temperatures near but above TC, which is a consequence of the field-induced metamagnetic transition from a paramagnetic state to a ferromagnetic state.

  12. Studies on entanglement entropy for Hubbard model with hole-doping and external magnetic field [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, K. L.; Li, Y. C.; Sun, X. Z.; Liu, Q. M.; Qin, Y.; Fu, H. H.; Gao, G. Y.

    2005-10-01

    By using the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method for the one-dimensional (1D) Hubbard model, we have studied the von Neumann entropy of a quantum system, which describes the entanglement of the system block and the rest of the chain. It is found that there is a close relation between the entanglement entropy and properties of the system. The hole-doping can alter the charge charge and spin spin interactions, resulting in charge polarization along the chain. By comparing the results before and after the doping, we find that doping favors increase of the von Neumann entropy and thus also favors the exchange of information along the chain. Furthermore, we calculated the spin and entropy distribution in external magnetic filed. It is confirmed that both the charge charge and the spin spin interactions affect the exchange of information along the chain, making the entanglement entropy redistribute.

  13. Magnetic entropy change and critical exponents in double perovskite Y{sub 2}NiMnO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067 (India); Tripathi, T.S. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi-110067 (India); Saha, J. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067 (India); Patnaik, S., E-mail: spatnaik@mail.jnu.ac.in [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067 (India)

    2014-11-15

    We report the magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}) and the critical exponents in the double perovskite manganite Y{sub 2}NiMnO{sub 6} with a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition T{sub C}∼85K. For a magnetic field change ΔH=80kOe, a maximum magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub M}=−6.57J/kgK is recorded around T{sub C}. The critical exponents β=0.363±0.05 and γ=1.331±0.09 obtained from power law fitting to spontaneous magnetization M{sub S}(T) and the inverse initial susceptibility χ{sub 0}{sup −1}(T) satisfy well to values derived for a 3D-Heisenberg ferromagnet. The critical exponent δ=4.761±0.129 is determined from the isothermal magnetization at T{sub C}. The scaling exponents corresponding to second order phase transition are consistent with the exponents from Kouvel–Fisher analysis and satisfy Widom's scaling relation δ=1+(γ/β). Additionally, they also satisfy the single scaling equation M(H,ϵ)=ϵ{sup β}f±(H/ϵ{sup β+γ}) according to which the magnetization-field-temperature data around T{sub C} should collapse into two curves for temperatures below and above T{sub C}. - Highlights: • The magneto-caloric (MC) effect and the critical exponent analysis in Y{sub 2}NiMnO{sub 6} are studied. • Methods such as Kouvel–Fisher, Widom's and Mean-Field scaling are used. • The magnetic ground state in Y{sub 2}NiMnO{sub 6} is based on isotropic 3D Heisenberg model. • The large MC effect can be utilized towards magnetic refrigeration around 77 K. • The nearest neighbor interaction in Y{sub 2}NiMnO{sub 6} rules out ferroelectricity.

  14. Investigation of Oriented Magnetic Field Effects on Entropy Generation in an Inclined Channel Filled with Ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgiz Baskaya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dispersion of super-paramagnetic nanoparticles in nonmagnetic carrier fluids, known as ferrofluids, offers the advantages of tunable thermo-physical properties and eliminate the need for moving parts to induce flow. This study investigates ferrofluid flow characteristics in an inclined channel under inclined magnetic field and constant pressure gradient. The ferrofluid considered in this work is comprised of Cu particles as the nanoparticles and water as the base fluid. The governing differential equations including viscous dissipation are non-dimensionalised and discretized with Generalized Differential Quadrature Method. The resulting algebraic set of equations are solved via Newton-Raphson Method. The work done here contributes to the literature by searching the effects of magnetic field angle and channel inclination separately on the entropy generation of the ferrofluid filled inclined channel system in order to achieve best design parameter values so called entropy generation minimization is implemented. Furthermore, the effect of magnetic field, inclination angle of the channel and volume fraction of nanoparticles on velocity and temperature profiles are examined and represented by figures to give a thorough understanding of the system behavior.

  15. Models for large superconducting toroidal magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, F.; Brechna, H.; Erb, J.; Komarek, P.; Krauth, H.; Maurer, W.

    1976-01-01

    Prior to the design of large GJ toroidal magnet systems it is appropriate to procure small scale models, which can simulate their pertinent properties and allow to investigate their relevant phenomena. The important feature of the model is to show under which circumstances the system performance can be extrapolated to large magnets. Based on parameters such as the maximum magnetic field and the current density, the maximum tolerable magneto-mechanical stresses, a simple method of designing model magnets is presented. It is shown how pertinent design parameters are changed when the toroidal dimensions are altered. In addition some conductor cost estimations are given based on reactor power output and wall loading

  16. Brain tissue segmentation using q-entropy in multiple sclerosis magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, P.R.B.; Brum, D.G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurociencias e Ciencias do Comportamento; Santos, A. C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Clinica Medica; Murta-Junior, L.O.; Araujo, D.B. de, E-mail: murta@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2010-01-15

    The loss of brain volume has been used as a marker of tissue destruction and can be used as an index of the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we tested a new method for tissue segmentation based on pixel intensity threshold using generalized Tsallis entropy to determine a statistical segmentation parameter for each single class of brain tissue. We compared the performance of this method using a range of different q parameters and found a different optimal q parameter for white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the conclusion that the differences in structural correlations and scale invariant similarities present in each tissue class can be accessed by generalized Tsallis entropy, obtaining the intensity limits for these tissue class separations. In order to test this method, we used it for analysis of brain magnetic resonance images of 43 patients and 10 healthy controls matched for gender and age. The values found for the entropic q index were 0.2 for cerebrospinal fluid, 0.1 for white matter and 1.5 for gray matter. With this algorithm, we could detect an annual loss of 0.98% for the patients, in agreement with literature data. Thus, we can conclude that the entropy of Tsallis adds advantages to the process of automatic target segmentation of tissue classes, which had not been demonstrated previously. (author)

  17. Brain tissue segmentation using q-entropy in multiple sclerosis magnetic resonance images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.B. Diniz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of brain volume has been used as a marker of tissue destruction and can be used as an index of the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we tested a new method for tissue segmentation based on pixel intensity threshold using generalized Tsallis entropy to determine a statistical segmentation parameter for each single class of brain tissue. We compared the performance of this method using a range of different q parameters and found a different optimal q parameter for white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the conclusion that the differences in structural correlations and scale invariant similarities present in each tissue class can be accessed by generalized Tsallis entropy, obtaining the intensity limits for these tissue class separations. In order to test this method, we used it for analysis of brain magnetic resonance images of 43 patients and 10 healthy controls matched for gender and age. The values found for the entropic q index were 0.2 for cerebrospinal fluid, 0.1 for white matter and 1.5 for gray matter. With this algorithm, we could detect an annual loss of 0.98% for the patients, in agreement with literature data. Thus, we can conclude that the entropy of Tsallis adds advantages to the process of automatic target segmentation of tissue classes, which had not been demonstrated previously.

  18. Brain tissue segmentation using q-entropy in multiple sclerosis magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, P.R.B.; Brum, D.G.; Santos, A. C.; Murta-Junior, L.O.; Araujo, D.B. de

    2010-01-01

    The loss of brain volume has been used as a marker of tissue destruction and can be used as an index of the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we tested a new method for tissue segmentation based on pixel intensity threshold using generalized Tsallis entropy to determine a statistical segmentation parameter for each single class of brain tissue. We compared the performance of this method using a range of different q parameters and found a different optimal q parameter for white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the conclusion that the differences in structural correlations and scale invariant similarities present in each tissue class can be accessed by generalized Tsallis entropy, obtaining the intensity limits for these tissue class separations. In order to test this method, we used it for analysis of brain magnetic resonance images of 43 patients and 10 healthy controls matched for gender and age. The values found for the entropic q index were 0.2 for cerebrospinal fluid, 0.1 for white matter and 1.5 for gray matter. With this algorithm, we could detect an annual loss of 0.98% for the patients, in agreement with literature data. Thus, we can conclude that the entropy of Tsallis adds advantages to the process of automatic target segmentation of tissue classes, which had not been demonstrated previously. (author)

  19. The long string at the stretched horizon and the entropy of large non-extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Thomas G.; Verschelde, Henri; Zakharov, Valentin I.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how long strings can arise at the stretched horizon and how they can account for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We use the thermal scalar field theory to derive the asymptotic density of states and corresponding stress tensor of a microcanonical long string gas in Rindler space. We show that the equality of the Hagedorn and Hawking temperatures gives rise to the tree-level entropy of large black holes in accordance with the Bekenstein-Hawking-Wald formula.

  20. The long string at the stretched horizon and the entropy of large non-extremal black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, Thomas G. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy,Krijgslaan, 281-S9, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Verschelde, Henri [Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy,Krijgslaan, 281-S9, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Zakharov, Valentin I. [ITEP,B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute Phys. & Technol.,Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University,Sukhanova str 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-04

    We discuss how long strings can arise at the stretched horizon and how they can account for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We use the thermal scalar field theory to derive the asymptotic density of states and corresponding stress tensor of a microcanonical long string gas in Rindler space. We show that the equality of the Hagedorn and Hawking temperatures gives rise to the tree-level entropy of large black holes in accordance with the Bekenstein-Hawking-Wald formula.

  1. The Maximum Entropy Limit of Small-scale Magnetic Field Fluctuations in the Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorobets, A. Y.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; van Noort, M.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Schmidt, W.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Knölker, M.

    2017-11-01

    The observed magnetic field on the solar surface is characterized by a very complex spatial and temporal behavior. Although feature-tracking algorithms have allowed us to deepen our understanding of this behavior, subjectivity plays an important role in the identification and tracking of such features. In this paper, we continue studies of the temporal stochasticity of the magnetic field on the solar surface without relying either on the concept of magnetic features or on subjective assumptions about their identification and interaction. We propose a data analysis method to quantify fluctuations of the line-of-sight magnetic field by means of reducing the temporal field’s evolution to the regular Markov process. We build a representative model of fluctuations converging to the unique stationary (equilibrium) distribution in the long time limit with maximum entropy. We obtained different rates of convergence to the equilibrium at fixed noise cutoff for two sets of data. This indicates a strong influence of the data spatial resolution and mixing-polarity fluctuations on the relaxation process. The analysis is applied to observations of magnetic fields of the relatively quiet areas around an active region carried out during the second flight of the Sunrise/IMaX and quiet Sun areas at the disk center from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite.

  2. Experimental heat capacities, excess entropies, and magnetic properties of bulk and nano Fe3O4-Co3O4 and Fe3O4-Mn3O4 spinel solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliesser, Jacob M.; Huang, Baiyu; Sahu, Sulata K.; Asplund, Megan; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Woodfield, Brian F.

    2018-03-01

    We have measured the heat capacities of several well-characterized bulk and nanophase Fe3O4-Co3O4 and Fe3O4-Mn3O4 spinel solid solution samples from which magnetic properties of transitions and third-law entropies have been determined. The magnetic transitions show several features common to effects of particle and magnetic domain sizes. From the standard molar entropies, excess entropies of mixing have been generated for these solid solutions and compared with configurational entropies determined previously by assuming appropriate cation and valence distributions. The vibrational and magnetic excess entropies for bulk materials are comparable in magnitude to the respective configurational entropies indicating that excess entropies of mixing must be included when analyzing entropies of mixing. The excess entropies for nanophase materials are even larger than the configurational entropies. Changes in valence, cation distribution, bonding and microstructure between the mixing ions are the likely sources of the positive excess entropies of mixing.

  3. Entropy Constraints in the Ground State Formation of Magnetically Frustrated Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereni, Julian G.

    2018-01-01

    A systematic modification of the entropy trajectory (S_m(T)) is observed at very low temperature in magnetically frustrated systems as a consequence of the constraint (S_mg 0) imposed by the Nernst postulate. The lack of magnetic order allows to explore and compare new thermodynamic properties by tracing the specific heat (C_m) behavior down to the sub-Kelvin range. Some of the most relevant findings are: (i) a common C_m/T|_{T→ 0} ≈ 7 J/mol K^2 `plateau' in at least five Yb-based very-heavy-fermions (VHF) compounds; (ii) quantitative and qualitative differences between VHF and standard non-Fermi-liquids; (iii) entropy bottlenecks governing the change of S_m(T) trajectories in a continuous transition into alternative ground states. A comparative analysis of S_m(T→ 0) dependencies is performed in compounds suitable for adiabatic demagnetization processes according to their partial ^2 S_m/partial T^2 derivatives.

  4. The Radius and Entropy of a Magnetized, Rotating, Fully Convective Star: Analysis with Depth-dependent Mixing Length Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Lewis G.; Browning, Matthew K.

    2018-04-01

    Some low-mass stars appear to have larger radii than predicted by standard 1D structure models; prior work has suggested that inefficient convective heat transport, due to rotation and/or magnetism, may ultimately be responsible. We examine this issue using 1D stellar models constructed using Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA). First, we consider standard models that do not explicitly include rotational/magnetic effects, with convective inhibition modeled by decreasing a depth-independent mixing length theory (MLT) parameter α MLT. We provide formulae linking changes in α MLT to changes in the interior specific entropy, and hence to the stellar radius. Next, we modify the MLT formulation in MESA to mimic explicitly the influence of rotation and magnetism, using formulations suggested by Stevenson and MacDonald & Mullan, respectively. We find rapid rotation in these models has a negligible impact on stellar structure, primarily because a star’s adiabat, and hence its radius, is predominantly affected by layers near the surface; convection is rapid and largely uninfluenced by rotation there. Magnetic fields, if they influenced convective transport in the manner described by MacDonald & Mullan, could lead to more noticeable radius inflation. Finally, we show that these non-standard effects on stellar structure can be fabricated using a depth-dependent α MLT: a non-magnetic, non-rotating model can be produced that is virtually indistinguishable from one that explicitly parameterizes rotation and/or magnetism using the two formulations above. We provide formulae linking the radially variable α MLT to these putative MLT reformulations.

  5. Superconducting magnets for particle large accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, F.

    1994-01-01

    The different accelerator types (linear, circular) and the advantages of using superconductivity in particle accelerator are first reviewed. Characteristics of some large superconducting accelerators (Tevatron, HERA, RHIC, LHC CERN) are presented. The design features related to accelerator magnets are reviewed: magnet reproducibility, stability, field homogeneity, etc. and the selected design characteristics are discussed: manufacturing method, winding, shielding, cryostat. CEA involvement in this domain mainly addressing quadrupoles, is presented together with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN. Characteristics and design of detector magnets are also described. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Large rotating field entropy change in ErFeO3 single crystal with angular distribution contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruoxiang; Cao, Shixun; Ren, Wei; Zhan, Sheng; Kang, Baojuan; Zhang, Jincang

    2013-10-01

    We report the rotating field entropy of ErFeO3 single-crystal in a temperature range of 3-40 K. The giant magnetic entropy change, ΔSM = -20.7 J/(kg K), and the refrigerant capacity, RC = 273.5 J/kg, are observed near T =6 K. The anisotropic constants at 6 K, K1 = 1.24× 103 J/kg, K2 = 0.74 × 103 J/kg, in the bc plane are obtained. By considering the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and Fermi-Dirac angular distribution along the orientation of spontaneous magnetization, the experimental results can be well simulated. Our present work demonstrates that ErFeO3 crystal may find practical use for low temperature anisotropic magnetic refrigeration.

  7. ENTROPY PRODUCTION IN COLLISIONLESS SYSTEMS. I. LARGE PHASE-SPACE OCCUPATION NUMBERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Eric I.; Williams, Liliya L. R.

    2011-01-01

    Certain thermal non-equilibrium situations, outside of the astrophysical realm, suggest that entropy production extrema, instead of entropy extrema, are related to stationary states. In an effort to better understand the evolution of collisionless self-gravitating systems, we investigate the role of entropy production and develop expressions for the entropy production rate in two particular statistical families that describe self-gravitating systems. From these entropy production descriptions, we derive the requirements for extremizing the entropy production rate in terms of specific forms for the relaxation function in the Boltzmann equation. We discuss some implications of these relaxation functions and point to future work that will further test this novel thermodynamic viewpoint of collisionless relaxation.

  8. Maximum Entropy Approach in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsani, Zahra Amini; Schmid, Volker J

    2017-01-01

    In the estimation of physiological kinetic parameters from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) data, the determination of the arterial input function (AIF) plays a key role. This paper proposes a Bayesian method to estimate the physiological parameters of DCE-MRI along with the AIF in situations, where no measurement of the AIF is available. In the proposed algorithm, the maximum entropy method (MEM) is combined with the maximum a posterior approach (MAP). To this end, MEM is used to specify a prior probability distribution of the unknown AIF. The ability of this method to estimate the AIF is validated using the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Subsequently, the kinetic parameters can be estimated with MAP. The proposed algorithm is evaluated with a data set from a breast cancer MRI study. The application shows that the AIF can reliably be determined from the DCE-MRI data using MEM. Kinetic parameters can be estimated subsequently. The maximum entropy method is a powerful tool to reconstructing images from many types of data. This method is useful for generating the probability distribution based on given information. The proposed method gives an alternative way to assess the input function from the existing data. The proposed method allows a good fit of the data and therefore a better estimation of the kinetic parameters. In the end, this allows for a more reliable use of DCE-MRI. Schattauer GmbH.

  9. Field simulations for large dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaro, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Cavallaro, M.; Foti, A.; Khouaja, A.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Winfield, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of the description of magnetic field for large bending magnets is addressed in relation to the requirements of modern techniques of trajectory reconstruction. The crucial question of the interpolation and extrapolation of fields known at a discrete number of points is analysed. For this purpose a realistic field model of the large dipole of the MAGNEX spectrometer, obtained with finite elements three dimensional simulations, is used. The influence of the uncertainties in the measured field to the quality of the trajectory reconstruction is treated in detail. General constraints for field measurements in terms of required resolutions, step sizes and precisions are thus extracted

  10. Production of a large, quiescent, magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landt, D. L.; Ajmera, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental device is described which produces a large homogeneous quiescent magnetized plasma. In this device, the plasma is created in an evacuated brass cylinder by ionizing collisions between electrons emitted from a large-diameter electron gun and argon atoms in the chamber. Typical experimentally measured values of the electron temperature and density are presented which were obtained with a glass-insulated planar Langmuir probe. It is noted that the present device facilitates the study of phenomena such as waves and diffusion in magnetized plasmas.

  11. Reliability of large superconducting magnets through design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    As superconducting magnet systems grow larger and become the central component of major systems involving fusion, magnetohydrodynamics, and high-energy physics, their reliability must be commensurate with the enormous capital investment in the projects. Although the magnet may represent only 15% of the cost of a large system such as the Mirror Fusion Test Facility, its failure would be catastrophic to the entire investment. Effective quality control during construction is one method of ensuring success. However, if the design is unforgiving, even an inordinate amount of effort expended on quality control may be inadequate. Creative design is the most effective way of ensuring magnet reliability and providing a reasonable limit on the amount of quality control needed. For example, by subjecting the last drawing operation is superconductor manufacture to a stress larger than the magnet design stress, a 100% proof test is achieved; cabled conductors offer mechanical redundancy, as do some methods of conductor joining; ground-plane insulation should be multilayered to prevent arcs, and interturn and interlayer insulation spaced to be compatible with the self-extinguishing of arcs during quench voltages; electrical leads should be thermally protected; and guard vacuum spaces can be incorporated to control helium leaks. Many reliable design options are known to magnet designers. These options need to be documented and organized to produce a design guide. Eventually, standard procedures, safety factors, and design codes can lead to reliability in magnets comparable to that obtained in pressure vessels and other structures. Wihout such reliability, large-scale applications in major systems employing magnetic fusion energy, magnetohydrodynamics, or high-energy physics would present unacceptable economic risks

  12. Effects of annealing on the microstructure and magnetic property of the mechanically alloyed FeSiBAlNiM (M=Co, Cu, Ag) amorphous high entropy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Xuan; Yu, Shuaishuai; Wei, Congcong; Xu, Jing; Wang, Yan, E-mail: mse_wangy@ujn.edu.cn

    2017-05-15

    The effects of annealing treatment on the microstructure, thermal stability, and magnetic properties of the mechanical alloyed FeSiBAlNiM (M=Co, Cu, Ag) amorphous high entropy alloys (HEAs) have been investigated in this project. The simple crystallization products in FeSiBAlNi amorphous HEAs with Co and Ag addition reveal the high phase stability during heating process. At high annealing treatment, the crystallized HEAs possess the good semi-hard magnetic property. It can conclude that crystallization products containing proper FeSi-rich and FeB-rich phases are beneficial to improve the magnetic property. Annealing near the exothermic peak temperature presents the best enhancing effect on the semi-hard magnetic property of FeSiBAlNiCo. It performs both large saturated magnetization and remanence ratio of 13.0 emu/g and near 45%, which exhibit 465% and 105% enhancement compared with as-milled state, respectively. - Highlights: • Co, Cu, Ag additions affect crystallization behavior of FeSiBAlNi amorphous HEAs. • Crystallization products in FeSiBAlNi Co/Ag reveal high phase stability. • Proper FeSi-rich and FeB-rich phases are beneficial to improve magnetic property. • Annealing treatment improves semi-hard magnetic property compared to as-milled state. • Annealing near exothermic peak temperature shows best enhancing effect on magnetism.

  13. Effect of Magnetic Field on Entropy Generation Due to Laminar Forced Convection Past a Horizontal Flat Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh'd A. Al-Nimr

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field effect on local entropy generation due to steady two-dimensional laminar forced convection flow past a horizontal plate was numerically investigated. This study was focused on the entropy generation characteristics and its dependency on various dimensionless parameters. The effect of various dimensionless parameters, such as Hartmann number (Ha, Eckert number (Ec, Prandtl number (Pr, Joule heating parameter (R and the free stream temperature parameter (θ∞ on the entropy generation characteristics is analyzed. The dimensionless governing equations in Cartesian coordinate were solved by an implicit finite difference technique. The solutions were carried out for Ha2=0.5-3, Ec=0.01-0.05, Pr=1-5 and θ∞=1.1-2.5. It was found that, the entropy generation increased with increasing Ha, Ec and R. While, increasing the free stream temperature parameter, and Prandtl number tend to decrease the local entropy generation.

  14. Numerical study of magnetic field on mixed convection and entropy generation of nanofluid in a trapezoidal enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghaei, Alireza, E-mail: AlirezaAghaei21@gmail.com; Khorasanizadeh, Hossein, E-mail: khorasan@kashanu.ac.ir; Sheikhzadeh, Ghanbarali, E-mail: Sheikhz@kashanu.ac.ir; Abbaszadeh, Mahmoud, E-mail: abbaszadeh.mahmoud@gmail.com

    2016-04-01

    The flow under influence of magnetic field is experienced in cooling electronic devices and voltage transformers, nuclear reactors, biochemistry and in physical phenomenon like geology. In this study, the effects of magnetic field on the flow field, heat transfer and entropy generation of Cu–water nanofluid mixed convection in a trapezoidal enclosure have been investigated. The top lid is cold and moving toward right or left, the bottom wall is hot and the side walls are insulated and their angle from the horizon are 15°, 30°, 45° and 60°. Simulations have been carried out for constant Grashof number of 10{sup 4}, Reynolds numbers of 30, 100, 300 and 1000, Hartmann numbers of 25, 50, 75 and 100 and nanoparticles volume fractions of zero up to 0.04. The finite volume method and SIMPLER algorithm have been utilized to solve the governing equations numerically. The results showed that with imposing the magnetic field and enhancing it, the nanofluid convection and the strength of flow decrease and the flow tends toward natural convection and finally toward pure conduction. For this reason, for all of the considered Reynolds numbers and volume fractions, by increasing the Hartmann number the average Nusselt number decreases. Furthermore, for any case with constant Reynolds and Hartmann numbers by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles the maximum stream function decreases. For all of the studied cases, entropy generation due to friction is negligible and the total entropy generation is mainly due to irreversibility associated with heat transfer and variation of the total entropy generation with Hartmann number is similar to that of the average Nusselt number. With change in lid movement direction at Reynolds number of 30 the average Nusselt number and total entropy generation are changed, but at Reynolds number of 1000 it has a negligible effect. - Highlights: • effects of magnetic field on the flow field, heat transfer and entropy generation. • mixed

  15. Numerical study of magnetic field on mixed convection and entropy generation of nanofluid in a trapezoidal enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghaei, Alireza; Khorasanizadeh, Hossein; Sheikhzadeh, Ghanbarali; Abbaszadeh, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    The flow under influence of magnetic field is experienced in cooling electronic devices and voltage transformers, nuclear reactors, biochemistry and in physical phenomenon like geology. In this study, the effects of magnetic field on the flow field, heat transfer and entropy generation of Cu–water nanofluid mixed convection in a trapezoidal enclosure have been investigated. The top lid is cold and moving toward right or left, the bottom wall is hot and the side walls are insulated and their angle from the horizon are 15°, 30°, 45° and 60°. Simulations have been carried out for constant Grashof number of 10"4, Reynolds numbers of 30, 100, 300 and 1000, Hartmann numbers of 25, 50, 75 and 100 and nanoparticles volume fractions of zero up to 0.04. The finite volume method and SIMPLER algorithm have been utilized to solve the governing equations numerically. The results showed that with imposing the magnetic field and enhancing it, the nanofluid convection and the strength of flow decrease and the flow tends toward natural convection and finally toward pure conduction. For this reason, for all of the considered Reynolds numbers and volume fractions, by increasing the Hartmann number the average Nusselt number decreases. Furthermore, for any case with constant Reynolds and Hartmann numbers by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles the maximum stream function decreases. For all of the studied cases, entropy generation due to friction is negligible and the total entropy generation is mainly due to irreversibility associated with heat transfer and variation of the total entropy generation with Hartmann number is similar to that of the average Nusselt number. With change in lid movement direction at Reynolds number of 30 the average Nusselt number and total entropy generation are changed, but at Reynolds number of 1000 it has a negligible effect. - Highlights: • effects of magnetic field on the flow field, heat transfer and entropy generation. • mixed

  16. Entropy Rate Estimates for Natural Language—A New Extrapolation of Compressed Large-Scale Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Takahira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental questions about human language is whether its entropy rate is positive. The entropy rate measures the average amount of information communicated per unit time. The question about the entropy of language dates back to experiments by Shannon in 1951, but in 1990 Hilberg raised doubt regarding a correct interpretation of these experiments. This article provides an in-depth empirical analysis, using 20 corpora of up to 7.8 gigabytes across six languages (English, French, Russian, Korean, Chinese, and Japanese, to conclude that the entropy rate is positive. To obtain the estimates for data length tending to infinity, we use an extrapolation function given by an ansatz. Whereas some ansatzes were proposed previously, here we use a new stretched exponential extrapolation function that has a smaller error of fit. Thus, we conclude that the entropy rates of human languages are positive but approximately 20% smaller than without extrapolation. Although the entropy rate estimates depend on the script kind, the exponent of the ansatz function turns out to be constant across different languages and governs the complexity of natural language in general. In other words, in spite of typological differences, all languages seem equally hard to learn, which partly confirms Hilberg’s hypothesis.

  17. Order of magnetic transition and large magnetocaloric effect in Er3Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Shen; Jian-Feng, Wu; Jin-Liang, Zhao; Feng-Xia, Hu; Ji-Rong, Sun; Bao-Gen, Shen

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the Er 3 Co compound, which undergoes ferromagnetic ordering below the Curie temperature T C = 13 K. It is found by fitting the isothermal magnetization curves that the Landau model is appropriate to describe the Er 3 Co compound. The giant magnetocaloric effect (MCE) without hysteresis loss around T C is found to result from the second-order ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic transition. The maximal value of magnetic entropy change is 24.5 J/kg·K with a refrigerant capacity (RC) value of 476 J/kg for a field change of 0–5 T. Large reversible MEC and RC indicate the potentiality of Er 3 Co as a candidate magnetic refrigerant at low temperatures. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. PHOTOSPHERE EMISSION FROM A HYBRID RELATIVISTIC OUTFLOW WITH ARBITRARY DIMENSIONLESS ENTROPY AND MAGNETIZATION IN GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, He [Current address: Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Center for Particle Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: gaohe@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: hug18@psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    In view of the recent Fermi observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission spectra, we develop a theory of photosphere emission of a hybrid relativistic outflow with a hot fireball component (defined by dimensionless entropy η) and a cold Poynting-flux component (defined by magnetization σ{sub 0} at the central engine). We consider the scenarios both without and with sub-photospheric magnetic dissipations. Based on a simplified toy model of jet dynamics, we develop two approaches: a 'bottom-up' approach to predict the temperature (for a non-dissipative photosphere) and luminosity of the photosphere emission and its relative brightness for a given pair of (η, σ{sub 0}); and a 'top-down' approach to diagnose central engine parameters (η and σ{sub 0}) based on the observed quasi-thermal photosphere emission properties. We show that a variety of observed GRB prompt emission spectra with different degrees of photosphere thermal emission can be reproduced by varying η and σ{sub 0} within the non-dissipative photosphere scenario. In order to reproduce the observed spectra, the outflows of most GRBs need to have a significant σ, both at the central engine and at the photosphere. The σ value at 10{sup 15} cm from the central engine (a possible non-thermal emission site) is usually also greater than unity, so that internal-collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence (ICMART) may be the mechanism to power the non-thermal emission. We apply our top-down approach to GRB 110721A and find that the temporal evolution behavior of its blackbody component can be well interpreted with a time-varying (η, σ{sub 0}) at the central engine, instead of invoking a varying engine base size r {sub 0} as proposed by previous authors.

  19. Large-deviation principles, stochastic effective actions, path entropies, and the structure and meaning of thermodynamic descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The meaning of thermodynamic descriptions is found in large-deviations scaling (Ellis 1985 Entropy, Large Deviations, and Statistical Mechanics (New York: Springer); Touchette 2009 Phys. Rep. 478 1-69) of the probabilities for fluctuations of averaged quantities. The central function expressing large-deviations scaling is the entropy, which is the basis both for fluctuation theorems and for characterizing the thermodynamic interactions of systems. Freidlin-Wentzell theory (Freidlin and Wentzell 1998 Random Perturbations in Dynamical Systems 2nd edn (New York: Springer)) provides a quite general formulation of large-deviations scaling for non-equilibrium stochastic processes, through a remarkable representation in terms of a Hamiltonian dynamical system. A number of related methods now exist to construct the Freidlin-Wentzell Hamiltonian for many kinds of stochastic processes; one method due to Doi (1976 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 9 1465-78; 1976 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 9 1479) and Peliti (1985 J. Physique 46 1469; 1986 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 19 L365, appropriate to integer counting statistics, is widely used in reaction-diffusion theory. Using these tools together with a path-entropy method due to Jaynes (1980 Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 31 579-601), this review shows how to construct entropy functions that both express large-deviations scaling of fluctuations, and describe system-environment interactions, for discrete stochastic processes either at or away from equilibrium. A collection of variational methods familiar within quantum field theory, but less commonly applied to the Doi-Peliti construction, is used to define a 'stochastic effective action', which is the large-deviations rate function for arbitrary non-equilibrium paths. We show how common principles of entropy maximization, applied to different ensembles of states or of histories, lead to different entropy functions and different sets of thermodynamic state variables. Yet the relations among all these levels of

  20. Spatio-temporal spike train analysis for large scale networks using the maximum entropy principle and Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser, Hassan; Cessac, Bruno; Marre, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of neural networks is a major challenge in experimental neuroscience. For that purpose, a modelling of the recorded activity that reproduces the main statistics of the data is required. In the first part, we present a review on recent results dealing with spike train statistics analysis using maximum entropy models (MaxEnt). Most of these studies have focused on modelling synchronous spike patterns, leaving aside the temporal dynamics of the neural activity. However, the maximum entropy principle can be generalized to the temporal case, leading to Markovian models where memory effects and time correlations in the dynamics are properly taken into account. In the second part, we present a new method based on Monte Carlo sampling which is suited for the fitting of large-scale spatio-temporal MaxEnt models. The formalism and the tools presented here will be essential to fit MaxEnt spatio-temporal models to large neural ensembles. (paper)

  1. Maximum entropy reconstruction of poloidal magnetic field and radial electric field profiles in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yihang; Xiao, Chijie; Yang, Xiaoyi; Wang, Tianbo; Xu, Tianchao; Yu, Yi; Xu, Min; Wang, Long; Lin, Chen; Wang, Xiaogang

    2017-10-01

    The Laser-driven Ion beam trace probe (LITP) is a new diagnostic method for measuring poloidal magnetic field (Bp) and radial electric field (Er) in tokamaks. LITP injects a laser-driven ion beam into the tokamak, and Bp and Er profiles can be reconstructed using tomography methods. A reconstruction code has been developed to validate the LITP theory, and both 2D reconstruction of Bp and simultaneous reconstruction of Bp and Er have been attained. To reconstruct from experimental data with noise, Maximum Entropy and Gaussian-Bayesian tomography methods were applied and improved according to the characteristics of the LITP problem. With these improved methods, a reconstruction error level below 15% has been attained with a data noise level of 10%. These methods will be further tested and applied in the following LITP experiments. Supported by the ITER-CHINA program 2015GB120001, CHINA MOST under 2012YQ030142 and National Natural Science Foundation Abstract of China under 11575014 and 11375053.

  2. Large-scale behaviour of local and entanglement entropy of the free Fermi gas at any temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschke, Hajo; Sobolev, Alexander V.; Spitzer, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    The leading asymptotic large-scale behaviour of the spatially bipartite entanglement entropy (EE) of the free Fermi gas infinitely extended in multidimensional Euclidean space at zero absolute temperature, T = 0, is by now well understood. Here, we present and discuss the first rigorous results for the corresponding EE of thermal equilibrium states at T> 0. The leading large-scale term of this thermal EE turns out to be twice the first-order finite-size correction to the infinite-volume thermal entropy (density). Not surprisingly, this correction is just the thermal entropy on the interface of the bipartition. However, it is given by a rather complicated integral derived from a semiclassical trace formula for a certain operator on the underlying one-particle Hilbert space. But in the zero-temperature limit T\\downarrow 0, the leading large-scale term of the thermal EE considerably simplifies and displays a {ln}(1/T)-singularity which one may identify with the known logarithmic enhancement at T = 0 of the so-called area-law scaling. birthday of the ideal Fermi gas.

  3. Griffiths-like phase, critical behavior near the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition and magnetic entropy change of nanocrystalline La0.75Ca0.25MnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phong, P. T.; Ngan, L. T. T.; Dang, N. V.; Nguyen, L. H.; Nam, P. H.; Thuy, D. M.; Tuan, N. D.; Bau, L. V.; Lee, I. J.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we report the structural and magnetic properties of La0.75Ca0.25MnO3 nanoparticles synthesized by the sol-gel route. Rietvield refinement of X-ray powder diffraction confirms that our sample is single phase and crystallizes in orthorhombic system with Pnma space group. The facts that effective magnetic moment is large and the inverse susceptibility deviates from the Curie Weiss lawn indicate the presence of Griffiths-like cluster phase. The critical exponents have been estimated using different techniques such as modified Arrott plot, Kouvel-Fisher plot and critical isotherm technique. The critical exponents values of La0.75Ca0.25MnO3 are very close to those found out by the mean-field model, and this can be explained by the existence of a long-range interactions between spins in this system. These results were in good agreement with those obtained using the critical exponents of magnetic entropy change. The self-consistency and reliability of the critical exponent was verified by the Widom scaling law and the universal scaling hypothesis. Using the Harris criterion, we deduced that the disorder is relevant in our case. The maximum magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) calculated from the M-H measurements is 3.47 J/kg K under an external field change of 5 T. The ΔSM-T curves collapsed onto a single master curve regardless of the composition and the applied field, confirming the magnetic ordering is of second order nature. The obtained result was compared to ones calculated based on the Arrott plot and a good concordance is observed. Moreover, the spontaneous magnetization obtained from the entropy change is in excellent agreement with that deduced by classically extrapolation the Arrott curves. This result confirms the validity of the estimation of the spontaneous magnetization using the magnetic entropy change.

  4. Large Coil Program magnetic system design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, S.D.; Johnson, N.E.

    1977-01-01

    The primary objective of the Large Coil Program (LCP) is to demonstrate the reliable operation of large superconducting coils to provide a basis for the design principles, materials, and fabrication techniques proposed for the toroidal magnets for the THE NEXT STEP (TNS) and other future tokamak devices. This paper documents a design study of the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) in which the structural response of the Toroidal Field (TF) Coils and the supporting structure was evaluated under simulated reactor conditions. The LCP test facility structural system consists of six TF Coils, twelve coil-to-coil torsional restraining beams (torque rings), a central bucking post with base, and a Pulse Coil system. The NASTRAN Finite Element Structural Analysis computer Code was utilized to determine the distribution of deflections, forces, and stresses for each of the TF Coils, torque rings, and the central bucking post. Eleven load conditions were selected to represent probable test operations. Pulse Coils suspended in the bore of the test coil were energized to simulate the pulsed field environment characteristic of the TNS reactor system. The TORMAC Computer Code was utilized to develop the magnetic forces in the TF Coils for each of the eleven loading conditions examined, with or without the Pulse Coils energized. The TORMAC computer program output forces were used directly as input load conditions for the NASTRAN analyses. Results are presented which demonstrate the reliability of the LCTF under simulated reactor operating conditions

  5. Field measurement for large bending magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaro, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Cavallaro, M.; Foti, A.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Winfield, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    The results of magnetic field measurements of the large bending magnet of the MAGNEX spectrometer are presented. The experimental values are used to build an Enge function by the least-squares method. The resulting field is compared to the measured one, showing too large deviation for application to ray reconstruction techniques. Similarly, the experimental values are compared with results from a three-dimensional finite elements calculation. Again the deviations between measured and calculated field are too large for a direct application of the latter to ray reconstruction, while its reliability is sufficient for analysis purposes. In particular, it has been applied to study the effect of the inaccuracies in the probe location and orientation on the precision of field reconstruction, and to establish the requirements for the field interpolation. These inaccuracies are found to be rather important, especially for the transversal components of the field, with the consequence that their effect on the reconstructed field should be minimized by special interpolation algorithms

  6. Theoretical investigations on magnetic entropy change in amorphous and crystalline systems: Applications to RAg (R=Tb, Dy, Ho) and GdCuAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranke, P.J. von, E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Nóbrega, E.P. [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Caldas, A. [Sociedade Unificada de Ensino Superior e Cultura, SUESC, 20211-351 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alho, B.P. [Instituto de Aplicação Fernando Rodrigues da Silveira, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Santa Alexandrina, 288, 20260-232 RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, P.O.; Alvarenga, T.S.T.; Lopes, P.H.O.; Sousa, V.S.R. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, A. Magnus G. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, CNPEM, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, N.A. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    We report theoretical investigations on the magnetic entropy changes in amorphous systems through two different assumptions. In the first assumption, the HPZ-anisotropic model is considered to deal with the random direction of magnetic moments, where the amorphous RAg (R=Tb, Dy and Ho) were used as prototypes systems. In the second assumption, the amorphisation is parameterized through the exchange interaction distribution and GdCuAl, in amorphous and crystalline structures, were considered as prototypes systems. Comparisons between the magnetic entropy changes under amorphisation and under the usual magnetic field variation were performed. The model reveals the dependence of refrigerant capacity on the amorphisation parameter, and an optimum amorphisation parameter was calculated. - Highlights: • Theoretical investigation on RAg (R=Tb, Dy and Ho) and GdCuAl amorphous alloys. • Magnetic entropy changes in GdCuAl in both amorphous and crystalline structures. • The refrigerant capacity was compared in both amorphous and crystalline phases.

  7. Expected Utility and Entropy-Based Decision-Making Model for Large Consumers in the Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the smart grid, large consumers can procure electricity energy from various power sources to meet their load demands. To maximize its profit, each large consumer needs to decide their energy procurement strategy under risks such as price fluctuations from the spot market and power quality issues. In this paper, an electric energy procurement decision-making model is studied for large consumers who can obtain their electric energy from the spot market, generation companies under bilateral contracts, the options market and self-production facilities in the smart grid. Considering the effect of unqualified electric energy, the profit model of large consumers is formulated. In order to measure the risks from the price fluctuations and power quality, the expected utility and entropy is employed. Consequently, the expected utility and entropy decision-making model is presented, which helps large consumers to minimize their expected profit of electricity procurement while properly limiting the volatility of this cost. Finally, a case study verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model.

  8. Effect of Magnetic Flux Density and Applied Current on Temperature, Velocity and Entropy Generation Distributions in MHD Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kiyasatfar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, simulation of steady state, incompressible and fully developed laminar flow has been conducted in a magneto hydrodynamic (MHD pump. The governing equations are solved numerically by finite-difference method. The effect of the magnetic flux density and current on the flow and temperature distributions in a MHD pump is investigated. The obtained results showed that controlling the flow and the temperature is possible through the controlling of the applied current and the magnetic flux. Furthermore, the effects of the magnetic flux density and current on entropy generation in MHD pump are considered. Our presented numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data showed in literature.

  9. Broadening of the magnetic entropy change in La0.75Ca0.15Sr0.10MnO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnan Venkatesh, Radha; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Pryds, Nini

    2012-01-01

    A broad table-like entropy change (ΔS) at room temperature has been observed in the ferromagnetic compound La0.75Ca0.15Sr0.10MnO3, which is analyzed in the concept of Landau theory and with critical exponent analysis obtained from the magnetization measurements. The change in entropy in La0.75Ca0...

  10. Large superconducting magnet systems for plasma and fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, W.

    1976-05-01

    Work on superconducting magnet systems and state of the art of superconducting magnet technology are described. Conceptual design consideration and problems of large magnet systems (stability, magnetic forces, cooling modes, safety) are discussed. Recent results of experimental work at Karlsruhe are reported. An outline of American and European programs is given. (orig.) [de

  11. Electrical insulation for large multiaxis superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, A.R.; Rinde, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The selection of interturn and interlayer insulation for superconducting magnets is discussed. The magnet problems of the Baseball II device are described. Manufacture of the insulation and radiation damage are mentioned. A planned experimental program is outlined

  12. Conformational Entropy of FK506 Binding to FKBP12 Determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomentsev, Gleb; Diehl, Carl; Akke, Mikael

    2018-03-06

    FKBP12 (FK506 binding protein 12 kDa) is an important drug target. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) order parameters, describing amplitudes of motion on the pico- to nanosecond time scale, can provide estimates of changes in conformational entropy upon ligand binding. Here we report backbone and methyl-axis order parameters of the apo and FK506-bound forms of FKBP12, based on 15 N and 2 H NMR relaxation. Binding of FK506 to FKBP12 results in localized changes in order parameters, notably for the backbone of residues E54 and I56 and the side chains of I56, I90, and I91, all positioned in the binding site. The order parameters increase slightly upon FK506 binding, indicating an unfavorable entropic contribution to binding of TΔ S = -18 ± 2 kJ/mol at 293 K. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate a change in conformational entropy, associated with all dihedral angles, of TΔ S = -26 ± 9 kJ/mol. Both these values are significant compared to the total entropy of binding determined by isothermal titration calorimetry and referenced to a reactant concentration of 1 mM ( TΔ S = -29 ± 1 kJ/mol). Our results reveal subtle differences in the response to ligand binding compared to that of the previously studied rapamycin-FKBP12 complex, despite the high degree of structural homology between the two complexes and their nearly identical ligand-FKBP12 interactions. These results highlight the delicate dependence of protein dynamics on drug interactions, which goes beyond the view provided by static structures, and reinforce the notion that protein conformational entropy can make important contributions to the free energy of ligand binding.

  13. Stability and disturbance of large dc superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper addresses the stability aspects of several successful dc superconducting magnets such as large bubble chamber magnets, and magnets for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility and MHD Research Facility. Specifically, it will cover Argonne National Laboratory 12-Foot Bubble Chamber magnets, the 15-foot Bubble Chamber magnets at Fermi National Laboratory, the MFTF-B Magnet System at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the U-25B Bypass MHD Magnet, and the CFFF Superconducting MHD magnet built by Argonne National Laboratory. All of these magnets are cooled in pool-boiling mode. Magnet design is briefly reviewed. Discussed in detail are the adopted stability critera, analyses of stability and disturbance, stability simulation, and the final results of magnet performance and the observed coil disturbances

  14. Lifespan Development of the Human Brain Revealed by Large-Scale Network Eigen-Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Fan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying functional connectivity patterns of the developing and aging brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution through infancy, childhood, and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Normal aging is related to some resting state brain networks disruption, which are associated with certain cognitive decline. It is a big challenge to design an integral metric to track connectome evolution patterns across the lifespan, which is to understand the principles of network organization in the human brain. In this study, we first defined a brain network eigen-entropy (NEE based on the energy probability (EP of each brain node. Next, we used the NEE to characterize the lifespan orderness trajectory of the whole-brain functional connectivity of 173 healthy individuals ranging in age from 7 to 85 years. The results revealed that during the lifespan, the whole-brain NEE exhibited a significant non-linear decrease and that the EP distribution shifted from concentration to wide dispersion, implying orderness enhancement of functional connectome over age. Furthermore, brain regions with significant EP changes from the flourishing (7–20 years to the youth period (23–38 years were mainly located in the right prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, and were involved in emotion regulation and executive function in coordination with the action of the sensory system, implying that self-awareness and voluntary control performance significantly changed during neurodevelopment. However, the changes from the youth period to middle age (40–59 years were located in the mesial temporal lobe and caudate, which are associated with long-term memory, implying that the memory of the human brain begins to decline with age during this period. Overall, the findings suggested that the human connectome

  15. Ellipses of constant entropy in the XY spin chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchini, F; Its, A R; Jin, B-Q; Korepin, V E

    2007-01-01

    Entanglement in the ground state of the XY model on the infinite chain can be measured by the von Neumann entropy of a block of neighbouring spins. We study a double scaling limit: the size of the block is much larger than 1 but much smaller than the length of the whole chain. The entropy of the block has an asymptotic limit in the gapped regimes. We study this limiting entropy as a function of the anisotropy and of the magnetic field. We identify its minima at product states and its divergencies at the quantum phase transitions. We find that the curves of constant entropy are ellipses and hyperbolas, and that they all meet at one point (essential critical point). Depending on the approach to the essential critical point, the entropy can take any value between 0 and ∞. In the vicinity of this point, small changes in the parameters cause large change of the entropy

  16. Design of a large superconducting spectrometer magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintomi, T.; Makida, Y.; Mito, T.; Yamanoi, Y.; Hashimito, O.; Nagae, T.

    1989-04-01

    The superconducting spectrometer magnet for nuclear physics experiments has been under construction by Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo with collaboration from KEK. The magnet has a sector type coil. The magnetic field is 3 T with the magnet gap of 50 cm and the stored energy is 11.8 MJ. The easy operation and maintenance are taken into consideration in addition to usual design concept. Three dimensional magnetic field calculation and the stress analysis have been performed. The code 'QUENCH' was applied to decide the operation current and to check the safety of the coil. As a result, the current of 500 A was selected. The heat leaks were checked and estimated less than 2 W at 4 K. A small refrigerator is to be used for thermal insulations at 80 and 20 K. (author)

  17. Large magnetic coils for fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, P.; Ulbricht, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of research in this field and outlines future tasks and experiments for the Next European Torus (NET). Research and development work accomplished so far permits generation and safe operation of magnetic fields up to 9 T by means of NbTi coils. Fields up to 11 T are feasible if the coils are cooled with superfluid helium at 1.8 K. The potential of the Nb 3 Sn coils promise achievement of magnetic fields between 12 and 13 T. (MM) [de

  18. Stability of superconducting cables for use in large magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateishi, Hiroshi; Schmidt, C.

    1992-01-01

    The construction of large superconducting magnets requires the development of complicated conductor types, which can fulfill the specific requirements of different types of magnets. A rather hard boundary condition for large magnets is the presence of fast changing magnetic fields. In the Institute of Technical Physics of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, Germany, a superconducting cable was developed for use in poloidal field coils in Tokamak experiments. This 'POLO'-cable exhibits low losses in a magnetic ac-field and a high stability margin. In the present article the requirements on a superconducting cable are described, as well as the mechanisms of ac-losses and the calculation of the stability limit. Calculated values are compared with experimental data. Some unresolved problems concerning the stability of large magnets are discussed taking the example of the POLO-cable. (author)

  19. Complex magnetic properties and large magnetocaloric effects in RCoGe (R=Tb, Dy compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Complicated magnetic phase transitions and Large magnetocaloric effects (MCEs in RCoGe (R=Tb, Dy compounds have been reported in this paper. Results show that the TbCoGe compounds have a magnetic phase transition from antiferromagnetic to paramagnetic (AFM-PM at TN∼16 K, which is close to the value reported by neutron diffraction. The DyCoGe compound undergoes complicated phase changes from 2 K up to 300 K. The peak at 10 K displays a phase transition from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic (AFM-FM. In particular, a significant ferromagnetic to paramagnetic (FM-PM phase transition was found at the temperature as high as 175 K and the cusp becomes more abrupt with the magnetic field increasing from 0.01 T to 0.1 T. The maximum value of magnetic entropy change of TbCoGe and DyCoGe compounds achieve 14.5 J/kg K and 11.5 J/kg K respectively for a field change of 0-5 T. Additionally, the correspondingly considerable refrigerant capacity value of 260 J/kg and 242 J/kg are also obtained respectively, suggesting that both TbCoGe and DyCoGe compounds could be considered as good candidates for low temperature magnetic refrigerant.

  20. Large magnetocaloric effect of NdGa compound due to successive magnetic transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X. Q.; Xu, J. W.; Shao, S. H.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J. Y.; Wang, S. G.; Xu, Z. Y.; Wang, L. C.; Chen, J.; Shen, B. G.

    2018-05-01

    The magnetic behavior and MCE property of NdGa compound were studied in detail. According to the temperature dependence of magnetization (M-T) curve at 0.01 T, two sharp changes were observed at 20 K (TSR) and 42 K (TC), respectively, corresponding to spin reorientation and FM-PM transition. Isothermal magnetization curves up to 5 T at different temperatures were measured and magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) was calculated based on M-H data. Temperature dependences of -ΔSM for a field change of 0-2 T and 0-5 T show that there are two peaks on the curves corresponding to TSR and TC, respectively. The value of the two peaks is 6.4 J/kg K and 15.5 J/kg K for the field change of 0-5 T. Since the two peaks are close, the value of -ΔSM in the temperature range between TSR and TC keeps a large value. The excellent MCE performance of NdGa compound benefits from the existence of two successive magnetic transitions.

  1. A combination of permanent magnet and magnetic coil for a large diameter ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uramoto, Joshin; Kubota, Yusuke; Miyahara, Akira.

    1980-02-01

    A large diameter ion source for fast neutral beam injection is designed under a magnetic field (we call ''Uramoto Field'') composed of a circular ferrite permanent magnet and a usual coreless magnetic coil. As the magnetic filed is reduced abruptly in a discharge anode, an ion source with a uniform ion current density over a large diameter is produced easily without a ''button'' of ORNL duoPIGatron type ion source (a floating electrode to diffuse an axial plasma flow radially). (author)

  2. Magnetism and large magnetocaloric effect in HoFe{sub 2-x}Al{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mican, S., E-mail: sever.mican@ubbcluj.ro [Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Benea, D., E-mail: diana.benea@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tetean, R., E-mail: romulus.tetean@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of HoFe{sub 2-x}Al{sub x} compounds are reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electronic structure calculations show a good agreement between theory and experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic transitions close to room temperature for the Fe-rich samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High values of the relative cooling power for all of the investigated samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No hysteresis losses in applied fields of up to 4 T. - Abstract: The structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of several HoFe{sub 2-x}Al{sub x} compounds were investigated. The compounds in the Fe-rich region (0.36 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To x Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.4) crystallize in the cubic MgCu{sub 2} (C15) structure, while for the ones in the intermediate region (0.75 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To x Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 1.125) the hexagonal MgZn{sub 2} (C14) structure was observed. Electronic structure calculations were performed, showing a good agreement between theory and experiment. The Curie temperatures were found to decrease with Al content. For the Fe-rich compounds, these are close to room temperature, while for the compounds in the intermediate region, transition temperatures are well below 300 K. No magnetic hysteresis was found around the Curie temperature for applied magnetic fields of up to 4 T. All of the investigated compounds undergo a second-order magnetic phase transition at the Curie temperature. A maximum magnetic entropy change value of 7.6 J/kg K was obtained for the sample with x = 1.125, all of the samples displaying rather large RCP values. The possibility of incorporating these materials in magnetic refrigeration devices is discussed.

  3. Forced two phase helium cooling of large superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Burns, W.A.; Taylor, J.D.

    1979-08-01

    A major problem shared by all large superconducting magnets is the cryogenic cooling system. Most large magnets are cooled by some variation of the helium bath. Helium bath cooling becomes more and more troublesome as the size of the magnet grows and as geometric constraints come into play. An alternative approach to cooling large magnet systems is the forced flow, two phase helium system. The advantages of two phase cooling in many magnet systems are shown. The design of a two phase helium system, with its control dewar, is presented. The paper discusses pressure drop of a two phase system, stability of a two phase system and the method of cool down of a two phase system. The results of experimental measurements at LBL are discussed. Included are the results of cool down and operation of superconducting solenoids

  4. A magnetic particle micro-trap for large trapping surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.

    2012-01-08

    Manipulation of micron-size magnetic particles of the superparamagnetic type contributes significantly in many applications like controlling the antibody/antigen binding process in immunoassays. Specifically, more target biomolecules can be attached/tagged and analyzed since the three dimensional structure of the magnetic particles increases the surface to volume ratio. Additionally, such biomolecular-tagged magnetic particles can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field due to their superparamagnetic behavior. Therefore, magnetic particle- based immunoassays are extensively applied in micro-flow cytometry. The design of a square-loop micro-trap as a magnetic particle manipulator as well as numerical and experimental analysis is presented. Experimental results showed that the micro-trap could successfully trap and concentrate magnetic particles from a large to a small area with a high spatial range.

  5. A magnetic particle micro-trap for large trapping surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.; Liang, Cai; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation of micron-size magnetic particles of the superparamagnetic type contributes significantly in many applications like controlling the antibody/antigen binding process in immunoassays. Specifically, more target biomolecules can be attached/tagged and analyzed since the three dimensional structure of the magnetic particles increases the surface to volume ratio. Additionally, such biomolecular-tagged magnetic particles can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field due to their superparamagnetic behavior. Therefore, magnetic particle- based immunoassays are extensively applied in micro-flow cytometry. The design of a square-loop micro-trap as a magnetic particle manipulator as well as numerical and experimental analysis is presented. Experimental results showed that the micro-trap could successfully trap and concentrate magnetic particles from a large to a small area with a high spatial range.

  6. More dimensions: Less entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.; Lindley, D.; Seckel, D.

    1984-01-01

    For a cosmological model with d noncompact and D compact spatial dimensions and symmetry R 1 x S/sup d/ x S/sup D/, we calculate the entropy produced in d dimensions due to the compactification of D dimensions and show it too small to be of cosmological interest. Although insufficient entropy is produced in the model we study, the contraction of extra dimensions does lead to entropy production. We discuss modifications of our assumptions, including changing our condition for decoupling of the extra dimensions, which may lead to a large entropy production and change our conclusions

  7. Large TileCal magnetic field simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessi, M.; Bergsma, F.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Borisov, O.N.; Lomakina, O.V.; Karamysheva, G.A.; Budagov, Yu.A.

    1994-01-01

    The ATLAS magnetic field map has been estimated in the presence of the hadron tile calorimeter. This is an important issue in order to quantify the needs for individual PMT shielding, the effect on the scintillator light yield and its implications on the calibration. The field source is based on a central solenoid and 8 superconducting air-core toroidal coils. The maximum induction value in the scintillating tiles does not exceed 6 mT. When an iron plate is used to close the open drawer window the field inside the PMT near to the extended barrel edge does not exceed 0.6 mT. Estimation of ponder motive force distribution, acting on individual units of the system was performed. VF electromagnetic software OPERA-TOSCA and CERN POISCR code were used for the field simulation of the system. 10 refs., 4 figs

  8. Large permanent magnet quadrupoles for an electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herb, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    We have built large high quality permanent magnet quadrupoles for use as interaction region quadrupoles in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring where they must operate in the 10 kG axial field of the CLEO experimental detector. We describe the construction and the magnetic measurement and tuning procedures used to achieve the required field quality and stability. (orig.)

  9. Amplification of large-scale magnetic field in nonhelical magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rohit

    2017-08-11

    It is typically assumed that the kinetic and magnetic helicities play a crucial role in the growth of large-scale dynamo. In this paper, we demonstrate that helicity is not essential for the amplification of large-scale magnetic field. For this purpose, we perform nonhelical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, and show that the large-scale magnetic field can grow in nonhelical MHD when random external forcing is employed at scale 1/10 the box size. The energy fluxes and shell-to-shell transfer rates computed using the numerical data show that the large-scale magnetic energy grows due to the energy transfers from the velocity field at the forcing scales.

  10. Adjoint entropy vs topological entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Bruno, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Recently the adjoint algebraic entropy of endomorphisms of abelian groups was introduced and studied. We generalize the notion of adjoint entropy to continuous endomorphisms of topological abelian groups. Indeed, the adjoint algebraic entropy is defined using the family of all finite-index subgroups, while we take only the subfamily of all open finite-index subgroups to define the topological adjoint entropy. This allows us to compare the (topological) adjoint entropy with the known topologic...

  11. Short Large-Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) at Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, G. A.; Wilson, L. B.; Sibeck, D. G.; Shane, N.; Zhang, T. L.; Moore, T. E.; Coates, A. J.; Barabash, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first observation of magnetic fluctuations consistent with Short Large-Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) in the foreshock of the planet Venus. Three monolithic magnetic field spikes were observed by the Venus Express on the 11th of April 2009. The structures were approx.1.5->11s in duration, had magnetic compression ratios between approx.3->6, and exhibited elliptical polarization. These characteristics are consistent with the SLAMS observed at Earth, Jupiter, and Comet Giacobini-Zinner, and thus we hypothesize that it is possible SLAMS may be found at any celestial body with a foreshock.

  12. Maximum Entropy/Optimal Projection Design Synthesis for Decentralized Control of Large Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Ostrowski, J. Fatb. Anal. ArDl., Vol. 2, pp. 161-209, 1961.) Block-L norm matrix of K: p F1 1 LI ,p ",12 I p .. rxrLp = E + ?൝ L p 22 L p Block-norm matrix...A12 OB ... A1r B A E A 21 E A 22 B ... A2r B [A B Ar2 @B ... Art B I where: V A11 le A12 - M0AI M A h K® A F1 I A ft. O A21 22 - 2r A ri M @ r2 M rr 3...Siljak, Large-Scale Dynamic Systems. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier/North- Holand , 1978. REFERENCES [31] M. Ikeda and D. D. Siljak. "Generalized

  13. Effect of high entropy magnetic regenerator materials on power of the GM refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takasu; Yabuki, Masanori; Eda, Tatsuji; Kuriyama, Toru; Nakagome, Hideki

    1994-01-01

    In previous work the authors have proved that heavy rare earth compounds with low magnetic transition temperature T c are very useful as regenerator materials in low temperature range. Applying the magnetic material Er 3 Ni particles to the 2nd regenerator of the GM refrigerator, they were able to reach the 2 K range but could not obtain high refrigeration power at 4.2 K. This is thought to be due to the temperature dependence of the magnetic specific heat. They present here a method by which high refrigeration power is obtained at low temperature. The simplest means of obtaining high power is with a hybrid structure regenerator which is composed of two kinds of magnetic materials, high T c and low T c materials. Computer simulation and experiments were carried out to verify the superiority of the hybrid regenerator. The authors succeeded experimentally in obtaining the high power of ∼ 1.1 watt at 4.2 K. They will report other detailed results and discuss developing way of the magnetic regenerator in future

  14. Development of large bore superconducting magnet for wastewater treatment application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui Ming; Xu, Dong; Shen, Fuzhi; Zhang, Hengcheng; Li, Lafeng [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2017-03-15

    Water issue, especially water pollution, is a serious issue of 21st century. Being an significant technique for securing water resources, superconducting magnetic separation wastewater system was indispensable. A large bore conduction-cooled magnet was custom-tailored for wastewater treatment. The superconducting magnet has been designed, fabricated and tested. The superconducting magnet was composed of NbTi solenoid coils with an effective horizontal warm bore of 400 mm and a maximum central field of 2.56T. The superconducting magnet system was cooled by a two-stage 1.5W 4K GM cryocooler. The NbTi solenoid coils were wound around an aluminum former that is thermally connected to the second stage cold head of the cryocooler through a conductive copper link. The temperature distribution along the conductive link was measured during the cool-down process as well as at steady state. The magnet was cooled down to 4.8K in approximately 65 hours. The test of the magnetic field and quench analysis has been performed to verify the safe operation for the magnet system. Experimental results show that the superconducting magnet reached the designed magnetic performance.

  15. Thermal properties of a large-bore cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet for a hybrid magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, M.; Hamajima, T.; Itou, T.; Sakuraba, J.; Nishijima, G.; Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K.

    2010-01-01

    A cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet with a 360 mm room temperature bore has been developed for a hybrid magnet. The superconducting magnet cooled by four Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers has been designed to generate a magnetic field of 10 T. Since superconducting wires composed of coils were subjected to large hoop stress over 150 MPa and Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires particularly showed a low mechanical strength due to those brittle property, Nb 3 Sn wires strengthened by NbTi-filaments were developed for the cryocooled superconducting magnet. We have already reported that the hybrid magnet could generate the resultant magnetic field of 27.5 T by adding 8.5 T from the superconducting magnet and 19 T from a water-cooled Bitter resistive magnet, after the water-cooled resistive magnet was inserted into the 360 mm room temperature bore of the cryocooled superconducting magnet. When the hybrid magnet generated the field of 27.5 T, it achieved the high magnetic-force field (B x ∂Bz/∂z) of 4500 T 2 /m, which was useful for magneto-science in high fields such as materials levitation research. In this paper, we particularly focus on the cause that the cryocooled superconducting magnet was limited to generate the designed magnetic field of 10 T in the hybrid magnet operation. As a result, it was found that there existed mainly two causes as the limitation of the magnetic field generation. One was a decrease of thermal conductive passes due to exfoliation from the coil bobbin of the cooling flange. The other was large AC loss due to both a thick Nb 3 Sn layer and its large diameter formed on Nb-barrier component in Nb 3 Sn wires.

  16. Spin-torque oscillation in large size nano-magnet with perpendicular magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Linqiang, E-mail: LL6UK@virginia.edu [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Kabir, Mehdi [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Dao, Nam; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Cyberey, Michael [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Institute of Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA 22311 (United States); Stan, Mircea [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Lu, Jiwei [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • 500 nm size nano-pillar device was fabricated by photolithography techniques. • A magnetic hybrid structure was achieved with perpendicular magnetic fields. • Spin torque switching and oscillation was demonstrated in the large sized device. • Micromagnetic simulations accurately reproduced the experimental results. • Simulations demonstrated the synchronization of magnetic inhomogeneities. - Abstract: DC current induced magnetization reversal and magnetization oscillation was observed in 500 nm large size Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}/Cu/Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} pillars. A perpendicular external field enhanced the coercive field separation between the reference layer (Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}) and free layer (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) in the pseudo spin valve, allowing a large window of external magnetic field for exploring the free-layer reversal. A magnetic hybrid structure was achieved for the study of spin torque oscillation by applying a perpendicular field >3 kOe. The magnetization precession was manifested in terms of the multiple peaks on the differential resistance curves. Depending on the bias current and applied field, the regions of magnetic switching and magnetization precession on a dynamical stability diagram has been discussed in details. Micromagnetic simulations are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results and provide insight for synchronization of inhomogeneities in large sized device. The ability to manipulate spin-dynamics on large size devices could be proved useful for increasing the output power of the spin-transfer nano-oscillators (STNOs).

  17. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems. ► Multi-seeded YBCO bulks joint the way for large-scale application. ► Levitation platforms demonstrate “superconductivity” to a great public audience (100 years anniversary). ► HTS magnetic bearings show forces up to 1 t. ► Modular HTS maglev vacuum cryostats are tested for train demonstrators in Brazil, China and Germany. -- Abstract: ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN 2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500–3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN 2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved

  18. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werfel, Frank N., E-mail: werfel@t-online.de [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Rittergut Adelwitz 16, 04886 Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany); Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Rittergut Adelwitz 16, 04886 Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems. ► Multi-seeded YBCO bulks joint the way for large-scale application. ► Levitation platforms demonstrate “superconductivity” to a great public audience (100 years anniversary). ► HTS magnetic bearings show forces up to 1 t. ► Modular HTS maglev vacuum cryostats are tested for train demonstrators in Brazil, China and Germany. -- Abstract: ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN{sub 2} and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500–3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN{sub 2} allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  19. Planck intermediate results XLII. Large-scale Galactic magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent models for the large-scale Galactic magnetic fields in the literature have been largely constrained by synchrotron emission and Faraday rotation measures. We use three different but representative models to compare their predicted polarized synchrotron and dust emission with that measured ...

  20. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500-3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  1. Magnetic Property in Large Array Niobium Antidot Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinghui, Chen; Hsiang-Hsi, Kung; Wei-Li, Lee; Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan Team

    2014-03-01

    In a superconducting ring, the total flux inside the ring is required to be an integer number of the flux quanta. Therefore, a supercurrent current can appear within the ring in order to satisfy this quantization rule, which gives rise to certain magnetic response. By using a special monolayer polymer/nanosphere hybrid we developed previously, we fabricated a series of superconducting niobium antidot thin films with different antidot diameters. The antidots form well-ordered triangular lattice with a lattice spacing about 200 nm and extend over an area larger than 1 cm2, which enables magnetic detections simply by a SQUID magnetometer. We observed magnetization oscillation with external magnetic field due to the supercurrent screening effect, where different features for large and small antidot thin films were found. Detailed size and temperature dependencies of the magnetization in niobium antidot nanostructures will be presented.

  2. Structural materials for large superconducting magnets for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, C.J.

    1976-12-01

    The selection of structural materials for large superconducting magnets for tokamak-type fusion reactors is considered. The important criteria are working stress, radiation resistance, electromagnetic interaction, and general feasibility. The most advantageous materials appear to be face-centered-cubic alloys in the Fe-Ni-Cr system, but high-modulus composites may be necessary where severe pulsed magnetic fields are present. Special-purpose structural materials are considered briefly

  3. Magnetic-entropy change in Mn1.1Fe0.9P0.7As0.3-xGe x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegus, O.; Fuquan, B.; Dagula, W.; Zhang, L.; Brueck, E.; Si, P.Z.; Boer, F.R. de; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties and magnetic-entropy changes of Mn 1.1 Fe 0.9 P 0.7 As 0.3-x Ge x compounds with x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.3. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study shows all the compounds crystallize in the Fe 2 P-type structure. Magnetic measurements show that the Curie temperature increases from 150 K for Mn 1.1 Fe 0.9 P 0.7 As 0.3 to 380 K for Mn 1.1 Fe 0.9 P 0.7 Ge 0.3 . A field-induced first-order magnetic phase transition is observed above the Curie temperature for the compounds with x up to 0.15. There exists an optimal composition in which the first-order phase transition is the sharpest. The optimal composition for this system is x = 0.1. The maximal magnetic-entropy change derived from the magnetization data is about 40 J/(kg K) for a field change from 0 to 3 T

  4. Infinite Shannon entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccetti, Valentina; Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Even if a probability distribution is properly normalizable, its associated Shannon (or von Neumann) entropy can easily be infinite. We carefully analyze conditions under which this phenomenon can occur. Roughly speaking, this happens when arbitrarily small amounts of probability are dispersed into an infinite number of states; we shall quantify this observation and make it precise. We develop several particularly simple, elementary, and useful bounds, and also provide some asymptotic estimates, leading to necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of infinite Shannon entropy. We go to some effort to keep technical computations as simple and conceptually clear as possible. In particular, we shall see that large entropies cannot be localized in state space; large entropies can only be supported on an exponentially large number of states. We are for the time being interested in single-channel Shannon entropy in the information theoretic sense, not entropy in a stochastic field theory or quantum field theory defined over some configuration space, on the grounds that this simple problem is a necessary precursor to understanding infinite entropy in a field theoretic context. (paper)

  5. Magnetic circuit with large blocks from NdFeB magnets for suspended magnetic separators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žežulka, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2010), s. 227-235 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : magnetic circuits * magnetic separation * permanent magnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.452, year: 2010 www.irsm.cas.cz/?Lang=CZE&Menu=25,0,0,0

  6. Giant magnetic entropy change in manganese perovskite La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.16}Ca{sub 0.17}MnO{sub 3} near room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Za, E-mail: zaineb.mohamed24@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique de la matière condensée et des nanosciences, Faculté des Sciences, 5019, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Tka, E.; Dhahri, J. [Laboratoire de Physique de la matière condensée et des nanosciences, Faculté des Sciences, 5019, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourrier, B.P. 166, B.P.W-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.16}Ca{sub 0.17}MnO{sub 3} sample was prepared by solid state method. • La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.16}Ca{sub 0.17}MnO{sub 3} crystallizes in a rhombohedral R3{sup ‾}c structure. • The variation of (M) vs. (T) reveals a (FM) to (PM) phase transition around T{sub C}. • The magnetocaloric effect is studied and the |ΔS{sub M}{sup max}| and RCP are determined. - Abstract: Structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.16}Ca{sub 0.17}MnO{sub 3} perovskite have been studied. A solid state reaction method was used in the preparation phase. X-ray diffraction analysis using Rietveld refinement revealed that this sample crystallizes in the distorted rhombohedral system with R3{sup ‾}c space group. The variation of magnetization (M) vs. temperature (T), under an applied magnetic field of 0.05T, revealed a transition from a ferromagnetic (FM) to paramagnetic (PM) phase at around Curie temperature (T{sub C} = 336 K). Using Arrott plots, it was found that the transition is of a second-order. Isothermal measurements of magnetization allow us, through thermodynamic Maxwell relations, to determine the magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}). A large ΔS{sub M} deduced from isothermal magnetization curves, has been observed in our sample with a peak centered around its respective T{sub C}. The maximum of the magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub M}{sup max} in a magnetic field change of 5T is found to be 5.51 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} at 335 K. In addition, the compound showed a large relative cooling power (RCP) value of about 234 J/kg while the maximum refrigerant capacity of 174 J/kg was attained at the applied field of 5T. As a result, the studied sample can be considered as a potential material for magnetic refrigeration.

  7. Magnetic field map for a large TPC prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grefe, Christian

    2008-12-01

    A new e + e - linear collider with an energy of up to 1000 GeV is currently being planned: the International Linear Collider (ILC). It will allow high precision measurements of the Higgs boson and physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) -which is one of the proposed detector concepts for the ILC- a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is intended as the main tracking device. Within the EUDET project a large TPC prototype is currently being built as an infrastructure to test different gas amplification and readout technologies. The prototype will be operated in a 1T superconducting solenoid magnet -the PCMAG- at the DESY testbeam area. In order to reach the best possible track reconstruction the magnetic field has to be known very precisely throughout the TPC volume. The magnetic field of PCMAG has been measured in July 2007. In this work the creation of a high precision field map from the measurements is presented. The magnet and modelling techniques for its magnetic field are described. A model of the magnet has been created as a best fit from the measurements and its limitations are investigated. The field map will be included in the reconstruction software for the TPC prototype. (orig.)

  8. Magnetic field map for a large TPC prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefe, Christian

    2008-12-15

    A new e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with an energy of up to 1000 GeV is currently being planned: the International Linear Collider (ILC). It will allow high precision measurements of the Higgs boson and physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) -which is one of the proposed detector concepts for the ILC- a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is intended as the main tracking device. Within the EUDET project a large TPC prototype is currently being built as an infrastructure to test different gas amplification and readout technologies. The prototype will be operated in a 1T superconducting solenoid magnet -the PCMAG- at the DESY testbeam area. In order to reach the best possible track reconstruction the magnetic field has to be known very precisely throughout the TPC volume. The magnetic field of PCMAG has been measured in July 2007. In this work the creation of a high precision field map from the measurements is presented. The magnet and modelling techniques for its magnetic field are described. A model of the magnet has been created as a best fit from the measurements and its limitations are investigated. The field map will be included in the reconstruction software for the TPC prototype. (orig.)

  9. Cryogenic techniques for large superconducting magnets in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    A large superconducting magnet is proposed for use in a particle astrophysics experiment, ASTROMAG, which is to be mounted on the United States Space Station. This experiment will have a two-coil superconducting magnet with coils which are 1.3 to 1.7 meters in diameter. The two-coil magnet will have zero net magnetic dipole moment. The field 15 meters from the magnet will approach earth's field in low earth orbit. The issue of high Tc superconductor will be discussed in the paper. The reasons for using conventional niobium-titanium superconductor cooled with superfluid helium will be presented. Since the purpose of the magnet is to do particle astrophysics, the superconducting coils must be located close to the charged particle detectors. The trade off between the particle physics possible and the cryogenic insulation around the coils is discussed. As a result, the ASTROMAG magnet coils will be operated outside of the superfluid helium storage tank. The fountain effect pumping system which will be used to cool the coil is described in the report. Two methods for extending the operating life of the superfluid helium dewar are discussed. These include: operation with a third shield cooled to 90 K with a sterling cycle cryocooler, and a hybrid cryogenic system where there are three hydrogen-cooled shields and cryostat support heat intercept points. Both of these methods will extend the ASTROMAG cryogenic operating life from 2 years to almost 4 years. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Cryogenic techniques for large superconducting magnets in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    A large superconducting magnet is proposed for use in a particle astrophysics experiment, ASTROMAG, which is to be mounted on the United States Space Station. This experiment will have a two-coil superconducting magnet with coils which are 1.3 to 1.7 meters in diameter. The two-coil magnet will have zero net magnetic dipole moment. The field 15 meters from the magnet will approach earth's field in low earth orbit. The issue of high Tc superconductor will be discussed in the paper. The reasons for using conventional niobium-titanium superconductor cooled with superfluid helium will be presented. Since the purpose of the magnet is to do particle astrophysics, the superconducting coils must be located close to the charged particle detectors. The trade off between the particle physics possible and the cryogenic insulation around the coils is discussed. As a result, the ASTROMAG magnet coils will be operated outside of the superfluid helium storage tank. The fountain effect pumping system which will be used to cool the coil is described in the report. Two methods for extending the operating life of the superfluid helium dewar are discussed. These include: operation with a third shield cooled to 90 K with a sterling cycle cryocooler, and a hybrid cryogenic system where there are three hydrogen-cooled shields and cryostat support heat intercept points.

  11. Relativistic jets without large-scale magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfrey, K.; Giannios, D.; Beloborodov, A.

    2014-07-01

    The canonical model of relativistic jets from black holes requires a large-scale ordered magnetic field to provide a significant magnetic flux through the ergosphere--in the Blandford-Znajek process, the jet power scales with the square of the magnetic flux. In many jet systems the presence of the required flux in the environment of the central engine is questionable. I will describe an alternative scenario, in which jets are produced by the continuous sequential accretion of small magnetic loops. The magnetic energy stored in these coronal flux systems is amplified by the differential rotation of the accretion disc and by the rotating spacetime of the black hole, leading to runaway field line inflation, magnetic reconnection in thin current layers, and the ejection of discrete bubbles of Poynting-flux-dominated plasma. For illustration I will show the results of general-relativistic force-free electrodynamic simulations of rotating black hole coronae, performed using a new resistivity model. The dissipation of magnetic energy by coronal reconnection events, as demonstrated in these simulations, is a potential source of the observed high-energy emission from accreting compact objects.

  12. Large-scale Ising-machines composed of magnetic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Koichi; Goto, Hayato; Sato, Rie

    2017-10-01

    We propose Ising-machines composed of magnetic neurons, that is, magnetic bits in a recording track. In large-scale machines, the sizes of both neurons and synapses need to be reduced, and neat and smart connections among neurons are also required to achieve all-to-all connectivity among them. These requirements can be fulfilled by adopting magnetic recording technologies such as race-track memories and skyrmion tracks because the area of a magnetic bit is almost two orders of magnitude smaller than that of static random access memory, which has normally been used as a semiconductor neuron, and the smart connections among neurons are realized by using the read and write methods of these technologies.

  13. Dynamical spin accumulation in large-spin magnetic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płomińska, Anna; Weymann, Ireneusz; Misiorny, Maciej

    2018-01-01

    The frequency-dependent transport through a nanodevice containing a large-spin magnetic molecule is studied theoretically in the Kondo regime. Specifically, the effect of magnetic anisotropy on dynamical spin accumulation is of primary interest. Such accumulation arises due to finite components of frequency-dependent conductance that are off diagonal in spin. Here, employing the Kubo formalism and the numerical renormalization group method, we demonstrate that the dynamical transport properties strongly depend on the relative orientation of spin moments in electrodes of the device, as well as on intrinsic parameters of the molecule. In particular, the effect of dynamical spin accumulation is found to be greatly affected by the type of magnetic anisotropy exhibited by the molecule, and it develops for frequencies corresponding to the Kondo temperature. For the parallel magnetic configuration of the device, the presence of dynamical spin accumulation is conditioned by the interplay of ferromagnetic-lead-induced exchange field and the Kondo correlations.

  14. Structural design of superconducting magnets for the large coil program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.H.; Long, C.J.; Stoddart, W.C.T.

    1979-09-01

    The Large Coil Program (LCP) is a research, development, and demonstration effort specifically for the advancement of the technologies involved in the production of large superconducting magnets. This paper presents a review of the status of the structural designs, analysis methods, and verification tests being performed by the participating LCP design teams in the USA, Switzerland, Japan, and the Federal Republic of Germany. The significant structural mechanics concerns that are being investigated with the LCP are presented

  15. Large batch recycling of waste Nd–Fe–B magnets to manufacture sintered magnets with improved magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.T.; Yue, M.; Liu, W.Q.; Li, X.L.; Yi, X.F.; Huang, X.L.; Zhang, D.T.; Chen, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The waste Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets up to 500 kg per batch were recycled to manufacture anisotropic sintered magnets by combination of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and alloying technique. Magnetic properties and thermal stability of both the waste magnets and recycled magnets were investigated. The recycled magnet exhibits magnetic properties with remanence (B r ) of 12.38 kGs, coercivity (H ci ) of 24.89 kOe, and maximum energy product [(BH) max ] of 36.51 MGOe, respectively, which restores 99.20% of B r , 105.65% of H ci , and 98.65% of (BH) max of the waste magnets, respectively. The volume fraction of Nd-rich phase in the recycled magnets is about 10.1 vol.%, which is bigger than that of the waste magnets due to the additive of Nd 3 PrFe 14 B alloy containing more rare earth. The remanence temperature coefficient (α) and coercivity temperature coefficient (β) of the recycled magnets are −0.1155%/K and −0.5099%/K in the range of 288–423 K, respectively, which are comparative to those of the waste magnets. - Highlights: • Large batch recycling of waste Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets were performed. • The recycled magnet restores 99.20% of B r , 105.65% of H ci and 98.65% of (BH) max of the magnet. • The recycled magnets bears bigger volume fraction and better distribution of Nd-rich phase. • The recycled magnets exhibit similar temperature coefficients and maximum working temperature

  16. Nonsymmetric entropy and maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi

    2009-01-01

    Under the frame of a statistical model, the concept of nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzmann's entropy and Shannon's entropy, is defined. Maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle is proved. Some important distribution laws such as power law, can be derived from this principle naturally. Especially, nonsymmetric entropy is more convenient than other entropy such as Tsallis's entropy in deriving power laws.

  17. Stochastic modeling and control system designs of the NASA/MSFC Ground Facility for large space structures: The maximum entropy/optimal projection approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Wei-Shen

    1986-01-01

    In the Control Systems Division of the Systems Dynamics Laboratory of the NASA/MSFC, a Ground Facility (GF), in which the dynamics and control system concepts being considered for Large Space Structures (LSS) applications can be verified, was designed and built. One of the important aspects of the GF is to design an analytical model which will be as close to experimental data as possible so that a feasible control law can be generated. Using Hyland's Maximum Entropy/Optimal Projection Approach, a procedure was developed in which the maximum entropy principle is used for stochastic modeling and the optimal projection technique is used for a reduced-order dynamic compensator design for a high-order plant.

  18. Symplectic entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nicola, Sergio; Fedele, Renato; Man'ko, Margarita A; Man'ko, Vladimir I

    2007-01-01

    The tomographic-probability description of quantum states is reviewed. The symplectic tomography of quantum states with continuous variables is studied. The symplectic entropy of the states with continuous variables is discussed and its relation to Shannon entropy and information is elucidated. The known entropic uncertainty relations of the probability distribution in position and momentum of a particle are extended and new uncertainty relations for symplectic entropy are obtained. The partial case of symplectic entropy, which is optical entropy of quantum states, is considered. The entropy associated to optical tomogram is shown to satisfy the new entropic uncertainty relation. The example of Gaussian states of harmonic oscillator is studied and the entropic uncertainty relations for optical tomograms of the Gaussian state are shown to minimize the uncertainty relation

  19. Design of force-cooled conductors for large fusion magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.; Lue, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Conductors cooled by supercritical helium in forced convection are under active consideration for large toroidal fusion magnets. One of the central problems in designing such force cooled conductors is to maintain an adequate stability margin while keeping the pumping power tolerably low. A method has been developed for minimizing the pumping power for fixed stability by optimally choosing the matrix-to-superconductor and the metal-to-helium ratios. Such optimized conductors reduce pumping power requirements for fusion size magnets to acceptable limits. Furthermore, the mass flow and hence pumping losses can be varied through a magnet according to the local magnetic field and magnitude of desired stability margin. Force cooled conductors give flexibility in operation, permitting, for example, higher fields to be obtained than originally intended by lowering the bath temperature or increasing the pumping power or both. This flexibility is only available if the pumping power is low to begin with. Scaling laws for the pumping requirement and stability margin as functions of operating current density, number of strands and such physical parameters as stabilizer resistivity and critical current density, have been proved. Numerical examples will be given for design of conductors intended for use in large toroidal fusion magnet systems.

  20. Design of force-cooled conductors for large fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.; Lue, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Conductors cooled by supercritical helium in forced convection are under active consideration for large toroidal fusion magnets. One of the central problems in designing such force cooled conductors is to maintain an adequate stability margin while keeping the pumping power tolerably low. A method has been developed for minimizing the pumping power for fixed stability by optimally choosing the matrix-to-superconductor and the metal-to-helium ratios. Such optimized conductors reduce pumping power requirements for fusion size magnets to acceptable limits. Furthermore, the mass flow and hence pumping losses can be varied through a magnet according to the local magnetic field and magnitude of desired stability margin. Force cooled conductors give flexibility in operation, permitting, for example, higher fields to be obtained than originally intended by lowering the bath temperature or increasing the pumping power or both. This flexibility is only available if the pumping power is low to begin with. Scaling laws for the pumping requirement and stability margin as functions of operating current density, number of strands and such physical parameters as stabilizer resistivity and critical current density, have been proved. Numerical examples will be given for design of conductors intended for use in large toroidal fusion magnet systems

  1. Numerically modelling the large scale coronal magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Mayukh; Nandi, Dibyendu

    2016-07-01

    The solar corona spews out vast amounts of magnetized plasma into the heliosphere which has a direct impact on the Earth's magnetosphere. Thus it is important that we develop an understanding of the dynamics of the solar corona. With our present technology it has not been possible to generate 3D magnetic maps of the solar corona; this warrants the use of numerical simulations to study the coronal magnetic field. A very popular method of doing this, is to extrapolate the photospheric magnetic field using NLFF or PFSS codes. However the extrapolations at different time intervals are completely independent of each other and do not capture the temporal evolution of magnetic fields. On the other hand full MHD simulations of the global coronal field, apart from being computationally very expensive would be physically less transparent, owing to the large number of free parameters that are typically used in such codes. This brings us to the Magneto-frictional model which is relatively simpler and computationally more economic. We have developed a Magnetofrictional Model, in 3D spherical polar co-ordinates to study the large scale global coronal field. Here we present studies of changing connectivities between active regions, in response to photospheric motions.

  2. Nonequilibrium entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the quite unique entropy concept useful for systems in (local) thermodynamic equilibrium, there is a variety of quite distinct nonequilibrium entropies, reflecting different physical points. We disentangle these entropies as they relate to heat, fluctuations, response, time asymmetry, variational principles, monotonicity, volume contraction or statistical forces. However, not all of those extensions yield state quantities as understood thermodynamically. At the end we sketch how aspects of dynamical activity can take over for obtaining an extended Clausius relation.

  3. Structural contributions to the third-law entropy of uranyl phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Entropies that are used in geochemical calculations are usually based on calorimetric measurements. However, because of the contributions of neglected residual entropies which cannot be determined by calorimetric measurements, the true third-law entropies for many phases may be quite different from those derived from thermal data. The residual entropies are caused by site-mixing, structural disorder and magnetic spin disorder and may result in a considerable contribution to the third-law entropy of solid phases. Magnetic spin-configurational entropy is not expected to be significant in uranyl phases. However, because most uranyl phases are based on sheet or chain structures and usually contain several molecular water groups, site-mixing, vacancies, as well as disorder in the orientation of hydrogen bonds and the polar H 2 O molecules may occur. Calculations of the ideal site-mixing configurational entropy for some uranyl phases indicate that the residual contributions that arise from substitution and vacancies to the third-law entropies of uranyl phases may be large. A brief examination of the crystal chemistry of water molecules in uranyl phases suggests that considerable residual entropy may be caused by the disorder of hydrogen bonds associated with interstitial H 2 O groups

  4. Performance of a superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downer, J.R.; Bushko, D.A.; Gondhalekar, V.; Torti, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation is working toward the development of an advanced-concept Control Moment Gyro (CMG). The advanced-concept CMG is sized for use as a slewing actuator for large space-based payloads. The design features a magnetically suspended composite rotor which contains a persistent-mode superconducting solenoid magnet. The rotor is suspended and gimballed by the interaction of the fields produced by the superconductor and an array of cryoresistive coils. The rotor spins in a liquid helium environment, while the control coils are liquid-hydrogen cooled. This design is capable of meeting the requirements of many high-performance slewing applications (27,000 Nm). The use of the magnetic suspension as rotor bearings, gimbal bearings, and gimbal torquers also substantially reduces the mass of the CMG system

  5. The COronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO) Large Aperture Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Steve; Gallagher, Dennis; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Haiying; Nelson, Pete; Burkepile, Joan; Kolinksi, Don; Sutherland, Lee

    2013-04-01

    The COSMO is a facility dedicated to observing coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields. It will be located on a mountaintop in the Hawaiian Islands and will replace the current Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO). COSMO will provide unique observations of the global coronal magnetic fields and its environment to enhance the value of data collected by other observatories on the ground (e.g. SOLIS, BBO NST, Gregor, ATST, EST, Chinese Giant Solar Telescope, NLST, FASR) and in space (e.g. SDO, Hinode, SOHO, GOES, STEREO, Solar-C, Solar Probe+, Solar Orbiter). COSMO will employ a fleet of instruments to cover many aspects of measuring magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere. The dynamics and energy flow in the corona are dominated by magnetic fields. To understand the formation of CMEs, their relation to other forms of solar activity, and their progression out into the solar wind requires measurements of coronal magnetic fields. The large aperture coronagraph, the Chromospheric and Prominence Magnetometer and the K-Coronagraph form the COSMO instrument suite to measure magnetic fields and the polarization brightness of the low corona used to infer electron density. The large aperture coronagraph will employ a 1.5 meter fuse silica singlet lens, birefringent filters, and a spectropolarimeter to cover fields of view of up to 1 degree. It will observe the corona over a wide range of emission lines from 530.3 nm through 1083.0 nm allowing for magnetic field measurements over a wide range of coronal temperatures (e.g. FeXIV at 530.3 nm, Fe X at 637.4 nm, Fe XIII at 1074.7 and 1079.8 nm. These lines are faint and require the very large aperture. NCAR and NSF have provided funding to bring the large aperture coronagraph to a preliminary design review state by the end of 2013. As with all data from Mauna Loa, the data products from COSMO will be available to the community via the Mauna Loa website: http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu

  6. Sextupole correction magnets for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Meinke, R B; Senti, M; Op de Beeck, W J; De Ryck, C; MacKay, W W

    1999-01-01

    About 2500 superconducting sextupole corrector magnets (MCS) are needed for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN to compensate persistent current sextupole fields of the main dipoles. The MCS is a cold bore magnet with iron yoke. The coils are made from a NbTi conductor, which is cooled to 1.9 K. In the original CERN design 6 individual sub-coils, made from a monolithic composite conductor, are assembled and spliced together to form the sextupole. The coils are individually wound around precision-machined central islands and stabilized with matching saddle pieces at both ends. The Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc. (AML) has produced an alternative design, which gives improved performance and reliability at reduced manufacturing cost. In the AML design, the magnet consists of three splice-free sub-coils, which are placed with an automated winding process into pockets of prefabricated G-11 support cylinders. Any assembly process of sub-coils with potential misalignment is eliminated. The AML magnet uses a Kapton-wra...

  7. Superparamagnetic microbead transport induced by a magnetic field on large-area magnetic antidot arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouk, Minae; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2017-12-01

    A method is presented for directed transport of superparamagnetic microbeads (SPBs) on magnetic antidot patterned substrates by applying a rotating elliptical magnetic field. We find a critical frequency for transport, beyond which the bead dynamics transitions from stepwise locomotion to local oscillation. We also find that the out-of-plane (HOOP) and in-plane (HIP) field magnitudes play crucial roles in triggering bead motion. Namely, we find threshold values in HOOP and HIP that depend on bead size, which can be used to independently and remotely address specific bead populations in a multi-bead mixture. These behaviors are explained in terms of the dynamic potential energy lansdscapes computed from micromagnetic simulations of the substrate magnetization configuration. Finally, we show that large-area magnetic patterns suitable for particle transport and sorting can be fabricated through a self-assembly lithography technique, which provides a simple, cost-effective means to integrate magnetic actuation into microfluidic systems.

  8. A large magnetic detector for the neutrino factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervera, A.; Dydak, F.; Gomez Cadenas, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The physics opportunities of the neutrino factory have been the subject of a number of recent studies. It was shown that sensitive measurements of the angle θ 13 , of MSW effects, and of the sign of the atmospheric mass difference Δm 23 2 are possible, and even CP violation in the neutrino mixing matrix may be within reach. The focus of interest is the oscillation ν e →ν μ , which leads in the well-defined neutrino beam of the neutrino factory to 'wrong-sign' muon events. In this paper, we show that a large magnetic detector will be capable of detecting with high efficiency and small backgrounds such wrong-sign muon events. We present a conceptual design of the apparatus and its performance. Various backgrounds are analysed and we demonstrate that they can be sufficiently suppressed by appropriate cuts. We illustrate the performance of the large magnetic detector by its sensitivity to the angle θ 13

  9. Maximum entropy tokamak configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, E.

    1989-01-01

    The new entropy concept for the collective magnetic equilibria is applied to the description of the states of a tokamak subject to ohmic and auxiliary heating. The condition for the existence of steady state plasma states with vanishing entropy production implies, on one hand, the resilience of specific current density profiles and, on the other, severe restrictions on the scaling of the confinement time with power and current. These restrictions are consistent with Goldston scaling and with the existence of a heat pinch. (author)

  10. A brief introduction to sofic entropy theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Lewis

    2017-01-01

    Sofic entropy theory is a generalization of the classical Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy theory to actions of large class of non-amenable groups called sofic groups. This is a short introduction with a guide to the literature.

  11. Synthesis of pure iron magnetic nanoparticles in large quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, C S; Kashyap, S; Chattopadhyay, K; Biswas, K

    2013-01-01

    Free nanoparticles of iron (Fe) and their colloids with high saturation magnetization are in demand for medical and microfluidic applications. However, the oxide layer that forms during processing has made such synthesis a formidable challenge. Lowering the synthesis temperature decreases rate of oxidation and hence provides a new way of producing pure metallic nanoparticles prone to oxidation in bulk amount (large quantity). In this paper we have proposed a methodology that is designed with the knowledge of thermodynamic imperatives of oxidation to obtain almost oxygen-free iron nanoparticles, with or without any organic capping by controlled milling at low temperatures in a specially designed high-energy ball mill with the possibility of bulk production. The particles can be ultrasonicated to produce colloids and can be bio-capped to produce transparent solution. The magnetic properties of these nanoparticles confirm their superiority for possible biomedical and other applications. (paper)

  12. Large magnetoresistance tunnelling through a magnetically modulated nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Maowang; Zhang Lide

    2003-01-01

    Based on a combination of an inhomogeneous magnetic field and a two-dimensional electron gas, we have constructed a giant magnetoresistance nanostructure, which can be realized experimentally by the deposition of two parallel ferromagnetic strips on top of a semiconductor heterostructure. We have theoretically studied the magnetoresistance for electrons tunnelling through this nanostructure. It is shown that there exists a significant transmission difference between the parallel and antiparallel magnetization configurations, which leads to a large magnetoresistance. It is also shown that the magnetoresistance ratio strongly depends not only on incident electronic energy but also on the ferromagnetic strips, and thus a much larger magnetoresistance ratio can be obtained by properly fabricating the ferromagnetic strips in the system

  13. Large, real time detectors for solar neutrinos and magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the present status of superheated superconducting granules (SSG) development for the real time detection of magnetic monopoles of any speed and of low energy solar neutrinos down to the pp region (indium project). Basic properties of SSG and progress made in the recent years are briefly reviewed. Possible ways for further improvement are discussed. The performances reached in ultrasonic grain production at ∼ 100 μm size, as well as in conventional read-out electronics, look particularly promising for a large scale monopole experiment. Alternative approaches are briefly dealt with: induction loops for magnetic monopoles; scintillators, semiconductors or superconducting tunnel junctions for a solar neutrino detector based on an indium target

  14. Discovery of ferromagnetism with large magnetic anisotropy in ZrMnP and HfMnP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamichhane, Tej N.; Taufour, Valentin; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Bud' ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); The Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Masters, Morgan W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Parker, David S. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Thimmaiah, Srinivasa [The Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2016-08-29

    ZrMnP and HfMnP single crystals are grown by a self-flux growth technique, and structural as well as temperature dependent magnetic and transport properties are studied. Both compounds have an orthorhombic crystal structure. ZrMnP and HfMnP are ferromagnetic with Curie temperatures around 370 K and 320 K, respectively. The spontaneous magnetizations of ZrMnP and HfMnP are determined to be 1.9 μ{sub B}/f.u. and 2.1 μ{sub B}/f.u., respectively, at 50 K. The magnetocaloric effect of ZrMnP in terms of entropy change (ΔS) is estimated to be −6.7 kJ m{sup −3} K{sup −1} around 369 K. The easy axis of magnetization is [100] for both compounds, with a small anisotropy relative to the [010] axis. At 50 K, the anisotropy field along the [001] axis is ∼4.6 T for ZrMnP and ∼10 T for HfMnP. Such large magnetic anisotropy is remarkable considering the absence of rare-earth elements in these compounds. The first principle calculation correctly predicts the magnetization and hard axis orientation for both compounds, and predicts the experimental HfMnP anisotropy field within 25%. More importantly, our calculations suggest that the large magnetic anisotropy comes primarily from the Mn atoms, suggesting that similarly large anisotropies may be found in other 3d transition metal compounds.

  15. Discovery of ferromagnetism with large magnetic anisotropy in ZrMnP and HfMnP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamichhane, Tej N.; Taufour, Valentin; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Masters, Morgan W.; Parker, David S.; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa

    2016-01-01

    ZrMnP and HfMnP single crystals are grown by a self-flux growth technique, and structural as well as temperature dependent magnetic and transport properties are studied. Both compounds have an orthorhombic crystal structure. ZrMnP and HfMnP are ferromagnetic with Curie temperatures around 370 K and 320 K, respectively. The spontaneous magnetizations of ZrMnP and HfMnP are determined to be 1.9 μ_B/f.u. and 2.1 μ_B/f.u., respectively, at 50 K. The magnetocaloric effect of ZrMnP in terms of entropy change (ΔS) is estimated to be −6.7 kJ m"−"3 K"−"1 around 369 K. The easy axis of magnetization is [100] for both compounds, with a small anisotropy relative to the [010] axis. At 50 K, the anisotropy field along the [001] axis is ∼4.6 T for ZrMnP and ∼10 T for HfMnP. Such large magnetic anisotropy is remarkable considering the absence of rare-earth elements in these compounds. The first principle calculation correctly predicts the magnetization and hard axis orientation for both compounds, and predicts the experimental HfMnP anisotropy field within 25%. More importantly, our calculations suggest that the large magnetic anisotropy comes primarily from the Mn atoms, suggesting that similarly large anisotropies may be found in other 3d transition metal compounds.

  16. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  17. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  18. Entropy? Honest!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Toffoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we deconstruct, and then in a reasoned way reconstruct, the concept of “entropy of a system”, paying particular attention to where the randomness may be coming from. We start with the core concept of entropy as a count associated with a description; this count (traditionally expressed in logarithmic form for a number of good reasons is in essence the number of possibilities—specific instances or “scenarios”—that match that description. Very natural (and virtually inescapable generalizations of the idea of description are the probability distribution and its quantum mechanical counterpart, the density operator. We track the process of dynamically updating entropy as a system evolves. Three factors may cause entropy to change: (1 the system’s internal dynamics; (2 unsolicited external influences on it; and (3 the approximations one has to make when one tries to predict the system’s future state. The latter task is usually hampered by hard-to-quantify aspects of the original description, limited data storage and processing resource, and possibly algorithmic inadequacy. Factors 2 and 3 introduce randomness—often huge amounts of it—into one’s predictions and accordingly degrade them. When forecasting, as long as the entropy bookkeping is conducted in an honest fashion, this degradation will always lead to an entropy increase. To clarify the above point we introduce the notion of honest entropy, which coalesces much of what is of course already done, often tacitly, in responsible entropy-bookkeping practice. This notion—we believe—will help to fill an expressivity gap in scientific discourse. With its help, we shall prove that any dynamical system—not just our physical universe—strictly obeys Clausius’s original formulation of the second law of thermodynamics if and only if it is invertible. Thus this law is a tautological property of invertible systems!

  19. A Cryogenic Test Stand for Large Superconducting Solenoid Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabehl, R. [Fermilab; Carcagno, R. [Fermilab; Nogiec, J. [Fermilab; Orris, D. [Fermilab; Soyars, W. [Fermilab; Sylvester, C. [Fermilab

    2013-01-01

    A new test stand for testing large superconducting solenoid magnets at the Fermilab Central Helium Liquifier (CHL) has been designed, and operated. This test stand has been used to test a coupling coil for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), and future uses include solenoids for the Fermilab mu2e experiment. This paper describes the test stand design and operation including controlled cool-down and warm-up. Overviews of the process controls system and the quench management system are also included.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of large and giant intracranial aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Kenichi; Saito, Akira; Nakasu, Yoko; Matsuda, Masayuki; Handa, Jyoji [Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga (Japan); Todo, Giro

    1990-06-01

    Twelve large or giant intracranial aneurysms were studied with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and the findings were compared with those from computed tomographic (CT) scanning. Characteristic MR features of such aneurysms are: round, extra-axial mass with hypointensity rim; signal void, paradoxical enhancement, or even-echo rephasing due to blood flow; and laminated, eccentric thrombus with increased signal intensity when fresh, perianeurysmal hemorrhage occurs in the acute or subacute stage after aneurysmal rupture. MR imaging, however, often fails to identify or characterize the area of calcification. For the diagnosis of large or giant intracranial aneurysms, MR imaging is apparently superior to CT scanning in differentiating aneurysms from tumors, delineating the blood flow and intraluminal thrombus, and detecting the exact size of the aneurysm. It may also provide useful information concerning the growth mechanisms of aneurysms with or without thrombus formation. (author).

  1. Method for obtaining large levitation pressure in superconducting magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for compressing magnetic flux to achieve high levitation pressures. Magnetic flux produced by a magnetic flux source travels through a gap between two high temperature superconducting material structures. The gap has a varying cross-sectional area to compress the magnetic flux, providing an increased magnetic field and correspondingly increased levitation force in the gap.

  2. Room-temperature ferromagnetic transitions and the temperature dependence of magnetic behaviors in FeCoNiCr-based high-entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Suok-Min; Yoo, Jin-Hyeong; Lambert, Paul K.; Jones, Nicholas J.

    2018-05-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) containing multiple principle alloying elements exhibit unique properties so they are currently receiving great attention for developing innovative alloy designs. In FeCoNi-based HEAs, magnetic behaviors strongly depend on the addition of alloying elements, usually accompanied by structural changes. In this work, the effect of non-magnetic components on the ferromagnetic transition and magnetic behaviors in equiatomic FeCoNiCrX (X=Al, Ga, Mn and Sn) HEAs was investigated. Alloy ingots of nominal compositions of HEAs were prepared by arc melting and the button ingots were cut into discs for magnetic measurements as functions of magnetic field and temperature. The HEAs of FeCoNiCrMn and FeCoNiCrSn show typical paramagnetic behaviors, composed of solid solution FCC matrix, while the additions of Ga and Al in FeCoNiCr exhibit ferromagnetic behaviors, along with the coexistence of FCC and BCC phases due to spinodal decomposition. The partial phase transition in both HEAs with the additions of Ga and Al would enhance ferromagnetic properties due to the addition of the BCC phase. The saturation magnetization for the base alloy FeCoNiCr is 0.5 emu/g at the applied field of 20 kOe (TC = 104 K). For the HEAs of FeCoNiCrGa and FeCoNiCrAl, the saturation magnetization significantly increased to 38 emu/g (TC = 703 K) and 25 emu/g (TC = 277 K), respectively. To evaluate the possibility of solid solution FCC and BCC phases in FeCoNiCr-type HEAs, we introduced a parameter of valence electron concentration (VEC). The proposed rule for solid solution formation by the VEC was matched with FeCoNiCr-type HEAs.

  3. Multivariate refined composite multiscale entropy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) has become a prevailing method to quantify signals complexity. MSE relies on sample entropy. However, MSE may yield imprecise complexity estimation at large scales, because sample entropy does not give precise estimation of entropy when short signals are processed. A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. Nevertheless, RCMSE is for univariate signals only. The simultaneous analysis of multi-channel (multivariate) data often over-performs studies based on univariate signals. We therefore introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. Applications of multivariate RCMSE to simulated processes reveal its better performances over the standard multivariate MSE. - Highlights: • Multiscale entropy quantifies data complexity but may be inaccurate at large scale. • A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. • Nevertheless, RCMSE is adapted to univariate time series only. • We herein introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. • It shows better performances than the standard multivariate multiscale entropy.

  4. Costs of magnets for large fusion power reactors: Phase I, cost of superconductors for dc magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.

    1972-01-01

    Projections are made for dc magnet conductor costs for large fusion power reactors. A mature fusion economy is assumed sometime after 2000 A. D. in which approximately 90,000 MW(e) of fusion reactors are constructed/year. State of the art critical current vs. field characteristics for superconductors are used in these projections. Present processing techniques are used as a basis for the design of large plants sized to produce approximately one-half of the conductor needed for the fusion magnets. Multifilamentary Nb-Ti, Pb-Bi in glass fiber, GE Nb 3 Sn tape, Linde plasma sprayed Nb 3 Sn tape, and V 3 Ga tape superconductors are investigated, together with high purity aluminum cryoconductor. Conductor costs include processing costs [capital (equipment plus buildings), labor, and operating] and materials costs. Conductor costs are compared for two sets of material costs: current (1971 A. D.) costs, and projected (after 2000 A. D.) costs. (U.S.)

  5. Numerical Study of the Magnetic Field Effects on the Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation Aspects of a Power Law Fluid over an Axisymmetric Stretching Plate Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Hooshmand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical investigation of the effects of magnetic field strength, thermal radiation, Joule heating, and viscous heating on a forced convective flow of a non-Newtonian, incompressible power law fluid in an axisymmetric stretching sheet with variable temperature wall is accomplished. The power law shear thinning viscosity-shear rate model for the anisotropic solutions and the Rosseland approximation for the thermal radiation through a highly absorbing medium are considered. The temperature dependent heat sources, Joule heating, and viscous heating are considered as the source terms in the energy balance. The non-dimensional boundary layer equations are solved numerically in terms of similarity variable. A parameter study on the Nusselt number, viscous components of entropy generation, and thermal components of entropy generation in fluid is performed as a function of thermal radiation parameter (0 to 2, Brinkman number (0 to 10, Prandtl number (0 to 10, Hartmann number (0 to 1, power law index (0 to 1, and heat source coefficient (0 to 0.1.

  6. LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC HELICITY FLUXES ESTIMATED FROM MDI MAGNETIC SYNOPTIC CHARTS OVER THE SOLAR CYCLE 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shangbin; Zhang Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of large-scale and long-term evolution of magnetic helicity with solar cycles, we use the method of Local Correlation Tracking to estimate the magnetic helicity evolution over solar cycle 23 from 1996 to 2009 using 795 MDI magnetic synoptic charts. The main results are as follows: the hemispheric helicity rule still holds in general, i.e., the large-scale negative (positive) magnetic helicity dominates the northern (southern) hemisphere. However, the large-scale magnetic helicity fluxes show the same sign in both hemispheres around 2001 and 2005. The global, large-scale magnetic helicity flux over the solar disk changes from a negative value at the beginning of solar cycle 23 to a positive value at the end of the cycle, while the net accumulated magnetic helicity is negative in the period between 1996 and 2009.

  7. LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC HELICITY FLUXES ESTIMATED FROM MDI MAGNETIC SYNOPTIC CHARTS OVER THE SOLAR CYCLE 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Shangbin; Zhang Hongqi, E-mail: yangshb@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100012 Beijing (China)

    2012-10-10

    To investigate the characteristics of large-scale and long-term evolution of magnetic helicity with solar cycles, we use the method of Local Correlation Tracking to estimate the magnetic helicity evolution over solar cycle 23 from 1996 to 2009 using 795 MDI magnetic synoptic charts. The main results are as follows: the hemispheric helicity rule still holds in general, i.e., the large-scale negative (positive) magnetic helicity dominates the northern (southern) hemisphere. However, the large-scale magnetic helicity fluxes show the same sign in both hemispheres around 2001 and 2005. The global, large-scale magnetic helicity flux over the solar disk changes from a negative value at the beginning of solar cycle 23 to a positive value at the end of the cycle, while the net accumulated magnetic helicity is negative in the period between 1996 and 2009.

  8. Large N dynamics in QED in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusynin, V.P.; Miransky, V.A.; Shovkovy, I.A.

    2003-01-01

    The expression for the dynamical mass of fermions in QED in a magnetic field is obtained for a large number of the fermion flavor N in the framework of 1/N expansion. The existence of a threshold value N thr , dividing the theories with essentially different dynamics, is established. For the number of flavors N thr , the dynamical mass is very sensitive to the value of the coupling constant α b , related to the magnetic scale μ=√(vertical bar eB vertical bar). For N of the order of N thr or larger, a dynamics similar to that in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with a cutoff of the order of √(vertical bar eB vertical bar) and the dimensional coupling constant G∼1/(N vertical bar eB vertical bar) takes place. In this case, the value of the dynamical mass is essentially α b independent (the dynamics with an infrared stable fixed point). The value of N thr separates a weak coupling dynamics (with α-tilde b ≡Nα b b > or approx. 1) and is of the order of 1/α b

  9. Large acceptance magnetic spectrometers for polarized deep inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petratos, G.G.; Eisele, R.L.; Gearhart, R.A.; Hughes, E.W.; Young, C.C.

    1991-10-01

    The design of two magnetic spectrometers for the measurement of the spin-dependent structure function g 1 n of the neutron and a test of the Bjorken sum rule is described. The measurement will consist of scattering 23 GeV polarized electrons off a polarized 3 He target and detecting scattered electrons of 7 to 18 GeV at 4.5 degree and 7 degree. Each spectrometer is based on two large aperture dipole magnets bending in opposite directions. This ''reverse'' deflection design doubles the solid angle as compared to the conventional design of same direction bends used in previous experiments. Proper choice of the deflection angles and the distance between the two dipoles in each spectrometer allows background photons from radiative processes to reach the detectors only after at least two bounces off the spectrometer vacuum walls, resulting in an expected tolerable background. Each spectrometer is equipped with a pair of Cerenkov detectors, a pair of scintillation hodoscopes and a lead-glass shower calorimeter providing electron and pion identification with angular and momentum resolutions sufficient for the experimental measurement. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  10. Cryogenic expansion joint for large superconducting magnet structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert L.

    1978-01-01

    An expansion joint is provided that accommodates dimensional changes occurring during the cooldown and warm-up of large cryogenic devices such as superconducting magnet coils. Flattened tubes containing a refrigerant such as gaseous nitrogen (N.sub.2) are inserted into expansion spaces in the structure. The gaseous N.sub.2 is circulated under pressure and aids in the cooldown process while providing its primary function of accommodating differential thermal contraction and expansion in the structure. After lower temperatures are reached and the greater part of the contraction has occured, the N.sub.2 liquefies then solidifies to provide a completely rigid structure at the cryogenic operating temperatures of the device.

  11. A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downer, J.R.; Anastas, G.V. Jr.; Bushko, D.A.; Flynn, F.J.; Goldie, J.H.; Gondhalekar, V.; Hawkey, T.J.; Hockney, R.L.; Torti, R.P.

    1992-12-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation has completed a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 program to develop a Superconducting Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension (LAMS) for the NASA Langley Research Center. The Superconducting LAMS was a hardware demonstration of the control technology required to develop an advanced momentum exchange effector. The Phase 2 research was directed toward the demonstration for the key technology required for the advanced concept CMG, the controller. The Phase 2 hardware consists of a superconducting solenoid ('source coils') suspended within an array of nonsuperconducting coils ('control coils'), a five-degree-of-freedom positioning sensing system, switching power amplifiers, and a digital control system. The results demonstrated the feasibility of suspending the source coil. Gimballing (pointing the axis of the source coil) was demonstrated over a limited range. With further development of the rotation sensing system, enhanced angular freedom should be possible

  12. Analysis of complex time series using refined composite multiscale entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Shuen-De; Wu, Chiu-Wen; Lin, Shiou-Gwo; Lee, Kung-Yen; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2014-01-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) is an effective algorithm for measuring the complexity of a time series that has been applied in many fields successfully. However, MSE may yield an inaccurate estimation of entropy or induce undefined entropy because the coarse-graining procedure reduces the length of a time series considerably at large scales. Composite multiscale entropy (CMSE) was recently proposed to improve the accuracy of MSE, but it does not resolve undefined entropy. Here we propose a refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) to improve CMSE. For short time series analyses, we demonstrate that RCMSE increases the accuracy of entropy estimation and reduces the probability of inducing undefined entropy.

  13. Upper entropy axioms and lower entropy axioms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jin-Li; Suo, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The paper suggests the concepts of an upper entropy and a lower entropy. We propose a new axiomatic definition, namely, upper entropy axioms, inspired by axioms of metric spaces, and also formulate lower entropy axioms. We also develop weak upper entropy axioms and weak lower entropy axioms. Their conditions are weaker than those of Shannon–Khinchin axioms and Tsallis axioms, while these conditions are stronger than those of the axiomatics based on the first three Shannon–Khinchin axioms. The subadditivity and strong subadditivity of entropy are obtained in the new axiomatics. Tsallis statistics is a special case of satisfying our axioms. Moreover, different forms of information measures, such as Shannon entropy, Daroczy entropy, Tsallis entropy and other entropies, can be unified under the same axiomatics

  14. Three computer codes for safety and stability of large superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    For analyzing the safety and stability of large superconducting magnets, three computer codes TASS, SHORTURN, and SSICC have been developed, applicable to bath-cooled magnets, bath-cooled magnets with shorted turns, and magnets with internally cooled conductors respectively. The TASS code is described, and the use of the three codes is reviewed

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of large chromophobe renal cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaguri, Kohei; Irie, Hiroyuki; Kamochi, Noriyuki; Nakazono, Takahiko; Yamaguchi, Ken; Uozumi, Jiro; Kudo, Sho

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of large chromophobe renal cell carcinomas. Five patients diagnosed pathologically with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma are included. MRI findings were retrospectively evaluated for the tumor contour, uniformity and hypointensity of the rim of the tumor on T2-weighted images, ''micro-scopic fat'', enhancement degree and pattern on dynamic study, and necrosis in the tumor, among other findings. The tumor size ranged from 4.8 to 13.7 cm (mean 7.9 cm). The tumor contour was well defined in four patients. All but one tumor showed a hypointensity rim, and all tumors had a heterogeneous appearance on T2-weighted images. ''Microscopic fat'' was detected in one case. All tumors demonstrated low enhancement compared to that of the renal cortex. All tumors showed heterogeneous enhancement on postcontrast images. Necrosis was seen in four. Hemorrhage and renal vein thrombosis was seen in one. Chromophobe renal cell carcinomas of large size tend to have a heterogeneous appearance on post-contrast and T2-weighted images, a well-defined tumor contour with a hypointensity rim on T2-wighted images, and lower enhancement than that of the renal cortex. Tumor necrosis is easily apparent, and ''microscopic fat'' may be observed. (author)

  16. Effect of interstitial nitrogen on magnetism and entropy change of LaFe11.7Si1.3 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balli, M.; Rosca, M.; Fruchart, D.; Gignoux, D.

    2009-01-01

    Crystal structure, magnetism and magnetocaloric properties of LaFe 11.7 Si 1.3 N y (y=0, 1.3) compounds have been studied by X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. The LaFe 11.7 Si 1.3 N y compounds present a cubic NaZn 13 -type structure. Insertion of 1.3 nitrogen atoms per LaFe 11.7 Si 1.3 formula increases the lattice parameter and Curie temperature from 11.467 to 11.733 A and from 190 to ∼230 K, respectively. Besides, the absorption of nitrogen drives drastically the magnetic transition from first to second order and accordingly strongly decreases the magnetocaloric effect compared to the parent alloy. Under an external field change of 5 T, the value of isothermal entropy change -ΔS is about 28 and 3.5 J/kg K for LaFe 11.7 Si 1.3 and LaFe 11.7 Si 1.3 N 1.3 , respectively, close to their Curie temperature. However, the relative cooling power RCP(S) of the nitride is about half that of the parent alloy

  17. Large Magnetic Anisotropy in HfMnP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David; Lamichhane, Tej; Taufour, Valentin; Masters, Morgan; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Bud'Ko, Ser'gey; Canfield, Paul

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of two little-studied manganese phosphide ferromagnets, HfMnP and ZrMnP, with Curie temperatures above room temperature. We find an anisotropy field in HfMnP approaching 10 T - larger than that of the permanent magnet workhorse NdFeB magnets. From theory we determine the source of this anisotropy. Our results show the potential of 3d-element-based magnetic materials for magnetic applications.

  18. Design of force-cooled conductors for large fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.; Lue, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    One type of conductor under consideration for tokamak toroidal field (TF) magnets is a cable-in-conduit cooled by supercritical helium in forced convection. The main problem is designing such force-cooled conductors (fcc) is to maintain adequate stability while keeping the pumping power tolerably low. The transit time of the helium through a coil is many minutes. Since recovery of the conductor from a thermomechanical perturbation takes on the order of tens of milliseconds, for purposes of calculation, the inventory of helium available to promote recovery is finite. This means that a large enough perturbation will quench the conductor. We can then judge the stability of a fcc by the maximum perturbation of some specified type against which the conductor is stable, i.e., can still return to the superconducting state. The simplest type of perturbation is a sudden, uniform heat input over the entire length of the conductor. The maximum, sudden, uniform heat input per unit volume of metal ΔH is called the ''stability margin.''

  19. Entropy as a measure of diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghamohammadi, Amir; Fatollahi, Amir H.; Khorrami, Mohammad; Shariati, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The time variation of entropy, as an alternative to the variance, is proposed as a measure of the diffusion rate. It is shown that for linear and time-translationally invariant systems having a large-time limit for the density, at large times the entropy tends exponentially to a constant. For systems with no stationary density, at large times the entropy is logarithmic with a coefficient specifying the speed of the diffusion. As an example, the large-time behaviors of the entropy and the variance are compared for various types of fractional-derivative diffusions.

  20. Entropy as a measure of diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamohammadi, Amir, E-mail: mohamadi@alzahra.ac.ir; Fatollahi, Amir H., E-mail: fath@alzahra.ac.ir; Khorrami, Mohammad, E-mail: mamwad@mailaps.org; Shariati, Ahmad, E-mail: shariati@mailaps.org

    2013-10-15

    The time variation of entropy, as an alternative to the variance, is proposed as a measure of the diffusion rate. It is shown that for linear and time-translationally invariant systems having a large-time limit for the density, at large times the entropy tends exponentially to a constant. For systems with no stationary density, at large times the entropy is logarithmic with a coefficient specifying the speed of the diffusion. As an example, the large-time behaviors of the entropy and the variance are compared for various types of fractional-derivative diffusions.

  1. Calculations of the magnetic entropy change in amorphous through a microscopic anisotropic model: Applications to Dy{sub 70}Zr{sub 30} and DyCo{sub 3.4} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranke, P. J. von, E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.br; Nóbrega, E. P.; Ribeiro, P. O.; Alvarenga, T. S. T.; Lopes, P. H. O.; Sousa, V. S. R. de; Oliveira, N. A. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro—UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Caldas, A. [Sociedade Unificada de Ensino Superior e Cultura, SUESC, 20211-351 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Alho, B. P. [Instituto de Aplicação Fernando Rodrigues da Silveira, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Santa Alexandrina, 288, 20260-232 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carvalho, G. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Sincroton—LNLS, 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Magnus, A.

    2014-10-14

    We report theoretical investigations on the magnetocaloric effect, described by the magnetic entropy change in rare earth—transition metal amorphous systems. The model includes the local anisotropy on the rare earth ions in Harris-Plischke-Zuckermann assumptions. The transition metals ions are treated in terms of itinerant electron ferromagnetism and the magnetic moment of rare earth ions is coupled to the polarized d-band by a local exchange interaction. The magnetocaloric effect was calculated in DyCo{sub 3.4} system, which presents amorphous sperimagnetic configuration. The calculations predict higher refrigerant capacity in the amorphous DyCo{sub 3.4} than in DyCo{sub 2} crystal, highlighting the importance of amorphous magnetocaloric materials. Our calculation of the magnetocaloric effect in Dy{sub 70}Zr{sub 30}, which presents amorphous asperomagnetic configuration, is in good agreement with the experimental result. Furthermore, magnetic entropy changes associated with crystal-amorphous configurations change are estimated.

  2. Parker limit for monopoles with large magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, H.M.; Kolb, E.W.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The survival of galactic magnetic fields places a limit on the flux of magnetic monopoles, the so-called ''Parker limit.'' Previous discussions of the Parker limit have assumed that the charge of the monopole is the Dirac value, g/sub Dirac/ = 2π/e. However, if the grand unified group is broken by Wilson lines, as is assumed in some superstring models, the minimum value of the magnetic charge is not the Dirac quantum, but an integer multiple of it. In this brief report we investigate the dependence of the Parker limit on the charge of the magnetic monopole. 10 refs., 1 fig

  3. Development and Application of New Solid-State Models for Low-Energy Vibrations, Lattice Defects, Entropies of Mixing, and Magnetic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliesser, Jacob M.

    Low-temperature heat capacity data contain information on the physical properties of materials, and new models continue to be developed to aid in the analysis and interpretation of heat capacity data into physically meaningful properties. This work presents the development of two such models and their application to real material systems. Equations describing low-energy vibrational modes with a gap in the density of states (DOS) have been derived and tested on several material systems with known gaps in the DOS, and the origins of such gaps in the DOS are presented. Lattice vacancies have been shown to produce a two-level system that can be modeled with a sum of low-energy Schottky anomalies that produce an overall linear dependence on temperature in the low-temperature heat capacity data. These two models for gaps in the vibrational DOS and the relationship between a linear heat capacity and lattice vacancies and many well-known models have been applied to several systems of materials to test their validity and applicability as well as provide greater information on the systems themselves. A series of bulk and nanoscale Mn-Fe and Co-Fe spinel solid solutions were analyzed using the entropies derived from heat capacity data, and excess entropies of mixing were determined. These entropies show that changes in valence, cation distribution, bonding, and the microstructure between the mixing ions is non-ideal, especially in the nanoparticles. The heat capacity data of ten Al doped TiO2 anatase nanoparticle samples have also been analyzed to show that the Al3+ dopant ions form small regions of short-range order, similar to a glass, within the TiO2 particles, while the overall structure of TiO2 remains unchanged. This has been supported by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy and provides new insights to the synthesis and characterization of doped materials. The final investigation examines nanocrystalline CuO using heat capacities, magnetization

  4. Quench protection and design of large high-current-density superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1981-03-01

    Although most large superconducting magnets have been designed using the concept of cryostability, there is increased need for large magnets which operate at current densities above the cryostable limit (greater than 10 8 Am -2 ). Large high current density superconducting magnets are chosen for the following reasons: reduced mass, reduced coil thickness or size, and reduced cost. The design of large high current density, adiabatically stable, superconducting magnets requires a very different set of design rules than either large cryostable superconducting magnets or small self-protected high current density magnets. The problems associated with large high current density superconducting magnets fall into three categories; (a) quench protection, (b) stress and training, and (c) cryogenic design. The three categories must be considered simultaneously. The paper discusses quench protection and its implication for magnets of large stored energies (this includes strings of smaller magnets). Training and its relationship to quench protection and magnetic strain are discussed. Examples of magnets, built at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and elsewhere using the design guidelines given in this report, are presented

  5. THE DECAY OF A WEAK LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELD IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL TURBULENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondić, Todor; Hughes, David W.; Tobias, Steven M., E-mail: t.kondic@leeds.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the decay of a large-scale magnetic field in the context of incompressible, two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. It is well established that a very weak mean field, of strength significantly below equipartition value, induces a small-scale field strong enough to inhibit the process of turbulent magnetic diffusion. In light of ever-increasing computer power, we revisit this problem to investigate fluids and magnetic Reynolds numbers that were previously inaccessible. Furthermore, by exploiting the relation between the turbulent diffusion of the magnetic potential and that of the magnetic field, we are able to calculate the turbulent magnetic diffusivity extremely accurately through the imposition of a uniform mean magnetic field. We confirm the strong dependence of the turbulent diffusivity on the product of the magnetic Reynolds number and the energy of the large-scale magnetic field. We compare our findings with various theoretical descriptions of this process.

  6. Searching for magnetic monopoles using large area ionization detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepko, M.J.; Webb, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Predictions of current Grand Unified Theories (GUT's) require the existence of massive (10 16 GeV/c 2 ) magnetic monopoles at some level. Stringent limits on the flux of these particles may be obtained from various cosmological and astrophysical arguments. Theoretical predictions limiting monopole abundance based on survival of the galactic magnetic field place an upper bound of xi approx. = 10 -15 cm -2 sr -1 s -1 on the allowed monopole flux. Similarly, magnetic monopoles are expected to be accelerated along galactic field lines to velocities on the order of β approx. = 10 -4

  7. Experience with overcooling and refilling of large superconducting magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Trojan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Cooling process of big superconducting magnets from temperature of surrounding to the critical temperature is a verycomplicated process from economical as well as from technical view. In case when cryostat containing experimental device overcoolitself from normal temperature directly with liquid helium the consumption would be considerably higher than in case that we use liquidnitrogen for first overcool. Thus whole process of overcooling would be considerably nonprofitable. The article describes experiencewith overflowing of superconducting magnets installed in laboratory at the Technical University in Kosice, where the research projectfor the electric energy in the magnetic field storage takes place.

  8. A new method of assembling large magnetic blocks from permanent NdFeB magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žežulka, Václav; Straka, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2007), 75-83 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : magnet assembly * magnet ic circuits * magnet ic separation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism www.irsm.cas.cz

  9. Field reconstruction for the KEK large-aperture-spectrometer-magnet 'TOKIWA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amako, K.; Kawano, K.; Sugimoto, S.; Matsui, T.

    1978-10-01

    Field reconstruction has been performed for the KEK large-aperture-magnet ''TOKIWA''. The magnetic field components are determined point-by-point by an iteration method in which the output voltage from the Hall probes placed in three dimensional directions are used simultaneously. The field components are thus reconstructed accurately within 32 G everywhere in the magnet volume. (author)

  10. Non-superconducting magnet structures for near-term, large fusion experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    File, J.; Knutson, D.S.; Marino, R.E.; Rappe, G.H.

    1980-10-01

    This paper describes the magnet and structural design in the following American tokamak devices: the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Princeton Divertor Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The Joint European Torus (JET), also presented herein, has a magnet structure evolved from several European programs and, like TFTR, represents state of the art magnet and structure design

  11. Magnetization of large polystyrene peptide beads for capturing and expanding cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marik, Jan; Lau, D.H.; Song Aimin; Wang Xiaobing; Liu Ruiwu; Lam, K.S.

    2003-01-01

    A method is described for preparation of large magnetic polystyrene beads coupled with peptide ligands for surface receptors of lung cancer cells. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using these magnetic peptide beads for capturing and enriching lung cancer cells spiked into blood. These magnetic peptide beads potentially can be used to efficiently isolate cancer cells from body fluids

  12. Black hole entropy functions and attractor equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes Cardoso, Gabriel; Wit, Bernard de; Mahapatra, Swapna

    2007-01-01

    The entropy and the attractor equations for static extremal black hole solutions follow from a variational principle based on an entropy function. In the general case such an entropy function can be derived from the reduced action evaluated in a near-horizon geometry. BPS black holes constitute special solutions of this variational principle, but they can also be derived directly from a different entropy function based on supersymmetry enhancement at the horizon. Both functions are consistent with electric/magnetic duality and for BPS black holes their corresponding OSV-type integrals give identical results at the semi-classical level. We clarify the relation between the two entropy functions and the corresponding attractor equations for N = 2 supergravity theories with higher-derivative couplings in four space-time dimensions. We discuss how non-holomorphic corrections will modify these entropy functions

  13. Inflationary susceptibilities, duality and large-scale magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We investigate what can be said about the interaction of scalar fields with Abelian gauge fields during a quasi-de Sitter phase of expansion and under the assumption that the electric and the magnetic susceptibilities do not coincide. The duality symmetry, transforming the magnetic susceptibility into the inverse of the electric susceptibility, exchanges the magnetic and electric power spectra. The mismatch between the two susceptibilities determines an effective refractive index affecting the evolution of the canonical fields. The constraints imposed by the duration of the inflationary phase and by the magnetogenesis requirements pin down the rate of variation of the susceptibilities that is consistent with the observations of the magnetic field strength over astrophysical and cosmological scales but avoids back-reaction problems. The parameter space of this magnetogenesis scenario is wider than in the case when the susceptibilities are equal, as it happens when the inflaton or some other spectator field is ...

  14. The magnetic model of the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Auchmann, B; Buzio, M; Deniau, L; Fiscarelli, L; Giovannozzi, M; Hagen, P; Lamont, M; Montenero, G; Mueller, G; Pereira, M; Redaelli, S; Remondino, V; Schmidt, F; Steinhagen, R; Strzelczyk, M; Tomas Garcia, R; Todesco, E; Delsolaro, W Venturini; Walckiers, L; Wenninger, J; Wolf, R; Zimmermann, F

    2010-01-01

    The beam commissioning carried out in 2009 has proved that we have a pretty good understanding of the behaviour of the relation field-current in the LHC magnets and of its reproducibility. In this paper we summarize the main issues of beam commissioning as far as the magnetic model is concerned. An outline of what can be expected in 2010, when the LHC will be pushed to 3.5 TeV, is also given.

  15. Heuristic Relative Entropy Principles with Complex Measures: Large-Degree Asymptotics of a Family of Multi-variate Normal Random Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Michael Karl-Heinz

    2017-10-01

    Let z\\in C, let σ ^2>0 be a variance, and for N\\in N define the integrals E_N^{}(z;σ ) := {1/σ } \\int _R\\ (x^2+z^2) e^{-{1/2σ^2 x^2}}{√{2π }}/dx \\quad if N=1, {1/σ } \\int _{R^N} \\prod \\prod \\limits _{1≤ k1. These are expected values of the polynomials P_N^{}(z)=\\prod _{1≤ n≤ N}(X_n^2+z^2) whose 2 N zeros ± i X_k^{}_{k=1,\\ldots ,N} are generated by N identically distributed multi-variate mean-zero normal random variables {X_k}N_{k=1} with co-variance {Cov}_N^{}(X_k,X_l)=(1+σ ^2-1/N)δ _{k,l}+σ ^2-1/N(1-δ _{k,l}). The E_N^{}(z;σ ) are polynomials in z^2, explicitly computable for arbitrary N, yet a list of the first three E_N^{}(z;σ ) shows that the expressions become unwieldy already for moderate N—unless σ = 1, in which case E_N^{}(z;1) = (1+z^2)^N for all z\\in C and N\\in N. (Incidentally, commonly available computer algebra evaluates the integrals E_N^{}(z;σ ) only for N up to a dozen, due to memory constraints). Asymptotic evaluations are needed for the large- N regime. For general complex z these have traditionally been limited to analytic expansion techniques; several rigorous results are proved for complex z near 0. Yet if z\\in R one can also compute this "infinite-degree" limit with the help of the familiar relative entropy principle for probability measures; a rigorous proof of this fact is supplied. Computer algebra-generated evidence is presented in support of a conjecture that a generalization of the relative entropy principle to signed or complex measures governs the N→ ∞ asymptotics of the regime iz\\in R. Potential generalizations, in particular to point vortex ensembles and the prescribed Gauss curvature problem, and to random matrix ensembles, are emphasized.

  16. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity (Rosenfeld,1977). Analogous relationships also exist for viscosity and thermal conductivity.

  17. Explaining the entropy concept and entropy components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Popovic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Total entropy of a thermodynamic system consists of two components: thermal entropy due to energy, and residual entropy due to molecular orientation. In this article, a three-step method for explaining entropy is suggested. Step one is to use a classical method to introduce thermal entropy STM as a function of temperature T and heat capacity at constant pressure Cp: STM = ∫(Cp/T dT. Thermal entropy is the entropy due to uncertainty in motion of molecules and vanishes at absolute zero (zero-point energy state. It is also the measure of useless thermal energy that cannot be converted into useful work. The next step is to introduce residual entropy S0 as a function of the number of molecules N and the number of distinct orientations available to them in a crystal m: S0 = N kB ln m, where kB is the Boltzmann constant. Residual entropy quantifies the uncertainty in molecular orientation. Residual entropy, unlike thermal entropy, is independent of temperature and remains present at absolute zero. The third step is to show that thermal entropy and residual entropy add up to the total entropy of a thermodynamic system S: S = S0 + STM. This method of explanation should result in a better comprehension of residual entropy and thermal entropy, as well as of their similarities and differences. The new method was tested in teaching at Faculty of Chemistry University of Belgrade, Serbia. The results of the test show that the new method has a potential to improve the quality of teaching.

  18. Estimation of the magnetic entropy change by means of Landau theory and phenomenological model in La0.6Ca0.2 Sr0.2MnO3/Sb2O3 ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, M.; Dhahri, E.; Hlil, E. K.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, magnetocaloric properties of La0.6Ca0.2Sr0.2MnO3/Sb2O3 oxides have been investigated. The composite samples were prepared using the conventional solid-state reaction method. The second-order phase transition can be testified with the positive slope in Arrott plots. An excellent agreement has been found between the -ΔSM values estimated by Landau theory and those obtained using the classical Maxwell relation. The field dependence of the magnetic entropy change analysis shows a power law dependence,|ΔSM|≈Hn , with n(TC) = 0.65. Moreover, the scaling analysis of magnetic entropy change exhibits that ΔSM(T) curves collapse into a single universal curve, indicating that the observed paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition is an authentic second-order phase transition. The maximum value of magnetic entropy change of composites is found to decrease slightly with the further increasing of Sb2O3 concentration. A phenomenological model was used to predict magnetocaloric properties of La0.6Ca0.2Sr0.2MnO3/Sb2O3 composites. The theoretical calculations are compared with the available experimental data.

  19. Effect of grain boundary phase on the magnetization reversal process of nanocrystalline magnet using large-scale micromagnetic simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tsukahara

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of grain boundary phases on magnetization reversal in permanent magnets by performing large-scale micromagnetic simulations based on Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation under a periodic boundary. We considered planar grain boundary phases parallel and perpendicular to an easy axis of the permanent magnet and assumed the saturation magnetization and exchange stiffness constant of the grain boundary phase to be 10% and 1%, respectively, for Nd2Fe14B grains. The grain boundary phase parallel to the easy axis effectively inhibits propagation of magnetization reversal. In contrast, the domain wall moves across the grain boundary perpendicular to the easy axis. These properties of the domain wall motion are explained by dipole interaction, which stabilizes the antiparallel magnetic configuration in the direction perpendicular to the magnetization orientation. On the other hand, the magnetization is aligned in the same direction by the dipole interaction parallel to the magnetization orientation. This anisotropy of the effect of the grain boundary phase shows that improvement of the grain boundary phase perpendicular to the easy axis effectively enhances the coercivity of permanent magnets.

  20. Construction program for a large superconducting MHD magnet system at the coal-fired flow facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Genens, L.; Gonczy, J.; Ludwig, H.; Lieberg, M.; Kraft, E.; Gacek, D.; Huang, Y.C.; Chen, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory has designed and is constructing a 6 T large aperture superconducting MHD magnet for use in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) at Tullahoma, Tennessee. The magnet system consists of the superconducting magnet, a magnet power supply, an integrated instrumentation for operation, control and protection, and a complete cryogenic facility including a CTI Model 2800 helium refrigerator/liquefier with two compressors, helium gas handling system and a 7500 liter liquid helium dewar. The complete system will be tested at Argonne, IL in 1981. The magnet design is reviewed, and the coil fabrication programs are described in detail

  1. [Analysis of accidents for magnetically induced displacement of the large ferromagnetic material in magnetic resonance systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatani, Yuya; Doi, Tsukasa; Ueyama, Tsuyoshi; Nishiki, Shigeo; Ogura, Akio; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Okuaki, Tomoyuki; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    To improve magnetic resonance (MR) safety, we surveyed the accidents caused by large ferromagnetic materials brought into MR systems accidentally. We sent a questionnaire to 700 Japanese medical institutions and received 405 valid responses (58%). A total of 97 accidents in 77 institutions were observed and we analyzed them regarding incidental rate, the detail situation and environmental factors. The mean accident rate of each institute was 0.7/100,000 examinations, which was widely distributed (0-25.6/100,000) depending on the institute. In this survey, relatively small institutes with less than 500 beds tend to have these accidents more frequently (paccidents than those with less than 10 daily examinations. The institutes with 6-10 MR examinations daily have significantly more accidents than that with more than 10 daily MR examinations (paccidents were considered to be "prejudice" and "carelessness" but some advocate "ignorance." Though we could not find significant reduction in the institutes that have lectures and training for MR safety, we should continue lectures and training for MR safety to reduce accidents due to "ignorance."

  2. Algorithmic randomness and physical entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithmic randomness provides a rigorous, entropylike measure of disorder of an individual, microscopic, definite state of a physical system. It is defined by the size (in binary digits) of the shortest message specifying the microstate uniquely up to the assumed resolution. Equivalently, algorithmic randomness can be expressed as the number of bits in the smallest program for a universal computer that can reproduce the state in question (for instance, by plotting it with the assumed accuracy). In contrast to the traditional definitions of entropy, algorithmic randomness can be used to measure disorder without any recourse to probabilities. Algorithmic randomness is typically very difficult to calculate exactly but relatively easy to estimate. In large systems, probabilistic ensemble definitions of entropy (e.g., coarse-grained entropy of Gibbs and Boltzmann's entropy H=lnW, as well as Shannon's information-theoretic entropy) provide accurate estimates of the algorithmic entropy of an individual system or its average value for an ensemble. One is thus able to rederive much of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in a setting very different from the usual. Physical entropy, I suggest, is a sum of (i) the missing information measured by Shannon's formula and (ii) of the algorithmic information content---algorithmic randomness---present in the available data about the system. This definition of entropy is essential in describing the operation of thermodynamic engines from the viewpoint of information gathering and using systems. These Maxwell demon-type entities are capable of acquiring and processing information and therefore can ''decide'' on the basis of the results of their measurements and computations the best strategy for extracting energy from their surroundings. From their internal point of view the outcome of each measurement is definite

  3. SpatEntropy: Spatial Entropy Measures in R

    OpenAIRE

    Altieri, Linda; Cocchi, Daniela; Roli, Giulia

    2018-01-01

    This article illustrates how to measure the heterogeneity of spatial data presenting a finite number of categories via computation of spatial entropy. The R package SpatEntropy contains functions for the computation of entropy and spatial entropy measures. The extension to spatial entropy measures is a unique feature of SpatEntropy. In addition to the traditional version of Shannon's entropy, the package includes Batty's spatial entropy, O'Neill's entropy, Li and Reynolds' contagion index, Ka...

  4. LARGE SCALE DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER MODEL OF MAIN MAGNET SYSTEM AND FREQUENCY DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG,W.; MARNERIS, I.; SANDBERG, J.

    2007-06-25

    Large accelerator main magnet system consists of hundreds, even thousands, of dipole magnets. They are linked together under selected configurations to provide highly uniform dipole fields when powered. Distributed capacitance, insulation resistance, coil resistance, magnet inductance, and coupling inductance of upper and lower pancakes make each magnet a complex network. When all dipole magnets are chained together in a circle, they become a coupled pair of very high order complex ladder networks. In this study, a network of more than thousand inductive, capacitive or resistive elements are used to model an actual system. The circuit is a large-scale network. Its equivalent polynomial form has several hundred degrees. Analysis of this high order circuit and simulation of the response of any or all components is often computationally infeasible. We present methods to use frequency decomposition approach to effectively simulate and analyze magnet configuration and power supply topologies.

  5. Destruction of magnetic surfaces in the edge of a large aspect ratio Tokamak with ergodic limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, R.L.; Caldas, I.L.

    1990-01-01

    The model of Martin and Taylor for a large aspect-ratio Tokamak with an ergodic limiter is considered. In order to study the onset of chaotic behaviour for the magnetic field lines in the edge of the vessel, a Hamiltonian formulation is constructed for the system and the overlap of two peripheral magnetic islands is considered. So, it is possible to determine a threshold for the ergodic limiter current to cause destruction of rational magnetic surfaces in this region. (Author)

  6. CRADA/NFE-15-05779 Report: Fabrication of Large Area Printable Composite Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranthaman, M Parans [ORNL

    2016-09-29

    The technical objective of this technical collaboration phase I proposal was to fabricate large area NdFeB composite magnets at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (ORNL MDF). The goal was to distribute domestically produced isotropic and highly anisotropic high energy density magnetic particles throughout the composite structure in order to enable site specific placement of magnetic phases and minimize the generated waste associated with permanent magnet manufacturing. Big area additive manufacturing (BAAM) and magnet composite fabrication methods were used in this study. BAAM was used to fabricate 65 vol % isotropic MQP NdFeB magnets in nylon polymer matrix. BAAM magnet cylinder was sliced to two magnetic arc-shaped braces. The density of the small BAAM magnet pieces reached 4.1 g/cm3, and the room temperature magnetic properties are: Intrinsic coercivity Hci = 8.8 kOe, Remanence Br = 4.2 kG, and energy product (BH)max = 3.7 MGOe. Also, 1.5” x 1.5” composite magnets with anisotropic MQA NdFeB magnet in a resin were also fabricated under magnetic field. The unaligned sample had a density of 3.75 g/cm3. However, aligned sample possessed a density of 4.27 g/cm3. The magnetic properties didn’t degrade during this process. This study provides a pathway for preparing composite magnets for various magnetic applications.

  7. Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator for large wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busca, Cristian; Stan, Ana-Irina; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2010-01-01

    Direct Torque Control (DTC) and Field Oriented Control (FOC) are the most dominant control strategies used in generators for wind turbines. In this paper both control methods were implemented on a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The variable speed wind turbine with full scale power...... converter topology was chosen for design. Parameters from a 2 MW wind turbine were used for system modeling. All the components of the wind turbine system (WTS), except the DC-link and the grid site converter were implemented in MATLAB/Simulink. The pitch controller was used to limit the output power...... produced by the turbine. DTC and FOC strategies, using SVM were used to control the generator rotor speed. The performance of the two control strategies were compared after different tests have been carried out....

  8. Large-scale vortices in compressible turbulent medium with the magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Dimitrov, B. G.

    1990-08-01

    An averaged equation which describes the large scale vortices and Alfven waves generation in a compressible helical turbulent medium with a constant magnetic field is presented. The presence of the magnetic field leads to anisotropization of the vortex generation. Possible applications of the anisotropic vortex dynamo effect are accretion disks of compact objects.

  9. Investigation of transient electrical, magnetic, and mechanical phenomena in large superconducting magnet coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihler, C.

    1996-07-01

    The progress in the field of technology for superconducting magnets led to the necessity of transferring existing calculation methods from electrical power engineering, modifying these tools to satisfy the boundary conditions for superconducting magnets, and also developing new calculation methods for special purposes. In this work suitable calculation methods are elaborated. Their validity and applicability is demonstrated in employing these scientific engineering tools to actual developments of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. In detail this work deals with: 1. calculating eddy current and force densities in the conducting environment of a superconducting magnet or magnet system. 2. the effects of eddy current forces in experimental engineering; 3. transient effects of electrical surges acting on new coil designs; and 4. the electrical and magnetic properties of superconducting cables. Especially, the magnetic properties can lead to an inhomogeneous current distribution in the cable and, thus, to a considerable reduction of the current carrying capacity of the whole magnet. These investigations demonstrate that a detailed analysis of electrodynamic phenomena is indispensable in order to find the optimum technical way to make use of the physical potential of superconductivity. (orig./MM) [de

  10. Mathematical formulation to predict the harmonics of the superconducting Large Hadron Collider magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Sammut

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available CERN is currently assembling the LHC (Large Hadron Collider that will accelerate and bring in collision 7 TeV protons for high energy physics. Such a superconducting magnet-based accelerator can be controlled only when the field errors of production and installation of all magnetic elements are known to the required accuracy. The ideal way to compensate the field errors obviously is to have direct diagnostics on the beam. For the LHC, however, a system solely based on beam feedback may be too demanding. The present baseline for the LHC control system hence requires an accurate forecast of the magnetic field and the multipole field errors to reduce the burden on the beam-based feedback. The field model is the core of this magnetic prediction system, that we call the field description for the LHC (FIDEL. The model will provide the forecast of the magnetic field at a given time, magnet operating current, magnet ramp rate, magnet temperature, and magnet powering history. The model is based on the identification and physical decomposition of the effects that contribute to the total field in the magnet aperture of the LHC dipoles. Each effect is quantified using data obtained from series measurements, and modeled theoretically or empirically depending on the complexity of the physical phenomena involved. This paper presents the developments of the new finely tuned magnetic field model and, using the data accumulated through series tests to date, evaluates its accuracy and predictive capabilities over a sector of the machine.

  11. Superconducting electromagnets for large wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boom, R.W.; Abdelsalam, M.K.; Bakerek, K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a new design study of a Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS) for airplane models in a large 8 ft x 8 ft wind tunnel. New developments in the design include: use of a superconducting solenoid as a model core instead of magnetized iron; combination of permanent magnet material in the model wings along with four race-track coils to produce the required roll torque; and mounting of all the magnets in an integral cold structure instead of in separate cryostats. Design of superconducting solenoid model cores and practical experience with a small-scale prototype are discussed

  12. Magnetic Properties of Large-Scale Nanostructured Graphene Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Søren Schou

    The on-going progress in two-dimensional (2D) materials and nanostructure fabrication motivates the study of altered and combined materials. Graphene—the most studied material of the 2D family—displays unique electronic and spintronic properties. Exceptionally high electron mobilities, that surpass...... those in conventional materials such as silicon, make graphene a very interesting material for high-speed electronics. Simultaneously, long spin-diffusion lengths and spin-life times makes graphene an eligible spin-transport channel. In this thesis, we explore fundamental features of nanostructured...... graphene systems using large-scale modeling techniques. Graphene perforations, or antidots, have received substantial interest in the prospect of opening large band gaps in the otherwise gapless graphene. Motivated by recent improvements of fabrication processes, such as forming graphene antidots and layer...

  13. Large specific absorption rates in the magnetic hyperthermia properties of metallic iron nanocubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdaoui, B.; Meffre, A.; Lacroix, L.-M. [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, LPCNO (Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-Objets), 135 avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5215, LPCNO, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Carrey, J., E-mail: julian.carrey@insa-toulouse.f [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, LPCNO (Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-Objets), 135 avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5215, LPCNO, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Lachaize, S. [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, LPCNO (Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-Objets), 135 avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5215, LPCNO, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Gougeon, M. [Institut CARNOT-CIRIMAT-UMR 5085, Batiment 2R1, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Respaud, M. [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, LPCNO (Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-Objets), 135 avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5215, LPCNO, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Chaudret, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination-CNRS, 205 rte de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)

    2010-10-15

    We report on the magnetic hyperthermia properties of chemically synthesized ferromagnetic 11 and 16 nm Fe(0) nanoparticles of cubic shape displaying the saturation magnetization of bulk iron. The specific absorption rate measured on 16 nm nanocubes is 1690{+-}160 W/g at 300 kHz and 66 mT. This corresponds to specific losses-per-cycle of 5.6 mJ/g, largely exceeding the ones reported in other systems. A way to quantify the degree of optimization of any system with respect to hyperthermia applications is proposed. Applied here, this method shows that our nanoparticles are not fully optimized, probably due to the strong influence of magnetic interactions on their magnetic response. Once protected from oxidation and further optimized, such nano-objects could constitute efficient magnetic cores for biomedical applications requiring very large heating power.

  14. Cosmic microwave background bispectrum from primordial magnetic fields on large angular scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, T R; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2009-08-21

    Primordial magnetic fields lead to non-Gaussian signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) even at the lowest order, as magnetic stresses and the temperature anisotropy they induce depend quadratically on the magnetic field. In contrast, CMB non-Gaussianity due to inflationary scalar perturbations arises only as a higher-order effect. We propose a novel probe of stochastic primordial magnetic fields that exploits the characteristic CMB non-Gaussianity that they induce. We compute the CMB bispectrum (b(l1l2l3)) induced by such fields on large angular scales. We find a typical value of l1(l1 + 1)l3(l3 + 1)b(l1l2l3) approximately 10(-22), for magnetic fields of strength B0 approximately 3 nG and with a nearly scale invariant magnetic spectrum. Observational limits on the bispectrum allow us to set upper limits on B0 approximately 35 nG.

  15. Development of a large aperture Nb3Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, Paolo; Bartlett, Scott E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Gourlay, Steven A.; Hannaford, Charles R.; Hafalia, AurelioR.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mattafirri, Sara; McInturff, Alfred D.; Nyman, Mark; Sabbi, Gianluca

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), a collaboration between BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC, has among its major objectives the development of advanced magnet technology for an LHC luminosity upgrade. The LBNL Superconducting Magnet Group supports this program with a broad effort involving design studies, Nb 3 Sn conductor development, mechanical models, and basic prototypes. This paper describes the development of a large aperture Nb 3 Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet using four racetrack coils from the LBNL Subscale Magnet (SM) Program. The magnet provides a gradient of 95 T/m in a 110 mm bore, with a peak field in the conductor of 11.2 T. The coils are prestressed by a mechanical structure based on a pre-tensioned aluminum shell, and axially supported with aluminum rods. The mechanical behavior has been monitored with strain gauges and the magnetic field has been measured. Results of the test are reported and analyzed

  16. Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Large Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichman, P.B.; Lavely, E.M.; Ritzwoller, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    The general theory of surface NMR imaging of large electromagnetically active systems is considered, motivated by geophysical applications. A general imaging equation is derived for the NMR voltage response, valid for arbitrary transmitter and receiver loop geometry and arbitrary conductivity structure of the sample. When the conductivity grows to the point where the electromagnetic skin depth becomes comparable to the sample size, significant diffusive retardation effects occur that strongly affect the signal. Accounting for these now allows more accurate imaging than previously possible. It is shown that the time constant T 1 may in principle be inferred directly from the diffusive tail of the signal. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  17. Quantum dynamical entropy revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudetz, T.

    1996-10-01

    We define a new quantum dynamical entropy, which is a 'hybrid' of the closely related, physically oriented entropy introduced by Alicki and Fannes in 1994, and of the mathematically well-developed, single-argument entropy introduced by Connes, Narnhofer and Thirring in 1987. We show that this new quantum dynamical entropy has many properties similar to the ones of the Alicki-Fannes entropy, and also inherits some additional properties from the CNT entropy. In particular, the 'hybrid' entropy interpolates between the two different ways in which both the AF and the CNT entropy of the shift automorphism on the quantum spin chain agree with the usual quantum entropy density, resulting in even better agreement. Also, the new quantum dynamical entropy generalizes the classical dynamical entropy of Kolmogorov and Sinai in the same way as does the AF entropy. Finally, we estimate the 'hybrid' entropy both for the Powers-Price shift systems and for the noncommutative Arnold map on the irrational rotation C * -algebra, leaving some interesting open problems. (author)

  18. A New Facility for Testing Superconducting Solenoid Magnets with Large Fringe Fields at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orris, D. [Fermilab; Carcagno, R. [Fermilab; Nogiec, J. [Fermilab; Rabehl, R. [Fermilab; Sylvester, C. [Fermilab; Tartaglia, M. [Fermilab

    2013-09-01

    Testing superconducting solenoid with no iron flux return can be problematic for a magnet test facility due to the large magnetic fringe fields generated. These large external fields can interfere with the operation of equipment while precautions must be taken for personnel supporting the test. The magnetic forces between the solenoid under test and the external infrastructure must also be taken under consideration. A new test facility has been designed and built at Fermilab specifically for testing superconducting magnets with large external fringe fields. This paper discusses the test stand design, capabilities, and details of the instrumentation and controls with data from the first solenoid tested in this facility: the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) coupling coil.

  19. ENTROPY - OUR BEST FRIEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Kordes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to tackle the question of connection between entropy and the living. Definitions of life as the phenomenon that defies entropy are overviewed and the conclusion is reached that life is in a way dependant on entropy - it couldn't exist without it. Entropy is a sort of medium, a fertile soil, that gives life possibility to blossom. Paper ends with presenting some consequences for the field of artificial intelligence.

  20. Entropy of Baker's Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾长福

    2003-01-01

    Four theorems about four different kinds of entropies for Baker's transformation are presented. The Kolmogorov entropy of Baker's transformation is sensitive to the initial flips by the time. The topological entropy of Baker's transformation is found to be log k. The conditions for the state of Baker's transformation to be forbidden are also derived. The relations among the Shanonn, Kolmogorov, topological and Boltzmann entropies are discussed in details.

  1. Physical entropy, information entropy and their evolution equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Inspired by the evolution equation of nonequilibrium statistical physics entropy and the concise statistical formula of the entropy production rate, we develop a theory of the dynamic information entropy and build a nonlinear evolution equation of the information entropy density changing in time and state variable space. Its mathematical form and physical meaning are similar to the evolution equation of the physical entropy: The time rate of change of information entropy density originates together from drift, diffusion and production. The concise statistical formula of information entropy production rate is similar to that of physical entropy also. Furthermore, we study the similarity and difference between physical entropy and information entropy and the possible unification of the two statistical entropies, and discuss the relationship among the principle of entropy increase, the principle of equilibrium maximum entropy and the principle of maximum information entropy as well as the connection between them and the entropy evolution equation.

  2. Correlation between magnetic field quality and mechanical components of the Large Hadron Collider main dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellesia, B.

    2006-12-01

    The 1234 superconducting dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider, working at a cryogenic temperature of 1.9 K, must guarantee a high quality magnetic field to steer the particles inside the beam pipe. Magnetic field measurements are a powerful way to detect assembly faults that could limit magnet performances. The aim of the thesis is the analysis of these measurements performed at room temperature during the production of the dipoles. In a large scale production the ideal situation is that all the magnets produced were identical. However all the components constituting a magnet are produced with certain tolerance and the assembly procedures are optimized during the production; due to these the reality drifts away from the ideal situation. We recollected geometrical data of the main components (superconducting cables, coil copper wedges and austenitic steel coil collars) and coupling them with adequate electro-magnetic models we reconstructed a multipolar field representation of the LHC dipoles defining their critical components and assembling procedures. This thesis is composed of 3 main parts: 1) influence of the geometry and of the assembling procedures of the dipoles on the quality of the magnetic field, 2) the use of measurement performed on the dipoles in the assembling step in order to solve production issues and to understand the behaviour of coils during the assembling step, and 3) a theoretical study of the uncertain harmonic components of the magnetic field in order to assess the dipole production

  3. Correlation between magnetic field quality and mechanical components of the Large Hadron Collider main dipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellesia, B

    2006-12-15

    The 1234 superconducting dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider, working at a cryogenic temperature of 1.9 K, must guarantee a high quality magnetic field to steer the particles inside the beam pipe. Magnetic field measurements are a powerful way to detect assembly faults that could limit magnet performances. The aim of the thesis is the analysis of these measurements performed at room temperature during the production of the dipoles. In a large scale production the ideal situation is that all the magnets produced were identical. However all the components constituting a magnet are produced with certain tolerance and the assembly procedures are optimized during the production; due to these the reality drifts away from the ideal situation. We recollected geometrical data of the main components (superconducting cables, coil copper wedges and austenitic steel coil collars) and coupling them with adequate electro-magnetic models we reconstructed a multipolar field representation of the LHC dipoles defining their critical components and assembling procedures. This thesis is composed of 3 main parts: 1) influence of the geometry and of the assembling procedures of the dipoles on the quality of the magnetic field, 2) the use of measurement performed on the dipoles in the assembling step in order to solve production issues and to understand the behaviour of coils during the assembling step, and 3) a theoretical study of the uncertain harmonic components of the magnetic field in order to assess the dipole production.

  4. Entropy: Order or Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2011-01-01

    Changes in entropy can "sometimes" be interpreted in terms of changes in disorder. On the other hand, changes in entropy can "always" be interpreted in terms of changes in Shannon's measure of information. Mixing and demixing processes are used to highlight the pitfalls in the association of entropy with disorder. (Contains 3 figures.)

  5. Large-scale Flow and Transport of Magnetic Flux in the Solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. Horizontal large-scale velocity field describes horizontal displacement of the photospheric magnetic flux in zonal and meridian directions. The flow systems of solar plasma, constructed according to the velocity field, create the large-scale cellular-like patterns with up-flow in the center and the down-flow on the ...

  6. Structure design of the Westinghouse superconducting magnet for the Large Coil Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domeisen, F.N.; Hackworth, D.T.; Stuebinger, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    In the on-going development of superconducting toroidal field coils for tokamak reactors, the Large Coil Program (LCP) managed by Union Carbide Corporation will include the design, fabrication, and testing of large superconducting coils to determine their feasibility for use in the magnetic fusion energy effort. Structural analysis of the large coil is essential to ensure adequate safety in the test coil design and confidence in the scalability of the design. This paper will discuss the action of tensile and shear loads on the various materials used in the coil. These loads are of magnetic and thermal origin

  7. Development of large high current density superconducting solenoid magnets for use in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1977-05-01

    The development of a unique type of large superconducting solenoid magnet, characterized by very high current density windings and a two-phase helium tubular cooling system is described. The development of the magnet's conceptual design and the construction of two test solenoids are described. The successful test of the superconducting coil and its tubular cooling refrigeration system is presented. The safety, environmental and economic impacts of the test program on future developments in high energy physics are shown. Large solid angle particle detectors for colliding beam physics will analyze both charged and neutral particles. In many cases, these detectors will require neutral particles, such as gamma rays, to pass through the magnet coil with minimum interaction. The magnet coils must be as thin as possible. The use of superconducting windings allows one to minimize radiation thickness, while at the same time maximizing charged particle momentum resolution and saving substantial quantities of electrical energy. The results of the experimental measurements show that large high current density solenoid magnets can be made to operate at high stored energies. The superconducting magnet development described has a positive safety and environmental impact. The use of large high current density thin superconducting solenoids has been proposed in two high energy physics experiments to be conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and Cornell University as a result of the successful experiments described

  8. Spatially Resolved Large Magnetization in Ultrathin BiFeO3

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Er-Jia

    2017-06-19

    Here, a quantitative magnetic depth profile across the planar interfaces in BiFeO3 /La0.7 Sr0.3 MnO3 (BFO/LSMO) superlattices using polarized neutron reflectometry is obtained. An enhanced magnetization of 1.83 ± 0.16 μB /Fe in BFO layers is observed when they are interleaved between two manganite layers. The enhanced magnetic order in BFO persists up to 200 K. The depth dependence of magnetic moments in BFO/LSMO superlattices as a function of the BFO layer thickness is also explored. The results show the enhanced net magnetic moment in BFO from the LSMO/BFO interface extends 3-4 unit cells into BFO. The interior part of a thicker BFO layer has a much smaller magnetization, suggesting it still keeps the small canted AFM state. The results exclude charge transfer, intermixing, epitaxial strain, and octahedral rotations/tilts as dominating mechanisms for the large net magnetization in BFO. An explanation-one suggested by others previously and consistent with the observations-attributes the temperature dependence of the net magnetization of BFO to strong orbital hybridization between Fe and Mn across the interfaces. Such orbital reconstruction would establish an upper temperature limit for magnetic ordering of BFO.

  9. Study on two-dimensional POISSON design of large-scale FFAG magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Huafu

    2006-01-01

    In order to decrease the edge effect of the field, the designed magnetic field distribution in a large-scale FFAG magnet is realized by both the trim coil and the shape of the magnet pole-face. Through two-dimensional POISSON simulations, the distribution about the current and the position of the trim coil and the shape of the magnet pole are determined. In order to facilitate the POISSON design, two codes are writteen to automatically adjust the current and the position of the trim coil and the shape of magnet pole-face appeared in the POISSON input file. With the two codes, the efficiency of POISSON simulations is improved and the mistakes which might occur in writing and adjusting the POISSON input file manually could be avoided. (authors)

  10. Hydrogenated Graphene Nanoflakes: Semiconductor to Half-Metal Transition and Remarkable Large Magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yungang; Wang, Zhiguo; Yang, Ping; Sun, Xin; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei

    2012-03-08

    The electronic and magnetic properties of graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) can be tuned by patterned adsorption of hydrogen. Controlling the H coverage from bare GNFs to half hydrogenated and then to fully hydrogenated GNFs, the transformation of small-gap semiconductor {yields} half-metal {yields} wide-gap semiconductor occurs, accompanied by a magnetic {yields} magnetic {yields} nonmagnetic transfer and a nonmagnetic {yields} magnetic {yields} nonmagnetic transfer for triangular and hexagonal nanoflakes, respectively. The half hydrogenated GNFs, associated with strong spin polarization around the Fermi level, exhibit the unexpected large spin moment that is scaled squarely with the size of flakes. The induced spin magnetizations of these nanoflakes align parallel and lead to a substantial collective character, enabling the half hydrogenated GNFs to be spin-filtering flakes. These hydrogenation-dependent behaviors are then used to realize an attractive approach to engineer the transport properties, which provides a new route to facilitate the design of tunable spin devices.

  11. Magnetic structure driven ferroelectricity and large magnetoelectric coupling in antiferromagnet Co4Nb2O9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, P.; Chaudhary, S.; Maurya, V.; Saha, J.; Kaushik, S. D.; Siruguri, V.; Patnaik, S.

    2018-05-01

    Synthesis and extensive structural, pyroelectric, magnetic, dielectric and magneto-electric characterizations are reported for polycrystalline Co4Nb2O9 towards unraveling the multiferroic ground state. Magnetic measurements confirm that Co4Nb2O9 becomes an anti-ferromagnet at around 28 K. Associated with the magnetic phase transition, a sharp peak in pyroelectric current indicates the appearance of strong magneto-electric coupling below Neel temperature (TN) along with large coupling constant upto 17.8 μC/m2T. Using temperature oscillation technique, we establish Co4Nb2O9 to be a genuine multiferroic with spontaneous electric polarization in the anti-ferromagnetic state in the absence of magnetic field poling. This is in agreement with our low temperature neutron diffraction studies that show the magnetic structure of Co4Nb2O9 to be that of a non-collinear anti-ferromagnet with ferroelectric ground state.

  12. Development of REBCO HTS Magnet of Magnetic Bearing for Large Capacity Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Furukawa, Makoto; Nakao, Kengo; Nagashima, Ken; Ogata, Masafumi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro; Arai, Yuuki; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is a promising electrical storage system that moderates fluctuation of electrical power from renewable energy sources. The FESS can charge and discharge the surplus electrical power repetitively with the rotating energy. Particularly, the FESS that utilizes a high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing (HTS bearing) is lower loss than conventional FESS that has mechanical bearing, and has property of longer life operation than secondary batteries. The HTS bearing consists of a HTS bulk and double-pancake coils used 2nd generation REBCO wires. In the development, the HTS double-pancake coils were fabricated and were provided for a levitation test to verify the possibility of the HTS bearing. We successfully confirmed the magnetic field was achieved to design value, and levitation force in the configuration of one YBCO bulk and five double pan-cake coils was obtained to a satisfactory force of 39.2 kN (4 tons).

  13. ENTROPIES AND FLUX-SPLITTINGS FOR THE ISENTROPIC EULER EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors establish the existence of a large class of mathematical entropies (the so-called weak entropies) associated with the Euler equations for an isentropic, compressible fluid governed by a general pressure law. A mild assumption on the behavior of the pressure law near the vacuum is solely required. The analysis is based on an asymptotic expansion of the fundamental solution (called here the entropy kernel) of a highly singular Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation. The entropy kernel is only H lder continuous and its regularity is carefully investigated. Relying on a notion introduced earlier by the authors, it is also proven that, for the Euler equations, the set of entropy flux-splittings coincides with the set of entropies-entropy fluxes. These results imply the existence of a flux-splitting consistent with all of the entropy inequalities.

  14. Minimisation of higher order harmonics for large aperture super-ferric quadrupole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Atanu; Sharma, P.R.; Dey, M.K.; Bhunia, U.; Nandy, C.; Roy, S.; Pal, G.; Mallik, C.

    2011-01-01

    We have analysed the magnetic field of finite length (effective length of 1200 mm), large bore (pole radius of 350 mm) superconducting quadrupole magnets for use in Low Energy Branch of Super FRS with the program TOSCA. In particularly we have tried to minimize the 12-pole and 20-pole components, which would contribute to geometric aberrations. At the same time we have tried to keep the gradient field uniformity at reference radius 300 mm within ±8.0E-04. (author)

  15. Superconductivity and electronic structure of superpure niobium. 3. Magnetoconductivity and magnetic breakdown in large magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseevskij, N.E.; Nizhankovskij, V.I.; Bertel', K.-X.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements have been of electric conductivity and magnetoresistance of niobium monocrystals with various orientations in helium and hydrogen temperature regions in steady-state magnetic fields of up to 175 ke. At helium temperatures the resistance is shown to be proportional to the square of temperature. A significant longitudinal magnetoresistance of niobium has been established, depending on the sample orientation. Its initiation is attributed to the open nature of the niobium Fermi surface. As a result of studying the lateral magnetoresistance in fields of up to 92 ke, a stereographic projection of niobium open directions has been constructed. Open trajectories exist both in two-dimensional regions around the directions [100] and [111] and along the symmetry lines. Studies conducted in fields of up to 175 ke have revealed a magnetic break- own leading to the conversion of the open trajectories to the closed ones. A comprehensive picture of the magnetic break-down in niobium has been obtained, and on the basis of the coherent model an expression has been derived describing the impact of this break-down on the resistance. Comparison between experimental and theoretical dependences of the magnetoresistance on the field characteristics has provided the value of the break-down field H 0 =280 ke

  16. Considerations of coil protection and electrical connection schemes in large superconducting toroidal magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.T.

    1976-03-01

    A preliminary comparison of several different coil protection and electrical connection schemes for large superconducting toroidal magnet systems (STMS) is carried out. The tentative recommendation is to rely on external dump resistors for coil protection and to connect the coils in the toroidal magnet in several parallel loops (e.g., every fourth coil is connected into a single series loop). For the fault condition when a single coil quenches, the quenched coil should be isolated from its loop by switching devices. The magnet, as a whole, should probably be discharged if more than a few coils have quenched

  17. Modeling of random geometric errors in superconducting magnets with applications to the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ferracin

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of random field-shape errors induced by cable mispositioning in superconducting magnets are presented and specific applications to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC main dipoles and quadrupoles are extensively discussed. Numerical simulations obtained with Monte Carlo methods are compared to analytic estimates and are used to interpret the experimental data for the LHC dipole and quadrupole prototypes. The proposed approach can predict the effect of magnet tolerances on geometric components of random field-shape errors, and it is a useful tool to monitor the obtained tolerances during magnet production.

  18. Quantum chaos: entropy signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.A.; Sarkar, S.; Zarum, R.

    1998-01-01

    A definition of quantum chaos is given in terms of entropy production rates for a quantum system coupled weakly to a reservoir. This allows the treatment of classical and quantum chaos on the same footing. In the quantum theory the entropy considered is the von Neumann entropy and in classical systems it is the Gibbs entropy. The rate of change of the coarse-grained Gibbs entropy of the classical system with time is given by the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy. The relation between KS entropy and the rate of change of von Neumann entropy is investigated for the kicked rotator. For a system which is classically chaotic there is a linear relationship between these two entropies. Moreover it is possible to construct contour plots for the local KS entropy and compare it with the corresponding plots for the rate of change of von Neumann entropy. The quantitative and qualitative similarities of these plots are discussed for the standard map (kicked rotor) and the generalised cat maps. (author)

  19. Entropy and information

    CERN Document Server

    Volkenstein, Mikhail V

    2009-01-01

    The book "Entropy and Information" deals with the thermodynamical concept of entropy and its relationship to information theory. It is successful in explaining the universality of the term "Entropy" not only as a physical phenomenon, but reveals its existence also in other domains. E.g., Volkenstein discusses the "meaning" of entropy in a biological context and shows how entropy is related to artistic activities. Written by the renowned Russian bio-physicist Mikhail V. Volkenstein, this book on "Entropy and Information" surely serves as a timely introduction to understand entropy from a thermodynamic perspective and is definitely an inspiring and thought-provoking book that should be read by every physicist, information-theorist, biologist, and even artist.

  20. Comparison of the enrollment percentages of magnet and non-magnet schools in a large urban school district.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Arcia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Are magnet schools in a position to meet diversity ideals? As districts are declared unitary and released from court ordered desegregation, many are framing their commitments to fairness and equity in terms of diversity˜i.e., comparable rates of participation and comparable educational outcomes in all segments the student population. In this study, the enrollment statistics for magnet and contiguous non-magnet public schools in Miami-Dade County Public Schools, a large, urban district that had been released from court ordered desegregation, were compared to each other and to district enrollment averages at two time points: the year the district was declared unitary and four years hence. Findings indicated that within four years of being declared unitary, the gains that the magnet schools had made with regards to Black/non-Black desegregation had eroded substantially. Also, in the four year span, magnet schools had not made significant strides in meeting the diversity ideals adopted by the district at being released from supervision by the court. These findings highlight the difficulty of attaining diversity in student enrollment characteristics when quotas are not used and suggest that recruitment and enrollment policies must be crafted with care if districts are to achieve diversity goals.

  1. Deep-tow magnetic survey above large exhumed mantle domains of the eastern Southwest Indian ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, A.; Munschy, M.; Carlut, J. H.; Searle, R. C.; Sauter, D.; Cannat, M.

    2011-12-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of seafloor, the "smooth seafloor", formed with no or very little volcanic activity along the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) shows an unexpected complexity in processes of generation of the oceanic lithosphere. There, detachment faulting is thought to be a mechanism for efficient exhumation of deep-seated mantle rocks. We present here a deep-tow geological-geophysical survey over smooth seafloor at the eastern SWIR (62-64°N) combining magnetic data, geology mapping from side-scan sonar images and results from dredge sampling. We introduce a new type of calibration approach for deep-tow fluxgate magnetometer. We show that magnetic data can be corrected from the magnetic effect of the vehicle with no recourse to its attitude (pitch, roll and heading) but only using the 3 components recorded by the magnetometer and an approximation of the scalar intensity of the Earth magnetic field. The collected dredge samples as well as the side-scan images confirm the presence of large areas of exhumed mantle-derived peridodites surrounded by a few volcanic constructions. This allows us to hypothesis that magnetic anomalies are caused by serpentinized peridotites or magmatic intrusions. We show that the magnetic signature of the smooth seafloor is clearly weaker than the surrounding volcanic areas. Moreover, the calculated magnetization of a source layer as well as the comparison between deep-tow and sea-surface magnetic data argue for strong East-West variability in the distribution of the magnetized sources. This variability may results from fluid-rocks interaction along the detachment faults as well as from the repartition of the volcanic material and thus questions the seafloor spreading origin of the corresponding magnetic anomalies. Finally, we provide magnetic arguments, as calculation of block rotation or spreading asymmetry in order to better constrain tectonic mechanisms that occur during the formation of this

  2. After the Recall: Reexamining Multiple Magnet Ingestion at a Large Pediatric Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Daniel; Strickland, Matt; Hepburn, Charlotte Moore

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a mandatory product recall on the frequency of multiple mini-magnet ingestion at a large tertiary pediatric hospital, and to examine the morbidity and mortality associated with these ingestions. In this retrospective chart review, we searched our institution's electronic patient record for patients aged magnetic foreign bodies between 2002 and 2015, a period that included the mandatory product recall. We compared the frequency and character of ingestions before and after the recall. Comparing the postrecall years (January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015) with the 2 years immediately preceding the recall year (January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012) yields an incidence rate ratio of 0.34 (95% CI, 0.18-0.64) for all magnet ingestions and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.08-0.53) for ingestion of multiple magnets. Based on the Fisher exact test, the incidence of both magnet ingestion (P magnet ingestion (P magnet ingestion decreased. There were no deaths in either study period. There was a significant decrease in multiple mini-magnet ingestion following a mandatory product recall. This study supports the effectiveness of the recall, which should bolster efforts to keep it in place in jurisdictions where it is being appealed. More broadly, the result provides general evidence of a recall helping decrease further harm from a product that carries a potential hazard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Large-scale flows, sheet plumes and strong magnetic fields in a rapidly rotating spherical dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, F.

    2011-12-01

    Mechanisms of magnetic field intensification by flows of an electrically conducting fluid in a rapidly rotating spherical shell is investigated. Bearing dynamos of the Eartn and planets in mind, the Ekman number is set at 10-5. A strong dipolar solution with magnetic energy 55 times larger than the kinetic energy of thermal convection is obtained. In a regime of small viscosity and inertia with the strong magnetic field, convection structure consists of a few large-scale retrograde flows in the azimuthal direction and sporadic thin sheet-like plumes. The magnetic field is amplified through stretching of magnetic lines, which occurs typically through three types of flow: the retrograde azimuthal flow near the outer boundary, the downwelling flow of the sheet plume, and the prograde azimuthal flow near the rim of the tangent cylinder induced by the downwelling flow. It is found that either structure of current loops or current sheets is accompanied in each flow structure. Current loops emerge as a result of stretching the magnetic lines along the magnetic field, wheres the current sheets are formed to counterbalance the Coriolis force. Convection structure and processes of magnetic field generation found in the present model are distinct from those in models at larger/smaller Ekman number.

  4. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs). However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  5. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Garcia-Martin

    Full Text Available Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs. However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  6. Entropy of uremia and dialysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics applies with local exceptions to patient history and therapy interventions. Living things preserve their low level of entropy throughout time because they receive energy from their surroundings in the form of food. They gain their order at the expense of disordering the nutrients they consume. Death is the thermodynamically favored state: it represents a large increase in entropy as molecular structure yields to chaos. The kidney is an organ dissipating large amounts of energy to maintain the level of entropy of the organism as low as possible. Diseases, and in particular uremia, represent conditions of rapid increase in entropy. Therapeutic strategies are oriented towards a reduction in entropy or at least a decrease in the speed of entropy increase. Uremia is a process accelerating the trend towards randomness and disorder (increase in entropy). Dialysis is a factor external to the patient that tends to reduce the level of entropy caused by kidney disease. Since entropy can only increase in closed systems, energy and work must be spent to limit the entropy of uremia. This energy should be adapted to the system (patient) and be specifically oriented and personalized. This includes a multidimensional effort to achieve an adequate dialysis that goes beyond small molecular weight solute clearance. It includes a biological plan for recovery of homeostasis and a strategy towards long-term rehabilitation of the patient. Such objectives can be achieved with a combination of technology and innovation to answer specific questions that are still present after 60 years of dialysis history. This change in the individual bioentropy may represent a local exception to natural trends as the patient could be considered an isolated universe responding to the classic laws of thermodynamics. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Vibrational entropies in metallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Asta, Mark; Wolverton, Christopher

    2000-03-01

    Recently, it has been recognized that vibrational entropy can have significant effects on the phase stability of metallic alloys. Using density functional linear response calculations and molecular dynamics simulations we study three representative cases: (i) phase diagram of Al-rich Al-Sc alloys, (ii) stability of precipitate phases in CuAl_2, and (iii) phonon dynamics in bcc Zr. We find large vibrational entropy effects in all cases. In the Al-Sc system, vibrations increase the solid solubility of Sc in Al by decreasing the stability of the L12 (Al_3Sc) phase. This leads to a nearly ten-fold increase in the solid solubility of Sc in Al at T=800 K. In the Cu-Al system, our calculations predict that the tetragonal Laves phase of CuAl2 has 0.35 kB/atom higher vibrational entropy than the cubic CaF_2-type phase (the latter is predicted to be the T=0 K ground state of CuAl_2). This entropy difference causes a structural transformation in CuAl2 precipitates from the fluorite to the tetragonal Laves phase around T=500 K. Finally, we analyze the highly unusual dynamics of anharmonically stabilized bcc Zr, finding large diffuse-scattering intensity streaks between the bcc Bragg peaks.

  8. Auroral electrojet dynamics during magnetic storms, connection with plasma precipitation and large-scale structure of the magnetospheric magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Feldstein

    1999-04-01

    magnetospheric magnetic field paraboloid model the influence of the ring current and magnetospheric tail plasma sheet currents on large-scale magnetosphere structure is considered.Key words. Ionosphere (particle precipitation · Magnetospheric physics (current systems; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics.

  9. Control of field uniformity for a large superconducting storage ring magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A 1.45 Tesla, 14.2 meter diameter ''superferric'' magnet is in an advanced stage of construction at BNL. This magnet will be used to store muons for a planned ultra-precise measurement of their anomalous magnetic moment g-2. This measurement requires a magnetic field uniformity of 1 PPM with a knowledge of the field over the muon orbits to 0.1 PPM. The methods built into the design to produce ultra-high field uniformity will be described. Large deviations from the ideal circularly symmetric uniform shape of the iron flux path are required to accommodate transfer lines and superconducting current leads, as well as apparatus for beam injection. Shimming methods to correct for the perturbations due to these large holes will be presented. The pole pieces consist of 36 closely fitting 10 degree arc sections butted together to produce a very good approximation to a continuous 360 degree ring magnet. However, in the cast of a possible quench of the superconducting coils, significant eddy currents will be induced which will circulate within the confines of each 10 degree pole piece. At the great precision required, these eddy currents may leave very small but significant aberrations in the field even after they decay away, because of slight changes in the orientation of the magnetization. Surface coil possibilities to correct for this effect will be described

  10. Upper Hybrid Resonance of Microwaves with a Large Magnetized Plasma Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Wenqing; Guo Shijie; Ding Liang; Xu Yuemin

    2013-01-01

    A large magnetized plasma sheet with size of 60 cm × 60 cm × 2 cm was generated by a linear hollow cathode discharge under the confinement of a uniform magnetic field generated by a Helmholtz Coil. The microwave transmission characteristic of the plasma sheet was measured for different incident frequencies, in cases with the electric field polarization of the incident microwave either perpendicular or parallel to the magnetic field. In this measurement, parameters of the plasma sheet were changed by varying the discharge current and magnetic field intensity. In the experiment, upper hybrid resonance phenomena were observed when the electric field polarization of the incident wave was perpendicular to the magnetic field. These resonance phenomena cannot be found in the case of parallel polarization incidence. This result is consistent with theoretical consideration. According to the resonance condition, the electron density values at the resonance points are calculated under various experimental conditions. This kind of resonance phenomena can be used to develop a specific method to diagnose the electron density of this magnetized plasma sheet apparatus. Moreover, it is pointed out that the operating parameters of the large plasma sheet in practical applications should be selected to keep away from the upper hybrid resonance point to prevent signals from polarization distortion

  11. Safety and protection for large scale superconducting magnets. FY 1984 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, R.J.; Pillsbury, R.D. Jr.; Minervini, J.V.

    1984-11-01

    The Fusion Program is moving rapidly into design and construction of systems using magnets with stored energies in the range of hundreds of megajoules to gigajoules. For example, the toroidal field coil system alone for TFCX would store about 4 GJ and the mirror system MFTF-B would store about 1.6 GJ. Safety and protection analyses of the magnet subsystems become progressively more important as the size and complexity of the installations increase. MIT has been carrying out a program for INEL oriented toward safety and protection in large scale superconducting magnet systems. The program involves collection and analysis of information on actual magnet failures, analyses of general problems associated with safety and protection, and performance of safety oriented experiments. This report summarizes work performed in FY 1984

  12. Slip-Stick Mechanism in Training the Superconducting Magnets in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Todesco, E

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting magnets can exhibit training quenches during successive powering to reaching nominal performance. The slip–stick motion of the conductors is considered to be one of the mechanisms of training. In this paper, we present a simple quantitative model where the training is described as a discrete dynamical system matching the equilibrium between the energy margin of the superconducting cable and the frictional energy released during the conductor motion. The model can be explicitly solved in the linearized case, showing that the short sample limit is reached via a power law. Training phenomena have a large random component. A large set of data of the large hadron collider magnet tests is postprocessed according to previously defined methods to extract an average training curve for dipoles and quadrupoles. These curves show the asymptotic power law predicted by the model. The curves are then fit through the model, which has two free parameters. The model shows good agreement over a large range, bu...

  13. Slip-Stick Mechanism in Training the Superconducting Magnets in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Lorin, C

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting magnets can exhibit training quenches during successive powering to reaching nominal performance. The slip-stick motion of the conductors is considered to be one of the mechanisms of training. In this paper, we present a simple quantitative model where the training is described as a discrete dynamical system matching the equilibrium between the energy margin of the superconducting cable and the frictional energy released during the conductor motion. The model can be explicitly solved in the linearized case, showing that the short sample limit is reached via a power law. Training phenomena have a large random component. A large set of data of the large hadron collider magnet tests is postprocessed according to previously defined methods to extract an average training curve for dipoles and quadrupoles. These curves show the asymptotic power law predicted by the model. The curves are then fit through the model, which has two free parameters. The model shows good agreement over a large range, but ...

  14. The magnetic g-tensors for ion complexes with large spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.K.L.; Liu, Y.S.

    1977-01-01

    A nonperturbative method for calculating the magnetic g-tensors is presented and discussed for complexes of transition metal ions of large spin-orbit coupling, in the ground term 2 D. A numerical example for CuCl 2 .2H 2 O is given [pt

  15. On the Origin of the Large Magnetic Anisotropy of Rare Earth-Cobalt Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szpunar, B.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1979-01-01

    Experimental data on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy in Co, YCo5, GdCo5, SmCo5 and Y2Co17 is analysed using a single-ion crystal field and isotropic exchange interaction. The large magnetic anisotropy at high temperatures in the alloys is due to significant deviations in the alloy lattices...

  16. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  17. Transplanckian entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Darwin; Chu, C.-S.; Lin Fengli

    2004-01-01

    The entanglement entropy of the event horizon is known to be plagued by the UV divergence due to the infinitely blue-shifted near horizon modes. In this Letter we calculate the entanglement entropy using the transplanckian dispersion relation, which has been proposed to model the quantum gravity effects. We show that, very generally, the entropy is rendered UV finite due to the suppression of high energy modes effected by the transplanckian dispersion relation

  18. Entropy-Stabilized Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-29

    antiferroelectrics. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 017603 (2013). 22. Cantor , B., Chang, I., Knight, P. & Vincent, A. Microstructural development in equiatomic...Science 345, 1153–1158 (2014). 24. Gali, A. & George , E. Tensile properties of high- and medium-entropy alloys. Intermetallics 39, 74–78 (2013). 25...148–153 (2014). 26. Otto, F., Yang, Y., Bei, H. & George , E. Relative effects of enthalpy and entropy on the phase stability of equiatomic high-entropy

  19. Preclinical Diagnosis of Magnetic Resonance (MR Brain Images via Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform with Tsallis Entropy and Generalized Eigenvalue Proximal Support Vector Machine (GEPSVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing an accurate computer-aided diagnosis (CAD system of MR brain images is essential for medical interpretation and analysis. In this study, we propose a novel automatic CAD system to distinguish abnormal brains from normal brains in MRI scanning. Methods: The proposed method simplifies the task to a binary classification problem. We used discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT to extract wavelet packet coefficients from MR brain images. Next, Shannon entropy (SE and Tsallis entropy (TE were harnessed to obtain entropy features from DWPT coefficients. Finally, generalized eigenvalue proximate support vector machine (GEPSVM, and GEPSVM with radial basis function (RBF kernel, were employed as classifier. We tested the four proposed diagnosis methods (DWPT + SE + GEPSVM, DWPT + TE + GEPSVM, DWPT + SE + GEPSVM + RBF, and DWPT + TE + GEPSVM + RBF on three benchmark datasets of Dataset-66, Dataset-160, and Dataset-255. Results: The 10 repetition of K-fold stratified cross validation results showed the proposed DWPT + TE + GEPSVM + RBF method excelled not only other three proposed classifiers but also existing state-of-the-art methods in terms of classification accuracy. In addition, the DWPT + TE + GEPSVM + RBF method achieved accuracy of 100%, 100%, and 99.53% on Dataset-66, Dataset-160, and Dataset-255, respectively. For Dataset-255, the offline learning cost 8.4430s and online prediction cost merely 0.1059s. Conclusions: We have proved the effectiveness of the proposed method, which achieved nearly 100% accuracy over three benchmark datasets.

  20. ENTROPY FUNCTIONAL FOR CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS OF FINITE ENTROPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Rahimi A. Riazi

    2012-01-01

    In this article,we introduce the concept of entropy functional for continuous systems on compact metric spaces,and prove some of its properties.We also extract the Kolmogorov entropy from the entropy functional.

  1. MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURE OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD FROM FARADAY ROTATION MEASURES OF DIFFUSE POLARIZED EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, S. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; McConnell, D. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Haverkorn, M. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9010, 6500-GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Beck, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Wolleben, M. [Square Kilometre Array South Africa, The Park, Pinelands 7405 (South Africa); Stanimirovic, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Dickey, J. M. [Physics Department, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Staveley-Smith, L., E-mail: mao@astro.wisc.edu [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2012-11-01

    We present a study of the magnetic field of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), carried out using diffuse polarized synchrotron emission data at 1.4 GHz acquired at the Parkes Radio Telescope and the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The observed diffuse polarized emission is likely to originate above the LMC disk on the near side of the galaxy. Consistent negative rotation measures (RMs) derived from the diffuse emission indicate that the line-of-sight magnetic field in the LMC's near-side halo is directed coherently away from us. In combination with RMs of extragalactic sources that lie behind the galaxy, we show that the LMC's large-scale magnetic field is likely to be of quadrupolar geometry, consistent with the prediction of dynamo theory. On smaller scales, we identify two brightly polarized filaments southeast of the LMC, associated with neutral hydrogen arms. The filaments' magnetic field potentially aligns with the direction toward the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We suggest that tidal interactions between the SMC and the LMC in the past 10{sup 9} years are likely to have shaped the magnetic field in these filaments.

  2. Experience with LHC Magnets from Prototyping to Large Scale Industrial Production and Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Rossi, L

    2004-01-01

    The construction of the LHC superconducting magnets is approaching its half way to completion. At the end of 2003, main dipoles cold masses for more than one octant were delivered; meanwhile the winding for the second octant was almost completed. The other large magnets, like the main quadrupoles and the insertion quadrupoles, have entered into series production as well. Providing more than 20 km of superconducting magnets, with the quality required for an accelerator like LHC, is an unprecedented challenge in term of complexity that has required many steps from the construction of 1 meterlong magnets in the laboratory to today’s production of more than one 15 meter-long magnet per day in Industry. The work and its organization is made even more complex by the fact that CERN supplies most of the critical components and part of the main tooling to the magnet manufacturers, both for cost reduction and for quality issues. In this paper the critical aspects of the construction will be reviewed and the actual ...

  3. Electromotive force and large-scale magnetic dynamo in a turbulent flow with a mean shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan

    2003-09-01

    An effect of sheared large-scale motions on a mean electromotive force in a nonrotating turbulent flow of a conducting fluid is studied. It is demonstrated that in a homogeneous divergence-free turbulent flow the alpha effect does not exist, however a mean magnetic field can be generated even in a nonrotating turbulence with an imposed mean velocity shear due to a "shear-current" effect. A mean velocity shear results in an anisotropy of turbulent magnetic diffusion. A contribution to the electromotive force related to the symmetric parts of the gradient tensor of the mean magnetic field (the kappa effect) is found in nonrotating turbulent flows with a mean shear. The kappa effect and turbulent magnetic diffusion reduce the growth rate of the mean magnetic field. It is shown that a mean magnetic field can be generated when the exponent of the energy spectrum of the background turbulence (without the mean velocity shear) is less than 2. The shear-current effect was studied using two different methods: the tau approximation (the Orszag third-order closure procedure) and the stochastic calculus (the path integral representation of the solution of the induction equation, Feynman-Kac formula, and Cameron-Martin-Girsanov theorem). Astrophysical applications of the obtained results are discussed.

  4. Unusually large magnetic moments in the normal state and superconducting state of Sn nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Chi-Hang; Lee, Chi-Hung; Hsu, Chien-Kang; Li, Chi-Yen; Karna, Sunil K.; Wang, Chin-Wei; Wu, Chun-Ming; Li, Wen-Hsien, E-mail: whli@phy.ncu.edu.tw [National Central University, Department of Physics and Center for Neutron Beam Applications (China)

    2013-09-15

    We report on the observations of spontaneous magnetic moments in the normal as well as in the superconducting states of a 9 nm Sn nanoparticle assembly, through X-ray diffraction, magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility, and neutron diffraction measurements. The saturation magnetization reaches an unexpectedly large value of 1.04 emu/g at 5 K, with a temperature profile that can be described by Bloch's law with an exponent of b = 1.8. A magnetic moment of Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {mu}{sub Z} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket = 0.38 {mu}{sub B} develops after cooling from 260 to 4 K. Superconductivity develops below T{sub C} = 3.98 K, which is 7 % higher than the T{sub C} = 3.72 K of bulk Sn. Surprisingly, an addition magnetic moment of Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {mu}{sub Z} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket = 0.05 {mu}{sub B} develops upon entering the superconducting state.

  5. Liquid metal flow in a large-radius elbow with a uniform magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, T.J.; Walker, J.S.

    1988-07-01

    This paper treats the liquid-metal flow in an elbow between two straight, rectangular ducts. There is a uniform magnetic field in the plane of the elbow. The duct has thin, electrically conducting walls. The Hartmann number and the interaction parameter are assumed to be large, while the magnetic Reynolds number is assumed to be small. Solutions for the velocity at each cross section of the elbow and for the pressure drop due to three-dimensional effects are presented. 10 refs., 5 figs

  6. Large coercivity in nanocrystalline TbMn6Sn6 permanent magnets prepared by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongwei; Zhao Tongyun; Zhang Jian; Rong Chuanbing; Zhang Shaoying; Shen Baogen; Li Lu; Zhang Ligang

    2003-01-01

    Isotropic TbMn 6 Sn 6 was prepared by mechanical milling and subsequent annealing. Although the crystalline grain size was a little larger than 15 nm, no remanence enhancement resulting from intergrain exchange coupling was observed. The coercivity μ 0 H c = 0.96 T at 293 K was much larger than that expected from magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The smallest effective anisotropy constant is suggested to be 0.25 MJ m -3 when the coercivity mechanism is controlled by coherent rotation of magnetization in a single-domain grain. The contributions of shape anisotropy and magnetoelastic anisotropy are considered in order to explain the large coercivity in the magnets

  7. Large-acceptance-angle gridded analyzers in an axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrostatic retarding-potential gridded analyzers have been used to measure the current and the axial energy distributions of ions escaping along magnetic field lines in the 2XIIB magnetic mirror fusion experiment at Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Three analyzers are discussed: a large scanning analyzer with a movable entrance aperture that can measure ion or electron losses from a different segment of the plasma diameter on each shot, a smaller analyzer that mounts in 5-cm-diam ports, and a multicollector analyzer that can continuously measure losses from the entire plasma diameter

  8. Entropy of a bit-shift channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggen, Stan; Balakirsky, Vladimir; Denteneer, Dee; Egner, Sebastian; Hollmann, Henk; Tolhuizen, Ludo; Verbitskiy, Evgeny

    2006-01-01

    We consider a simple transformation (coding) of an iid source called a bit-shift channel. This simple transformation occurs naturally in magnetic or optical data storage. The resulting process is not Markov of any order. We discuss methods of computing the entropy of the transformed process, and

  9. The maximum-entropy method in superspace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Smaalen, S.; Palatinus, Lukáš; Schneider, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2003), s. 459-469 ISSN 0108-7673 Grant - others:DFG(DE) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : maximum-entropy method, * aperiodic crystals * electron density Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.558, year: 2003

  10. Information Entropy Production of Maximum Entropy Markov Chains from Spike Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofré, Rodrigo; Maldonado, Cesar

    2018-01-01

    We consider the maximum entropy Markov chain inference approach to characterize the collective statistics of neuronal spike trains, focusing on the statistical properties of the inferred model. We review large deviations techniques useful in this context to describe properties of accuracy and convergence in terms of sampling size. We use these results to study the statistical fluctuation of correlations, distinguishability and irreversibility of maximum entropy Markov chains. We illustrate these applications using simple examples where the large deviation rate function is explicitly obtained for maximum entropy models of relevance in this field.

  11. Current-induced magnetization switching in atom-thick tungsten engineered perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with large tunnel magnetoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengxing; Cai, Wenlong; Cao, Kaihua; Zhou, Jiaqi; Wrona, Jerzy; Peng, Shouzhong; Yang, Huaiwen; Wei, Jiaqi; Kang, Wang; Zhang, Youguang; Langer, Jürgen; Ocker, Berthold; Fert, Albert; Zhao, Weisheng

    2018-02-14

    Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions based on MgO/CoFeB structures are of particular interest for magnetic random-access memories because of their excellent thermal stability, scaling potential, and power dissipation. However, the major challenge of current-induced switching in the nanopillars with both a large tunnel magnetoresistance ratio and a low junction resistance is still to be met. Here, we report spin transfer torque switching in nano-scale perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with a magnetoresistance ratio up to 249% and a resistance area product as low as 7.0 Ω µm 2 , which consists of atom-thick W layers and double MgO/CoFeB interfaces. The efficient resonant tunnelling transmission induced by the atom-thick W layers could contribute to the larger magnetoresistance ratio than conventional structures with Ta layers, in addition to the robustness of W layers against high-temperature diffusion during annealing. The critical switching current density could be lower than 3.0 MA cm -2 for devices with a 45-nm radius.

  12. Entanglement entropy of ABJM theory and entropy of topological black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Jun; Zhang, Xinyu

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we discuss the supersymmetric localization of the 4D N = 2 offshell gauged supergravity on the background of the AdS4 neutral topological black hole, which is the gravity dual of the ABJM theory defined on the boundary {S}^1× H^2 . We compute the large- N expansion of the supergravity partition function. The result gives the black hole entropy with the logarithmic correction, which matches the previous result of the entanglement entropy of the ABJM theory up to some stringy effects. Our result is consistent with the previous on-shell one-loop computation of the logarithmic correction to black hole entropy. It provides an explicit example of the identification of the entanglement entropy of the boundary conformal field theory with the bulk black hole entropy beyond the leading order given by the classical Bekenstein-Hawking formula, which consequently tests the AdS/CFT correspondence at the subleading order.

  13. Enthalpy–entropy compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enthalpy–entropy compensation is the name given to the correlation sometimes observed between the estimates of the enthalpy and entropy of a reaction obtained from temperature-dependence data. Although the mainly artefactual nature of this correlation has been known for many years, the subject enjoys periodical ...

  14. Entropy in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the process of ageing, the balance shifts in the direction of anarchy. Death is ... tion of life and the laws of statistieal physics and entropy, both of which ... capable of doing work. ... defined by Ludwig Boltzmann in 1877, the entropy of the.

  15. The holographic entropy cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ning [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nezami, Sepehr [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ooguri, Hirosi [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Stoica, Bogdan [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sully, James [Theory Group, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Walter, Michael [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.

  16. The holographic entropy cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.

  17. Motion control of a large gap magnetic suspension system for microrobotic manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, David; Khamesee, Mir Behrad [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2007-06-07

    Magnetic suspension systems have shown a great deal of promise in the field of microrobotics. This paper discusses the performance of a new large gap magnetic suspension system developed by the researchers. The magnetic drive unit consists of six electromagnets attached to a soft iron pole piece and yoke. Levitation of an 11.19 g microrobot prototype is demonstrated for step, ramp and periodic input trajectories using PID control. The working envelope of the microrobot is 30 x 22 x 20 mm{sup 3}, with an RMS error on the order of 18 {mu}m in the vertical direction and 8 {mu}m in the horizontal direction. It is demonstrated that the levitated microrobot is able to track the desired trajectory precisely and that the system has potential application for micromanipulation.

  18. ACCRETION DISKS WITH A LARGE SCALE MAGNETIC FIELD AROUND BLACK HOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Bisnovatyi-Kogan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider accretion disks around black holes at high luminosity, and the problem of the formation of a large-scale magnetic field in such disks, taking into account the non-uniform vertical structure of the disk. The structure of advective accretion disks is investigated, and conditions for the formation of optically thin regions in central parts of the accretion disk are found. The high electrical conductivity of the outer layers of the disk prevents outward diffusion of the magnetic field. This implies a stationary state with a strong magnetic field in the inner parts of the accretion disk close to the black hole, and zero radial velocity at the surface of the disk. The problem of jet collimation by magneto-torsion oscillations is investigated.

  19. Motion control of a large gap magnetic suspension system for microrobotic manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, David; Khamesee, Mir Behrad

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic suspension systems have shown a great deal of promise in the field of microrobotics. This paper discusses the performance of a new large gap magnetic suspension system developed by the researchers. The magnetic drive unit consists of six electromagnets attached to a soft iron pole piece and yoke. Levitation of an 11.19 g microrobot prototype is demonstrated for step, ramp and periodic input trajectories using PID control. The working envelope of the microrobot is 30 x 22 x 20 mm 3 , with an RMS error on the order of 18 μm in the vertical direction and 8 μm in the horizontal direction. It is demonstrated that the levitated microrobot is able to track the desired trajectory precisely and that the system has potential application for micromanipulation

  20. The Insulation Vacuum Barrier for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Magnet Cryostats

    CERN Document Server

    Castoldi, M; Parma, Vittorio; Skoczen, Blazej; Trilhe, P

    2000-01-01

    The sectorisation of the insulation vacuum of the LHC magnet cryostats, housing the superconducting magnets, which operate in a 1.9 K superfluid helium bath, is achieved by means of vacuum barriers. Each vacuum barrier is a leak-tight austenitic stainless steel thin-wall structure, mainly composed of large diameter (between 0.6 m and 0.9 m) bellows and concentric corrugated cylinders. It is mounted in the Short Straight Section (SSS) [1], between the magnet helium enclosure and the vacuum vessel. This paper presents the design of the vacuum barrier, concentrating mostly on its expected thermal performance, to fulfil the tight LHC heat in-leak budgets. Pressure and leak test results, confirming the mechanical design of two prototypes manufactured in industry, and the preparation of one of these vacuum barriers for cryogenic testing in an SSS prototype, are also mentioned.

  1. Models of large-scale magnetic fields in stellar interiors. Application to solar and ap stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duez, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Stellar astrophysics needs today new models of large-scale magnetic fields, which are observed through spectropolarimetry at the surface of Ap/Bp stars, and thought to be an explanation for the uniform rotation of the solar radiation zone, deduced from helio seismic inversions. During my PhD, I focused on describing the possible magnetic equilibria in stellar interiors. The found configurations are mixed poloidal-toroidal, and minimize the energy for a given helicity, in analogy with Taylor states encountered in spheromaks. Taking into account the self-gravity leads us to the 'non force-free' equilibria family, that will thus influence the stellar structure. I derived all the physical quantities associated with the magnetic field; then I evaluated the perturbations they induce on gravity, thermodynamic quantities as well as energetic ones, for a solar model and an Ap star. 3D MHD simulations allowed me to show that these equilibria form a first stable states family, the generalization of such states remaining an open question. It has been shown that a large-scale magnetic field confined in the solar radiation zone can induce an oblateness comparable to a high core rotation law. I also studied the secular interaction between the magnetic field, the differential rotation and the meridional circulation in the aim of implementing their effects in a next generation stellar evolution code. The influence of the magnetism on convection has also been studied. Finally, hydrodynamic processes responsible for the mixing have been compared with diffusion and a change of convection's efficiency in the case of a CoRoT star target. (author) [fr

  2. The interaction of a very large interplanetary magnetic cloud with the magnetosphere and with cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepping, R.P.; Burlaga, L.F.; Ogilvie, K.W.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Lazarus, A.J.; Evans, D.S.; Klein, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    A large interplanetary magnetic cloud has been observed in the mid-December 1982 data from ISEE 3. It is estimated to have a heliocentric radial extent of approx-gt 0.4 AU, making it one of the largest magnetic clouds yet observed at 1 AU. The magnetic field measured throughout the main portion of the cloud was fairly tightly confined to a plane as it changed direction by 174 degree while varying only moderately in magnitude. Throughout nearly the entire duration of the cloud's passage, IMP 8 was located in the Earth's dawn magnetosheath providing observations of this cloud's interaction with the bow shock and magnetopause; the cloud is shown to maintain its solar wind characteristics during the interaction. Near the end of the cloud passage, at 0806 UT on December 17, ISEE 3 (and IMP 8 at nearly the same time) observed an oblique fast forward interplanetary shock closely coincident in time with a geomagnetic storm sudden commencement. The shock, moving much faster than the cloud (radial speeds of 700 and 390 km/s, respectively, on the average), was in the process of overtaking the cloud. The index Dst decreased monotonically by ∼ 130 nT during the 2-day cloud passage by the Earth and was well correlated with the B z component of the interplanetary magnetic field. There was no significant decrease in the cosmic ray intensity recorded by ground-based neutron monitors at this time of rather strong, smoothly changing fields. However, a Forbush decrease did occur immediately after the interplanetary shock, during a period of significant field turbulence. Thus a large, smooth, interplanetary helical magnetic field configuration engulfing the Earth does not necessarily deflect cosmic rays sufficiently to cause a Forbush decrease, but there is a suggestion that such a decrease may be caused by particle scattering by turbulent magnetic fields

  3. Entropy and Digital Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ballard

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines entropy as a process which introduces ideas of distributed materiality to digital installation. Beginning from an analysis of entropy as both force and probability measure within information theory and it’s extension in Ruldof Arnheim’s text ‘Entropy and Art” it develops an argument for the positive rather thannegative forces of entropy. The paper centres on a discussion of two recent works by New Zealand artists Ronnie van Hout (“On the Run”, Wellington City Gallery, NZ, 2004 and Alex Monteith (“Invisible Cities”, Physics Room Contemporary Art Space, Christchurch, NZ, 2004. Ballard suggests that entropy, rather than being a hindrance to understanding or a random chaotic force, discloses a necessary and material politics of noise present in digital installation.

  4. Large reversible magnetostrictive effect of MnCoSi-based compounds prepared by high-magnetic-field solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q. B.; Hu, Y.; Zhang, S.; Tang, W.; He, X. J.; Li, Z.; Cao, Q. Q.; Wang, D. H.; Du, Y. W.

    2018-01-01

    The MnCoSi compound is a potential magnetostriction material since the magnetic field can drive a metamagnetic transition from an antiferromagnetic phase to a high magnetization phase in it, which accompanies a large lattice distortion. However, a large driving magnetic field, magnetic hysteresis, and poor mechanical properties seriously hinder its application for magnetostriction. By substituting Fe for Mn and introducing vacancies of the Mn element, textured and dense Mn0.97Fe0.03CoSi and Mn0.88CoSi compounds are prepared through a high-magnetic-field solidification approach. As a result, large room-temperature and reversible magnetostriction effects are observed in these compounds at a low magnetic field. The origin of this large magnetostriction effect and potential applications are discussed.

  5. A procedure for combining rotating-coil measurements of large-aperture accelerator magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köster, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.koester@cern.ch; Fiscarelli, Lucio, E-mail: lucio.fiscarelli@cern.ch; Russenschuck, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.russenschuck@cern.ch

    2016-05-11

    The rotating search coil is a precise and widely used tool for measuring the magnetic field harmonics of accelerator magnets. This paper deals with combining several such multipole measurements, in order to cover magnet apertures largely exceeding the diameter of the available search coil. The method relies on the scaling laws for multipole coefficients and on the method of analytic continuation along zero-homotopic paths. By acquiring several measurements of the integrated magnetic flux density at different transverse positions within the bore of the accelerator magnet, the uncertainty on the field harmonics can be reduced at the expense of tight tolerances on the positioning. These positioning tolerances can be kept under control by mounting the rotating coil and its motor-drive unit on precision alignment stages. Therefore, the proposed technique is able to yield even more precise results for the higher-order field components than a dedicated rotating search coil of larger diameter. Moreover, the versatility of the measurement bench is enhanced by avoiding the construction of rotating search coils of different measurement radii.

  6. Test Station for Magnetization Measurements on Large Quantities of Superconducting Strands

    CERN Document Server

    Le Naour, S; Billan, J; Genest, J

    2001-01-01

    In the superconducting main magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), persistent currents in the superconductor determine the field quality at injection field. For this reason it is necessary to check the magnetization of the cable strands during their production. During four years, this requires measurements of the width of the strand magnetization hysteresis loop at 0.5 T, 1.9 K, at a rate of up to eight samples per day. This paper describes the design, construction and the first results of a magnetization test station built for this purpose. The samples are cooled in a cryostat, with a 2-m long elliptic tail. This tail is inserted in a normal conducting dipole magnet with a field between ± 1.5 T. Racetrack pick-up coils, integrated in the cryostat, detect the voltage due to flux change, which is then integrated numerically. The sample holder can contain eight strand samples, each 20 cm long. The test station operates in two modes: either the sample is fixed while the external field is changed, or the sa...

  7. Combining rotating-coil measurements of large-aperture accelerator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2089510

    2016-10-05

    The rotating coil is a widely used tool to measure the magnetic field and the field errors in accelerator magnets. The coil has a length that exceeds the entire magnetic field along the longitudinal dimension of the magnet and gives therefore a two-dimensional representation of the integrated field. Having a very good precision, the rotating coil lacks in versatility. The fixed dimensions make it impractical and inapplicable in situations, when the radial coil dimension is much smaller than the aperture or when the aperture is only little covered by the coil. That being the case for rectangular apertures with large aspect ratio, where a basic measurement by the rotating coil describes the field only in a small area of the magnet. A combination of several measurements at different positions is the topic of this work. Very important for a combination is the error distribution on the measured field harmonics. To preserve the good precision of the higher-order harmonics, the combination must not rely on the main ...

  8. Detailed design of the large-bore 8 T superconducting magnet for the NAFASSY test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corato, V.; Affinito, L.; Anemona, A.; Besi Vetrella, U.; Di Zenobio, A.; Fiamozzi Zignani, C.; Freda, R.; Messina, G.; Muzzi, L.; Perrella, M.; Reccia, L.; Tomassetti, G.; Turtù, S.; della Corte, A.

    2015-03-01

    The ‘NAFASSY’ (NAtional FAcility for Superconducting SYstems) facility is designed to test wound conductor samples under high-field conditions at variable temperatures. Due to its unique features, it is reasonable to assume that in the near future NAFASSY will have a preeminent role at the international level in the qualification of long coiled cables in operative conditions. The magnetic system consists of a large warm bore background solenoid, made up of three series-connected grading sections obtained by winding three different Nb3Sn Cable-in-Conduit Conductors. Thanks to the financial support of the Italian Ministry for University and Research the low-field coil is currently under production. The design has been properly modified to allow the system to operate also as a stand-alone facility, with an inner bore diameter of 1144 mm. This magnet is able to provide about 7 T on its axis and about 8 T close to the insert inner radius, giving the possibility of performing a test relevant for large-sized NbTi or medium-field Nb3Sn conductors. The detailed design of the 8 T magnet, including the electro-magnetic, structural and thermo-hydraulic analysis, is here reported, as well as the production status.

  9. Particle Events as a Possible Source of Large Ozone Loss during Magnetic Polarity Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonKoenig, M.; Burrows, J. P.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Jackman, C. H.; Kallenrode, M.-B.; Kuenzi, K. F.; Quack, M.

    2002-01-01

    The energy deposition in the mesosphere and stratosphere during large extraterrestrial charged particle precipitation events has been known for some time to contribute to ozone losses due to the formation of potential ozone destroying species like NO(sub x), and HO(sub x). These impacts have been measured and can be reproduced with chemistry models fairly well. In the recent past, however, even the impact of the largest solar proton events on the total amount of ozone has been small compared to the dynamical variability of ozone, and to the anthropogenic induced impacts like the Antarctic 'ozone hole'. This is due to the shielding effect of the magnetic field. However, there is evidence that the earth's magnetic field may approach a reversal. This could lead to a decrease of magnetic field strength to less than 25% of its usual value over a period of several centuries . We show that with realistic estimates of very large solar proton events, scenarios similar to the Antarctic ozone hole of the 1990s may occur during a magnetic polarity transition.

  10. Magnetic and thermodynamic properties of the Pr-based ferromagnet PrGe2-δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Keisuke T.; Morioka, Naoya; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the magnetization, M, and specific heat, C, of ThSi2-type PrGe2-δ. A polycrystalline sample of PrGe2-δ was prepared by arc-melting. Magnetization divided by magnetic field, M / B, increased sharply and C showed a clear jump at the Curie temperature, TC, of 14.6 K; these results indicate that PrGe2-δ ordered ferromagnetically. The magnetic entropy at TC reached R ln 3, indicating a quasi-triplet crystalline electric field (CEF) ground state. The maximum value of magnetic entropy change was 11.5 J/K kg with a field change of 7 T, which is comparable to those of other right rare-earth based magnetocaloric materials. This large magnetic entropy change was attributed to the quasi-triplet ground state of the CEF.

  11. Entropy of Vaidya-deSitter Spacetime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; ZHAO Zheng

    2001-01-01

    As a statistical model of black hole entropy, the brick-wall method based on the thermal equilibrium in a large scale cannot be applied to the cases out of equilibrium, such as the non-static hole or the case with two horizons.However, the leading term of hole entropy called the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy comes from the contribution of the field near the horizon. According to this idea, the entropy of Vaidya-deSitter spacetime is calculated. A difference from the static case is that the result proportional to the area of horizon relies on a time-dependent cut-off. The condition of local equilibrium near the horizon is used as a working postulate.

  12. Magneto-electric properties and magnetic entropy change in perovskite La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bau, Le Viet, E-mail: levietbau@hdu.edu.vn; An, Nguyen Manh

    2016-12-15

    The ceramic samples of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3}(x=0; 0.05; 0.1; 0.2 and 0.3) were synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction method. Their electric, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties have been investigated. The transition temperature declines and a significant influence on the width of the ferro-paramagnetic phase transition is observed as increasing Ti concentration. Moreover, the sign of spin-glass is expected to exist in the high concentration samples. For fully replacing Ti{sup 4+} for Mn{sup 4+}, the canted spin state is formed. The substitution Ti for Mn increases resistivity quickly and the insulating–metallic transition temperature shifts toward lower temperature. For x>0.1 samples, the insulating state is observed even in ferromagnetic phase. The substitution Ti shifts the CME to room temperature while almost persists the value of entropy change. Although the maximum value of CME reduces slightly, the temperature range happening MCE is expended and then improves the relative cooling power. These properties could be explained in term of DE interaction and phase separation phenomenon. - Highlights: • Electro-magnetic properties and CME of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} have been investigated. • T{sub C} declines and the width of the F-M phase transition is observed as increasing Ti concentration. • For fully replacing Ti{sup 4+} for Mn{sup 4+}, the canted spin state is formed. • The substitution Ti for Mn increases resistivity quickly and T{sub P} shifts toward lower temperature. • The substitution Ti shifts CME to 300 K while almost persists the value of entropy change. • Relative cooling power (RCP) increases with substitution 5% Ti for Mn.

  13. Manufacturing of High Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Licavoli, Joseph J.; Gao, Michael C.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2015-07-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) have generated interest in recent years due to their unique positioning within the alloy world. By incorporating a number of elements in high proportion they have high configurational entropy, and thus they hold the promise of interesting and useful properties such as enhanced strength and phase stability. The present study investigates the microstructure of two single-phase face-centered cubic (FCC) HEAs, CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeNiMn, with special attention given to melting, homogenization and thermo-mechanical processing. Large-scale ingots were made by vacuum induction melting to avoid the extrinsic factors inherent in small-scale laboratory button samples. A computationally based homogenization heat treatment was applied to both alloys in order to eliminate segregation due to normal ingot solidification. The alloys fabricated well, with typical thermo-mechanical processing parameters being employed.

  14. Analyzing large data sets from XGC1 magnetic fusion simulations using apache spark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, R. Michael [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-11-21

    Apache Spark is explored as a tool for analyzing large data sets from the magnetic fusion simulation code XGCI. Implementation details of Apache Spark on the NERSC Edison supercomputer are discussed, including binary file reading, and parameter setup. Here, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm, k-means clustering, is applied to XGCI particle distribution function data, showing that highly turbulent spatial regions do not have common coherent structures, but rather broad, ring-like structures in velocity space.

  15. Nonsymmetric entropy I: basic concepts and results

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chengshi

    2006-01-01

    A new concept named nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzman's entropy and shannon's entropy, was introduced. Maximal nonsymmetric entropy principle was proven. Some important distribution laws were derived naturally from maximal nonsymmetric entropy principle.

  16. Size Reduction Techniques for Large Scale Permanent Magnet Generators in Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazdozian, Helena; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2015-03-01

    Increased wind penetration is necessary to reduce U.S. dependence on fossil fuels, combat climate change and increase national energy security. The U.S Department of Energy has recommended large scale and offshore wind turbines to achieve 20% wind electricity generation by 2030. Currently, geared doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) are typically employed in the drivetrain for conversion of mechanical to electrical energy. Yet, gearboxes account for the greatest downtime of wind turbines, decreasing reliability and contributing to loss of profit. Direct drive permanent magnet generators (PMGs) offer a reliable alternative to DFIGs by eliminating the gearbox. However, PMGs scale up in size and weight much more rapidly than DFIGs as rated power is increased, presenting significant challenges for large scale wind turbine application. Thus, size reduction techniques are needed for viability of PMGs in large scale wind turbines. Two size reduction techniques are presented. It is demonstrated that 25% size reduction of a 10MW PMG is possible with a high remanence theoretical permanent magnet. Additionally, the use of a Halbach cylinder in an outer rotor PMG is investigated to focus magnetic flux over the rotor surface in order to increase torque. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1069283 and a Barbara and James Palmer Endowment at Iowa State University.

  17. Entropy of the Mixture of Sources and Entropy Dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Smieja, Marek; Tabor, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the problem of the entropy of the mixture of sources. There is given an estimation of the entropy and entropy dimension of convex combination of measures. The proof is based on our alternative definition of the entropy based on measures instead of partitions.

  18. Entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, Roger; Stadje, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk and prove a collection of axiomatic characterization and duality results. We show in particular that entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk emerge as negative certainty equivalents in (the regular and a generalized

  19. Entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, R.J.A.; Stadje, M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce two subclasses of convex measures of risk, referred to as entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk. Entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk are special cases of φ-coherent and φ-convex measures of risk. Contrary to the classical use of coherent and convex

  20. Entropy Coherent and Entropy Convex Measures of Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, R.J.A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce two subclasses of convex measures of risk, referred to as entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk. We prove that convex, entropy convex and entropy coherent measures of risk emerge as certainty equivalents under variational, homothetic and multiple priors preferences,

  1. Black hole thermodynamical entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, Constantino; Cirto, Leonardo J.L.

    2013-01-01

    As early as 1902, Gibbs pointed out that systems whose partition function diverges, e.g. gravitation, lie outside the validity of the Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) theory. Consistently, since the pioneering Bekenstein-Hawking results, physically meaningful evidence (e.g., the holographic principle) has accumulated that the BG entropy S BG of a (3+1) black hole is proportional to its area L 2 (L being a characteristic linear length), and not to its volume L 3 . Similarly it exists the area law, so named because, for a wide class of strongly quantum-entangled d-dimensional systems, S BG is proportional to lnL if d=1, and to L d-1 if d>1, instead of being proportional to L d (d ≥ 1). These results violate the extensivity of the thermodynamical entropy of a d-dimensional system. This thermodynamical inconsistency disappears if we realize that the thermodynamical entropy of such nonstandard systems is not to be identified with the BG additive entropy but with appropriately generalized nonadditive entropies. Indeed, the celebrated usefulness of the BG entropy is founded on hypothesis such as relatively weak probabilistic correlations (and their connections to ergodicity, which by no means can be assumed as a general rule of nature). Here we introduce a generalized entropy which, for the Schwarzschild black hole and the area law, can solve the thermodynamic puzzle. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of an HTS coil for large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Se Yeon; Choi, Kyeong Dal; Park, Sang Ho; Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Woo Seok [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Kwang [Woosuk University, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    It has been well known that a toroid is the inevitable shape for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil as a component of a large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) because it is the best option to minimize a magnetic field intensity applied perpendicularly to the HTS wires. Even though a perfect toroid coil does not have a perpendicular magnetic field, for a practical toroid coil composed of many HTS pancake coils, some type of perpendicular magnetic field cannot be avoided, which is a major cause of degradation of the HTS wires. In order to suggest an optimum design solution for an HTS SMES system, we need an accurate, fast, and effective calculation for the magnetic field, mechanical stresses, and stored energy. As a calculation method for these criteria, a numerical calculation such as an finite element method (FEM) has usually been adopted. However, a 3-dimensional FEM can involve complicated calculation and can be relatively time consuming, which leads to very inefficient iterations for an optimal design process. In this paper, we suggested an intuitive and effective way to determine the maximum magnetic field intensity in the HTS coil by using an analytic and statistical calculation method. We were able to achieve a remarkable reduction of the calculation time by using this method. The calculation results using this method for sample model coils were compared with those obtained by conventional numerical method to verify the accuracy and availability of this proposed method. After the successful substitution of this calculation method for the proposed design program, a similar method of determining the maximum mechanical stress in the HTS coil will also be studied as a future work.

  3. Analysis of an HTS coil for large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Se Yeon; Choi, Kyeong Dal; Park, Sang Ho; Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Woo Seok; Lee, Ji Kwang

    2015-01-01

    It has been well known that a toroid is the inevitable shape for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil as a component of a large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) because it is the best option to minimize a magnetic field intensity applied perpendicularly to the HTS wires. Even though a perfect toroid coil does not have a perpendicular magnetic field, for a practical toroid coil composed of many HTS pancake coils, some type of perpendicular magnetic field cannot be avoided, which is a major cause of degradation of the HTS wires. In order to suggest an optimum design solution for an HTS SMES system, we need an accurate, fast, and effective calculation for the magnetic field, mechanical stresses, and stored energy. As a calculation method for these criteria, a numerical calculation such as an finite element method (FEM) has usually been adopted. However, a 3-dimensional FEM can involve complicated calculation and can be relatively time consuming, which leads to very inefficient iterations for an optimal design process. In this paper, we suggested an intuitive and effective way to determine the maximum magnetic field intensity in the HTS coil by using an analytic and statistical calculation method. We were able to achieve a remarkable reduction of the calculation time by using this method. The calculation results using this method for sample model coils were compared with those obtained by conventional numerical method to verify the accuracy and availability of this proposed method. After the successful substitution of this calculation method for the proposed design program, a similar method of determining the maximum mechanical stress in the HTS coil will also be studied as a future work

  4. Large rotating magnetocaloric effect in ErAlO3 single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of ErAlO3 single crystal were investigated. Magnetization of ErAlO3 shows obvious anisotropy when magnetic field is applied along the a, b and c axes, which leads to large anisotropic magnetic entropy change. In particular, large rotating field entropy change from the b to c axis within the bc plane is obtained and reaches 9.7 J/kg K at 14 K in a field of 5 T. This suggests the possibility of using ErAlO3 single crystal for magnetic refrigerators by rotating its magnetization vector rather than moving it in and out of the magnet.

  5. Entropy and heat generation of lithium cells/batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Songrui

    2016-01-01

    The methods and techniques commonly used in investigating the change of entropy and heat generation in Li cells/batteries are introduced, as are the measurements, calculations and purposes. The changes of entropy and heat generation are concomitant with the use of Li cells/batteries. In order to improve the management and the application of Li cells/batteries, especially for large scale power batteries, the quantitative investigations of the change of entropy and heat generating are necessary. (topical review)

  6. Entropy Production of Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The entropy production (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy production of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy production.

  7. High-Latitude Topside Ionospheric Vertical Electron Density Profile Changes in Response to Large Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert F.; Fainberg, Joseph; Osherovich, Vladimir A.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Wang, Yongli; Bilitza, Dieter; Fung, Shing F.

    2016-01-01

    Large magnetic-storm-induced changes were detected in high-latitude topside vertical electron density profiles Ne(h) in a database of profiles and digital topside ionograms, from the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program, that enabled Ne(h) profiles to be obtained in nearly the same region of space before, during, and after a major magnetic storm (Dst -100nT). Storms where Ne(h) profiles were available in the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere had better coverage of solar wind parameters than storms with available Ne(h) profiles in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere. Large Ne(h) changes were observed during all storms, with enhancements and depletions sometimes near a factor of 10 and 0.1, respectively, but with substantial differences in the responses in the two hemispheres. Large spatial andor temporal Ne(h) changes were often observed during Dst minimum and during the storm recovery phase. The storm-induced Ne(h) changes were the most pronounced and consistent in the Northern Hemisphere in that large enhancements were observed during winter nighttime and large depletions during winter and spring daytime. The limited available cases suggested that these Northern Hemisphere enhancements increased with increases of the time-shifted solar wind velocity v, magnetic field B, and with more negative values of the B components except for the highest common altitude (1100km) of the profiles. There was also some evidence suggesting that the Northern Hemisphere depletions were related to changes in the solar wind parameters. Southern Hemisphere storm-induced enhancements and depletions were typically considerably less with depletions observed during summer nighttime conditions and enhancements during summer daytime and fall nighttime conditions.

  8. The suspended magnetic separator with large blocks from NdFeB magnets and its long term technological tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žežulka, Václav; Straka, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2011), s. 89-97 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : magnetic separation * magnetic separators * magnetic circuits Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/abstracts/AGG/01_11/8_Zezulka.pdf

  9. Large-angle magnetization dynamics investigated by vector-resolved magnetization-induced optical second-harmonic generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, T.; Silva, T.J.; Nibarger, J.P.; Rasing, T.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the relationship between nonlinear magnetic responses and the change in the Gilbert damping parameter alpha for patterned and unpatterned thin Permalloy films when subjected to pulsed magnetic fields. An improved magnetization-vector-resolved technique utilizing magnetization-induced

  10. Characterization of large-area photomultipliers under low magnetic fields: Design and performance of the magnetic shielding for the Double Chooz neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Fernandez-Bedoya, C.; Gil-Botella, I.; Palomares, C.; Rodriguez, I.; Toral, F.; Verdugo, A.

    2010-01-01

    A precise quantitative measurement of the effect of low magnetic fields in Hamamatsu R7081 photomultipliers has been performed. These large-area photomultipliers will be used in the Double Chooz neutrino experiment. A magnetic shielding has been developed for these photomultipliers. Its design and performance is also reported in this paper.

  11. Some remarks on conditional entropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijst, A.G.P.M.

    1969-01-01

    Using a definition of conditional entropy given by Hanen and Neveu [5, 10, 11] we discuss in this paper some properties of conditional entropy and mean entropy, in particular an integral representation of conditional entropy (§ 2), and the decomposition theorem of the KolmogorovSina¯i invariant (§

  12. Electromagnetic Design Study for a Large Bore 15T Superconducting Dipole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Schwerg, N; Devred, Arnaud; Henke, H

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of research and development (R&D) activities at CERN the Next European Dipole (NED) program is one which is to the development of a high-field dipole magnet using Nb_3Sn superconductors. Part of the NED activities is a design study of different possible dipole configurations which is shared amongst the collaborating institutes. This thesis covers the electromagnetic design study of an 88 mm large bore superconducting 15 T dipole magnet with a coil cross section in cos-theta-layer design. Based on analytically describable geometries the sources of multipole errors are studied and elementary estimations of the magnet are carried out, e.g., the required amount of superconductors or the influence of the iron yoke thickness on the field quality. The magnet cross section for NED is optimized by means of the CERN field computation program ROXIE. The preliminary NED design serves as starting point for the coil cross section optimization with respect to field quality and a radial positioning of th...

  13. Magnetic Properties of Solar Active Regions that Govern Large Solar Flares and Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriumi, Shin; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Harra, Louise; Hudson, Hugh S.; Nagashima, Kaori

    2017-08-01

    Strong flares and CMEs are often produced from active regions (ARs). In order to better understand the magnetic properties and evolutions of such ARs, we conducted statistical investigations on the SDO/HMI and AIA data of all flare events with GOES levels >M5.0 within 45 deg from the disk center for 6 years from May 2010 (from the beginning to the declining phase of solar cycle 24). Out of the total of 51 flares from 29 ARs, more than 80% have delta-sunspots and about 15% violate Hale’s polarity rule. We obtained several key findings including (1) the flare duration is linearly proportional to the separation of the flare ribbons (i.e., scale of reconnecting magnetic fields) and (2) CME-eruptive events have smaller sunspot areas. Depending on the magnetic properties, flaring ARs can be categorized into several groups, such as spot-spot, in which a highly-sheared polarity inversion line is formed between two large sunspots, and spot-satellite, where a newly-emerging flux next to a mature sunspot triggers a compact flare event. These results point to the possibility that magnetic structures of the ARs determine the characteristics of flares and CMEs. In the presentation, we will also show new results from the systematic flux emergence simulations of delta-sunspot formation and discuss the evolution processes of flaring ARs.

  14. Effects of induced magnetic field on large scale pulsed MHD generator with two phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Koshiba, Y.; Matsushita, T.

    2004-01-01

    A large pulsed MHD generator 'SAKHALIN' was constructed in Russia (the former Soviet-Union) and operated with solid fuels. The 'SAKHALIN' with the channel length of 4.5 m could demonstrate the electric power output of 510 MW. The effects of induced magnetic field and two phase flow on the shock wave within the 'SAKHALIN' generator have been studied by time dependent, one dimensional analyses. It has been shown that the magnetic Reynolds number is about 0.58 for Run No. 1, and the induced magnetic flux density is about 20% at the entrance and exit of the MHD channel. The shock wave becomes stronger when the induced magnetic field is taken into account, when the operation voltage becomes low. The working gas plasma contains about 40% of liquid particles (Al 2 O 3 ) in weight, and the present analysis treats the liquid particles as another gas. In the case of mono-phase flow, the sharp shock wave is induced when the load voltage becomes small such as 500 V with larger Lorentz force, whereas in the case of two phase flow, the shock wave becomes less sharp because of the interaction with liquid particles

  15. Instrumentation status of the low-b magnet systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Darve, C.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Perin, A.; Vauthier, N.

    2011-01-01

    The low-beta magnet systems are located in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) insertion regions around the four interaction points. They are the key elements in the beams focusing/defocusing process allowing proton collisions at luminosity up to 10**34/cm**2s. Those systems are a contribution of the US-LHC Accelerator project. The systems are mainly composed of the quadrupole magnets (triplets), the separation dipoles and their respective electrical feed-boxes (DFBX). The low-beta magnet systems operate in an environment of extreme radiation, high gradient magnetic field and high heat load to the cryogenic system due to the beam dynamic effect. Due to the severe environment, the robustness of the diagnostics is primordial for the operation of the triplets. The hardware commissioning phase of the LHC was completed in February 2010. In the sake of a safer and more user-friendly operation, several consolidations and instrumentation modifications were implemented during this commissioning phase. This paper presents ...

  16. Instrumentation Status of the Low-β Magnet Systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Darve, C; Casas-Cubillos, J; Perin, A; Vauthier, N

    2011-01-01

    The low-β magnet systems are located in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) insertion regions around the four interaction points. They are the key elements in the beams focusing/defocusing process allowing proton collisions at luminosity up to 1034cm-2s-1. Those systems are a contribution of the US-LHC Accelerator project. The systems are mainly composed of the quadrupole magnets (triplets), the separation dipoles and their respective electrical feed-boxes (DFBX). The low-β magnet systems operate in an environment of extreme radiation, high gradient magnetic field and high heat load to the cryogenic system due to the beam dynamic effect. Due to the severe environment, the robustness of the diagnostics is primordial for the operation of the triplets. The hardware commissioning phase of the LHC was completed in February 2010. In the sake of a safer and more user-friendly operation, several consolidations and instrumentation modifications were implemented during this commissioning phase. This paper presents the in...

  17. Measurement and modeling of polarized specular neutron reflectivity in large magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranville, Brian B; Kirby, Brian J; Grutter, Alexander J; Kienzle, Paul A; Majkrzak, Charles F; Liu, Yaohua; Dennis, Cindi L

    2016-08-01

    The presence of a large applied magnetic field removes the degeneracy of the vacuum energy states for spin-up and spin-down neutrons. For polarized neutron reflectometry, this must be included in the reference potential energy of the Schrödinger equation that is used to calculate the expected scattering from a magnetic layered structure. For samples with magnetization that is purely parallel or antiparallel to the applied field which defines the quantization axis, there is no mixing of the spin states (no spin-flip scattering) and so this additional potential is constant throughout the scattering region. When there is non-collinear magnetization in the sample, however, there will be significant scattering from one spin state into the other, and the reference potentials will differ between the incoming and outgoing wavefunctions, changing the angle and intensities of the scattering. The theory of the scattering and recommended experimental practices for this type of measurement are presented, as well as an example measurement.

  18. Sextupole correction for a ring with large chromaticity and the influence of magnetic errors on its parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Y.; Katoh, M.; Honjo, I.

    1987-01-01

    A future ring with a low emittance and large circumference, specifically dedicated to a synchrotron light source, will have a large chromaticity, so that it is important to employ a sophisticated sextupole correction as well as the design of linear lattice to obtain the stable beam. The authors tried a method of sextupole correction for a lattice with a large chromaticity and small dispersion function. In such a lattice the sextupole magnets are obliged to become large in strength to compensate the chromaticity. Then the nonlinear effects of the sextupole magnets will become more serious than their chromatic effects. Furthermore, a ring with strong quadrupole magnets to get a very small emittance and with strong sextupole magnets to compensate the generated chromaticity will be very sensitive to their magnetic errors. The authors also present simple formulae to evaluate the effects on the beam parameters. The details will appear in a KEK Report

  19. Disruption of circumstellar discs by large-scale stellar magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ud-Doula, Asif; Owocki, Stanley P.; Kee, Nathaniel Dylan

    2018-05-01

    Spectropolarimetric surveys reveal that 8-10% of OBA stars harbor large-scale magnetic fields, but thus far no such fields have been detected in any classical Be stars. Motivated by this, we present here MHD simulations for how a pre-existing Keplerian disc - like that inferred to form from decretion of material from rapidly rotating Be stars - can be disrupted by a rotation-aligned stellar dipole field. For characteristic stellar and disc parameters of a near-critically rotating B2e star, we find that a polar surface field strength of just 10 G can significantly disrupt the disc, while a field of 100 G, near the observational upper limit inferred for most Be stars, completely destroys the disc over just a few days. Our parameter study shows that the efficacy of this magnetic disruption of a disc scales with the characteristic plasma beta (defined as the ratio between thermal and magnetic pressure) in the disc, but is surprisingly insensitive to other variations, e.g. in stellar rotation speed, or the mass loss rate of the star's radiatively driven wind. The disc disruption seen here for even a modest field strength suggests that the presumed formation of such Be discs by decretion of material from the star would likely be strongly inhibited by such fields; this provides an attractive explanation for why no large-scale fields are detected from such Be stars.

  20. Laser-driven, magnetized quasi-perpendicular collisionless shocks on the Large Plasma Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Tripathi, S. K. P.; Gekelman, W.; Niemann, C.; Winske, D.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of a laser-driven super-Alfvénic magnetic piston with a large, preformed magnetized ambient plasma has been studied by utilizing a unique experimental platform that couples the Raptor kJ-class laser system [Niemann et al., J. Instrum. 7, P03010 (2012)] to the Large Plasma Device [Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] at the University of California, Los Angeles. This platform provides experimental conditions of relevance to space and astrophysical magnetic collisionless shocks and, in particular, allows a detailed study of the microphysics of shock formation, including piston-ambient ion collisionless coupling. An overview of the platform and its capabilities is given, and recent experimental results on the coupling of energy between piston and ambient ions and the formation of collisionless shocks are presented and compared to theoretical and computational work. In particular, a magnetosonic pulse consistent with a low-Mach number collisionless shock is observed in a quasi-perpendicular geometry in both experiments and simulations

  1. Linearity of holographic entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almheiri, Ahmed [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Dong, Xi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Swingle, Brian [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-02-14

    We consider the question of whether the leading contribution to the entanglement entropy in holographic CFTs is truly given by the expectation value of a linear operator as is suggested by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We investigate this property by computing the entanglement entropy, via the replica trick, in states dual to superpositions of macroscopically distinct geometries and find it consistent with evaluating the expectation value of the area operator within such states. However, we find that this fails once the number of semi-classical states in the superposition grows exponentially in the central charge of the CFT. Moreover, in certain such scenarios we find that the choice of surface on which to evaluate the area operator depends on the density matrix of the entire CFT. This nonlinearity is enforced in the bulk via the homology prescription of Ryu-Takayanagi. We thus conclude that the homology constraint is not a linear property in the CFT. We also discuss the existence of ‘entropy operators’ in general systems with a large number of degrees of freedom.

  2. Prediction of Protein Configurational Entropy (Popcoen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethe, Martin; Gleixner, Jan; Fita, Ignacio; Rubi, J Miguel

    2018-03-13

    A knowledge-based method for configurational entropy prediction of proteins is presented; this methodology is extremely fast, compared to previous approaches, because it does not involve any type of configurational sampling. Instead, the configurational entropy of a query fold is estimated by evaluating an artificial neural network, which was trained on molecular-dynamics simulations of ∼1000 proteins. The predicted entropy can be incorporated into a large class of protein software based on cost-function minimization/evaluation, in which configurational entropy is currently neglected for performance reasons. Software of this type is used for all major protein tasks such as structure predictions, proteins design, NMR and X-ray refinement, docking, and mutation effect predictions. Integrating the predicted entropy can yield a significant accuracy increase as we show exemplarily for native-state identification with the prominent protein software FoldX. The method has been termed Popcoen for Prediction of Protein Configurational Entropy. An implementation is freely available at http://fmc.ub.edu/popcoen/ .

  3. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  4. On holographic defect entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estes, John; Jensen, Kristan; O’Bannon, Andy; Tsatis, Efstratios; Wrase, Timm

    2014-01-01

    We study a number of (3+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3+1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1+1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions

  5. Minimum entropy production principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle

  6. Entropy in halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, Claudine; Mohite, Aditya D.; Even, Jacky

    2018-05-01

    Claudine Katan, Aditya D. Mohite and Jacky Even discuss the possible impact of various entropy contributions (stochastic structural fluctuations, anharmonicity and lattice softness) on the optoelectronic properties of halide perovskite materials and devices.

  7. Entropy Coding in HEVC

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, Vivienne; Marpe, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Context-Based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) is a method of entropy coding first introduced in H.264/AVC and now used in the latest High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. While it provides high coding efficiency, the data dependencies in H.264/AVC CABAC make it challenging to parallelize and thus limit its throughput. Accordingly, during the standardization of entropy coding for HEVC, both aspects of coding efficiency and throughput were considered. This chapter describes th...

  8. Entropy and wigner functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi; Feix

    2000-10-01

    The properties of an alternative definition of quantum entropy, based on Wigner functions, are discussed. Such a definition emerges naturally from the Wigner representation of quantum mechanics, and can easily quantify the amount of entanglement of a quantum state. It is shown that smoothing of the Wigner function induces an increase in entropy. This fact is used to derive some simple rules to construct positive-definite probability distributions which are also admissible Wigner functions.

  9. Entropy and Wigner Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi, G.; Feix, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    The properties of an alternative definition of quantum entropy, based on Wigner functions, are discussed. Such definition emerges naturally from the Wigner representation of quantum mechanics, and can easily quantify the amount of entanglement of a quantum state. It is shown that smoothing of the Wigner function induces an increase in entropy. This fact is used to derive some simple rules to construct positive definite probability distributions which are also admissible Wigner functions

  10. Feasible Histories, Maximum Entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitowsky, I.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the broadest possible consistency condition for a family of histories, which extends all previous proposals. A family that satisfies this condition is called feasible. On each feasible family of histories we choose a probability measure by maximizing entropy, while keeping the probabilities of commuting histories to their quantum mechanical values. This procedure is justified by the assumption that decoherence increases entropy. Finally, a criterion for identifying the nearly classical families is proposed

  11. Topological nearly entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulamsarwar, Syazwani; Salleh, Zabidin

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to generalize the notions of Adler's topological entropy along with their several fundamental properties. A function f : X → Y is said to be R-map if f-1 (V) is regular open in X for every regular open set V in Y. Thus, we initiated a notion of topological nearly entropy for topological R-dynamical systems which is based on nearly compact relative to the space by using R-map.

  12. Large-scale Organized Magnetic Fields in O, B and A Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, G.

    2009-06-01

    The status of our current knowledge of magnetic fields in stars of spectral types ranging from early F to O is reviewed. Fields with large-scale organised structure have now been detected and measured throughout this range. These fields are consistent with the oblique rotator model. In early F to late B stars, their occurrence is restricted to the subgroup of the Ap stars, which have the best studied fields among the early-type stars. Presence of fields with more complex topologies in other A and late B stars has been suggested, but is not firmly established. Magnetic fields have not been studied in a sufficient number of OB stars yet so as to establish whether they occur in all or only in some subset of these stars.

  13. Intermittent transport in edge plasma with a 3-D magnetic geometry in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Masuzaki, S.; Ohno, N.; Morisaki, T.; Tsuji, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Blobby plasma transport is a universally observed phenomenon in magnetic confinement devices, and it is considered to be closely related to edge plasma physics. We have investigated such an intermittent event observed inside the divertor region of the Large Helical Device by using a fast-scanning Langmuir probe with two electrodes. Ion saturation current fluctuations showed negative spikes in the divertor leg and positive spikes in the private region. Further, the time delay between the two fluctuations followed a unique trajectory in the positive-skewness region. We found common as well as different fluctuation characteristics between the LHD and tokamaks. We discuss the analysis results in relation to the blob-generation and propagation behaviors in the three-dimensional magnetic geometry around the divertor leg. In addition, we quantitatively estimated the blob propagation velocity and size based on a theoretical assumption

  14. Scott Correction for Large Atoms and Molecules in a Self-Generated Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdös, Laszlo; Fournais, Søren; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    constant. We show that, in the simultaneous limit $Z\\to\\infty$, $\\al\\to 0$ such that $\\kappa =Z\\al^2$ is fixed, the ground state energy of the system is given by a two term expansion $c_1Z^{7/3} + c_2(\\kappa) Z^2 + o(Z^2)$. The leading term is given by the non-magnetic Thomas-Fermi theory. Our result shows......We consider a large neutral molecule with total nuclear charge $Z$ in non-relativistic quantum mechanics with a self-generated classical electromagnetic field. To ensure stability, we assume that $Z\\al^2\\le \\kappa_0$ for a sufficiently small $\\kappa_0$, where $\\al$ denotes the fine structure...... that the magnetic field affects only the second (so-called Scott) term in the expansion....

  15. Field and structural analysis of 56 mm aperture dipole model magnets for the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Naihao; Yamamoto, Akira; Shintomi, Takakazu; Hirabayashi, Hiromi; Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Terashima, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new dipole model magnet design has been made with an aperture of 56 mm according to re-optimization of the accelerator design for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to be built at CERN. A feature of symmetric/separate collar configuration in the new design proposed by KEK has been evaluated in terms of field quality and mechanical stability according to the process of the magnet fabrication, cool-down and excitations. The analysis has been carried out by using the finite element analysis code ANSYS, in linkage of field analysis with structural analysis. Effect of the deformation, due to electromagnetic force, on the field quality has been also investigated. Results of the analysis will be presented

  16. Study for a failsafe trigger generation system for the Large Hadron Collider beam dump kicker magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Rampl, M

    1999-01-01

    The 27 km-particle accelerator Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which will be completed at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) in 2005, will work with extremely high beam energies (~334 MJ per beam). Since the equipment and in particular the superconducting magnets must be protected from damage caused by these high energy beams the beam dump must be able to absorb this energy very reliable at every stage of operation. The kicker magnets that extract the particles from the accelerator are synchronised with the beam by the trigger generation system. This thesis is a first study for this electronic module and its functions. A special synchronisation circuit and a very reliable electronic switch were developed. Most functions were implemented in a Gate-Array to improve the reliability and to facilitate modifications during the test stage. This study also comprises the complete concept for the prototype of the trigger generation system. During all project stages reliability was always the main determin...

  17. Solutions to the Cosmic Initial Entropy Problem without Equilibrium Initial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vihan M. Patel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The entropy of the observable universe is increasing. Thus, at earlier times the entropy was lower. However, the cosmic microwave background radiation reveals an apparently high entropy universe close to thermal and chemical equilibrium. A two-part solution to this cosmic initial entropy problem is proposed. Following Penrose, we argue that the evenly distributed matter of the early universe is equivalent to low gravitational entropy. There are two competing explanations for how this initial low gravitational entropy comes about. (1 Inflation and baryogenesis produce a virtually homogeneous distribution of matter with a low gravitational entropy. (2 Dissatisfied with explaining a low gravitational entropy as the product of a ‘special’ scalar field, some theorists argue (following Boltzmann for a “more natural” initial condition in which the entire universe is in an initial equilibrium state of maximum entropy. In this equilibrium model, our observable universe is an unusual low entropy fluctuation embedded in a high entropy universe. The anthropic principle and the fluctuation theorem suggest that this low entropy region should be as small as possible and have as large an entropy as possible, consistent with our existence. However, our low entropy universe is much larger than needed to produce observers, and we see no evidence for an embedding in a higher entropy background. The initial conditions of inflationary models are as natural as the equilibrium background favored by many theorists.

  18. Entropy of quasiblack holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2010-01-01

    We trace the origin of the black hole entropy S, replacing a black hole by a quasiblack hole. Let the boundary of a static body approach its own gravitational radius, in such a way that a quasihorizon forms. We show that if the body is thermal with the temperature taking the Hawking value at the quasihorizon limit, it follows, in the nonextremal case, from the first law of thermodynamics that the entropy approaches the Bekenstein-Hawking value S=A/4. In this setup, the key role is played by the surface stresses on the quasihorizon and one finds that the entropy comes from the quasihorizon surface. Any distribution of matter inside the surface leads to the same universal value for the entropy in the quasihorizon limit. This can be of some help in the understanding of black hole entropy. Other similarities between black holes and quasiblack holes such as the mass formulas for both objects had been found previously. We also discuss the entropy for extremal quasiblack holes, a more subtle issue.

  19. Entropy, matter, and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigogine, I; Géhéniau, J

    1986-09-01

    The role of irreversible processes corresponding to creation of matter in general relativity is investigated. The use of Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensors together with conformal (Minkowski) coordinates suggests that this creation took place in the early universe at the stage of the variation of the conformal factor. The entropy production in this creation process is calculated. It is shown that these dissipative processes lead to the possibility of cosmological models that start from empty conditions and gradually build up matter and entropy. Gravitational entropy takes a simple meaning as associated to the entropy that is necessary to produce matter. This leads to an extension of the third law of thermodynamics, as now the zero point of entropy becomes the space-time structure out of which matter is generated. The theory can be put into a convenient form using a supplementary "C" field in Einstein's field equations. The role of the C field is to express the coupling between gravitation and matter leading to irreversible entropy production.

  20. Investigating Changes in the High-Latitude Topside Ionosphere During Large Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainberg, Joseph; Benson, Robert F.; Osherovich, Vladimir; Truhlik, Vladimir; Wang, Yongli; Fung, Shing; Bilitza, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    A search was conducted to locate periods of nearly simultaneous solar-wind and high latitude topside-ionospheric data during magnetic storms. The focus was on the 20-yr interval from 1965 to 1985 when both solar-wind and Alouette/ISIS topside-sounder data are potentially available. The search yielded 125 large magnetic storms (minimum Dst less than 100) and 280 moderate magnetic storms (minimum Dst between -60 and -100). Solar wind data were available for most, but not all, of these storms. A search of the available high-latitude topside electron-density Ne(h) profiles available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), both from manual inspection of 35-mm film ionograms in the 1960s and more recent auto-processing of ISIS-2 topside digital ionograms using the TOPIST software, during 9-day intervals associated with the 125 large magnetic storm minimum Dst times yielded the following results: 31 intervals had 10 or more manual-scaled profiles (21 intervals had more than 100 profiles and 5 of these had more than 1,000 profiles), and 34 intervals had 10 or more TOPIST profiles (2 intervals had more than 100 profiles). In addition, a search of the available Alouette-2, ISIS-1 and ISIS-2 digital ionograms during the above periods has yielded encouraging initial results in that many ISIS-1 ionograms were found for the early time intervals. Future work will include the search for 35-mm film ionograms during selected intervals. This presentation will illustrate the results of this investigation to date.

  1. Entanglement entropy evolution under double-trace deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yushu [College of Physical Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding (China)

    2017-12-15

    In this paper, we study the bulk entanglement entropy evolution in conical BTZ black bole background using the heat kernel method. This is motivated by exploring the new examples where the quantum correction of the entanglement entropy gives the leading contribution. We find that in the large black hole limit the bulk entanglement entropy decreases under the double-trace deformation which is consistent with the holographic c theorem and in the small black hole limit the bulk entanglement entropy increases under the deformation. We also discuss the minimal area correction. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Entanglement Entropy for the charged BTZ black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrañaga, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we calculate the explicit form of the entanglement entropy for the charged BTZ (Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli) black hole. The leading term in the large temperature expansion of the entropy function for this black hole reproduces its Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the subleading term, representing the first corrections due to quantum entanglement, behaves as a logarithm of the BH entropy. It has also been obtained an inverse of area term in subleading order similar to the reported when considering Hawking radiation as quantum tunneling of particles through the event horizon

  3. Analyzing Damping Vibration Methods of Large-Size Space Vehicles in the Earth's Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Shcheglov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that most of today's space vehicles comprise large antennas, which are bracket-attached to the vehicle body. Dimensions of reflector antennas may be of 30 ... 50 m. The weight of such constructions can reach approximately 200 kg.Since the antenna dimensions are significantly larger than the size of the vehicle body and the points to attach the brackets to the space vehicles have a low stiffness, conventional dampers may be inefficient. The paper proposes to consider the damping antenna in terms of its interaction with the Earth's magnetic field.A simple dynamic model of the space vehicle equipped with a large-size structure is built. The space vehicle is a parallelepiped to which the antenna is attached through a beam.To solve the model problems, was used a simplified model of Earth's magnetic field: uniform, with intensity lines parallel to each other and perpendicular to the plane of the antenna.The paper considers two layouts of coils with respect to the antenna, namely: a vertical one in which an axis of magnetic dipole is perpendicular to the antenna plane, and a horizontal layout in which an axis of magnetic dipole lies in the antenna plane. It also explores two ways for magnetic damping of oscillations: through the controlled current that is supplied from the power supply system of the space vehicle, and by the self-induction current in the coil. Thus, four objectives were formulated.In each task was formulated an oscillation equation. Then a ratio of oscillation amplitudes and their decay time were estimated. It was found that each task requires the certain parameters either of the antenna itself, its dimensions and moment of inertia, or of the coil and, respectively, the current, which is supplied from the space vehicle. In each task for these parameters were found the ranges, which allow us to tell of efficient damping vibrations.The conclusion can be drawn based on the analysis of tasks that a specialized control system

  4. On the Conditional Rényi Entropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Fehr (Serge); S. Berens (Stefan)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe Rényi entropy of general order unifies the well-known Shannon entropy with several other entropy notions, like the min-entropy or the collision entropy. In contrast to the Shannon entropy, there seems to be no commonly accepted definition for the conditional Rényi entropy: several

  5. Pioneering superconducting magnets in large tokamaks: evaluation after 16 years of operating experience in tore supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Gravil, B.; Tena, E.; Henry, D.; Journeaux, J.Y.; Libeyre, P.

    2004-01-01

    The toroidal field (TF) system of Tore Supra (TS) is superconducting. After 16 years of operation it is possible to give an overview of the experience gained on a large superconducting system integrated in a large Tokamak. Quantitative data will be given, about the TF system for the cryogenic system and for the magnet system as well, concerning the number of plasmas shots and the availability of the machine. The origin and the number of breakdowns or incidents will be described, with emphasis on cryogenics, to document repairs and changes on the system components. Concerning the behaviour during operation, the Fast Safety Discharges (FSD) in operation are of particular interest for the Tokamak operation, as they interrupt it on a significant time of the order of one hour. This aspect is particularly documented. The approach followed to decrease the number of these FSD will be reported and explained. The Tore Supra Tokamak was the first important meeting between Superconductivity and Plasma Physics on a large scale. Overall, despite the differences in design and size, the accumulated experience over 16 years of operation is a useful tool to prepare the manufacturing and the operation of the ITER magnets. (authors)

  6. Pioneering superconducting magnets in large tokamaks: Evaluation after 16 years of operating experience in tore supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libeyre, P.; Duchateau, J.L.; Gravil, B.; Tena, E.; Henry, D.; Journeaux, J.Y.

    2005-01-01

    The toroidal field (TF) system of TORE SUPRA (TS) is superconducting. After 16 years of operation it is possible to give an overview of the experience gained on a large superconducting system integrated in a large Tokamak. Quantitative data will be given, about the TF system for the cryogenic system and for the magnet system as well, concerning the number of plasmas shots and the availability of the machine. The origin and the number of breakdowns or incidents will be described, with emphasis on cryogenics and associated repairs and changes on the system components along the time. As concerns the behaviour during operation, the fast safety discharges (FSD) in operation are of particular interest for the Tokamak operation, as they interrupt it for a significant time of the order of 1 h. This aspect is particularly documented. The approach followed to decrease the number of these FSD will be reported and explained. The TORE SUPRA Tokamak was the first important application of superconductivity in plasma physics on a large scale. Overall, despite the differences in design and size, the accumulated experience over 16 years of operation is a useful tool to prepare the manufacture and the operation of the ITER magnets

  7. Calculation of Configurational Entropy in Complex Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Cushman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics are fundamental concepts that underlie all natural processes and patterns. Recent research has shown how the entropy of a landscape mosaic can be calculated using the Boltzmann equation, with the entropy of a lattice mosaic equal to the logarithm of the number of ways a lattice with a given dimensionality and number of classes can be arranged to produce the same total amount of edge between cells of different classes. However, that work seemed to also suggest that the feasibility of applying this method to real landscapes was limited due to intractably large numbers of possible arrangements of raster cells in large landscapes. Here I extend that work by showing that: (1 the proportion of arrangements rather than the number with a given amount of edge length provides a means to calculate unbiased relative configurational entropy, obviating the need to compute all possible configurations of a landscape lattice; (2 the edge lengths of randomized landscape mosaics are normally distributed, following the central limit theorem; and (3 given this normal distribution it is possible to fit parametric probability density functions to estimate the expected proportion of randomized configurations that have any given edge length, enabling the calculation of configurational entropy on any landscape regardless of size or number of classes. I evaluate the boundary limits (4 for this normal approximation for small landscapes with a small proportion of a minority class and show it holds under all realistic landscape conditions. I further (5 demonstrate that this relationship holds for a sample of real landscapes that vary in size, patch richness, and evenness of area in each cover type, and (6 I show that the mean and standard deviation of the normally distributed edge lengths can be predicted nearly perfectly as a function of the size, patch richness and diversity of a landscape. Finally, (7 I show that the

  8. EEG entropy measures in anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhu eLiang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Entropy algorithms have been widely used in analyzing EEG signals during anesthesia. However, a systematic comparison of these entropy algorithms in assessing anesthesia drugs’ effect is lacking. In this study, we compare the capability of twelve entropy indices for monitoring depth of anesthesia (DoA and detecting the burst suppression pattern (BSP, in anesthesia induced by GA-BAergic agents.Methods: Twelve indices were investigated, namely Response Entropy (RE and State entropy (SE, three wavelet entropy (WE measures (Shannon WE (SWE, Tsallis WE (TWE and Renyi WE (RWE, Hilbert-Huang spectral entropy (HHSE, approximate entropy (ApEn, sample entropy (SampEn, Fuzzy entropy, and three permutation entropy (PE measures (Shannon PE (SPE, Tsallis PE (TPE and Renyi PE (RPE. Two EEG data sets from sevoflurane-induced and isoflu-rane-induced anesthesia respectively were selected to assess the capability of each entropy index in DoA monitoring and BSP detection. To validate the effectiveness of these entropy algorithms, phar-macokinetic / pharmacodynamic (PK/PD modeling and prediction probability analysis were applied. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA as a non-entropy measure was compared.Results: All the entropy and MDFA indices could track the changes in EEG pattern during different anesthesia states. Three PE measures outperformed the other entropy indices, with less baseline vari-ability, higher coefficient of determination and prediction probability, and RPE performed best; ApEn and SampEn discriminated BSP best. Additionally, these entropy measures showed an ad-vantage in computation efficiency compared with MDFA.Conclusion: Each entropy index has its advantages and disadvantages in estimating DoA. Overall, it is suggested that the RPE index was a superior measure.Significance: Investigating the advantages and disadvantages of these entropy indices could help improve current clinical indices for monitoring DoA.

  9. Large Signal Model of a Four-quadrant AC to DC Converter for Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    De la Calle, R; Rinaldi, L; Völker, F V

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the large signal model of a four-quadrant AC to DC converter, which is expected to be used in the area of particle accelerators. The system’s first stage is composed of a three-phase boost PWM (Pulse Width Modulated) rectifier with DSP (Digital Signal Processing) based power factor correction (PFC) and output voltage regulation. The second stage is a full-bridge PWM inverter that allows fast four-quadrant operation. The structure is fully reversible, and an additional resistance (brake chopper) is not needed to dissipate the energy when the beam deflection magnet acts as generator.

  10. Magnetic configuration dependence of the shafranov shift in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobuchi, T; Ida, K; Yamada, H; Yokoyama, M; Watanabe, K Y; Sakakibara, S; Yoshinuma, M [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-Cho, Toki-City, 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    The dependence of the Shafranov shift on magnetic field configuration, toroidicity and central rotational transform {iota}(0) in neutral beam heated plasma has been experimentally investigated in the Large Helical Device. The toroidicity of the plasma is controlled by the quadrupole field, while the central {iota}(0) is controlled by changing the distance of the current centre of the helical coil to the plasma. It is experimentally confirmed that both the lower toroidicity and the higher {iota}(0) contribute to the reduction of the Shafranov shift as predicted by the three-dimensional equilibrium code, VMEC.

  11. A new resin system for the impregnation and bonding of large magnet coils

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, D

    1998-01-01

    ATLAS is an instrument which forms part of the Large Hadron Collider, a high energy physics experiment which is under construction at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. The properties of the candidate resin systems developed for the impregnation of the Atlas End Cap Toroid magnets are presented. The resin systems contain a blend of two resins; a low viscosity Bisphenol F resin, with a long chain aliphatic epoxide resin. An aromatic amine curing agent was used. It was found that increased additions of the long chain aliphatic epoxide resin resulted in longer useable life, lower glass transition temperature, lower modulus, higher toughness and higher bond strength at 4 K. (4 refs).

  12. Primordial Magnetic Field Effects on the CMB and Large-Scale Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai G. Yamazaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fields are everywhere in nature, and they play an important role in every astronomical environment which involves the formation of plasma and currents. It is natural therefore to suppose that magnetic fields could be present in the turbulent high-temperature environment of the big bang. Such a primordial magnetic field (PMF would be expected to manifest itself in the cosmic microwave background (CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies, and also in the formation of large-scale structure. In this paper, we summarize the theoretical framework which we have developed to calculate the PMF power spectrum to high precision. Using this formulation, we summarize calculations of the effects of a PMF which take accurate quantitative account of the time evolution of the cutoff scale. We review the constructed numerical program, which is without approximation, and an improvement over the approach used in a number of previous works for studying the effect of the PMF on the cosmological perturbations. We demonstrate how the PMF is an important cosmological physical process on small scales. We also summarize the current constraints on the PMF amplitude Bλ and the power spectral index nB which have been deduced from the available CMB observational data by using our computational framework.

  13. Large magnetoelectric coupling in magnetically short-range ordered Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyang; Kimura, Hideo; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Osada, Minoru; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Xiaolin; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Yan; Yu, Jianding; Matsumoto, Takao; Tohei, Tetsuya; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2014-06-11

    Multiferroic materials, which offer the possibility of manipulating the magnetic state by an electric field or vice versa, are of great current interest. However, single-phase materials with such cross-coupling properties at room temperature exist rarely in nature; new design of nano-engineered thin films with a strong magneto-electric coupling is a fundamental challenge. Here we demonstrate a robust room-temperature magneto-electric coupling in a bismuth-layer-structured ferroelectric Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ with high ferroelectric Curie temperature of ~1000 K. Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition are single-phase layered perovskit with nearly (00l)-orientation. Room-temperature multiferroic behavior is demonstrated by a large modulation in magneto-polarization and magneto-dielectric responses. Local structural characterizations by transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy reveal the existence of Fe-rich nanodomains, which cause a short-range magnetic ordering at ~620 K. In Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ with a stable ferroelectric order, the spin canting of magnetic-ion-based nanodomains via the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction might yield a robust magneto-electric coupling of ~400 mV/Oe·cm even at room temperature.

  14. Detection of magnetic nanoparticles with a large scale AC superconducting susceptometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapie Ladino, E. A.; Zufelato, N.; Bakuzis, A. F.; Oliveira Carneiro, A. A.; Covas, D. T.; Baffa, O.

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are being used in several applications in medicine such as hyperthermia, magnetic particle imaging, in vitro and in vivo bioassay, and still there are many other possibilities for use of these particles to come as research progress in this field. One crucial step of its use is the detection of these particles when present in a certain tissue. For in vitro bioassay, the sample can be harvested and placed inside the detector in optimal conditions to favor sensitivity. However, for in vivo human measurements the system must be noninvasive and conform to the anatomic restrictions requiring sensitive detectors and dedicated setups. In this study, we detect nanoparticles with an AC biosusceptometer having an excitation homogeneous magnetic field with 145 μT, provided by a set of rectangular large Rubens coils driven at 10 Hz. The magnetization induced in the sample was detected by a second-order axial gradiometer (20 mm in diameter and 40 mm of baseline) coupled to an RF Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) model 330X (BTi). The MNPs used were manganese ferrite-based surface-coated with citric acid ({{M}}{{n}}{{F}}{{{e}}}2{{{O}}}4-{{C}}{{i}}{{t}}{{r}}{{a}}{{t}}{{e}}), dissolved in water at various concentrations. The colloid is stable at physiological conditions. X-ray diffraction confirmed the spinel structure and using Scherrer’s relation revealed a particle size of 17.3 nm. The magnetization curve showed a typical superparamagnetic behavior with a specific saturation magnetization of 51.2 emu g-1. The stock solution of nanoparticles had a concentration of 23.17 mg ml-1, corresponding to 1.7 × 1015 NPs ml-1. Measurements were made in a volume of 30 ml with 20 × 103-100 × 103 dilutions of the stock solution of nanoparticles and performed at distances of 1.1, 1.5 and 2.5 cm from the top of the sample vial to the closest coil of the gradiometer. The limits of detection were 8.1 × 109 NP ml-1, 9.5 × 109 NP ml-1 and 11

  15. Design of a Large Single-Aperture Dipole Magnet for HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Qingjin, Xu; Iio, Masami; Ogitsu, Toru; Sasaki, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Akira; Todesco, Ezio

    2013-01-01

    An upgrade of the low-beta insertion system for the ATLAS and Compact Muon Solenoid experiments is proposed in the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider upgrade project. It includes final beam focusing quadrupoles, beam separation and recombination dipoles, and larger aperture matching section quadrupoles. KEK is in charge of the conceptual design of the large aperture separation dipole D1. The latest design parameters are a main field of ~ 5 T at 1.9 K with Nb-Ti superconducting technology, a coil aperture of 160 mm, and a cos-theta one-layer coil with Large Hadron Collider dipole cable. Because the new D1 is expected to be operated in a very high radiation environment, radiation resistance and a cooling scheme are being carefully considered. The collaring-yoke structure is adopted to provide the mechanical support for the single-layer Nb-Ti coil. We summarize the design study of this magnet, including i) the very large iron saturation effect on field quality due to the large aperture and limited size of the...

  16. Prosthetic rehabilitation of large mid-facial defect with magnet-retained silicone prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Jajoo Shrivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of maxillofacial defect patients is a challenging task. The most common prosthetic treatment problem with such patients is, getting adequate retention, stability, and support. In cases of large maxillofacial defect, movement of the prosthesis is inevitable. The primary objectives in rehabilitating the maxillofacial defect patients are to restore the function of mastication, deglutition, speech, and to achieve normal orofacial appearance. This clinical report describes maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation of large midfacial defect including orbit along with its contents, zygoma and soft tissues including half of the nose, cheeks, upper lip of left side, accompanying postsurgical microstomia and orofacial communication, which resulted from severe fungal infection mucormycosis. The defect in this case was restored with magnet retained two piece maxillofacial prosthesis having hollow acrylic resin framework and an overlying silicone facial prosthesis. The retention of prosthesis was further enhanced with the use of spectacles. This type of combination prosthesis enhanced the cosmesis and functional acceptability of prosthesis.

  17. Design and fabrication of a large rectangular magnetic cusp plasma source for high intensity neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, L.A.; Berkner, K.H.; Ehlers, K.W.; Paterson, J.A.; Porter, J.R.

    1979-11-01

    The design and fabrication techniques for a large, rectangular magnetic bucket plasma source are described. This source is compatible with the accelerator structures for the TFTR and DIII neutral-beam systems

  18. Application of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility to large-scale fault kinematics: an evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Antonio M.; Roman-Berdiel, Teresa; Marcén, Marcos; Oliva-Urcia, Belen; Soto, Ruth; Garcia-Lasanta, Cristina; Calvin, Pablo; Pocovi, Andres; Gil-Imaz, Andres; Pueyo-Anchuela, Oscar; Izquierdo-Llavall, Esther; Vernet, Eva; Santolaria, Pablo; Osacar, Cinta; Santanach, Pere; Corrado, Sveva; Invernizzi, Chiara; Aldega, Luca; Caricchi, Chiara; Villalain, Juan Jose

    2017-04-01

    Major discontinuities in the Earth's crust are expressed by faults that often cut across its whole thickness favoring, for example, the emplacement of magmas of mantelic origin. These long-lived faults are common in intra-plate environments and show multi-episodic activity that spans for hundred of million years and constitute first-order controls on plate evolution, favoring basin formation and inversion, rotations and the accommodation of deformation in large segments of plates. Since the post-Paleozoic evolution of these large-scale faults has taken place (and can only be observed) at shallow crustal levels, the accurate determination of fault kinematics is hampered by scarcely developed fault rocks, lack of classical structural indicators and the brittle deformation accompanying fault zones. These drawbacks are also found when thick clayey or evaporite levels, with or without diapiric movements, are the main detachment levels that facilitate large displacements in the upper crust. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) provides a useful tool for the analysis of fault zones lacking fully developed kinematic indicators. However, its meaning in terms of deformational fabrics must be carefully checked by means of outcrop and thin section analysis in order to establish the relationship between the orientation of magnetic ellipsoid axes and the transport directions, as well as the representativity of scalar parameters regarding deformation mechanisms. Timing of faulting, P-T conditions and magnetic mineralogy are also major constraints for the interpretation of magnetic fabrics and therefore, separating ferro- and para-magnetic fabric components may be necessary in complex cases. AMS results indicate that the magnetic lineation can be parallel (when projected onto the shear plane) or perpendicular (i.e. parallel to the intersection lineation) to the transport direction depending mainly on the degree of shear deformation. Changes between the two end-members can

  19. The quasiperpendicular environment of large magnetic pulses in Earth's quasiparallel foreshock - ISEE 1 and 2 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstadt, E. W.; Moses, S. L.; Coroniti, F. V.; Farris, M. H.; Russell, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    ULF waves in Earth's foreshock cause the instantaneous angle theta-B(n) between the upstream magnetic field and the shock normal to deviate from its average value. Close to the quasi-parallel (Q-parallel) shock, the transverse components of the waves become so large that the orientation of the field to the normal becomes quasi-perpendicular (Q-perpendicular) during applicable phases of each wave cycle. Large upstream pulses of B were observed completely enclosed in excursions of Theta-B(n) into the Q-perpendicular range. A recent numerical simulation included Theta-B(n) among the parameters examined in Q-parallel runs, and described a similar coincidence as intrinsic to a stage in development of the reformation process of such shocks. Thus, the natural environment of the Q-perpendicular section of Earth's bow shock seems to include an identifiable class of enlarged magnetic pulses for which local Q-perpendicular geometry is a necessary association.

  20. Entropy of network ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Ginestra

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we generalize the concept of random networks to describe network ensembles with nontrivial features by a statistical mechanics approach. This framework is able to describe undirected and directed network ensembles as well as weighted network ensembles. These networks might have nontrivial community structure or, in the case of networks embedded in a given space, they might have a link probability with a nontrivial dependence on the distance between the nodes. These ensembles are characterized by their entropy, which evaluates the cardinality of networks in the ensemble. In particular, in this paper we define and evaluate the structural entropy, i.e., the entropy of the ensembles of undirected uncorrelated simple networks with given degree sequence. We stress the apparent paradox that scale-free degree distributions are characterized by having small structural entropy while they are so widely encountered in natural, social, and technological complex systems. We propose a solution to the paradox by proving that scale-free degree distributions are the most likely degree distribution with the corresponding value of the structural entropy. Finally, the general framework we present in this paper is able to describe microcanonical ensembles of networks as well as canonical or hidden-variable network ensembles with significant implications for the formulation of network-constructing algorithms.

  1. Entropy Production in Stochastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetris Koutsoyiannis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While the modern definition of entropy is genuinely probabilistic, in entropy production the classical thermodynamic definition, as in heat transfer, is typically used. Here we explore the concept of entropy production within stochastics and, particularly, two forms of entropy production in logarithmic time, unconditionally (EPLT or conditionally on the past and present having been observed (CEPLT. We study the theoretical properties of both forms, in general and in application to a broad set of stochastic processes. A main question investigated, related to model identification and fitting from data, is how to estimate the entropy production from a time series. It turns out that there is a link of the EPLT with the climacogram, and of the CEPLT with two additional tools introduced here, namely the differenced climacogram and the climacospectrum. In particular, EPLT and CEPLT are related to slopes of log-log plots of these tools, with the asymptotic slopes at the tails being most important as they justify the emergence of scaling laws of second-order characteristics of stochastic processes. As a real-world application, we use an extraordinary long time series of turbulent velocity and show how a parsimonious stochastic model can be identified and fitted using the tools developed.

  2. Design of shared instruments to utilize simulated gravities generated by a large-gradient, high-field superconducting magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Yin, D C; Liu, Y M; Shi, J Z; Lu, H M; Shi, Z H; Qian, A R; Shang, P

    2011-03-01

    A high-field superconducting magnet can provide both high-magnetic fields and large-field gradients, which can be used as a special environment for research or practical applications in materials processing, life science studies, physical and chemical reactions, etc. To make full use of a superconducting magnet, shared instruments (the operating platform, sample holders, temperature controller, and observation system) must be prepared as prerequisites. This paper introduces the design of a set of sample holders and a temperature controller in detail with an emphasis on validating the performance of the force and temperature sensors in the high-magnetic field.

  3. Behaviour of large-area avalanche photodiodes under intense magnetic fields for VUV- visible- and X-ray photon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, L.M.P.; Antognini, A.; Boucher, M.; Conde, C.A.N.; Huot, O.; Knowles, P.; Kottmann, F.; Ludhova, L.; Mulhauser, F.; Pohl, R.; Schaller, L.A.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Taqqu, D.; Veloso, J.F.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of large-area avalanche photodiodes for X-rays, visible and vacuum-ultra-violet (VUV) light detection in magnetic fields up to 5 T is described. For X-rays and visible light detection, the photodiode pulse amplitude and energy resolution were unaffected from 0 to 5 T, demonstrating the insensitivity of this type of detector to strong magnetic fields. For VUV light detection, however, the photodiode relative pulse amplitude decreases with increasing magnetic field intensity reaching a reduction of about 24% at 5 T, and the energy resolution degrades noticeably with increasing magnetic field

  4. What is Common in the Training of the Large Variety of Impregnated Corrector Magnets for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ijspeert, Albert

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be equipped with about 5000 superconducting corrector magnets of 10 different types, ranging from dipoles through quadrupoles, sextupoles and octupoles to decapoles and dodecapoles. Four wires are used with 2 copper/superconductor ratios. Magnet lengths range from 0.15 m to 1.4 m. However, the magnets are all epoxy-impregnated and wound with enameled monolithic wires. The paper highlights the features that are common in the training of all these different magnets and uses that to give some clues for the possible origin of the training.

  5. Phonon broadening in high entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körmann, Fritz; Ikeda, Yuji; Grabowski, Blazej; Sluiter, Marcel H. F.

    2017-09-01

    Refractory high entropy alloys feature outstanding properties making them a promising materials class for next-generation high-temperature applications. At high temperatures, materials properties are strongly affected by lattice vibrations (phonons). Phonons critically influence thermal stability, thermodynamic and elastic properties, as well as thermal conductivity. In contrast to perfect crystals and ordered alloys, the inherently present mass and force constant fluctuations in multi-component random alloys (high entropy alloys) can induce significant phonon scattering and broadening. Despite their importance, phonon scattering and broadening have so far only scarcely been investigated for high entropy alloys. We tackle this challenge from a theoretical perspective and employ ab initio calculations to systematically study the impact of force constant and mass fluctuations on the phonon spectral functions of 12 body-centered cubic random alloys, from binaries up to 5-component high entropy alloys, addressing the key question of how chemical complexity impacts phonons. We find that it is crucial to include both mass and force constant fluctuations. If one or the other is neglected, qualitatively wrong results can be obtained such as artificial phonon band gaps. We analyze how the results obtained for the phonons translate into thermodynamically integrated quantities, specifically the vibrational entropy. Changes in the vibrational entropy with increasing the number of elements can be as large as changes in the configurational entropy and are thus important for phase stability considerations. The set of studied alloys includes MoTa, MoTaNb, MoTaNbW, MoTaNbWV, VW, VWNb, VWTa, VWNbTa, VTaNbTi, VWNbTaTi, HfZrNb, HfMoTaTiZr.

  6. Magnetic storm generation by large-scale complex structure Sheath/ICME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, E. E.; Yermolaev, Y. I.; Lodkina, I. G.; Yermolaev, M. Y.; Riazantseva, M.; Borodkova, N. L.

    2017-12-01

    We study temporal profiles of interplanetary plasma and magnetic field parameters as well as magnetospheric indices. We use our catalog of large-scale solar wind phenomena for 1976-2000 interval (see the catalog for 1976-2016 in web-side ftp://ftp.iki.rssi.ru/pub/omni/ prepared on basis of OMNI database (Yermolaev et al., 2009)) and the double superposed epoch analysis method (Yermolaev et al., 2010). Our analysis showed (Yermolaev et al., 2015) that average profiles of Dst and Dst* indices decrease in Sheath interval (magnetic storm activity increases) and increase in ICME interval. This profile coincides with inverted distribution of storm numbers in both intervals (Yermolaev et al., 2017). This behavior is explained by following reasons. (1) IMF magnitude in Sheath is higher than in Ejecta and closed to value in MC. (2) Sheath has 1.5 higher efficiency of storm generation than ICME (Nikolaeva et al., 2015). The most part of so-called CME-induced storms are really Sheath-induced storms and this fact should be taken into account during Space Weather prediction. The work was in part supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant 16-12-10062. References. 1. Nikolaeva N.S., Y. I. Yermolaev and I. G. Lodkina (2015), Modeling of the corrected Dst* index temporal profile on the main phase of the magnetic storms generated by different types of solar wind, Cosmic Res., 53(2), 119-127 2. Yermolaev Yu. I., N. S. Nikolaeva, I. G. Lodkina and M. Yu. Yermolaev (2009), Catalog of Large-Scale Solar Wind Phenomena during 1976-2000, Cosmic Res., , 47(2), 81-94 3. Yermolaev, Y. I., N. S. Nikolaeva, I. G. Lodkina, and M. Y. Yermolaev (2010), Specific interplanetary conditions for CIR-induced, Sheath-induced, and ICME-induced geomagnetic storms obtained by double superposed epoch analysis, Ann. Geophys., 28, 2177-2186 4. Yermolaev Yu. I., I. G. Lodkina, N. S. Nikolaeva and M. Yu. Yermolaev (2015), Dynamics of large-scale solar wind streams obtained by the double superposed epoch

  7. Investigating dynamical complexity in the magnetosphere using various entropy measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, Georgios; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Kalimeri, Maria; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

    2009-09-01

    The complex system of the Earth's magnetosphere corresponds to an open spatially extended nonequilibrium (input-output) dynamical system. The nonextensive Tsallis entropy has been recently introduced as an appropriate information measure to investigate dynamical complexity in the magnetosphere. The method has been employed for analyzing Dst time series and gave promising results, detecting the complexity dissimilarity among different physiological and pathological magnetospheric states (i.e., prestorm activity and intense magnetic storms, respectively). This paper explores the applicability and effectiveness of a variety of computable entropy measures (e.g., block entropy, Kolmogorov entropy, T complexity, and approximate entropy) to the investigation of dynamical complexity in the magnetosphere. We show that as the magnetic storm approaches there is clear evidence of significant lower complexity in the magnetosphere. The observed higher degree of organization of the system agrees with that inferred previously, from an independent linear fractal spectral analysis based on wavelet transforms. This convergence between nonlinear and linear analyses provides a more reliable detection of the transition from the quiet time to the storm time magnetosphere, thus showing evidence that the occurrence of an intense magnetic storm is imminent. More precisely, we claim that our results suggest an important principle: significant complexity decrease and accession of persistency in Dst time series can be confirmed as the magnetic storm approaches, which can be used as diagnostic tools for the magnetospheric injury (global instability). Overall, approximate entropy and Tsallis entropy yield superior results for detecting dynamical complexity changes in the magnetosphere in comparison to the other entropy measures presented herein. Ultimately, the analysis tools developed in the course of this study for the treatment of Dst index can provide convenience for space weather

  8. A Device to Measure Magnetic and Mechanical Axis of Superconducting Magnets for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Buzio, M; García-Pérez, J; Laface, E; Pauletta, S

    2007-01-01

    The LHC will be composed of 1232 horizontally curved, 15 meter long, cryodipoles and 474 Short Straight Sections, being assembled by different manufacturers. Magnetic axis alignment is an essential part of the magnets quality for two reasons: first, to be able to install correctly the magnets in the tunnel w.r.t. the reference beam orbit; secondly, to assess the relative alignment between the magnets composing the assembly, i.e. spool pieces for the dipoles and larger correctors for the SSS. A system called AC mole is being used extensively to measure magnetic and geometric axis, as well as roll angle, for every single magnet composing all the SSS. This paper describes its performance, its first years of operation, as well as the improvements that have made it very powerful, versatile and easy to use.

  9. Heat transfer and entropy generation analysis of hybrid graphene/Fe3O4 ferro-nanofluid flow under the influence of a magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Akhiani, Amir Reza

    2017-01-01

    oxide, iron salts and tannic acid as the reductant and stabilizer. The thermophysical and magnetic properties of the hybrid nanofluid have been widely characterized and thermal conductivity has shown an enhancement of 11%. The experimental results indicated that the heat transfer enhancement of hybrid...

  10. Entropy for the Complexity of Physiological Signal Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the rapid development of large data storage technologies, mobile network technology, and portable medical devices makes it possible to measure, record, store, and track analysis of biological dynamics. Portable noninvasive medical devices are crucial to capture individual characteristics of biological dynamics. The wearable noninvasive medical devices and the analysis/management of related digital medical data will revolutionize the management and treatment of diseases, subsequently resulting in the establishment of a new healthcare system. One of the key features that can be extracted from the data obtained by wearable noninvasive medical device is the complexity of physiological signals, which can be represented by entropy of biological dynamics contained in the physiological signals measured by these continuous monitoring medical devices. Thus, in this chapter I present the major concepts of entropy that are commonly used to measure the complexity of biological dynamics. The concepts include Shannon entropy, Kolmogorov entropy, Renyi entropy, approximate entropy, sample entropy, and multiscale entropy. I also demonstrate an example of using entropy for the complexity of glucose dynamics.

  11. A gravitational entropy proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, Timothy; Tavakol, Reza; Ellis, George F R

    2013-01-01

    We propose a thermodynamically motivated measure of gravitational entropy based on the Bel–Robinson tensor, which has a natural interpretation as the effective super-energy–momentum tensor of free gravitational fields. The specific form of this measure differs depending on whether the gravitational field is Coulomb-like or wave-like, and reduces to the Bekenstein–Hawking value when integrated over the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. For scalar perturbations of a Robertson–Walker geometry we find that the entropy goes like the Hubble weighted anisotropy of the gravitational field, and therefore increases as structure formation occurs. This is in keeping with our expectations for the behaviour of gravitational entropy in cosmology, and provides a thermodynamically motivated arrow of time for cosmological solutions of Einstein’s field equations. It is also in keeping with Penrose’s Weyl curvature hypothesis. (paper)

  12. Microscopic entropy and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, E.; Ordonets, G.; Petroskij, T.; Prigozhin, I.

    2003-01-01

    We have obtained a microscopic expression for entropy in terms of H function based on nonunitary Λ transformation which leads from the time evolution as a unitary group to a Markovian dynamics and unifies the reversible and irreversible aspects of quantum mechanics. This requires a new representation outside the Hilbert space. In terms of H, we show the entropy production and the entropy flow during the emission and absorption of radiation by an atom. Analyzing the time inversion experiment, we emphasize the importance of pre- and postcollisional correlations, which break the symmetry between incoming and outgoing waves. We consider the angle dependence of the H function in a three-dimensional situation. A model including virtual transitions is discussed in a subsequent paper

  13. Parametric Bayesian Estimation of Differential Entropy and Relative Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta; Srivastava

    2010-01-01

    Given iid samples drawn from a distribution with known parametric form, we propose the minimization of expected Bregman divergence to form Bayesian estimates of differential entropy and relative entropy, and derive such estimators for the uniform, Gaussian, Wishart, and inverse Wishart distributions. Additionally, formulas are given for a log gamma Bregman divergence and the differential entropy and relative entropy for the Wishart and inverse Wishart. The results, as always with Bayesian est...

  14. EEG entropy measures in anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenhu; Wang, Yinghua; Sun, Xue; Li, Duan; Voss, Logan J.; Sleigh, Jamie W.; Hagihira, Satoshi; Li, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: ► Twelve entropy indices were systematically compared in monitoring depth of anesthesia and detecting burst suppression.► Renyi permutation entropy performed best in tracking EEG changes associated with different anesthesia states.► Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy performed best in detecting burst suppression. Objective: Entropy algorithms have been widely used in analyzing EEG signals during anesthesia. However, a systematic comparison of these entropy algorithms in assessing anesthesia drugs' effect is lacking. In this study, we compare the capability of 12 entropy indices for monitoring depth of anesthesia (DoA) and detecting the burst suppression pattern (BSP), in anesthesia induced by GABAergic agents. Methods: Twelve indices were investigated, namely Response Entropy (RE) and State entropy (SE), three wavelet entropy (WE) measures [Shannon WE (SWE), Tsallis WE (TWE), and Renyi WE (RWE)], Hilbert-Huang spectral entropy (HHSE), approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn), Fuzzy entropy, and three permutation entropy (PE) measures [Shannon PE (SPE), Tsallis PE (TPE) and Renyi PE (RPE)]. Two EEG data sets from sevoflurane-induced and isoflurane-induced anesthesia respectively were selected to assess the capability of each entropy index in DoA monitoring and BSP detection. To validate the effectiveness of these entropy algorithms, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling and prediction probability (Pk) analysis were applied. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) as a non-entropy measure was compared. Results: All the entropy and MDFA indices could track the changes in EEG pattern during different anesthesia states. Three PE measures outperformed the other entropy indices, with less baseline variability, higher coefficient of determination (R2) and prediction probability, and RPE performed best; ApEn and SampEn discriminated BSP best. Additionally, these entropy measures showed an advantage in computation

  15. The Creation of a Strong Magnetic Field by Means of Large Magnetic Blocks from NdFeB Magnets in Opposing Linear Halbach Arrays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žežulka, Václav; Straka, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2016), 364-373 ISSN 1226-1750 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : magnetic field * permanent magnets * NdFeB magnets * Halbach Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.713, year: 2016 http://komag.org/journal/

  16. Determination of AC Characteristics of Superconducting Dipole Magnets in the Large Hadron Collider Based on Experimental Results and Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ambjørndalen, Sara; Verweij, Arjan

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) utilizes high-field superconducting Main Dipole Magnets that bend the trajectory of the beam. The LHC ring is electrically divided into eight octants, each allocating a 7 km chain of 154 Main Dipole Magnets. Dedicated de- tection and protection systems prevent irreversible magnet damage caused by quenches. Quench is a local transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state. Triggering of such systems, along with other failure scenarios, result in fast transient phenomena. In order to analyze the consequence of such electrical transients and failures in the dipole chain, one needs a circuit model that is validated against measurements. Currently, there exists an equivalent circuit of the Main Dipole Magnet resolved at an aperture level. Each aperture model takes into account the dynamic effects occurring in the magnets, trough a lossy-inductance model and parasitic capacitances to ground. At low frequencies the Main Dipole Magnet behaves as a linear inductor. Ca...

  17. Entanglement Entropy of AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Melis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in understanding the entanglement entropy of gravitational configurations for anti-de Sitter gravity in two and three spacetime dimensions using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We derive simple expressions for the entanglement entropy of two- and three-dimensional black holes. In both cases, the leading term of the entanglement entropy in the large black hole mass expansion reproduces exactly the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, whereas the subleading term behaves logarithmically. In particular, for the BTZ black hole the leading term of the entanglement entropy can be obtained from the large temperature expansion of the partition function of a broad class of 2D CFTs on the torus.

  18. The effect of heat radiation on the evolution of the Tsallis entropy in self-gravitating systems and plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yahui; Hao, Binzheng; Wen, Yaxiang; Liu, Xiaojun

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of the Tsallis entropy in self-gravitating systems and plasmas is studied in this letter, which is determined by two factors. The first factor is the change of the microstate number of systems, whose spontaneous increase leads to the entropy's increase, consistent with the standard text book. The second is the evolution of the nonextensive parameter, whose evolution rate to time is opposite to the one of entropy. We find the correlation between heat radiation and time evolution of the nonextensive parameter in the self-gravitating systems and plasmas. In such systems, the emission of radiation heat leads to the increase of the parameter while the absorption of radiation heat results in the decrease of this parameter. This is consistent with the inference derived from the Clausius' definition of entropy. In order to evolve to the current state, the solar corona should absorb a large amount of radiation heat, which might be originated from the energy released by solar flare. The magnetic connection probably plays a role in the conversion of energy. A correct dynamics theory of magnetic connection should explain how the energy conversion is achieved.

  19. Algebraic topological entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudetz, T.

    1989-01-01

    As a 'by-product' of the Connes-Narnhofer-Thirring theory of dynamical entropy for (originally non-Abelian) nuclear C * -algebras, the well-known variational principle for topological entropy is eqivalently reformulated in purly algebraically defined terms for (separable) Abelian C * -algebras. This 'algebraic variational principle' should not only nicely illustrate the 'feed-back' of methods developed for quantum dynamical systems to the classical theory, but it could also be proved directly by 'algebraic' methods and could thus further simplify the original proof of the variational principle (at least 'in principle'). 23 refs. (Author)

  20. Combinatorial Image Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuri, Shtarkov; Justesen, Jørn

    1997-01-01

    The concept of entropy for an image on a discrete two dimensional grid is introduced. This concept is used as an information theoretic bound on the coding rate for the image. It is proved that this quantity exists as a limit for arbitrary sets satisfying certain conditions.......The concept of entropy for an image on a discrete two dimensional grid is introduced. This concept is used as an information theoretic bound on the coding rate for the image. It is proved that this quantity exists as a limit for arbitrary sets satisfying certain conditions....

  1. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  2. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  3. Entanglement entropy and duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radičević, Ðorđe [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    Using the algebraic approach to entanglement entropy, we study several dual pairs of lattice theories and show how the entropy is completely preserved across each duality. Our main result is that a maximal algebra of observables in a region typically dualizes to a non-maximal algebra in a dual region. In particular, we show how the usual notion of tracing out external degrees of freedom dualizes to a tracing out coupled to an additional summation over superselection sectors. We briefly comment on possible extensions of our results to more intricate dualities, including holographic ones.

  4. Shaking the entropy out of a lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Tichy, Malte; Mølmer, Klaus; F. Sherson, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    , for which we implement a protocol that circumvents the constraints of unitarity. The preparation of large regions with precisely one atom per lattice site is discussed for both bosons and fermions. The resulting low-entropy Mott-insulating states may serve as high-fidelity register states for quantum...

  5. Trends in Cable Magnetization and Persistent Currents during the Production of the Main Dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, B; Granata, V; Le Naour, S; Oberli, L; Sanfilippo, S; Santoni, C; Scandale, Walter; Schwerg, N; Todesco, Ezio; Völlinger, C

    2005-01-01

    The production of more than 60% of superconducting cables for the main dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider has been completed. The results of the measurements of cable magnetization and the dependence on the manufacturers are presented. The strand magnetization produces field errors that have been measured in a large number of dipoles (approximately 100 to date) tested in cold conditions. We examine here the correlation between the available magnetic measurements and the large database of cable magnetization. The analysis is based on models documented elsewhere in the literature. Finally, a forecast of the persistent current effects to be expected in the LHC main dipoles is presented, and the more critical parameters for beam dynamics are singled out.

  6. Probing renormalization group flows using entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hong; Mezei, Márk

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we continue the study of renormalized entanglement entropy introduced in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2013)162. In particular, we investigate its behavior near an IR fixed point using holographic duality. We develop techniques which, for any static holographic geometry, enable us to extract the large radius expansion of the entanglement entropy for a spherical region. We show that for both a sphere and a strip, the approach of the renormalized entanglement entropy to the IR fixed point value contains a contribution that depends on the whole RG trajectory. Such a contribution is dominant, when the leading irrelevant operator is sufficiently irrelevant. For a spherical region such terms can be anticipated from a geometric expansion, while for a strip whether these terms have geometric origins remains to be seen

  7. Algebraic entropy for algebraic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, A N W; Ragnisco, Orlando; Zullo, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We propose an extension of the concept of algebraic entropy, as introduced by Bellon and Viallet for rational maps, to algebraic maps (or correspondences) of a certain kind. The corresponding entropy is an index of the complexity of the map. The definition inherits the basic properties from the definition of entropy for rational maps. We give an example with positive entropy, as well as two examples taken from the theory of Bäcklund transformations. (letter)

  8. Achieved capability of the superconducting magnet system for the large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, T.; Imagawa, S.; Yanagi, N.

    2001-01-01

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) is a plasma physics experimental device with a magnetic stored energy of 960 MJ, consisting of two sc (superconducting) helical coils and six sc poloidal coils. The trial operation and the first plasma discharge of the eight-year Phase I project for LHD were finished on 31 March 1998 as initially planned. The second experimental campaign was conducted by additional heating using two NBI devices. The third campaign started in June 1999 and was finished in January 2000. Many plasma heating tests up to a plasma field of 2.90 T were carried out. Major test results on the sc magnet system for LHD are as follows: (1) The LHD cryogenic system succeeded in 13,400-hour operation and proved its high reliability. (2) A central field of 2.91 T at a radius of 3.60 m was achieved at an H-I current of 11.08 kA, H-M current of 11.83 kA and an H-O current of 12.02 kA. (3) All six poloidal coils were excited stably. (4) Nine flexible sc bus-lines with a total length of 497 m were operated stably and safe. (author)

  9. Large area APDs for low energy X-ray detection in intense magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, M.; Huot, O.; Knowles, P.E.; Ludhova, L.; Mulhauser, F.; Schaller, L.A.; Conde, C.A.N.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Fernandes, L.M.P.; Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Kottmann, F.; Antognini, A.; Pohl, R.; Taqqu, D.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment to measure the energy difference between the 2S-2P atomic levels (Lamb shift) in muonic hydrogen is being prepared at PSI. Since the energy levels of muonic hydrogen are a factor of 186 more energetic than those of hydrogen, according to the ratio of reduced masses, the transitions lie in the soft X-ray region. The experiment needs long-lived muonic hydrogen in the 2S state. This is achieved by stopping a low energy muon beam in a small volume of low pressure hydrogen in a 5 T magnetic field. A pulsed beam from a tunable laser induces the 2S-2P transition and the 1.9 keV X-ray photons resulting from the 2P-1S deexcitation will be detected. Measuring the coincidences between the laser pulse and the X-ray as a function of the laser wavelength allows us to determine the Lamb shift. In this presentation we will discuss the perspectives of using large area avalanche photodiodes for the direct detection of the X-rays. Compared to gaseous detectors, they are more compact and simpler in operation. They are also insensitive to magnetic fields

  10. Large area APDs for low energy X-ray detection in intense magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, M.; Huot, O.; Knowles, P.E.; Ludhova, L.; Mulhauser, F. E-mail: francoise.mulhauser@unifr.ch; Schaller, L.A.; Conde, C.A.N.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Fernandes, L.M.P.; Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Kottmann, F.; Antognini, A.; Pohl, R.; Taqqu, D

    2003-06-01

    An experiment to measure the energy difference between the 2S-2P atomic levels (Lamb shift) in muonic hydrogen is being prepared at PSI. Since the energy levels of muonic hydrogen are a factor of 186 more energetic than those of hydrogen, according to the ratio of reduced masses, the transitions lie in the soft X-ray region. The experiment needs long-lived muonic hydrogen in the 2S state. This is achieved by stopping a low energy muon beam in a small volume of low pressure hydrogen in a 5 T magnetic field. A pulsed beam from a tunable laser induces the 2S-2P transition and the 1.9 keV X-ray photons resulting from the 2P-1S deexcitation will be detected. Measuring the coincidences between the laser pulse and the X-ray as a function of the laser wavelength allows us to determine the Lamb shift. In this presentation we will discuss the perspectives of using large area avalanche photodiodes for the direct detection of the X-rays. Compared to gaseous detectors, they are more compact and simpler in operation. They are also insensitive to magnetic fields.

  11. Witnessing a Large-scale Slipping Magnetic Reconnection along a Dimming Channel during a Solar Flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Ju; Lee, Jeongwoo; Xu, Yan; Liu, Chang; Wang, Haimin [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Liu, Rui [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Cheung, Mark C. M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Zhu, Chunming, E-mail: ju.jing@njit.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2017-06-20

    We report the intriguing large-scale dynamic phenomena associated with the M6.5 flare (SOL2015-06-22T18:23) in NOAA active region 12371, observed by RHESSI , Fermi , and the Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA) and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO ). The most interesting feature of this event is a third ribbon (R3) arising in the decay phase, propagating along a dimming channel (seen in EUV passbands) toward a neighboring sunspot. The propagation of R3 occurs in the presence of hard X-ray footpoint emission and is broadly visible at temperatures from 0.6 MK to over 10 MK through the differential emission measure analysis. The coronal loops then undergo an apparent slipping motion following the same path of R3, after a ∼80 minute delay. To understand the underlying physics, we investigate the magnetic configuration and the thermal structure of the flaring region. Our results are in favor of a slipping-type reconnection followed by the thermodynamic evolution of coronal loops. In comparison with those previously reported slipping reconnection events, this one proceeds across a particularly long distance (∼60 Mm) over a long period of time (∼50 minutes) and shows two clearly distinguished phases: the propagation of the footpoint brightening driven by nonthermal particle injection and the apparent slippage of loops governed by plasma heating and subsequent cooling.

  12. Supervision software for string 2 magnet test facility of large hadron collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayya, Y.S.; Sanadhya, Vivek; Lal, Pradeep; Goel, Vijay; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Saha, Shilpi

    2001-01-01

    The Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software for the String 2 test facility at CERN, Geneva is developed by BARC under the framework of CERN-DAE collaboration for LHC. The supervision application is developed using PCVue32 SCADA/MMI software. The String 2 test facility prototypes one full cell of LHC and is aimed at studying and validating the individual and collective behaviour of the superconducting magnets, before installing in the tunnel. The software integrates monitoring and supervisory control of all the main subsystems of String 2 such as Cryogenics, Vacuum, Power converters, Magnet protection, Energy extraction and interlock systems. It incorporates animated process synoptics, loop and equipment control panels, configurable trend windows for real-time and historical trending of process parameters, user settability for interlock and alarm thresholds, logging of process events, equipment faults and operator activity. The plant equipment are controlled by a variety of field located Programmable Logic Controllers and VME crates which communicate process IO to the central IO server using both vendor specific and custom protocols. The system leverages OPC (OLE for Process Controls) technology for realising a generic IO server. A large number of geographically distributed client stations are arranged to provide the process specific operator interface and these are connected to the Main IO server over CERN wide intranet and internet. (author)

  13. The Large Scale Structure of the Galactic Magnetic Field and High Energy Cosmic Ray Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Muniz, Jaime [Department de Fisica de PartIculas, University de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago, SPAIN (Spain); Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    Measurements of the magnetic field in our Galaxy are complex and usually difficult to interpret. A spiral regular field in the disk is favored by observations, however the number of field reversals is still under debate. Measurements of the parity of the field across the Galactic plane are also very difficult due to the presence of the disk field itself. In this work we demonstrate that cosmic ray protons in the energy range 10{sup 18} to 10{sup 19}eV, if accelerated near the center of the Galaxy, are sensitive to the large scale structure of the Galactic Magnetic Field (GMF). In particular if the field is of even parity, and the spiral field is bi-symmetric (BSS), ultra high energy protons will predominantly come from the Southern Galactic hemisphere, and predominantly from the Northern Galactic hemisphere if the field is of even parity and axi-symmetric (ASS). There is no sensitivity to the BSS or ASS configurations if the field is of odd parity.

  14. Measurements of the deuteron and proton magnetic form factors at large momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosted, P.E.; Katramatou, A.T.; Arnold, R.G.; Benton, D.; Clogher, L.; DeChambrier, G.; Lambert, J.; Lung, A.; Petratos, G.G.; Rahbar, A.; Rock, S.E.; Szalata, Z.M.; Debebe, B.; Frodyma, M.; Hicks, R.S.; Hotta, A.; Peterson, G.A.; Gearhart, R.A.; Alster, J.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Dietrich, F.; van Bibber, K.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the deuteron elastic magnetic structure function B(Q 2 ) are reported at squared four-momentum transfer values 1.20≤Q 2 ≤2.77 (GeV/c) 2 . Also reported are values for the proton magnetic form factor G Mp (Q 2 ) at 11 Q 2 values between 0.49 and 1.75 (GeV/c) 2 . The data were obtained using an electron beam of 0.5 to 1.3 GeV. Electrons backscattered near 180 degree were detected in coincidence with deuterons or protons recoiling near 0 degree in a large solid-angle double-arm spectrometer system. The data for B(Q 2 ) are found to decrease rapidly from Q 2 =1.2 to 2 (GeV/c) 2 , and then rise to a secondary maximum around Q 2 =2.5 (GeV/c) 2 . Reasonable agreement is found with several different models, including those in the relativistic impulse approximation, nonrelativistic calculations that include meson-exchange currents, isobar configurations, and six-quark configurations, and one calculation based on the Skyrme model. All calculations are very sensitive to the choice of deuteron wave function and nucleon form factor parametrization. The data for G Mp (Q 2 ) are in good agreement with the empirical dipole fit

  15. ENTROPY FLOW CHARACTERISTICS ANALYSIS OF TYPHOON MATSA (0509)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui; LIU Chong-jian

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of Typhoon Matsa (0509) is examined in terms of entropy flow through an entropy balance equation derived from the Gibbs relation, according to the second law of thermodynamics. The entropy flows in the various significant stages of (genesis, development and decaying) during its evolution are diagnosed based on the outputs of the PSU/NCAR mesoscale model (known as MM5). The results show that: (1) the vertical spatial distribution of entropy flow for Matsa is characterized by a predominantly negative entropy flow in a large portion of the troposphere and a positive flow in the upper levels; (2) the fields of entropy flows at the middle troposphere (500 hPa) show that the growth of the typhoon is greatly dependent on the negative entropy flows from its surroundings; and (3) the simulated centres of heavy rainfall associated with the typhoon match well with the zones of large negative entropy flows, suggesting that they may be a significant indicator for severe weather events.

  16. Enthalpy-entropy compensation: the role of solvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, Anatoliy I; Read, Christopher M; Crane-Robinson, Colyn

    2017-05-01

    Structural modifications to interacting systems frequently lead to changes in both the enthalpy (heat) and entropy of the process that compensate each other, so that the Gibbs free energy is little changed: a major barrier to the development of lead compounds in drug discovery. The conventional explanation for such enthalpy-entropy compensation (EEC) is that tighter contacts lead to a more negative enthalpy but increased molecular constraints, i.e., a compensating conformational entropy reduction. Changes in solvation can also contribute to EEC but this contribution is infrequently discussed. We review long-established and recent cases of EEC and conclude that the large fluctuations in enthalpy and entropy observed are too great to be a result of only conformational changes and must result, to a considerable degree, from variations in the amounts of water immobilized or released on forming complexes. Two systems exhibiting EEC show a correlation between calorimetric entropies and local mobilities, interpreted to mean conformational control of the binding entropy/free energy. However, a substantial contribution from solvation gives the same effect, as a consequence of a structural link between the amount of bound water and the protein flexibility. Only by assuming substantial changes in solvation-an intrinsically compensatory process-can a more complete understanding of EEC be obtained. Faced with such large, and compensating, changes in the enthalpies and entropies of binding, the best approach to engineering elevated affinities must be through the addition of ionic links, as they generate increased entropy without affecting the enthalpy.

  17. A Note on Quantum Entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Incremental information, as measured by the quantum entropy, is increasing when two ensembles are united. This result was proved by Lieb and Ruskai, and it is the foundation for the proof of strong subadditivity of quantum entropy. We present a truly elementary proof of this fact in the context of the broader family of matrix entropies introduced by Chen and Tropp.

  18. A Note on Quantum Entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank, E-mail: frank.hansen@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, Institute for Excellence in Higher Education (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Incremental information, as measured by the quantum entropy, is increasing when two ensembles are united. This result was proved by Lieb and Ruskai, and it is the foundation for the proof of strong subadditivity of quantum entropy. We present a truly elementary proof of this fact in the context of the broader family of matrix entropies introduced by Chen and Tropp.

  19. Relations Among Some Fuzzy Entropy Formulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿铭

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy entropy has been widely used to analyze and design fuzzy systems, and many fuzzy entropy formulae have been proposed. For further in-deepth analysis of fuzzy entropy, the axioms and some important formulae of fuzzy entropy are introduced. Some equivalence results among these fuzzy entropy formulae are proved, and it is shown that fuzzy entropy is a special distance measurement.

  20. Magnetic Carpet Probe for Large Area Instant Crack/Corrosion Detection and Health Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yushi; Ouyang Tianhe; Yang Xinle; Zhu Haiou

    2007-01-01

    Recently a new NDE tool, Magnet Carpet Probe (MCP), has been developed by Innovative Materials Testing Technologies, Inc. supported by FAA to meet the demands of large area crack/corrosion detection and health monitoring. MCP is a two-dimensional coil array built on a piece of very thin flexible printed circuit board. A two-dimensional electromagnetic scan is going on within the MCP placed on top of a metallic surface under inspection. Therefore, one can finish the inspection, without moving anything, and see the crack/corrosion identification image on the instrument screen in a few second. Recent test results show that it can detect 0.030 x 0.016'' EDM notches on a Titanium standard; 0.024'' ∼ 0.036: real cracks on titanium standards, as well as penetrate through a 0.040'' aluminum layer for corrosion detection

  1. Design, construction, and performance of superconducting magnet support posts for the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blin, M.; Danielsson, H.; Evans, B.; Mathieu, M.

    1994-01-01

    Different support posts for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype superconducting magnets have been designed and manufactured. They have been evaluated both mechanically and thermally. The posts are made of a tubular section in composite materials, i.e. glass- or carbon-fibre and epoxy resin, with glued metallic heat intercepts and connections. Mechanical tests have been carried out with both radial and axial loads, before and after cooldown to working temperature. The design considerations and future developments concerning dimensions and other materials are also discussed in this paper. Thermal performance has been evaluated at 1.8 K, 5 K and 80 K in a precision heat leak measuring bench. The measurements have been carried out using calibrated thermal conductances (open-quotes heatmetersclose quotes) and boil-off methods. The measured performances of the posts have been compared with analytical predictions

  2. Entropy à la Boltzmann

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 9. Entropy à la Boltzmann. Jayanta K Bhattacharjee. General Article Volume 6 Issue 9 September 2001 pp 19-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/09/0019-0034 ...

  3. Entropy in Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Consider the integral. taken over a reversible transformation. We shall call this function the entropy of state A.” 'Thermodynamics' by Enrico Fermi. “Let Γ be the volume of the region of motion of the states, and. This is the basic assumption of ...

  4. Dynamic Cross-Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aur, Dorian; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel

    2017-01-01

    Complexity measures for time series have been used in many applications to quantify the regularity of one dimensional time series, however many dynamical systems are spatially distributed multidimensional systems. We introduced Dynamic Cross-Entropy (DCE) a novel multidimensional complexity measure that quantifies the degree of regularity of EEG signals in selected frequency bands. Time series generated by discrete logistic equations with varying control parameter r are used to test DCE measures. Sliding window DCE analyses are able to reveal specific period doubling bifurcations that lead to chaos. A similar behavior can be observed in seizures triggered by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Sample entropy data show the level of signal complexity in different phases of the ictal ECT. The transition to irregular activity is preceded by the occurrence of cyclic regular behavior. A significant increase of DCE values in successive order from high frequencies in gamma to low frequencies in delta band reveals several phase transitions into less ordered states, possible chaos in the human brain. To our knowledge there are no reliable techniques able to reveal the transition to chaos in case of multidimensional times series. In addition, DCE based on sample entropy appears to be robust to EEG artifacts compared to DCE based on Shannon entropy. The applied technique may offer new approaches to better understand nonlinear brain activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rescaling Temperature and Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, John, III

    2010-01-01

    Temperature and entropy traditionally are expressed in units of kelvin and joule/kelvin. These units obscure some important aspects of the natures of these thermodynamic quantities. Defining a rescaled temperature using the Boltzmann constant, T' = k[subscript B]T, expresses temperature in energy units, thereby emphasizing the close relationship…

  6. Optimized Kernel Entropy Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Verdiguier, Emma; Laparra, Valero; Jenssen, Robert; Gomez-Chova, Luis; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2017-06-01

    This brief addresses two main issues of the standard kernel entropy component analysis (KECA) algorithm: the optimization of the kernel decomposition and the optimization of the Gaussian kernel parameter. KECA roughly reduces to a sorting of the importance of kernel eigenvectors by entropy instead of variance, as in the kernel principal components analysis. In this brief, we propose an extension of the KECA method, named optimized KECA (OKECA), that directly extracts the optimal features retaining most of the data entropy by means of compacting the information in very few features (often in just one or two). The proposed method produces features which have higher expressive power. In particular, it is based on the independent component analysis framework, and introduces an extra rotation to the eigen decomposition, which is optimized via gradient-ascent search. This maximum entropy preservation suggests that OKECA features are more efficient than KECA features for density estimation. In addition, a critical issue in both the methods is the selection of the kernel parameter, since it critically affects the resulting performance. Here, we analyze the most common kernel length-scale selection criteria. The results of both the methods are illustrated in different synthetic and real problems. Results show that OKECA returns projections with more expressive power than KECA, the most successful rule for estimating the kernel parameter is based on maximum likelihood, and OKECA is more robust to the selection of the length-scale parameter in kernel density estimation.

  7. Entropy and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, M. H.

    This paper is a critical analysis and reassessment of entropic functioning as it applies to the question of whether the ultimate fate of the universe will be determined in the future to be "open" (expanding forever to expire in a big chill), "closed" (collapsing to a big crunch), or "flat" (balanced forever between the two). The second law of thermodynamics declares that entropy can only increase and that this principle extends, inevitably, to the universe as a whole. This paper takes the position that this extension is an unwarranted projection based neither on experience nonfact - an extrapolation that ignores the powerful effect of a gravitational force acting within a closed system. Since it was originally presented by Clausius, the thermodynamic concept of entropy has been redefined in terms of "order" and "disorder" - order being equated with a low degree of entropy and disorder with a high degree. This revised terminology more subjective than precise, has generated considerable confusion in cosmology in several critical instances. For example - the chaotic fireball of the big bang, interpreted by Stephen Hawking as a state of disorder (high entropy), is infinitely hot and, thermally, represents zero entropy (order). Hawking, apparently focusing on the disorderly "chaotic" aspect, equated it with a high degree of entropy - overlooking the fact that the universe is a thermodynamic system and that the key factor in evaluating the big-bang phenomenon is the infinitely high temperature at the early universe, which can only be equated with zero entropy. This analysis resolves this confusion and reestablishes entropy as a cosmological function integrally linked to temperature. The paper goes on to show that, while all subsystems contained within the universe require external sources of energization to have their temperatures raised, this requirement does not apply to the universe as a whole. The universe is the only system that, by itself can raise its own

  8. Entropy equilibrium equation and dynamic entropy production in environment liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The entropy equilibrium equation is the basis of the nonequilibrium state thermodynamics. But the internal energy implies the kinetic energy of the fluid micelle relative to mass center in the classical entropy equilibrium equation at present. This internal energy is not the mean kinetic energy of molecular movement in thermodynamics. Here a modified entropy equilibrium equation is deduced, based on the concept that the internal energy is just the mean kinetic energy of the molecular movement. A dynamic entropy production is introduced into the entropy equilibrium equation to describe the dynamic process distinctly. This modified entropy equilibrium equation can describe not only the entropy variation of the irreversible processes but also the reversible processes in a thermodynamic system. It is more reasonable and suitable for wider applications.

  9. Entropy, neutro-entropy and anti-entropy for neutrosophic information

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Patrascu

    2017-01-01

    This approach presents a multi-valued representation of the neutrosophic information. It highlights the link between the bifuzzy information and neutrosophic one. The constructed deca-valued structure shows the neutrosophic information complexity. This deca-valued structure led to construction of two new concepts for the neutrosophic information: neutro-entropy and anti-entropy. These two concepts are added to the two existing: entropy and non-entropy. Thus, we obtained the following triad: e...

  10. Production of large volume, strongly magnetized laser-produced plasmas by use of pulsed external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertazzi, B. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); INRS-EMT, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Beard, J.; Billette, J.; Portugall, O. [LNCMI, UPR 3228, CNRS-UFJ-UPS-INSA, 31400 Toulouse (France); Ciardi, A. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 8112, Paris (France); Vinci, T.; Albrecht, J.; Chen, S. N.; Da Silva, D.; Hirardin, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Romagnagni, L.; Simond, S.; Veuillot, E.; Fuchs, J. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Burris-Mog, T.; Dittrich, S.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Kroll, F.; Nitsche, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); and others

    2013-04-15

    The production of strongly magnetized laser plasmas, of interest for laboratory astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion studies, is presented. This is achieved by coupling a 16 kV pulse-power system. This is achieved by coupling a 16 kV pulse-power system, which generates a magnetic field by means of a split coil, with the ELFIE laser facility at Ecole Polytechnique. In order to influence the plasma dynamics in a significant manner, the system can generate, repetitively and without debris, high amplitude magnetic fields (40 T) in a manner compatible with a high-energy laser environment. A description of the system and preliminary results demonstrating the possibility to magnetically collimate plasma jets are given.

  11. Entropy, neutro-entropy and anti-entropy for neutrosophic information

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Patrascu

    2017-01-01

    This article shows a deca-valued representation of neutrosophic information in which are defined the following features: truth, falsity, weak truth, weak falsity, ignorance, contradiction, saturation, neutrality, ambiguity and hesitation. Using these features, there are constructed computing formulas for entropy, neutro-entropy and anti-entropy.

  12. Biodegradable Magnetic Silica@Iron Oxide Nanovectors with Ultra-Large Mesopores for High Protein Loading, Magnetothermal Release, and Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Omar, Haneen

    2016-11-29

    The delivery of large cargos of diameter above 15 nm for biomedical applications has proved challenging since it requires biocompatible, stably-loaded, and biodegradable nanomaterials. In this study, we describe the design of biodegradable silica-iron oxide hybrid nanovectors with large mesopores for large protein delivery in cancer cells. The mesopores of the nanomaterials spanned from 20 to 60 nm in diameter and post-functionalization allowed the electrostatic immobilization of large proteins (e.g. mTFP-Ferritin, ~ 534 kDa). Half of the content of the nanovectors was based with iron oxide nanophases which allowed the rapid biodegradation of the carrier in fetal bovine serum and a magnetic responsiveness. The nanovectors released large protein cargos in aqueous solution under acidic pH or magnetic stimuli. The delivery of large proteins was then autonomously achieved in cancer cells via the silica-iron oxide nanovectors, which is thus a promising for biomedical applications.

  13. Single interval Rényi entropy at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Wu, Jie-qiang

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we calculate the Rényi entropy of one single interval on a circle at finite temperature in 2D CFT. In the low temperature limit, we expand the thermal density matrix level by level in the vacuum Verma module, and calculate the first few leading terms in e -π/ T L explicitly. On the other hand, we compute the same Rényi entropy holographically. After considering the dependence of the Rényi entropy on the temperature, we manage to fix the interval-independent constant terms in the classical part of holographic Rényi entropy. We furthermore extend the analysis in [9] to higher orders and find exact agreement between the results from field theory and bulk computations in the large central charge limit. Our work provides another piece of evidence to support holographic computation of Rényi entropy in AdS3/CFT2 correspondence, even with thermal effect.

  14. Large superconductors and joints for fusion magnets: From conceptual design to testing at full scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J. L.; Decool, P.; Libeyre, P.; Turck, B.

    2001-02-01

    A new kind of superconductor, using the cable-in-conduit concept, is emerging, mainly in the context of fusion activity. At present no large Nb3Sn magnet in the world is operating using this concept. The difficulty of this technology, which has now been studied for 20 years, is that it requires major advances in several interconnected new fields, such as handling a large number (1000) of superconducting strands, high current conductors (50 kA), forced flow cryogenics, Nb3Sn technology, low loss conductors in pulsed operation, high current connections and high voltage insulation (10 kV), as well as demonstration of its economical and industrial feasibility. CEA has been very much involved, during the past ten years, in this development, which took place in the framework of the NET and ITER technological programmes. One major milestone was reached in 1998-1999 with the successful tests by Euratom-CEA of three full size conductor and connection samples in the SULTAN facility in Switzerland.

  15. Results of the international Large Coil Task: a milestone for superconducting magnets in fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.; Fietz, W.A.; Gauss, S.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the Large Coil Task (LCT) was to demonstrate the reliable operation of large superconducting toroidal field coils and to prove the design principles and fabrication techniques to be applied for the magnets in a tokamak experimental power reactor. This has been achieved by an international development effort involving the US DOE, EURATOM, JAERI and the Swiss government. Six different D-shaped test coils were separately designed, developed and constructed by the LCT participants, then extensively tested together in a compact toroidal array. Detailed information on coil design and manufacture and all test data were shared among the LCT participants. The full six-coil array tests were carried out in a continuous period from the beginning of 1986 until September 1987. Beside the originally planned tests to reach an 8 T design point performance, the tests went well beyond this goal, reaching 9 T peak field in each coil. The experiments also delineated the limits of operability and demonstrated the coil safety under abnormal conditions. For fusion application the transient a.c. field behaviour in the coils was also of great interest. Three of the coils have been tested in this respect and showed excellent performance, with loss values in agreement with the theoretical predictions. (author)

  16. Accurate density-functional calculations on large systems: Fullerenes and magnetic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, B.I.

    1996-01-01

    Efforts to accurately compute all-electron density-functional energies for large molecules and clusters using Gaussian basis sets will be reviewed. The foundation of this effort, variational fitting, will be described and followed by three applications of the method. The first application concerns fullerenes. When first discovered, C 60 is quite unstable relative to the higher fullerenes. In addition, to raising questions about the relative abundance of the various fullerenes, this work conflicted with the then state-of-the art density-funcitonal calculations on crystalline graphite. Now high accuracy molecular and band structure calculations are in fairly good agreement. Second, we have used these methods to design transition metal clusters having the highest magnetic moment by maximizing the symmetry-required degeneracy of the one-electron orbitals. Most recently, we have developed accurate, variational generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) forces for use in geometry optimization of clusters and in molecular-dynamics simulations of friction. The GGA optimized geometries of a number of large clusters will be given

  17. Application of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging in large invasive pituitary adenoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Cong, Zixiang; Ji, Xueman; Wang, Xiaoliang; Hu, Zhigang; Jia, Yue; Wang, Handong

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the clinical application value of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) in large invasive pituitary adenoma surgery. A total of 30 patients with large pituitary adenoma underwent microscopic tumor resection under the assistance of an iMRI system; 26 cases received surgery through the nasal-transsphenoidal approach, and the remaining four cases received surgery through the pterion approach. iMRI was performed one or two times depending on the need of the surgeon. If a residual tumor was found, further resection was conducted under iMRI guidance. iMRI revealed residual tumors in 12 cases, among which nine cases received further resection. Of these nine cases, iMRI rescanning confirmed complete resection in six cases, and subtotal resection in the remaining three. Overall, 24 cases of tumor were totally resected, and six cases were subtotally resected. The total resection rate of tumors increased from 60% to 80%. iMRI can effectively determine the resection extent of pituitary adenomas. In addition, it provides an objective basis for real-time judgment of surgical outcome, subsequently improving surgical accuracy and safety, and increasing the total tumor resection rate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  18. Large intrinsic anomalous Hall effect in half-metallic ferromagnet Co3Sn2S2 with magnetic Weyl fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qi; Xu, Yuanfeng; Lou, Rui; Liu, Zhonghao; Li, Man; Huang, Yaobo; Shen, Dawei; Weng, Hongming; Wang, Shancai; Lei, Hechang

    2017-01-01

    The origin of anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in magnetic materials is one of the most intriguing aspect in condensed matter physics and has been controversial for a long time. Recent studies indicate that the intrinsic AHE is closely related to the Berry curvature of occupied electronic states. In a magnetic Weyl semimetal with broken time-reversal symmetry, there are significant contributions on Berry curvature around Weyl nodes, which would lead to a large intrinsic AHE. Here, we report the la...

  19. The different paths to entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benguigui, L

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand how the complex concept of entropy emerged, we propose a trip into the past, reviewing the works of Clausius, Boltzmann, Gibbs and Planck. In particular, since Gibbs's work is not very well known we present a detailed analysis, recalling the three definitions of entropy that Gibbs gives. The introduction of entropy in quantum mechanics gives in a compact form all the classical definitions of entropy. Perhaps one of the most important aspects of entropy is to see it as a thermodynamic potential like the others proposed by Callen. The calculation of fluctuations in thermodynamic quantities is thus naturally related to entropy. We close with some remarks on entropy and irreversibility. (paper)

  20. Theoretical analysis and experimental study on breakaway torque of large-diameter magnetic liquid seal at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haina; Li, Decai; Wang, Qinglei; Zhang, Zhili

    2013-07-01

    The existing researches of the magnetic liquid rotation seal have been mainly oriented to the seal at normal temperature and the seal with the smaller shaft diameter less than 100 mm. However, the large-diameter magnetic liquid rotation seal at low temperature has not been reported both in theory and in application up to now. A key factor restricting the application of the large-diameter magnetic liquid rotation seal at low temperature is the high breakaway torque. In this paper, the factors that influence the breakaway torque including the number of seal stages, the injected quantity of magnetic liquid and the standing time at normal temperature are studied. Two kinds of magnetic liquid with variable content of large particles are prepared first, and a seal feedthrough with 140 mm shaft diameter is used in the experiments. All experiments are carried out in a low temperature chamber with a temperature range from 200°C to -100°C. Different numbers of seal stages are tested under the same condition to study the relation between the breakaway torque and the number of seal stages. Variable quantity of magnetic liquid is injected in the seal gap to get the relation curve of the breakaway torque and the injecting quantity of magnetic liquid. In the experiment for studying the relation between the breakaway torque and the standing time at the normal temperature, the seal feedtrough is laid at normal temperature for different period of time before it is put in the low temperature chamber. The experimental results show that the breakaway torque is proportional to the number of seal stages, the injected quantity of magnetic liquid and the standing time at the normal temperature. Meanwhile, the experimental results are analyzed and the torque formula of magnetic liquid rotation seal at low temperature is deduced from the Navier-Stokes equation on the base of the model of magnetic liquid rotation seal. The presented research can make wider application of the magnetic liquid

  1. Large superconducting detector magnets with ultra thin coils for use in high energy accelerators and storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1977-08-01

    The development of a new class of large superconducting solenoid magnets is described. High energy physics on colliding beam machines sometimes require the use of thin coil solenoid magnets. The development of these magnets has proceeded with the substitution of light materials for heavy materials and by increasing the current density in the coils. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has developed a radical approach to the problem by having the coil operate at very high current densities. This approach and its implications are described in detail

  2. Large-scale fluid motion in the earth's outer core estimated from non-dipole magnetic field data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Masaki; Honkura, Yoshimori

    1989-01-01

    Fluid motions in the Earth's outer core can be estimated from magnetic field data at the Earth's surface based on some assumptions. The basic standpoint here is that the non-dipole magnetic field is generated by the interaction between a strong toroidal magnetic field, created by differential rotation, and the convective motion in the outer core. Large-scale convective motions are studied to express them in terms of the poloidal velocity field expanded into a series of spherical harmonics. The radial distribution of differential rotation is estimated from the balance between the effective couple due to angular momentum transfer and the electromagnetic couple. Then the radial dependence of the toroidal magnetic field is derived from the interaction between the differential rotation thus estimated and the dipole magnetic field within the outer core. Magnetic field data are applied to a secular variation model which takes into account the fluctuations of the standing and drifting parts of the non-zonal magnetic field. The velocity field in the outer core is estimated for two cases. It is revealed that the pattern of convective motions is generally characterized by large-scale motions in the quasi-steady case. In the non-steady case, the magnitude of the velocity field is much larger, indicating a more dynamic feature. (N.K.)

  3. Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W.; Gryk, Michael R.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system

  4. Financial time series analysis based on effective phase transfer entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengbo; Shang, Pengjian; Lin, Aijing

    2017-02-01

    Transfer entropy is a powerful technique which is able to quantify the impact of one dynamic system on another system. In this paper, we propose the effective phase transfer entropy method based on the transfer entropy method. We use simulated data to test the performance of this method, and the experimental results confirm that the proposed approach is capable of detecting the information transfer between the systems. We also explore the relationship between effective phase transfer entropy and some variables, such as data size, coupling strength and noise. The effective phase transfer entropy is positively correlated with the data size and the coupling strength. Even in the presence of a large amount of noise, it can detect the information transfer between systems, and it is very robust to noise. Moreover, this measure is indeed able to accurately estimate the information flow between systems compared with phase transfer entropy. In order to reflect the application of this method in practice, we apply this method to financial time series and gain new insight into the interactions between systems. It is demonstrated that the effective phase transfer entropy can be used to detect some economic fluctuations in the financial market. To summarize, the effective phase transfer entropy method is a very efficient tool to estimate the information flow between systems.

  5. Linking entropy flow with typhoon evolution: a case-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C; Xu, H; Liu, Y

    2007-01-01

    This paper is mainly aimed at investigating the relationship of entropy flow with an atmospheric system (typhoon), based on the observational analyses covering its whole life-cycle. The formula for calculating entropy flow is derived starting with the Gibbs relation with data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The results show that: (i) entropy flow characteristics at different vertical layers of the system are heterogeneous with predominant negative entropy flow in the large portion of the troposphere and positive ones at upper levels during its development; (ii) changes in the maximum surface wind velocity or the intensity of a typhoon are synchronous with the total entropy flow around the typhoon centre and its neighbourhood, suggesting that the growth of a severe atmospheric system relies greatly upon the negative entropy flow being strong enough, and that entropy flow analysis might provide a particular point of view and a powerful tool to understand the mechanism responsible for the life-cycle of an atmospheric system and associated weather events; and (iii) the horizontal pattern of negative entropy flow near the surface might contain some significant information conducive to the track forecast of typhoons

  6. Holographic Entanglement Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Rangamani, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    We review the developments in the past decade on holographic entanglement entropy, a subject that has garnered much attention owing to its potential to teach us about the emergence of spacetime in holography. We provide an introduction to the concept of entanglement entropy in quantum field theories, review the holographic proposals for computing the same, providing some justification for where these proposals arise from in the first two parts. The final part addresses recent developments linking entanglement and geometry. We provide an overview of the various arguments and technical developments that teach us how to use field theory entanglement to detect geometry. Our discussion is by design eclectic; we have chosen to focus on developments that appear to us most promising for further insights into the holographic map. This is a preliminary draft of a few chapters of a book which will appear sometime in the near future, to be published by Springer. The book in addition contains a discussion of application o...

  7. Landau degeneracy and black hole entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.S.; Perry, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    We consider the supergravity solution describing a configuration of intersecting D4-branes with non-vanishing world-volume gauge fields. The entropy of such a black hole is calculated in terms of the D-branes quantised charges. The non-extreme solution is also considered and the corresponding thermodynamical quantities are calculated in terms of a D-brane/anti-D-brane system. To perform the quantum mechanical D-brane analysis we study open strings with their ends on branes with a magnetic condensate. Applying the results to our D-brane system we manage to have a perfect agreement between the D-brane entropy counting and the corresponding semi-classical result. The Landau degeneracy of the open string states describing the excitations of the D-brane system enters in a crucial way. We also derive the near-extreme results which agree with the semi-classical calculations. (orig.)

  8. Entropy region and convolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František; Csirmaz, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 11 (2016), s. 6007-6018 ISSN 0018-9448 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : entropy region * information-theoretic inequality * polymatroid Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.679, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/matus-0465564.pdf

  9. Equipartition of entropy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimal design or operation of heat and mass transfer processes and develops the following conjecture: for a given duty, the best configuration of the process is that in which the entropy production rate is most uniformly distributed. This principle is first analyzed in detail on the simple example of tubular heat exchangers, and within the framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics. A main result is established, which states that the total entropy production is minimal when the local production is uniformly distributed (equipartition). Corollaries then result, which relate the entropy production and the variance of its distribution to economic factors such as the duty, the exchange area, the fluid flow-rates, and the temperature changes. The equipartition principle is then extended to multiple independent variables (time and space), multicomponent transfer, and non-linear but concave flux vs force relationship. Chemical Engineering examples are discussed, where the equipartition property has been applied implicitly or explicitly: design of distillation plates, cyclic distillation, optimal state of feed, and flow-sheets in chromatographic separations. Finally, a generalization of the equipartition principle is proposed, for systems with a distributed design variable (such as the size of the various elements of a system). The optimal distribution of investment is such that the investment in each element (properly amortized) is equal to the cost of irreversible energy degradation in this element. This is equivalent to saying that the ratio of these two quantities is uniformly distributed over the system, and reduces to equipartition of entropy production when the cost factors are constant over the whole system

  10. Hyperspherical entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, J S

    2010-01-01

    The coefficient of the log term in the entanglement entropy associated with hyperspherical surfaces in flat spacetime is shown to equal the conformal anomaly by conformally transforming Euclideanized spacetime to a sphere and using already existing formulae for the relevant heat-kernel coefficients after cyclic factoring. The result follows from the fact that the conformal anomaly on this lune has an extremum at the ordinary sphere limit. A proof is given. Agreement with a recent evaluation of the coefficient is found.

  11. Hyperspherical entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowker, J S, E-mail: dowker@man.ac.u [Theory Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-05

    The coefficient of the log term in the entanglement entropy associated with hyperspherical surfaces in flat spacetime is shown to equal the conformal anomaly by conformally transforming Euclideanized spacetime to a sphere and using already existing formulae for the relevant heat-kernel coefficients after cyclic factoring. The result follows from the fact that the conformal anomaly on this lune has an extremum at the ordinary sphere limit. A proof is given. Agreement with a recent evaluation of the coefficient is found.

  12. Large polaron tunneling, magnetic and impedance analysis of magnesium ferrite nanocrystallite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahato, Dev K., E-mail: drdevkumar@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Patna, Patna 800 005 (India); Majumder, Sumit [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Surface Physics and Material Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Banerjee, S. [Surface Physics and Material Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2017-08-15

    Graphical abstract: The diffraction peaks corresponding to the planes (111), (220), (311), (222), (400), (422), (511), (440), (620), (533) and (444) provide a clear evidence for the formation of spinel structure of the ferrites. The lattice parameter ‘a’ determined as 8.392 Å matches well with JCPDS (73-2410) file for MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4.} The volume of the unit cell is 591.012 Å{sup 3}. The crystallite size of the synthesized powder estimated from X-ray peak broadening of (311) highest intensity diffraction peak using Scherer formula was 56.4 nm. - Highlights: • Both the grain and grain boundaries contribution to conductivity of the Mg-ferrite has been observed. • Polydispersive nature of the material is checked using Cole – Cole relation. • The ac conductivity of magnesium ferrite followed σ{sub ac} ∝ ω{sup n} dependence. • The variation of the exponent ‘n’ with temperature suggests that overlapping large polaron tunnelling is the dominant conduction mechanism. • The superparamagnetic behavior of this Mg-ferrite has been observed for sample S1 annealed at 500 °C. - Abstract: Single phase MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (MFO) ferrite was prepared through sol-gel auto-combustion route. The Rietveld analysis of X-ray patterns reveals that our samples are single phase. The increase in average particle size with annealing temperature and formation of nanoparticle agglomerates is observed in MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The structural morphology of the nanoparticles is studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Formation of spinel structure is confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The Zero-Field-Cooled (ZFC) and Field-Cooled (FC) magnetization measurements show the maximum irreversibility at 700 °C annealing temperature. The formation of a maximum at blocking temperature, T{sub B}∼ 180 K for sample annealed at 500 °C in the ZFC curve shows the superparamagnetic behavior of the sample. The increase of saturation magnetism (M

  13. Time-dependent entropy evolution in microscopic and macroscopic electromagnetic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker-Jarvis, James

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a study of entropy and its evolution in the time and frequency domains upon application of electromagnetic fields to materials. An understanding of entropy and its evolution in electromagnetic interactions bridges the boundaries between electromagnetism and thermodynamics. The approach used here is a Liouville-based statistical-mechanical theory. I show that the microscopic entropy is reversible and the macroscopic entropy satisfies an H theorem. The spectral entropy development can be very useful for studying the frequency response of materials. Using a projection-operator based nonequilibrium entropy, different equations are derived for the entropy and entropy production and are applied to the polarization, magnetization, and macroscopic fields. I begin by proving an exact H theorem for the entropy, progress to application of time-dependent entropy in electromagnetics, and then apply the theory to relevant applications in electromagnetics. The paper concludes with a discussion of the relationship of the frequency-domain form of the entropy to the permittivity, permeability, and impedance

  14. Entropy for Mechanically Vibrating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufano, Dante

    The research contained within this thesis deals with the subject of entropy as defined for and applied to mechanically vibrating systems. This work begins with an overview of entropy as it is understood in the fields of classical thermodynamics, information theory, statistical mechanics, and statistical vibroacoustics. Khinchin's definition of entropy, which is the primary definition used for the work contained in this thesis, is introduced in the context of vibroacoustic systems. The main goal of this research is to to establish a mathematical framework for the application of Khinchin's entropy in the field of statistical vibroacoustics by examining the entropy context of mechanically vibrating systems. The introduction of this thesis provides an overview of statistical energy analysis (SEA), a modeling approach to vibroacoustics that motivates this work on entropy. The objective of this thesis is given, and followed by a discussion of the intellectual merit of this work as well as a literature review of relevant material. Following the introduction, an entropy analysis of systems of coupled oscillators is performed utilizing Khinchin's definition of entropy. This analysis develops upon the mathematical theory relating to mixing entropy, which is generated by the coupling of vibroacoustic systems. The mixing entropy is shown to provide insight into the qualitative behavior of such systems. Additionally, it is shown that the entropy inequality property of Khinchin's entropy can be reduced to an equality using the mixing entropy concept. This equality can be interpreted as a facet of the second law of thermodynamics for vibroacoustic systems. Following this analysis, an investigation of continuous systems is performed using Khinchin's entropy. It is shown that entropy analyses using Khinchin's entropy are valid for continuous systems that can be decomposed into a finite number of modes. The results are shown to be analogous to those obtained for simple oscillators

  15. Preimage entropy dimension of topological dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Xiaomin; Zhou, Xiaoyao

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new definition of preimage entropy dimension for continuous maps on compact metric spaces, investigate fundamental properties of the preimage entropy dimension, and compare the preimage entropy dimension with the topological entropy dimension. The defined preimage entropy dimension holds various basic properties of topological entropy dimension, for example, the preimage entropy dimension of a subsystem is bounded by that of the original system and topologically conjugated system...

  16. Extremely Large Magnetoresistance at Low Magnetic Field by Coupling the Nonlinear Transport Effect and the Anomalous Hall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhaochu; Xiong, Chengyue; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Zhen-Gang; Cai, Jianwang; Zhang, Xiaozhong

    2016-04-13

    The anomalous Hall effect of a magnetic material is coupled to the nonlinear transport effect of a semiconductor material in a simple structure to achieve a large geometric magnetoresistance (MR) based on a diode-assisted mechanism. An extremely large MR (>10(4) %) at low magnetic fields (1 mT) is observed at room temperature. This MR device shows potential for use as a logic gate for the four basic Boolean logic operations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Mathematical formulation to predict the harmonics of the superconducting Large Hadron Collider magnets: III. Precycle ramp rate effects and magnet characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Sammut

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN is equipped with a feed-forward control system known as the field description for the LHC (FiDeL which is designed to predict the magnetic field and its multipoles, hence reducing the burden on beam based feedback. FiDeL consists of a physical and empirical parametric field model based on magnetic measurements at warm and in cryogenic conditions. It is particularly critical during beam injection when the field decays and at the beginning of acceleration when the field snaps back. It is known that the decay amplitude is largely affected by the powering history of the magnet, particularly by the precycle flattop current and duration and the preinjection preparation duration. Recently, we have collected data that quantify the dependence of the decay amplitude on the precycle ramp rate. This paper presents the results of the measurements performed to investigate this effect, and the method included in FiDeL to model the precycle dependence. With this complete picture of dynamic changes, we finally discuss the effect on the data taken at nominally constant field, along the magnet loadline. We show that a correction for dynamic changes is required for adequate magnet characterization.

  18. Information and Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caticha, Ariel

    2007-11-01

    What is information? Is it physical? We argue that in a Bayesian theory the notion of information must be defined in terms of its effects on the beliefs of rational agents. Information is whatever constrains rational beliefs and therefore it is the force that induces us to change our minds. This problem of updating from a prior to a posterior probability distribution is tackled through an eliminative induction process that singles out the logarithmic relative entropy as the unique tool for inference. The resulting method of Maximum relative Entropy (ME), which is designed for updating from arbitrary priors given information in the form of arbitrary constraints, includes as special cases both MaxEnt (which allows arbitrary constraints) and Bayes' rule (which allows arbitrary priors). Thus, ME unifies the two themes of these workshops—the Maximum Entropy and the Bayesian methods—into a single general inference scheme that allows us to handle problems that lie beyond the reach of either of the two methods separately. I conclude with a couple of simple illustrative examples.

  19. Entropy and Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard S. Kay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We give a review, in the style of an essay, of the author’s 1998 matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis which, unlike the standard approach to entropy based on coarse-graining, offers a definition for the entropy of a closed system as a real and objective quantity. We explain how this approach offers an explanation for the Second Law of Thermodynamics in general and a non-paradoxical understanding of information loss during black hole formation and evaporation in particular. It also involves a radically different from usual description of black hole equilibrium states in which the total state of a black hole in a box together with its atmosphere is a pure state—entangled in just such a way that the reduced state of the black hole and of its atmosphere are each separately approximately thermal. We also briefly recall some recent work of the author which involves a reworking of the string-theory understanding of black hole entropy consistent with this alternative description of black hole equilibrium states and point out that this is free from some unsatisfactory features of the usual string theory understanding. We also recall the author’s recent arguments based on this alternative description which suggest that the Anti de Sitter space (AdS/conformal field theory (CFT correspondence is a bijection between the boundary CFT and just the matter degrees of freedom of the bulk theory.

  20. Entanglement entropy and differential entropy for massive flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Peter A.R.; Taylor, Marika

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we compute the holographic entanglement entropy for massive flavors in the D3-D7 system, for arbitrary mass and various entangling region geometries. We show that the universal terms in the entanglement entropy exactly match those computed in the dual theory using conformal perturbation theory. We derive holographically the universal terms in the entanglement entropy for a CFT perturbed by a relevant operator, up to second order in the coupling; our results are valid for any entangling region geometry. We present a new method for computing the entanglement entropy of any top-down brane probe system using Kaluza-Klein holography and illustrate our results with massive flavors at finite density. Finally we discuss the differential entropy for brane probe systems, emphasising that the differential entropy captures only the effective lower-dimensional Einstein metric rather than the ten-dimensional geometry.

  1. Wideband Precision Current Transformer for the Magnet Current of the Beam Extraction Kicker Magnet of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Gräwer, G

    2004-01-01

    The LHC beam extraction system is composed of 15 fast kicker magnets per beam to extract the particles in one turn of the collider and to safely dispose them on external absorbers. Each magnet is powered by a separate pulse generator. The generator produces a magnet current pulse with 3 us rise time, 20 kA amplitude and 1.8 ms fall time, of which 90 us are needed to dump the beam. The beam extraction system requires a high level of reliability. To detect any change in the magnet current characteristics, which might indicate a slow degradation of the pulse generator, a high precision wideband current transformer will be installed. For redundancy reasons, the results obtained with this device will be cross-checked with a Rogowski coil, installed adjacent to the transformer. A prototype transformer has been successfully tested at nominal current levels and showed satisfactory results compared with the output of a high frequency resistive coaxial shunt. The annular core of the ring type transformer is composed of...

  2. Sphere Rényi entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, J S

    2013-01-01

    I give some scalar field theory calculations on a d-dimensional lune of arbitrary angle, evaluating, numerically, the effective action which is expressed as a simple quadrature, for conformal coupling. Using this, the entanglement and Rényi entropies are computed. Massive fields are also considered and a renormalization to make the (one-loop) effective action vanish for infinite mass is suggested and used, not entirely successfully. However a universal coefficient is derived from the large mass expansion. From the deformation of the corresponding lune result, I conjecture that the effective action on all odd manifolds with a simple conical singularity has an extremum when the singularity disappears. For the round sphere, I show how to convert the quadrature form of the conformal Laplacian determinant into the more usual sum of Riemann ζ-functions (and log 2). (paper)

  3. A Novel Dual-Permanent-Magnet-Excited Machine with Flux Strengthening Effect for Low-Speed Large-Torque Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Shi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel dual-permanent-magnet-excited (DPME machine. It employs two sets of permanent magnets (PMs. One is on the rotor, the other is on the stator with PM arrays. When compared with the existing DPME machines, not all of the PMs are located in the slots formed by the iron teeth. Specifically, the radially magnetized PMs in the arrays are located under the short iron teeth, while the tangentially magnetized PMs are located in the slots formed by the long stator iron teeth and the radially magnetized PMs. Each long stator iron tooth is sandwiched by two tangentially magnetized PMs with opposite directions, thus resulting in the flux strengthening effect. The simulation analysis indicates that the proposed machine can offer large back EMF with low THD and large torque density with low torque ripple when compared with Machine I from a literature. Meanwhile, by comparison, the proposed machine has great potential in improving the power factor and efficiency.

  4. Large roomtemperature magnetocaloric effect with negligible magnetic hysteresis losses in Mn1-xVxCoGe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, S.C.; Zheng, Y.X.; Xuan, H.C.; Shen, L.J.; Cao, Q.Q.; Wang, D.H.; Zhong, Z.C.; Du, Y.W.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic and magnetocaloric properties have been investigated in a series of Mn 1-x V x CoGe (x=0.01, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.05) alloys. The substitution of V for Mn reduces the structural transformation temperature of MnCoGe alloy effectively and results in a second-order magnetic transition in Mn 0.95 V 0.05 CoGe alloys. Large room temperature magnetocaloric effect and almost zero magnetic hysteresis losses are simultaneously achieved in the alloys with x=0.01, 0.02, and 0.03. The reasons for the negligible magnetic hysteresis losses and the potential application for the roomtemperature magnetic refrigeration are discussed. - Highlights: → V-substitution for Mn reduces the structural transformation temperature of MnCoGe. → FM-PM transition presents the second-order nature in Mn0.95V0.05CoGe. → The first-order FM-PM transitions are observed for alloys with x=0.01, 0.02, and 0.03. → Large room temperature MCEs are achieved in these alloys. → Negligible magnetic HL is achieved for these alloys simultaneously.

  5. On the Fluctuating Component of the Sun's Large-Scale Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.

    2003-06-01

    The Sun's large-scale magnetic field and its proxies are known to undergo substantial variations on timescales much less than a solar cycle but longer than a rotation period. Examples of such variations include the double activity maximum inferred by Gnevyshev, the large peaks in the interplanetary field strength observed in 1982 and 1991, and the 1.3-1.4 yr periodicities detected over limited time intervals in solar wind speed and geomagnetic activity. We consider the question of the extent to which these variations are stochastic in nature. For this purpose, we simulate the evolution of the Sun's equatorial dipole strength and total open flux under the assumption that the active region sources (BMRs) are distributed randomly in longitude. The results are then interpreted with the help of a simple random walk model including dissipation. We find that the equatorial dipole and open flux generally exhibit multiple peaks during each 11 yr cycle, with the highest peak as likely to occur during the declining phase as at sunspot maximum. The widths of the peaks are determined by the timescale τ~1 yr for the equatorial dipole to decay through the combined action of meridional flow, differential rotation, and supergranular diffusion. The amplitudes of the fluctuations depend on the strengths and longitudinal phase relations of the BMRs, as well as on the relative rates of flux emergence and decay. We conclude that stochastic processes provide a viable explanation for the ``Gnevyshev gaps'' and for the existence of quasi periodicities in the range ~1-3 yr.

  6. Localized 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy of large pediatric brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.; Lenkinski, R.E.; Cohen, B.H.; Packer, R.J.; Zimmerman, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen children aged 1 week to 16 years, with a variety of large or superficial brain tumors, underwent localized in vivo 31 P magnetic resonance spectroscopy of their tumor. Quantitative spectral analysis was performed by measuring the area under individual peaks using a computer algorithm. In eight patients with histologically benign tumors the spectra were considered to be qualitatively indistinguishable from normal brain. The phosphocreatine/inorganic phosphate ratio (PCr/Pi) averaged 2.0. Five patients had histologically malignant tumors; qualitatively, four of these were considered to have abnormal spectra, showing a decrease in the PCr peak. The PCr/Pi ratio for this group averaged 0.85, which was significantly lower than that seen in the benign tumor group (p less than 0.05). No difference between the two groups was seen in adenosine triphosphate or phosphomonoesters. It is concluded that a specific metabolic fingerprint for childhood brain tumors may not exist, but that some malignant tumors show a pattern suggestive of ischemia

  7. Development of a vacuum leak test method for large-scale superconducting magnet test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Katsumi; Hamada, Kazuya; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Kato, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed leak detection technology for liquid helium temperature experiments in large-scale superconducting magnet test facilities. In JAEA, a cryosorption pump that uses an absorbent cooled by liquid nitrogen with a conventional helium leak detector, is used to detect helium gas that is leaking from pressurized welded joints of pipes and valves in a vacuum chamber. The cryosorption pump plays the role of decreasing aerial components, such as water, nitrogen and oxygen, to increase the sensitivity of helium leak detection. The established detection sensitivity for helium leak testing is 10 -10 to 10 -9 Pam 3 /s. A total of 850 welded and mechanical joints inside the cryogenic test facility for the ITER Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) experiments have been tested. In the test facility, 73 units of glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) insulation break are used. The amount of helium permeation through the GFRP was recorded during helium leak testing. To distinguish helium leaks from insulation-break permeation, the helium permeation characteristic of the GFRP part was measured as a function of the time of helium charging. Helium permeation was absorbed at 6 h after helium charging, and the detected permeation is around 10 -7 Pam 3 /s. Using the helium leak test method developed, CSMC experiments have been successfully completed. (author)

  8. Magnetically tuned mass dampers for optimal vibration damping of large structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourquin, Frederic; Siegert, Dominique; Caruso, Giovanni; Peigney, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical and experimental analysis of magnetically tuned mass dampers, applied to the vibration damping of large structures of civil engineering interest. Two devices are analysed, for which both the frequency tuning ratio and the damping coefficient can be easily and finely calibrated. They are applied for the damping of the vibrations along two natural modes of a mock-up of a bridge under construction. An original analysis, based on the Maxwell receding image method, is developed for estimating the drag force arising inside the damping devices. It also takes into account self-inductance effects, yielding a complex nonlinear dependence of the drag force on the velocity. The analysis highlights the range of velocities for which the drag force can be assumed of viscous type, and shows its dependence on the involved geometrical parameters of the dampers. The model outcomes are then compared to the corresponding experimental calibration curves. A dynamic model of the controlled structure equipped with the two damping devices is presented, and used for the development of original optimization expressions and for determining the corresponding maximum achievable damping. Finally, several experimental results are presented, concerning both the free and harmonically forced vibration damping of the bridge mock-up, and compared to the corresponding theoretical predictions. The experimental results reveal that the maximum theoretical damping performance can be achieved, when both the tuning frequencies and damping coefficients of each device are finely calibrated according to the optimization expressions. (paper)

  9. Logarithmic black hole entropy corrections and holographic Renyi entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Subhash [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai (India); KU Leuven - KULAK, Department of Physics, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2018-01-15

    The entanglement and Renyi entropies for spherical entangling surfaces in CFTs with gravity duals can be explicitly calculated by mapping these entropies first to the thermal entropy on hyperbolic space and then, using the AdS/CFT correspondence, to the Wald entropy of topological black holes. Here we extend this idea by taking into account corrections to the Wald entropy. Using the method based on horizon symmetries and the asymptotic Cardy formula, we calculate corrections to the Wald entropy and find that these corrections are proportional to the logarithm of the area of the horizon. With the corrected expression for the entropy of the black hole, we then find corrections to the Renyi entropies. We calculate these corrections for both Einstein and Gauss-Bonnet gravity duals. Corrections with logarithmic dependence on the area of the entangling surface naturally occur at the order G{sub D}{sup 0}. The entropic c-function and the inequalities of the Renyi entropy are also satisfied even with the correction terms. (orig.)

  10. Parametric Bayesian Estimation of Differential Entropy and Relative Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Gupta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Given iid samples drawn from a distribution with known parametric form, we propose the minimization of expected Bregman divergence to form Bayesian estimates of differential entropy and relative entropy, and derive such estimators for the uniform, Gaussian, Wishart, and inverse Wishart distributions. Additionally, formulas are given for a log gamma Bregman divergence and the differential entropy and relative entropy for the Wishart and inverse Wishart. The results, as always with Bayesian estimates, depend on the accuracy of the prior parameters, but example simulations show that the performance can be substantially improved compared to maximum likelihood or state-of-the-art nonparametric estimators.

  11. Logarithmic black hole entropy corrections and holographic Renyi entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, Subhash

    2018-01-01

    The entanglement and Renyi entropies for spherical entangling surfaces in CFTs with gravity duals can be explicitly calculated by mapping these entropies first to the thermal entropy on hyperbolic space and then, using the AdS/CFT correspondence, to the Wald entropy of topological black holes. Here we extend this idea by taking into account corrections to the Wald entropy. Using the method based on horizon symmetries and the asymptotic Cardy formula, we calculate corrections to the Wald entropy and find that these corrections are proportional to the logarithm of the area of the horizon. With the corrected expression for the entropy of the black hole, we then find corrections to the Renyi entropies. We calculate these corrections for both Einstein and Gauss-Bonnet gravity duals. Corrections with logarithmic dependence on the area of the entangling surface naturally occur at the order G D 0 . The entropic c-function and the inequalities of the Renyi entropy are also satisfied even with the correction terms. (orig.)

  12. A new method of presentation the large-scale magnetic field structure on the Sun and solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponyavin, D. I.

    1995-01-01

    The large-scale photospheric magnetic field, measured at Stanford, has been analyzed in terms of surface harmonics. Changes of the photospheric field which occur within whole solar rotation period can be resolved by this analysis. For this reason we used daily magnetograms of the line-of-sight magnetic field component observed from Earth over solar disc. We have estimated the period during which day-to-day full disc magnetograms must be collected. An original algorithm was applied to resolve time variations of spherical harmonics that reflect time evolution of large-scale magnetic field within solar rotation period. This method of magnetic field presentation can be useful enough in lack of direct magnetograph observations due to sometimes bad weather conditions. We have used the calculated surface harmonics to reconstruct the large-scale magnetic field structure on the source surface near the sun - the origin of heliospheric current sheet and solar wind streams. The obtained results have been compared with spacecraft in situ observations and geomagnetic activity. We tried to show that proposed technique can trace shon-time variations of heliospheric current sheet and short-lived solar wind streams. We have compared also our results with those obtained traditionally from potential field approximation and extrapolation using synoptic charts as initial boundary conditions.

  13. Production of large number of water-cooled excitation coils with improved techniques for multipole magnets of INDUS -2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmarkar, M.G.; Sreeramulu, K.; Kulshreshta, P.K.

    2003-01-01

    Accelerator multipole magnets are characterized by high field gradients powered with relatively high current excitation coils. Due to space limitations in the magnet core/poles, compact coil geometry is also necessary. The coils are made of several insulated turns using hollow copper conductor. High current densities in these require cooling with low conductivity water. Additionally during operation, these are subjected to thermal fatigue stresses. A large number of coils ( Qty: 650 nos.) having different geometries were required for all multipole magnets like quadrupole (QP), sextupole (SP). Improved techniques for winding, insulation and epoxy consolidation were developed in-house at M D Lab and all coils have been successfully made. Improved technology, production techniques adopted for magnet coils and their inspection are briefly discussed in this paper. (author)

  14. Wavelet entropy of BOLD time series: An application to Rolandic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lalit; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Hofman, Paul A M; Besseling, René M H; de Louw, Anton J A; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Backes, Walter H

    2017-12-01

    To assess the wavelet entropy for the characterization of intrinsic aberrant temporal irregularities in the time series of resting-state blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations. Further, to evaluate the temporal irregularities (disorder/order) on a voxel-by-voxel basis in the brains of children with Rolandic epilepsy. The BOLD time series was decomposed using the discrete wavelet transform and the wavelet entropy was calculated. Using a model time series consisting of multiple harmonics and nonstationary components, the wavelet entropy was compared with Shannon and spectral (Fourier-based) entropy. As an application, the wavelet entropy in 22 children with Rolandic epilepsy was compared to 22 age-matched healthy controls. The images were obtained by performing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a 3T system, an 8-element receive-only head coil, and an echo planar imaging pulse sequence ( T2*-weighted). The wavelet entropy was also compared to spectral entropy, regional homogeneity, and Shannon entropy. Wavelet entropy was found to identify the nonstationary components of the model time series. In Rolandic epilepsy patients, a significantly elevated wavelet entropy was observed relative to controls for the whole cerebrum (P = 0.03). Spectral entropy (P = 0.41), regional homogeneity (P = 0.52), and Shannon entropy (P = 0.32) did not reveal significant differences. The wavelet entropy measure appeared more sensitive to detect abnormalities in cerebral fluctuations represented by nonstationary effects in the BOLD time series than more conventional measures. This effect was observed in the model time series as well as in Rolandic epilepsy. These observations suggest that the brains of children with Rolandic epilepsy exhibit stronger nonstationary temporal signal fluctuations than controls. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1728-1737. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic

  15. Entropy: From Thermodynamics to Hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetris Koutsoyiannis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Some known results from statistical thermophysics as well as from hydrology are revisited from a different perspective trying: (a to unify the notion of entropy in thermodynamic and statistical/stochastic approaches of complex hydrological systems and (b to show the power of entropy and the principle of maximum entropy in inference, both deductive and inductive. The capability for deductive reasoning is illustrated by deriving the law of phase change transition of water (Clausius-Clapeyron from scratch by maximizing entropy in a formal probabilistic frame. However, such deductive reasoning cannot work in more complex hydrological systems with diverse elements, yet the entropy maximization framework can help in inductive inference, necessarily based on data. Several examples of this type are provided in an attempt to link statistical thermophysics with hydrology with a unifying view of entropy.

  16. Theoretical evaluations of magnetic nanoparticle-enhanced heating on tumor embedded with large blood vessels during hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Deng, Z. S.; Liu, J.

    2012-01-01

    The large blood vessels surrounding the tumor would significantly result in heat sink, and thus seriously limit the thermal ablative area during tumor hyperthermia. Magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) was recently identified as an important heating enhancer to improve the treatment efficiency. It will not only help to absorb more energy under the irradiation of external magnetic field, but also can block the blood flow and subsequently weaken the heat sink effect of large vessels. In this study, these two critical factors, reserved to be undisclosed before in theory, were comprehensively investigated through three-dimensional numerical simulation. The results suggested that concerning the contribution to temperature increase in the tissues surrounding large vessel, the factor of blood flow blocking is more effective than that of energy absorption. Therefore, selective loading of MNPs to the target sites is expected to serve as a promising method to perform successful hyperthermia treatment for tumor tissues embedded with large blood vessels.

  17. Theoretical evaluations of magnetic nanoparticle-enhanced heating on tumor embedded with large blood vessels during hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q. [Tsinghua University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine (China); Deng, Z. S. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (China); Liu, J., E-mail: jliubme@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine (China)

    2012-07-15

    The large blood vessels surrounding the tumor would significantly result in heat sink, and thus seriously limit the thermal ablative area during tumor hyperthermia. Magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) was recently identified as an important heating enhancer to improve the treatment efficiency. It will not only help to absorb more energy under the irradiation of external magnetic field, but also can block the blood flow and subsequently weaken the heat sink effect of large vessels. In this study, these two critical factors, reserved to be undisclosed before in theory, were comprehensively investigated through three-dimensional numerical simulation. The results suggested that concerning the contribution to temperature increase in the tissues surrounding large vessel, the factor of blood flow blocking is more effective than that of energy absorption. Therefore, selective loading of MNPs to the target sites is expected to serve as a promising method to perform successful hyperthermia treatment for tumor tissues embedded with large blood vessels.

  18. Entropy production in the relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holme, A.K.; Csernai, L.P.; Levai, P.; Papp, G.

    1989-09-01

    A short overview is given on the most important possibilities of entropy production in the relativistic heavy ion collisions, which is connected to the shock phenomena. The E802 experiment is considered as an example, where one can determine the specific entropy content from measured strange particle ratios. The received large entropy value (S/N B ∼ 14) can be explained by assuming quark-gluon plasma formation. The possibility of overcooling of quark-gluon plasma and its deflagration are also investigated. (author) 22 refs.; 4 figs

  19. Uncertainties in Forecasting Streamflow using Entropy Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H.; Singh, V. P.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow forecasting is essential in river restoration, reservoir operation, power generation, irrigation, navigation, and water management. However, there is always uncertainties accompanied in forecast, which may affect the forecasting results and lead to large variations. Therefore, uncertainties must be considered and be assessed properly when forecasting streamflow for water management. The aim of our work is to quantify the uncertainties involved in forecasting streamflow and provide reliable streamflow forecast. Despite that streamflow time series are stochastic, they exhibit seasonal and periodic patterns. Therefore, streamflow forecasting entails modeling seasonality, periodicity, and its correlation structure, and assessing uncertainties. This study applies entropy theory to forecast streamflow and measure uncertainties during the forecasting process. To apply entropy theory for streamflow forecasting, spectral analysis is combined to time series analysis, as spectral analysis can be employed to characterize patterns of streamflow variation and identify the periodicity of streamflow. That is, it permits to extract significant information for understanding the streamflow process and prediction thereof. Application of entropy theory for streamflow forecasting involves determination of spectral density, determination of parameters, and extension of autocorrelation function. The uncertainties brought by precipitation input, forecasting model and forecasted results are measured separately using entropy. With information theory, how these uncertainties transported and aggregated during these processes will be described.

  20. Effect of cooling rate on the phase structure and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 26.7}Co{sub 28.5}Ni{sub 28.5}Si{sub 4.6}B{sub 8.7}P{sub 3} high entropy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Ran; Sun, Huan; Chen, Chen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Han, Zhenhua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710068 (China); Li, Fushan, E-mail: fsli@zzu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • High entropy alloy with amorphous phase and FCC solid solution phase are successfully developed respectively. • The amorphous phase exhibits better soft magnetic properties than that of the solid solution phase. • The BCC phase transformed into FCC phase, and then into BCC phase was found in this HEA. - Abstract: The effect of cooling rate on phase structure and magnetic properties of the Fe{sub 26.7}Co{sub 28.5}Ni{sub 28.5}Si{sub 4.6}B{sub 8.7}P{sub 3} high entropy alloy (HEA) was investigated. The HEA forms into amorphous phase by melt spinning method at high cooling rate and FCC solid solution phase at low cooling rate. The soft magnetic properties of the amorphous phase (saturation magnetization B{sub s} of 1.07T and coercivity H{sub c} of 4 A/m) are better than that of the solid solution phase (B{sub s} of 1.0 T and H{sub c} of 168 A/m). In order to study the phase evolution of the present HEA, anneal experiments were conducted. It is found that crystallization products of amorphous phase are solid solution phase which constitute much of FCC and a small amount of BCC. BCC phase transforms into FCC phase, and then into BCC phase with the increase of annealing temperature.

  1. Theoretical and experimental investigation of magnetic field related helium leak in helium vessel of a large superconducting magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachryya, Pranab; Gupta, Anjan Dutta; Dhar, S.; Sarma, P. R.; Mukherjee, Paramita

    2017-06-01

    The helium vessel of the superconducting cyclotron (SCC) at the Variable Energy Cyclotron centre (VECC), Kolkata shows a gradual loss of insulation vacuum from 10-7 mbar to 10-4 mbar with increasing coil current in the magnet. The insulation vacuum restores back to its initial value with the withdrawal of current. The origin of such behavior has been thought to be related to the electromagnetic stress in the magnet. The electromagnetic stress distribution in the median plane of the helium vessel was studied to figure out the possible location of the helium leak. The stress field from the possible location was transferred to a simplified 2D model with different leak geometries to study the changes in conductance with coil current. The leak rate calculated from the changes in the leak geometry was compared with the leak rate calculated from the experimental insulation vacuum degradation behavior to estimate the initial leak shape and size.

  2. Magnetic field sensor based on the magnetic-fluid-clad combined with singlemode-multimode-singlemode fiber and large core-offset splicing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ri-qing; Qian, Jun-kai; Zhao, Yong

    2018-03-01

    A simple, compact optical fiber magnetic field sensor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. It is based on the magnetic-fluid-clad combined with singlemode-multimode-singlemode fiber structure and large core-offset splicing structure. It was protected by a section of capillary tube and was sealed by UV glue. A sensing property study of the combined optical fiber structure and the proposed sensor were carried out. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of the refractive index of the optical fiber sensing structure is up to 156.63 nm/RIU and the magnetic field sensitivity of the proposed sensor is up to -97.24 pm/Oe in the range from 72.4 Oe to 297.8 Oe. The proposed sensor has several other advantages, such as simple structure, small size, easy fabrication and low cost.

  3. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  4. THE EFFECT OF LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC TURBULENCE ON THE ACCELERATION OF ELECTRONS BY PERPENDICULAR COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Fan; Giacalone, Joe

    2010-01-01

    We study the physics of electron acceleration at collisionless shocks that move through a plasma containing large-scale magnetic fluctuations. We numerically integrate the trajectories of a large number of electrons, which are treated as test particles moving in the time-dependent electric and magnetic fields determined from two-dimensional hybrid simulations (kinetic ions and fluid electron). The large-scale magnetic fluctuations effect the electrons in a number of ways and lead to efficient and rapid energization at the shock front. Since the electrons mainly follow along magnetic lines of force, the large-scale braiding of field lines in space allows the fast-moving electrons to cross the shock front several times, leading to efficient acceleration. Ripples in the shock front occurring at various scales will also contribute to the acceleration by mirroring the electrons. Our calculation shows that this process favors electron acceleration at perpendicular shocks. The current study is also helpful in understanding the injection problem for electron acceleration by collisionless shocks. It is also shown that the spatial distribution of energetic electrons is similar to in situ observations. The process may be important to our understanding of energetic electrons in planetary bow shocks and interplanetary shocks, and explaining herringbone structures seen in some type II solar radio bursts.

  5. Power flow control and damping enhancement of a large wind farm using a superconducting magnetic energy storage unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, S. S.; Wang, L.; Lee, W. J.

    2009-01-01

    A novel scheme using a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit to perform both power flow control and damping enhancement of a large wind farm (WF) feeding to a utility grid is presented. The studied WF consisting of forty 2 MW wind induction generators (IGs) is simulated...

  6. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging and 31P spectroscopy of large human brain tumours at 1.5 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Achten, E

    1988-01-01

    31P MR spectroscopy of human brain tumours is one feature of magnetic resonance imaging. Eight patients with large superficial brain tumours and eight healthy volunteers were examined with 31P spectroscopy using an 8 cm surface coil for volume selection. Seven frequencies were resolved in our spe...

  7. Editorial: Entropy in Landscape Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics are the central organizing principles of nature, but the ideas and implications of the second law are poorly developed in landscape ecology. The purpose of this Special Issue “Entropy in Landscape Ecology” in Entropy is to bring together current research on applications of thermodynamics in landscape ecology, to consolidate current knowledge and identify key areas for future research. The special issue contains six articles, which cover a broad range of topics including relationships between entropy and evolution, connections between fractal geometry and entropy, new approaches to calculate configurational entropy of landscapes, example analyses of computing entropy of landscapes, and using entropy in the context of optimal landscape planning. Collectively these papers provide a broad range of contributions to the nascent field of ecological thermodynamics. Formalizing the connections between entropy and ecology are in a very early stage, and that this special issue contains papers that address several centrally important ideas, and provides seminal work that will be a foundation for the future development of ecological and evolutionary thermodynamics.

  8. Entropy and transverse section reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1976-01-01

    A new approach to the reconstruction of a transverse section using projection data from multiple views incorporates the concept of maximum entropy. The principle of maximizing information entropy embodies the assurance of minimizing bias or prejudice in the reconstruction. Using maximum entropy is a necessary condition for the reconstructed image. This entropy criterion is most appropriate for 3-D reconstruction of objects from projections where the system is underdetermined or the data are limited statistically. This is the case in nuclear medicine time limitations in patient studies do not yield sufficient projections

  9. Foreign exchange rate entropy evolution during financial crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosic, Darko; Stosic, Dusan; Ludermir, Teresa; de Oliveira, Wilson; Stosic, Tatijana

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the effects of financial crises on foreign exchange (FX) markets, where entropy evolution is measured for different exchange rates, using the time-dependent block entropy method. Empirical results suggest that financial crises are associated with significant increase of exchange rate entropy, reflecting instability in FX market dynamics. In accordance with phenomenological expectations, it is found that FX markets with large liquidity and large trading volume are more inert - they recover quicker from a crisis than markets with small liquidity and small trading volume. Moreover, our numerical analysis shows that periods of economic uncertainty are preceded by periods of low entropy values, which may serve as a tool for anticipating the onset of financial crises.

  10. Observation of large magnetocaloric effect in equiatomic binary compound ErZn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingwei Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The magnetism, magnetocaloric effect and universal behaviour in rare earth Zinc binary compound of ErZn have been studied. The ErZn compound undergoes a second order paramagnetic (PM to ferromagnetic (FM transition at Curie temperature of TC ∼ 20 K. The ErZn compound exhibits a large reversible magnetocaloric effect (MCE around its own TC. The rescaled magnetic entropy change curves overlap with each other under various magnetic field changes, further confirming the ErZn with the second order phase transition. For the magnetic field change of 0-7 T, the maximum values of the magnetic entropy change (−ΔSMmax, relative cooling power (RCP and refrigerant capacity (RC for ErZn are 23.3 J/kg K, 581 J/kg and 437 J/kg, respectively.

  11. Spatially Resolved Large Magnetization in Ultrathin BiFeO3

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Er-Jia; Petrie, Jonathan R.; Roldan, Manuel A.; Li, Qian; Desautels, Ryan D.; Charlton, Timothy; Herklotz, Andreas; Nichols, John; van Lierop, Johan; Freeland, John W.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Fitzsimmons, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    . The results show the enhanced net magnetic moment in BFO from the LSMO/BFO interface extends 3-4 unit cells into BFO. The interior part of a thicker BFO layer has a much smaller magnetization, suggesting it still keeps the small canted AFM state. The results

  12. Improved cost of energy comparison of permanent magnet generators for large offshore wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, K.; McDonald, A.; Polinder, H.; Corr, E.; Carroll, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates geared and direct-drive permanent magnet generators for a typical offshore wind turbine, providing a detailed comparison of various wind turbine drivetrain configurations in order to minimise the Cost of Energy. The permanent magnet generator topologies considered include a

  13. Entropy of orthogonal polynomials with Freud weights and information entropies of the harmonic oscillator potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, W.; Yáñez, R. J.; Dehesa, J. S.

    1995-08-01

    The information entropy of the harmonic oscillator potential V(x)=1/2λx2 in both position and momentum spaces can be expressed in terms of the so-called ``entropy of Hermite polynomials,'' i.e., the quantity Sn(H):= -∫-∞+∞H2n(x)log H2n(x) e-x2dx. These polynomials are instances of the polynomials orthogonal with respect to the Freud weights w(x)=exp(-||x||m), m≳0. Here, a very precise and general result of the entropy of Freud polynomials recently established by Aptekarev et al. [J. Math. Phys. 35, 4423-4428 (1994)], specialized to the Hermite kernel (case m=2), leads to an important refined asymptotic expression for the information entropies of very excited states (i.e., for large n) in both position and momentum spaces, to be denoted by Sρ and Sγ, respectively. Briefly, it is shown that, for large values of n, Sρ+1/2logλ≂log(π√2n/e)+o(1) and Sγ-1/2log λ≂log(π√2n/e)+o(1), so that Sρ+Sγ≂log(2π2n/e2)+o(1) in agreement with the generalized indetermination relation of Byalinicki-Birula and Mycielski [Commun. Math. Phys. 44, 129-132 (1975)]. Finally, the rate of convergence of these two information entropies is numerically analyzed. In addition, using a Rakhmanov result, we describe a totally new proof of the leading term of the entropy of Freud polynomials which, naturally, is just a weak version of the aforementioned general result.

  14. Large resistance change on magnetic tunnel junction based molecular spintronics devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Friebe, Edward

    2018-05-01

    Molecular bridges covalently bonded to two ferromagnetic electrodes can transform ferromagnetic materials and produce intriguing spin transport characteristics. This paper discusses the impact of molecule induced strong coupling on the spin transport. To study molecular coupling effect the octametallic molecular cluster (OMC) was bridged between two ferromagnetic electrodes of a magnetic tunnel junction (Ta/Co/NiFe/AlOx/NiFe/Ta) along the exposed side edges. OMCs induced strong inter-ferromagnetic electrode coupling to yield drastic changes in transport properties of the magnetic tunnel junction testbed at the room temperature. These OMCs also transformed the magnetic properties of magnetic tunnel junctions. SQUID and ferromagnetic resonance studies provided insightful data to explain transport studies on the magnetic tunnel junction based molecular spintronics devices.

  15. High-Latitude Topside Ionospheric Vertical Electron-Density-Profile Changes in Response to Large Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert F.; Fainberg, Joseph; Osherovich, Vladimir A.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Wang, Yongli; Bilitza, Dieter; Fung, Shing F.

    2015-01-01

    Large magnetic-storm induced changes have been detected in high-latitude topside vertical electron-density profiles Ne(h). The investigation was based on the large database of topside Ne(h) profiles and digital topside ionograms from the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program available from the NASA Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) at http://spdf.gsfc.nasa.gov/isis/isis-status.html. This large database enabled Ne(h) profiles to be obtained when an ISIS satellite passed through nearly the same region of space before, during, and after a major magnetic storm. A major goal was to relate the magnetic-storm induced high-latitude Ne(h) profile changes to solar-wind parameters. Thus an additional data constraint was to consider only storms where solar-wind data were available from the NASA/SPDF OMNIWeb database. Ten large magnetic storms (with Dst less than -100 nT) were identified that satisfied both the Ne(h) profile and the solar-wind data constraints. During five of these storms topside ionospheric Ne(h) profiles were available in the high-latitude northern hemisphere and during the other five storms similar ionospheric data were available in the southern hemisphere. Large Ne(h) changes were observed during each one of these storms. Our concentration in this paper is on the northern hemisphere. The data coverage was best for the northern-hemisphere winter. Here Ne(h) profile enhancements were always observed when the magnetic local time (MLT) was between 00 and 03 and Ne(h) profile depletions were always observed between 08 and 10 MLT. The observed Ne(h) deviations were compared with solar-wind parameters, with appropriate time shifts, for four storms.

  16. Nonextensive entropy interdisciplinary applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tsallis, Constantino

    2004-01-01

    A great variety of complex phenomena in many scientific fields exhibit power-law behavior, reflecting a hierarchical or fractal structure. Many of these phenomena seem to be susceptible to description using approaches drawn from thermodynamics or statistical mechanics, particularly approaches involving the maximization of entropy and of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics and standard laws in a natural way. The book addresses the interdisciplinary applications of these ideas, and also on various phenomena that could possibly be quantitatively describable in terms of these ideas.

  17. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  18. Effective Conformal Descriptions of Black Hole Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Carlip

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It is no longer considered surprising that black holes have temperatures and entropies. What remains surprising, though, is the universality of these thermodynamic properties: their exceptionally simple and general form, and the fact that they can be derived from many very different descriptions of the underlying microscopic degrees of freedom. I review the proposal that this universality arises from an approximate conformal symmetry, which permits an effective “conformal dual” description that is largely independent of the microscopic details.

  19. Standard entropy for borides of non-transition metals, rare-earth metals and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikova, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Using as initial data the most reliable values of standard entropy for 10 compounds, the entropies for 40 compounds of non-transition metals, rare-earth metals and actinides have been evaluated by the method of comparative calculation. Taking into account the features of boride structures, two methods, i.e. additive and proportional, have been selected for the entropy calculations. For the range of borides the entropies were calculated from the linear relation of the latter to the number of boron atoms in the boride. For borides of rare-earth metals allowance has been made for magnetic contributions in conformity with the multiplicity of the corresponding ions. Insignificant differences in the electronic contributions to the entropy for borides and metals have been neglected. For dodecaborides only the additive method has been used. This is specified by the most rigid network that provides the same contribution to compound entropy. (orig.)

  20. Statistical-mechanical entropy by the thin-layer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, He; Kim, Sung Won

    2003-01-01

    G. Hooft first studied the statistical-mechanical entropy of a scalar field in a Schwarzschild black hole background by the brick-wall method and hinted that the statistical-mechanical entropy is the statistical origin of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black hole. However, according to our viewpoint, the statistical-mechanical entropy is only a quantum correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black-hole. The brick-wall method based on thermal equilibrium at a large scale cannot be applied to the cases out of equilibrium such as a nonstationary black hole. The statistical-mechanical entropy of a scalar field in a nonstationary black hole background is calculated by the thin-layer method. The condition of local equilibrium near the horizon of the black hole is used as a working postulate and is maintained for a black hole which evaporates slowly enough and whose mass is far greater than the Planck mass. The statistical-mechanical entropy is also proportional to the area of the black hole horizon. The difference from the stationary black hole is that the result relies on a time-dependent cutoff

  1. Information Entropy Measures for Stand Structural Diversity:Joint Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Xiangdong; Lu Yuanchang

    2004-01-01

    Structural diversity is the key attribute of a stand. A set of biodiversity measures in ecology was introduced in forest management for describing stand structure, of which Shannon information entropy (Shannon index) has been the most widely used measure of species diversity. It is generally thought that tree size diversity could serve as a good proxy for height diversity. However, tree size diversity and height diversity for stand structure is not completely consistent. Stand diameter cannot reflect height information completely. Either tree size diversity or height diversity is one-dimensional information entropy measure. This paper discussed the method of multiple-dimensional information entropy measure with the concept of joint entropy. It is suggested that joint entropy is a good measure for describing overall stand structural diversity.

  2. Diffusion of charged particles in strong large-scale random and regular magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikov, Yu.P.

    2000-01-01

    The nonlinear collision integral for the Green's function averaged over a random magnetic field is transformed using an iteration procedure taking account of the strong random scattering of particles on the correlation length of the random magnetic field. Under this transformation the regular magnetic field is assumed to be uniform at distances of the order of the correlation length. The single-particle Green's functions of the scattered particles in the presence of a regular magnetic field are investigated. The transport coefficients are calculated taking account of the broadening of the cyclotron and Cherenkov resonances as a result of strong random scattering. The mean-free path lengths parallel and perpendicular to the regular magnetic field are found for a power-law spectrum of the random field. The analytical results obtained are compared with the experimental data on the transport ranges of solar and galactic cosmic rays in the interplanetary magnetic field. As a result, the conditions for the propagation of cosmic rays in the interplanetary space and a more accurate idea of the structure of the interplanetary magnetic field are determined

  3. Entropy is in Flux V3.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadanoff, Leo P.

    2017-05-01

    The science of thermodynamics was put together in the Nineteenth Century to describe large systems in equilibrium. One part of thermodynamics defines entropy for equilibrium systems and demands an ever-increasing entropy for non-equilibrium ones. Since thermodynamics does not define entropy out of equilibrium, pure thermodynamics cannot follow the details of how this increase occurs. However, starting with the work of Ludwig Boltzmann in 1872, and continuing to the present day, various models of non-equilibrium behavior have been put together with the specific aim of generalizing the concept of entropy to non-equilibrium situations. This kind of entropy has been termed kinetic entropy to distinguish it from the thermodynamic variety. Knowledge of kinetic entropy started from Boltzmann's insight about his equation for the time dependence of gaseous systems. In this paper, his result is stated as a definition of kinetic entropy in terms of a local equation for the entropy density. This definition is then applied to Landau's theory of the Fermi liquid thereby giving the kinetic entropy within that theory. The dynamics of many condensed matter systems including Fermi liquids, low temperature superfluids, and ordinary metals lend themselves to the definition of kinetic entropy. In fact, entropy has been defined and used for a wide variety of situations in which a condensed matter system has been allowed to relax for a sufficient period so that the very most rapid fluctuations have been ironed out. One of the broadest applications of non-equilibrium analysis considers quantum degenerate systems using Martin-Schwinger Green's functions (Phys Rev 115:1342-1373, 1959) as generalized Wigner functions, g^({p},ω ,{R},T). This paper describes once again how the quantum kinetic equations for these functions give locally defined conservation laws for mass momentum and energy. In local thermodynamic equilibrium, this kinetic theory enables a reasonable definition of the density

  4. Applications of the Maximum Entropy Method in superspace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Smaalen, S.; Palatinus, Lukáš

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 305, - (2004), s. 57-62 ISSN 0015-0193 Grant - others:DFG and FCI(DE) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : Maximum Entropy Method * modulated structures * charge density Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.517, year: 2004

  5. Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved. A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.

  6. Entropy concentration and the empirical coding game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    We give a characterization of maximum entropy/minimum relative entropy inference by providing two 'strong entropy concentration' theorems. These theorems unify and generalize Jaynes''concentration phenomenon' and Van Campenhout and Cover's 'conditional limit theorem'. The theorems characterize

  7. Suppression of large edge localized modes with a stochastic magnetic boundary in high confinement DIII-D plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Moyer, R.A.; Watkins, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Large sub-millisecond heat pulses due to Type-I ELMs have been eliminated reproducibly in DIII.D for periods approaching 7 energy confinement times with small dc currents driven in a simple magnetic perturbation coil. The current required to eliminate all but a few isolated Type-I ELM impulses during a coil pulse is less than 0.4% of plasma current. Based on vacuum magnetic field line modeling, the perturbation fields resonate strongly with plasma flux surfaces across most of the pedestal region (0.9 ≤ Ψ N ≤ 1.0) when q 95 = 3.7±0.2 creating small remnant magnetic islands surrounded by weakly stochastic field lines. The stored energy, β N , H-mode quality factor and global energy confinement time are unaltered. Although some isolated ELM-like events typically occur, long periods free of large Type-I ELMs (Δt > 4-6 τ E ) have been reproduced numerous times, on multiple experimental run days including cases matching the ITER scenario 2 flux surface shape. Since large Type-I ELM impulses represent a severe constraint on the survivability of the divertor target plates in future fusion devices such as ITER, a proven method of eliminating these impulses is critical for the development of tokamak reactors. Results presented in this paper indicate that non-axisymmetric edge magnetic perturbations could be a promising option for controlling ELMs in future tokamaks such as ITER. (author)

  8. Large-Scale Flows and Magnetic Fields Produced by Rotating Convection in a Quasi-Geostrophic Model of Planetary Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P.

    2017-12-01

    Convection is the main heat transport process in the liquid cores of planets. The convective flows are thought to be turbulent and constrained by rotation (corresponding to high Reynolds numbers Re and low Rossby numbers Ro). Under these conditions, and in the absence of magnetic fields, the convective flows can produce coherent Reynolds stresses that drive persistent large-scale zonal flows. The formation of large-scale flows has crucial implications for the thermal evolution of planets and the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. In this work, we explore this problem with numerical simulations using a quasi-geostrophic approximation to model convective and zonal flows at Re 104 and Ro 10-4 for Prandtl numbers relevant for liquid metals (Pr 0.1). The formation of intense multiple zonal jets strongly affects the convective heat transport, leading to the formation of a mean temperature staircase. We also study the generation of magnetic fields by the quasi-geostrophic flows at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.

  9. SUPPESSION OF LARGE EDGE LOCALIZED MODES IN HIGH CONFINEMENT DIII-D PLASMAS WITH A STOCHASTIC MAGNETIC BOUNDARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVANS, TE; MOYER, RA; THOMAS, PR; WATKINS, JG; OSBORNE, TH; BOEDO, JA; FENSTERMACHER, ME; FINKEN, KH; GROEBNER, RJ; GROTH, M; HARRIS, JH; LAHAYE, RJ; LASNIER, CJ; MASUZAKI, S; OHYABU, N; PRETTY, D; RHODES, TL; REIMERDES, H; RUDAKOV, DL; SCHAFFER, MJ; WANG, G; ZENG, L.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 A stochastic magnetic boundary, produced by an externally applied edge resonant magnetic perturbation, is used to suppress large edge localized modes (ELMs) in high confinement (H-mode) plasmas. The resulting H-mode displays rapid, small oscillations with a bursty character modulated by a coherent 130 Hz envelope. The H-mode transport barrier is unaffected by the stochastic boundary. The core confinement of these discharges is unaffected, despite a three-fold drop in the toroidal rotation in the plasma core. These results demonstrate that stochastic boundaries are compatible with H-modes and may be attractive for ELM control in next-step burning fusion tokamaks

  10. Electromagnetically induced transparency with large delay-bandwidth product induced by magnetic resonance near field coupling to electric resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Liu, Si-yuan; Zhang, Hai-feng; Bian, Bo-rui; Kong, Xiang-kun [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Shen-yun [Research Center of Applied Electromagnetics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China)

    2015-03-16

    In this paper, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like spectral response with magnetic resonance near field coupling to electric resonance. Six split-ring resonators and a cut wire are chosen as the bright and dark resonator, respectively. An EIT-like transmission peak located between two dips can be observed with incident magnetic field excitation. A large delay bandwidth product (0.39) is obtained, which has potential application in quantum optics and communications. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulated results.

  11. Suppression of large edge-localized modes in high-confinement DIII-D plasmas with a stochastic magnetic boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T E; Moyer, R A; Thomas, P R; Watkins, J G; Osborne, T H; Boedo, J A; Doyle, E J; Fenstermacher, M E; Finken, K H; Groebner, R J; Groth, M; Harris, J H; La Haye, R J; Lasnier, C J; Masuzaki, S; Ohyabu, N; Pretty, D G; Rhodes, T L; Reimerdes, H; Rudakov, D L; Schaffer, M J; Wang, G; Zeng, L

    2004-06-11

    A stochastic magnetic boundary, produced by an applied edge resonant magnetic perturbation, is used to suppress most large edge-localized modes (ELMs) in high confinement (H-mode) plasmas. The resulting H mode displays rapid, small oscillations with a bursty character modulated by a coherent 130 Hz envelope. The H mode transport barrier and core confinement are unaffected by the stochastic boundary, despite a threefold drop in the toroidal rotation. These results demonstrate that stochastic boundaries are compatible with H modes and may be attractive for ELM control in next-step fusion tokamaks.

  12. Large D-2 theory of superconducting fluctuations in a magnetic field and its application to iron pnictides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James M; Tesanović, Zlatko

    2010-07-16

    A Ginzburg-Landau approach to fluctuations of a layered superconductor in a magnetic field is used to show that the interlayer coupling can be incorporated within an interacting self-consistent theory of a single layer, in the limit of a large number of neighboring layers. The theory exhibits two phase transitions-a vortex liquid-to-solid transition is followed by a Bose-Einstein condensation into the Abrikosov lattice-illustrating the essential role of interlayer coupling. By using this theory, explicit expressions for magnetization, specific heat, and fluctuation conductivity are derived. We compare our results with recent experimental data on the iron-pnictide superconductors.

  13. Computer simulations of quench properties of thin, large superconducting solenoid magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Takeshi; Mori, Shigeki; Noguchi, Masaharu

    1983-01-01

    Measured quench data of a 1 m diameter x 1 m thin superconducting solenoid magnet with a single layer aluminum-stabilized NbTi/Cu superconductor of 269 turns were fitted by computer simulations using the one-dimensional approximation. Parameters obtained were used to study quench properties of a 3 m diameter x 5 m (1.5 Tesla) thin superconducting solenoid magnet with a stored magnetic energy of 30 x 10 6 J. Conductor dimensions with which the solenoid could be built substantially safe for the full field quench were optimized. (author)

  14. Large-scale magnetic fields, curvature fluctuations, and the thermal history of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that gravitating magnetic fields affect the evolution of curvature perturbations in a way that is reminiscent of a pristine nonadiabatic pressure fluctuation. The gauge-invariant evolution of curvature perturbations is used to constrain the magnetic power spectrum. Depending on the essential features of the thermodynamic history of the Universe, the explicit derivation of the bound is modified. The theoretical uncertainty in the constraints on the magnetic energy spectrum is assessed by comparing the results obtained in the case of the conventional thermal history with the estimates stemming from less conventional (but phenomenologically allowed) post-inflationary evolutions

  15. Entropy and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, human society is regarded as a “superorganism”, analogous to colonies of social insects. The digestive system of the human superorganism is the global economy, which ingests both free energy and resources, and later excretes them in a degraded form. This process involves an increase in entropy. Early in the 20th century, both Frederick Soddy and Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen discussed the relationship between entropy and economics. Soddy called for an index system to regulate the money supply and a reform of the fractional reserve banking system, while Georgescu-Roegen pointed to the need for Ecological Economics, a steady-state economy, and population stabilization. As we reach the end of the fossil fuel era and as industrial growth falters, massive unemployment can only be avoided by responsible governmental action. The necessary steps include shifting labor to projects needed for a sustainable economy, dividing the available work fairly among those seeking employment, and reforming the practices of the financial sector.

  16. Save energy, without entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, D.

    1992-01-01

    When we talk about saving energy what we usually mean is not wasting work. What we try to do when we design a process, is to use work as effectively as possible. It's hard to do that if we can't see it clearly. This paper illustrates how work can be seen (or calculated) without imposing entropy as a screen in front of it. We've all heard that the second law tells us that the entropy of the universe is increasing, and we are left with the feeling that the universe is ultimately headed for chaos, but receive little other information from this statement. A slightly more useful statement of the second law is the work potential of the universe is decreasing. However, this statement carries a needlessly negative ring. A simplified definition of the second law is: It takes work to change things. With these two corollaries: We can calculate the theoretical minimum work needed for a given change; and We can express the value of all changes in terms of work

  17. Giant onsite electronic entropy enhances the performance of ceria for water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghavi, S Shahab; Emery, Antoine A; Hansen, Heine A; Zhou, Fei; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Wolverton, Chris

    2017-08-18

    Previous studies have shown that a large solid-state entropy of reduction increases the thermodynamic efficiency of metal oxides, such as ceria, for two-step thermochemical water splitting cycles. In this context, the configurational entropy arising from oxygen off-stoichiometry in the oxide, has been the focus of most previous work. Here we report a different source of entropy, the onsite electronic configurational entropy, arising from coupling between orbital and spin angular momenta in lanthanide f orbitals. We find that onsite electronic configurational entropy is sizable in all lanthanides, and reaches a maximum value of ≈4.7 k B per oxygen vacancy for Ce 4+ /Ce 3+ reduction. This unique and large positive entropy source in ceria explains its excellent performance for high-temperature catalytic redox reactions such as water splitting. Our calculations also show that terbium dioxide has a high electronic entropy and thus could also be a potential candidate for solar thermochemical reactions.Solid-state entropy of reduction increases the thermodynamic efficiency of ceria for two-step thermochemical water splitting. Here, the authors report a large and different source of entropy, the onsite electronic configurational entropy arising from coupling between orbital and spin angular momenta in f orbitals.

  18. Dynamics of entropy perturbations in assisted dark energy with mixed kinetic terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwan, Khamphee

    2011-01-01

    We study dynamics of entropy perturbations in the two-field assisted dark energy model. Based on the scenario of assisted dark energy, in which one scalar field is subdominant compared with the other in the early epoch, we show that the entropy perturbations in this two-field system tend to be constant on large scales in the early epoch and hence survive until the present era for a generic evolution of both fields during the radiation and matter eras. This behaviour of the entropy perturbations is preserved even when the fields are coupled via kinetic interaction. Since, for assisted dark energy, the subdominant field in the early epoch becomes dominant at late time, the entropy perturbations can significantly influence the dynamics of density perturbations in the universe. Assuming correlations between the entropy and curvature perturbations, the entropy perturbations can enhance the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect if the signs of the contributions from entropy perturbations and curvature perturbations are opposite after the matter era, otherwise the ISW contribution is suppressed. For canonical scalar field the effect of entropy perturbations on ISW effect is small because the initial value of the entropy perturbations estimated during inflation cannot be sufficiently large. However, in the case of k-essence, the initial value of the entropy perturbations can be large enough to affect the ISW effect to leave a significant imprint on the CMB power spectrum

  19. Possible extended forms of thermodynamic entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic entropy is determined by a heat measurement through the Clausius equality. The entropy then formalizes a fundamental limitation of operations by the second law of thermodynamics. The entropy is also expressed as the Shannon entropy of the microscopic degrees of freedom. Whenever an extension of thermodynamic entropy is attempted, we must pay special attention to how its three different aspects just mentioned are altered. In this paper, we discuss possible extensions of the thermodynamic entropy. (paper)

  20. Correction between B and H, and the analysis of the magnetization into uniaxial superconductor in the limit at large values of B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, I.G. de.

    1994-04-01

    Using the London theory, a correction is obtained between the direction of the magnetic induction B and the applied magnetic field H in superconductors with uniaxial anisotropy when the Ginsburg-Landau constant is not so large. One analysis of the magnetization as function of angle α is made. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs