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Sample records for large longitudinal studies

  1. The Need for Large-Scale, Longitudinal Empirical Studies in Middle Level Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Steven B.; Caskey, Micki M.; Flowers, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This essay describes and discusses the ongoing need for large-scale, longitudinal, empirical research studies focused on middle grades education. After a statement of the problem and concerns, the essay describes and critiques several prior middle grades efforts and research studies. Recommendations for future research efforts to inform policy…

  2. Longitudinal heterogeneity of flow and heat fluxes in a large lowland river: A study of the San Joaquin River, CA, USA during a large-scale flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E. N.; Dunne, T.; Dozier, J.

    2011-12-01

    Systematic downstream variation of channel characteristics, scaled by flow affects the transport and distribution of heat throughout a large river. As water moves through a river channel, streamflow and velocity may fluctuate by orders of magnitude primarily due to channel geometry, slope and resistance to flow, and the time scales of those fluctuations range from days to decades (Constantz et al., 1994; Lundquist and Cayan, 2002; McKerchar and Henderson, 2003). It is well understood that the heat budget of a river is primarily governed by surface exchanges, with the most significant surface flux coming from net shortwave radiation. The absorption of radiation at a given point in a river is determined by the wavelength-dependent index of refraction, expressed by the angle of refraction and the optical depth as a function of physical depth and the absorption coefficient (Dozier, 1980). Few studies consider the influence of hydrologic alteration to the optical properties governing net radiative heat transfer in a large lowland river, yet it is the most significant component of the heat budget and definitive to a river's thermal regime. We seek a physically based model without calibration to incorporate scale-dependent physical processes governing heat and flow dynamics in large rivers, how they change across the longitudinal profile, and how they change under different flow regimes. Longitudinal flow and heat flux analyses require synoptic flow time series from multiple sites along rivers, and few hydrometric networks meet this requirement (Larned et al, 2011). We model the energy budget in a regulated 240-km mainstem reach of the San Joaquin River California, USA equipped with multiple gaging stations from Friant Dam to its confluence with the Merced River during a large-scale flow experiment. We use detailed hydroclimatic observations distributed across the longitudinal gradient creating a non-replicable field experiment of heat fluxes across a range of flow regime

  3. Large-scale genome-wide association studies and meta-analyses of longitudinal change in adult lung function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Tang

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified numerous loci influencing cross-sectional lung function, but less is known about genes influencing longitudinal change in lung function.We performed GWAS of the rate of change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 in 14 longitudinal, population-based cohort studies comprising 27,249 adults of European ancestry using linear mixed effects model and combined cohort-specific results using fixed effect meta-analysis to identify novel genetic loci associated with longitudinal change in lung function. Gene expression analyses were subsequently performed for identified genetic loci. As a secondary aim, we estimated the mean rate of decline in FEV1 by smoking pattern, irrespective of genotypes, across these 14 studies using meta-analysis.The overall meta-analysis produced suggestive evidence for association at the novel IL16/STARD5/TMC3 locus on chromosome 15 (P  =  5.71 × 10(-7. In addition, meta-analysis using the five cohorts with ≥3 FEV1 measurements per participant identified the novel ME3 locus on chromosome 11 (P  =  2.18 × 10(-8 at genome-wide significance. Neither locus was associated with FEV1 decline in two additional cohort studies. We confirmed gene expression of IL16, STARD5, and ME3 in multiple lung tissues. Publicly available microarray data confirmed differential expression of all three genes in lung samples from COPD patients compared with controls. Irrespective of genotypes, the combined estimate for FEV1 decline was 26.9, 29.2 and 35.7 mL/year in never, former, and persistent smokers, respectively.In this large-scale GWAS, we identified two novel genetic loci in association with the rate of change in FEV1 that harbor candidate genes with biologically plausible functional links to lung function.

  4. Self-reported physical exposure association with medial and lateral epicondylitis incidence in a large longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descatha, Alexis; Dale, Ann Marie; Jaegers, Lisa; Herquelot, Eléonore; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-09-01

    Although previous studies have related occupational exposure and epicondylitis, the evidence is moderate and mostly based on cross-sectional studies. Suspected physical exposures were tested over a 3-year period in a large longitudinal cohort study of workers in the USA. In a population-based study including a variety of industries, 1107 newly employed workers were examined; only workers without elbow symptoms at baseline were included. Baseline questionnaires collected information on personal characteristics and self-reported physical work exposures and psychosocial measures for the current or most recent job at 6 months. Epicondylitis (lateral and medial) was the main outcome, assessed at 36 months based on symptoms and physical examination (palpation or provocation test). Logistic models included the most relevant associated variables. Of 699 workers tested after 36 months who did not have elbow symptoms at baseline, 48 suffered from medial or lateral epicondylitis (6.9%), with 34 cases of lateral epicondylitis (4.9%), 30 cases of medial epicondylitis (4.3%) and 16 workers who had both. After adjusting for age, lack of social support and obesity, consistent associations were observed between self-reported wrist bending/twisting and forearm twisting/rotating/screwing motion and future cases of medial or lateral epicondylitis (ORs 2.8 (1.2 to 6.2) and 3.6 (1.2 to 11.0) in men and women, respectively). Self-reported physical exposures that implicate repetitive and extensive/prolonged wrist bend/twisting and forearm movements were associated with incident cases of lateral and medial epicondylitis in a large longitudinal study, although other studies are needed to better specify the exposures involved.

  5. A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    Does playing violent video games increase aggressive behavior over time or is it aggressive children who increasingly seek out (and play) these violent video games? To study such long-term effects a longitudinal design is necessary. Within a field study in a large German city (Kinder, Computer, Hobby, Lernen – KUHL, Freie Universtität Berlin) about 115 elementary school boys attending in the beginning (t1) classrooms of the third and fourth grade and twelve months later (t2) classrooms of the...

  6. Self-Esteem Development across the Life Span: A Longitudinal Study with a Large Sample from Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem across the life span. Data came from a German longitudinal study with 3 assessments across 4 years of a sample of 2,509 individuals ages 14 to 89 years. The self-esteem measure used showed strong measurement invariance across assessments and birth cohorts. Latent growth curve analyses indicated…

  7. Large variation in measures used to assess outcomes of opioid dependence treatment: A systematic review of longitudinal observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiessing, Lucas; Ferri, Marica; Darke, Shane; Simon, Roland; Griffiths, Paul

    2017-10-02

    Treatment outcomes for drug users are critical for informing policy and therapeutic practice. The coherence of outcomes, changes and drug use measures from observational studies on opioid use treatment were reviewed. Systematic review of the literature for longitudinal observational studies, from 1980 through November 2015, in all languages, with data on treated opioid users, using Pubmed, the Cochrane Library and additional strategies (e.g. Pubmed function 'related citations' and checking reference lists of eligible studies). Twenty-seven studies were included (11 countries, 85 publications, recruitment 1962-2009). Baseline n was >65 686 and median follow-up 34.5 months (21 studies) or 51.4 person-months (10 studies). Eight outcome domains were identified: 'drug use' (21/27 studies), 'crime' (13), 'health' (13), 'treatment-related' outcomes (16), 'social functioning' (13), 'harms' (8), 'mortality' (13) and 'economic estimates' (2 studies). All studies using drug use outcomes included a binary (abstinence) category in at least one measure. Studies typically reported outcomes on less than half (on average 3.7 or 46%) of the eight outcome domains, while the average was 5.1 (64%) in seven studies initiated since 2000. Wide variation exists in outcome measures found in longitudinal observational studies of treatment of opioid users. This reduces replicability of studies and suggests a lack of common expectations on treatment success. Future studies should consider using all or most of eight outcome domains identified (excluding economic analyses if unfeasible), non-binary measures and amount/value of drugs used and consensus meetings with joint ownership of scientific, treatment and patient communities. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  9. Longitudinal development of muons in large air showers studies from the arrival time distributions measured at 900m above sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, F.; Tsuchimoto, I.; Enoki, T.; Suga, K.; Nishi, K.

    1985-01-01

    The arrival time distributions of muons with energies above 1.0GeV and 0.5GeV have been measured in the Akeno air-shower array to study the longitudinal development of muons in air showers with primary energies in the range 10 to the 17th power to 10 to the 18th power ev. The average rise times of muons with energies above 1.0GeV at large core distances are consistent with those expected from very high multiplicity models and, on the contrary, with those expected from the low multiplicity models at small core distances. This implies that the longitudinal development at atmospheric depth smaller than 500 cm square is very fast and that at larger atmospheric depths is rather slow.

  10. Self-esteem development across the life span: a longitudinal study with a large sample from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem across the life span. Data came from a German longitudinal study with 3 assessments across 4 years of a sample of 2,509 individuals ages 14 to 89 years. The self-esteem measure used showed strong measurement invariance across assessments and birth cohorts. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem follows a quadratic trajectory across the life span, increasing during adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood, reaching a peak at age 60 years, and then declining in old age. No cohort effects on average levels of self-esteem or on the shape of the trajectory were found. Moreover, the trajectory did not differ across gender, level of education, or for individuals who had lived continuously in West versus East Germany (i.e., the 2 parts of Germany that had been separate states from 1949 to 1990). However, the results suggested that employment status, household income, and satisfaction in the domains of work, relationships, and health contribute to a more positive life span trajectory of self-esteem. The findings have significant implications, because they call attention to developmental stages in which individuals may be vulnerable because of low self-esteem (such as adolescence and old age) and to factors that predict successful versus problematic developmental trajectories. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Large-scale alcohol use and socioeconomic position of origin: longitudinal study from ages 15 to 19 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine socioeconomic position (SEP) of origin as predictor of large-scale alcohol use in adolescence. METHODS: The study population was a random sample of 15-year-olds at baseline (n=843) with a first follow-up 4 years later (n=729). Excess alcohol intake was assessed by consumption last...

  12. Longitudinal transactions between personality and occupational roles : A large and heterogeneous study of job beginners, stayers, and changers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denissen, J.J.A.; Ulferts, H.; Lüdtke, O.; Muck, P.M.; Gerstorf, D.

    2014-01-01

    Social norms are central to theoretical accounts of longitudinal person-environment transactions. On the one hand, individuals are thought to select themselves into social roles that fit their personality. On the other hand, it is assumed that individuals' personality is transformed by the

  13. LEIR longitudinal studies

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, S; Hancock, S

    2017-01-01

    Towards the end of 2015 and during 2016 there were exten-sive studies of longitudinal beam dynamics in LEIR aimedat improving extracted intensities. As the driving source oflosses early in the ramp was shown to be transverse spacecharge tune spread a significant improvement came fromflattening the beam profile to increase the bunching factorby offsetting the RF frequency from the beam revolution fre-quency. Further benefits were provided by modulating theRF frequency during capture, leading to emittance blow-upand improved reproducibility. The use of two RF cavitiesduring operation was studied to try and further increase thecaptured emittance, however after careful alignment of theRF it was found that a hard limit in the bunch heigh of approx-imately 7 MeV exists. Due to the acceptance limit there wasno operational benefit to using both cavities simultaneously

  14. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  15. Age and Trust as Moderators in the Relation between Procedural Justice and Turnover : A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P. Matthijs; de Lange, Annet H.; Ybema, Jan F.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.

    The current study investigated the moderating roles of age and trust in the relation of procedural justice with turnover. It was expected that the relation between procedural justice and turnover was weaker for older workers and those with high prior trust in their leader. Older workers are better

  16. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: a longitudinal study comparing severity associated with human papilloma viral types 6 and 11 and other risk factors in a large pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiatrak, Brian J; Wiatrak, Deborah W; Broker, Thomas R; Lewis, Linda

    2004-11-01

    A database was developed for prospective, longitudinal study of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in a large population of pediatric patients. Data recorded for each patient included epidemiological factors, human papilloma virus (HPV) type, clinical course, staged severity of disease at each surgical intervention, and frequency of surgical intervention. The study hypothesizes that patients with HPV type 11 (HPV-11) and patients younger than 3 years of age at diagnosis are at risk for more aggressive and extensive disease. The 10-year prospective epidemiological study used disease staging for each patient with an original scoring system. Severity scores were updated at each surgical procedure. Parents of children with RRP referred to the authors' hospital completed a detailed epidemiological questionnaire at the initial visit or at the first return visit after the study began. At the first endoscopic debridement after study enrollment, tissue was obtained and submitted for HPV typing using polymerase chain reaction techniques and in situ hybridization. Staging of disease severity was performed in real time at each endoscopic procedure using an RRP scoring system developed by one of the authors (B.J.W.). The frequency of endoscopic operative debridement was recorded for each patient. Information in the database was analyzed to identify statistically significant relationships between extent of disease and/or HPV type, patient age at diagnosis, and selected epidemiological factors. The study may represent the first longitudinal prospective analysis of a large pediatric RRP population. Fifty-eight of the 73 patients in the study underwent HPV typing. Patients infected with HPV-11 were significantly more likely to have higher severity scores, require more frequent surgical intervention, and require adjuvant therapy to control disease progression. In addition, patients with HPV-11 RRP were significantly more likely to develop tracheal disease, to require

  17. A large-scale longitudinal study indicating the importance of perceived effectiveness, organizational and management support for innovative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane M; Strating, Mathilde M H; Bal, Roland; Nieboer, Anna P

    2013-04-01

    Teams participating in QI collaboratives reportedly enhance innovative culture in long-term care, but we currently lack empirical evidence of the ability of such teams to enhance (determinants of) innovative culture over time. The objectives of our study are therefore to explore innovative cultures in QI teams over time and identify its determinants. The study included QI teams participating between 2006 and 2011 in a national Dutch quality program (Care for Better), using an adapted version of the Breakthrough Method. Each QI team member received a questionnaire by mail within one week after the second (2-3 months post-implementation of the collaborative = T0) and final conference (12 months post-implementation = T1). A total of 859 (out of 1161) respondents filled in the questionnaire at T0 and 541 at T1 (47% response). A total of 307 team members filled in the questionnaire at both T0 and T1. We measured innovative culture, respondent characteristics (age, gender, education), perceived team effectiveness, organizational support, and management support. Two-tailed paired t-tests showed that innovative culture was slightly but significantly lower at T1 compared to T0 (12 months and 2-3 months after the start of the collaborative, respectively). Univariate analyses revealed that perceived effectiveness, organizational and management support were significantly related to innovative culture at T1 (all at p ≤ 0.001). Multilevel analyses showed that perceived effectiveness, organizational support, and management support predicted innovative culture. Our QI teams were not able to improve innovative culture over time, but their innovative culture scores were higher than non-participant professionals. QI interventions require organizational and management support to enhance innovative culture in long-term care settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Single and Serial Fetal Biometry to Detect Preterm and Term Small- and Large-for-Gestational-Age Neonates: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Ahn, Hyunyoung; Garcia, Maynor; Xu, Zhonghui; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Saker, Homam; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia S.; Yeo, Lami; Romero, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the value of single and serial fetal biometry for the prediction of small- (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) neonates delivered preterm or at term. Methods A cohort study of 3,971 women with singleton pregnancies was conducted from the first trimester until delivery with 3,440 pregnancies (17,334 scans) meeting the following inclusion criteria: 1) delivery of a live neonate after 33 gestational weeks and 2) two or more ultrasound examinations with fetal biometry parameters obtained at ≤36 weeks. Primary outcomes were SGA (95th centile) at birth based on INTERGROWTH-21st gender-specific standards. Fetus-specific estimated fetal weight (EFW) trajectories were calculated by linear mixed-effects models using data up to a fixed gestational age (GA) cutoff (28, 32, or 36 weeks) for fetuses having two or more measurements before the GA cutoff and not already delivered. A screen test positive for single biometry was based on Z-scores of EFW at the last scan before each GA cut-off so that the false positive rate (FPR) was 10%. Similarly, a screen test positive for the longitudinal analysis was based on the projected (extrapolated) EFW at 40 weeks from all available measurements before each cutoff for each fetus. Results Fetal abdominal and head circumference measurements, as well as birth weights in the Detroit population, matched well to the INTERGROWTH-21st standards, yet this was not the case for biparietal diameter (BPD) and femur length (FL) (up to 9% and 10% discrepancy for mean and confidence intervals, respectively), mainly due to differences in the measurement technique. Single biometry based on EFW at the last scan at ≤32 weeks (GA IQR: 27.4–30.9 weeks) had a sensitivity of 50% and 53% (FPR = 10%) to detect preterm and term SGA and LGA neonates, respectively (AUC of 82% both). For the detection of LGA using data up to 32- and 36-week cutoffs, single biometry analysis had higher sensitivity than longitudinal analysis (52% vs 46

  19. Longitudinal associations of lifestyle factors and weight status with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in preadolescent children: the large prospective cohort study IDEFICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplies, Jenny; Börnhorst, Claudia; Günther, Kathrin; Fraterman, Arno; Russo, Paola; Veidebaum, Toomas; Tornaritis, Michael; De Henauw, Stefaan; Marild, Staffan; Molnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2016-09-02

    This study investigates prospective associations of anthropometrical and lifestyle indices with insulin resistance (IR) in European children from the IDEFICS cohort. Insulin resistance (IR) is a growing concern in childhood obesity and a central aspect of the metabolic syndrome (MS). It most likely represents the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. This longitudinal study included 3348 preadolescent children aged 3 to 10.9 years from 8 European countries who were observed from 2007/2008 to 2009/2010. The main outcome measure in the present analysis is HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment as a common proxy indicator to quantify IR) at follow-up and in its longitudinal development. Anthropometrical measures and lifestyle indices, including objectively determined physical activity, were considered, among others factors, as determinants of IR. Prospective associations between IR at follow-up and anthropometrical and lifestyle indices were estimated by logistic regression models. Country-specific prevalence rates of IR in the IDEFICS cohort of European children showed a positive trend with weight category. Prospective multivariate analyses showed the strongest positive associations of IR with BMI z-score (OR = 2.6 for unit change from the mean, 95 % CI 2.1-3.1) and z-score of waist circumference (OR = 2.2 for unit change from the mean, 95 % CI 1.9-2.6), which were analysed in separate models, but also for sex (OR = 2.2 for girls vs. boys, 95 % CI 1.5-3.1 up to OR 2.5, 95 % CI 1.8-3.6 depending on the model), audio-visual media time (OR = 1.2 for an additional hour per day, 95 % CI 1.0-1.4 in both models) and an inverse association of objectively determined physical activity (OR = 0.5 for 3(rd) compared to 1(st) quartile, 95 % CI 0.3-0.9 in both models). A longitudinal reduction of HOMA-IR was accompanied with a parallel decline in BMI. This study is, to our knowledge, the first prospective study on IR in a preadolescent children

  20. Longitudinal emittance blowup in the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, P

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) relies on Landau damping for longitudinal stability. To avoid decreasing the stability margin at high energy, the longitudinal emittance must be continuously increased during the acceleration ramp. Longitudinal blowup provides the required emittance growth. The method was implemented through the summer of 2010. Band-limited RF phase-noise is injected in the main accelerating cavities during the whole ramp of about 11min. Synchrotron frequencies change along the energy ramp, but the digitally created noise tracks the frequency change. The position of the noise-band, relative to the nominal synchrotron frequency, and the bandwidth of the spectrum are set by pre-defined constants, making the diffusion stop at the edges of the demanded distribution. The noise amplitude is controlled by feedback using the measurement of the average bunch length. This algorithm reproducibly achieves the programmed bunch length of about 1.2ns, at flat top with low bunch-to-bunch scatter and provides a...

  1. A study of the HEB longitudinal dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    A study of the High Energy Booster (HEB) longitudinal dynamics is presented. Full derivations of ramp dependent longitudinal variables are given. The formulas assume that the input magnetic field and beam longitudinal emittance are known as a function of time, and that either the rf voltage or the rf bucket area are known as a function of time. Once these three inputs are specified, the formulas can be used to calculate values for all other longitudinal dynamics variables. The formulas have been incorporated into a single computer code named ELVIRA: Evaluation of Longitudinal Variables in Relativistic Accelerators. The ELVIRA code is documented here in detail. The ELVIRA code is used under two initial longitudinal emittance assumptions to plot ramp functions for the longitudinal dynamics design of the HEB as of May 5, 1992

  2. Large-scale identification of clinical and genetic predictors of motor progression in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease: a longitudinal cohort study and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latourelle, Jeanne C; Beste, Michael T; Hadzi, Tiffany C; Miller, Robert E; Oppenheim, Jacob N; Valko, Matthew P; Wuest, Diane M; Church, Bruce W; Khalil, Iya G; Hayete, Boris; Venuto, Charles S

    2017-11-01

    Better understanding and prediction of progression of Parkinson's disease could improve disease management and clinical trial design. We aimed to use longitudinal clinical, molecular, and genetic data to develop predictive models, compare potential biomarkers, and identify novel predictors for motor progression in Parkinson's disease. We also sought to assess the use of these models in the design of treatment trials in Parkinson's disease. A Bayesian multivariate predictive inference platform was applied to data from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) study (NCT01141023). We used genetic data and baseline molecular and clinical variables from patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls to construct an ensemble of models to predict the annual rate of change in combined scores from the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) parts II and III. We tested our overall explanatory power, as assessed by the coefficient of determination (R 2 ), and replicated novel findings in an independent clinical cohort from the Longitudinal and Biomarker Study in Parkinson's disease (LABS-PD; NCT00605163). The potential utility of these models for clinical trial design was quantified by comparing simulated randomised placebo-controlled trials within the out-of-sample LABS-PD cohort. 117 healthy controls and 312 patients with Parkinson's disease from the PPMI study were available for analysis, and 317 patients with Parkinson's disease from LABS-PD were available for validation. Our model ensemble showed strong performance within the PPMI cohort (five-fold cross-validated R 2 41%, 95% CI 35-47) and significant-albeit reduced-performance in the LABS-PD cohort (R 2 9%, 95% CI 4-16). Individual predictive features identified from PPMI data were confirmed in the LABS-PD cohort. These included significant replication of higher baseline MDS-UPDRS motor score, male sex, and increased age, as well as a novel Parkinson's disease

  3. Association between maternal diet quality and offspring diet quality assessed at age 14 years: longitudinal study in a large contemporary cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Anne Ahrendt; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Tetens, Inge

    2017-01-01

    -pregnancy BMI, level of education, and maternal smoking. Interpretation  This is the first study, to our knowledge, to examine associations between maternal dietary habits during pregnancy and offspring dietary habits during adolescent years in a large contemporary cohort. Diet quality during pregnancy......Background  Emerging evidence suggests that exposures in fetal life may have an impact many years later on the individual's susceptibility to diseases. Study of diet–disease associations over long time-spans is a major methodological challenge. We examined whether overall diet quality during...... pregnancy was associated with adolescent diet quality 15 years later in a prospective cohort representing a typical high-income population. Methods  Dietary intake assessed with a 360-item food frequency questionnaire during mid-pregnancy (1996–2003) was matched with offspring dietary intake assessed...

  4. A large-acceptance Bragg curve spectrometer with a longitudinal electric field and a segmented anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, K.A.; Hasan, A.T.; Prosser, F.W.; Sanders, S.J.; Henderson, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    A large-acceptance Bragg curve spectrometer with a longitudinal electron collection field and a segmented anode has been constructed and tested. The effects on the charge resolution of the entrance angle and entrance position of the incident particle have been studied. Simulations have been done in order to isolate the contribution to the overall detector performance of the signal-shaping electronics from that of the intrinsic design of the detector. ((orig.))

  5. Nonlinear longitudinal dynamics studies at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.M.; Cheng, W.-H.; De Santis, S.; Li, D.; Stupakov, G.; Zimmermann, F.

    1999-01-01

    We present a summary of results for a variety of studies of nonlinear longitudinal dynamics in the Advanced Light Source, an electron storage ring. These include observation of decoherence at injection, decay of an injected beam, forced synchrotron oscillations and diffusion from one bunch to the next. All of the measurements were made using a dual-scan streak camera which allowed the real-time observation of the longitudinal distribution of the electron beam

  6. Longitudinal intensity effects in the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081238; Rivkin, Leonid

    This PhD thesis provides an improved knowledge of the LHC longitudinal impedance model and a better understanding of the longitudinal intensity effects. These effects can limit the LHC performance and lead to a reduction of the integrated luminosity. The LHC longitudinal impedance was measured with beams. Results obtained using traditional techniques are consistent with the expectations based on the impedance model, although the measurement precision was proven insufficient for the low impedance of the LHC. Innovative methods to probe the LHC reactive impedance were successfully used. One of the methods is based on exciting the beam with a sinusoidal rf phase modulation to estimate the synchrotron frequency shift from potential-well distortion. In the second method, the impedance is estimated from the loss of Landau damping threshold, which is also found to be in good agreement with analytical estimations. Beam-based impedance measurements agree well with estimations using the LHC impedance model. Macropartic...

  7. Potential Reciprocal Relationship between Motivation and Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Hou, Shumeng

    2018-01-01

    Among the non-cognitive factors that influence academic achievement, intrinsic motivation has been found to be a potential reciprocal factor. The present study aims to determine the causal relationship between other types of motivation and academic achievement. For this purpose, a large-scale data survey, the National Education Longitudinal Study…

  8. Statistical Power in Longitudinal Network Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadtfeld, Christoph; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian; van Duijn, Marijtje

    2018-01-01

    Longitudinal social network studies may easily suffer from a lack of statistical power. This is the case in particular for studies that simultaneously investigate change of network ties and change of nodal attributes. Such selection and influence studies have become increasingly popular due to the

  9. Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

  10. Study of CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Dayu; Li Peng; Liu Yong; Xie Qingchun

    2009-01-01

    The scheme of longitudinal bunch compression cavity for the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR)is an important issue. Plasma physics experiments require high density heavy ion beam and short pulsed bunch,which can be produced by non-adiabatic compression of bunch implemented by a fast compression with 90 degree rotation in the longitudinal phase space. The phase space rotation in fast compression is initiated by a fast jump of the RF-voltage amplitude. For this purpose, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity, loaded with FINEMET-FT-1M is studied and simulated with MAFIA code. In this paper, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity is simulated and the initial bunch length of 238 U 72+ with 250 MeV/u will be compressed from 200 ns to 50 ns.The construction and RF properties of the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity are simulated and calculated also with MAFIA code. The operation frequency of the cavity is 1.15 MHz with peak voltage of 80 kV, and the cavity can be used to compress heavy ions in the CSR. (authors)

  11. Caregiving and mental health among workers: Longitudinal evidence from a large cohort of adults in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As people in middle and lower income countries live longer, more people become sick, disabled, and frail and the demand for family caregiving grows. Thailand faces such challenges. This study investigates the relationship between caregiving and mental health among workers drawn from a large longitudinal cohort of Thai adults. Methods: Participants were drawn from the Thai Health-Risk Transition Study, a cohort study since 2005 of distance-learning adult Open University students residing nationwide. Caregiving status and binary psychological distress outcome (score 19–30 on Kessler 6 were recorded in 2009 and 2013 among cohort members who were paid workers at both years (n=33,972. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between four-year longitudinal caregiving status and psychological distress in 2013, adjusting for potential covariates. Results: Longitudinal analyses revealed the transitional nature of care with 25% exiting and 10% entering the caring role during the four-year follow-up. Based on multivariate logistic regression, 2009–2013 caregiving status was significantly associated with psychological distress. Cohort members transitioning into caregiving and those who were caregivers in both 2009 and 2013 had a higher risk for psychological distress than non-caregivers (Adjusted Odds Ratios 1.40 [1.02–1.96] and 1.64 [1.16–2.33], respectively. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on caregiving and associated risk for psychological distress among working Thais. This adds to the limited existing literature in middle-income countries and highlights the potential pressure among caregivers in balancing work and care while preserving their own mental health. Keywords: Carers, Caregivers, Mental health, Work and health, Longitudinal data, Cohort study, Thailand

  12. Collaborative Knowledge-Building: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on knowledge-building in a technology-supported learning environment in higher education through a longitudinal study of a graduate course from 2003 to 2007. The primary question is: how do learning conditions designed into a graduate course contribute to collaborative knowledge building? In particular, two major…

  13. The Czech longitudinal study of optimal development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kebza, V.; Šolcová, Iva; Kodl, M.; Kernová, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012), s. 266-266 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : optimal development * Prague longitudinal study Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  14. Burnout development among dentists : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Brake, H.; Smits, N.; Wicherts, J.M.; Gorter, R.C.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the development of burnout among dentists is important for purposes of prevention and intervention. Using a two-wave longitudinal design, this study examined the chronological sequence of the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: emotional exhaustion; depersonalization; and

  15. SELECTIVE MODAL ANALYSIS OF POWER FLOW OSCILLATION IN LARGE SCALE LONGITUDINAL POWER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirindi -

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel selective modal analysis for the determination of low frequency power flow oscillation behaviour based on eigenvalues with corresponding damping ratio, cumulative damping index, and participation factors is proposed. The power system being investigated consists of three large longitudinally interconnected areas with some weak tie lines. Different modes, such as exciter modes, inter area modes, and local modes of the dominant poles are fully studied to find out the significant level of system damping and other factors producing power flow instability. The nature of the energy exchange between area is determined and strategic power flow stability improvement is developed and tested.

  16. Modeling Change in Large-Scale Longitudinal Studies of Educational Growth: Four Decades of Contributions to the Assessment of Educational Growth. ETC R&D Scientific and Policy Contributions Series. ETS SPC-12-01. Research Report No. RR-12-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a history of ETS's role in developing assessment instruments and psychometric procedures for measuring change in large-scale national assessments funded by the Longitudinal Studies branch of the National Center for Education Statistics. It documents the innovations developed during more than 30 years of working with…

  17. Modeling Change in Large-Scale Longitudinal Studies of Educational Growth: Four Decades of Contributions to the Assessment of Educational Growth. Research Report. ETS RR-12-04. ETS R&D Scientific and Policy Contributions Series. ETS SPC-12-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a history of ETS's role in developing assessment instruments and psychometric procedures for measuring change in large-scale national assessments funded by the Longitudinal Studies branch of the National Center for Education Statistics. It documents the innovations developed during more than 30 years of working with…

  18. Residents’ perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lubitz

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice.

  19. Longitudinal study on osteoarthritis and bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Postiglione

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA and Osteoporosis (OP is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy. Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2% and statistically adequate sample size were obtained: 139 women (45 to 79 years of age were examined and follow up visit was performed after two years (24±2 months, following the same protocol. Patients underwent medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and urine collection. Bone mineral density (BMD measurement was performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck. Radiographs of dorsal and lumbar spine in lateral view were performed at basal and at 24 months visits; a team of three experts scored radiographs using Kellegren and Lawrence grading. Results: The score was calculated for two individual radiographic features (narrowing of the joint space, presence of osteophytes and as a global score. Results show a relevant percentage, 23% up, of subjects presenting both OA and OP. In the cross-sectional study the presence of osteophytosis correlates with anthropometric variables and PTH levels. In the longitudinal study results show a correlation between serum vitamin D and delta score for osteophytosis (β=0.02 p<0.05. Conclusions: Data obtained outline the importance of further studies on the pathogenetic link between OA and bone metabolism.

  20. A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk factors and immunological pathways for asthma and other allergic diseases in children: background and methodology of a longitudinal study in a large urban center in Northeastern Brazil (Salvador-SCAALA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genser Bernd

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased in industrialised countries, and it is known that rates vary according whether the area is urban or rural and to socio-economic status. Surveys conducted in some urban settings in Latin America found high prevalence rates, only exceeded by the rates observed in industrialised English-speaking countries. It is likely that the marked changes in the environment, life style and living conditions in Latin America are responsible for these observations. The understanding of the epidemiological and immunological changes that underlie the increase in asthma and allergic diseases in Latin America aimed by SCAALA studies in Brazil and Ecuador will be crucial for the identification of novel preventive interventions. Methods/Design The Salvador-SCAALA project described here is a longitudinal study involving children aged 4–11 years living in the city of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. Data on asthma and allergic diseases (rhinitis and eczema and potential risk factors will be collected in successive surveys using standardised questionnaire. This will be completed with data on dust collection (to dust mite and endotoxin, skin test to most common allergens, stool examinations to helminth and parasites, blood samples (to infection, total and specific IgE, and immunological makers, formaldehyde, physical inspection to diagnoses of eczema, and anthropometric measures. Data on earlier exposures when these children were 0–3 years old are available from a different project. Discussion It is expected that knowledge generated may help identify public health interventions that may enable countries in LA to enjoy the benefits of a "modern" lifestyle while avoiding – or minimising – increases in morbidity caused by asthma and allergies.

  2. Risk factors and immunological pathways for asthma and other allergic diseases in children: background and methodology of a longitudinal study in a large urban center in Northeastern Brazil (Salvador-SCAALA study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Mauricio L; Cunha, Sergio S; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza; Carvalho, Lain P; Cruz, Alvaro A; Stein, Renato T; Genser, Bernd; Cooper, Philip J; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2006-06-23

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased in industrialised countries, and it is known that rates vary according whether the area is urban or rural and to socio-economic status. Surveys conducted in some urban settings in Latin America found high prevalence rates, only exceeded by the rates observed in industrialised English-speaking countries. It is likely that the marked changes in the environment, life style and living conditions in Latin America are responsible for these observations. The understanding of the epidemiological and immunological changes that underlie the increase in asthma and allergic diseases in Latin America aimed by SCAALA studies in Brazil and Ecuador will be crucial for the identification of novel preventive interventions. The Salvador-SCAALA project described here is a longitudinal study involving children aged 4-11 years living in the city of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. Data on asthma and allergic diseases (rhinitis and eczema) and potential risk factors will be collected in successive surveys using standardised questionnaire. This will be completed with data on dust collection (to dust mite and endotoxin), skin test to most common allergens, stool examinations to helminth and parasites, blood samples (to infection, total and specific IgE, and immunological makers), formaldehyde, physical inspection to diagnoses of eczema, and anthropometric measures. Data on earlier exposures when these children were 0-3 years old are available from a different project. It is expected that knowledge generated may help identify public health interventions that may enable countries in LA to enjoy the benefits of a "modern" lifestyle while avoiding--or minimising--increases in morbidity caused by asthma and allergies.

  3. Longitudinal distribution and parameters of large wood in a Mediterranean ephemeral stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galia, T.; Škarpich, V.; Tichavský, R.; Vardakas, L.; Šilhán, K.

    2018-06-01

    Although large wood (LW) has been intensively studied in forested basins of humid temperate climates, data on LW patterns in different fluvial environments are rather scarce. Therefore, we investigated the dimensions, characteristics, longitudinal distribution, and dynamics of LW along a 4.05-km-long reach of an ephemeral channel typical of European Mediterranean mountainous landscape (Sfakiano Gorge, Crete, Greece). We analysed a total of 795 LW pieces, and the mean observed abundance of LW was generally lower (14.3 m3/ha of active valley floor or 19.6 LW pieces/100 m of stream length) than is usually documented for more humid environments. The number of LW pieces was primarily controlled by trees growing on the valley floor. These living trees acted as important LW supply agents (by tree throws or the supply of individual branches with sufficient LW dimensions) and flow obstructions during large flood events, causing storage of transported LW pieces in jams. However, the downstream transport of LW is probably episodic, and large jams are likely formed only during major floods; after >15 years, we still observed significant imprints of the last major flood event on the present distribution of LW. The geomorphic function of LW in the studied stream can only be perceived to be a spatially limited stabilising element for sediments, which was documented by a few accumulations of coarse clastic material by LW steps and jams.

  4. Parental mediation and cyberbullying - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Grace S; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline; Li, Dongdong

    2014-01-01

    Parents use active and restrictive mediation strategies to guide and regulate children's online participation and the online risks they encounter. However, changes in parental mediation do occur over time and the effectiveness of these strategies on cyberbullying demands for further empirical investigation. The current study addresses these issues with a sample of 1084 students (49% girls) in a longitudinal, three-wave design. Gender differences were tested via multi-group analyses. Longitudinal growth models showed that parental use of both active and restrictive mediation decreased over time. For both types of mediation, the mean rate of change had a significant effect on boys' engagement in cyberbullying, but not for girls. Initial levels of restrictive mediation, but not active mediation, were found to be significantly predictive of cyberbullying in both genders. Girls had higher initial levels of both parental mediation types in comparison to boys. The results reveal that the effectiveness of active and restrictive mediation in relation to students' cyberbullying differs and informs us on gender differences. The implications of these results for parental education in online mediation are discussed.

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Prisoners on Remand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Steen; Sestoft, Dorte; Lillebæk, Tommy

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To compare two levels of stress (solitary confinement (SC) and non-SC) among remand prisoners as to incidence of psychiatric disorders in relation to prevalent disorders. Method: Longitudinal repeated assessments were carried out from the start and during the remand phase of imprisonment....... Both interview-based and self-reported measures were applied to 133 remand prisoners in SC and 95 remand prisoners in non-SC randomly selected in a parallel study design. Results: Incidence of psychiatric disorders developed in the prison was significantly higher in SC prisoners (28%) than in non......-SC prisoners (15%). Most disorders were adjustment disorders, with depressive disorders coming next. Incident psychotic disorders were rare. The difference regarding incidence was primarily explained by level of stress (i.e. prison form) rather than confounding factors. Quantitative measures of psychopathology...

  6. SCI Longitudinal Aging Study: 40 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S; Clark, Jillian M R; Saunders, Lee L

    2015-01-01

    The Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Longitudinal Aging Study was initiated in 1973 and has conducted 8 assessments over the past 40 years. It was designed to help rehabilitation professionals understand the life situation of people with SCI, but it has developed into the most long-standing study of aging and SCI and has resulted in over 50 publications. Our purpose was to provide a detailed history of the study, response patterns, utilization of measures, and a summary of key findings reported in the literature. Five participant samples have been incorporated over the 40 years, with enrollment in 1973, 1984, 1993 (2 samples), and 2003. A total of 2,208 participants have completed 6,001 assessments, with a particularly large number of assessments among those who are more than 40 years post injury (n = 349). The overall results have indicated changing patterns of outcomes over time as persons with SCI age, with some notable declines in participation and health. There has been a survivor effect whereby persons who are more active, well-adjusted, and healthier live longer. This study has several important features that are required for longitudinal research including (a) consistency of follow-up, (b) consistency of measures over time, (c) addition of new participant samples to counteract attrition, and (d) inclusion of a large number of individuals who have reached aging milestones unparalleled in the literature. Data from this study can inform the literature on the natural course of aging with SCI.

  7. Longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogomori, Koji; Takano, Koichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Nakano, Seigo; Nawata, Hideyuki; Yano, Rika; Nishimura, Ryoji; Takita, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was conducted to determine the relationship between the progression of the symptoms and the progression of the brain atrophy. The Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD), developed by Matsuda et al. was used as a method of morphometry to perform the statistical MR image analysis. Thirty-eight patients of AD patients were investigated with VSRAD. These patients were divided into two groups according to the progression of symptoms based on a clinical evaluation. One group was the progress group (20 patients), while the other group was the stable group (18 patients) for comparison. The relationship was investigated between the speed of the symptomatic progression and the change in each VSRAD indicator. Consequently, the entorhinal Z-score and the entorhinal atrophy rate showed a correlation with the speed of the symptomatic progression. The increase of the entorhinal Z-score in the follow-up was larger in the progress group than that in the stable group (0.65/1.28 years in the progress group and 0.05/1.26 years in the stable group.). These results suggest that a rapid symptomatic progression in an AD patient accompanies the rapid progression of atrophy in the entorhinal cortex. (author)

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  9. Response rates and selection problems, with emphasis on mental health variables and DNA sampling, in large population-based, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of adolescents in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Lars

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection bias is a threat to the internal validity of epidemiological studies. In light of a growing number of studies which aim to provide DNA, as well as a considerable number of invitees who declined to participate, we discuss response rates, predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA, and the presence of possible selection bias, based on five samples of adolescents. Methods We included nearly 7,000 adolescents from two longitudinal studies of 18/19 year olds with two corresponding cross-sectional baseline studies at age 15/16 (10th graders, and one cross-sectional study of 13th graders (18/19 years old. DNA was sampled from the cheek mucosa of 18/19 year olds. Predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA were studied by Poisson regression. Selection bias in the follow-up at age 18/19 was estimated through investigation of prevalence ratios (PRs between selected exposures (physical activity, smoking and outcome variables (general health, mental distress, externalizing problems measured at baseline. Results Out of 5,750 who participated at age 15/16, we lost 42% at follow-up at age 18/19. The percentage of participants who gave their consent to DNA provision was as high as the percentage that consented to a linkage of data with other health registers and surveys, approximately 90%. Significant predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA samples in the present genetic epidemiological study were: male gender; non-western ethnicity; postal survey compared with school-based; low educational plans; low education and income of father; low perceived family economy; unmarried parents; poor self-reported health; externalized symptoms and smoking, with some differences in subgroups of ethnicity and gender. The association measures (PRs were quite similar among participants and all invitees, with some minor discrepancies in subgroups of non-western boys and girls. Conclusions Lost to

  10. Response rates and selection problems, with emphasis on mental health variables and DNA sampling, in large population-based, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of adolescents in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjertness, Espen; Sagatun, Ase; Green, Kristian; Lien, Lars; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Selmer, Randi

    2010-10-12

    Selection bias is a threat to the internal validity of epidemiological studies. In light of a growing number of studies which aim to provide DNA, as well as a considerable number of invitees who declined to participate, we discuss response rates, predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA, and the presence of possible selection bias, based on five samples of adolescents. We included nearly 7,000 adolescents from two longitudinal studies of 18/19 year olds with two corresponding cross-sectional baseline studies at age 15/16 (10th graders), and one cross-sectional study of 13th graders (18/19 years old). DNA was sampled from the cheek mucosa of 18/19 year olds. Predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA were studied by Poisson regression. Selection bias in the follow-up at age 18/19 was estimated through investigation of prevalence ratios (PRs) between selected exposures (physical activity, smoking) and outcome variables (general health, mental distress, externalizing problems) measured at baseline. Out of 5,750 who participated at age 15/16, we lost 42% at follow-up at age 18/19. The percentage of participants who gave their consent to DNA provision was as high as the percentage that consented to a linkage of data with other health registers and surveys, approximately 90%. Significant predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA samples in the present genetic epidemiological study were: male gender; non-western ethnicity; postal survey compared with school-based; low educational plans; low education and income of father; low perceived family economy; unmarried parents; poor self-reported health; externalized symptoms and smoking, with some differences in subgroups of ethnicity and gender. The association measures (PRs) were quite similar among participants and all invitees, with some minor discrepancies in subgroups of non-western boys and girls. Lost to follow-up had marginal impact on the estimated prevalence ratios

  11. The First Assembly Line of Large-longitudinally-welded Steel Pipe in China Went into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bing

    2002-01-01

    @@ On July 27, the first assembly line to produce JCOE large diameter Longitudinally-submerged-arc-welded steel pipe in China, Which is the key homemade equipment project of "West-East Gas Transmission"project, was put into production. Chen Gen, vice general manager of CNPC; Xie Zhiqiang and Liu Haisheng, assistant chief manager of CNPC; Shi Xingquan, vice president of PetroChina; and the president of Itochu-Marubeni Steel & iron Co., Ltd.of Japan; attended the opening ceremony and cut the ribbon.

  12. Shapes related to longitudinal studies of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark

    investigated four different proximity markers which lead to significantly improved marker values between NC and AD after correction for whole brain and hippocampus volume. Based on the different proximity markers we have chosen the surface connectivity marker that gave the best separation to investigate......This dissertation investigates novel markers for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both CVD and AD are among the large diseases counted in morbidity and mortality in the western world, which makes them huge and increasing problems. By investigating and learning....... The first part of this dissertation studies the growth patterns of atherosclerotic calcified deposits in the lumbar aorta based on x-ray images over an 8-year time period. We have been able to find simple growth patterns that explain how the calcifications evolve. The calcifications grew on average 41 % (p...

  13. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  14. Empathy and Extracurricular Involvement in Emerging Adulthood: Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Undergraduate College Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Flege, Matthew; Thompson, Martie P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index Perspective Taking subscale scores for male college students in a 2008-2011 longitudinal study at a large public university in the Southeast. Findings suggest that empathy is amenable to change among college males in the period of emerging adulthood. Through repeated measures analyses…

  15. Drug Exposure Opportunities and Use Patterns among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…

  16. Inconsistency in large pharmacogenomic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; El-Hachem, Nehme; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul

    2013-01-01

    Two large-scale pharmacogenomic studies were published recently in this journal. Genomic data are well correlated between studies; however, the measured drug response data are highly discordant. Although the source of inconsistencies remains uncertain, it has potential implications for using...

  17. Longitudinal follow-up of individual white matter hyperintensities in a large cohort of elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillard, Pauline; Crivello, Fabrice; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie [Universite de Caen, Universite Paris Descartes, Centre d' Imagerie-Neurosciences et Applications aux Pathologies, CI-NAPS, UMR6232, CNRS, CEA, GIP Cyceron, Caen (France); Dufouil, Carole; Tzourio, Christophe [INSERM, Neuroepidemiologie U708, Paris (France); Mazoyer, Bernard [Universite de Caen, Universite Paris Descartes, Centre d' Imagerie-Neurosciences et Applications aux Pathologies, CI-NAPS, UMR6232, CNRS, CEA, GIP Cyceron, Caen (France); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France); CHU, GIP Cyceron, Caen (France)

    2009-04-15

    We report on a method for the longitudinal follow-up of individual white matter hypersignals (WMH) and on its application to the study of WMH natural evolution in a cohort of 1,118 elderly over a 4-year period. For each subject, automated WMH detection was performed on T2-weighted MR images acquired both at baseline and at follow-up after registration in a common space. The detection algorithm was designed both to track WMH previously existing at baseline and to identify newly formed WMH. The average annual change in WMH load was found to be 0.25 cm{sup 3}/year, 36% of this change being attributable to newly formed WMH. Quantitative analyses showed that change in WMH was mainly explained by progression of juxtaventricular and periventricular WMH while the load of WMH in the deep white matter zones was found stable over 4 years of the study. Statistical parametric mapping confirmed these spatial WMH change distributions in the juxta- and periventricular zones. High blood pressure was not a significant predictor of the annual change in WMH. This study proposes a new scheme for the longitudinal study of WMH change by dissociating worsening of existent WMH from surfacing of new WMH and may thus contribute to help understanding and characterizing the neurological and etiological bases of these two processes and their potential differences. (orig.)

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Usability in Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We report from a longitudinal laboratory-based usability evaluation of a health care information system. The purpose of the study was to inquire into the nature of usability problems experienced by novice and expert users, and to see to what extend usability problems of a health care information...... system may or may not disappear over time, as the nurses get more familiar with it-if time heals poor design? As our method for studying this, we conducted a longitudinal study with two key studies. A usability evaluation was conducted with novice users when an electronic patient record system was being......, we discuss implications for evaluating usability in health care....

  19. Evaluations of treatment efficacy of depression from perspective of both patients' symptoms and general sense of mental health and wellbeing: A large scale, multi-centered, longitudinal study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qingzhi; Wang, Wei Chun; Fang, Yiru; Mellor, David; Mccabe, Marita; Byrne, Linda; Zuo, Sai; Xu, Yifeng

    2016-07-30

    Relying on the absence, presence of level of symptomatology may not provide an adequate indication of the effects of treatment for depression, nor sufficient information for the development of treatment plans that meet patients' needs. Using a prospective, multi-centered, and observational design, the present study surveyed a large sample of outpatients with depression in China (n=9855). The 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17) and the Remission Evaluation and Mood Inventory Tool (REMIT) were administered at baseline, two weeks later and 4 weeks, to assess patients' self-reported symptoms and general sense of mental health and wellbeing. Of 9855 outpatients, 91.3% were diagnosed as experiencing moderate to severe depression. The patients reported significant improvement over time on both depressive symptoms and general sense after 4-week treatment. The effect sizes of change in general sense were lower than those in symptoms at both two week and four week follow-up. Treatment effects on both general sense and depressive symptomatology were associated with demographic and clinical factors. The findings indicate that a focus on both general sense of mental health and wellbeing in addition to depressive symptomatology will provide clinicians, researchers and patients themselves with a broader perspective of the status of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Longitudinal Study of a 5th Grade Science Curriculum Based on the 5E Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Timothy P.; Schroeder, Carolyn; Tolson, Homer; Huang, Tse-Yang; Williams, Omah M.

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Mathematics and Science Education at Texas A&M University contracted with Region 4 Education Service Center (ESC) and a large, diverse school district to conduct a longitudinal study from 2005-2009. The state achievement test scores of 5th graders who were taught using a Grade 5 science textbook designed by Region 4 ESC were…

  1. What Happens to a Nursing Home Chain When Private Equity Takes Over? A Longitudinal Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Harrington, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed what happens to a nursing home chain when private equity takes over, with regard to strategy, financial performance, and resident well-being. We conducted a longitudinal (2000-2012) case study of a large nursing home chain that triangulated qualitative and quantitative data from 5

  2. The contingency of intermedia agenda setting: a longitudinal study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Walgrave, S.

    2008-01-01

    This large-scale study investigates how intermedia agenda-setting effects are moderated by five factors: (1) lag length; (2) medium type; (3) language/institutional barriers; (4) issue type; and (5) election or non-election context. Longitudinal analyses of daily attention to twenty-five issues in

  3. Person-Organization (Culture) Fit and Employee Commitment under Conditions of Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…

  4. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF MUSICALLY GIFTED SCHOOLGIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana N. Loseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to consider the empirical aspects of the development of musical gifted schoolgirls in vocal and choral activities.Methods. Scientific methods of research (observation, questionnaire, interview, formative experiment, longitude, testing are used. Data are analyzed using a complex of psychodiagnostic techniques: culture and free intelligence test by R. Cattell; the modified creative test by F. Williams; personal multifactorial questionnaire by R. Cattell. The reliability of the results and the validity of the findings is provided by the use of reliable and proven in the domestic and foreign psychology methods and techniques, using different statistical methods of data processing, the definition of parametric and non-parametric statistical tests (Student’s t-criterion, Spearman’s rank correlation, criterion U-Mann – Whitney, criterion T-Wilcoxon, L-criterion trends Page.Results and scientific novelty. Results of longitudinal research of development of musical aptitude are presented. Experimental work in which schoolgirls of 8–15 years participated, was carried out on the basis of creative choral collectives of Irkutsk within three years. Features of development of the pupils who are engaged in singing are revealed. It is established that in process of development of specially developed program (comprehension of emotional and semantic aspects of perception of a piece of music, finding of ability to distinguish musical timbres and the general coloring of sounding etc. analytical and intonation hearing improves under pupils’ age. Regular long singing trainings promote formation of cogitative operations: active development of divergent, rational and logical thinking and intelligence in general, and also acquisition of skills of a self-assessment. Besides, such occupations dispose children and teenagers to emotional responsiveness and spiritual self-improvement.Practical significance. The research

  5. [Information management in multicenter studies: the Brazilian longitudinal study for adult health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Vigo, Álvaro; Hernandez, Émerson; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Ahlert, Hubert; Bergmann, Kaiser; Mota, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Information management in large multicenter studies requires a specialized approach. The Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) has created a Datacenter to enter and manage its data system. The aim of this paper is to describe the steps involved, including the information entry, transmission and management methods. A web system was developed in order to allow, in a safe and confidential way, online data entry, checking and editing, as well as the incorporation of data collected on paper. Additionally, a Picture Archiving and Communication System was implemented and customized for echocardiography and retinography. It stores the images received from the Investigation Centers and makes them available at the Reading Centers. Finally, data extraction and cleaning processes were developed to create databases in formats that enable analyses in multiple statistical packages.

  6. A longitudinal study of language learners’ images about Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Larisa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies in the field of applied linguistics have explored images held by language learners about a target language country. However, for the most part, these studies focused on learners of modern European languages, such as German, Spanish and French and they were conducted in Western educational contexts. Besides, none of the previous investigations attempted to conduct a systematic classification of the language learners’ images. The present longitudinal study addressed these gaps in the research literature. It explored images about Russia held by Malaysian learners of the Russian language in a large university in East Malaysia. This article reports the findings of three questionnaire surveys conducted in 2004, 2007 and 2010. It was found that the images about Russia held by the participants were diverse and clustered around eight countryrelated aspects. Content of some categories of images was stable and changed little over time. Other categories were more fluid and more prone to change. The paper concludes with a discussion of pedagogical implications that can be derived from the findings.

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Gender-Related Cognition and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour…

  8. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

    2012-01-01

    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of School Districts' Sustained Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…

  10. Unemployment and psychological distress among graduates: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study which addresses the relationship between unemployment and psychological distress in Dutch technical college graduates is presented. Two samples were studied: sample 1 (N = 635) consisted of students leaving technical college and sample 2 (N = 487) consisted of technical college

  11. A longitudinal study of tooth erosion in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aidi, H.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Incidence studies on tooth erosion among adolescents are scarce. This longitudinal study aimed at estimating the prevalence, incidence, progression, and distribution of erosion in young adolescents over a 1.5-year period. Erosion at baseline was present in 32.2% of the 622 children (mean age, 11.9

  12. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1980-06-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  13. Longitudinal coupled-bunch instability studies in the PS

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H

    2017-01-01

    The main longitudinal limitation for LHC-type beams inthe PS are coupled-bunch instabilities. A dedicated proto-typefeedbacksystemusingaFinemetcavityasalongitudinalkicker has been installed. Extensive tests with beam havebeen performed to explore the intensity reach with this feed-back. The maximum intensity with nominal longitudinalemittance at PS extraction has been measured, as well as theemittance required to keep the beam longitudinally stableat the design intensity for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A higher-harmonic cavity is a complementary op-tion to extend the intensity reach beyond the capabilities ofthe coupled-bunch feedback. Preliminary machine develop-ment (MD) studies operating one20MHzor one40MHzRF system as a higher harmonic at the flat-top indicate thebeneficial effect on longitudinal beam stability

  14. Longitudinal study of prognostic factors in established periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtei, E E; Dunford, R; Hausmann, E; Grossi, S G; Powell, J; Cummins, D; Zambon, J J; Genco, R J

    1997-02-01

    Numerous indicators for disease progression have been described in the last decade. The purpose of this study was to examine, longitudinally, a large battery of clinical, microbiological, and immunological indicators, to try to determine whether the presence of one or a combination of these parameters at baseline, would correlate positively with increased attachment and or bone loss (true prognostic factors). Following initial screening, 79 patients with established periodontitis were monitored longitudinally for one year. Whole mouth clinical measurements, plaque gingival and calculus indices, together with pocket depth and attachment level measurements, were repeated every three months. Full mouth radiographic survey, performed at baseline and 12 months, served to determine changes in crestal bone height using an image enhancement technique. Subgingival plaque samples were taken at baseline and every 3 months. Immunofluorescence assays were performed for the a battery of target microorganisms. Serum and GCF samples for IgG subclasses analysis were obtained at each visit and assayed using ELISA techniques. Likewise blood, samples were also drawn at each visit for a quantitative analysis of serum cotinine level. The overall mean attachment loss (AL) and bone loss (BL) were almost identical (0.159 mm and 0.164 mm, respectively). Individual patients variation was large (-0.733 to +1.004 mm). An overall 6.89% of sites were active; individual patients' means ranged from 0-28.9%. Mean pocket depth (PD) showed minimal change over the study period (-0.033 mm) thus suggesting that most if not all the AL was accompained by concomitant gingival recession. Smokers exhibited greater AL and radiographic BL compared to non-smokers. Likewise, patients' cotinine level showed direct correlation with outcomes of progressive periodontal breakdown. Past severity of periodontal involvement, as reflected in the patients baseline PD, AL and crestal bone height, showed good correlation

  15. Predictors of workplace violence among ambulance personnel: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; van der Meulen, Erik

    2016-04-01

    To examine predictors of repeated confrontations with workplace violence among ambulance personnel, the proportion of exposure to potentially traumatic events that are aggression-related and to what extent personnel was able to prevent escalations. Although previous research assessed the prevalences among this group, little is known about predictors, to what extent PTE's are WPV-related and their abilities to prevent escalations. A longitudinal study with a 6 months' time interval ( N  =   103). At T1 demographics, workplace violence and potentially traumatic events in the past year, mental health, personality, handling of rules, coping and social organizational stressors were assessed. Confrontations with aggression were also examined at T2. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that only problems with superiors independently predicted repeated verbal aggression and that only the (absence of the) ability to compromise very easily predicted repeatedly being on guard and repeatedly confronted with any form of aggression. Due to very low prevalences, we could not examine predictors of repeated confrontations with physical aggression ( N  =   5) and serious threat ( N  =   7). A large majority reported that in most workplace violence cases they could prevent further escalations. About 2% reported a potentially traumatic event in the year before T1 that was WPV related and perceived as very stressful.

  16. Accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia : A longitudinal pattern recognition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G.; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  17. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia : A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  18. Stages of Headship: A Longitudinal Study of the Principalship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindling, Dick

    This paper uses socialization theory to re-examine a unique, 10-year longitudinal study of headteachers so as to describe the stages of headship transition. It outlines prior models of leadership succession in both business and schools and produces a stage theory of headship that can be used not only as a research tool, but also as a way to assist…

  19. A Longitudinal Study Assessing the Microsoft Office Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.; McGinnis, Denise; Slauson, Gayla Jo; Snyder, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains a four-year longitudinal study of the assessment process for a Microsoft Office skills course. It examines whether there is an increase in students' knowledge based on responses to pre- and post-surveys that asked students to evaluate how well they can do particular tasks. Classical classroom teaching methods were used in the…

  20. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  1. Experimental study of the longitudinal instability for beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, M.; Wang, J.G.; Guo, W.M.; Wang, D.X.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical model for beam longitudinal instability in a transport pipe with general wall impedance is considered. The result shows that a capacitive wall tends to stabilize the beam. The experimental study of the instability for a pure resistive-wall is presented, including the design parameters, setup and components for the experiment. 6 refs., 3 figs

  2. Procedural justice and prisoners’ mental health problems: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, K.A.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. Aim The aims of this

  3. Monitoring of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecher, K.; Bilardo, C. M.; Stigter, R. H.; Ville, Y.; Hackelöer, B. J.; Kok, H. J.; Senat, M. V.; Visser, G. H.

    2001-01-01

    To describe the time sequence of changes in fetal monitoring variables in intrauterine growth restriction and to correlate these findings with fetal outcome at delivery. This was a prospective longitudinal observational multicenter study on 110 singleton pregnancies with growth-restricted fetuses

  4. A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of obesity in Egyptian children with nocturnal enuresis and the association between body mass index and ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... Response to the treatment was evaluated statistically and correlated with body mass index percentile.

  5. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  6. Always connected: a longitudinal field study of mobile communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, O.; Ben Allouch, Soumaya

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-five novice users of a new mobile communication device were closely tracked for a period of three months. The results of this longitudinal field study show that people’s motivations for using mobile communication technology are initially influenced more strongly by their perceptions about the

  7. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  8. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  9. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  10. A Longitudinal Study on Learner Career Advancement in MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Paquette, Luc; Baker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present progress towards a longitudinal study of the post-course career advancement of MOOC learners. We present initial results and analysis plans for how to link this to in-course behaviour, towards better understanding the goals of all MOOC learners.

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Consumer Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschis, George P.; Moore, Roy L.

    A study examined the effects of factors (including television, family, peers, age, and socioeconomic status) on consumer socialization, the process by which individuals develop consumption-related cognitions and behaviors. The specific criterion variables studied included consumer affairs knowledge, puffery filtering, consumer finance management,…

  12. Natural course of behavioral addictions: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Woodin, Erica M; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J

    2015-01-22

    Resolving the theoretical controversy on the labeling of an increasing number of excessive behaviors as behavioral addictions may also be facilitated by more empirical data on these behavioral problems. For instance, an essential issue to the classification of psychiatric disorders is information on their natural course. However, longitudinal research on the chronic vs. episodic nature of behavioral addictions is scarce. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to provide data on prevalence, substance use comorbidity, and five-year trajectories of six excessive behaviors-namely exercising, sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, video gaming, and eating. Analyses were based on the data of the Quinte Longitudinal Study, where a cohort of 4,121 adults from Ontario, Canada was followed for 5 years (2006 to 2011). The response rate was 21.3%, while retention rate was 93.9%. To assess the occurrence of each problem behavior, a single self-diagnostic question asked people whether their over-involvement in the behavior had caused significant problems for them in the past 12 months. To assess the severity of each problem behavior reported, the Behavioral Addiction Measure was administered. A mixed design ANOVA was used to investigate symptom trajectories over time for each problem behavior and whether these symptom trajectories varied as a function of sex. The large majority of people reported having problematic over-involvement for just one of these behaviors and just in a single time period. A main effect of time was found for each problem behavior, indicating a moderately strong decrease in symptom severity across time. The time x sex interaction was insignificant in each model indicating that the decreasing trend is similar for males and females. The data also showed that help seeking was very low in the case of excessive sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, and video gaming but substantially more prevalent in the case of excessive eating and

  13. A longitudinal study of age-related changes in intraocular pressure: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2014-09-02

    To examine the longitudinal association between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean men and women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 274,064 young and middle-aged Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings, following them from January 1, 2002, to February 28, 2010. Health exams were scheduled annually or biennially. At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes using automated noncontact tonometers. The longitudinal change in IOP with age was evaluated using three-level mixed models for longitudinal paired-eye data, accounting for correlations between paired eyes and repeated measurements over time. In fully adjusted models, the average longitudinal change in IOP per 1-year increase in age was -0.065 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.068 to -0.063), with marked sex differences (P < 0.001). In men, the average annual IOP change was -0.093 mm Hg (95% CI -0.096 to -0.091) throughout follow-up. In women, the average annual IOP change was -0.006 mm Hg (95% CI -0.010 to -0.003), with a relatively flat association in the age range of 30 to 59 years and more marked annual decreases at younger and older ages. Intraocular pressure was inversely associated with age in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health-screening visits. For men, this inverse association was observed throughout the entire age range, while for women it was evident only in younger (<30 years of age) and older (≥60 years of age) women, with no association in women aged 30 to 59. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to reconsider cutoffs for defining high IOP by age and sex groups in Asian populations. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  14. Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Landais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(- genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design.

  15. Large scale nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of large scale nuclear structure studies are reported. The starting point is the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov solution with angular momentum and proton and neutron number projection after variation. This model for number and spin projected two-quasiparticle excitations with realistic forces yields in sd-shell nuclei similar good results as the 'exact' shell-model calculations. Here the authors present results for a pf-shell nucleus 46 Ti and results for the A=130 mass region where they studied 58 different nuclei with the same single-particle energies and the same effective force derived from a meson exchange potential. They carried out a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov variation after mean field projection in realistic model spaces. In this way, they determine for each yrast state the optimal mean Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov field. They apply this method to 130 Ce and 128 Ba using the same effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. (Auth.)

  16. Longitudinal MRI studies of brain morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    High resolution MR images acquired at multiple time points of the brain allow quantification of localized changes induced by external factors such as maturation, ageing or disease progression/recovery. High-dimensional warping of such MR images incorporates changes induced by external factors...... into the accompanying deformation field. Deformation fields from high dimensional warping founds tensor based morphometry (TBM), and provides unique opportunities to study human brain morphology and plasticity. In this thesis, specially adapted image processing streams utilizing several image registration techniques...... to characterize differences between brains, demonstrate the versatility and specificity of the employed voxel-wise morphometric methods. More specifically TBM is used to study neurodegenerative changes following severe traumatic brain injuries. Such injuries progress for months, perhaps even years postinjury...

  17. Personality, Schizophrenia, and Violence: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candini, Valentina; Ghisi, Marta; Bottesi, Gioia; Ferrari, Clarissa; Bulgari, Viola; Iozzino, Laura; Boero, Maria Elena; De Francesco, Alessandra; Maggi, Paolo; Segalini, Beatrice; Zuccalli, Vanessa; Giobbio, Gian Marco; Rossi, Giuseppe; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2017-07-31

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate the presence of clinically significant personality traits and personality disorders (PD) in patients living in residential facilities, with or without a history of violence (69 and 46, respectively); and (b) to investigate any associations between clinically significant personality traits and PDs, aggression, impulsivity, hostility, and violent behavior during a 1-year follow-up. The most frequent primary diagnoses were schizophrenia (58.3%) and PD (20.9%). Those with a history of violence demonstrated more antisocial and alcohol dependence features and lower depressive PD symptoms than the control group. Hostility levels, antisocial symptoms, and drug dependence, as well as a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II diagnosis of PD, predicted aggressive and violent behavior during follow-up. The study confirms the relevance of assessing PDs both to evaluate the risk of violent behavior and to plan appropriate preventive and treatment intervention.

  18. Accounting for dropout reason in longitudinal studies with nonignorable dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Camille M; MaWhinney, Samantha; Forster, Jeri E; Carlson, Nichole E; Allshouse, Amanda; Wang, Xinshuo; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Conway, Brian; Connick, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    Dropout is a common problem in longitudinal cohort studies and clinical trials, often raising concerns of nonignorable dropout. Selection, frailty, and mixture models have been proposed to account for potentially nonignorable missingness by relating the longitudinal outcome to time of dropout. In addition, many longitudinal studies encounter multiple types of missing data or reasons for dropout, such as loss to follow-up, disease progression, treatment modifications and death. When clinically distinct dropout reasons are present, it may be preferable to control for both dropout reason and time to gain additional clinical insights. This may be especially interesting when the dropout reason and dropout times differ by the primary exposure variable. We extend a semi-parametric varying-coefficient method for nonignorable dropout to accommodate dropout reason. We apply our method to untreated HIV-infected subjects recruited to the Acute Infection and Early Disease Research Program HIV cohort and compare longitudinal CD4 + T cell count in injection drug users to nonusers with two dropout reasons: anti-retroviral treatment initiation and loss to follow-up.

  19. Neuropathologic Studies of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Richard J.; Resnick, Susan M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crain, Barbara J.; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Iacono, Diego; Riudavets, Miguel A.; Driscoll, Ira; Price, Donald L.; Martin, Lee J.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging and from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (ADRC). Since then, 211 subjects have undergone autopsy. Here we review the key clinical neuropathological correlations from this autopsy series. The focus is on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in normal aging, and the early neuropathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We highlight the combined clinical, pathologic, morphometric, and biochemical evidence of asymptomatic AD, a state characterized by normal clinical evaluations in subjects with abundant AD pathology. We conclude that in some individuals, successful cognitive aging results from compensatory mechanisms that occur at the neuronal level (i.e., neuronal hypertrophy and synaptic plasticity) whereas a failure of compensation may culminate in disease. PMID:19661626

  20. Plasma HVA in psychiatric patients: longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, J I; Sharma, R P; Janicak, P G; Davis, J M

    1990-01-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) was measured in 40 inpatients (25 schizophrenic and 15 nonschizophrenic patients) who underwent up to 3 weeks of drug washout. Schizophrenic patients were then treated with trifluoperazine for 4 weeks, and weekly behavioral and pHVA measures were obtained. The baseline pHVA had no relationship to age, sex, washout period, diagnosis, or behavioral rating scores. In schizophrenic patients, the baseline pHVA did not differ significantly from any value obtained during 4 weeks of treatment. Although there was significant improvement in clinical symptoms, this was not related to changes in pHVA. Further, changes in any of the four Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) factors (i.e., positive symptoms, negative symptoms, hostility/suspicion, or anxiety/depression) were not correlated with changes in pHVA. Although other studies have reported a positive correlation between pHVA and psychotic symptoms, results of this study suggest that any observed relationship between pHVA and psychosis must be carefully interpreted.

  1. Psychological characteristics of chronic depression: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E; van Oppen, Patricia; van Schaik, Digna J F; van der Does, A J Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the importance of psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. Knowledge about psychological differences between chronically depressed persons and nonchronically depressed persons may help to improve treatment of chronic depression. This is the first study to simultaneously compare in large samples various psychological characteristics between chronically depressed and nonchronically depressed adults. Baseline data were drawn from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), an ongoing longitudinal cohort study aimed at examining the long-term course of depressive and anxiety disorders in different health care settings and phases of illness. Participants were aged 18 to 65 years at the baseline assessment in 2004-2007 and had a current diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (N = 1,002). Chronicity of depression was defined as being depressed for 24 months or more in the past 4 to 5 years. The chronicity criterion was fulfilled by 31% (n = 312). The NEO Five-Factor Inventory measured the 5 personality domains, the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity-Revised was used to measure cognitive reactivity (eg, hopelessness, rumination), and the Mastery Scale measured external locus of control. Compared to the nonchronically depressed persons, the chronically depressed persons reported significantly higher levels of neuroticism (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.55-2.12; P testing these variables multivariably, the odds of chronic depression were significantly increased among those with low extraversion (OR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.88; P = .001), high rumination (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.53; P = .04), and high external locus of control (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.21-1.80; P psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. These findings provide suggestions for more specific interventions, focused on extraversion, rumination, and external locus of control, in the treatment of chronic depression. © Copyright 2011

  2. Large aspect ratio tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Sardella, C.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) investigated the potential for producing a viable long burn tokamak reactor through enhanced volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer by employing high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were accessed in the context of extended burn operation. Plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed using a one-dimensional transport code. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the field in the ohmic heating coil and the wave shape of the ohmic heating discharge. A high aspect ratio reference reactor was chosen and configured

  3. Joint studies on large CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ikhwan; Yu, S. K. W.

    1994-01-01

    from economic, safety and strategic viewpoints. A large number of research and development programs are now in place at AECL and KAERI that will permit substantial improvements to be realized in the next generation of CANDU okabts, Furthermore, opportunities exist for engineered improvements based on the research and development in advancing the generic CANDU Technology. Final Large CANDU joint study report with technical deliverables will be issued 1994 October. Phase 2 R and D program of the joint studies will be determined this year and implemented in next year. CANDU neutron economy permits versatility in choices of fuel cycles. This allows a utility to choose fuel cycle options for lower fuelling cost, better security of supply, and ultimately for much lower spent-fuel volume, than with PWR's alone. To meet Korea's strategic requirements, CANDU should be an integral part of the electricity supply mix.

  4. Predictors of workplace violence among ambulance personnel: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    van der Velden, Peter G.; Bosmans, Mark W.G.; van der Meulen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim To examine predictors of repeated confrontations with workplace violence among ambulance personnel, the proportion of exposure to potentially traumatic events that are aggression-related and to what extent personnel was able to prevent escalations. Although previous research assessed the prevalences among this group, little is known about predictors, to what extent PTE’s are WPV-related and their abilities to prevent escalations. Design A longitudinal study with a 6 months’ time ...

  5. Weaving leadership longitudinally: a qualitative study on faculty development

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore if faculty who undertake teacher preparation, which has a leadership intervention across each module, are better prepared to take on educational leadership roles. Methods A cross sectional qualitative approach was used as part of a longitudinal evaluation of a program. The aim was to explore the perceptions of a purposive sample across three cohorts of students. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and were analyzed by thema...

  6. Longitudinal study on reciprocity between personality traits and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress—including both parents’ feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents—were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis revealed that in case of both mothers and fathers, neuroticism at age 33 predicted high parenting stress, and extraversion at age 33 predicted low paren...

  7. Longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E.; Cho, Y.; Harkay, K.; Symon, K.

    1995-01-01

    Results from longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron designed for a 1-MW spallation source are presented. The machine delivers a proton beam of 0.5 mA time-averaged current at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The accelerator is designed to have radiation levels that allow hands-on-maintenance. However, the high beam intensity causes strong space charge fields whose effects may lead to particle loss and longitudinal instabilities. The space charge fields modify the particle distribution, distort the stable bucket area and reduce the rf linear restoring force. Tracking simulations were conducted to analyze the space charge effects on the dynamics of the injection and acceleration processes and means to circumvent them. The tracking studies led to the establishment of the injected beam parameters and rf voltage program that minimized beam loss and longitudinal instabilities. Similar studies for a 10-GeV synchrotron that uses the 2-GeV synchrotron as its injector are also discussed

  8. Examining Procrastination Across Multiple Goal Stages: A Longitudinal Study of Temporal Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Steel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Procrastination is among the most common of motivational failures, putting off despite expecting to be worse off. We examine this dynamic phenomenon in a detailed and realistic longitudinal design (Study 1 as well as in a large correlational data set (N = 7400; Study 2. The results are largely consistent with temporal motivation theory. People’s pacing style reflects a hyperbolic curve, with the steepness of the curve predicted by self-reported procrastination. Procrastination is related to intention-action gaps, but not intentions. Procrastinators are susceptible to proximity of temptation and to the temporal separation between their intention and the planned act; the more distal, the greater the gap. Critical self-regulatory skills in explaining procrastination are attention control, energy regulation and automaticity, accounting for 74% of the variance. Future research using this design is recommended, as it provides an almost ideal blend of realism and detailed longitudinal assessment.

  9. Examining Procrastination Across Multiple Goal Stages: A Longitudinal Study of Temporal Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Piers; Svartdal, Frode; Thundiyil, Tomas; Brothen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Procrastination is among the most common of motivational failures, putting off despite expecting to be worse off. We examine this dynamic phenomenon in a detailed and realistic longitudinal design (Study 1) as well as in a large correlational data set ( N = 7400; Study 2). The results are largely consistent with temporal motivation theory. People's pacing style reflects a hyperbolic curve, with the steepness of the curve predicted by self-reported procrastination. Procrastination is related to intention-action gaps, but not intentions. Procrastinators are susceptible to proximity of temptation and to the temporal separation between their intention and the planned act; the more distal, the greater the gap. Critical self-regulatory skills in explaining procrastination are attention control, energy regulation and automaticity, accounting for 74% of the variance. Future research using this design is recommended, as it provides an almost ideal blend of realism and detailed longitudinal assessment.

  10. Trajectories of electrons with large longitudinal momenta in the phase plane during surfatron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mkrtichyan, G. S., E-mail: hay-13@mail.ru [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    The trajectories of electrons with large longitudinal momenta in the phase plane in the course of their surfatron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave propagating in space plasma across the external magnetic field are analyzed. Electrons with large longitudinal momenta are trapped immediately if the initial wave phase Ψ(0) on the particle trajectory is positive. For negative values of Ψ(0), no electrons trapping by the wave is observed over the available computational times. According to numerical calculations, the trajectories of trapped particles in the phase plane have a singular point of the stable focus type and the behavior of the trajectory corresponds to the motion in a complex nonstationary effective potential well. For some initial phases, electrons are confined in the region of the accelerating electric field for relatively short time, the energy gain being about 50–130% and more.

  11. Residents' perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, Rebecca; Lee, Joseph; Hillier, Loretta M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore family medicine residents' perceptions of a newly restructured integrated longitudinal curriculum. A purposeful sample of 16 family medicine residents participated in focus group interviews conducted from a grounded theory perspective to identify the characteristics of this training model that contribute to and that challenge learning. Eight key themes were identified: continuity of care, relevance to family medicine, autonomy, program-focused preparation, professional development as facilitated by role modeling, patient volume, clarity of expectations for learners, and logistics. Positive learning experiences were marked by high levels of autonomy, continuity, and relevance to family medicine. Less favorable learning experiences were characterized by limited opportunities for continuity of care, limited relevance to family medicine practice and unclear expectations for the resident's role. Family physician-led learning experiences contributed to residents' understanding of the full scope of family medicine practice, more so than specialist-led experiences. The logistics of implementing the integrated block were challenging and negatively impacted continuity and learning. This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice.

  12. Fundamental cavity impedance and longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baudrenghien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between beam dynamics and the radio frequency (rf station in circular colliders is complex and can lead to longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities at high beam currents. The excitation of the cavity higher order modes is traditionally damped using passive devices. But the wakefield developed at the cavity fundamental frequency falls in the frequency range of the rf power system and can, in theory, be compensated by modulating the generator drive. Such a regulation is the responsibility of the low-level rf (llrf system that measures the cavity field (or beam current and generates the rf power drive. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC rf was designed for the nominal LHC parameter of 0.55 A DC beam current. At 7 TeV the synchrotron radiation damping time is 13 hours. Damping of the instability growth rates due to the cavity fundamental (400.789 MHz can only come from the synchrotron tune spread (Landau damping and will be very small (time constant in the order of 0.1 s. In this work, the ability of the present llrf compensation to prevent coupled-bunch instabilities with the planned high luminosity LHC (HiLumi LHC doubling of the beam current to 1.1 A DC is investigated. The paper conclusions are based on the measured performances of the present llrf system. Models of the rf and llrf systems were developed at the LHC start-up. Following comparisons with measurements, the system was parametrized using these models. The parametric model then provides a more realistic estimation of the instability growth rates than an ideal model of the rf blocks. With this modeling approach, the key rf settings can be varied around their set value allowing for a sensitivity analysis (growth rate sensitivity to rf and llrf parameters. Finally, preliminary measurements from the LHC at 0.44 A DC are presented to support the conclusions of this work.

  13. SAFT and TOFD evaluation for ultrasonic testing of longitudinal welds in large-diameter pipes; SAFT- und TOFD-Auswertung fuer die Ultraschall-Schweissnahtpruefung von laengsnahtgeschweissten Grossrohren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, Hans; Dillhoefer, Alexander; Spies, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Techno- und Wirtschaftsmathematik ITWM, Kaiserslautern (Germany); Graff, Alfred; Orth, Thomas [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Kersting, Thomas [Europipe GmbH, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany). Werk Muelheim

    2010-07-01

    The authors present a mobile multichannel system for testing of longitudinal welds in large-diameter tubes. The prototype was designed for in situ inspection of longitudinal welds using transversal and longitudinal waves impacting at an angle from both sides in combined SE and IE operation. The reconstruction and imaging software enables SAFT calculations for all surface curves and superposition of the SAFT reconstructions from both sides into a general image of the weld. This includes superposition of the TOFD test data with a suitable evaluation and assessment concept. Details are presented, as are test results on test pieces for validation and on longitudinal welds in large-diameter tubes. (orig.)

  14. I and Us: A Longitudinal Study on the Interplay of Personal and Social Identity in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarello, Flavia; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rubini, Monica

    2018-04-01

    The development of personal and social identity is crucial in adolescence. On the one hand, adolescents face the task of forming and consolidating their personal identity in multiple domains, with educational and interpersonal domains particularly salient. On the other hand, they enlarge their social horizon and increasingly define themselves as members of multiple peer groups, such as groups of classmates and friends met outside school. There is however a lack of integrative research on the interplay among and between personal and social identity processes. Hence the purpose of this study was threefold. First, we examined how personal identity processes in the educational and interpersonal domains are associated longitudinally. Second, we investigated to what extent social identifications with classmates and with the group of friends are associated over time. Third, with an original approach we examined the longitudinal interplay between personal and social identity processes, to connect theoretical contributions that have so far proceeded largely in parallel. Participants were 304 adolescents (61.84% female, M age  = 17.49) involved in a three-wave longitudinal study. We found that (a) the ways in which adolescents develop their identity in the educational and interpersonal domains become more closely intertwined over time; (b) identifications with classmates and with the group of friends are interconnected; and (c) personal and social identity processes are associated both concurrently and longitudinally, with most cross-lagged effects showing that social identifications influence personal identity formation and consolidation in the interpersonal identity domain. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  15. The Job Demands-Job Control Model and absence behaviour : results of a 3-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.G.W.; Nijhuis, F.J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Empirical results of earlier studies only marginally supported the relevance of Karasek's Job Demands-Job Control Model for absence behaviour. Since longitudinal studies with respect to these relations were largely lacking, a four-wave panel study was carried out using data from 1755 male employees

  16. Children in care (CIC): A Danish longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Tine; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe

    This paper presents results describing what characterizes young, Danish children in care and their parents, and, furthermore, discusses social policy implications of the complex psychosocial disadvantages influencing the families. The paper is based on a longitudinal study of all Danish children......, born in 1995, who currently are or formerly have been placed in care. The first data collection was conducted in the spring 2003, where the children were 7-8 years of age. It is the intention to follow up the children every third year during childhood, adolescence, and adult life. At each new data...

  17. A longitudinal study of growth, sex steroids and IGF-1 in boys with physiological gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Raket, Lars Lau; Hagen, Casper P.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physiological gynaecomastia is common and affects a large proportion of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. It is thought to be caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone, though this is rarely evident in analyses of serum. Objective: This study aimed to describe the frequency...... of physiological gynaecomastia, and to determine possible etiological factors (e.g. auxology and serum hormone levels) in a longitudinal set-up. Design, Settings and Participants: A prospective cohort study of 106 healthy Danish boys (5.8–16.4 years) participated in the longitudinal part of “the COPENHAGEN Puberty......, pubertal development and the presence of gynaecomastia were evaluated at each visit. Results: 52 of 106 boys (49 developed gynaecomastia of which 10 (19 presented with intermittent gynaecomastia. Boys with physiological gynaecomastia reached peak height velocity at a significantly younger age than boys who...

  18. Leadership in transformation: a longitudinal study in a nursing organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitala, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Not only does leadership produce changes, but those changes produce leadership in organisations. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical and empirical analysis of the transformation of leadership at two different historical points in a health care organisation. It leans on the perspective of social constructionism, drawing especially from the ideas of Berger and Luckmann (1966). The paper seeks to improve understanding of how leaders themselves construct leadership in relation to organisational change. The empirical material was gathered in a longitudinal case study in a nursing organisation in two different historical and situational points. It consists of written narratives produced by nurse leaders that are analysed by applying discourse analysis. The empirical study revealed that the constructions of leadership were dramatically different at the two different historical and situational points. Leadership showed up as a complex, fragile and changing phenomenon, which fluctuates along with the other organisational changes. The results signal the importance of agency in leadership and the central role of "significant others". The paper questions the traditional categorisation and labelling of leadership as well as the cross-sectional studies in understanding leadership transformation. Its originality relates to the longitudinal perspective on transformation of leadership in the context of a health care organisation.

  19. Changes in gait characteristics of women with early and established medial knee osteoarthritis : Results from a 2-years longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudian, Armaghan; van Dieёn, Jaap H.; Baert, Isabel A.C.; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Faber, Gert S.; Luyten, Frank P.; Verschueren, Sabine M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the large number of cross-sectional studies on gait in subjects with knee osteoarthritis, there are scarcely any longitudinal studies on gait changes in knee osteoarthritis. Methods Gait analysis was performed on 25 women with early and 18 with established medial knee

  20. The Australian longitudinal study on male health-methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Currier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men was established in 2011 to build the evidence base on male health to inform policy and program development. Methods Ten to Men is a national longitudinal study with a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design and oversampling in rural and regional areas. Household recruitment was conducted from October 2013 to July 2014. Males who were aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings were eligible to participate. Data were collected via self-completion paper questionnaires (participants aged 15 to 55 and by computer-assisted personal interview (boys aged 10 to 14. Household and proxy health data for boys were collected from a parent via a self-completion paper-based questionnaire. Questions covered socio-demographics, health status, mental health and wellbeing, health behaviours, social determinants, and health knowledge and service use. Results A cohort of 15,988 males aged between 10 and 55 years was recruited representing a response fraction of 35 %. Conclusion Ten to Men is a unique resource for investigating male health and wellbeing. Wave 1 data are available for approved research projects.

  1. Association between bacterial vaginosis and partner concurrency: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R; Buyze, Jozefien; Klebanoff, Mark; Brotman, Rebecca M

    2018-02-01

    The study aimed to test if there was an association between prevalent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and women reporting that their partner had other partners at the same time (partner concurrency). This association has not been assessed in a longitudinal cohort. The Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora recruited a cohort of 3620 non-pregnant women aged 15-44 years who presented for routine primary healthcare at 12 clinics in Birmingham, Alabama. Behavioural questionnaires and vaginal smears were obtained quarterly for a year and BV was defined by a Nugent score 7 or higher as well as Amsel criteria. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between prevalent BV and reporting that one's partner had other partners in the preceding 3-6 months time interval. Nugent score prevalent BV was associated with both reporting that one's partner definitely (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) and possibly (aOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) engaged in partner concurrency in the preceding 3-6 months time period. Prevalent BV diagnosed by Amsel criteria was similar. A diagnosis of prevalent BV was associated with reporting that one's partner possibly or definitely engaged in partner concurrency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. A longitudinal study of memory advantages in bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Ljungberg

    Full Text Available Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n=178 between 35-70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging.

  3. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  4. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  5. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  6. A longitudinal study of adult foreign language learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Horn, Nynne Thorup; Sørensen, Stine Derdau

    Models of speech learning suggest that adaptations to foreign language sound categories should happen early in the acquisition process. Results from laboratory language training show effects on non-native perception within one to three weeks of training. Results from linguistic immersion studies...... show differences in adaptations when contrasting averages of 1-2 yrs of experience with 6-7 yrs of experience. We investigated this apparent discrepancy in a longitudinal study on Danish language officer cadets learning either Arabic (MSA and Egyptian dialect) or Dari (Afghan Farsi) through intensive...... (emphatic frication) and a phonemic Dari contrast (fricative voicing) as stimuli for both groups. We saw an effect of learning on the Dari learners’ identification of the Dari stimuli already after three weeks of language training, which was sustained, but not improved, after six and 20 months. The extents...

  7. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS.

  8. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Irgens-Hansen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy′s (RNoN vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226. STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports. This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS.

  9. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2009-05-27

    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  10. Gastrocnemius muscle contracture after spinal cord injury: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diong, Joanna; Harvey, Lisa A; Kwah, Li Khim; Clarke, Jillian L; Bilston, Lynne E; Gandevia, Simon C; Herbert, Robert D

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in passive length and stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit in people after spinal cord injury. In a prospective longitudinal study, eight wheelchair-dependent participants with severe paralysis were assessed 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. Passive torque-angle data were obtained as the ankle was slowly rotated through range at six knee angles. Differences in passive ankle torque-angle data recorded at different knee angles were used to derive passive length-tension curves of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit. Ultrasound imaging was used to determine fascicle and tendon contributions to the muscle-tendon unit length-tension curves. The participants had ankle contractures (mean [SD] maximum passive ankle dorsiflexion angle, 88 [9] degrees) 3 mos after spinal cord injury. Ankle range did not worsen significantly during the subsequent 9 mos (mean change, -5 degrees; 95% confidence interval, -16 to 6 degrees). There were no changes in the mean slack length or the stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit or in the slack lengths of the fascicles or the tendon between 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. There were no consistent patterns of the change in slack length or stiffness with the changes in ankle range in the data from the individual participants. This study, the first longitudinal study of muscle length and stiffness after spinal cord injury, showed that the length and the stiffness of the gastrocnemius did not change substantially between 3 and 12 mos after injury.

  11. Adult Attachment, Social Self-Efficacy, Self-Disclosure, Loneliness, and Subsequent Depression for Freshman College Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Russel, Daniel W.; Zakalik, Robyn A.

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether social self-efficacy and self-disclosure serve as mediators between attachment and feelings of loneliness and subsequent depression. Participants were 308 freshmen at a large Midwestern university. Results indicated that social self-efficacy mediated the association between attachment anxiety and feelings…

  12. Hours in non-parental child care are related to language development in a longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, M.P.C.M.; Linting, M.; Henrichs, J.; Herba, C.M.; Verhage, M.L.; Schenk, J.J.; Arends, L.R.; Raat, H.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.; Van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effects of child care services on several domains of child development have been extensively investigated, but evidence regarding the effects of child care on language development remains inconclusive. Methods: Within a large-scale population-based study, we examined the longitudinal

  13. Preschool Affects Longer Term Literacy and Numeracy: Results from a General Population Longitudinal Study in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhuish, Edward; Quinn, Louise; Sylva, Kathy; Sammons, Pam; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The Effective Pre-school Provision in Northern Ireland (EPPNI) project is a longitudinal study of child development from 3 to 11 years. It is one of the first large-scale UK projects to investigate the effects of different kinds of preschool provision, and to relate experience in preschool to child development. In EPPNI, 683 children were randomly…

  14. Confounding adjustment through front-door blocking in longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Sjölander

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A common aim of epidemiological research is to estimate the causal effect of a particular exposure on a particular outcome. Towards this end, observed associations are often ‘adjusted’ for potential confounding variables. When the potential confounders are unmeasured, explicit adjustment becomes unfeasible. It has been demonstrated that causal effects can be estimated even in the presence of umeasured confounding, utilizing a method called ‘front-door blocking’. In this paper we generalize this method to longitudinal studies. We demonstrate that the method of front-door blocking poses a number of challenging statistical problems, analogous to the famous problems associ- ated with the method of ‘back-door blocking’.

  15. [Autoaggression and pulse rate--a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmann, U H; Elbing, U; Hartmann, H

    1988-12-01

    This article presents a model of autoaggressive behavior in which a distinction is made between determining and maintaining factors. Specific environmental, in particular social, and organismic variables are linked to them. The two types of variables interact, thus causing or maintaining autoaggressive behavior. A theory of autoaggression must therefore rely on multicausal/multimodal explanations. A connection between autoaggression and a high level of arousal suggests itself. In this single-case longitudinal study a comparison was made between heart rate and frequency of autoaggressive behavior. High heart rates were found to be correlated with low frequencies of autoaggressive behavior and vice versa. Decreasing autoaggressive behavior was coupled with increasing muscle relaxation and increasing motor activity. However, abnormally high heart rates were associated with both low and high levels of motor activity.

  16. The ONS Longitudinal Study--a prestigious past and a bright future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Shayla; Newman, Jim

    2010-01-01

    place for analysis.The other ONS LS-based articles and reports in this edition largely focus on research into issues related to families and households, as summarised below: A collaborative project involving Ben Wilson (ONS) and Rachel Stuchbury (CeLSIUS) comparing the stability of partnerships involving marriage and cohabitation.A project looking at transitions in children's experience of living in a workless household and how this varies by ethnic group, submitted by Lucinda Platt (Institute for Social & Economic Research, University of Essex).An article on the effect of a change in the census definition of a child between 1991 and 2001 submitted by Emily Grundy, Rachel Stuchbury and Harriet Young (CeLSIUS).The remainder of this introductory article will focus on the ONS LS, its history and some examples of its use, and gives a summary of planned developments over the coming years. Please refer to the contact details at the end of the article if you require further information on any of the three longitudinal studies.

  17. Longitudinal study of body composition in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roop Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone mass loss and muscle atrophy are the frequent complications occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI. The potential risks involved with these changes in the body composition have implications for the health of the SCI individual. Thus, there is a need to quantitate and monitor body composition changes accurately in an individual with SCI. Very few longitudinal studies have been reported in the literature to assess body composition and most include relatively small number of patients. The present prospective study aimed to evaluate the body composition changes longitudinally by DEXA in patients with acute SCI. Materials and Methods: Ninety five patients with acute SCI with neurological deficits were evaluated for bone mineral content (BMC, body composition [lean body mass (LBM and fat mass] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during the first year of SCI. Results: There was a significant decrease in BMC ( P < 0.05 and LBM ( P < 0.05 and increase in total body fat mass (TBFM and percentage fat at infra-lesional sites. The average decrease was 14.5% in BMC in lower extremities, 20.5% loss of LBM in legs and 15.1% loss of LBM in trunk, and increase of 0.2% in fat mass in legs and 17.3% increased fat in the lower limbs at 1 year. The tetraplegic patients had significant decrease in arm BMC ( P < 0.001, arm LBM ( P < 0.01 and fat percentage ( P < 0.01 compared to paraplegics. Patients with complete motor injury had higher values of TBFM and fat percentage, but comparable values of BMC and LBM to patients with incomplete motor injury. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is a marked decrease in BMC and LBM with increase in adiposity during the first year of SCI. Although these changes depend on the level and initial severity of lesions, they are also influenced by the neurological recovery after SCI.

  18. Importance of Collateralization in Patients With Large Artery Intracranial Occlusive Disease: Long-Term Longitudinal Assessment of Cerebral Hemodynamic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa McKetton

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with large artery intracranial occlusive disease (LAICOD are at risk for both acute ischemia and chronic hypoperfusion. Collateral circulation plays an important role in prognosis, and imaging plays an essential role in diagnosis, treatment planning, and prognosis of patients with LAICOD. In addition to standard structural imaging, assessment of cerebral hemodynamic function is important to determine the adequacy of collateral supply. Among the currently available methods of assessment of cerebral hemodynamic function, measurement of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD MRI and precisely controlled CO2 has shown to be a safe, reliable, reproducible, and clinically useful method for long-term assessment of patients. Here, we report a case of long-term follow-up in a 28-year-old Caucasian female presented to the neurology clinic with a history of TIAs and LAICOD of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA. Initial structural MRI showed a right MCA stenosis and a small right coronal radiate lacunar infarct. Her CVR study showed a large area of impaired CVR with a paradoxical decrease in BOLD signal with hypercapnia involving the right MCA territory indicating intracerebral steal. The patient was managed medically with anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy and was followed-up for over 9 years with both structural and functional imaging. Cortical thickness (CT measures were longitudinally assessed from a region of interest that was applied to subsequent time points in the cortical region exhibiting steal physiology and in the same region of the contralateral healthy hemisphere. In the long-term follow-up, the patient exhibited improvement in her CVR as demonstrated by the development of collaterals with negligible changes to CT. Management of patients with LAICOD remains challenging since no revascularization strategies have shown efficacy except in patients with moyamoya disease. Management is well

  19. Importance of Collateralization in Patients With Large Artery Intracranial Occlusive Disease: Long-Term Longitudinal Assessment of Cerebral Hemodynamic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetton, Larissa; Venkatraghavan, Lakshmikumar; Poublanc, Julien; Sobczyk, Olivia; Crawley, Adrian P; Rosen, Casey; Silver, Frank L; Duffin, James; Fisher, Joseph A; Mikulis, David J

    2018-01-01

    Patients with large artery intracranial occlusive disease (LAICOD) are at risk for both acute ischemia and chronic hypoperfusion. Collateral circulation plays an important role in prognosis, and imaging plays an essential role in diagnosis, treatment planning, and prognosis of patients with LAICOD. In addition to standard structural imaging, assessment of cerebral hemodynamic function is important to determine the adequacy of collateral supply. Among the currently available methods of assessment of cerebral hemodynamic function, measurement of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI and precisely controlled CO 2 has shown to be a safe, reliable, reproducible, and clinically useful method for long-term assessment of patients. Here, we report a case of long-term follow-up in a 28-year-old Caucasian female presented to the neurology clinic with a history of TIAs and LAICOD of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). Initial structural MRI showed a right MCA stenosis and a small right coronal radiate lacunar infarct. Her CVR study showed a large area of impaired CVR with a paradoxical decrease in BOLD signal with hypercapnia involving the right MCA territory indicating intracerebral steal. The patient was managed medically with anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy and was followed-up for over 9 years with both structural and functional imaging. Cortical thickness (CT) measures were longitudinally assessed from a region of interest that was applied to subsequent time points in the cortical region exhibiting steal physiology and in the same region of the contralateral healthy hemisphere. In the long-term follow-up, the patient exhibited improvement in her CVR as demonstrated by the development of collaterals with negligible changes to CT. Management of patients with LAICOD remains challenging since no revascularization strategies have shown efficacy except in patients with moyamoya disease. Management is well defined for acute

  20. Parent and Child Cigarette Use: A Longitudinal, Multigenerational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Using longitudinal data from the multigenerational Youth Development Study (YDS), this article documents how parents’ long-term smoking trajectories are associated with adolescent children’s likelihood of smoking. Prospective data from the parents (from age 14–38 years) enable unique comparisons of the parents’ and children’s smoking behavior, as well as that of siblings. METHODS: Smoking trajectories are constructed using latent class analysis for the original YDS cohort (n = 1010). Multigenerational longitudinal data from 214 parents and 314 offspring ages 11 years and older are then analyzed by using logistic regression with cluster-corrected SEs. RESULTS: Four latent smoking trajectories emerged among the original cohort: stable nonsmokers (54%), early-onset light smokers who quit/reduce (16%), late-onset persistent smokers (14%), and early-onset persistent heavy smokers (16%). Although 8% of children of stable nonsmokers smoked in the last year, the other groups’ children had much higher percentages, ranging from 23% to 29%. Multivariate logistic regression models confirm that these significant differences were robust to the inclusion of myriad child- and parent-level measures (for which child age and grade point average [GPA] are significant predictors). Older sibling smoking, however, mediated the link between parental heavy smoking and child smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Even in an era of declining rates of teenage cigarette use in the United States, children of current and former smokers face an elevated risk of smoking. Prevention efforts to weaken intergenerational associations should consider parents’ long-term cigarette use, as well as the smoking behavior of older siblings in the household. PMID:23918887

  1. Chronic pain in multiple sclerosis: A 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jamie; Amatya, Bhasker; Galea, Mary P; Khan, Fary

    2017-07-01

    Pain is a common symptom associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and has lasting effects on an individual's functional capacity and quality of life. A wide range of prevalence rates of pain (between 23% and 90%)have been reported in MS and this is mainly due to the methodological differences amongst the studies such as variability in patient sources, method of sampling and the definition of pain used. Chronic pain in MS, defined as pain lasting for greater than 3-6 months, can have a significant impact on their biopsychosocial health, including negative impact on activities of daily living, relationships and social participation. The long-term course of MS-related pain and its impact in an Australian cohort over a 7-year period has been investigated earlier. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. This was a prospective longitudinal study conducted at the Rehabilitation Department of Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH), a tertiary referral hospital in Victoria and Australia. The source of participants was from the RMH MS database and contains detailed MS patient information including demographic data, diagnosis details (using McDonald's criteria), pain characteristics. Structured face-face interviews and validated measures were used, which include the visual analogue scale (VAS); chronic pain grade (CPG); the assessment of quality of life (AQoL) and the carer strain index (CSI). The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The findings show that over time (10 years), participants report having greater bilateral bodily pain and greater description of pain as 'worse

  2. Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L.; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents mutlilevel findings on adolescents’ victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severe victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent amongst children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was re-victimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  3. Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Specific effects of word decoding, vocabulary and listening comprehension abilities on the development of reading comprehension were longitudinally examined for a representative sample of 2143 Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. An attempt was made to test two theoretical

  4. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Guadalupe X

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively; however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]. For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on

  5. Studies of the longitudinal instability with an electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Goals for our first-year period are as follows: To study the evolution of a small perturbation in the current pulse (introduced via the grid voltage on the electron gun) when the beam propagates through our 5-m long periodic solenoid channel. Specifically, to see if the perturbation is reflected from the rear end of the pulse. So far these objectives have been met without any delays. We were able to launch different perturbations on the beam resulting in either a slow space-charge wave or a fast wave or both waves. The relative strength of each wave was found to depend on the electron emission temperature of the cathode. The propagation of these waves on an initially rectangular longitudinal beam profile was measured with fast current monitors and the kinetic energy was measured with sensitive energy analyzers at various positions along the 5-m long solenoidal focusing channel. We have also begun to study the behavior of the waves when they reach the respective edge of the beam. But this work is still of a preliminary nature, and we need to refine the beam conditions and measurements in future studies to reach any firm conclusions. Preparations for the resistive-wall instability experiment are in progress

  6. Becoming a mental health nurse; A three year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Wells

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal case series study explores how students’ conceptions of ‘mental health nursing’ changed whilst on a three-year pre-registration Mental Health Nursing programme. The study was carried out in two university nursing schools in the South East of England and this paper reports a detailed analysis of 6 individual case studies. The researchers utilised Novak’s approach to concept mapping to elicit students’ personal knowledge structures, which were explored further using semi-structured individual qualitative interviews. The maps were analysed by looking at their gross morphology to interpret changes over time into types of learning achieved and the associated interview data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results from analysis of the map structures suggest that whilst four of the selected students learned deeply, one participant learned superficially and one appeared not to learn at all. The associated interview data provides an interesting insight into the students’ reflective narratives on the process of learning. The findings also demonstrate further evidence of the practicability of using Novakian concept maps to self-prompt qualitative research interviews. Implications for the professional education of Mental Health Nurses are discussed.

  7. Clustering of unhealthy behaviors in the aerobics center longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Mariane; Janssen, Ian; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Hebert, James R; Blair, Steven N

    2012-04-01

    Clustering of unhealthy behaviors has been reported in previous studies; however the link with all-cause mortality and differences between those with and without chronic disease requires further investigation. To observe the clustering effects of unhealthy diet, fitness, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption in adults with and without chronic disease and to assess all-cause mortality risk according to the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Participants were 13,621 adults (aged 20-84) from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Four health behaviors were observed (diet, fitness, smoking, and drinking). Baseline characteristics of the study population and bivariate relations between pairs of the health behaviors were evaluated separately for those with and without chronic disease using cross-tabulation and a chi-square test. The odds of partaking in unhealthy behaviors were also calculated. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to assess clustering. Cox regression was used to assess the relationship between the behaviors and mortality. The four health behaviors were related to each other. LCA results suggested that two classes existed. Participants in class 1 had a higher probability of partaking in each of the four unhealthy behaviors than participants in class 2. No differences in health behavior clustering were found between participants with and without chronic disease. Mortality risk increased relative to the number of unhealthy behaviors participants engaged in. Unhealthy behaviors cluster together irrespective of chronic disease status. Such findings suggest that multi-behavioral intervention strategies can be similar in those with and without chronic disease.

  8. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  9. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  10. Longitudinal associations between depression and problematic substance use in the Youth Partners in Care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKowen, James W; Tompson, Martha C; Brown, Timothy A; Asarnow, Joan R

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale treatment studies suggest that effective depression treatment and reduced depression are associated with improved substance use outcomes. Yet information is limited regarding the longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and problematic substance use and its predictors, particularly in real-world practice settings. Using latent growth modeling, we examined the (a) longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and problematic substance use, (b) impact of depressive symptoms on problematic substance use, (c) impact of problematic substance use on depressive symptoms, and (d) role of co-occurring symptoms on depression and problematic substance use. Participants were part of the Youth Partners in Care study, an effectiveness trial evaluating a quality improvement intervention for youth depression through primary care. This ethnically diverse sample included youths aged 13 to 21 years screening positive for depression from 5 health care organizations. Participants were followed 4 times over an 18-month period and assessed for both depressive symptoms and problematic substance use. Both depressive symptoms and problematic substance use declined over time. Higher baseline depressive symptoms predicted a slower decline in problematic substance use, but baseline problematic substance use did not predict changes in depressive symptoms. These prospective associations remained robust controlling for co-occurring symptoms. Results support prior large-scale depression studies indicating depression burden negatively impacts substance use outcome and extends these findings to real-world practice settings. Findings underscore the importance of addressing depression severity in youth with concurrent substance use problems, even in the context of comorbid symptoms of anxiety, delinquency, and aggression.

  11. Indicadores precoces da dislexia de desenvolvimento: um estudo longitudinal || Early indicators of dyslexia: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A dislexia do desenvolvimento é frequentemente diagnosticada quando os problemas na aprendizagem da leitura já afetaram negativamente outras áreas académicas e até o bem-estar emocional. A pesquisa internacional aponta para a existência de alguns preditores desta perturbação da aprendizagem, permitindo uma intervenção atempada e preventiva. No entanto, as diferenças relativas ao código ortográfico do Português Europeu não nos permitem tirar ilações de estudos realizados noutros contextos linguísticos. Com este problema em mente, desenvolvemos um estudo longitudinal que pretende destacar os preditores da dislexia em crianças portuguesas. A investigação seguiu um plano longitudinal ao longo de três anos e os resultados obtidos junto de uma amostra de 200 crianças permitem identificar a existência de poder preditivo em duas variáveis: no conhecimento que a criança tem do nome das letras e no seu desempenho em tarefas de fluência verbal, mostrando a influência que os fatores relativos às dificuldades na aquisição do princípio alfabético e no acesso ao léxico terão na manifestação posterior de problemas na aquisição da leitura.

  12. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  13. Childhood predictors of adult adiposity: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine Fh; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M; Carter, Frances A

    2018-03-23

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has become a key challenge for New Zealand. The purpose of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for adult adiposity in a longitudinal birth cohort. Data were gathered from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977. Associations were examined between socio-demographic background, perinatal factors, infant and child characteristics, family functioning/child maltreatment and adiposity at ages 30 and 35 years. Adiposity was assessed using body mass index scores. At ages 30 and 35, approximately one-third of cohort members were overweight and one-fifth were obese. Generalised estimating equation models showed that statistically significant (p<.05) predictors of later adiposity and overweight/obesity were: male gender, being born into a single-parent family, having parents with larger body size, higher early infant growth, limited or no breastfeeding, lower levels of cognitive ability and exposure to severe sexual abuse. Overweight and obesity was associated with social and family background, biological endowment, cognitive ability and childhood adversity factors. These findings may assist in the development of structured adiposity intervention programmes in conjunction with established community organisations specialising in child and family health.

  14. Interpersonal social responsibility model of service learning: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orit; Daniely, Noa; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira

    2018-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is commonly used in Occupational Therapy (OT) programs worldwide as a community placement educational strategy. However, most SL models are not clearly defined in terms of both methodology and learning outcomes. This longitudinal study explores a structured model of Service-Learning (Interpersonal Social Responsibility-Service Learning: ISR-SL) aimed towards the development of professional identity among OT students. Based on OT students experiences from the end of the course through later stages as mature students and professionals. A qualitative research design was used to explore the perceptions and experiences of 150 first, second, and third-year OT students and graduates who have participated in ISR-SL during their first academic year. Our findings suggest that the structured, long-term relationship with a person with a disability in the natural environment, which is the core of the ISR-SL, allowed students to develop a professional identity based on seeing the person as a whole and recognizing his/her centrality in the therapeutic relationship. This study suggests ISR-SL as future direction or next step for implementing SL in OT and other healthcare disciplines programs.

  15. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  16. Intellectual development in Noonan syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Renée L; Janssen, Nikki; Wingbermühle, Ellen; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2016-07-01

    Although cognitive impairments in adults with Noonan syndrome seem to be limited to a low-average intelligence and slower processing speed, studies in children with Noonan syndrome have demonstrated more extensive cognitive problems. These include deficits in language skills, memory, attention, and executive functioning. This longitudinal study is the first to investigate intellectual development in a group of individuals with Noonan syndrome. Sixteen patients with Noonan syndrome underwent intelligence assessment both in childhood and in adulthood, using Wechsler's intelligence scales. IQ scores and Wechsler standard scores achieved in childhood and adulthood were compared. Subsequently, verbal and performance IQ in childhood were used as predictors for adult IQ and index scores. Compared with childhood scores, adult full-scale IQ and performance IQ significantly increased. Adult performance IQ was higher than verbal IQ. Childhood performance IQ and verbal IQ together predicted all adult IQ and index scores, except for the processing speed index. Childhood IQ was a significant predictor of adult intelligence in patients with Noonan syndrome. Performance IQ advanced to a normal level in adulthood, while verbal IQ did not develop proportionately, resulting in a discrepancy between adult performance IQ and verbal IQ. This finding could suggest a delay in the development of executive functioning in patients with Noonan syndrome, which seems to be outgrown in adulthood.

  17. Whole grain intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Janice E; Newby, P K; Bakun, Peter J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-02-01

    Our objective was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains and to describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary information was collected with 7-d food records from men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, mean age 62.1 +/- 16.0 years, who participated in the dietary assessment portion of the study (n = 1516), and estimates of whole grain intake were obtained from a newly developed database. The Pyramid Servings database and 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) recipe ingredients database were then used to calculate both servings and gram weights of whole grain intakes. Mean intakes of whole grains, refined grains, and total grains, as well as frequency of intake for major whole grain food groups and whole grain content for each group, were calculated. Top contributors of whole grains were ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (made with whole grain as well as bran), hot breakfast cereals (made with whole grain), multi-grain bread, and whole wheat bread. While more research is needed to better understand the benefits of whole grains, the development of research tools, including databases to accurately assess whole grain intake, is a critical step in completing such research.

  18. From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizink, A C; Menting, B; De Moor, M H M; Verhage, M L; Kunseler, F C; Schuengel, C; Oosterman, M

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child's early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were used from 1073 women participating in the Dutch longitudinal cohort Generations 2 , which studies first-time pregnant mothers during pregnancy and across the transition to parenthood. Women filled out the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire-revised (PRAQ-R), and Beck Depression Index (BDI) three times during pregnancy: at 12, 22, and 32 weeks gestational age. Three months postpartum, a parenting stress questionnaire was filled out yielding seven different parenting constructs. Latent scores were computed for each of the repeatedly measured maternal mood variables with Mplus and parenting stress constructs were simultaneously regressed on these latent scores. Results showed that trait anxiety and pregnancy-specific anxiety were uniquely related to almost all parenting stress constructs, taking depression into account. Early prevention and intervention to reduce maternal anxiety in pregnancy could hold the key for a more advantageous trajectory of early postnatal parenting.

  19. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Knowles

    Full Text Available The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification, and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  20. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  1. Orotracheal intubation and temporomandibular disorder: a longitudinal controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Branco Battistella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder in elective surgery patients who underwent orotracheal intubation. METHODS: This was a longitudinal controlled study with two groups. The study group included patients who underwent orotracheal intubation and a control group. We used the American Academy of Orofacial Pain questionnaire to assess the temporomandibular disorder signs and symptoms one-day postoperatively (T1, and the patients' baseline status prior to surgery (T0 was also recorded. The same questionnaire was used after three months (T2. The mouth opening amplitude was measured at T1 and T2. We considered a pvalue of less than 0.05 to be significant. RESULTS: We included 71 patients, with 38 in the study group and 33 in the control. There was no significant difference between the groups in age (study group: 66.0 [52.5-72.0]; control group: 54.0 [47.0-68.0]; p = 0.117 or in their belonging to the female gender (study group: 57.9%; control group: 63.6%; p = 0.621. At T1, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the incidence of mouth opening limitation (study group: 23.7% vs. control group: 18.2%;p = 0.570 or in the mouth opening amplitude (study group: 45.0 [40.0-47.0] vs. control group: 46.0 [40.0-51.0];p = 0.278. At T2 we obtained similar findings. There was no significant difference in the affirmative response to all the individual questions in the American Academy of Orofacial Pain questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: In our population, the incidence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder of muscular origin was not different between the groups.

  2. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia: A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-06-01

    Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used support vector regression, a supervised machine learning technique, to address this question. In a longitudinal sample of 341 schizophrenia patients and 386 healthy subjects with one or more structural MRI scans (1,197 in total), machine learning algorithms were used to build models to predict the age of the brain and the presence of schizophrenia ("schizophrenia score"), based on the gray matter density maps. Age at baseline ranged from 16 to 67 years, and follow-up scans were acquired between 1 and 13 years after the baseline scan. Differences between brain age and chronological age ("brain age gap") and between schizophrenia score and healthy reference score ("schizophrenia gap") were calculated. Accelerated brain aging was calculated from changes in brain age gap between two consecutive measurements. The age prediction model was validated in an independent sample. In schizophrenia patients, brain age was significantly greater than chronological age at baseline (+3.36 years) and progressively increased during follow-up (+1.24 years in addition to the baseline gap). The acceleration of brain aging was not constant: it decreased from 2.5 years/year just after illness onset to about the normal rate (1 year/year) approximately 5 years after illness onset. The schizophrenia gap also increased during follow-up, but more pronounced variability in brain abnormalities at follow-up rendered this increase nonsignificant. The progressive brain loss in schizophrenia appears to reflect two different processes: one relatively homogeneous, reflecting accelerated aging of the brain and related to various measures of outcome, and a more variable one, possibly reflecting individual variation and

  3. Ecstasy use and depression: a 4-year longitudinal study among an Australian general community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amanda M; Olesen, Sarah; Tait, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Longitudinal, population-based studies can better assess the relationship of ecstasy use with depression. We examined whether change in ecstasy use was associated with change in depressive symptoms/probable depression over a 4-year period, among a large Australian sample. The Personality and Total Health project is a longitudinal general community study of Australians from Canberra and Queanbeyan. Data from the youngest cohort when aged 24-30 (N = 2, 128) and 4 years later (N = 1, 977) was included. The Goldberg depression scale and the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire measured depressive symptoms and probable depression, respectively. Multilevel growth models also considered demographics, psychosocial characteristics, and other drug use. Ecstasy use was not associated with long-term depressive symptoms or greater odds of depression in multivariate analyses. Users had more self-reported depressive symptoms when using ecstasy compared to not using. However, differences between people who had and had not ever used ecstasy largely accounted for this. Other factors were more important in the prediction of depression. It would be premature to conclude that ecstasy use is not related to the development of long-term depressive symptoms, given the relatively low level of ecstasy and other drug use in this community sample. Results showed that other factors need to be considered when investigating ecstasy use and depression.

  4. Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averbukh Zhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients.

  5. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  6. Mild traumatic brain injury and fatigue: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrie, Joan; Heitger, Marcus; Leathem, Janet; Anderson, Tim; Jones, Richard; Flett, Ross

    2010-01-01

    To examine fatigue prevalence, severity, predictors and co-variates over 6 months post-mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Longitudinal prospective study including 263 adults with MTBI. Participants completed the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPSQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Short Form 36 Health Survey-Version 2 (SF-36v2). Complete data were available for 159 participants. Key measures; prevalence--RPSQ Item 6: severity--FSS. The effect of time on fatigue prevalence and severity was examined using ANOVA. Multiple regression analysis identified statistically significant covariates. Post-MTBI fatigue prevalence was 68%, 38% and 34% at 1 week, 3 and 6 months, respectively. There was a strong effect for time over the first 3 months and moderate-to-high correlations between fatigue prevalence and severity. Early fatigue strongly predicted later fatigue; depression, but not anxiety was a predictor. Fatigue was seen as laziness by family or friends in 30% of cases. Post-MTBI fatigue is a persistent post-concussion symptom, exacerbated by depression but not anxiety. It diminishes in the first 3 months and then becomes relatively stable, suggesting the optimum intervention placement is at 3 months or more post-MTBI.

  7. Religiousness, spiritual seeking, and personality: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Paul; Ciciolla, Lucia; Dillon, Michele; Tracy, Allison

    2007-10-01

    The hypothesis that personality characteristics in adolescence can be used to predict religiousness and spiritual seeking in late adulthood was tested using a structural equation modeling framework to estimate cross-lagged and autoregressive effects in a two-wave panel design. The sample consisted of 209 men and women participants in the Berkeley Guidance and Oakland Growth studies. In late adulthood, religiousness was positively related to Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, and spiritual seeking was related to Openness to Experience. Longitudinal models indicated that Conscientiousness in adolescence significantly predicted religiousness in late adulthood above and beyond adolescent religiousness. Similarly, Openness in adolescence predicted spiritual seeking in late adulthood. The converse effect, adolescent religiousness to personality in late adulthood, was not significant in either model. Among women, adolescent Agreeableness predicted late-life religiousness and adolescent religiousness predicted late-life Agreeableness; both these effects were absent among men. Adolescent personality appears to shape late-life religiousness and spiritual seeking independent of early religious socialization.

  8. Executive function influences sedentary behavior: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: No study has evaluated the effects of executive function on follow-up sedentary behavior, which was this study’s purpose. Methods: A longitudinal design was employed among 18 young adult college students (Mage = 23.7 years; 88.9% female. Accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity, along with executive function, were assessed at baseline. Approximately 8 weeks later, re-assessment of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity occurred. Executive function was assessed using the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG computer task. From this, 2 primary executive function outcome parameters were evaluated, including the Simple Rule and Repeating Rule. Results: After adjusting for baseline sedentary behavior, age, gender, body mass index and baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, for every 25% increase in the number of correctly identified targets for the Repeating rule at the baseline assessment, participants engaged in 91.8 fewer minutes of sedentary behavior at the follow-up assessment (β = -91.8; 95% CI: -173.5, -10.0; P = 0.03. Results were unchanged when also adjusting for total baseline or follow-up physical activity. Conclusion: Greater executive function is associated with less follow-up sedentary behavior.

  9. Shifting accountability: a longitudinal qualitative study of diabetes causation accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Julia; Peel, Elizabeth; Parry, Odette; Douglas, Margaret

    2008-07-01

    We undertook a longitudinal qualitative study involving of 20 patients from Scotland who had type 2 diabetes. We looked at their perceptions and understandings of why they had developed diabetes and how, and why, their causation accounts had changed or remained stable over time. Respondents, all of whom were white, were interviewed four times over a 4-year period (at baseline, 6, 12 and 48 months). Their causation accounts often shifted, sometimes subtly, sometimes radically, over the 4 years. The experiential dimensions of living with, observing, and managing their disease over time were central to understanding the continuities and changes we observed. We also highlight how, through a process of removing, adding and/or de-emphasising explanatory factors, causation accounts could be used as "resources" to justify or enable present treatment choices. We use our work to support critiques of social cognition theories, with their emphasis upon beliefs being antecedent to behaviours. We also provide reflections upon the implications of our findings for qualitative research designs and sampling strategies.

  10. The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

  11. Associations Between Statin Use and Physical Function in Older Adults from The Netherlands and Australia: Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam and Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boheemen, Laurette; Tett, Susan E; Sohl, Evelien; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G; van Schoor, Natasja M; Peeters, G M E E

    2016-06-01

    Statin therapy may cause myopathy, but long-term effects on physical function are unclear. We investigated whether statin use is associated with poorer physical function in two population-based cohorts of older adults. Data were from 691 men and women (aged 69-102 years in 2005/2006) in the LASA (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam) and 5912 women (aged 79-84 years in 2005) in the ALSWH (Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health). Statin use and dose were sourced from containers (LASA) and administrative databases (ALSWH). Physical function was assessed using performance tests, questionnaires on functional limitations and the SF-12 (LASA) and SF-36 (ALSWH) questionnaires. Cross-sectional (both studies) and 3-year prospective associations (ALSWH) were analysed for different statin dosage using linear and logistic regression. In total, 25 % of participants in LASA and 61 % in ALSWH used statins. In the cross-sectional models in LASA, statin users were less likely to have functional limitations (percentage of subjects with at least 1 limitation 63.9 vs. 64.2; odds ratio [OR] 0.6; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.3-0.9) and had better SF-12 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 47.3 vs. 44.5; beta [B] = 2.8; 95 % CI 1.1-4.5); in ALSWH, statin users had better SF-36 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 37.4 vs. 36.5; B = 0.9; 95 % CI 0.3-1.5) and physical functioning subscale scores (mean [adjusted] 55.1 vs. 52.6; B = 2.4; 95 % CI 1.1-3.8) than non-users. Similar associations were found for low- and high-dose users and in the prospective models. In contrast, no significant associations were found with performance tests. Two databases from longitudinal population studies in older adults gave comparable results, even though different outcome measures were used. In these two large cohorts, statin use was associated with better self-perceived physical function.

  12. Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salines Georges

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year as well as medical interview (at 2 years and examination (at 6 years. Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development.

  13. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  14. Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Large Truck* Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) is based on a three-year data collection project conducted by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)...

  15. A large-scale study of misophonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, R.; Erfanian, M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aim to elucidate misophonia, a condition in which particular sounds elicit disproportionally strong aversive reactions. Method A large online study extensively surveyed personal, developmental, and clinical characteristics of over 300 misophonics. Results Most participants indicated

  16. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Heise, Megan J; Richey, Eve M; Tong, Xin; Hart, Alyssa; Bray, Paige M

    2017-01-01

    Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3-6), on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children's outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking) significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori preschools is warranted.

  17. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline S. Lillard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3–6, on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children’s outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori

  18. Changes in taste preference after colorectal surgery: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchman, Sophie; Hiotis, Perryhan; Pengelly, Steven; Hughes, Georgina; Halford, Jason; Christiansen, Paul; Lewis, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    Nutrition is a key component of surgical enhanced recovery programmes. However, alterations in food preferences are often reported as reasons for patients not eating in the early postoperative period. We hypothesised that taste preferences are altered in the early postoperative period and this dysgeusia affects patients' food choices during this critical time. This is a longitudinal study looking at taste preferences of patients recovering from surgery. Patients undergoing colonic resections were recruited. Using visual analogue scales participants completed a questionnaire, taste tests and preference scoring of food images for the 6 groups of taste (bitter, salty, savoury, sour, spicy and sweet) preoperatively and on postoperative days 1-3. Patients were also offered snacks postoperatively, which represented foods from the six groups and consumption was measured. Differences from baseline were assessed using the Friedman's and Wilcoxon tests. 31 patients were studied. In the immediate postoperative period participants reported deterioration in their sense of taste (p ≤ 0.001), increased nausea (p palatability for salty taste increased (p = 0.001) following surgery. The highest rated images were for savoury food with only the ratings for salty food increasing after surgery (p foods in the postoperative period. Bitter, sour and spicy foods were the least frequently consumed. This is the first study to investigate postsurgical patients' food preferences. A consistent change in all the individual tastes with the exception of salty in the postoperative period was observed. The most desirable tastes were for savoury and sweet, reflecting patients' preoperative preferences. An improved understanding of taste may improve the resumption of eating after colonic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies of Longitudinal Coupled-Bunch Instabilities in the LHC Injectors Chain

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2087149; Migliorati, M

    Among several challenging objectives of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project, one aim is to double the beam intensity of the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) in order to achieve the integrated luminosity target of the High-Luminosity LHC project. A known limitation to reach the required high intensity is caused by the longitudinal coupled-bunch (CB) oscillations developing above the PS transition energy. The unwanted oscillations induce large bunch-to-bunch intensity variations not compatible with the specifications of the future LHC-type beams. In 2014 a new longitudinal kicker cavity has been installed, the Finemet cavity, as a part of the new digital coupled-bunch feedback (FB) system. The Finemet cavity allows with its large frequency bandwidth, to damp all the expected oscillation modes simultaneously. In the framework of this PhD study the impedance contribution of this equipment has been analyzed starting from the present knowledge of the machine impedance. A model of both the 10 MHz and the Finemet has been ...

  20. Frontoparietal Structural Connectivity in Childhood Predicts Development of Functional Connectivity and Reasoning Ability: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelken, Carter; Ferrer, Emilio; Ghetti, Simona; Bailey, Stephen K; Cutting, Laurie; Bunge, Silvia A

    2017-08-30

    (functional connectivity, FC), and reasoning ability in a large longitudinal sample of subjects 6-22 years of age. We found that greater frontoparietal SC in childhood predicts future increases in both FC and reasoning ability, demonstrating the importance of white matter development during childhood for subsequent brain and cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/378549-10$15.00/0.

  1. Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassady Diana L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55, and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend, season (warm/cool, sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and

  2. Orthodontic treatment stability predictors: A retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernabé, Paloma González-Gil; Montiel-Company, José María; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa; Gandía-Franco, Jose Luis; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    To examine medium- to long-term orthodontic treatment stability and its possible association with certain variables. In a retrospective longitudinal study of 70 postretention patients, the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index was measured at the start (T1) and end (T2) of treatment and between 4 and 10 years afterwards (T3). The stability was considered absolute when the T2 and T3 values were identical and relative when the difference was within the ±5 range. Among the 70 patients, 65.8% were female and 34.2% were male. Their mean age was 14.5 years. The mean treatment length was 2.4 years. The mean retention phase was 3.3 years. The mean pre- and posttreatment PAR scores were 29.8 (T1) and 6.3 (T2). The mean T1-T2 difference was 23.6. The mean T2-T3 difference was -0.39. Within the study, 7.1% presented absolute stability and 68.6% presented relative stability. Lower anterior segment alignment and overbite were the most unstable occlusal features and tended to worsen. Fixed retainer (odds ratio [OR] 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.98) as a protective factor and years without retention (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.03-1.68) as a risk factor are predictor variables of instability in the case of lower anterior segment alignment. The PAR value at the end of treatment (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.08-1.54) and extractions (OR 4.76; 95% CI 1.05-21.6) before treatment are predictors for midline instability.

  3. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  4. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Social Behaviors and Their Causal Relationship to Reading Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Junyeop

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the causal effects of social behaviors on subsequent reading growth in elementary school, using the "Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten" ("ECLS-K") data. The sample was 8,869 subjects who provided longitudinal measures of reading IRT scores from kindergarten (1998-1999) to fifth…

  6. Ultrafast X-ray absorption study of longitudinal-transverse phonon coupling in electrolyte aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Yishuo; Adams, Bernhard W.; Dohn, Asmus Ougaard

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy is applied to study the conversion of longitudinal to transverse phonons in aqueous solution. Permanganate solutes serve as X-ray probe molecules that permit the measurement of the conversion of 13.5 GHz, longitudinal phonons to 27 GHz, transverse phonons...

  7. Changes and Sentiment: A Longitudinal E-Mail Analysis of a Large Design Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Sebastiano; Wilberg, Julian; Lindemann, Udo

    " in emails and study its relation to sentiment. We find that sentiment decreases when problems or changes emerge, and increases when changes are implemented successfully. We discuss the implications of our findings for research and project engineering practice, providing avenues for further work....

  8. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, Christoph C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, Federico; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G.H.A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T M; Valcamonico, A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.; Aktas, Ayse; Borgione, Silvia; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Chaoui, Rabih; Cornette, Jerome M J; Diehl, Thilo; van Eyck, Jim; Fratelli, Nicola; van Haastert, Inge Lot; Johnson, Samantha; Lobmaier, Silvia; Lopriore, Enrico; Mansi, Giuseppina; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Martelli, Paola; Maso, Gianpaolo; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Van Charante, Nico Mensing; De Tollenaer, Susanne Mulder; Moore, Tamanna; Napolitano, Raffaele; Oberto, Manuela; Ogge, Giovanna; van der Post, Joris Am; Preston, Lucy; Raimondi, Francesco; Reiss, Irwin K M; Rigano, Serena; Schuit, Ewoud; Skabar, Aldo; Spaanderman, Marc E.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Zimmermann, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  9. A Chinese Longitudinal Study on Work/Family Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Accounting Students' Ethical Judgement Making Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Saat, Maisarah; Porter, Stacey; Woodbine, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of a moral education programme on the ethical judgement making ability of university students. The programme comprises two forms of intervention: a dedicated ethics course and subsequent practical training. A total of 113 accounting students from six Malaysian universities participated in a longitudinal study…

  11. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  12. Use of social media by Western European hospitals: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Berben, Sivera A A; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-05-01

    Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care.

  13. Electronic cigarette: a longitudinal study of regular vapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2017-06-07

    It is unclear how vaping behaviour changes over time in regular vapers, and what occurs when vapers relapse to smoking or when they stop vaping. We assessed change in vaping and smoking behaviours over 12 months in regular vapers. A longitudinal study of 3868 regular vapers enrolled on the Internet in 2012-2015 ("baseline"), followed after one (n=1631, 42%), three (n=1337, 35%), six (n=1148, 30%) and 12 months (n=893, 23%). Participants had been vaping for a median of five months at baseline. Most (77%) were former smokers, who had not smoked for a median of three months at baseline. Over 12 months, enjoyment gradually became the most frequently cited reason to vape (93%), and vaping to deal with craving for tobacco gradually decreased (from 87% to 56%). In exclusive vapers (ex-smokers), nicotine concentration in e-liquids decreased over time (from 12 to 9 mg/mL), but puffs/day remained stable (200 puffs/day). After 12 months, 9% of 687 former smokers relapsed to smoking and 28% of 64 daily smokers (dual users) stopped smoking. After 12 months, when participants stopped vaping, they tended to relapse to smoking (+18% daily smokers among those who stopped vaping versus -2% in permanent vapers, preasons to vape. Rates of relapse to smoking were low in former smokers and quit rates were high in current smokers. Stopping vaping was associated with relapsing to smoking. Even in established vapers, vaping behaviour and reasons to vape change over time. This should be taken into account by clinicians, manufacturers and regulators. Results from this non-representative sample can help generate hypotheses that can later be tested in representative samples of vapers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Holocaust survivors in old age: the Jerusalem Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessman, Jochanan; Stesssman, Jochanan; Cohen, Aaron; Hammerman-Rozenberg, Robert; Bursztyn, Michael; Azoulay, Daniel; Maaravi, Yoram; Jacobs, Jeremy M

    2008-03-01

    To examine the hypothesis that Holocaust exposure during young adulthood negatively affects physical aging, causing greater morbidity, faster deterioration in health parameters, and shorter survival. A longitudinal cohort study of the natural history of an age-homogenous representative sample born in 1920/21 and living in Jerusalem. Community-based home assessments. Four hundred fifty-eight subjects of European origin aged 70 at baseline and 77 at follow-up. Comprehensive assessment of physical, functional, and psychosocial domains; biographical history of concentration camp internment (Camp), exposure to Nazi occupation during World War II (Exposure), or lack thereof (Controls); and 7-year mortality data from the National Death Registry. Holocaust survivors of the Camp (n=93) and Exposure (n=129) groups were more likely than Controls (n=236) to be male and less educated and have less social support (P=.01), less physical activity (P=.03), greater difficulty in basic activities of daily living (P=.009), poorer self-rated health (P=.04), and greater usage of psychiatric medication (P=.008). No other differences in health parameters or physical illnesses were found. Holocaust survivors had similar rates of deterioration in health and illness parameters over the follow-up period, and 7-year mortality rates were identical. Proportional hazard models showed that being an elderly Holocaust survivor was not predictive of greater 7-year mortality. Fifty years after their Holocaust trauma, survivors still displayed significant psychosocial and functional impairment, although no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that the delayed effects of the trauma of the Holocaust negatively influence physical health, health trajectories, or mortality.

  15. Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. The Delaware Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Janet L.

    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Growth, Sex Steroids, and IGF-1 in Boys With Physiological Gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Rakêt, Lars L; Hagen, Casper P; Nielsen, John E; Talman, Maj-Lis M; Petersen, Jørgen H; Sommer, Stefan H; Main, Katharina M; Jørgensen, Niels; Juul, Anders

    2015-10-01

    Physiological gynecomastia is common and affects a large proportion of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. It is thought to be caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone, although this is rarely evident in analyses of serum. This study aimed to describe the frequency of physiological gynecomastia and to determine possible etiological factors (eg, auxology and serum hormone levels) in a longitudinal setup. A prospective cohort study of 106 healthy Danish boys (5.8-16.4 years) participated in the longitudinal part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. The boys were examined every 6 months during an 8-year follow-up. Median number of examinations was 10 (2-15). Blood samples were analyzed for FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol, SHBG, inhibin B, anti-Müllerian hormone, IGF-1, and IGF binding protein-3 by immunoassays. Auxological parameters, pubertal development, and the presence of gynecomastia were evaluated at each visit. Fifty-two of 106 boys (49%) developed gynecomastia, of which 10 (19%) presented with intermittent gynecomastia. Boys with physiological gynecomastia reached peak height velocity at a significantly younger age than boys who did not develop gynecomastia (13.5 versus 13.9 years, P = .027), and they had significantly higher serum levels of IGF-1 (P = .000), estradiol (P = .013), free testosterone (P Gynecomastia is frequent in pubertal boys. Increased IGF-1 levels and pubertal growth appear to be associated, whereas changes in estrogen to testosterone ratio seem negligible.

  17. Stability and change in adult personality over 6 years: findings from the Victoria Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brent J; Hertzog, Christopher; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    Data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study were used to examine the 6-year longitudinal stability of personality in older adults. Personality was measured with the NEO Personality Inventory. The longitudinal sample consisted of 223 adults initially ranging from 55 to 85 years of age. Longitudinal confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the stability of individual differences in change over time, and the stability of the longitudinal factor structure. The results indicated both substantial stability at the level of individual differences in change, as well as significant individual differences in change that were related to age and gender. Finally, the factor structure of personality was invariant over time but did not approximate simple structure for the five dimensions of personality. Our study of 6-year personality development provided both (a). a confirmation of early significant stability findings and (b). unique evidence for significant individual differences in late adulthood.

  18. Modifiable predictors of insufficient sleep durations: A longitudinal analysis of youth in the COMPASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patte, Karen A; Qian, Wei; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to simultaneously examine commonly proposed risk and protective factors for sleep deprivation over time among a large cohort of Ontario and Alberta secondary school students. Using 4-year linked longitudinal data from youth in years 1 through 4 (Y 1 [2012/2013], Y 2 [2013/2014], Y 3 [2014/2015], Y 4 [2015/2016]) of the COMPASS study (n=26,205), the likelihood of students meeting contemporary sleep recommendations was tested based on their self-reported substance use, bullying victimization, physical activity, and homework and screen time. Models controlled for the effect of student-reported gender, race/ethnicity, grade, school clustering, and all other predictor variables. Relative to baseline, students became less likely to meet the sleep recommendations if at follow-up they had initiated binge drinking, experienced cyber bullying victimization, or were spending more time doing homework, with other factors held constant. The likelihood of reporting sufficient sleep increased if students had begun engaging in resistance training at least three times a week. No longitudinal effect was observed when students increased their caffeine consumption (energy drinks, coffee/tea), initiated cannabis or tobacco use, experienced other forms of bullying victimization (physical, verbal, or belongings), engaged in more moderate-vigorous physical activity, or increased their screen use of any type. Few of the commonly purported modifiable risk and protective factors for youth sleep deprivation held in multinomial longitudinal analyses. Causal conclusions appear premature, with further research required to confirm the targets likely to be most effective in assisting more youth in meeting the sleep recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Longitudinal study of perinatal maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Wang, Panchalli; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-06-01

    to understand the trends in, and relationships between, maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. a prospective longitudinal survey study was undertaken to explore maternal psychological distress throughout the perinatal period. The participants were recruited after 24 completed weeks of gestation, and were followed-up monthly until one month post partum (four surveys in total). participants were recruited from a single hospital in southern Taiwan, and asked to complete questionnaires in the hospital waiting area. inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years, able to read and write Chinese, ≥24 weeks of gestation, singleton pregnancy and no pregnancy complications (including a diagnosis of antenatal depression or anxiety disorder). In total, 197 women completed all four surveys (response rate 74.62%). stress was measured with the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression scale, and anxiety was measured with the Zung Self-reported Anxiety Scale. Participants were followed-up at four time points: T1 (25-29 gestational weeks), T2 (30-34 gestational weeks), T3 (>34 gestational weeks) and T4 (4-6 weeks post partum). Appointments for data collection were made in accordance with the participants' antenatal and postnatal check-ups. The three types of maternal distress had different courses of change throughout the perinatal period, as levels of depressive symptoms remained unchanged, anxiety levels increased as gestation advanced but declined after birth, and stress decreased gradually during pregnancy but returned to the T1 level after birth. There was a low to high degree of correlation in maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. around one-quarter of the study participants had depressive symptoms during pregnancy and post partum. Stress and anxiety showed opposing courses during the perinatal period. Regardless of the

  20. [A school-level longitudinal study of clinical performance examination scores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang Hee

    2015-06-01

    This school-level longitudinal study examined 7 years of clinical performance data to determine differences (effects) in students and annual changes within a school and between schools; examine how much their predictors (characteristics) influenced the variation in student performance; and calculate estimates of the schools' initial status and growth. A school-level longitudinal model was tested: level 1 (between students), level 2 (annual change within a school), and level 3 (between schools). The study sample comprised students who belonged to the CPX Consortium (n=5,283 for 2005~2008 and n=4,337 for 2009~2011). Despite a difference between evaluation domains, the performance outcomes were related to individual large-effect differences and small-effect school-level differences. Physical examination, clinical courtesy, and patient education were strongly influenced by the school effect, whereas patient-physician interaction was not affected much. Student scores are influenced by the school effect (differences), and the predictors explain the variation in differences, depending on the evaluation domain.

  1. Parental Predictors of Children's Shame and Guilt at Age 6 in a Multimethod, Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisette-Sparks, Alyssa; Bufferd, Sara J; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-01-01

    Shame and guilt are self-conscious emotions that begin to develop early in life and are associated with various forms of psychopathology. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to these emotions in young children. Specifically, no longitudinal studies to date have examined a range of parent factors that shape the expression of children's shame and guilt. The current multimethod, longitudinal study sought to determine whether parenting style, parental psychopathology, and parents' marital satisfaction assessed when children were age 3 predict expressions of shame and guilt in children at age 6. A large community sample of families (N = 446; 87.4% Caucasian) with 3-year-old children (45.7% female) was recruited through commercial mailing lists. Parent variables were assessed when children were age 3 with mother- and father-report questionnaires and a diagnostic interview. Children's expressions of shame and guilt were observed in the laboratory at age 6. Fathers', but not mothers', history of depression and permissive parenting assessed when children were age 3 predicted children's expressions of shame and guilt when children were age 6; parents' marital dissatisfaction also predicted children's shame and guilt. These findings suggest that parents, and fathers in particular, contribute to expressions of self-conscious emotions in children. These data on emotional development may be useful for better characterizing the risk and developmental pathways of psychopathology.

  2. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among

  3. Peritoneal Water Transport Characteristics of Diabetic Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana; Ribera-Sanchez, Roi; Rodríguez-Carmona, Ana; López-Iglesias, Antía; Leite-Costa, Natacha; Pérez Fontán, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Volume overload is frequent in diabetics undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), and may play a significant role in the excess mortality observed in these patients. The characteristics of peritoneal water transport in this population have not been studied sufficiently. Following a prospective, single-center design we made cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of peritoneal water transport in 2 relatively large samples of diabetic and nondiabetic PD patients. We used 3.86/4.25% glucose-based peritoneal equilibration tests (PET) with complete drainage at 60 min, for these purposes. We scrutinized 59 diabetic and 120 nondiabetic PD patients. Both samples showed relatively similar characteristics, although diabetics were significantly more overhydrated than nondiabetics. The baseline PET disclosed lower ultrafiltration (mean 439 mL diabetics vs. 532 mL nondiabetics, p = 0.033) and sodium removal (41 vs. 53 mM, p = 0.014) rates in diabetics. One hundred and nine patients (36 diabetics) underwent a second PET after 12 months, and 45 (14 diabetics) underwent a third one after 24 months. Longitudinal analyses disclosed an essential stability of water transport in both groups, although nondiabetic patients showed a trend where an increase in free water transport (p = 0.033) was observed, which was not the case in diabetics. Diabetic patients undergoing PD present lower capacities of ultrafiltration and sodium removal than their nondiabetic counterparts. Longitudinal analyses disclose an essential stability of water transport capacities, both in diabetics and nondiabetics. The clinical significance of these differences deserves further analysis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Study of longitudinal multibunch instabilities for LHC-type beams at the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, Letizia; Migliorati, Mauro; Palumbo, Luigi

    This Master thesis work has been carried out at CERN in the framework of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) Injector upgrade program (LIU). Longitudinal coupled-bunch (CB) oscillations are an important limitation for the high-brightness beam accelerated in the CERN Proton Synchrotron. Up to present intensities they are suppressed by a dedicated feedback system limited to the first two dominant oscillation modes. In view of the proposed installation of a new wide-band FB system in the framework of the LIU program, measurements have been performed on the old system with the aim of dimensioning the new one. A new simulation program, called LCBC ( Longitudinal Coupled Bunch Simulation), has been used to study the behaviour of the CB FB. By means of this code I have started an extensive simulation campaign to benchmark the code with the theory of coupled bunch and to confirm that the 10 MHz cavity system is the main cause of the coupled bunch instabilities in the CERN PS.

  5. Quality of life of elderly individuals receiving literacy training: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Rodrigues dos Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of population aging in Brazil, educational programs directed to young and adult individuals now have to absorb a large number of 60 year old or older individuals. Objectives: Identify the relationships among the variables quality of life, time attending the program, depressive symptoms, and cognitive status; and longitudinally compare the scores concerning the quality of life of these individuals. Method: Descriptive, correlational, comparative, longitudinal and quantitative study. The participants were elderly individuals who attended literacy training provided in a Brazilian city from 2012 to 2014. The instruments to collect data included sociodemographic characterization, the WHOQOL-bref, WHOQOL-old, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, and the Mini Mental State Examination. Results: The participants were predominantly young-elderly women, with low incomes. Scores obtained on the GDS were related with the domains: Physical (p<0.05; Environment (p<0.01; Autonomy (p<0.01, Past, Present and Future Activities (p<0.05, Intimacy (p<0.01; and Social Relationships (p<0.01. The scores concerning cognition were related to the Autonomy domain (p<0.01. The physical domain of quality of life presented significant worsening in 2013 when compared to 2012 (M1=70.23; M2=61.20;M3=62.40. These results cannot be generalized because they concern only elderly individuals receiving literacy training provided in a midsized city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil.

  6. Late life changes in mental health: a longitudinal study of 9683 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Lucy; Byles, Julie E; Chojenta, Catherine; Pachana, Nancy A

    2016-10-01

    To identify latent subgroups of women in late life who are alike in terms of their mental health trajectories. Longitudinal data are for 9683 participants in the 1921-1926 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, who completed at least two surveys between 1999 (aged 73-78 years) and 2008 (aged 82-87 years). Mental health was measured using the five-item mental health inventory (MHI-5). Latent profile analysis uncovered patterns of change in MHI-5 scores. Three patterns of change were identified for women who were still alive in 2008 (n = 7061), and three similar patterns for deceased women (n = 2622): (1) 'poor mental health' representing women with low MHI-5 scores, (2) 'good mental health' and (3) 'excellent' mental health, where scores remained very high. Deceased women had lower mental health scores for each class. Remote areas of residence, higher education, single marital status, higher Body Mass Index (BMI) and falls were the covariates associated with mental health in the survivor group. For the deceased group, education, BMI and falls were significant. Arthritis, stroke, heart disease, bronchitis/emphysema, diabetes and osteoporosis were associated with worse mental health for both groups, while asthma increased these odds significantly for the survivor group only. Hypertension and cancer were not significant predictors of poor mental health. The results show associations between chronic disease and level of mental health in older age, but no evidence of a large decline in mental health in the period prior to death.

  7. Mathematics, Language, and Learning: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary Teachers and Their Mathematics Teaching Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Cathery

    2016-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics has gained increased attention in the last few decades. A growing field of research has studied the programmatic design and development of elementary mathematics teaching in teacher education, however, few studies have examined longitudinally the mathematics teaching of novice elementary teachers. Existing longitudinal studies on elementary mathematics teaching have generally focused on the effects of teacher preparation on their beginning practices and have exam...

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Usability in Health Care - Does Time Heal?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan

    2007-01-01

    for 15 months, we repeated the evaluation. Our aim was to inquire into the nature of usability problems experienced by novice and expert users, and to see to what extend usability problems of a health care information system may or may not disappear over time, as the nurses get more familiar......We report from a longitudinal laboratory-based usability evaluation of a health care information system. A usability evaluation was conducted with novice users when an electronic patient record system was being deployed in a large hospital. After the nurses had used the system in their daily work...... with it – if time heals poor design. On the basis of our study, we present findings on the usability of the electronic patient system as experienced by the nurses at these two different points in time and discuss implications for evaluating usability in health care....

  9. Video Gaming Disorder and Sport and Exercise in Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchoz, Yves; Studer, Joseph; Deline, Stéphane; N'Goran, Alexandra A; Baggio, Stéphanie; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Among the negative consequences of video gaming disorder, decreased participation in sport and exercise has received little attention. This study aimed to assess the longitudinal association between video gaming disorder and the level of sport and exercise in emerging adult men. A questionnaire was completed at baseline and 15-month follow-up by a representative national sample of 4,933 respondents. The seven items of the Game Addiction Scale were used to construct a latent variable representing video gaming disorder. Level of sport and exercise was also self-reported. Cross-lagged path modeling indicated a reciprocal causality between video gaming disorder and the level of sport and exercise, even after adjusting for a large set of confounders. These findings support the need for better promotion of sport and exercise among emerging adults in order to contribute to the prevention of video gaming disorder, and to raise the level of sport and exercise activity in addicted gamers.

  10. Longitudinal effects of ionospheric responses to substorms at middle and lower latitudes: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Pi

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available An ionospheric model is used to simulate total electron content (TEC disturbance events observed at middle and lower latitude sites near 75°W and 7°E longitudes. Within this longitudinal range, daytime TEC disturbances show patterns that are correlated with substrom activity seen in both auroral electrojet and ring current behavior. In modeling studies of the observed ionospheric effects, both electric field and neutral wind perturbations are examined as possible mechanisms. The morphological features of the required electric field perturbations near drawn and dusk are compared with those at other times to examine the local time characteristics of magnetospheric influence. Large-scale traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs, an alternative candidate for the disturbance source, are also characterized and compared with known thermospheric behavior.

  11. Personality factors and breast cancer development: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiker, E M; van der Ploeg, H M; Hendriks, J H; Adèr, H J

    1996-10-16

    It has been estimated that approximately 25% of all breast cancers in women can be explained by currently recognized somatic (i.e., hereditary and physiologic) risk factors. It has also been hypothesized that psychological factors may play a role in the development of breast cancer. We investigated the extent to which personality factors, in addition to somatic risk factors, may be associated with the development of primary breast cancer. We employed a prospective, longitudinal study design. From 1989 through 1990, a personality questionnaire was sent to all female residents of the Dutch city of Nijmegen who were 43 years of age or older. This questionnaire was sent as part of an invitation to participate in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women who developed breast cancer among those who returned completed questionnaires were compared with women without such a diagnosis in regard to somatic risk factors and personality traits, including anxiety, anger, depression, rationality, anti-emotionality (i.e., an absence of emotional behavior or a lack of trust in one's own feelings), understanding, optimism, social support, and the expression and control of emotions. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables that could best explain group membership (i.e., belonging to the case [breast cancer] or the control [without disease] group). Personality questionnaires were sent to 28 940 women, and 9705 (34%) were returned in such a way that they could be used for statistical analyses. Among the 9705 women who returned useable questionnaires, 131 were diagnosed with breast cancer during the period from 1989 through 1994. Seven hundred seventy-one age-matched control subjects (up to six per case patient) were selected for the analyses. Three variables were found to be statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer: 1) having a first-degree family member with breast cancer (versus not having an

  12. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) feasibility study update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alff, W. H.; Banderman, L. W.

    1983-01-01

    In 1982 a workshop was held to refine the science rationale for large deployable reflectors (LDR) and develop technology requirements that support the science rationale. At the end of the workshop, a set of LDR consensus systems requirements was established. The subject study was undertaken to update the initial LDR study using the new systems requirements. The study included mirror materials selection and configuration, thermal analysis, structural concept definition and analysis, dynamic control analysis and recommendations for further study. The primary emphasis was on the dynamic controls requirements and the sophistication of the controls system needed to meet LDR performance goals.

  13. A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

  14. Sports participation and psychosocial health : a longitudinal observational study in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeijes, Janet; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Twisk, Jos W R

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that sports participation is positively associated with psychosocial health in children, but details about this association over time are lacking. This study aimed to explore longitudinal associations between several characteristics of sports participation and three

  15. A longitudinal study of the effects of television viewing on aggressive and prosocial behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, O.; Kuttschreuter, M.; Baarda, B.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study investigated the extent to which children's exposure to aggressive and prosocial television models in drama programmes influences their aggressive and prosocial behaviour. In The Netherlands we did not find significant positive correlations between prosocial behaviour and the

  16. Wealth Distribution and Mobility in Denmark: a Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Schmidt-Sørensen, Jan Beyer

    1994-01-01

    We describe and analyse wealth mobility in a national sample of 32,675 individuals from the Danish Longitudinal Database over the period from 1983 to 1990. A transition matrix, the Shorrocks measure, average decile position for various subgroups, and wealth in 1990 compared with wealth in 1983...... are used to describe patterns of wealth mobility. These results and regression models of change in percentile position identify winners and losers. The losers include students, singles with children, those who changed residence and those who experienced unemployment, while the winners were the houseowners...

  17. Self-stigma and suicidality: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, Nathalie; Rüsch, Nicolas; Viering, Sandra; Wyss, Christine; Seifritz, Erich; Xu, Ziyan; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2017-06-01

    Mental illness stigma is a source of distress for persons with mental illness. Self-stigma occurs when negative stereotypes are internalized, leading to low self-esteem, shame and hopelessness. Due to its consequences self-stigma may contribute to suicidality and be a modifiable target for suicide prevention. Based on 222 disability pensioners with mental illness we examined whether self-stigma at baseline is associated with suicidal ideation over a 2-year period, controlling for baseline suicidal ideation, symptoms, age and gender. More self-stigma predicted suicidal ideation at baseline and longitudinally. Interventions on different levels to reduce self-stigma could improve suicide prevention.

  18. Psychological predictors of eco-driving: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Lauper Elisabeth; Moser Stephanie; Fischer Maja; Matthies Ellen; Kaufmann-Hayoz Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Eco-driving has well-known positive effects on fuel economy and greenhouse-gas emissions. Moreover, eco-driving reduces road-traffic noise, which is a serious threat to the health and well-being of many people. We investigated the psychological predictors of the adoption of eco-driving from the perspective of road-traffic noise abatement. The data came from 890 car drivers who participated in a longitudinal survey over four months. Specifically, we tested the effects of the intention to preve...

  19. Specificity of the Association between Marital Discord and Longitudinal Changes in Symptoms of Depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder in the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Robustelli, Briana L; Labrecque, Lindsay T

    2018-03-25

    This longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate actor and partner effects of marital discord on changes in symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a large population sample of Irish adults (N = 1,445 couples), adjusting for the potential confounds of quality of other social relationships and other psychopathology symptoms. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to examine actor and partner effects of marital discord on changes in symptoms of depression and GAD at a 2-year follow-up. Additional models examined these associations adjusting for family and friend discord and symptoms of the other type of psychopathology (depressive or GAD symptoms). Actor effects of marital discord on depressive and anxiety symptoms were greater for men than for women. There were significant, positive actor effects of marital discord on depressive symptoms for husbands and wives, which remained significant when adjusting for family and friend discord and GAD symptoms. There were significant, positive actor effects of marital discord on GAD symptoms for husbands, which remained significant when adjusting for family and friend discord and depressive symptoms. Results demonstrate that longitudinal associations between marital discord and depressive symptoms (for wives and husbands) and GAD symptoms (for husbands) are incremental to other rival explanations (family and friend discord and the other set of symptoms). Findings provide evidence for a potential causal association leading from marital discord to symptoms of depression and GAD. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  20. Sex-related and tissue-specific effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy: assessment in a large longitudinal cohort of healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eDuriez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy in a large cohort of healthy elderly participants (65 to 80 years. MRI was used for measuring whole brain (WB, gray matter (GM, white matter (WM, and hippocampus (HIP volumes at study entry time (baseline, N=1,451, and the annualized rates of variation of these volumes using a 4-year follow-up MRI in a subpart of the cohort (N=1,111. Effects of smoking status (never, former, or current smoker at study entry and of lifetime tobacco consumption on these brain phenotypes were studied using sex-stratified AN(COVAs, including other health parameters as covariates. At baseline, male current smokers had lower GM, while female current smokers had lower WM. In addition, female former smokers exhibited reduced baseline HIP, the reduction being correlated with lifetime tobacco consumption. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated that current smokers, whether men or women, had larger annualized rates of HIP atrophy, as compared to either current or former smokers, independent of their lifetime consumption of tobacco. There was no effect of smoking on the annualized rate of WM loss. In all cases, measured sizes of these tobacco-smoking effects were of the same order of magnitude than those of age, and larger than effect sizes of any other covariate. These results demonstrate gender- and tissue specific effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy. They indicate that tobacco smoking is a major factor of brain aging, with notable effects on the hippocampus annualized-rate of atrophy after the age of 65.

  1. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  2. A longitudinal study of multidimensional performance characteristics related to physical capacities in youth handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Stijn P J; Vaeyens, Roel; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter; Pion, Johan; Vandendriessche, Joric; Vandorpe, Barbara; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal research provides valuable information about change and progress towards elite performance. Unfortunately, there is a lack of longitudinal research in handball. In this study, 94 youth handball players (oldest group: n = 41; age 15-17 and youngest group: n = 53; age 13-15) were followed over a three-year period. Repeated measures ANCOVA was conducted to reveal longitudinal changes in anthropometry and physical performance between elite and non-elite players, controlling for maturation. Maturation effects were found for anthropometry (P team handball should recognise the importance of good skills and an excellent endurance for talent identification purposes.

  3. Longitudinal pressure-driven flows between superhydrophobic grooved surfaces: Large effective slip in the narrow-channel limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Ory; Yariv, Ehud

    2017-07-01

    The gross amplification of the fluid velocity in pressure-driven flows due to the introduction of superhydrophobic walls is commonly quantified by an effective slip length. The canonical duct-flow geometry involves a periodic structure of longitudinal shear-free stripes at either one or both of the bounding walls, corresponding to flat-meniscus gas bubbles trapped within a periodic array of grooves. This grating configuration is characterized by two geometric parameters, namely the ratio κ of channel width to microstructure period and the areal fraction Δ of the shear-free stripes. For wide channels, κ ≫1 , this geometry is known to possess an approximate solution where the dimensionless slip length λ , normalized by the duct semiwidth, is small, indicating a weak superhydrophobic effect. We here address the other extreme of narrow channels, κ ≪1 , identifying large O (κ-2) values of λ for the symmetric configuration, where both bounding walls are superhydrophobic. This velocity enhancement is associated with an unconventional Poiseuille-like flow profile where the parabolic velocity variation takes place in a direction parallel (rather than perpendicular) to the boundaries. Use of matched asymptotic expansions and conformal-mapping techniques provides λ up to O (κ-1) , establishing the approximationλ ˜κ-2Δ/33 +κ-1Δ/2π ln4 +⋯, which is in excellent agreement with a semianalytic solution of the dual equations governing the respective coefficients of a Fourier-series representation of the fluid velocity. No similar singularity occurs in the corresponding asymmetric configuration, involving a single superhydrophobic wall; in that geometry, a Hele-Shaw approximation shows that λ =O (1 ) .

  4. Habilidades cognitivas em indivíduos muito idosos: um estudo longitudinal Cognitive abilities in older seniors: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani I. de Lima Argimon

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos longitudinais com idosos com mais de oitenta anos são escassos na literatura. A pesquisa foi delineada com o objetivo de analisar as modificações no perfil de algumas habilidades cognitivas em indivíduos muito idosos, em dois momentos, com um intervalo de três anos. Pesquisa do tipo quantitativo, com delineamento longitudinal e prospectivo. A amostra, randômica, foi constituída por 66 indivíduos de 80 a 95 anos de idade na etapa I e, três anos após, na etapa II, por 46 idosos. Os instrumentos usados foram: Escala de Depressão Geriátrica, Questionário de Percepção Subjetiva de Queixas de Memória, Mini-Exame do Estado Mental, Span de Números, Teste de Lembranças Livres e com Pistas de Buschke, Teste de Fluência Verbal - Categoria Animal. Houve uma pequena tendência de decréscimo no desempenho cognitivo em um período de três anos. Maior número de atividades de lazer e mais anos de escolaridade foram fatores preditivos de menor variação no desempenho cognitivo. Apesar da idade avançada, os idosos apresentaram um desempenho de habilidades cognitivas cujo declínio foi de intensidade leve, não sendo suficiente para acarretar mudanças significativas no seu padrão cognitivo.Longitudinal studies of older seniors (over 80 years are rare in the literature. This research was designed to study cognitive abilities in the oldest old at two different moments with a three-year interval. The research was quantitative, with a longitudinal and prospective design. The sample consisted of 66 individuals from 80 to 95 years of age, randomly selected for phase I, with 46 of these individuals tested again three years later, in phase II. The instruments used were: Geriatric Depression Scale, Subjective Perception of Memory Problems, Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Span, Buschke Test of Free and Cued Recall, and the Verbal Fluency Test - Animal Category. The results indicated that there was a small downward trend in the older

  5. Functional and Structural Network Recovery after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Dall’Acqua

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain connectivity after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has not been investigated longitudinally with respect to both functional and structural networks together within the same patients, crucial to capture the multifaceted neuropathology of the injury and to comprehensively monitor the course of recovery and compensatory reorganizations at macro-level. We performed a prospective study with 49 mTBI patients at an average of 5 days and 1 year post-injury and 49 healthy controls. Neuropsychological assessments as well as resting-state functional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were obtained. Functional and structural connectome analyses were performed using network-based statistics. They included a cross-sectional group comparison and a longitudinal analysis with the factors group and time. The latter tracked the subnetworks altered at the early phase and, in addition, included a whole-brain group × time interaction analysis. Finally, we explored associations between the evolution of connectivity and changes in cognitive performance. The early phase of mTBI was characterized by a functional hypoconnectivity in a subnetwork with a large overlap of regions involved within the classical default mode network. In addition, structural hyperconnectivity in a subnetwork including central hub areas such as the cingulate cortex was found. The impaired functional and structural subnetworks were strongly correlated and revealed a large anatomical overlap. One year after trauma and compared to healthy controls we observed a partial normalization of both subnetworks along with a considerable compensation of functional and structural connectivity subsequent to the acute phase. Connectivity changes over time were correlated with improvements in working memory, divided attention, and verbal recall. Neuroplasticity-induced recovery or compensatory processes following mTBI differ between brain regions with respect to their time course and are

  6. Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographic Study (LEADS) Design and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Roger

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) Attributes and Demographic Study (LEADS) design, instrument development, pilot testing, sampling procedures, and data collection methodology. Response rates are provided, along with results of follow-up surveys of non-responders (NRs) and a special survey of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) professionals who were not nationally certified. Annual surveys from 1999 to 2008 were mailed out to a random, stratified sample of nationally registered EMT-Basics and Paramedics. Survey weights were developed to reflect each respondent's probability of selection. A special survey of NRs was mailed out to individuals who did not respond to the annual survey to estimate the probable extent and direction of response bias. Individuals who indicated they were no longer in the profession were mailed a special exit survey to determine their reasons for leaving EMS. Given the large number of comparisons between NR and regular (annual) survey respondents, it is not surprising that some statistically significant differences were found. In general, there were few differences. However, NRs tended to report higher annual EMS incomes, were younger, healthier, more physically fit, and were more likely to report that they were not practicing EMS. Comparisons of the nationally certified EMS professionals with EMS professionals who were not nationally certified indicated that nationally certified EMS providers were younger, had less EMS experiences, earned less, were more likely to be female and work for private EMS services, and less likely to work for fire-based services. These differences may reflect state and local policy and practice, since many states and local agencies do not require maintenance of national certification as a requirement to practice. When these differences were controlled for statistically, there were few systematic differences between non-nationally certified and nationally

  7. Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: the persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicić, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M

    2009-07-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal studies obtained from three flagship developmental journals-Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and Journal of Research on Adolescence-we examined the number of longitudinal studies reporting missing data and the missing data techniques used. Of the 100 longitudinal studies sampled, 57 either reported having missing data or had discrepancies in sample sizes reported for different analyses. The majority of these studies (82%) used missing data techniques that are statistically problematic (either listwise deletion or pairwise deletion) and not among the methods recommended by statisticians (i.e., the direct maximum likelihood method and the multiple imputation method). Implications of these results for developmental theory and application, and the need for understanding the consequences of using statistically inappropriate missing data techniques with actual longitudinal data sets, are discussed.

  8. Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract / A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth da Silva Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence maintenance and follow-up attendance.

  9. Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rohit C; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Vs; Marmamula, Srinivas; Mettla, Asha Latha; Giridhar, Pyda; Banerjee, Seema; Shekhar, Konegari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-03-01

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  10. Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout.

  11. A Longitudinal Study on Human Outdoor Decomposition in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Joanna K; Spradley, M Katherine; Godde, Kanya

    2016-01-01

    The development of a methodology that estimates the postmortem interval (PMI) from stages of decomposition is a goal for which forensic practitioners strive. A proposed equation (Megyesi et al. 2005) that utilizes total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree days (ADD) was tested using longitudinal data collected from human remains donated to the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University-San Marcos. Exact binomial tests examined the rate of the equation to successfully predict ADD. Statistically significant differences were found between ADD estimated by the equation and the observed value for decomposition stage. Differences remained significant after carnivore scavenged donations were removed from analysis. Low success rates for the equation to predict ADD from TBS and the wide standard errors demonstrate the need to re-evaluate the use of this equation and methodology for PMI estimation in different environments; rather, multivariate methods and equations should be derived that are environmentally specific. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth da Silva Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este foi um estudo de seguimento com pacientes alcoolistas que participaram de um ensaio clínico em que foi empregada Entrevista Motivacional. A amostra constituiu-se de 152 sujeitos alocados randomicamente em dois grupos: grupo de intervenção submetido à Entrevista Motivacional (GI, e um grupo controle submetido a tratamento padrão (GC. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: entrevista estruturada e o FORM-90. Na avaliação inicial (T1, realizada entre os anos de 1999 e 2001, foram avaliados 152 sujeitos; para o follow-up 1, na segunda avaliação (T2, foram avaliados 89 sujeitos, dos quais 59 permaneciam abstinentes (37GI e 22GC e 30 haviam recaído (13GE e 17GC; já para o follow-up 2, na avaliação final (T3 - entre os anos de 2003 e 2005, regressaram 46 sujeitos, dos quais 29 mantinham-se abstinentes (20GI e 10GC e 17 recaíram (13GI e 4GC. Esses dados demonstram que os sujeitos submetidos à Entrevista Motivacional tiveram mais êxito na manutenção da abstinência e compareceram em maior número aos follow-up, demonstrando melhores resultados comparados com o grupo controle.This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence

  13. Large Coil Program magnetic system design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, S.D.; Johnson, N.E.

    1977-01-01

    The primary objective of the Large Coil Program (LCP) is to demonstrate the reliable operation of large superconducting coils to provide a basis for the design principles, materials, and fabrication techniques proposed for the toroidal magnets for the THE NEXT STEP (TNS) and other future tokamak devices. This paper documents a design study of the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) in which the structural response of the Toroidal Field (TF) Coils and the supporting structure was evaluated under simulated reactor conditions. The LCP test facility structural system consists of six TF Coils, twelve coil-to-coil torsional restraining beams (torque rings), a central bucking post with base, and a Pulse Coil system. The NASTRAN Finite Element Structural Analysis computer Code was utilized to determine the distribution of deflections, forces, and stresses for each of the TF Coils, torque rings, and the central bucking post. Eleven load conditions were selected to represent probable test operations. Pulse Coils suspended in the bore of the test coil were energized to simulate the pulsed field environment characteristic of the TNS reactor system. The TORMAC Computer Code was utilized to develop the magnetic forces in the TF Coils for each of the eleven loading conditions examined, with or without the Pulse Coils energized. The TORMAC computer program output forces were used directly as input load conditions for the NASTRAN analyses. Results are presented which demonstrate the reliability of the LCTF under simulated reactor operating conditions

  14. Weight restoration therapy rapidly reverses cortical thinning in anorexia nervosa: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardoni, Fabio; King, Joseph A; Geisler, Daniel; Stein, Elisa; Jaite, Charlotte; Nätsch, Dagmar; Tam, Friederike I; Boehm, Ilka; Seidel, Maria; Roessner, Veit; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2016-04-15

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have documented reduced gray matter in acutely ill patients with anorexia nervosa to be at least partially reversible following weight restoration. However, few longitudinal studies exist and the underlying mechanisms of these structural changes are elusive. In particular, the relative speed and completeness of brain structure normalization during realimentation remain unknown. Here we report from a structural neuroimaging study including a sample of adolescent/young adult female patients with acute anorexia nervosa (n=47), long-term recovered patients (n=34), and healthy controls (n=75). The majority of acutely ill patients were scanned longitudinally (n=35): at the beginning of standardized weight restoration therapy and again after partial weight normalization (>10% body mass index increase). High-resolution structural images were processed and analyzed with the longitudinal stream of FreeSurfer software to test for changes in cortical thickness and volumes of select subcortical regions of interest. We found globally reduced cortical thickness in acutely ill patients to increase rapidly (0.06 mm/month) during brief weight restoration therapy (≈3 months). This significant increase was predicted by weight restoration alone and could not be ascribed to potentially mediating factors such as duration of illness, hydration status, or symptom improvements. By comparing cortical thickness in partially weight-restored patients with that measured in healthy controls, we confirmed that cortical thickness had normalized already at follow-up. This pattern of thinning in illness and rapid normalization during weight rehabilitation was largely mirrored in subcortical volumes. Together, our findings indicate that structural brain insults inflicted by starvation in anorexia nervosa may be reversed at a rate much faster than previously thought if interventions are successful before the disorder becomes chronic. This provides

  15. The Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport Study (SRIIPSS): a study protocol for a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, Kristina; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Paralympic sport provides sporting opportunities for athletes with a disability, with the Paralympic Games as the main event. Participation in sport is, however, associated with a significant risk for sustaining injuries and illnesses. Our knowledge of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport is very limited and there are no large-scale epidemiological cohort studies. The purpose here is to present a protocol for a prospective longitudinal study: The Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport Study (SRIIPSS). An argument-based method for investigation of design problems was used to structure the study protocol. The primary requirement of the protocol is to allow prospective studies over time and include exposure to both training and competition. To reflect the complexity of Paralympic sport with athletes' pre-existing impairments, use of assistive equipment, pain and other and medical issues, it is required that the data collection system is specifically adapted to Paralympic sport. To allow the collection of data, at the same time as there is limited access to coaches and medical personnel, it is advantageous that data can be collected online directly from the athletes. Based on this a self-report athlete monitoring system will be developed, where the athletes can enter data weekly via their mobile phones or lap-tops. Data will be collected from around 100 Swedish Paralympic athletes for approximately 1 year, which will allow us to i) prospectively estimate the annual incidence of sports-related injuries and illnesses and ii) explore risk factors and mechanisms for sustaining sports-related injuries and illnesses based on athlete exposure and training loads. For effective implementation of injury and illness prevention measures, comprehensive epidemiological knowledge is required. This study will be the first prospective longitudinal self-report study of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport over a longer period

  16. A population-based longitudinal study of risk factors for suicide attempts in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, James M; Pagura, Jina; Enns, Murray W; Grant, Bridget; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-10-01

    No longitudinal study has examined risk factors for future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to investigate baseline sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid mental disorders, specific depressive symptoms, and previous suicidal behavior as potential risk factors for suicide attempts at 3 years follow-up. Data came from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC), a large nationally representative longitudinal survey of mental illness in adults [Wave 1 (2001-2002); Wave 2 (2004-2005) n=34,653]. Logistic regression examined associations between risk factors present at Wave 1 and suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=169) among individuals with major depressive disorder at baseline assessment (n=6004). Risk factors for incident suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=63) were identified among those with major depressive disorder at Wave 1 and no lifetime history of suicide attempts (n=5170). Results revealed specific comorbid anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders to be associated with incident suicide attempts at Wave 2. Comorbid borderline personality disorder was strongly associated with suicide attempts in all models. Several comorbid disorders were strongly associated with suicide attempts at Wave 2 even after adjusting for previous suicidal behavior, notably posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.27-3.83) and dependent personality disorder (AOR=4.43; 95% CI 1.93-10.18). These findings suggest that mental illness comorbidity confers an increased risk of future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder that is not solely accounted for by past suicidal behavior.

  17. What is learned from longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking? A critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jon P

    2010-03-01

    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  18. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Nelson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  19. Development of numerical processing in children with typical and dyscalculic arithmetic skills—a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerl, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Numerical processing has been demonstrated to be closely associated with arithmetic skills, however, our knowledge on the development of the relevant cognitive mechanisms is limited. The present longitudinal study investigated the developmental trajectories of numerical processing in 42 children with age-adequate arithmetic development and 41 children with dyscalculia over a 2-year period from beginning of Grade 2, when children were 7; 6 years old, to beginning of Grade 4. A battery of numerical processing tasks (dot enumeration, non-symbolic and symbolic comparison of one- and two-digit numbers, physical comparison, number line estimation) was given five times during the study (beginning and middle of each school year). Efficiency of numerical processing was a very good indicator of development in numerical processing while within-task effects remained largely constant and showed low long-term stability before middle of Grade 3. Children with dyscalculia showed less efficient numerical processing reflected in specifically prolonged response times. Importantly, they showed consistently larger slopes for dot enumeration in the subitizing range, an untypically large compatibility effect when processing two-digit numbers, and they were consistently less accurate in placing numbers on a number line. Thus, we were able to identify parameters that can be used in future research to characterize numerical processing in typical and dyscalculic development. These parameters can also be helpful for identification of children who struggle in their numerical development. PMID:23898310

  20. Development of numerical processing in children with typical and dyscalculic arithmetic skills – a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eLanderl

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerical processing has been demonstrated to be closely associated with arithmetic skills, however, our knowledge on the development of the relevant cognitive mechanisms is limited. The present longitudinal study investigated the developmental trajectories of numerical processing in 42 children with age-adequate arithmetic development and 41 children with dyscalculia over a two-year period from beginning of Grade 2, when children were 7;6 years old, to beginning of Grade 4. A battery of numerical processing tasks (dot enumeration, non-symbolic and symbolic comparison of one- and two-digit numbers, physical comparison, number line estimation was given five times during the study (beginning and middle of each school year. Efficiency of numerical processing was a very good indicator of development in numerical processing while within-task effects remained largely constant and showed low long-term stability before middle of Grade 3. Children with dyscalculia showed less efficient numerical processing reflected in specifically prolonged response times. Importantly, they showed consistently larger slopes for dot enumeration in the subitizing range, an untypically large compatibility effect when processing two-digit numbers, and they were consistently less accurate in placing numbers on a number line. Thus, we were able to identify parameters that can be used in future research to characterize numerical processing in typical and dyscalculic development. These parameters can also be helpful for identification of children who struggle in their numerical development.

  1. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected.

  2. Cumulative risk, cumulative outcome: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Atkinson

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk (CR models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO. We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6 explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20. The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a "mediated net of adversity" model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes.

  3. Longitudinal course of disease in a large cohort of myositis patients with autoantibodies recognizing the signal recognition particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jessie L.; Albayda, Jemyma; Paik, Julie; Danoff, Sonye K.; Casciola-Rosen, Livia; Christopher-Stine, Lisa; Mammen, Andrew L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) often have autoantibodies recognizing the signal recognition particle (SRP) or HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR). Here, we studied a cohort of anti-SRP patients to identify factors associated with disease severity and clinical improvement; we also compared the severity of weakness in those with anti-SRP versus anti-HMGCR autoantibodies. Methods All anti-SRP patients in the Johns Hopkins Myositis Cohort from 2002 to 2015 were included. Longitudinal information regarding proximal muscle strength, creatine kinase (CK) levels, and immunosuppressive therapy were recorded at each visit. Univariate and multivariate multilevel regression models were used to assess prognostic factors influencing recovery. Strength in the anti-SRP patients was compared to strength in 49 previously described anti-HMGCR subjects. Results Data from 37 anti-SRP patients and 380 total clinic visits was analyzed. Younger age at onset was associated with more severe weakness at the first visit (p=0.02) and all subsequent visits (p=0.002). Only 50% of patients reached near-full or full strength after 4 years of treatment and most of these continued to have elevated CK levels. Rituximab appeared to be effective in 13 of 17 anti-SRP patients. Anti-SRP patients were significantly weaker than those with anti-HMGCR autoantibodies (−1.3 strength points, p=0.001). Conclusions Younger age at onset is associated with more severe weakness in anti-SRP myositis. Furthermore, even among anti-SRP patients whose strength improved with immunosuppression, most had ongoing disease activity as demonstrated by elevated CK levels. Finally, anti-SRP patients were significantly weaker than anti-HMGCR patients, providing evidence that these autoantibodies are associated with distinct forms of IMNM. PMID:27111848

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Motivation in Foreign and Second Language Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordem, Eser

    2017-01-01

    Although motivation has been one of the most commonly studied subjects in second and foreign language learning in recent decades, it still remains an enigma for learners and teachers. This longitudinal study aimed to follow a student (N = 1) studying German in both second and foreign language environment for three years. The study was descriptive,…

  5. A Large-Scale Study of Misophonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouw, Romke; Erfanian, Mercede

    2018-03-01

    We aim to elucidate misophonia, a condition in which particular sounds elicit disproportionally strong aversive reactions. A large online study extensively surveyed personal, developmental, and clinical characteristics of over 300 misophonics. Most participants indicated that their symptoms started in childhood or early teenage years. Severity of misophonic responses increases over time. One third of participants reported having family members with similar symptoms. Half of our participants reported no comorbid clinical conditions, and the other half reported a variety of conditions. Only posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to the severity of the misophonic symptoms. Remarkably, half of the participants reported experiencing euphoric, relaxing, and tingling sensations with particular sounds or sights, a relatively unfamiliar phenomenon called autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR). It is unlikely that another "real" underlying clinical, psychiatric, or psychological disorder can explain away the misophonia. The possible relationship with PTSD and ASMR warrants further investigation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Longitudinal interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development: results from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Chia; Twisk, Jos W R; Rong, Jiin-Ru

    2011-04-01

    This study is part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, which was undertaken to assess the long-term interrelationships between cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR) and the development of personality characteristics (i.e., Inadequacy, Rigidity, Social Inadequacy, Dominance, Self-sufficiency, Self-esteem, and Hostility). We found that participants who had more mobility experiences had lower consistency in their personality characteristics (the exception being Rigidity). Residential mobility from different life stages was positively associated with the continuity and change of Inadequacy and Dominance. In addition, young adults with higher Rigidity personality experienced fewer geographic moves during the transition from young adulthood to mid-life. Our study provides evidence that CFGR in different life stages may be associated with the development of personality characteristics from young adulthood to mid-life in different ways. Increased awareness of the potential interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development may have positive consequences for adult psychological health. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  7. Work-self balance : a longitudinal study on the effects of job demands and resources on personal functioning in Japanese working parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Shimazu, A.; Bakker, A.B.; Shimada, K.; Kawakami, N.

    2013-01-01

    In work-family research the effects on the individual, or the "self", in terms of personal interests independent of the work and family domains, have been largely neglected. This longitudinal study on 471 Japanese employees with young children investigated how job demands and job resources may have

  8. The impact of an unfavorable depression course on network size and loneliness in older people: a longitudinal study in the community.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theo van Tilburg; Peter van de Ven; Aartjan Beekman; Wim Houtjes; Dorly Deeg; prof Berno van Meijel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This work aims to gain insight into the long-term impact of depression course on social network size and perceived loneliness in older people living in the community. METHODS: Within a large representative sample of older people in the community (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

  9. A Study of Large Transverse Momentum Phenomena

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment studies the structure of those p-p and @*-p collisions which are characterized by a very high transverse momentum flow in the central region. Some specific items studied are:\\\\ \\\\ \\item -~~Structure of events, where the high transverse momentum is shared by charged and neutral hadron (``jets''). Transverse momentum distribution, correlations and momentum balance for such events. \\item -~~Structure of events, where the high transverse momentum is mostly carried by one identified particle. Quantum number dependence and quantum number correlations of the high transverse momentum events. \\item -~~Structure of events containing large transverse momentum leptons or lepton pairs or direct photons. \\end{enumerate}.sk -~~Study of low momentum electrons and photons. -~~Search for gluonium states. -~~Search for new and rare particles. \\\\ \\\\ A conventional C-type magnet with a 0.5 T field in the direction of the beams together with a 42-layer cylindrical drift chamber detector is used for momentum analysi...

  10. Nutritional status and quality of life of cancer patients needing exclusive chemotherapy: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Sebastien; Mercier, Sophie; Moheng, Benjamin; Olivet, Sandrine; Garcia, Marie-Eve; Hamon, Sophie; Sibertin-Blanc, Camille; Duffaud, Florence; Auquier, Pascal; Baumstarck, Karine

    2017-04-27

    The aims of this study were to report nutritional status in a large panel of patients with cancer requiring exclusive chemotherapy and to study the influence of nutritional status on their quality of life (QoL). This work was a longitudinal cohort study performed at a French university teaching hospital. Eligible patients were individuals with a cancer needing treatment based on exclusive chemotherapy. Three work-ups were performed: i) before the administration of the first course of chemotherapy: T1, ii) before the administration of the second (for patients with 3 planned courses) or third (patients with 6 planned courses) course: T2, and iii) before the administration of the last planned course: T3. The following data were collected: general health (performance status) and nutritional status (weight, anorexia grading, albuminemia, pre-albuminemia, and C-reactive protein) and QoL. The nutritional status of patients with cancer was preserved. Functional impairment, the presence of anorexia, the palliative nature of the chemotherapy, and an elevated C-reactive protein dosage were independent predictive factors of a lower QoL among patients assessed at the end of chemotherapy. Although larger studies should corroborate these findings, clinicians may include this information in the management of patients with cancer requiring exclusive chemotherapy to identify the most vulnerable patients. Current controlled trials NCT01687335 (registration date: October 6, 2011).

  11. A longitudinal test of video game violence influences on dating and aggression: a 3-year longitudinal study of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; San Miguel, Claudia; Garza, Adolfo; Jerabeck, Jessica M

    2012-02-01

    In 2011 the field of video game violence experienced serious reversals with repudiations of the current research by the US Supreme Court and the Australian Government as non-compelling and fundamentally flawed. Scholars too have been calling for higher quality research on this issue. The current study seeks to answer this call by providing longitudinal data on youth aggression and dating violence as potential consequences of violent video game exposure using well-validated clinical outcome measures and controlling for other relevant predictors of youth aggression. A sample of 165, mainly Hispanic youth, were tested at 3 intervals, an initial interview, and 1-year and 3-year intervals. Results indicated that exposure to video game violence was not related to any of the negative outcomes. Depression, antisocial personality traits, exposure to family violence and peer influences were the best predictors of aggression-related outcomes. The current study supports a growing body of evidence pointing away from video game violence use as a predictor of youth aggression. Public policy efforts, including funding, would best be served by redirecting them toward other prevention programs for youth violence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Which emotional regulatory strategy makes Chinese adolescents happier? A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sang, B.; Deng, X.; Luan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Growing interest in emotion regulation is reflected in the studies of cognitive and social development. However, the extant studies mainly highlight how emotion regulation develops based on a western value system. This study utilised a longitudinal design to examine the development of emotion

  13. Physical activity as a determinant of change in mobility performance : the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Pluijm, Saskia M F; Stel, Vianda S; Bosscher, Ruud J; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association of (change in) physical activity and decline in mobility performance in older men and women. DESIGN: A 3-year prospective study using data of the Longitudinal Aging Study. SETTING: Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand one hundred nine men and women

  14. Cardiovascular events in patients with atherothrombotic disease: a population-based longitudinal study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsien Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherothrombotic diseases including cerebrovascular disease (CVD, coronary artery disease (CAD, and peripheral arterial disease (PAD, contribute to the major causes of death in the world. Although several studies showed the association between polyvascular disease and poor cardiovascular (CV outcomes in Asian population, there was no large-scale study to validate this relationship in this population. METHODS AND RESULTS: This retrospective cohort study included patients with a diagnosis of CVD, CAD, or PAD from the database contained in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Bureau during 2001-2004. A total of 19954 patients were enrolled in this study. The atherothrombotic disease score was defined according to the number of atherothrombotic disease. The study endpoints included acute coronary syndrome (ACS, all strokes, vascular procedures, in hospital mortality, and so on. The event rate of ischemic stroke (18.2% was higher than that of acute myocardial infarction (5.7% in our patients (P = 0.0006. In the multivariate Cox regression analyses, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs of each increment of atherothrombotic disease score in predicting ACS, all strokes, vascular procedures, and in hospital mortality were 1.41, 1.66, 1.30, and 1.14, respectively (P≦0.0169. CONCLUSIONS: This large population-based longitudinal study in patients with atherothrombotic disease demonstrated the risk of subsequent ischemic stroke was higher than that of subsequent AMI. In addition, the subsequent adverse CV events including ACS, all stroke, vascular procedures, and in hospital mortality were progressively increased as the increase of atherothrombotic disease score.

  15. Longitudinal Study of Gray Matter Changes in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X; Liang, P; Li, Y; Shi, L; Wang, D; Li, K

    2015-12-01

    The pathology of Parkinson disease leads to morphological brain volume changes. So far, the progressive gray matter volume change across time specific to patients with Parkinson disease compared controls remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the pattern of gray matter changes in patients with Parkinson disease and to explore the progressive gray matter volume change specific to patients with Parkinson disease with disease progression by using voxel-based morphometry analysis. Longitudinal cognitive assessment and structural MR imaging of 89 patients with Parkinson disease (62 men) and 55 healthy controls (33 men) were from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative data base, including the initial baseline and 12-month follow-up data. Two-way analysis of covariance was performed with covariates of age, sex, years of education, imaging data from multiple centers, and total intracranial volume by using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra tool from SPM8 software. Gray matter volume changes for patients with Parkinson disease were detected with decreased gray matter volume in the frontotemporoparietal areas and the bilateral caudate, with increased gray matter volume in the bilateral limbic/paralimbic areas, medial globus pallidus/putamen, and the right occipital cortex compared with healthy controls. Progressive gray matter volume decrease in the bilateral caudate was found for both patients with Parkinson disease and healthy controls, and this caudate volume was positively associated with cognitive ability for both groups. The progressive gray matter volume increase specific to the patients with Parkinson disease was identified close to the left ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus, and a positive relationship was found between the thalamic volume and the tremor scores in a subgroup with tremor-dominant patients with Parkinson disease. The observed progressive changes in gray matter volume in Parkinson disease may provide

  16. Migraine and subclinical atherosclerosis in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between migraine and coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the association of subclinical atherosclerosis and migraine with or without aura compared to a non-migraine subgroup (reference) in a large Brazilian multicentric cohort study, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Migraine diagnostic was based on International Headache Society criteria, and aura symptoms were validated by a medical doctor in a sub-sample of the ELSA-Brasil, who also underwent coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) evaluations. Subclinical atherosclerosis indexes (CAC and C-IMT) were analyzed as dependent variables and migraine (all, with aura, without aura) as an independent variable in the linear and multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for possible confounders. Of 3217 ELSA participants free from CVD at baseline, we found a migraine frequency of 11.9% (5.1% with aura and 6.8% without aura). Overall, migraineurs were mostly women, younger and had lower frequency of CV risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and low HDL-cholesterol, compared to non-migraineurs. The strongest inverse correlation between migraine and subclinical atherosclerosis was verified with CAC score. However, all associations lost their significance after multivariate adjustment. In this cross-sectional evaluation of the ELSA study, migraine was not associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, regardless of aura symptoms. © International Headache Society 2015.

  17. Participation in medical decision-making across Europe: An international longitudinal multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär Deucher, A; Hengartner, M P; Kawohl, W; Konrad, J; Puschner, B; Clarke, E; Slade, M; Del Vecchio, V; Sampogna, G; Égerházi, A; Süveges, Á; Krogsgaard Bording, M; Munk-Jørgensen, P; Rössler, W

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine national differences in the desire to participate in decision-making of people with severe mental illness in six European countries. The data was taken from a European longitudinal observational study (CEDAR; ISRCTN75841675). A sample of 514 patients with severe mental illness from the study centers in Ulm, Germany, London, England, Naples, Italy, Debrecen, Hungary, Aalborg, Denmark and Zurich, Switzerland were assessed as to desire to participate in medical decision-making. Associations between desire for participation in decision-making and center location were analyzed with generalized estimating equations. We found large cross-national differences in patients' desire to participate in decision-making, with the center explaining 47.2% of total variance in the desire for participation (Pparticipation, followed by Aalborg (mean=1.97), where scores were in turn significantly higher than in Debrecen (mean=1.56). The lowest scores were reported in Naples (mean=1.14). Over time, the desire for participation in decision-making increased significantly in Zurich (b=0.23) and decreased in Naples (b=-0.14). In all other centers, values remained stable. This study demonstrates that patients' desire for participation in decision-making varies by location. We suggest that more research attention be focused on identifying specific cultural and social factors in each country to further explain observed differences across Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Software for large scale tracking studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, J.

    1984-05-01

    Over the past few years, Brookhaven accelerator physicists have been adapting particle tracking programs in planning local storage rings, and lately for SSC reference designs. In addition, the Laboratory is actively considering upgrades to its AGS capabilities aimed at higher proton intensity, polarized proton beams, and heavy ion acceleration. Further activity concerns heavy ion transfer, a proposed booster, and most recently design studies for a heavy ion collider to join to this complex. Circumstances have thus encouraged a search for common features among design and modeling programs and their data, and the corresponding controls efforts among present and tentative machines. Using a version of PATRICIA with nonlinear forces as a vehicle, we have experimented with formal ways to describe accelerator lattice problems to computers as well as to speed up the calculations for large storage ring models. Code treated by straightforward reorganization has served for SSC explorations. The representation work has led to a relational data base centered program, LILA, which has desirable properties for dealing with the many thousands of rapidly changing variables in tracking and other model programs. 13 references

  19. Configuration study of large wind parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Stefan

    2003-07-01

    In this thesis, layouts of various large-scale wind parks, using both AC as well as DC, are investigated. Loss modelling of the wind park components as well as calculations of the energy capture of the turbines using various electrical systems are performed, and the energy production cost of the various park configurations is determined. The most interesting candidate for a DC transmission based wind park was investigated more in detail, the series DC wind park. Finally, the power quality impact in the PCC (point of common coupling) was studied. It was found that from an energy capture point of view, the difference in energy production between various wind turbine systems is very small. Of all the investigated wind park configurations, the wind park with the series connected DC wind turbines seems to have the best potential to give the lowest energy production cost, if the transmission distance is longer then 10-20 km. Regarding the series DC wind park it was found that it is the most difficult one to control. However, a control algorithm for the series park and its turbines was derived and successfully tested. Still, several more details regarding the control of the series wind park has to be dealt with.

  20. A Service Member's Self in Transition : A Longitudinal Case Study Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimell, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Adopting a narrative approach with a dialogical framework, a longitudinal case study is presented that describes a service member's self in transition from active service into the civilian population. An analysis and interpretation of the case study leads to the hypothesis that if a dominant

  1. Flowing together : a longitudinal study of collective efficacy and collective flow among workgroups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salanova, Marisa; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alma M.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Cifre, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to extend the Channel Model of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990) at the collective level (workgroups) by including collective efficacy beliefs as a predictor of collective flow based on the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). A two-wave longitudinal lab study

  2. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  3. Media Exposure, Aggression and Prosocial Behavior during Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2006-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinal study were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…

  4. Impaired Perception of Syllable Stress in Children with Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Environmental and Outdoor Education: A Cultural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2013-01-01

    In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…

  6. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  7. The Relationship Between Shift Work and Metabolic Risk Factors : A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, Karin I; van de Langenberg, Daniëlla|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374886970; Rodenburg, Wendy; Vermeulen, Roel C H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; van der Beek, Allard J; van Steeg, Harry; van Kerkhof, Linda W M

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Although the metabolic health effects of shift work have been extensively studied, a systematic synthesis of the available research is lacking. This review aimed to systematically summarize the available evidence of longitudinal studies linking shift work with metabolic risk factors.

  8. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  9. The Developmental Sequence of Social-Communicative Skills in Young Children with Autism: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…

  10. Team turnover and task conflict: A longitudinal study on the moderating effects of collective experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuypers, A.P.A.; Günter, H.; van Emmerik, I.H.

    2015-01-01

    Team turnover can be harmful to a team in many ways. This study examined whether a team’s collective experience (team organizational tenure) attenuates the association between team turnover and task conflict changes. Differing from prior research, our study used a longitudinal design to assess the

  11. Longitudinal Examination of Aggression and Study Skills from Middle to High School: Implications for Dropout Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Hsieh, Hsien-Lin; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Horne, Arthur M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: High school completion provides health and economic benefits. The purpose of this study is to describe dropout rates based on longitudinal trajectories of aggression and study skills using teacher ratings. Methods: The sample consisted of 620 randomly selected sixth graders. Every year from Grade 6 to 12, a teacher completed a…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Internet Addiction: The Role of Conscientiousness and Classroom Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…

  13. The Acquisition of Auxiliary Syntax: A Longitudinal Elicitation Study. Part 2: The Modals and Auxiliary DO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F.; Theakston, Anna L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The study of auxiliary acquisition is central to work on language development and has attracted theoretical work from both nativist and constructivist approaches. This study is part of a 2-part companion set that represents a unique attempt to trace the development of auxiliary syntax by using a longitudinal elicitation methodology. The…

  14. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  15. Relation between birth weight and blood pressure: longitudinal study of infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinal study of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476

  16. Conditions for Ubiquitous Computing: What Can Be Learned from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…

  17. Online Communication, Compulsive Internet Use, and Psychosocial Well-Being Among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Meerkerk, G.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Spijkerman, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between adolescents' online communication and compulsive Internet use, depression, and loneliness. The study had a 2-wave longitudinal design with an interval of 6 months. The sample consisted of 663 students, 318 male and 345 female, ages 12 to 15

  18. Serum albumin and muscle strength: a longitudinal study in older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, B.W.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Bouter, L.M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Visser, M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine whether low serum albumin is associated with low muscle strength and future decline in muscle strength in community-dwelling older men and women. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred seventy-six women

  19. A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Outcomes of Career Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…

  20. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in the Context of Cyberbullying: A Longitudinal Study among German Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…

  1. 78 FR 44553 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ...) of the U.S. Department of Education (ED), is a survey that focuses on children's early school... child assessments. Like its sister study, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of..., early learning, and school progress, drawing together information from multiple sources to provide rich...

  2. Development of Working Memory and Performance in Arithmetic: A Longitudinal Study with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…

  3. Children's Sympathy, Guilt, and Moral Reasoning in Helping, Cooperation, and Sharing: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Ongley, Sophia F.; Peplak, Joanna; Chaparro, Maria P.; Buchmann, Marlis; Zuffianò, Antonio; Cui, Lixian

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of sympathy, guilt, and moral reasoning in helping, cooperation, and sharing in a 6-year, three-wave longitudinal study involving 175 children (M[subscript age] 6.10, 9.18, and 12.18 years). Primary caregivers reported on children's helping and cooperation; sharing was assessed behaviorally. Child sympathy was assessed…

  4. Global determinants of mortality in under 5s: 10 year worldwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Nacher, Mathieu; Guihenneuc, Chantal; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Chavance, Michel

    2013-11-08

    To assess at country level the association of mortality in under 5s with a large set of determinants. Longitudinal study. 193 United Nations member countries, 2000-09. Yearly data between 2000 and 2009 based on 12 world development indicators were used in a multivariable general additive mixed model allowing for non-linear relations and lag effects. National rate of deaths in under 5s per 1000 live births The model retained the variables: gross domestic product per capita; percentage of the population having access to improved water sources, having access to improved sanitation facilities, and living in urban areas; adolescent fertility rate; public health expenditure per capita; prevalence of HIV; perceived level of corruption and of violence; and mean number of years in school for women of reproductive age. Most of these variables exhibited non-linear behaviours and lag effects. By providing a unified framework for mortality in under 5s, encompassing both high and low income countries this study showed non-linear behaviours and lag effects of known or suspected determinants of mortality in this age group. Although some of the determinants presented a linear action on log mortality indicating that whatever the context, acting on them would be a pertinent strategy to effectively reduce mortality, others had a threshold based relation potentially mediated by lag effects. These findings could help designing efficient strategies to achieve maximum progress towards millennium development goal 4, which aims to reduce mortality in under 5s by two thirds between 1990 and 2015.

  5. A subtraction pipeline for automatic detection of new appearing multiple sclerosis lesions in longitudinal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Diez, Yago; Freixenet, Jordi; Llado, Xavier [University of Girona, VICOROB Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Beltran, Brigitte [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain); Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Time-series analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI) is of great value for multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis and follow-up. In this paper, we present an unsupervised subtraction approach which incorporates multisequence information to deal with the detection of new MS lesions in longitudinal studies. The proposed pipeline for detecting new lesions consists of the following steps: skull stripping, bias field correction, histogram matching, registration, white matter masking, image subtraction, automated thresholding, and postprocessing. We also combine the results of PD-w and T2-w images to reduce false positive detections. Experimental tests are performed in 20 MS patients with two temporal studies separated 12 (12M) or 48 (48M) months in time. The pipeline achieves very good performance obtaining an overall sensitivity of 0.83 and 0.77 with a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.14 and 0.18 for the 12M and 48M datasets, respectively. The most difficult situation for the pipeline is the detection of very small lesions where the obtained sensitivity is lower and the FDR higher. Our fully automated approach is robust and accurate, allowing detection of new appearing MS lesions. We believe that the pipeline can be applied to large collections of images and also be easily adapted to monitor other brain pathologies. (orig.)

  6. Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning: Implications for Helping Children With Mathematics Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C; Resnick, Ilyse; Rodrigues, Jessica; Hansen, Nicole; Dyson, Nancy

    The goal of the present article is to synthesize findings to date from the Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning. The study followed a large cohort of children ( N = 536) between Grades 3 and 6. The findings showed that many students, especially those with diagnosed learning disabilities, made minimal growth in fraction knowledge and that some showed only a basic grasp of the meaning of a fraction even after several years of instruction. Children with low growth in fraction knowledge during the intermediate grades were much more likely to fail to meet state standards on a broad mathematics measure at the end of Grade 6. Although a range of general and mathematics-specific competencies predicted fraction outcomes, the ability to estimate numerical magnitudes on a number line was a uniquely important marker of fraction success. Many children with mathematics difficulties have deep-seated problems related to whole number magnitude representations that are complicated by the introduction of fractions into the curriculum. Implications for helping students with mathematics difficulties are discussed.

  7. Hear today, not gone tomorrow? An exploratory longitudinal study of auditory verbal hallucinations (hearing voices).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Nicky; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Hayward, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increasing volume of cross-sectional work on auditory verbal hallucinations (hearing voices), there remains a paucity of work on how the experience may change over time. The first aim of this study was to attempt replication of a previous finding that beliefs about voices are enduring and stable, irrespective of changes in the severity of voices, and do not change without a specific intervention. The second aim was to examine whether voice-hearers' interrelations with their voices change over time, without a specific intervention. A 12-month longitudinal examination of these aspects of voices was undertaken with hearers in routine clinical treatment (N = 18). We found beliefs about voices' omnipotence and malevolence were stable over a 12-month period, as were styles of interrelating between voice and hearer, despite trends towards reductions in voice-related distress and disruption. However, there was a trend for beliefs about the benevolence of voices to decrease over time. Styles of interrelating between voice and hearer appear relatively stable and enduring, as are beliefs about the voices' malevolent intent and power. Although there was some evidence that beliefs about benevolence may reduce over time, the reasons for this were not clear. Our exploratory study was limited by only being powered to detect large effect sizes. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  8. A longitudinal study of school connectedness and academic outcomes across sixth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Kate; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Rakes, Christopher R

    2012-08-01

    The current longitudinal study examines the extent to which school connectedness (i.e., students' perceptions of school support and the number of adults with whom they have a positive relationship) is associated with academic outcomes across sixth grade for students from high poverty neighborhoods. Data were collected from 330 sixth-grade students attending two middle schools in a large public school district. Specifically, students completed a survey to assess their perceived connection to the school environment, and academic information regarding students' grades, attendance, and discipline referrals was obtained from school records. Results from latent growth curve modeling showed that, on average, students' perceptions of school support declined significantly across the sixth-grade year. However, students who reported less decline, or growth, in school support across sixth grade had higher academic achievement at the end of the year than students who reported more decline in school support. Sixth-grade boys were at a greater risk for negative outcomes (i.e., lower school support, lower GPAs, and more discipline referrals) across the school year than girls. Results point to the importance of perceived connectedness to school in helping economically disadvantaged students experience a safe and successful transition to middle school. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of longitudinal diffusion-weighted images in healthy and pathological aging: An ADNI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruggel, Frithjof; Masaki, Fumitaro; Solodkin, Ana

    2017-02-15

    The widely used framework of voxel-based morphometry for analyzing neuroimages is extended here to model longitudinal imaging data by exchanging the linear model with a linear mixed-effects model. The new approach is employed for analyzing a large longitudinal sample of 756 diffusion-weighted images acquired in 177 subjects of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging initiative (ADNI). While sample- and group-level results from both approaches are equivalent, the mixed-effect model yields information at the single subject level. Interestingly, the neurobiological relevance of the relevant parameter at the individual level describes specific differences associated with aging. In addition, our approach highlights white matter areas that reliably discriminate between patients with Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls with a predictive power of 0.99 and include the hippocampal alveus, the para-hippocampal white matter, the white matter of the posterior cingulate, and optic tracts. In this context, notably the classifier includes a sub-population of patients with minimal cognitive impairment into the pathological domain. Our classifier offers promising features for an accessible biomarker that predicts the risk of conversion to Alzheimer's disease. Data used in preparation of this article were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database (adni.loni.usc.edu). As such, the investigators within the ADNI contributed to the design and implementation of ADNI and/or provided data but did not participate in analysis or writing of this report. A complete listing of ADNI investigators can be found at: http://adni.loni.usc.edu/wp-content/uploads/how to apply/ADNI Acknowledgement List.pdf. Significance statement This study assesses neuro-degenerative processes in the brain's white matter as revealed by diffusion-weighted imaging, in order to discriminate healthy from pathological aging in a large sample of elderly subjects. The analysis of time

  10. Psychotic experiences and social functioning: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Glyn; Wiles, Nicola; Thompson, Andrew; Evans, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    Both adolescent psychotic experiences and poor social functioning precede psychotic disorder; however, whether poor social functioning is also a risk factor for rather than a consequence of adolescent psychotic experiences is not clear. We investigate this question as well as whether deterioration in social functioning confers the strongest risk of psychotic experiences and whether theory of mind ability mediates any association, in a large community sample. Measures of social functioning (peer problems and prosocial behaviour) at ages 7 and 11 and theory of mind ability and psychotic experiences at age 12 were collected in a large community sample (n = 3,592). The association between social functioning and psychotic experiences was examined using logistic regression models at each age and any additional impact of deterioration in social functioning between ages 7 and 11. The potential role of theory of mind as a mediator was also investigated. Peer problems at both ages were independently associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 (7 years OR 1.11 95 % CI 1.03, 1.20), (11 years OR 1.13 95 % CI 1.05, 1.22). Theory of mind ability did not mediate this association. The association was not restricted to those with deteriorating social functioning (interaction term; p = 0.49). Poor childhood social functioning precedes adolescent psychotic experiences. There was no evidence that those with deteriorating social functioning were at greatest risk.

  11. A longitudinal study of parenting and adolescent adjustment in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2003-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the relationship between parenting behavior and adolescent adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse and delinquent behavior) in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage (N = 199). Results showed that parenting characteristics were concurrently and longitudinally related to measures of adolescent adjustment, particularly adolescent problem behavior. Compared with the norm based on adolescents of a community sample, poor adolescents perceived parenting characteristics to be more negative and they had relatively lower life satisfaction. Paternal parenting was perceived to be more negative than maternal parenting and parenting behavior was perceived to deteriorate over time.

  12. A micromechanical study of porous composites under longitudinal shear and transverse normal loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashouri Vajari, Danial

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical response of porous unidirectional composites under transverse normal and longitudinal shear loading is studied using the finite element analysis. The 3D model includes discrete and random distribution of fibers and voids. The micromechanical failure mechanisms are taken into account....... Finally, the computational prediction of the porous composite in the transverse normal-longitudinal shear stress space is obtained and compared with Puck's model. The results show that both interfaces with low fracture toughness and microvoids with even small void volume fraction can significantly reduce...

  13. Longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles, infant feeding, and islet autoimmunity in the MIDIA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgenrud, Benedicte; Stene, Lars C; Tapia, German

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles in healthy infants and the potential association with breastfeeding duration and islet autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. Method: Up to four longitudinal plasma samples from age 3 months from case......, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid at 3 months of age. Conclusions: Plasma levels of several small, polar metabolites changed with age during early childhood, independent of later islet autoimmunity status and sex. Breastfeeding was associated with higher levels of branched......-chain amino acids, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid....

  14. A Comparative Study on Fatigue Life Optimization of the Intersection between a Longitudinal and a Webframe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk-Sørensen, Martin

    1996-01-01

    to improve the design. A new improved slot for the longitudinal intersection in the web plate is found on the basis of a shape optimization of the conventional slot. The new slot has an unique shape (tongue form) resulting in a stress relaxation around the slot. Both the conventional and the new slot...... structure were analyzed by FEM followed by fatigue life calculations and subsequently compared. The overall expected fatigue life for the shape optimized slot will increase by approximately 12 %. The results were compared with an another study concerning a slot for a T-longitudinal....

  15. Education and Mortality in the Rome Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciani, Laura; Bargagli, Anna Maria; Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Agabiti, Nera; Davoli, Marina

    2015-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports an inverse association between socioeconomic status and mortality. We analysed data from a large cohort of residents in Rome followed-up between 2001 and 2012 to assess the relationship between individual education and mortality. We distinguished five causes of death and investigated the role of age, gender, and birthplace. From the Municipal Register we enrolled residents of Rome on October 21st 2001 and collected information on educational level attained from the 2001 Census. We selected Italian citizens aged 30-74 years and followed-up their vital status until 2012 (n = 1,283,767), identifying the cause of death from the Regional Mortality Registry. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for overall and cause-specific mortality in relation to education. We used age, gender, and birthplace for adjusted or stratified analyses. We used the inverse probability weighting approach to account for right censoring due to emigration. We observed an inverse association between education (none vs. post-secondary+ level) and overall mortality (HRs(95%CIs): 2.1(1.98-2.17), males; 1.5(1.46-1.59), females) varying according to demographic characteristics. Cause-specific analysis also indicated an inverse association with education, in particular for respiratory, digestive or circulatory system related-mortality, and the youngest people seemed to be more vulnerable to low education. Our results confirm the inverse association between education and overall or cause-specific mortality and show differentials particularly marked among young people compared to the elderly. The findings provide further evidence from the Mediterranean area, and may contribute to national and cross-country comparisons in Europe to understand the mechanisms generating socioeconomic differentials especially during the current recession period.

  16. Tailored Panel Management: A Theory-Based Approach to Building and Maintaining Participant Commitment to a Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Schultz, P Wesley

    2014-02-01

    Many psychological processes unfold over time, necessitating longitudinal research designs. Longitudinal research poses a host of methodological challenges, foremost of which is participant attrition. Building on Dillman's work, we provide a review of how social influence and relationship research informs retention strategies in longitudinal studies. Objective: We introduce the tailored panel management (TPM) approach, which is designed to establish communal norms that increase commitment to a longitudinal study, and this commitment, in turn, increases response rates and buffers against attrition. Specifically, we discuss practices regarding compensation, communication, consistency, and credibility that increase longer term commitment to panel participation. Research design: Throughout the article, we describe how TPM is being used in a national longitudinal study of undergraduate minority science students. TheScienceStudy is a continuing panel, which has 12 waves of data collected across 6 academic years, with response rates ranging from 70% to 92%. Although more than 90% of participants have either left or graduated from their undergraduate degree program, this highly mobile group of people remains engaged in the study. TheScienceStudy has usable longitudinal data from 96% of the original panel. Conclusion: This article combines social psychological theory, current best practice, and a detailed case study to illustrate the TPM approach to longitudinal data collection. The approach provides guidance for other longitudinal researchers, and advocates for empirical research into longitudinal research methodologies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. A longitudinal study of the grief of mothers and fathers of children with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, E J; Schultz, C L; Smyrnios, K X

    1996-03-01

    As a follow-up to a single-point-in-time study which suggested support for the proposition that grieving is an ongoing feature of parenting children with intellectual disability, the present investigation reports findings based on annual interviews conducted over a three-year period. Longitudinal outcomes on measures used to define grief largely confirmed the original findings. Of particular interest were (a) indications of the presence of grief over time (b) the finding that the 49 mothers and 49 fathers report similar intensity of continued wishing for what might have been, and (c) the conclusion that the responses of the mothers on the Impact of Event Scale and to current levels of distress when thinking about time of diagnoses are significantly more intense than those of the fathers. Attention is drawn to patterns emerging from gender-related differences. Resulted are discussed within the framework of four mandates for research and practice, with particular reference to psycho-educational support through groupwork.

  18. Estimating search engine index size variability: a 9-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Antal; Bogers, Toine; de Kunder, Maurice

    One of the determining factors of the quality of Web search engines is the size of their index. In addition to its influence on search result quality, the size of the indexed Web can also tell us something about which parts of the WWW are directly accessible to the everyday user. We propose a novel method of estimating the size of a Web search engine's index by extrapolating from document frequencies of words observed in a large static corpus of Web pages. In addition, we provide a unique longitudinal perspective on the size of Google and Bing's indices over a nine-year period, from March 2006 until January 2015. We find that index size estimates of these two search engines tend to vary dramatically over time, with Google generally possessing a larger index than Bing. This result raises doubts about the reliability of previous one-off estimates of the size of the indexed Web. We find that much, if not all of this variability can be explained by changes in the indexing and ranking infrastructure of Google and Bing. This casts further doubt on whether Web search engines can be used reliably for cross-sectional webometric studies.

  19. The Relation between Mastery Goals and Intrinsic Motivation among University Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Sonja; Reindl, Marion; Dresel, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The present work broadens previous research on students' mastery goals and intrinsic motivation by exploring their reciprocal effects using a longitudinal approach. To this end, a study using four measurement points was conducted during 10 weeks of one semester. The sample comprised 1156 students enrolled in psychology courses at a medium-sized…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Marketing Practices at Private Christian Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a longitudinal study investigating current marketing practices at selected church-related, private, four-year compared to those in place in 1997. The role that institutional selectivity plays in the use of marketing activities was also investigated. The researcher surveyed the admissions directors or enrollment…

  1. Basic Aspects of Infant-Grandparent "Interaction": An Eight-Month Longitudinal and Naturalistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratikaki, Anastasia; Germanakis, Ioannis; Kokkinaki, Theano

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal and naturalistic study aims to describe basic aspects of early imitative exchanges in dyadic infant-grandfather and infant-grandmother free interactions, from the second to the 10th month of age. Sixteen infants were video-recorded at home in the course of spontaneous dyadic interactions with maternal grandfathers and…

  2. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  3. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION. J. Rubes*, D. Zudova*, Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, CR, S.G. Selevan*, US EPA/ORD/NCEA, Washington, DC, D.P. Evenson, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, and S.D. Perreault, US ...

  4. Can Language Attitudes Be Improved? A Longitudinal Study of Immigrant Students in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianos, Maria-Adelina; Huguet, Ángel; Janés, Judit; Lapresta, Cecilio

    2017-01-01

    This study explores changes in attitudes towards Catalan, Spanish, and English over a 2-year period, on the part of secondary education students of immigrant origin residing in Catalonia. It aims to provide new data by adopting a longitudinal design and by focusing on the immigrant population, which has raised new challenges for the Catalan…

  5. Variations in Student Perceptions of Service Quality of Higher Education Institutions in Brazil: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Domingos Fernandes; dos Santos, Guido Salvi; Castro, Felipe Nalon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine, through a longitudinal study, undergraduate student perceptions of service expectations, priorities and quality of the higher education institution that they attend, using an importance-performance rating matrix. Design/methodology/approach: This research was carried out with students exposed to a…

  6. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); A.M.L. van Brakel (Anna); A. Arntz (Arnoud); E. Schouten (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control

  7. Impact of Curriculum on Understanding of Professional Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Students Commencing Dental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…

  8. The Interpersonal Antecedents of Supportive Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…

  9. Longitudinal Stability Study for the FACET-II e+ Damping Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, Karl [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-11-29

    This is an initial study of the longitudinal, single-bunch stability in the proposed FACET-II e+ damping ring. It is preliminary because, at present, only a few specific features of the vacuum chamber are known.

  10. Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

  11. Change in University Teachers' Elearning Beliefs and Practices: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined change in university teachers' elearning beliefs and practices after their initial experience with elearning. This study addresses this gap by focusing on six teachers who developed and implemented an elearning resource, and the changes they made to the resource and its implementation over two years. A…

  12. Working Memory, Attention, and Mathematical Problem Solving: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    The role of working memory (WM) in children's growth in mathematical problem solving was examined in a longitudinal study of children (N = 127). A battery of tests was administered that assessed problem solving, achievement, WM, and cognitive processing (inhibition, speed, phonological coding) in Grade 1 children, with follow-up testing in Grades…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Laterality Expression and Teacher Evaluation of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Sarah S.

    1978-01-01

    A three-year longitudinal study conducted to assess the incidence of mixed laterality in elementary school children showed that thirty-seven percent of the eighty-two subjects had mixed laterality. No relationship was found between perceptual motor and academic achievement as measured by teacher ratings and mixed laterality. (MF)

  14. A longitudinal study in youth of heart rate variability at rest and in response to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhibin; Snieder, Harold; Su, Shaoyong; Ding, Xiuhua; Thayer, Julian F.; Treiber, Frank A.; Wang, Xiaoling

    Background: Few longitudinal studies have examined ethnic and sex differences, predictors and tracking stabilities of heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and in response to stress in youths and young adults. Methods: Two evaluations were performed approximately 1.5 years apart on 399 youths and

  15. PSYCHOSEXUAL FUNCTIONING AFTER TREATMENT FOR CANCER OF THE CERVIX - A COMPARATIVE AND LONGITUDINAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHULTZ, WCMW; VANDEWIEL, HBM; BOUMA, J

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-six couples participated in a 2-year longitudinal study of sexual functioning before and after treatment for carcinoma of the cervix. Sexual functioning was measured on admission prior to their treatment and at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up and made operational in terms of current sexual

  16. Changes in Domain Specific Self-Perception amongst Young People with Intellectual Disability: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Clara; Muldoon, Orla T.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the changes that occur in multidimensional self-concept of adolescents with a diagnosis of intellectual disabilities, across gender and category of intellectual disability (borderline, mild, moderate) groups. A sample of 54 young people completed the Harter Self-Perception Profile. Using a three-wave longitudinal study…

  17. Predictors of Reading Skills for Kindergartners and First Grade Students in Spanish: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Pallante, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of word reading and reading comprehension skills using longitudinal data from Spanish-speaking kindergartners (N = 163) and first grade students (N = 305) from high SES families in Chile. Individual differences in letter-naming fluency and phonemic segmentation fluency, but not vocabulary, were positive…

  18. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  19. The Effects of Education on Business Ownership: A Longitudinal Study of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Arthur L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study using a national longitudinal sample of women to examine variations in the likelihood of entering, staying, and reentering self-employment by level of educational attainment found that each likelihood increased with increasing levels of education. Differences in the likelihood of entry accounted for most of the overall difference between…

  20. Patient demands, lack of reciprocity, and burnout: a five-year longitudinal study about general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.; Dierendonck, D. van

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 207 general practitioners (GPs) uses a five-year longitudinal design to test a process model of burnout. On the basis of social exchange and equity theory, it is hypothesized and found that demanding patient contacts produce a lack of reciprocity in the GP-patient

  1. A Longitudinal Study on Mathematics Teaching Efficacy: Which Factors (Un)Support the Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiksal-Bostan, Mine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine prospective teachers' mathematics teaching efficacy belief during their enrollment in teacher education program and at the end of their first year of teaching. In addition, the factors that enhance or inhibit participants' efficacy belief and how these factors affect their mathematics teaching…

  2. Social Identities among Engineering Students and through Their Transition to Work: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungert, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a longitudinal and qualitative study of students in a master's program in engineering. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze annual, semi-structured interviews with ten students, from the first semester until one year after graduation. The program enjoys a high status and has a reputation of being…

  3. Foreign Language Learning Motivation in Higher Education: A Longitudinal Study of Motivational Changes and Their Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Vera; Walter, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study involving first-year modern foreign languages students enrolled in German degree courses at two major universities in the United Kingdom. It explores the experience of these students from a motivational angle. A longitudinal mixed-methods approach was employed in order to address the time- and context-sensitive…

  4. Ten Years On: A Longitudinal Study of Families of Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports results of a longitudinal, ethnographic study of the psychosocial adaptation of parents of children with autism. Most parents reported improvements in their psychological well being, the social experiences of their immediate family, and their relations with their extended family. They also reported changes in stressful…

  5. The Effects of CLIL on Oral Comprehension and Production: A Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Cañado, María Luisa; Lancaster, Nina Karen

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of a longitudinal case study to gauge the impact of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) on two of the least researched language skills: oral comprehension and production. It worked with 24 students in the fourth grade of Compulsory Secondary Education in a public school in Andalusia (southern Spain)…

  6. Classroom Connectivity and Algebra 1 Achievement: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Karen E.; Pape, Stephen J.; Owens, Douglas T.; Abrahamson, Louis; Silver, David; Sanalan, Vehbi A.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from three years of a longitudinal randomized control trial involving a national U.S. sample of Algebra 1 teachers and students are reported. The study examines the effects of a connected classroom technology (CCT) professional development and classroom intervention on student achievement when compared to classroom instruction with…

  7. Attachment and Infant Night Waking: A Longitudinal Study From Birth Through the First Year of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Jansen, J.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Weerth, C. de

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Night wakings are common in infancy. Although a link between infant night wakings and attachment to the primary caregiver has been previously proposed, empirical support is limited so far. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the early history of night waking in infants who

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Pragmatic Language Development in Three Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown how cochlear implants (CIs), in children with hearing impairments, have improved speech perception and production, but very little is known about the children's pragmatic language development. During a 4-year longitudinal study of three children with CIs, certain aspects of pragmatic language development were observed in free…

  9. The Relationship between Early Language, Cognitive and Social Development through a Longitudinal Study of Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tamiko

    The development of and relationship between early language, symbolic play, sensorimotor skills, and social development were examined in a longitudinal study conducted in Japan with two young autistic males who were observed from the approximate ages of 2 to 4 years in clinic, day care, and home settings. One child acquired speech; the other did…

  10. Immigrant Status, Gender, and School Burnout in Finnish Lower Secondary School Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Read, Sanna; Minkkinen, Jaana; Kinnunen, Jaana M.; Rimpelä, Arja

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study among 9223 students from grade 7 and grade 9 (age 13-14 and 15-16) was to assess whether immigrant status and gender are associated with the level and change (slope) in school burnout among lower secondary school students in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Ninety-seven percent of the variation in school burnout…

  11. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation as Predictors of Reading Literacy: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele; Kortenbruck, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with reading literacy development. In particular, the authors (a) investigated reading amount as mediator between motivation and reading literacy and (b) probed for bidirectional relationships between reading motivation and reading…

  12. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  13. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  14. Age, intelligence, and event-related brain potentials during late childhood: A longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.C.M.; Molen, M.W.; Stauder, J.E.A.

    2003-01-01

    he relation between event-related brain activity, age, and intelligence was studied using a visual oddball task presented longitudinally to girls at 9, 10, and 11 years of age. The event-related brain potential (ERP) components showed typical gradual decrements in latency and amplitude with

  15. "A Writer More than . . . A Child": A Longitudinal Study Examining Adolescent Writer Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Jayne C.; Marsh, Valerie L.

    2018-01-01

    This article reconsiders theoretical claims of identity fluidity, stability, and agency through a longitudinal case study investigating one adolescent's writing over time and across spaces. Qualitative data spanning her four years of high school were collected and analyzed using a grounded theory approach with literacy-and-identity theory…

  16. Academic and Work-Related Burnout: A Longitudinal Study of Working Undergraduate University Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…

  17. Video-Based Interaction, Negotiation for Comprehensibility, and Second Language Speech Learning: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Akiyama, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of video-based conversational interaction on the longitudinal development (one academic semester) of second language production by college-level Japanese English-as-a-foreign-language learners. Students in the experimental group engaged in weekly dyadic conversation exchanges with native speakers in the United States…

  18. Reckoning HIV/AIDS care: A longitudinal study of community home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To better understand the potential significance of global and national health policy/programming reliance on community health workers (task shifting), we analysed longitudinal data on both care supporter and client cohorts from 2008 to 2013. Most CHBC studies report data from only one cohort. Foremost, our analysis ...

  19. Relationships between Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit substances among adolescents, addressing methodological limitations and potential confounding in the extant literature. The sample comprised adolescents who were surveyed in Grades 6 (n = 916), 9 (n = 804), and 11 (n = 791).…

  20. Multiracial Children and Poverty: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…

  1. Recruiting and Retaining an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Older Adults in a Longitudinal Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin-Wells, Vonnette; McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes strategies developed to recruit and retain an ethnically diverse sample in a longitudinal intervention of 246 participants in the SeniorWISE study. The ethnic and socioeconomic differences of these participants necessitated the use of different methods of effectively communicating with this population. Recruitment benefited…

  2. Stability and Change in Work Values: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Rounds, James

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies was conducted to investigate stability and change in work values across the life span. Both rank-order stability and mean-level change were investigated using an integrative classification for intrinsic, extrinsic, social and status work values (Ross, Schwartz, & Surkis, 1999). Results of rank-order…

  3. The Importance of Additive Reasoning in Children's Mathematical Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Boby Ho-Hong; Nunes, Terezinha

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the relative importance of counting ability, additive reasoning, and working memory in children's mathematical achievement (calculation and story problem solving). In Hong Kong, 115 Chinese children aged 6 years old participated in 2 waves of assessments (T1 = first grade and T2 = second grade). Multiple regression…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of the Relation between Depressive Symptomatology and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Paula A. Errazuriz; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Thakar, Dhara A.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether mothers' depressive symptomatology predicted parenting practices in a sample of 199 mothers of 3-year-old children with behavior problems who were assessed yearly until age 6. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher overreactivity and laxness and lower warmth when children were 6…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of OPAC Screen Changes on Searching Behavior and Searcher Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Deborah D.; Dorsch, Josephine L.; Koenig, Melissa H.; Bangalore, Nimala S.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a longitudinal study of four sets of OPAC (online public access catalog) transaction logs that examined the effects of screen changes in helping searchers improve their search behavior. Results show that while screen changes initially had a positive impact on search behavior, they were not always sustained over time. (Author/LRW)

  6. Removed from the List: A Comparative Longitudinal Case Study of a Reconstitution-Eligible School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Iver, Douglas J.; Ruby, Allen; Balfanz, Robert; Byrnes, Vaughan

    2002-01-01

    Longitudinal case study of reform efforts centering on the Talent Development Middle School model at low-performing, high-poverty middle school in Philadelphia. Finds that student gains in mathematics, science, and reading achievement at subject school exceeded that of students in comparable school. (Contains 19 references.) (PKP)

  7. Colorism and Educational Outcomes of Asian Americans: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, the current study examines the link between colorism and educational attainment of Asian American young adults. Three levels of educational attainment are used as outcomes: high school diploma, some college and a Bachelor's degree or higher. Independent variables include skin tone, ethnic…

  8. Interpersonal stress, performance level, and parental support : A Longitudinal study among highly skilled young soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    1995-01-01

    This study of 65 highly skilled young male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years) employed a 7-month longitudinal design to examine the causal relationship between performance level and interpersonal stress within the team. Particular attention was paid to the moderating effect of parental support.

  9. "I Feel So Confused": A Longitudinal Study of Young Adolescents' Change in Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth of early adolescent self-esteem and self-concept as students progress through the middle level years (sixth through eighth grade). Based on mixed method longitudinal research conducted from 2004 to 2007, the study's findings suggest that this sample of 104 urban students' self-esteem changed most significantly…

  10. Longitudinal Study of Direct Instruction Effects from First through Third Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Randall J.; Burton, Jennifer Lyn; Silberg, Anna

    2006-01-01

    In a 3-year longitudinal study, the authors examined the effect of Direct Instruction (DI) on students' reading achievement, teacher perceptions, nature of the classroom, and special education referral rate. Urban and suburban students completed the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests in the fall of Grade 1 and spring of Grades 1, 2, and 3. Teachers…

  11. Developmental Associations between Working Memory and Language in Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugs, Brigitte; Hendriks, Marc; Cuperus, Juliane; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study examined differences in the development of working memory (WM) between children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children. Further, it explored to what extent language at ages 7-8 years could be predicted by measures of language and/or WM at ages 4-5 years. Method: Thirty…

  12. Relationship between Screen-Time and Motor Proficiency in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoret, Geneviève; Bigras, Nathalie; Lemay, Lise; Lehrer, Joanne; Lemire, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between screen time (ST) and children's motor proficiency. The amount of time 113 children spent watching television, using a computer, and playing video games as reported by parents at ages 4, 5, and 7 was measured and children's motor skills were evaluated at age 7 with the…

  13. How Fast Do Students Forget What They Learn in Consumer Behavior? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Donald R.; Stewart, Kim A.

    2006-01-01

    The retention curve for knowledge acquired in a consumer behavior course is explored in a longitudinal study, tracking individual students from 8 to 101 weeks following course completion. Rasch measurement is used to link tests and to achieve intervally scaled measures of knowledge. The findings indicate that most of the knowledge gained in the…

  14. Children's Theory of Mind, Self-Perceptions, and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored Theory of Mind (ToM), self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations of 91 children (52 females, ages 6-8?years) drawn from two schools situated in a mainly Euro-Canadian, middle socioeconomic status, semi-rural central Canadian context. ToM, self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations were…

  15. Longitudinal genetic study of verbal and nonverbal IQ from early childhood to young adulthood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal genetic study we explored which factors underlie stability in verbal and nonverbal abilities, and the extent to which the association between these abilities becomes stronger as children grow older. Measures of verbal and nonverbal IQ were collected in Dutch twin pairs at age 5, 7,

  16. Effects of attitude dissimilarity and time on social integration : A longitudinal panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    A longitudinal panel study in 25 work groups of elementary school teachers examined the effect of attitudinal dissimilarity and time on social integration across a 9-month period. In line with the prediction based on both the similarity-attraction approach and social identity theory, cross-lagged

  17. DNA methylation age is associated with mortality in a longitudinal Danish twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene; Lenart, Adam; Tan, Qihua

    2016-01-01

    included a 10-year longitudinal study of the 86 oldest-old twins (mean age of 86.1 at follow-up), which subsequently were followed for mortality for 8 years. We found that the DNAm age is highly correlated with chronological age across all age groups (r = 0.97), but that the rate of change of DNAm age...

  18. Children's advertising exposure and materialistic orientations: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Buijzen, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    As many as nine out of 10 parents worry that children's frequent exposure to advertising makes them materialistic. In this study we not only aim to investigate if children's advertising exposure indeed affects their materialism, but also how it affects their materialism (i.e., by studying the

  19. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Josje S. E.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; de Lange, Annet H.; Vinkenburg, Claartje J.; Kooij, Dorien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model,

  20. A Longitudinal Study on Resting State Functional Connectivity in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafkemeijer, Anne; Möller, Christiane; Dopper, Elise G P; Jiskoot, Lize C; van den Berg-Huysmans, Annette A; van Swieten, John C; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Vrenken, Hugo; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; van der Grond, Jeroen; Rombouts, Serge A R B

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are the most common types of early-onset dementia. We applied longitudinal resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to delineate functional brain connections relevant for disease progression and diagnostic accuracy. We used two-center resting state fMRI data of 20 AD patients (65.1±8.0 years), 12 bvFTD patients (64.7±5.4 years), and 22 control subjects (63.8±5.0 years) at baseline and 1.8-year follow-up. We used whole-network and voxel-based network-to-region analyses to study group differences in functional connectivity at baseline and follow-up, and longitudinal changes in connectivity within and between groups. At baseline, connectivity between paracingulate gyrus and executive control network, between cuneal cortex and medial visual network, and between paracingulate gyrus and salience network was higher in AD compared with controls. These differences were also present after 1.8 years. At follow-up, connectivity between angular gyrus and right frontoparietal network, and between paracingulate gyrus and default mode network was lower in bvFTD compared with controls, and lower compared with AD between anterior cingulate gyrus and executive control network, and between lateral occipital cortex and medial visual network. Over time, connectivity decreased in AD between precuneus and right frontoparietal network and in bvFTD between inferior frontal gyrus and left frontoparietal network. Longitudinal changes in connectivity between supramarginal gyrus and right frontoparietal network differ between both patient groups and controls. We found disease-specific brain regions with longitudinal connectivity changes. This suggests the potential of longitudinal resting state fMRI to delineate regions relevant for disease progression and for diagnostic accuracy, although no group differences in longitudinal changes in the direct comparison of AD and bvFTD were found.

  1. Second- to Third-Trimester Longitudinal Growth Assessment for the Prediction of Largeness for Gestational Age and Macrosomia in an Unselected Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradeux, Javier; Eixarch, Elisenda; Mazarico, Edurne; Basuki, Tri Rahmat; Gratacós, Eduard; Figueras, Francesc

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal detection of excessive growth remains inaccurate. Most strategies rely on a single cross-sectional evaluation of fetal size during the third trimester. To compare second- to third-trimester longitudinal growth assessment with cross-sectional evaluation at the third trimester in the prediction of largeness for gestational age (LGA) and macrosomia. A cohort of 2,696 unselected singleton pregnancies scanned at 21 ± 2 and 32 ± 2 weeks was created. Abdominal circumference (AC) measurements were transformed to z values according to the INTERGROWTH-21st standards. Longitudinal growth assessment was performed by calculation of z velocity and conditional growth. Both methods were compared to cross-sectional assessment at 32 ± 2 weeks. Predictive performance for LGA and macrosomia was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. A total of 188 (7%) newborns qualified for LGA and 182 (6.8%) for macrosomia. The areas under the curve (AUCs) for 32-week AC z score, AC z velocity, and conditional AC were 0.78, 0.61, and 0.55, respectively, for the prediction of LGA, and 0.75, 0.61, and 0.55, respectively, for the prediction of macrosomia. Both AUCs of AC z velocity and conditional AC were significantly lower (p third-trimester longitudinal assessment of fetal growth is inferior to third-trimester cross-sectional evaluation of size in the prediction of LGA and macrosomia. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work : a longitudinal study among older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Ybema, J.F.; Beek, A.J. van der; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45–64, of the longitudinal Study on

  3. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work: A longitudinal study among older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; van den Heuvel, S.G.; Ybema, Jan Fekke; van der Beek, A.J.; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal Study on

  4. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work: a longitudinal study among older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; van den Heuvel, S.G.; Ybema, J.F.; van der Beek, A.J.; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal Study on

  5. Sustaining Continuous Improvement: A Longitudinal and Regional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Quesada-Pineda

    2013-09-01

    companies, no changes in perception were found during the period of study for any of the factors. For the other two, however, changes were perceived in at least one of the five constructs in the study. Changes were also found across the regions included. By leveraging the quantitative analysis with qualitative data collected through interviews and visits to the case study companies, we were able to explain the changes in perception and single out the best CI management process to sustain CI in the long term.

  6. Psychological Characteristics of Chronic Depression : A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E.; van Oppen, Patricia; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; van der Does, A. J. Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T. E.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Few studies have investigated the importance of psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. Knowledge about psychological differences between chronically depressed persons and nonchronically depressed persons may help to improve treatment of chronic depression. This is

  7. Mortality in Autism: A Prospective Longitudinal Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva; Sundh, Valter; Gillberg, I. Carina

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the mortality rate in a representative group of individuals (n = 120) born in the years 1962-1984, diagnosed with autism/atypical autism in childhood and followed up at young adult age (greater than or equal to 18 years of age), and examine the risk factors and causes of death. The study group,…

  8. A qualitative study of participants' views on re-consent in a longitudinal biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Woods, Mary; Kocman, David; Brewster, Liz; Willars, Janet; Laurie, Graeme; Tarrant, Carolyn

    2017-03-23

    Biomedical research increasingly relies on long-term studies involving use and re-use of biological samples and data stored in large repositories or "biobanks" over lengthy periods, often raising questions about whether and when a re-consenting process should be activated. We sought to investigate the views on re-consent of participants in a longitudinal biobank. We conducted a qualitative study involving interviews with 24 people who were participating in a longitudinal biobank. Their views were elicited using a semi-structured interview schedule and scenarios based on a hypothetical biobank. Data analysis was based on the constant comparative method. What participants identified as requiring new consent was not a straightforward matter predictable by algorithms about the scope of the consent, but instead was contingent. They assessed whether proposed new research implied a fundamental alteration in the underlying character of the biobank and whether specific projects were within the scope of the original consent. What mattered most to them was that the cooperative bargain into which they had entered was maintained in good faith. They saw re-consent as one important safeguard in this bargain. In determining what required re-consent, they deployed two logics. First, they used a logic of boundaries, where they sought to detect any possible rupture with their existing framework of cooperation. Second, they used a logic of risk, where they assessed proposed research for any potential threats for them personally or the research endeavour. When they judged that a need for re-consent had been activated, participants saw the process as way of re-actualising and renewing the cooperative bargain. Participants' perceptions of research as a process of mutual co-operation between volunteer and researcher were fundamental to their views on consent. Consenting arrangements for biobanks should respect the cooperative values that are important to participants, recognise the two

  9. Understanding developmental language disorder - the Helsinki longitudinal SLI study (HelSLI): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, Marja; Smolander, Sini; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Leminen, Miika; Lajunen, Hanna-Reetta; Heinonen, Kati; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Bailey, Todd M; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Kujala, Teija; Leppänen, Paavo H T; Bartlett, Christopher W; Geneid, Ahmed; Lauronen, Leena; Service, Elisabet; Kunnari, Sari; Arkkila, Eva

    2018-05-21

    Developmental language disorder (DLD, also called specific language impairment, SLI) is a common developmental disorder comprising the largest disability group in pre-school-aged children. Approximately 7% of the population is expected to have developmental language difficulties. However, the specific etiological factors leading to DLD are not yet known and even the typical linguistic features appear to vary by language. We present here a project that investigates DLD at multiple levels of analysis and aims to make the reliable prediction and early identification of the difficulties possible. Following the multiple deficit model of developmental disorders, we investigate the DLD phenomenon at the etiological, neural, cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial levels, in a longitudinal study of preschool children. In January 2013, we launched the Helsinki Longitudinal SLI study (HelSLI) at the Helsinki University Hospital ( http://tiny.cc/HelSLI ). We will study 227 children aged 3-6 years with suspected DLD and their 160 typically developing peers. Five subprojects will determine how the child's psychological characteristics and environment correlate with DLD and how the child's well-being relates to DLD, the characteristics of DLD in monolingual versus bilingual children, nonlinguistic cognitive correlates of DLD, electrophysiological underpinnings of DLD, and the role of genetic risk factors. Methods include saliva samples, EEG, computerized cognitive tasks, neuropsychological and speech and language assessments, video-observations, and questionnaires. The project aims to increase our understanding of the multiple interactive risk and protective factors that affect the developing heterogeneous cognitive and behavioral profile of DLD, including factors affecting literacy development. This accumulated knowledge will form a heuristic basis for the development of new interventions targeting linguistic and non-linguistic aspects of DLD.

  10. Longitudinal Study of Body Mass Index in Young Males and the Transition to Fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Craig F; Duncan, Greg; Gutina, Anna; Rutsohn, Joshua; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Despite a growing understanding that the social determinants of health have an impact on body mass index (BMI), the role of fatherhood on young men's BMI is understudied. This longitudinal study examines BMI in young men over time as they transition from adolescence into fatherhood in a nationally representative sample. Data from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health supported a 20-year longitudinal analysis of 10,253 men beginning in 1994. A "fatherhood-year" data set was created and changes in BMI were examined based on fatherhood status (nonfather, nonresident father, resident father), fatherhood years, and covariates. Though age is positively associated with BMI over all years for all men, comparing nonresident and resident fathers with nonfathers reveals different trajectories based on fatherhood status. Entrance into fatherhood is associated with an increase in BMI trajectory for both nonresident and resident fathers, while nonfathers exhibit a decrease over the same period. In this longitudinal, population-based study, fatherhood and residence status play a role in men's BMI. Designing obesity prevention interventions for young men that begin in adolescence and carry through young adulthood should target the distinctive needs of these populations, potentially improving their health outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Late urologic morbidity in 177 consecutive patients after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma: a longitudinal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajer, Henrik; Thranov, Ingrid R.; Skovgaard, Lene T.; Engelholm, Svend Aa

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To provide longitudinal data on urologic morbidity after radiotherapy and brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Five-year longitudinal urologic morbidity data were recorded from 177 consecutive patients of median age 59 years (range: 22-86 years) with cervical carcinoma receiving radiotherapy with curative intent at the Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. FIGO stages (%) were as follows: Stage I (15), Stage II (30), Stage III (54), and Stage IV (1). Late morbidity was calculated as cumulative incidence based on actuarial estimates. Results: The 5-year cumulative incidence based on actuarial estimates of urologic morbidity Grades 1 + 2 + 3, Grades 2 + 3, and Grade 3 were 62%, 32%, and 5%, respectively. Frequencies of urologic morbidity in the 54 recurrence-free survivors at the end of follow-up indicated some reversibility in the case of Grades 1 and 2 morbidity. Conclusion: With the longitudinal design used in the present study, a rate of mild and moderate morbidity higher than that found in most of the previously reported literature was observed, giving cause for concern and underlining the importance of further longitudinal studies on this subject, specifically studies that relate to the background urologic morbidity in the female population, as well as to the fact that urologic morbidity might regress

  12. Childhood maltreatment and adulthood poor sleep quality: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel A; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake M

    2017-08-01

    Available evidence from cross-sectional studies suggests that childhood maltreatment may be associated with a range of sleep disorders. However, these studies have not controlled for potential individual-, familial- and environmental-level confounders. To determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lower sleep quality after adjusting for potential confounders. Data for the present study were obtained from a pre-birth cohort study of 3778 young adults (52.6% female) of the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy follow up at a mean age of 20.6 years. The Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy is a prospective Australian pre-birth cohort study of mothers consecutively recruited during their first obstetric clinic visit at Brisbane's Mater Hospital in 1981-1983. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at the 21-year follow up. We linked this dataset to agency-recorded substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment. A series of separate logistic regression models was used to test whether childhood maltreatment predicted lower sleep quality after adjustment for selected confounders. Substantiated physical abuse significantly predicted lower sleep quality in males. Single and multiple forms of childhood maltreatment, including age of maltreatment and number of substantiations, did not predict lower sleep quality in either gender in both crude and adjusted models. Not being married, living in a residential problem area, cigarette smoking and internalising were significantly associated with lower sleep quality in a fully adjusted model for the male-female combined sample. Childhood maltreatment does not appear to predict young adult poor sleep quality, with the exception of physical abuse for males. While childhood maltreatment has been found to predict a range of mental health problems, childhood maltreatment does not appear to predict sleep problems occurring in young adults. Poor sleep quality was

  13. Smoking reduction and biomarkers in two longitudinal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina; Prescott, Eva; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To measure reduction in exposure to smoke in two population-based studies of self-reported smoking reduction not using nicotine replacement. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses of biomarkers and smoking. SETTING: Data from two time-points in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), 1981....../83 and 1991/94, and the Copenhagen Male Study (CMS) in 1976 and 1985/86, respectively. PARTICIPANTS: There were 3026 adults who were smokers at both time-points in the CCHS and 1319 men smoking at both time-points in the CMS. MEASUREMENTS: Smoking status and tobacco consumption were assessed by self...... a reduction in cigarettes per day of 50% or more without quitting were compared with continuing medium, heavy and light smokers (1-14 g/day) using linear regression. Sex (CCHS only), age, self-reported inhalation of smoke, duration of smoking, type of tobacco and amount smoked were included as covariates...

  14. Large scale study of tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodart, F.; Deconninck, G.; Martin, M.T.

    Human tooth enamel contains traces of foreign elements. The presence of these elements is related to the history and the environment of the human body and can be considered as the signature of perturbations which occur during the growth of a tooth. A map of the distribution of these traces on a large scale sample of the population will constitute a reference for further investigations of environmental effects. On hundred eighty samples of teeth were first analyzed using PIXE, backscattering and nuclear reaction techniques. The results were analyzed using statistical methods. Correlations between O, F, Na, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Sr were observed and cluster analysis was in progress. The techniques described in the present work have been developed in order to establish a method for the exploration of very large samples of the Belgian population. (author)

  15. Friendlessness and Theory of Mind: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, E.; Begeer, S.M.; Peterson, C.; Slaughter, V.; De Rosnay, M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic friendlessness in childhood predicts adverse mental health outcomes throughout life, yet its earliest roots are poorly understood. In theory, developing a theory of mind (ToM) should help children gain mutual friends and one preschool study (Peterson and Siegal, 2002. Br J Dev Psychol, 20,

  16. Financing Community Colleges: A Longitudinal Study of 11 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenton, Carol Piper; Huba, Mary E.; Schuh, John H.; Shelley II, Mack C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the financing patterns of 212 community colleges in 11 midwestern states during the decade of the 1990s using the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS). Support from state appropriations declined between 1990 and 2000, and reliance on tuition and fees increased between 1990 and 1995, although both trends were…

  17. A Longitudinal Study on Newcomers' Perception of Organisational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Duygu; Altuntas, Ceren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse how newcomers' perceptions of organisational culture can change over time. The study tries to address whether initial working experience changes newcomers' perceptions about the ideal organisational culture, and whether these perceptions converge with those of their supervisors.…

  18. Adolescent Ethnolinguistic Stability and Change: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Mary Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Most sociolinguistic studies rely on apparent time, cross-sectional methods to analyze language change. On the basis of apparent time data, sociolinguists have hypothesized that cultural processes of lifespan change create predictable cycles of linguistic behavior in which adolescents lead in the use of vernacular variants and advance sound change…

  19. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  20. Intellectual development in Noonan syndrome: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, R.L.; Janssen, N.; Wingbermühle, P.A.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although cognitive impairments in adults with Noonan syndrome seem to be limited to a low-average intelligence and slower processing speed, studies in children with Noonan syndrome have demonstrated more extensive cognitive problems. These include deficits in language skills, memory,

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and calcaneal ultrasound parameters among Inuit women from Nuuk (Greenland): a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunescu, Alexandra-Cristina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Dodin, Sylvie; Pedersen, Henning S; Mulvad, Gert; Côté, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    The traditional diet of Inuit people comprises large amounts of fish and marine mammals that are rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Results from in vitro studies, laboratory animal experiments and population studies suggest that omega-3 PUFA intake and a high omega-3/omega-6 ratio exert a positive effect on bone health. This longitudinal study was conducted to examine the relationship between omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA status and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters in Greenlandic Inuit women. The study included 118 Inuit women from Nuuk (Greenland), aged 49-64 years, whose QUS parameters measured at baseline (year 2000), along with PUFA status and covariates, and follow-up QUS measurements 2 years later (year 2002). QUS parameters [speed of sound (SOS); broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA)] were measured at the right calcaneus with a water-bath Lunar Achilles instrument. Omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA contents of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids were measured after transmethylation by gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector. Relationships between QUS parameters and different PUFAs were studied in multiple linear regression models. Increasing values of EPA, DHA and the omega-3/omega-6 PUFA ratio were associated with increased BUA values measured at follow-up (year 2002). These associations were still present in models adjusted for several confounders and covariates. We found little evidence of associations between PUFAs and SOS values. The omega-3 PUFA intake from marine food consumption seems to have a positive effect on bone intrinsic quality and strength, as revealed by higher BUA values in this group of Greenlandic Inuit women.

  2. Depression and mortality in a longitudinal study: 1952-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Stephen E; Sucha, Ewa; Kingsbury, Mila; Horton, Nicholas J; Murphy, Jane M; Colman, Ian

    2017-10-23

    Many studies have shown that depression increases mortality risk. We aimed to investigate the duration of time over which depression is associated with increased risk of mortality, secular trends in the association between depression and mortality, and sex differences in the association between depression and mortality. We conducted a cohort study of 3410 adults enrolled in 3 representative samples of a county in Atlantic Canada in 1952 ( n = 1003), 1970 ( n = 1203) or 1992 ( n = 1402) (the Stirling County Study). Depression was measured using a diagnostic algorithm based on the presence of depressed mood and associated symptoms, duration of more than 1 month, and substantial impairment. Vital status of participants through 2011 was determined using probabilistic linkages to the Canadian Mortality Database. Depression was associated with a heightened risk of mortality among men during the 3 time periods of the study, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 2.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69-4.98) between 1952 and 1967, 1.97 (CI 1.34-2.89) between 1968 and 1990, and 1.52 (CI 1.09-2.13) between 1991 and 2011. Elevated risk of mortality was noted among women only between 1990 and 2011 (HR = 1.51; CI = 1.11-2.05). The association between depression and mortality persists over long periods of time and has emerged among women in recent decades, despite contemporaneous improvements in the treatment of depression and reduction of stigma associated with depression. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms involved. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  3. A Longitudinal Study on Social Competence Development and Sleeping Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Tomisaki, Etsuko; Tanaka, Emiko; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tong, Lian; Hirano, Maki; Watanabe, Taeko; Onda, Yoko; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Kawashima, Yuri; Yato, Yuko; Yamakawa, Noriko; Anme, Tokie

    2010-01-01

    Background It is known that sleep problems impact children’s health, learning, and school performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between sleeping habits and social competence development. Methods Three hundred and nine caregiver-child dyads participated in this study, which was conducted as part of a Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) project. The caregivers answered some questionnaires about sleeping habits when the child was 9 months and 18 months old. C...

  4. Clustering of Unhealthy Behaviors in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Héroux, Mariane; Janssen, Ian; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Hebert, James R.; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Clustering of unhealthy behaviors has been reported in previous studies; however the link with all-cause mortality and differences between those with and without chronic disease requires further investigation. Objectives To observe the clustering effects of unhealthy diet, fitness, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption in adults with and without chronic disease and to assess all-cause mortality risk according to the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Methods Participants were ...

  5. Acute-phase proteins in pregnant goats: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czopowicz, Michał; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Witkowski, Lucjan; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Reczyńska, Daria; Bagnicka, Emilia; Kaba, Jarosław

    2017-11-01

    We documented changes in serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) concentration in goats during pregnancy, as measured by competitive ELISAs. Fifteen does (pregnant group) and 20 castrated males (control group) were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected on the same day from all 35 goats, 7 times throughout the study period: at mating, then once every month, during the week preceding kidding, and 1 mo after kidding. Baseline SAA and Hp concentrations at mating were identical in the 2 groups. In the pregnant group, SAA concentration rose significantly in the second month and remained elevated until the end of pregnancy, with the peak concentration at kidding. In the control group, SAA concentration remained unchanged compared to the baseline concentration throughout the study. SAA concentration was significantly higher in the pregnant than control group only at the end of the fourth month of pregnancy and at kidding. Hp concentration did not change during pregnancy or between groups. SAA concentration at kidding was affected only by parity of does - it was highest in does in the third and fourth pregnancy and gradually lower in older does.

  6. Renal function and long-term decline in cognitive function: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliger, Stephen L; Wendell, Carrington R; Waldstein, Shari R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B

    2015-01-01

    Renal disease has been associated with greater risk of dementia and greater cognitive impairment. However, the relationship of lower renal function with long-term decline in specific domains of cognitive function remains unclear among community-dwelling, non-demented individuals. Stroke- and dementia-free participants (n = 2,116) were enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, a community-based, prospective, longitudinal study. Renal function was estimated by the inverse of serum creatinine adjusted for age, sex and race and (in sensitivity analyses) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the MDRD formula. Outcome measures were changes in scores on 6 cognitive tests encompassing a range of cognitive functions, measured at 2-year intervals. Mixed-effects regression models examined the longitudinal relations of renal function with cognitive functions after adjusting for demographics, comorbidity and other potential confounders. Mean age at initial testing was 53.9 years (SD 17.1), and 94 participants (4.4%) had an eGFR age, longitudinal increases in creatinine concentrations were associated with more rapid decline in performance on several cognitive measures, including the learning slope of the California Verbal Learning Test, a test of verbal learning (p renal function independently associated with greater long-term declines in visual memory and verbal memory and learning. © 2015 National Institutes of Health (NIH). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Active recruitment and limited participant-load related to high participation in large population-based biobank studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Scholtens, Salome; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Smidt, Nynke; Bultmann, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Insight into baseline participation rates and their determinants is crucial for designing future population-based biobank studies. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of baseline participation rates and their determinants in large longitudinal population-based

  8. [Aging of cognitive functions. Results of a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitrenaud, J; Barrère, H; Darcet, P; Driss, F

    1983-12-29

    This study had the two following purposes: to assess the age-related changes in the fluid and crystallized components of intelligence in subjects over age sixty five; to examine whether these age-related changes were linked to any biological, psychological and social factors. The sample was composed of 50 male subjects who were examined three times: in 1968, 1973 and 1977. At the beginning of the study, their age ranged from 60 to 79 years and they were all in good health. In the whole, their socio-economic level was high. At each wave of the study, these subjects were given the same battery of three mental tests: a vocabulary test, selected to assess crystallized intelligence; a perceptual test and a speeded digit coding test, both selected to assess fluid intelligence. Results show that the two components of intelligence have different aging trajectories over age sixty. On the vocabulary test, performances hold until an advanced age (about 75-80), then significantly decline. On the perceptual and digit coding tests, performances sharply and significantly decline with age, this decline looking approximately linear. Whatever the test used, individual differences in age-related changes in performance are found to be great. On vocabulary test, this variability is linked to two factors, independently of age: among subjects who have suffered from a cardio-arterial disease between wave 1 and wave 3, as well as in those who have not maintained an occupational activity, decline in performance is greater than in other subjects. On the two other tests, no factor was found to be significantly linked with change in performance between wave 1 and wave 3.

  9. WORD PROCESSING AND SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A LONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister Cumming

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2 leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 composing displayed by a 29-year-old, male Mandarin leamer of English with intermediate proficiency in English while he wrote, over 8 months, 14 compositions grouped into 7 comparable pairs of topics altemating between uses of a lap-top computer and of pen and paper. Al1 keystrokes were recorded electronically in the computer environrnent; visual records of al1 text changes were made for the pen-and paper writing. Think-aloud protocols were recorded in al1 sessions. Analyses indicate advantages for the word-processing medium over the pen-and-paper medium in terms ofi a greater frequency of revisions made at the discourse level and at the syntactical level; higher scores for content on analytic ratings of the completed compositions; and more extensive evaluation ofwritten texts in think-aloud verbal reports.

  10. Longitudinal study among children of parents exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, T.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the fact that there is a general lack of experience in consultancy to patients treated by radiation therapy, the Radiotherapy Dept. of the 'Carl Gustav Carus' Medical Academy in Dresden started to carry out investigations among the off-spring of radiotherapy patients of procreative age. The first phase of the study carried out with the help of the residents' registration system of the former GDR found 21 children of patients treated by radiotherapy. Encouraged by the first experience, the author of the paper since then has continued the investigations on a regular and comprehensive basis, collecting the data of all offspring of patients treated by the Dept., and performing follow-up examinations every five years (1975, 1980, 1985), assisted by an experienced pediatrician. A major result of the study is the fact that it confirms the permissible dose to the testes or ovaries which has been observed so far for radiation treatment, but has been the subject of controversial debates among experts. Doses exceeding 1.5 Gy to a man, or 3.0 Gy to a woman, applied at the usual clinical conditions, have to be regarded as sterilising doses. The author developes conclusions and advice for medical consultancy to patients. (orig./MG) [de

  11. A longitudinal study of the Friedreich Ataxia Impact Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Geneieve; Yiu, Eppie M; Corben, Louise A; Delatycki, Martin B

    2015-05-15

    Quality of life in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) has been explored using various generic health status measurement tools, most commonly the Short Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-36v2). The tool did not address many specific issues related to disease impact in people with FRDA. The Friedreich Ataxia Impact Scale (FAIS) was developed to examine clinically relevant areas in FRDA. The aims of the current study were to assess the relationship between the FAIS and clinical characteristics of FRDA, as well as to determine the responsiveness of the FAIS to change over one and two years. One hundred and four individuals with FRDA, homozygous for the GAA expansion in intron 1 of FXN, completed the FAIS at baseline. Seventy individuals completed the FAIS again 12 months later and 49 completed the FAIS at 24 months. Clinical parameters and neurologic scales (Friedreich Ataxia Rating Scale (FARS)) were also recorded. The total FARS score, onset age and disease duration correlated significantly with FAIS subscales measuring symptoms and physical functioning. The physical and mental summary measures of the SF-36 V2 also correlated well with the FAIS subscales. Speech was the only subscale that demonstrated significant change over one and two years. The FAIS provides valuable insight into the perspective of individuals with FRDA on their health status, and is an important measure of morbidity. It has, however, limited responsiveness to change and its use in intervention studies is questionable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Postprocedural problems in an overdenture population: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Ronald L; Qian, Fang

    2004-05-01

    This study reports on endodontic and other post-procedural problems experienced by overdenture patients from 1973 to 1996. There were 395 subjects enrolled in the study; 273 fulfilled the recall criteria. At recall, all subjects were examined by a single examiner, and appropriate maintenance care was performed. The 273 subjects had 666 abutments and 626 endodontically treated teeth; of these, 51 subjects had postprocedural problems in 81 teeth. Thus, 87.1% of the endodontically treated teeth had no postprocedural problems, and 12.9% had postprocedural problems. Of the subpopulation with postprocedural problems, the most common problem was endodontically treated teeth developing periradicular lesions (37.0%) because of recurrent caries causing loss of the restoration sealing the root canal. Twenty of the 30 teeth were successfully retreated. The next most common problem was vertical root fractures (30.9%), followed by vital teeth developing periradicular lesions (19.8%). Most of the failures could have been prevented by better oral hygiene. Vertical root fractures were statistically associated with abutments in the maxilla and opposed by natural teeth; protection of these abutments with thimble crowns could prevent fractures.

  13. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Hidemasa, E-mail: takaoh-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Hayashi, Naoto [Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy.

  14. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy

  15. Workplace health interventions in small enterprises: a Swedish longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinberg, Stig

    2008-01-01

    This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises.

  16. Effect of antiseptic irrigation on infection rates of traumatic soft tissue wounds: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B; Neuenschwander, R; Brill, F; Wurmitzer, F; Wegner, C; Assadian, O; Kramer, A

    2017-03-02

    Acute traumatic wounds are contaminated with bacteria and therefore an infection risk. Antiseptic wound irrigation before surgical intervention is routinely performed for contaminated wounds. However, a broad variety of different irrigation solutions are in use. The aim of this retrospective, non-randomised, controlled longitudinal cohort study was to assess the preventive effect of four different irrigation solutions before surgical treatment, on wound infection in traumatic soft tissue wounds. Over a period of three decades, the prophylactic application of wound irrigation was studied in patients with contaminated traumatic wounds requiring surgical treatment, with or without primary wound closure. The main outcome measure was development of wound infection. From 1974-1983, either 0.04 % polihexanide (PHMB), 1 % povidone-iodine (PVP-I), 4 % hydrogen peroxide, or undiluted Ringer's solution were concurrently in use. From 1984-1996, only 0.04 % PHMB or 1 % PVP-I were applied. From 1997, 0.04 % PHMB was used until the end of the study period in 2005. The combined rate for superficial and deep wound infection was 1.7 % in the 0.04 % PHMB group (n=3264), 4.8 % in the 1 % PVP-I group (n=2552), 5.9 % in the Ringer's group (n=645), and 11.7 % in the 4 % hydrogen peroxide group (n=643). Compared with all other treatment arms, PHMB showed the highest efficacy in preventing infection in traumatic soft tissue wounds (p<0.001). However, compared with PVP-I, the difference was only significant for superficial infections. The large patient numbers in this study demonstrated a robust superiority of 0.04 % PHMB to prevent infection in traumatic soft tissue wounds. These retrospective results may further provide important information as the basis for power calculations for the urgently needed prospective clinical trials in the evolving field of wound antisepsis.

  17. Work-to-family conflict and its relationship with satisfaction and well-being: A one-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinnunen, U.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Mauno, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present study produced new knowledge about gender differences with respect to work-to-family conflict and its longitudinal relations with indicators of satisfaction and well-being. The study examined the longitudinal relations between work-to-family conflict and self-reported satisfaction and

  18. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09): Base-Year Data File Documentation. NCES 2011-328

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Herget, Deborah R.; Burns, Laura J.; Dever, Jill A.; Ottem, Randolph; Rogers, James E.; Jin, Ying; Leinwand, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) is the fifth in a series of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) secondary longitudinal studies. The core research questions for HSLS:09 explore secondary to postsecondary transition plans and the evolution of those plans; the paths into and out of science, technology, engineering,…

  19. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work: A longitudinal study among older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R.M. Leijten (Fenna); S.G. van den Heuvel (Swenneke); J.F. Ybema (Jan Fekke); A.J. van der Beek (Allard); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal

  20. Children's motivation in elementary physical education: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron; Guan, Jianmin

    2004-03-01

    The present study examined relationships among variables drawn from achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice as well as mean level changes of these variables over time in elementary physical education. Participants (N = 207) completed questionnaires over a 2-year period: once while in the second and fourth grades and again when they were in the third and fifth grades. Results indicated that achievement goals, expectancy-related beliefs, and subjective task values were related to one another and were predictive of children's intention for future participation in physical education. Children's subjective task values of physical education decreased over time. Children in Cohort 1 (across second to third grades) generally had stronger motivation for learning in physical education than children in Cohort 2 (across fourth to fifth grades). Findings suggest the importance of integrating achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice in understanding student motivation.

  1. A longitudinal study of CMRGlu in dementia of Alzheimer type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Masuda, Kouji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1994-10-01

    We studied the serial changes of CMRGlu in 6 patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. All patients demonstrated moderately severe dementia at the initial PET scan. Serial PET scans were performed at an interval of 12 to 24 months. Five of the 6 patients showed a deterioration of clinical symptoms at the second scan. The global CMRGlu serially decreased in all patients. An asymmetry of CMRGlu in both the frontal and parietal regions was observed at the initial PET scan, while the direction of asymmetry was preserved at the second PET scan. The ratios (frontal/parietal and parietal/striatum) of CMRGlu showed no interval change. Therefore, CMRGlu was considered to decrease progressively throughout the entire brain in patients with moderately severe dementia of Alzheimer type. (author).

  2. A longitudinal study of CMRGlu in dementia of Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Masuda, Kouji

    1994-01-01

    We studied the serial changes of CMRGlu in 6 patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. All patients demonstrated moderately severe dementia at the initial PET scan. Serial PET scans were performed at an interval of 12 to 24 months. Five of the 6 patients showed a deterioration of clinical symptoms at the second scan. The global CMRGlu serially decreased in all patients. An asymmetry of CMRGlu in both the frontal and parietal regions was observed at the initial PET scan, while the direction of asymmetry was preserved at the second PET scan. The ratios (frontal/parietal and parietal/striatum) of CMRGlu showed no interval change. Therefore, CMRGlu was considered to decrease progressively throughout the entire brain in patients with moderately severe dementia of Alzheimer type. (author)

  3. Shift work and cognitive aging: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokenberger, Kathleen; Ström, Peter; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The few studies of shift work and late life cognitive functioning have yielded mixed findings. The aim of the present study is to estimate the association between shift-work experience and change in cognitive performance before and after retirement age among older adults who were gainfully employed. Methods Five hundred and ninety five participants with no dementia were followed up for a mean of 17.6 standard deviation (SD) 8.8 years from a Swedish population-based sample. Participants had self-reported information on any type of shift-work experience (ever/never) in 1984 and measures of cognitive performance (verbal, spatial, memory, processing speed, and general cognitive ability) from up to 9 waves of cognitive assessments during 1986-2012. Night work history (ever/never) from 1998-2002 was available from a subsample (N=320). Early adult cognitive test scores were available for 77 men. Results In latent growth curve modeling, there were no main effects of "any-type" or night shift work on the mean scores or rate of change in any of the cognitive domains. An interaction effect between any-type shift work and education on cognitive performance at retirement was noted. Lower-educated shift workers performed better on cognitive tests than lower-educated day workers at retirement. Sensitivity analyses, however, indicated that the interactions appeared to be driven by selection effects. Lower-educated day workers demonstrated poorer cognitive ability in early adulthood than lower-educated shift workers, who may have selected jobs entailing higher cognitive demand. Conclusion There was no difference in late-life cognitive aging between individuals with a history of working shifts compared to those who had typical day work schedules during midlife.

  4. Longitudinal tDCS: Consistency across Working Memory Training Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian E. Berryhill

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is great interest in enhancing and maintaining cognitive function. In recent years, advances in noninvasive brain stimulation devices, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, have targeted working memory in particular. Despite controversy surrounding outcomes of single-session studies, a growing field of working memory training studies incorporate multiple sessions of tDCS. It is useful to take stock of these findings because there is a diversity of paradigms employed and the outcomes observed between research groups. This will be important in assessing cognitive training programs paired with stimulation techniques and identifying the more useful and less effective approaches. Here, we treat the tDCS+ working memory training field as a case example, but also survey training benefits in other neuromodulatory techniques (e.g., tRNS, tACS. There are challenges associated with the broad parameter space including: individual differences, stimulation intensity, duration, montage, session number, session spacing, training task selection, timing of follow up testing, near and far transfer tasks. In summary, although the field of assisted cognitive training is young, some design choices are more favorable than others. By way of heuristic, the current evidence supports including more training/tDCS sessions (5+, applying anodal tDCS targeting prefrontal regions, including follow up testing on trained and transfer tasks after a period of no contact. What remains unclear, but important for future translational value is continuing work to pinpoint optimal values for the tDCS parameters on a per cognitive task basis. Importantly the emerging literature shows notable consistency in the application of tDCS for WM across various participant populations compared to single session experimental designs.

  5. Longitudinal study of hippocampal volumes in heavy cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, L; Lorenzetti, V; de Haan, L; Suo, C; Vingerhoets, Wam; van den Brink, W; Wiers, R W; Meijer, C J; Machielsen, Mwj; Goudriaan, A E; Veltman, D J; Yücel, M; Cousijn, J

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis exposure, particularly heavy cannabis use, has been associated with neuroanatomical alterations in regions rich with cannabinoid receptors such as the hippocampus in some but not in other (mainly cross-sectional) studies. However, it remains unclear whether continued heavy cannabis use alters hippocampal volume, and whether an earlier age of onset and/or a higher dosage exacerbate these changes. Twenty heavy cannabis users (mean age 21 years, range 18-24 years) and 23 matched non-cannabis using healthy controls were submitted to a comprehensive psychological assessment and magnetic resonance imaging scan at baseline and at follow-up (average of 39 months post-baseline; standard deviation=2.4). Cannabis users started smoking around 16 years and smoked on average five days per week. A novel aspect of the current study is that hippocampal volume estimates were obtained from manual tracing the hippocampus on T1-weighted anatomical magnetic resonance imaging scans, using a previously validated protocol. Compared to controls, cannabis users did not show hippocampal volume alterations at either baseline or follow-up. Hippocampal volumes increased over time in both cannabis users and controls, following similar trajectories of increase. Cannabis dose and age of onset of cannabis use did not affect hippocampal volumes. Continued heavy cannabis use did not affect hippocampal neuroanatomical changes in early adulthood. This contrasts with prior evidence on alterations in this region in samples of older adult cannabis users. In young adults using cannabis at this level, cannabis use may not be heavy enough to affect hippocampal neuroanatomy.

  6. Physical inactivity post-stroke: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Burnett, Malcolm; Ashburn, Ann

    2015-01-01

    To explore change in activity levels post-stroke. We measured activity levels using the activPAL™ in hospital and at 1, 2 and 3 years' post-stroke onset. Of the 74 participants (mean age 76 (SD 11), 39 men), 61 were assessed in hospital: 94% of time was spent in sitting/lying, 4% standing and 2% walking. Activity levels improved over time (complete cases n = 15); time spent sitting/lying decreased (p = 0.001); time spent standing, walking and number of steps increased (p = 0.001, p = 0.028 and p = 0.03, respectively). At year 3, 18% of time was spent in standing and 9% walking. Time spent upright correlated significantly with Barthel (r = 0.69 on admission, r = 0.68 on discharge, both p inactive for the majority of time. Time spent upright improved significantly by 1 year post-stroke; improvements slowed down thereafter. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify predictors of activity levels. Implications for Rehabilitation Activity levels (measured using activPAL™ activity monitor), increased significantly by 1 year post-stroke but improvements slowed down at 2 and 3 years. People with stroke were inactive for the majority of their day in hospital and in the community. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify the most important predictors of activity levels.

  7. Anxiety and its time courses during radiotherapy for non-metastatic breast cancer: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Florence; Merckaert, Isabelle; Liénard, Aurore; Libert, Yves; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Scalliet, Pierre; Van Houtte, Paul; COUCKE, Philippe; Salamon, Emile; Razavi, Darius

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To our knowledge, no study has specifically assessed the time course of anxiety during radiotherapy (RT). The objective of this study was to assess anxiety time courses in patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer. Material and methods: This multicenter, descriptive longitudinal study included 213 consecutive patients with breast cancer who completed visual analog scales (VASs) assessing state anxiety before and after the RT simulation and the first and last five RT se...

  8. Physical activity levels and determinants of change in young adults: a longitudinal panel study

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann Erwin; Wanner Miriam; Zimmermann-Sloutskis Dorith; Martin Brian W

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There is growing concern about physical inactivity in adolescents and young adults. Identifying determinants that are associated with low levels of physical activity and with changes in physical activity levels will help to develop specific prevention strategies. The present study describes the prevalence and potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior changes of young adults. The study is based on the Swiss Household Panel (SHP), a longitudinal study...

  9. Socioeconomic gradients of cardiovascular risk factors in China and India: results from the China health and retirement longitudinal study and longitudinal aging study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peifeng; Wang, Serena; Lee, Jinkook

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease has become a major public health challenge in developing countries. The goal of this study is to compare socioeconomic status (SES) gradients of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) both within and between China and India. We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine the associations between SES and CVRF, using data from the China health and retirement longitudinal study and the longitudinal aging study in India. The results showed that, compared to illiteracy, the odds ratios of completing junior high school for high-risk waist circumference were 4.99 (95% confidence interval: 1.77-14.06) among Indian men, 3.42 (95% confidence interval: 1.66-7.05) among Indian women, but 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.92) among Chinese women. Similar patterns were observed between educational attainment and high-risk body mass index, and between education and hypertension, based on self-reported physician diagnosis and direct blood pressure measurements. SES is associated with CVRF in both China and India. However, this relationship showed opposite patterns across two countries, suggesting that this association is not fixed, but is subjective to underlying causal pathways, such as patterns of risky health behaviors and different social and health policies.

  10. A longitudinal study of gene expression in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessier Michel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of gene expression in venous blood either as a pharmacodynamic marker in clinical trials of drugs or as a diagnostic test requires knowledge of the variability in expression over time in healthy volunteers. Here we defined a normal range of gene expression over 6 months in the blood of four cohorts of healthy men and women who were stratified by age (22–55 years and > 55 years and gender. Methods Eleven immunomodulatory genes likely to play important roles in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and infection in addition to four genes typically used as reference genes were examined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, as well as the full genome as represented by Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Results Gene expression levels as assessed by qRT-PCR and microarray were relatively stable over time with ~2% of genes as measured by microarray showing intra-subject differences over time periods longer than one month. Fifteen genes varied by gender. The eleven genes examined by qRT-PCR remained within a limited dynamic range for all individuals. Specifically, for the seven most stably expressed genes (CXCL1, HMOX1, IL1RN, IL1B, IL6R, PTGS2, and TNF, 95% of all samples profiled fell within 1.5–2.5 Ct, the equivalent of a 4- to 6-fold dynamic range. Two subjects who experienced severe adverse events of cancer and anemia, had microarray gene expression profiles that were distinct from normal while subjects who experienced an infection had only slightly elevated levels of inflammatory markers. Conclusion This study defines the range and variability of gene expression in healthy men and women over a six-month period. These parameters can be used to estimate the number of subjects needed to observe significant differences from normal gene expression in clinical studies. A set of genes that varied by gender was also identified as were a set of genes with elevated

  11. A longitudinal study of multicultural curriculum in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Mary L; Dinh, An; Hunter, Laura; Godkin, Michael A; Ferguson, Warren

    2014-02-22

    To evaluate impact a multicultural interclerkship had on students' perception of knowledge, interview skills, and empathy towards serving culturally diverse populations and role student demographics played in learning. Data extracted from students' self-reported course evaluations and pre/post questionnaires during multiculturalism interclerkship across 11 academic years. Inquired students' opinion about four areas: effectiveness, small group leaders, usefulness, and overall experience. Subscale and item ratings were compared using trend tests including multivariate analyses. During studied years, 883 students completed course evaluation with high overall mean rating of 3.08 (SD=0.45) and subscale mean scores ranging from 3.03 to 3.30. Trends in three of four subscales demonstrated clear uptrend (p<0.0001). Positive correlations between ratings of leaders and "usefulness" were observed (p<0.0001). Pre/post matched dataset (n=967) indicated majority of items (19/23) had statistically significant higher post interclerkship ratings compared to pre scores with nine of 19 having statistically significant magnitudes of change. Questionnaire had high overall reliability (Cronbach alpha=0.8), and item-to-group correlations ranged from 0.40 to 0.68 (p<0.0001). By increasing students' exposure and interaction with diverse patients, their knowledge, attitude, and skills were increased and expanded in positive manner. These findings might inform those who are interested in enhancing this important competence. This is especially true given increasing scrutiny this global topic is receiving within and across healthcare professions around the world.

  12. Exercise habit formation in new gym members: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2015-08-01

    Reasoned action approaches have primarily been applied to understand exercise behaviour for the past three decades, yet emerging findings in unconscious and Dual Process research show that behavior may also be predicted by automatic processes such as habit. The purpose of this study was to: (1) investigate the behavioral requirements for exercise habit formation, (2) how Dual Process approach predicts behaviour, and (3) what predicts habit by testing a model (Lally and Gardner in Health Psychol Rev 7:S137-S158, 2013). Participants (n = 111) were new gym members who completed surveys across 12 weeks. It was found that exercising for at least four bouts per week for 6 weeks was the minimum requirement to establish an exercise habit. Dual Process analysis using Linear Mixed Models (LMM) revealed habit and intention to be parallel predictors of exercise behavior in the trajectory analysis. Finally, the habit antecedent model in LLM showed that consistency (β = .21), low behavioral complexity (β = .19), environment (β = .17) and affective judgments (β = .13) all significantly (p < .05) predicted changes in habit formation over time. Trainers should keep exercises fun and simple for new clients and focus on consistency which could lead to habit formation in nearly 6 weeks.

  13. Psychosis Is Mutable over Time: A Longitudinal Psychopathology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigand, Moritz E; Lang, Fabian U; Müller-Stierlin, Annabel S; Reichhardt, Lea; Trif, Silvana; Schulze, Thomas G; Strik, Werner; Becker, Thomas; Jäger, Markus

    2018-03-14

    A neurobiologically informed, system-specific psychopathological approach has been suggested for use in schizophrenia. However, to our knowledge, such an approach has not been used to prospectively describe the course of schizophrenia. We assessed psychopathology in a well-described sample of 100 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder with the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) at 6-month intervals for up to 18 months. The BPS groups symptoms into the 3 domains language, affectivity and motor behaviour; each domain is rated as being normal, inhibited or disinhibited. In addition, we collected qualitative psychopathological data in the form of case reports. Forty-eight patients completed at least 2 assessments over the course of at least 1 year. Of these, 16 patients (33.3%) showed a bipolar course pattern (i.e., a switch from inhibited to disinhibited or vice versa) in 1 domain and 6 patients (12.5%) in more than 1 domain. Shifts from 1 dominant domain to another were seen frequently (n = 20, 41.7%), but shifts between 1 dominant domain and a combination of dominant domains were more common (n = 33, 68.8%). The course of schizophrenia is heterogeneous and shows frequent changes in psychopathology. This should be taken into account in the communication with patients and in the research on underlying illness mechanisms and treatment. A major limitation of this study is the small sample size. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Longitudinal Studies of Angiogenesis in Hormone-Dependent Shionogi Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor P. Wade

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Vessel size imaging was used to assess changes in the average vessel size of Shionogi tumors throughout the tumor growth cycle. Changes in R2 and R2* relaxivities caused by the injection of a superparamagnetic contrast agent (ferumoxtran-10 were measured using a 2.35-T animal magnetic resonance imaging system, and average vessel size index (VSI was calculated for each stage of tumor progression: growth, regression, and relapse. Statistical analysis using Spearman rank correlation test showed no dependence between vessel size and tumor volume at any stage of the tumor growth cycle. Paired Student's t test was used to assess the statistical significance of the differences in average vessel size for the three stages of the tumor growth cycle. The average VSI for regressing tumors (15.1 ± 6.6 wm was significantly lower than that for growing tumors (35.2 ± 25.5 μm; P < .01. Relapsing tumors also had an average VSI (45.4 ± 41.8 μm higher than that of regressing tumors, although the difference was not statistically significant (P = .067. This study shows that VSI imaging is a viable method for the noninvasive monitoring of angiogenesis during the progression of a Shionogi tumor from androgen dependence to androgen independence.

  15. A longitudinal study on social competence development and sleeping habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomisaki, Etsuko; Tanaka, Emiko; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tong, Lian; Hirano, Maki; Watanabe, Taeko; Onda, Yoko; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Kawashima, Yuri; Yato, Yuko; Yamakawa, Noriko; Anme, Tokie

    2010-01-01

    It is known that sleep problems impact children's health, learning, and school performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between sleeping habits and social competence development. Three hundred and nine caregiver-child dyads participated in this study, which was conducted as part of a Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) project. The caregivers answered some questionnaires about sleeping habits when the child was 9 months and 18 months old. Caregiver-child interaction was observed when the child was 30 months old, and the features of the interaction were examined using the Interaction Rating Scale (IRS) as a measure of social competence. The caregivers' attitude toward sleeping in the 9-month period was found to be significantly correlated with the children's social competence at 30 months. Moreover the caregivers' attitude toward sleeping in the 9-month period significantly correlated with the children's sleeping habits at 9 and 18 months. These findings show that the caregivers' attitude toward sleeping is an important factor influencing the development of children's social competence.

  16. Ecologically unequal exchange, recessions, and climate change: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaorui

    2018-07-01

    This study investigates how the ecologically unequal exchange of carbon dioxide emissions varies with economic recessions. I propose a country-specific approach to examine (1) the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries and the "vertical flow" of exports to the United States; and (2) the variations of the relationship before, during, and after two recent economic recessions in 2001 and 2008. Using data on 69 developing nations between 2000 and 2010, I estimate time-series cross-sectional regression models with two-way fixed effects. Results suggest that the vertical flow of exports to the United States is positively associated with carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries. The magnitude of this relationship increased in 2001, 2009, and 2010, and decreased in 2008, but remained stable in non-recession periods, suggesting that economic recessions in the United States are associated with variations of ecologically unequal exchange. Results highlight the impacts of U.S. recessions on carbon emissions in developing countries through the structure of international trade. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001 and T3 (p=0.001. The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04. The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year.

  18. Large component deformation studies using videogrammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Fermilab has the responsibility for developing certain components for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), to be commissioned at CERN in 2005. As part of the development process, a referencing strategy must be created such that the position of internal active components may be known relative to external targeting. One question to be answered is the issue of dimensional stability of a part that will be transported over long distances; another is whether the external framework is coherent. This paper reviews the efforts of the designers of the component and the Lab's Alignment and Metrology Group to understand the behavior of a moderately large part, in this case a pie-shaped CSC chamber of dimensions 2 x 3 x 0.3 m , as it is positioned in various orientations relative to gravity. All measurements were made using a Geodetic Services, Inc. INCA 6.3 camera with an 18 min Nikon lens (Fig. 1) and were processed using GSI's V-STARS 4.1 software. Photogrammetry, more particularly digital videogrammetry, has shown that it can effectively service projects of this nature. When compared to optical tooling and laser tracker approaches, it is hard to imagine the full complement of difficulties videogrammetry allows one to avoid. Certainly the fact that neither the camera nor the part need to be stationary makes, photogrammetry an obvious choice. (author)

  19. Enabling Analysis of Big, Thick, Long, and Wide Data: Data Management for the Analysis of a Large Longitudinal and Cross-National Narrative Data Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskell, Kate; Singleton, Robyn; Sabben, Gaelle

    2018-03-01

    Distinctive longitudinal narrative data, collected during a critical 18-year period in the history of the HIV epidemic, offer a unique opportunity to examine how young Africans are making sense of evolving developments in HIV prevention and treatment. More than 200,000 young people from across sub-Saharan Africa took part in HIV-themed scriptwriting contests held at eight discrete time points between 1997 and 2014, creating more than 75,000 narratives. This article describes the data reduction and management strategies developed for our cross-national and longitudinal study of these qualitative data. The study aims to inform HIV communication practice by identifying cultural meanings and contextual factors that inform sexual behaviors and social practices, and also to help increase understanding of processes of sociocultural change. We describe our sampling strategies and our triangulating methodologies, combining in-depth narrative analysis, thematic qualitative analysis, and quantitative analysis, which are designed to enable systematic comparison without sacrificing ethnographic richness.

  20. Which emotional regulatory strategy makes Chinese adolescents happier? A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Biao; Deng, Xinmei; Luan, Ziyan

    2014-12-01

    Growing interest in emotion regulation is reflected in the studies of cognitive and social development. However, the extant studies mainly highlight how emotion regulation develops based on a western value system. This study utilised a longitudinal design to examine the development of emotion regulation and explored the contributions of different regulatory strategies to emotion experience regarding the early adolescent development period in a Chinese population. A total of 303 Chinese adolescents (age range = 10-14 years) were followed up in a three-phase longitudinal study for 3 years. In each phase of the study, participants completed Adolescents Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and Daily Emotion Scale. Results of hierarchical linear regressions revealed that Chinese adolescents reported more down-regulation. Down-regulation is more effective than up-regulation in enhancing desirable emotion experience and reducing undesirable emotion experience during adolescents' development. Also, the adaptive functions of emotional regulatory strategies in Chinese background were discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. Neuromuscular training in construction workers: a longitudinal controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faude, Oliver; Donath, Lars; Bopp, Micha; Hofmann, Sara; Erlacher, Daniel; Zahner, Lukas

    2015-08-01

    Many accidents at construction sites are due to falls. An exercise-based workplace intervention may improve intrinsic fall risk factors. In this pilot study, we aimed at evaluating the effects of neuromuscular exercise on static and functional balance performance as well as on lower limb explosive power in construction workers. Healthy middle-aged construction workers were non-randomly assigned to an intervention [N = 20, age = 40.3 (SD 8.3) years] or a control group [N = 20, age = 41.8 (9.9) years]. The intervention group performed static and dynamic balance and strength exercises (13 weeks, 15 min each day). Before and after the intervention and after an 8-week follow-up, unilateral postural sway, backward balancing (on 3- and 4.5-cm-wide beams) as well as vertical jump height were assessed. We observed a group × time interaction for postural sway (p = 0.002) with a reduction in the intervention group and no relevant change in the control group. Similarly, the number of successful steps while walking backwards on the 3-cm beam increased only in the intervention group (p = 0.047). These effects were likely to most likely practically beneficial from pretest to posttest and to follow-up test for postural sway (+12%, standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.65 and 17%, SMD = 0.92) and backward balancing on the 3-cm beam (+58%, SMD = 0.59 and 37%, SMD = 0.40). Fifteen minutes of neuromuscular training each day can improve balance performance in construction workers and, thus, may contribute to a decreased fall risk.

  2. Multimodal microscopy of immune cells and melanoma for longitudinal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entenberg, David; Aranda, Iana; Li, Yongbiao; Toledo-Crow, Ricardo; Schaer, David; Li, Yanyun

    2006-02-01

    Intravital microscopy of cancer is a well established tool that provides direct visualization of the tumor cycle. It traditionally involves one of several strategies: invasive subcutaneous (SC) implantation of tumors followed by surgical opening of skin flaps for imaging, techniques utilizing skin fold chambers and implanted optical windows or intradermal injections under 200μm from the skin surface. All of these techniques allow the use of fluorescent proteins as markers for biologically significant constituents. However, observation methods utilizing skin-flaps, skin-fold chambers and optical windows are invasive and tend to alter the immune environment of the tissue and/or limit the duration of studies that can be performed. If implanted correctly, intradermally injected tumors can be minimally invasive, will not require biopsies or surgical intervention to observe and are accessible for direct transdermal imaging with a number of in vivo modalities. We present our work in the development of a small animal intravital microscopy workstation that allows the acquisition of different contrast imaging modalities: reflectance confocal, wide field epifluorescence, multiphoton and second harmonic generation (SHG). The images are acquired pair-wise simultaneously and sequentially in time. The aim of our instrumentation is to gather all information generated by the single probing beam via the reflected or back-scattered signal, SHG signal and various fluorescence signals. Additionally, we also present our development of a microscopic tissue navigation technique to mark, label and track sites of interest. This technique enables us to revisit sites periodically and record, with different imaging contrasts, their biological changes over time.

  3. Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: An 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research has suggested vulnerability to perceived racial discrimination (PRD as a mechanism behind high levels of depression seen in high socioeconomic status (SES Black males. To better understand the effects of gender and SES on shaping experiences of PRD among Black youth in the United States, we used data from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS to explore the trajectory of PRD in Black youth by gender, SES, and place. Methods: Data came from FACHS, 1997–2017, which followed 889 children aged 10–12 years old at Wave 1 (n = 478; 53.8% females and n = 411; 46.2% males for up to 18 years. Data were collected in seven waves. The main predictors of interest were gender, SES (parent education and annual family income, age, and place of residence. Main outcomes of interest were baseline and slope of PRD. Latent growth curve modeling (LGCM was used for data analysis. Results: Gender, SES, place, and age were correlated with baseline and change in PRD over time. Male, high family income, and younger Black youth reported lower PRD at baseline but a larger increase in PRD over time. Youth who lived in Iowa (in a predominantly White area reported higher PRD at baseline and also an increase in PRD over time. High parental education was not associated with baseline or change in PRD. Conclusion: In the United States, Black youth who are male, high income, and live in predominantly White areas experience an increase in PRD over time. Future research is needed on the interactions between gender, SES, and place on exposure and vulnerability of Black youth to PRD. Such research may explain the increased risk of depression in high SES Black males.

  4. Is envy harmful to a society's psychological health and wellbeing? A longitudinal study of 18,000 adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujcic, Redzo; Oswald, Andrew J

    2018-02-01

    Nearly 100 years ago, the philosopher and mathematician Bertrand Russell warned of the social dangers of widespread envy. One view of modern society is that it is systematically developing a set of institutions -- such as social media and new forms of advertising -- that make people feel inadequate and envious of others. If so, how might that be influencing the psychological health of our citizens? This paper reports the first large-scale longitudinal research into envy and its possible repercussions. The paper studies 18,000 randomly selected individuals over the years 2005, 2009, and 2013. Using measures of SF-36 mental health and psychological well-being, four main conclusions emerge. First, the young are especially susceptible. Levels of envy fall as people grow older. This longitudinal finding is consistent with a cross-sectional pattern noted recently by Nicole E. Henniger and Christine R. Harris, and with the theory of socioemotional regulation suggested by scholars such as Laura L. Carstensen. Second, using fixed-effects equations and prospective analysis, the analysis reveals that envy today is a powerful predictor of worse SF-36 mental health and well-being in the future. A change from the lowest to the highest level of envy, for example, is associated with a worsening of SF-36 mental health by approximately half a standard deviation (p < .001). Third, no evidence is found for the idea that envy acts as a useful motivator. Greater envy is associated with slower -- not higher -- growth of psychological well-being in the future. Nor is envy a predictor of later economic success. Fourth, the longitudinal decline of envy leaves unaltered a U-shaped age pattern of well-being from age 20 to age 70. These results are consistent with the idea that society should be concerned about institutions that stimulate large-scale envy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estudo psicológico longitudinal na distrofia miotônica Longitudinal psychologie study in myotonic dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Duarte Wigg

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo longitudinal das alterações cognitivas de 12 casos de distrofia miotônica comparando os resultados de dois exames com intervalo de tempo entre eles, pois em uma primeira avaliação detectaram-se alterações vísuo-espaciais e construtivas que poderiam evoluir ou não com o passar do tempo. Foram aplicados os seguintes instrumentos de medidas psicológicas: matrizes progressivas de Raven (escala especial forma caderno para as crianças, adolescentes e adultos com dificuldades cognitivas graves e escala geral para adolescentes e adultos sem dificuldades cognitivas graves, Wechsler (escala para crianças, subtestes semelhanças e números, cubos de Kohs e Piaget-Head. A seleção dos testes e respectivas escalas e formas teve como referencial as entrevistas psicológicas realizadas caso a caso. Estes instrumentos com respectivos resultados foram comparados em cada caso através de duas avaliações, com um intervalo de aproximadamente três anos e meio entre a primeira e a segunda avaliações de cada teste. Quanto ao desempenho nos testes, verificamos: (a melhor desempenho estatisticamente significante na segunda avaliação pelo teste dos Cubos de Kohs, porém tanto o primeiro quanto o segundo exame denotaram desempenhos bastante insuficientes; (b leve queda do desempenho no teste de Head 1-3; (c leve melhora nos demais testes.The authors studied in two occasions a group of 12 patients with myotonic dystrophy in a mean interval of three years and a half between the examinations. The neuro - psychological battery included the following tests: Raven's progressive matrices (coloured and general scales , Wechsler children intelligence scale (WISC, Kohs' blocks and Piaget-Head. 50% of the patients had better scores on the second examination on RCPM, 81.89% on WISC-digit span, 63.67% on WISC-numbers, 44.44% on Piaget-Head 2 and 60% on Kohs' blocks. However, on Piaget-Head 1-3, the majority had worse results (87.56% with

  6. A source, a cascade, a schizoid: a heuristic proposal from the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2010-11-01

    It is argued that personality pathology represents the final emergent product of a complex interaction of underlying neurobehavioral systems as well as environment inputs. A number of factors may be involved in the developmental pathway and a cascading of effects is plausible, although a unifying cascade for all personality disorders is not likely. The present study suggests a possible cascade relevant to one personality disorder: schizoid personality disorder in emerging adulthood. In brief, it is hypothesized that the absence of a relationship characterized by a rich degree of psychological proximal process in early childhood, which is associated with nurturance and the facilitation of more complex development, predicts impairment in the actualization of the affiliation system (i.e., that system that facilitates interpersonal connectedness and social bonds in human beings and is under substantial genetic influence), and this impairment in the affiliation system predicts the appearance of schizoid personality disorder symptoms in emerging adulthood (late teens/early 20s), which persists over time into emerging adulthood. The impairment in the affiliation system is argued to proceed through childhood sociality as reflected in temperament on through adult personality as reflected in communal positive emotion. Furthermore, it is also hypothesized that the relationship between proximal processes and the affiliation system maintains irrespective of other childhood temperament factors that might adversely impact early parent/caregiver and child relations. The data for a preliminary illustration of this possible cascade are drawn from The Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders, which is a prospective, multiwave study of personality disorders, personality, and temperament in a large sample of adults drawn from a nonclinical population.

  7. Declining financial capacity in patients with mild Alzheimer disease: a one-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roy; Griffith, H Randall; Belue, Katherine; Harrell, Lindy; Zamrini, Edward; Anderson, Britt; Bartolucci, Alfred; Marson, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate change over time in financial abilities in patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD). The authors conducted a prospective 1-year longitudinal study at a large southern U.S. metropolitan-area medical school university. Participants included healthy older adults (N=63) and patients with mild AD (N=55). The authors conducted a standardized performance measure of financial capacity. Performance was assessed on 18 financial tasks, nine domains of financial activity, and overall financial capacity. Capacity outcomes classifications (capable, marginally capable, or incapable) for domains and overall performance were made using cut scores referenced to comparison group performance. At baseline, patients with mild AD performed significantly below healthy older adults on 16 of 18 tasks, on all nine domains, and on overall financial capacity. At one-year follow up, comparison group performance was stable on all variables. In contrast, patients with mild AD showed substantial declines in overall financial capacity, on eight of nine domains, and on 12 of 18 tasks. Similarly, the proportion of the mild AD group classified as marginally capable and incapable increased substantially over one year for the two overall scores and for five financial domains. Financial capacity is already substantially impaired in patients with mild AD at baseline and undergoes rapid additional decline over one year. Relative to the comparison group, overall financial capacity performance in the AD group declined 10%, from approximately 80% of the comparison group performance at baseline to 70% at follow up. Financial skills showed differential rates of decline on both simple and complex tasks. Of clinical and public policy interest was the declining judgment of patients with mild AD regarding simple fraud schemes. The study supports the importance of prompt financial supervision and planning for patients newly diagnosed with AD.

  8. Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality) : A longitudinal, multidomain study on sexual development of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitz, Ellen; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan; Dalenberg, Wieke; Dubas, Judith; van Aken, Marcel; Overbeek, Geertjan; ter Bogt, Tom; van der Eijnden, Regina; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Kunnen, Saskia; Timmerman, Greetje; van Geert, Paul; Dekovic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    This study gives an overview of Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a four-wave longitudinal study of 1297 Dutch adolescents. First, the sample, measures and four sub-projects are described. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to

  9. Microinstability Studies for the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.; Ku, L.-P.; Tang, W.M.; Sugama, H.; Nakajima, N.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Murakami, S.; Yamada, H.; Cooper, W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Fully kinetic assessments of the stability properties of toroidal drift modes have been obtained for cases for the Large Helical Device (LHD). This calculation employs the comprehensive linear microinstability code FULL, as recently extended for nonaxisymmetric systems. The code retains the important effects in the linearized gyrokinetic equation, using the lowest-order ''ballooning representation'' for high toroidal mode number instabilities in the electrostatic limit. These effects include trapped particles, FLR, transit and bounce and magnetic drift frequency resonances, etc., for any number of plasma species. Results for toroidal drift waves destabilized by trapped electrons and ion temperature gradients are presented, using numerically-calculated three-dimensional MHD equilibria. These are reconstructed from experimental measurements. Quasilinear fluxes of particles and energy for each species are also calculated. Pairs of LHD discharges with different magnetic axis positions and with and without pellet injection are compared

  10. The Relationship Between Shift Work and Metabolic Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper, Karin I; van de Langenberg, Daniëlla; Rodenburg, Wendy; Vermeulen, Roel C H; van der Beek, Allard J; van Steeg, Harry; van Kerkhof, Linda W M

    2016-05-01

    Although the metabolic health effects of shift work have been extensively studied, a systematic synthesis of the available research is lacking. This review aimed to systematically summarize the available evidence of longitudinal studies linking shift work with metabolic risk factors. A systematic literature search was performed in 2015. Studies were included if (1) they had a longitudinal design; (2) shift work was studied as the exposure; and (3) the outcome involved a metabolic risk factor, including anthropometric, blood glucose, blood lipid, or blood pressure measures. Eligible studies were assessed for their methodologic quality in 2015. A best-evidence synthesis was used to draw conclusions per outcome. Thirty-nine articles describing 22 studies were included. Strong evidence was found for a relation between shift work and increased body weight/BMI, risk for overweight, and impaired glucose tolerance. For the remaining outcomes, there was insufficient evidence. Shift work seems to be associated with body weight gain, risk for overweight, and impaired glucose tolerance. Overall, lack of high-methodologic quality studies and inconsistency in findings led to insufficient evidence in assessing the relation between shift work and other metabolic risk factors. To strengthen the evidence, more high-quality longitudinal studies that provide more information on the shift work schedule (e.g., frequency of night shifts, duration in years) are needed. Further, research to the (mediating) role of lifestyle behaviors in the health effects of shift work is recommended, as this may offer potential for preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Relationships between eating quickly and weight gain in Japanese university students: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Mayu; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Kataoka, Kota; Sakumoto-Kataoka, Masami; Kawabata, Yuya; Omori, Chie; Azuma, Tetsuji; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2014-10-01

    Many cross-sectional studies have reported a relationship between overweight/obesity and eating quickly, but there have been few longitudinal studies to address this relationship in younger populations. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate whether eating quickly was related to being overweight in Japanese university students. Of 1,396 students who underwent a general examination and completed questionnaires at the start of university and before graduation, 1,314 students (676 male and 638 female) of normal body composition [body mass index (BMI) students whose BMIs were ≥ 25 kg m(-2) were defined as overweight. In this study, 38 participants (2.9%) became overweight. In the logistic regression analysis, the risk of being overweight was increased in males [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-5.79; P university students. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  12. Clinical management and burden of bipolar disorder: a multinational longitudinal study (WAVE-bd Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Manzanaro Miriam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in bipolar disorder (BD to date are limited in their ability to provide a whole-disease perspective - their scope has generally been confined to a single disease phase and/or a specific treatment. Moreover, most clinical trials have focused on the manic phase of disease, and not on depression, which is associated with the greatest disease burden. There are few longitudinal studies covering both types of patients with BD (I and II and the whole course of the disease, regardless of patients' symptomatology. Therefore, the Wide AmbispectiVE study of the clinical management and burden of Bipolar Disorder (WAVE-bd (NCT01062607 aims to provide reliable information on the management of patients with BD in daily clinical practice. It also seeks to determine factors influencing clinical outcomes and resource use in relation to the management of BD. Methods WAVE-bd is a multinational, multicentre, non-interventional, longitudinal study. Approximately 3000 patients diagnosed with BD type I or II with at least one mood event in the preceding 12 months were recruited at centres in Austria, Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Portugal, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine and Venezuela. Site selection methodology aimed to provide a balanced cross-section of patients cared for by different types of providers of medical aid (e.g. academic hospitals, private practices in each country. Target recruitment percentages were derived either from scientific publications or from expert panels in each participating country. The minimum follow-up period will be 12 months, with a maximum of 27 months, taking into account the retrospective and the prospective parts of the study. Data on demographics, diagnosis, medical history, clinical management, clinical and functional outcomes (CGI-BP and FAST scales, adherence to treatment (DAI-10 scale and Medication Possession Ratio, quality of life (EQ-5D scale, healthcare resources, and caregiver burden (BAS scale

  13. Continuity of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Cognition across the Life Span: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Twin and Adoption Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Briley, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal rank-order stability of cognitive ability increases dramatically over the lifespan. Multiple theoretical perspectives have proposed that genetic and/or environmental mechanisms underlie the longitudinal stability of cognition, and developmental trends therein. However, the patterns of stability of genetic and environmental influences on cognition over the lifespan largely remain poorly understood. We searched for longitudinal studies of cognition that reported raw genetically-informative longitudinal correlations or parameter estimates from longitudinal behavior genetic models. We identified 150 combinations of time points and measures from 15 independent longitudinal samples. In total, longitudinal data came from 4,538 monozygotic twin pairs raised together, 7,777 dizygotic twin pairs raised together, 34 monozygotic twin pairs raised apart, 78 dizygotic twin pairs raised apart, 141 adoptive sibling pairs, and 143 non-adoptive sibling pairs, ranging in age from infancy through late adulthood. At all ages, cross-time genetic correlations and shared environmental correlations were substantially larger than cross-time nonshared environmental correlations. Cross-time correlations for genetic and shared environmental components were low during early childhood, increased sharply over child development, and remained relatively high from adolescence through late adulthood. Cross-time correlations for nonshared environmental components were low across childhood and increased gradually to moderate magnitudes in adulthood. Increasing phenotypic stability over child development was almost entirely mediated by genetic factors. Time-based decay of genetic and shared environmental stability was more pronounced earlier in child development. Results are interpreted in reference to theories of gene-environment interaction and correlation. PMID:24611582

  14. Configurations of gambling change and harm : qualitative findings from the Swedish longitudinal gambling study (Swelogs)

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsson, Eva; Sundqvist, Kristina; Binde, Per

    2018-01-01

    Background: Gambling participation and problems change over time and are influenced by a variety of individual and contextual factors. However, gambling research has only to a small extent studied gamblers’ own perceptions of transitions in and out of problem gambling. Method: Qualitative telephone interviews were made with 40 gamblers who had repeatedly participated in the Swelogs Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study. The framework approach was used for analyses, resulting in a multiple-linka...

  15. Early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This study used dato from a 30-year longitudinal study to esamine the associations between early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime. The analysis showed that, even following extensive adjustment for confounding, both early conduct problems and later educational achievement made...... experimental research is required to ascertain the extent that: a) the educational achievement of young people with early-onset conduct problems can be improved; and b) the extent to which any such improvements translate into reductions in subsequent antisocial behviour....

  16. Persistent work-life conflict and health satisfaction - a representative longitudinal study in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Knecht, Michaela; Bauer, Georg F; Gutzwiller, Felix; Hämmig, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The objectives of the present study were (1) to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2) to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. Methods The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel), covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 ...

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Child Siblings and Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Anna; Peterson, Candida

    2007-01-01

    This study tested a sample of 63 children twice in a longitudinal design over 14 months to examine their theory-of-mind (ToM) understanding in relation to their number of child-aged siblings (1-12 years). Age-appropriate batteries of ToM tests emphasising false belief were given at the start of the study, when children had a mean age of 4-2…

  18. Family Structure and Childhood Obesity, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ? Kindergarten Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Alex Y.; Escarce, Jos? J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the effect of family structure on childhood obesity among US children. This study examines the effect of number of parents and number of siblings on children's body mass index and risk of obesity. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ? Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), which consists of a nationally representative cohort of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999. Our analyses included 2 cross-sectio...

  19. Recovery from social phobia in the community and its predictors : data from a longitudinal epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Vriends, N.; Becker, E. S.; Meyer, A. H.; Williams, S. L.; Lutz, R.; Margraf, J.

    2007-01-01

    The present longitudinal study aimed to determine rate of natural recovery from DSM-IV social phobia in the community and to examine predictors of recovery. Data were derived from the Dresden Predictor Study of a representative sample of 1396 young German women. The participants completed a diagnostic interview and self-report questionnaires at two survey points approximately 1.5 years apart. Of the 91 women with social phobia at baseline 64% were at least partially recovered and 36% showed f...

  20. Modelling variable dropout in randomised controlled trials with longitudinal outcomes: application to the MAGNETIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolamunnage-Dona, Ruwanthi; Powell, Colin; Williamson, Paula Ruth

    2016-04-28

    Clinical trials with longitudinally measured outcomes are often plagued by missing data due to patients withdrawing or dropping out from the trial before completing the measurement schedule. The reasons for dropout are sometimes clearly known and recorded during the trial, but in many instances these reasons are unknown or unclear. Often such reasons for dropout are non-ignorable. However, the standard methods for analysing longitudinal outcome data assume that missingness is non-informative and ignore the reasons for dropout, which could result in a biased comparison between the treatment groups. In this article, as a post hoc analysis, we explore the impact of informative dropout due to competing reasons on the evaluation of treatment effect in the MAGNETIC trial, the largest randomised placebo-controlled study to date comparing the addition of nebulised magnesium sulphate to standard treatment in acute severe asthma in children. We jointly model longitudinal outcome and informative dropout process to incorporate the information regarding the reasons for dropout by treatment group. The effect of nebulised magnesium sulphate compared with standard treatment is evaluated more accurately using a joint longitudinal-competing risk model by taking account of such complexities. The corresponding estimates indicate that the rate of dropout due to good prognosis is about twice as high in the magnesium group compared with standard treatment. We emphasise the importance of identifying reasons for dropout and undertaking an appropriate statistical analysis accounting for such dropout. The joint modelling approach accounting for competing reasons for dropout is proposed as a general approach for evaluating the sensitivity of conclusions to assumptions regarding missing data in clinical trials with longitudinal outcomes. EudraCT number 2007-006227-12 . Registration date 18 Mar 2008.

  1. Heritability of brain activity related to response inhibition: a longitudinal genetic study in adolescent twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Andrey P.; Golosheykin, Simon; Grant, Julia D.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to inhibit prepotent but context- or goal-inappropriate responses is essential for adaptive self-regulation of behavior. Deficits in response inhibition, a key component of impulsivity, have been implicated as a core dysfunction in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders such as ADHD and addictions. Identification of genetically transmitted variation in the neural underpinnings of response inhibition can help to elucidate etiological pathways to these disorders and establish the links between genes, brain, and behavior. However, little is known about genetic influences on the neural mechanisms of response inhibition during adolescence, a developmental period characterized by weak self-regulation of behavior. Here we investigated heritability of ERPs elicited in a Go/No-Go task in a large sample of adolescent twins assessed longitudinally at ages 12, 14, and 16. Genetic analyses showed significant heritability of inhibition-related frontal N2 and P3 components at all three ages, with 50 to 60% of inter-individual variability being attributable to genetic factors. These genetic influences included both common genetic factors active at different ages and novel genetic influences emerging during development. Finally, individual differences in the rate of developmental changes from age 12 to age 16 were significantly influenced by genetic factors. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence for genetic influences on neural correlates of response inhibition during adolescence and suggests that ERPs elicited in the Go/No-Go task can serve as intermediate neurophysiological phenotypes (endophenotypes) for the study of disinhibition and impulse control disorders. PMID:28300615

  2. Longitudinal study on transmission of MRSA CC398 within pig herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broens Els M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the detection of MRSA CC398 in pigs in 2004, it has emerged in livestock worldwide. MRSA CC398 has been found in people in contact with livestock and thus has become a public health issue. Data from a large-scale longitudinal study in two Danish and four Dutch pig herds were used to quantify MRSA CC398 transmission rates within pig herds and to identify factors affecting transmission between pigs. Results Sows and their offspring were sampled at varying intervals during a production cycle. Overall MRSA prevalence of sows increased from 33% before farrowing to 77% before weaning. Overall MRSA prevalence of piglets was > 60% during the entire study period. The recurrent finding of MRSA in the majority of individuals indicates true colonization or might be the result of contamination. Transmission rates were estimated using a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS-model, which resulted in values of the reproduction ratio (R0 varying from 0.24 to 8.08. Transmission rates were higher in pigs treated with tetracyclins and β-lactams compared to untreated pigs implying a selective advantage of MRSA CC398 when these antimicrobials are used. Furthermore, transmission rates were higher in pre-weaning pigs compared to post-weaning pigs which might be explained by an age-related susceptibility or the presence of the sow as a primary source of MRSA CC398. Finally, transmission rates increased with the relative increase of the infection pressure within the pen compared to the total infection pressure, implying that within-pen transmission is a more important route compared to between-pen transmission and transmission through environmental exposure. Conclusion Our results indicate that MRSA CC398 is able to spread and persist in pig herds, resulting in an endemic situation. Transmission rates are affected by the use of selective antimicrobials and by the age of pigs.

  3. A systematic review of health-related quality of life in longitudinal studies of myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Kongsgaard; Jarden, Mary Ellen; Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard

    2017-01-01

    in HRQoL scores, which is perceived as beneficial to the patient according to two published guidelines. METHODS: A literature search was performed May 2016. Publications with longitudinal follow-up using the EORTC QLQ-C30 instrument for HRQoL measurement of physical functioning, global quality of life......OBJECTIVES: Multiple myeloma (MM) patients report high symptom burden and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared to patients with other haematological malignancies. The aim of this review was to analyse published longitudinal studies including MM patients according to a change...... during first-line compared to relapsed treatment regimens. The background of these findings should be in focus in future studies, and HRQoL measurements should be integrated in maintenance studies....

  4. Experimental and theoretical study of the operation of longitudinal sidewalls in reinforced concrete superstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokarev, Sergey; Efimov, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    In the present article, we report results of a laboratory experimental study of reinforced-concrete superstructure fragments with extended longitudinal boxing sidewalls. The study included laboratory tests and numerical experiments performed using a finite element model of fragments generated in specialized simulation software. The distribution of horizontal pressures over the height of longitudinal boxing sidewalls, the dependence of the bending moment in the root section of the sidewalls on the ballast-bed thickness under sleepers, and some other characteristics were examined. The results of the experimental and theoretical study have shown a good convergence of obtained data to each other and to the data obtained by an improved engineering calculation procedure proposed by the present authors.

  5. Callosal tissue loss parallels subtle decline in psychomotor speed. A longitudinal quantitative MRI study. The LADIS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokinen, H.; Frederiksen, K.S.; Garde, E.; Skimminge, A.; Siebner, H.; Waldemar, G.; Ylikoski, R.; Madureira, S.; Verdelho, A.; van Straaten, E.C.W.; Barkhof, F.; Fazekas, F.; Schmidt, R.; Pantoni, L.; Inzitari, D.; Erkinjuntti, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have suggested that corpus callosum (CC) atrophy is related to impairment in global cognitive function, mental speed, and executive functions in the elderly. Longitudinal studies confirming these findings have been lacking. We investigated whether CC tissue loss is associated

  6. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Giallo

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%, sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%, and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45, p.001. Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  7. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; Bahreinian, Salma; Brown, Stephanie; Cooklin, Amanda; Kingston, Dawn; Kozyrskyj, Anita

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%), sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%), and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45), p.001). Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  8. Longitudinal study of the fundamental frequency of hunger cries along the first 6 months of healthy babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeck, Heidi Elisabeth; de Souza, Marcio Nogueira

    2007-09-01

    Potentially rich in information, the baby's cry has motivated several researches along the years. Although most of these studies have generated important knowledge about the baby's cry, they were focused on the neonatal period. The few longitudinal studies on changes in the acoustical features of the cry over the baby's growth have been done with a small sample and a large recording interval. Aiming to overcome such methodological limitations, this work investigated hunger cries using a more representative sample size (30 babies) and time resolution (biweekly intervals) from birth to 6 months of baby's age. The findings indicate that the fundamental frequency (f0) of the cry signals did vary more than previously reported in the literature. The results showed a widespread oscillatory behavior in f0 evolution along all the 6 months with an especially significant decrease from birth to the 15th day of life. The present results are not clinically applicable yet, but they pointed some novel aspects of the f0 mean values along the baby's growth. These findings and further longitudinal studies can help standardize age-related cry parameters, which are essential for medical and language development researches.

  9. Longitudinal Study of the Market Penetration of Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Harry Paul, III; Sireli, Yesim; Ozan, Erol; Kauffmann, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the longitudinal research of the market penetration of cockpit weather information systems (CWIS) is to contribute to the body of knowledge on modeling advanced technology feasibility in aviation by tracking and analyzing the market adoption of CWIS over a three year period. This research takes advantage of a previous study, conducted by Dr. Paul Kauffmann in 2000, which demonstrated an integrated and cost effective approach to evaluate advanced technology feasibility, examining the feasibility of CWIS in five market segments: transport, commuter, general aviation, business, and rotorcraft. The longitudinal research consists of two consecutive studies and produced two reports. The first report was submitted in August 2003 and included general market analysis about the CWIS products in the market at the time, identified their characteristics and examined developing market dynamics.

  10. Longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) in children: A twenty-year study from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Roshan; Alfutaisi, Amna M; Mani, Renjith; Abdel Rahim, Rana A; Sankhla, Dilip K; Al Azri, Faisal M

    2017-04-01

    The data on children with diagnosis of idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM) was searched to find the pattern of myelitis in Oman. A retrospective study was carried out from January1995 to December 2014. Electronic medical records and patient medical files were seen to get the complete data of the children with ITM. This work was carried out at Sultan Qaboos University hospital, Muscat, Oman. The ethical committee of the hospital had approved the study. The diagnosis was based on the established criteria. Other causes of myelopathy were excluded. 19 children with idiopathic transverse myelitis were found. There were 18 out of 19 (94.6%) children with longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). Longitudinal transverse extensive myelitis is the most common form of ITM in Oman.

  11. The CogBIAS longitudinal study protocol: cognitive and genetic factors influencing psychological functioning in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Charlotte; Songco, Annabel; Parsons, Sam; Heathcote, Lauren; Vincent, John; Keers, Robert; Fox, Elaine

    2017-12-29

    Optimal psychological development is dependent upon a complex interplay between individual and situational factors. Investigating the development of these factors in adolescence will help to improve understanding of emotional vulnerability and resilience. The CogBIAS longitudinal study (CogBIAS-L-S) aims to combine cognitive and genetic approaches to investigate risk and protective factors associated with the development of mood and impulsivity-related outcomes in an adolescent sample. CogBIAS-L-S is a three-wave longitudinal study of typically developing adolescents conducted over 4 years, with data collection at age 12, 14 and 16. At each wave participants will undergo multiple assessments including a range of selective cognitive processing tasks (e.g. attention bias, interpretation bias, memory bias) and psychological self-report measures (e.g. anxiety, depression, resilience). Saliva samples will also be collected at the baseline assessment for genetic analyses. Multilevel statistical analyses will be performed to investigate the developmental trajectory of cognitive biases on psychological functioning, as well as the influence of genetic moderation on these relationships. CogBIAS-L-S represents the first longitudinal study to assess multiple cognitive biases across adolescent development and the largest study of its kind to collect genetic data. It therefore provides a unique opportunity to understand how genes and the environment influence the development and maintenance of cognitive biases and provide insight into risk and protective factors that may be key targets for intervention.

  12. Antiretroviral therapy, labor productivity, and sex: a longitudinal cohort study of tea pluckers in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Bruce A; Fox, Matthew P; Bii, Margaret; Rosen, Sydney; Rohr, Julia; Shaffer, Douglas; Sawe, Fredrick; Wasunna, Monique; Simon, Jonathon L

    2013-01-02

    To estimate the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on labor productivity and income using detailed employment data from two large tea plantations in western Kenya for HIV-infected tea pluckers who initiated ART. Longitudinal study using primary data on key employment outcomes for a group of HIV-infected workers receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and workers in the general workforce. We used nearest-neighbor matching methods to estimate the impacts of HIV/AIDS and ART among 237 HIV-positive pluckers on ART (index group) over a 4-year period (2 years pre-ART and post-ART) on 4 monthly employment outcomes - days plucking tea, total kilograms (kgs) harvested, total days working, and total labor income. Outcomes for the index group were compared with those for a matched reference group from the general workforce. We observed a rapid deterioration in all four outcomes for HIV-infected individuals in the period before ART initiation and then a rapid improvement after treatment initiation. By 18-24 months after treatment initiation, the index group harvested 8% (men) and 19% (women) less tea than reference individuals. The index group earned 6% (men) and 9% (women) less income from labor than reference individuals. Women's income would have dropped further if they had not been able to offset their decline in tea plucking by spending more time on nonplucking assignments. HIV-infected workers experienced long-term income reductions before and after initiating ART. The implications of such long-term impacts in low-income countries have not been adequately addressed.

  13. Odour as a determinant of persistent symptoms after a chemical explosion, a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Tjalvin, Gro; Magerøy, Nils; Bråtveit, Magne; Lygre, Stein Håkon Låstad; Hollund, Bjørg Eli; Moen, Bente Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Foul-smelling environmental pollution was a major concern following a chemical workplace explosion. Malodorous pollution has previously been associated with aggravated physical and psychological health, and in persons affected by a trauma, an incidence-related odour can act as a traumatic reminder. Olfaction may even be of significance in the development and persistence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). The present longitudinal study assessed whether perceived smell related to malodor...

  14. Student perceptions of stress, coping, relationships, and academic civility: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cynthia M; Nguyen, Danh T; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina

    2014-01-01

    Academic incivility can increase student stress, jeopardize learning, damage relationships, and negatively impact the academic environment. This 3-year longitudinal study measured a cohort of prelicensure nursing students' progressive perceptions of stress, coping, student-student and faculty-student relationships, and levels of academic civility. While civility scores remained mild to moderately high overall, there was a slightly declining trend over the 3-year period. Perceived stressors and coping strategies and ways to improve academic civility are identified and discussed.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF GAMING ON WORKING MEMORY, INATTENTION, READING AND MATH – A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöwall, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown both positive and negative effects of gaming on academic and cognitive performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of gaming on development of working memory (WM), inattention, reading and math ability using a longitudinal design. A randomly chosen sample of 335 (168 girls) 6–25 year olds performed tests of visuo-spatial and verbal WM, reading and math ability twice, with a two year interval. Gaming and inattention were assed with questionnaires...

  16. Female College Students’ Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study describes women’s media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heavies...

  17. A short-term longitudinal study of relational aggression and social skills of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Miyoshi

    2003-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study was designed to examine relational aggression associated with social skills and anxiety-withdrawn behavior of preschool children. Relational aggression, social skills (self-control skills, friendship making skills, and assertion skills), and anxiety-withdrawn behavior of one hundred and twenty 5-year old children were assessed two times across a 6-months period by using teacher rating measures. For the data analysis, the children were divided according to th...

  18. Progressive changes in arch width from primary to early mixed dentition period: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    S Sangwan; H S Chawla; A Goyal; K Gauba; U Mohanty

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate, on a longitudinal basis, the changes in intercanine and intermolar widths form the primary to the early mixed dentition periods. Materials and Methods: A total of 38 children aged 4-5 years, with normal occlusion without any proximal caries or any dental anomalies, were selected. The impressions were recorded and casts were prepared. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured on these dental casts with the help of a digital vernier ...

  19. Longitudinal MRI Study of Cortical Development through Early Childhood in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, C.M.; Bloss, C.S.; Barnes, C. Carter; Wideman, G.M.; Carper, R.A.; Akshoomoff, N.; Pierce, K.; Hagler, D.; Schork, N.; Lord, C.; Courchesne, E.

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional MRI studies have long hypothesized that the brain in children with autism undergoes an abnormal growth trajectory that includes a period of early overgrowth; however this has never been confirmed by a longitudinal study. We carried out the first longitudinal study of brain growth in toddlers at the time symptoms of autism are becoming clinically apparent utilizing structural MRI scans at multiple time points beginning at 1.5 years up to 5 years of age. We collected 193 scans on 41 toddlers who received a confirmed diagnosis of Autistic Disorder at ~48 months of age and 44 typically developing controls. By 2.5 years of age, both cerebral gray and white matter was significantly enlarged in toddlers with Autistic Disorder, with the most severe enlargement occurring in frontal, temporal and cingulate cortices. In the longitudinal analyses, which we accounted for age and gender effect, we found that all regions (cerebral gray, cerebral white, frontal gray, temporal gray, cingulate gray, and parietal gray) except occipital gray developed at an abnormal growth rate in toddlers with Autistic Disorder that was mainly characterized by a quadratic age effect. Females with Autistic Disorder displayed a more pronounced abnormal growth profile in more brain regions than males with the disorder. Given that overgrowth clearly begins before 2 years of age, future longitudinal studies would benefit from inclusion of even younger populations as well as further characterization of genetic and other biomarkers in order to determine the underlying neuropathological processes causing the onset of autistic symptoms. PMID:20335478

  20. A retrospective longitudinal study of animal and human rabies in Botswana 1989-2006

    OpenAIRE

    K.T. Moagabo; K.B. Monyame; E.K. Baipoledi; M. Letshwenyo; N. Mapitse; J.M.K. Hyera

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal study of animal and human rabies covering 18 years from 1989 to 2006 was retrospectively conducted in order to highlight the epidemiological features and trends of the disease in Botswana. Over the 18-year period, a total of 4 306 brain specimens collected from various species of animals including human beings with clinical signs consistent with rabies were submitted to the National Veterinary Laboratory in Gaborone for confirmatory diagnosis. Of the samples submitted, 2 ...

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind and Drawings of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal relations between theory of mind (ToM) understanding and children's drawings of play in 26 school-aged children, (16 females, 10 males, aged 8-12 years). Theory of mind was assessed at Time 1 (T1, M = 8 y 5m) and two years later at Time 2 (T2, M =10 y 4 m), as well as children's drawings of play activities.…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind, Self-Concept, and Gender-Role Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal relations between theory of mind (ToM) understanding, self-perceptions, and perceptions of gender-role orientation in 28 school-aged children, (16 girls, 12 boys, aged 8-12 years). Theory of mind and perceptions of self were assessed at Time 1 (T1, M = 8 y 5 m) and two years later at Time 2 (T2, M = 10 y 4…

  3. Work-Team Implementation and Trajectories of Manufacturing Quality: A Longitudinal Field Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Joy M. Field; Kingshuk K. Sinha

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the sustainability of manufacturing quality improvements following the implementation of work teams on production lines. We posit that the impact on manufacturing quality, measured as the defect rate trajectory, is monotonically nonincreasing over time and may, more specifically, assume the shape of an inverted S-curve. Employing a longitudinal research design, we investigate four work teams over a 28-month period in a field setting. Each team corresponds to one of the four...

  4. Perceived maternal autonomy-support and early adolescent emotion regulation: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Brenning, Katrijn; Soenens, Bart; Van Petegem, Stijn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated longitudinal associations between perceived maternal autonomy-supportive parenting and early adolescents' use of three emotion regulation (ER) styles: emotional integration, suppressive regulation, and dysregulation. We tested whether perceived maternal autonomy support predicted changes in ER and whether these ER styles, in turn, related to changes in adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem). Participants (N= 311, mean age at Time 1 = 12.04) reported on per...

  5. Digital Entrepreneurship in a Traditional Production Firm: A Longitudinal Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Hannibal; Erik S. Rasmussen

    2014-01-01

    Through a longitudinal case study this paper explores the repercussions from introducing a mobile commerce platform as just another instrument in the marketing toolbox in a traditional sales-oriented firm. Findings suggest that the implementation of the M-platform in addition to its intended purpose spawns a digital business model that allows the company to change its relations to distributors, retailers and customers enabling access to direct communication with end-users. However, the emergi...

  6. Personality and Eating Disorders: A Longitudinal Study on a Non-Clinical Sample of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    De Caro, Elide Francesca; Di Blas, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The present longitudinal study is aimed at analyzing how adolescents change their dysfunctional attitudes towards their body and eating behaviors in relation to personality characteristics across a six-month time span. Via multiple regression analyses we investigated whether MMPI-A Obsessiveness, Low Self-Esteem, Depression, Family Problems and Concern for health are temporal antecedents of EDI-2 eating disorders, and vice versa. Our main findings revealed a bidirectio...

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Neurocognition in Dementia with Lewy Bodies Compared to Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Breitve

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThere are relatively few longitudinal studies on the differences in cognitive decline between Alzheimer’s disease (AD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, and the majority of existing studies have suboptimal designs.AimWe investigated the differences in cognitive decline in AD compared to DLB over 4 years and cognitive domain predictors of progression.MethodsIn a longitudinal study, 266 patients with first-time diagnosis of mild dementia were included and followed annually. The patients were tested annually with neuropsychological tests and screening instruments [MMSE (Mini-Mental Status Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR, the second edition of California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-II, Trail Making Test A & B (TMT A & B, Stroop test, Controlled Oral Word Associations Test (COWAT animal naming, Boston Naming Test, Visual Object and Space Perception Battery (VOSP Cubes and Silhouettes]. Longitudinal analyses were performed with linear mixed effects (LME models and Cox regression. Both specific neuropsychological tests and cognitive domains were analyzed.ResultsThis study sample comprised 119 AD and 67 DLB patients. In TMT A, the DLB patients had a faster decline over 4 years than patients with AD (p = 0.013. No other longitudinal differences in specific neuropsychological tests were found. Higher executive domain scores at baseline were associated with a longer time to reach severe dementia (CDR = 3 or death for the total sample (p = 0.032. High or low visuospatial function at baseline was not found to be associated with cognitive decline (MMSE or progression of dementia severity (CDR over time.ConclusionOver 4 years, patients with DLB had a faster decline in TMT A than patients with AD, but this should be interpreted cautiously. Beyond this, there was little support for faster decline in DLB patients neuropsychologically than in AD patients.

  8. Cognitive predictors and risk factors of PTSD following stillbirth: a short-term longitudinal study.

    OpenAIRE

    Horsch, A.; Jacobs, I.; McKenzie-McHarg, K.

    2015-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigated cognitive predictors and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers following stillbirth. After a stillbirth at ≥ 24 weeks gestational age, 65 women completed structured clinical interviews and questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, cognitive predictors (appraisals, dysfunctional strategies), and risk factors (perceived social support, trauma history, obstetric history) at 3 and 6 months. PTSD symptoms decreased between 3 a...

  9. The predictive power of personality traits on insomnia symptoms: a longitudinal study among shift workers

    OpenAIRE

    Larsgård, Borgar

    2015-01-01

    Shift work can have adverse effects on employees' health, including symptoms of insomnia. This may cause severe problems both for employee and employer. The personality variables morningness, neuroticism and extraversion, along with some demographic variables (e.g. gender, age) have been found to correlate with insomnia symptoms, but predictive data have been scarce. This study sought to discover whether personality variables could predict insomnia. A hierarchical longitudinal (six months)...

  10. The relation between internet use and overweight among adolescents: a longitudinal study in Switzerland.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrense-Dias Y; Berchtold A; Akre C; Surís J-C

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the characteristics and predictive risk factors of overweight among adolescents. The hypothesis was that baseline overweight predicted most overweight over time compared to other factors especially excessive internet use. SUBJECTS A sample of 621 youths were followed from age 14 (T0 Spring 2012) to age 16 (T1 Spring 2014) in Switzerland. Participants were divided into two groups according to their weight at the final assessment: overweigh...

  11. The effects of ingroup and outgroup friendships on ethnic attitudes in college: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Shana; van Laar, Colette; Sidanius, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Data for this longitudinal study were collected from over 2000 White, Asian, Latino, and African American college students. Results indicated that students who exhibited more ingroup bias and intergroup anxiety at the end of their first year of college had fewer outgroup friends and more ingroup friends during their second and third years of college, controlling for pre-college friendships and other background variables. In addition, beyond these effects of prior ethnic attitudes and orientat...

  12. Development of sedentary behavior across childhood and adolescence: longitudinal analysis of the Gateshead Millennium Study

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Xanne; Mann, Kay D.; Basterfield, Laura; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Pearce, Mark S.; Reilly, Jessica K.; Adamson, Ashley J.; Reilly, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world policy and research interventions to modify sedentary behavior of children and adolescents are now being developed. However, the evidence to inform these interventions (e.g. how sedentary behavior changes across childhood and adolescence) is limited. This study aimed to assess longitudinal changes in sedentary behavior, and examine the degree of tracking of sedentary behavior from age 7y to 15y. Methods Participants were part of the Gateshead Millennium S...

  13. A longitudinal study of self-esteem, cultural identity, and academic success among American Indian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M.; Spicer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories of self-esteem and cultural identity among American Indian high school students and to explore the relationships of these trajectories to personal resources, problem behaviors, and academic performance at the end of high school. The sample included 1,611 participants from the Voices of Indian Teens project, a three-year longitudinal study of adolescents from three diverse American Indian cultural groups in the wester...

  14. MMORPG gaming and hostility predict internet addiction symptoms in adolescents: an empirical multilevel longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Stavropoulos, V; Kuss, DJ; Griffiths, MD; Wilson, P; Motti-Stefanidi, F

    2017-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become an increasingly researched topic. In the present study, IA symptoms in adolescents were investigated longitudinally with specific focus on the individual’s hostility, gaming use (of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games\\ud [MMORPGs]) and gaming on the classroom level (calculated using the percentage of MMORPG players within classes). The sample comprised 648 Greek adolescents who were\\ud assessed over a two-year period (aged 16-18 years). IA sympto...

  15. Studies of longitudinal profile of electron bunches and impedance measurements at Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Akash Deep, E-mail: akash-deep@rrcat.gov.in [Beam Diagnostics Section (BDS), Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics and Diagnostics Division (IOBDD), Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, M.P. (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI) at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India); Yadav, S.; Kumar, Mukesh; Shrivastava, B.B.; Karnewar, A.K.; Ojha, A.; Puntambekar, T.A. [Beam Diagnostics Section (BDS), Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics and Diagnostics Division (IOBDD), Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, M.P. (India)

    2016-04-01

    Indus-2 is a 3rd generation synchrotron radiation source at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) in India. We study the longitudinal profile of electrons in Indus-2 by using dual sweep synchroscan streak camera at visible diagnostic beamline. In this paper, the longitudinal profiles of electron bunch are analyzed by filling beam current in a single bunch mode. These studies are carried at injection energy (550 MeV) and at ramped beam energy (2.5 GeV). The effects of the wakefield generated interactions between the circulating electrons and the surrounding vacuum chamber are analyzed in terms of measured effects on longitudinal beam distribution. The impedance of the storage ring is obtained by fitting the solutions of Haissinski equation to the measured bunch lengthening with different impedance models. The impedance of storage ring obtained by a series R+L impedance model indicates a resistance (R) of 1350±125 Ω, an inductance (L) of 180±25 nH and broadband impedance of 2.69 Ω. These results are also compared with the values obtained from measured synchronous phase advancing and scaling laws. These studies are very useful in better understanding and control of the electromagnetic interactions.

  16. Evaluation of brain ageing: a quantitative longitudinal MRI study over 7 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracien, Rene-Maxime; Nuernberger, Lucas; Hof, Stephanie-Michelle; Reitz, Sarah C.; Hilker-Roggendorf, Ruediger; Baudrexel, Simon [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Hok, Pavel [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Palacky University, Department of Neurology, Olomouc (Czech Republic); Rueb, Udo [Goethe University, Dr. Senckenberg Chronomedical Institute, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Steinmetz, Helmuth [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Klein, Johannes C. [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Deichmann, Ralf [Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    T1 relaxometry is a promising tool for the assessment of microstructural changes during brain ageing. Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated increasing T1 values in white and decreasing T1 values in grey matter over the lifetime. However, these findings have not yet been confirmed on the basis of a longitudinal study. In this longitudinal study over 7 years, T1 relaxometry was used to investigate the dynamics of age-related microstructural changes in older healthy subjects. T1 mapping was performed in 17 healthy subjects (range 51-77 years) at baseline and after 7 years. Advanced cortical and white matter segmentation was used to determine mean T1 values in the cortex and white matter. The analysis revealed a decrease of mean cortical T1 values over 7 years, the rate of T1 reduction being more prominent in subjects with higher age. T1 decreases were predominantly localized in the lateral frontal, parietal and temporal cortex. In contrast, mean white matter T1 values remained stable. T1 mapping is shown to be sensitive to age-related microstructural changes in healthy ageing subjects in a longitudinal setting. Data of a cohort in late adulthood and the senescence period demonstrate a decrease of cortical T1 values over 7 years, most likely reflecting decreasing water content and increased iron concentrations. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of brain ageing: a quantitative longitudinal MRI study over 7 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracien, Rene-Maxime; Nuernberger, Lucas; Hof, Stephanie-Michelle; Reitz, Sarah C.; Hilker-Roggendorf, Ruediger; Baudrexel, Simon; Hok, Pavel; Rueb, Udo; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Klein, Johannes C.; Deichmann, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    T1 relaxometry is a promising tool for the assessment of microstructural changes during brain ageing. Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated increasing T1 values in white and decreasing T1 values in grey matter over the lifetime. However, these findings have not yet been confirmed on the basis of a longitudinal study. In this longitudinal study over 7 years, T1 relaxometry was used to investigate the dynamics of age-related microstructural changes in older healthy subjects. T1 mapping was performed in 17 healthy subjects (range 51-77 years) at baseline and after 7 years. Advanced cortical and white matter segmentation was used to determine mean T1 values in the cortex and white matter. The analysis revealed a decrease of mean cortical T1 values over 7 years, the rate of T1 reduction being more prominent in subjects with higher age. T1 decreases were predominantly localized in the lateral frontal, parietal and temporal cortex. In contrast, mean white matter T1 values remained stable. T1 mapping is shown to be sensitive to age-related microstructural changes in healthy ageing subjects in a longitudinal setting. Data of a cohort in late adulthood and the senescence period demonstrate a decrease of cortical T1 values over 7 years, most likely reflecting decreasing water content and increased iron concentrations. (orig.)

  18. Multiple and multidimensional transitions from trainee to trained doctor: a qualitative longitudinal study in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lisi; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Morrison, Jill; Muldoon, Janine; Needham, Gillian; Siebert, Sabina; Rees, Charlotte

    2017-12-01

    To explore trainee doctors' experiences of the transition to trained doctor, we answer three questions: (1) What multiple and multidimensional transitions (MMTs) are experienced as participants move from trainee to trained doctor? (2) What facilitates and hinders doctors' successful transition experiences? (3) What is the impact of MMTs on trained doctors? A qualitative longitudinal study underpinned by MMT theory. Four training areas (health boards) in the UK. 20 doctors, 19 higher-stage trainees within 6 months of completing their postgraduate training and 1 staff grade, associate specialist or specialty doctor, were recruited to the 9-month longitudinal audio-diary (LAD) study. All completed an entrance interview, 18 completed LADs and 18 completed exit interviews. Data were analysed cross-sectionally and longitudinally using thematic Framework Analysis. Participants experienced a multiplicity of expected and unexpected, positive and negative work-related transitions (eg, new roles) and home-related transitions (eg, moving home) during their trainee-trained doctor transition. Factors facilitating or inhibiting successful transitions were identified at various levels: individual (eg, living arrangements), interpersonal (eg, presence of supportive relationships), systemic (eg, mentoring opportunities) and macro (eg, the curriculum provided by Medical Royal Colleges). Various impacts of transitions were also identified at each of these four levels: individual (eg, stress), interpersonal (eg, trainees' children spending more time in childcare), systemic (eg, spending less time with patients) and macro (eg, delayed start in trainees' new roles). Priority should be given to developing supportive relationships (both formal and informal) to help trainees transition into their trained doctor roles, as well as providing more opportunities for learning. Further longitudinal qualitative research is now needed with a longer study duration to explore transition journeys for

  19. RATAN - 600 studies the large Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parijskij, Yu.N.

    1981-01-01

    The results of investigations in the range of outergalactic radioastronomy obtained using the RATAN-600 radiotelescope in 1980, are presented. The main attention is paid to the studies of radiogalaxies and, particularly, revealing the frequency dependence of radioimages. The nature of activity of radiogalactic nuclei is specified. The experimental data available prove that the nucleus of our Galaxy consists of ordinary stars and does not have massive black hole. The most profound review of the sky is carried out for the first time in the history of radioastronomy. About 3000 radiosourses were registered within the experiment. Sources with the radiation flux density about 1 mJy are registered reliably. In the range of weak fluxes (up to 1mJy), the growth of the number of sources practically ceases with the decrease in the density of the radiation flux [ru

  20. The Effects of the Green House Nursing Home Model on ADL Function Trajectory: A Retrospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOON, Ju Young; BROWN, Roger L.; BOWERS, Barbara J.; SHARKEY, Siobhan S.; HORN, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    person-centered, this study did not demonstrate significant differences in ADL function changes for residents in the GH nursing homes compared to traditional nursing homes. Given that the GH model continues to evolve as it is being implemented and variations within and across GH homes are identified, large-scale longitudinal studies are needed to provide further relevant information on the effects of the GH model. PMID:26260709

  1. The effects of the Green House nursing home model on ADL function trajectory: A retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ju Young; Brown, Roger L; Bowers, Barbara J; Sharkey, Siobhan S; Horn, Susan D

    2016-01-01

    considered to represent an innovative model changing the nursing home environment into more person-centered, this study did not demonstrate significant differences in activities of daily living function changes for residents in the Green House nursing homes compared to traditional nursing homes. Given that the Green House model continues to evolve as it is being implemented and variations within and across Green House homes are identified, large-scale longitudinal studies are needed to provide further relevant information on the effects of the Green House model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How Serious of a Problem is Staff Turnover in Substance Abuse Treatment? A Longitudinal Study of Actual Turnover1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T.; Burk, Hannah; Maher, Charleen P.

    2010-01-01

    In the substance abuse treatment field, the annual turnover rate is cited as being anywhere between 19 and 50 percent (Johnson & Roman, 2002; Gallon, Gabriel, & Knudsen, 2003; Knudsen et al., 2003; McLellan et al., 2003). However, no research to date has evaluated these claims by tracking turnover longitudinally using organizational turnover data from substance abuse treatment centers. This research presents the results of a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine actual turnover among counselors and clinical supervisors. Twenty-seven geographically dispersed treatment organizations, serving a wide range of clients in the public and private sector, provided data for the study over a two year time span (2008–2009). The annual turnover rate was 33.2% for counselors and 23.4% for clinical supervisors. For both groups the majority of turnover was voluntary (employee-initiated). Specific reasons for turnover were largely consistent across the two groups, with the most common reason being a new job or new opportunity. The findings are discussed in terms of the unique employment context of substance abuse treatment. Practical recommendations are also discussed to help stem the tide of turnover in the field of substance abuse treatment. PMID:20675097

  3. How serious of a problem is staff turnover in substance abuse treatment? A longitudinal study of actual turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T; Burk, Hannah; Maher, Charleen P

    2010-10-01

    In the substance abuse treatment field, the annual turnover rate is cited as being anywhere between 19% and 50% (J.A. Johnson & P.M. Roman, 2002; S.L. Gallon, R.M. Gabriel, J.R.W. Knudsen, 2003; H.K. Knudsen, J.A. Johnson, & P.M. Roman, 2003; A.T. McLellan, D. Carise, & H.D. Kleber, 2003). However, no research to date has evaluated these claims by tracking turnover longitudinally using organizational turnover data from substance abuse treatment centers. This research presents the results of a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine actual turnover among counselors and clinical supervisors. Twenty-seven geographically dispersed treatment organizations, serving a wide range of clients in the public and private sector, provided data for the study over a 2-year time span (2008-2009). The annual turnover rate was 33.2% for counselors and 23.4% for clinical supervisors. For both groups, the majority of turnover was voluntary (employee-initiated). Specific reasons for turnover were largely consistent across the two groups, with the most common reason being a new job or new opportunity. The findings are discussed in terms of the unique employment context of substance abuse treatment. Practical recommendations are also discussed to help stem the tide of turnover in the field of substance abuse treatment. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Parental Predictors of Children’s Shame and Guilt at Age 6 in a Multi-Method, Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisette-Sparks, Alyssa; Bufferd, Sara J.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Shame and guilt are self-conscious emotions that begin to develop early in life and are associated with various forms of psychopathology. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to these emotions in young children. Specifically, no longitudinal studies to date have examined a range of parent factors that shape the expression of children’s shame and guilt. The current multi-method, longitudinal study sought to determine whether parenting style, parental psychopathology, and parents’ marital satisfaction assessed when children were age 3 predict expressions of shame and guilt in children at age 6. Method A large community sample of families (N = 446; 87.4% Caucasian) with three-year-old children (45.7% female) was recruited through commercial mailing lists. Parent variables were assessed when children were age 3 with mother- and father-report questionnaires and a diagnostic interview. Children’s expressions of shame and guilt were observed in the laboratory at age 6. Results Fathers’, but not mothers’, history of depression and permissive parenting assessed when children were age 3 predicted children’s expressions of shame and guilt when children were age 6; parents’ marital dissatisfaction also predicted children’s shame and guilt. Conclusions These findings suggest that parents, and fathers in particular, contribute to expressions of self-conscious emotions in children. These data on emotional development may be useful for better characterizing the risk and developmental pathways of psychopathology. PMID:26538055

  5. A longitudinal study of school belonging and academic motivation across high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Cari Gillen-O'; Fuligni, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined how school belonging changes over the years of high school, and how it is associated with academic achievement and motivation. Students from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds participated (N = 572; age span = 13.94-19.15 years). In ninth grade, girls' school belonging was higher than boys'. Over the course of high school, however, girls' school belonging declined, whereas boys' remained stable. Within-person longitudinal analyses indicated that years in which students had higher school belonging were also years in which they felt that school was more enjoyable and more useful, above and beyond their actual level of achievement. Results highlight the importance of belonging for maintaining students' academic engagement during the teenage years. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. Parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being: a longitudinal study in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1999-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being.

  7. Cultural Orientation Trajectories and Substance Use: Findings From a Longitudinal Study of Mexican-Origin Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Rick A; King, Kevin M; Cauce, Ana M; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W

    2017-03-01

    Cultural adaptation may influence Latino youth substance use (SU) development, yet few longitudinal studies have examined cultural change over time and adolescent SU outcomes. Using longitudinal data collected annually across ages 10-16 from 674 Mexican-origin youth (50% female), the authors characterized cultural adaptation patterns for language use (English and Spanish use), values (American values and familism values), and identity (ethnic pride), and examined whether these cultural adaptation patterns were associated with differential SU risk. Youth with increasing bilingualism and high/stable family values had lower SU risk compared to youth who primarily spoke English and endorsed decreasing family values, respectively. Ethnic pride trajectories were not associated with SU. Findings highlight the importance of considering cultural change related to Latino youth SU. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Motivation Mediates the Perfectionism-Burnout Relationship: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study With Junior Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Daniel J; Stoeber, Joachim; Passfield, Louis

    2016-08-01

    Perfectionism in sports has been shown to predict longitudinal changes in athlete burnout. What mediates these changes over time, however, is still unclear. Adopting a self-determination theory perspective and using a three-wave longitudinal design, the current study examined perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and athlete burnout in 141 junior athletes (mean age = 17.3 years) over 6 months of active training. When multilevel structural equation modeling was employed to test a mediational model, a differential pattern of between- and within-person relationships emerged. Whereas autonomous motivation mediated the negative relationship that perfectionistic strivings had with burnout at the between- and within-person level, controlled motivation mediated the positive relationship that perfectionistic concerns had with burnout at the between-persons level only. The present findings suggest that differences in autonomous and controlled motivation explain why perfectionism predicts changes in athlete burnout over time.

  9. A longitudinal study of the relationships between the Big Five personality traits and body size perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated the longitudinal development of body size perception in relation to different personality traits. A sample of Swiss adults (N=2905, 47% men), randomly selected from the telephone book, completed a questionnaire on two consecutive years (2012, 2013). Body size perception was assessed with the Contour Drawing Rating Scale and personality traits were assessed with a short version of the Big Five Inventory. Longitudinal analysis of change indicated that men and women scoring higher on conscientiousness perceived themselves as thinner one year later. In contrast, women scoring higher on neuroticism perceived their body size as larger one year later. No significant effect was observed for men scoring higher on neuroticism. These results were independent of weight changes, body mass index, age, and education. Our findings suggest that personality traits contribute to body size perception among adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Regularized Discriminant Analysis: A Large Dimensional Study

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaoke

    2018-04-28

    In this thesis, we focus on studying the performance of general regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) classifiers. The data used for analysis is assumed to follow Gaussian mixture model with different means and covariances. RDA offers a rich class of regularization options, covering as special cases the regularized linear discriminant analysis (RLDA) and the regularized quadratic discriminant analysis (RQDA) classi ers. We analyze RDA under the double asymptotic regime where the data dimension and the training size both increase in a proportional way. This double asymptotic regime allows for application of fundamental results from random matrix theory. Under the double asymptotic regime and some mild assumptions, we show that the asymptotic classification error converges to a deterministic quantity that only depends on the data statistical parameters and dimensions. This result not only implicates some mathematical relations between the misclassification error and the class statistics, but also can be leveraged to select the optimal parameters that minimize the classification error, thus yielding the optimal classifier. Validation results on the synthetic data show a good accuracy of our theoretical findings. We also construct a general consistent estimator to approximate the true classification error in consideration of the unknown previous statistics. We benchmark the performance of our proposed consistent estimator against classical estimator on synthetic data. The observations demonstrate that the general estimator outperforms others in terms of mean squared error (MSE).

  11. Association between consistent purchase of anticonvulsants or lithium and suicide risk: a longitudinal cohort study from Denmark, 1995-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Eric G; Søndergård, Lars; Lopez, Ana Garcia

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest anticonvulsants purchasers may be at greater risk of suicide than lithium purchasers. METHODS: Longitudinal, retrospective cohort study of all individuals in Denmark purchasing anticonvulsants (valproic acid, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine or lamotrigine) (n=9952...

  12. A longitudinal study on boys' and girls' career aspirations and interest in technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardies, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Gijbels, David

    2015-09-01

    Background: More young people, boys and girls, are needed in technical studies and professions, as the relative number of students in technology-related studies has been decreasing in most industrialised countries. To overcome this decrease several countries implemented mandatory technology classes in the curriculum of secondary education. Purpose: This study has two goals: exploring the evolution of pupils' interest during the year(s) they attend the mandatory technology classes and exploring determining characteristics for differences in boys' and girls' attitude change over time. Sample: This study focuses on data gathered in the first and second grade of the first cycle in general secondary education in the North region of Belgium, Flanders. In a first stage we selected a good representation of geographically spread schools (n = 20), from which over 1300 students participated. Design and methods: A longitudinal study with eight measurement occasions spread over the course of two years is presented in order to capture the evolution of students' attitudes, making use of a multilevel growth model analysis. Results: The results show that students' interest in technology decreases over time, although at the end of each grade interest is increasing again. Boys' and girls' interest in technology also evolves a little different in the first cycle of secondary education. For career aspirations we didn't see any significant difference between boys and girls. Boys' and girls' aspirations decrease over time with a little increase by the end of the second grade. Students with a more technological curriculum also have more career aspirations in the field of technology than their peers with other curricula. Although students' perceptions about technology as a subject for boys and girls are largely stable. Conclusions: The evolution of students' attitude is far from linear, this strengthens us in the choice for a more complex analysis model and the choice for more measuring

  13. Resolution of neurosensory deficit after mandibular orthognathic surgery: A prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alolayan, Albraa Badr; Leung, Yiu Yan

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the longitudinal resolution of neurosensory deficit (NSD) and the possible risk factors that might contribute to NSD following mandibular orthognathic procedures. A prospective longitudinal observational study on patients who had mandibular orthognathic procedures was performed. Standardized neurosensory assessments were performed. The 2 years longitudinal resolution and risk factors of NSD including patients' age and gender, specific mandibular procedures and surgeons' experience were analyzed. 66 patients (44 females) with 132 sides of mandibular procedures were enrolled in the study. Surgical procedures included mandibular ramus surgery, anterior mandibular surgery, or the combination of the two. The overall occurrences of subjective NSD improved from 78.8% at postoperative 2 weeks to 13.8% at post-operative 2 years. Combinations of ramus surgery and anterior mandibular surgery increased the risk of NSD at the first three post-operative months (p orthognathic surgery. The occurrence of NSD after mandibular orthognathic procedures reduced progressively within the post-operative 2 years. Combination of mandibular ramus surgery and anterior mandibular surgery increased the risk of NSD in the early post-operative period. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. How do Rumination and Social Problem Solving Intensify Depression? A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Morimoto, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Haruki; Matsuda, Yuko

    2018-01-01

    In order to examine how rumination and social problem solving intensify depression, the present study investigated longitudinal associations among each dimension of rumination and social problem solving and evaluated aspects of these constructs that predicted subsequent depression. A three-wave longitudinal study, with an interval of 4 weeks between waves, was conducted. Japanese university students completed the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Ruminative Responses Scale, Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised Short Version, and Interpersonal Stress Event Scale on three occasions 4 weeks apart ( n  = 284 at Time 1, 198 at Time 2, 165 at Time 3). Linear mixed models were analyzed to test whether each variable predicted subsequent depression, rumination, and each dimension of social problem solving. Rumination and negative problem orientation demonstrated a mutually enhancing relationship. Because these two variables were not associated with interpersonal conflict during the subsequent 4 weeks, rumination and negative problem orientation appear to strengthen each other without environmental change. Rumination and impulsivity/carelessness style were associated with subsequent depressive symptoms, after controlling for the effect of initial depression. Because rumination and impulsivity/carelessness style were not concurrently and longitudinally associated with each other, rumination and impulsive/careless problem solving style appear to be independent processes that serve to intensify depression.

  15. Brief report: parenting styles and obesity in Mexican American children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma; Power, Thomas G

    2010-04-01

    To assess longitudinally the relations between four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved, and indulgent) and child weight status in Mexican American families. Sixty-nine low-income Mexican American mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Mothers completed demographic and parenting measures. Children's body weight and height were assessed annually. Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. At baseline, 65% of children were found to be normal weight, 14% were overweight, and 21% were obese. Analyses examined how parenting styles at baseline predicted child's weight status 3 years later, controlling for initial weight status. Children of indulgent mothers were more likely to become overweight 3 years later than children of authoritative or authoritarian mothers. This study provides longitudinal evidence for the role of indulgent parenting in predicting overweight in Mexican American children. Possible mediating factors that may account for this relationship (e.g., dietary patterns, physical activity patterns, and children's self-regulation) are considered.

  16. Exclusive breastfeeding-Does it make a difference? : A longitudinal, prospective study of daily feeding practices, health and growth in a sample of Swedish infants

    OpenAIRE

    Aarts, Clara

    2001-01-01

    The concept of exclusive breastfeeding in relation to daily feeding practices and to health and growth of infants in an affluent society was examined. In a descriptive longitudinal prospective study 506 mother-infant pairs were followed from birth through the greater part of the first year. Feeding was recorded daily, and health and growth were recorded fortnightly. Large individual variations were seen in breastfeeding patterns. A wide discrepancy between the exclusive breastfeeding rates o...

  17. Personality Predicts Mortality Risk: An Integrative Data Analysis of 15 International Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Eileen K; Rutsohn, Joshua P; Turiano, Nicholas A; Bendayan, Rebecca; Batterham, Philip J; Gerstorf, Denis; Katz, Mindy J; Reynolds, Chandra A; Sharp, Emily S; Yoneda, Tomiko B; Bastarache, Emily D; Elleman, Lorien G; Zelinski, Elizabeth M; Johansson, Boo; Kuh, Diana; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A; Deeg, Dorly J H; Lipton, Richard B; Pedersen, Nancy L; Piccinin, Andrea M; Spiro, Avron; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Willis, Sherry L; Schaie, K Warner; Roan, Carol; Herd, Pamela; Hofer, Scott M; Mroczek, Daniel K

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the Big Five personality traits as predictors of mortality risk, and smoking as a mediator of that association. Replication was built into the fabric of our design: we used a Coordinated Analysis with 15 international datasets, representing 44,094 participants. We found that high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness were consistent predictors of mortality across studies. Smoking had a small mediating effect for neuroticism. Country and baseline age explained variation in effects: studies with older baseline age showed a pattern of protective effects (HReffects for extraversion. This study demonstrated coordinated analysis as a powerful approach to enhance replicability and reproducibility, especially for aging-related longitudinal research.

  18. On the Use of Diversity Measures in Longitudinal Sequencing Studies of Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brandie D; Grunwald, Gary K; Zerbe, Gary O; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Robertson, Charles E; Zemanick, Edith T; Harris, J Kirk

    2018-01-01

    Identification of the majority of organisms present in human-associated microbial communities is feasible with the advent of high throughput sequencing technology. As substantial variability in microbiota communities is seen across subjects, the use of longitudinal study designs is important to better understand variation of the microbiome within individual subjects. Complex study designs with longitudinal sample collection require analytic approaches to account for this additional source of variability. A common approach to assessing community changes is to evaluate the change in alpha diversity (the variety and abundance of organisms in a community) over time. However, there are several commonly used alpha diversity measures and the use of different measures can result in different estimates of magnitude of change and different inferences. It has recently been proposed that diversity profile curves are useful for clarifying these differences, and may provide a more complete picture of the community structure. However, it is unclear how to utilize these curves when interest is in evaluating changes in community structure over time. We propose the use of a bi-exponential function in a longitudinal model that accounts for repeated measures on each subject to compare diversity profiles over time. Furthermore, it is possible that no change in alpha diversity (single community/sample) may be observed despite the presence of a highly divergent community composition. Thus, it is also important to use a beta diversity measure (similarity between multiple communities/samples) that captures changes in community composition. Ecological methods developed to evaluate temporal turnover have currently only been applied to investigate changes of a single community over time. We illustrate the extension of this approach to multiple communities of interest (i.e., subjects) by modeling the beta diversity measure over time. With this approach, a rate of change in community

  19. Middle longitudinal fasciculus delineation within language pathways: A diffusion tensor imaging study in human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolasdechampfleur@orange.fr [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Team “Plasticity of Central Nervous System, Stem Cells and Glial Tumors,” Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 1051, Institut of Neurosciences of Montpellier, Saint Eloi Hospital, Montpellier (France); Lima Maldonado, Igor [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Team “Plasticity of Central Nervous System, Stem Cells and Glial Tumors,” Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 1051, Institut of Neurosciences of Montpellier, Saint Eloi Hospital, Montpellier (France); Divisão de Neurologia e Epidemiologia (CPPHO), Complexo Hospital Universitário Professor Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador-Bahia (Brazil); Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Department of Neurology, University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Machi, Paolo [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); and others

    2013-01-15

    Introduction: The existence in the human brain of the middle longitudinal fasciculus (MdLF), initially described in the macaque monkey, is supported by diffusion tensor imaging studies. In the present work, we aim (1) to confirm that this fascicle is found constantly in control subjects with the use of DTI techniques and (2) to delineate the MdLF from the other fiber bundles that constitute the language pathways. Materials and methods: Tractography was realized in four right-handed healthy volunteers for the arcuate fascicle, uncinate fascicle, inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, inferior longitudinal fascicle and the middle longitudinal fascicle. The fiber tracts were characterized for their size, mean fractional anisotropy (FA), for their length, number of streamlines, and lateralization indices were calculated. Results: The MdLF is found constantly and it is clearly delineated from the other fascicles that constitute the language pathways, especially the ventral pathway. It runs within the superior temporal gyrus white matter from the temporal pole, then it extends caudally in the upper part of the sagittal stratum and the posterior part of the corona radiata, to reach the inferior parietal lobule (angular gyrus). We found a leftward asymmetry for all fiber tracts when considering the mean FA. Discussion: Using DTI methods, we confirm that the MdLF connects the angular gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. On the basis of these findings, the role of the MdLF is discussed. Conclusion: The middle longitudinal fasciculus, connects the angular gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus and its course can be systematically differenciated from those of other fascicles composing both ventral and dorsal routes (IFOF, IFL, AF and UF)

  20. Middle longitudinal fasciculus delineation within language pathways: A diffusion tensor imaging study in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Lima Maldonado, Igor; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Machi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The existence in the human brain of the middle longitudinal fasciculus (MdLF), initially described in the macaque monkey, is supported by diffusion tensor imaging studies. In the present work, we aim (1) to confirm that this fascicle is found constantly in control subjects with the use of DTI techniques and (2) to delineate the MdLF from the other fiber bundles that constitute the language pathways. Materials and methods: Tractography was realized in four right-handed healthy volunteers for the arcuate fascicle, uncinate fascicle, inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, inferior longitudinal fascicle and the middle longitudinal fascicle. The fiber tracts were characterized for their size, mean fractional anisotropy (FA), for their length, number of streamlines, and lateralization indices were calculated. Results: The MdLF is found constantly and it is clearly delineated from the other fascicles that constitute the language pathways, especially the ventral pathway. It runs within the superior temporal gyrus white matter from the temporal pole, then it extends caudally in the upper part of the sagittal stratum and the posterior part of the corona radiata, to reach the inferior parietal lobule (angular gyrus). We found a leftward asymmetry for all fiber tracts when considering the mean FA. Discussion: Using DTI methods, we confirm that the MdLF connects the angular gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. On the basis of these findings, the role of the MdLF is discussed. Conclusion: The middle longitudinal fasciculus, connects the angular gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus and its course can be systematically differenciated from those of other fascicles composing both ventral and dorsal routes (IFOF, IFL, AF and UF)