WorldWideScience

Sample records for large interacting galaxy

  1. COMBINED EFFECTS OF GALAXY INTERACTIONS AND LARGE-SCALE ENVIRONMENT ON GALAXY PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young

    2009-01-01

    We inspect the coupled dependence of physical parameters of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies on the small-scale (distance to and morphology of the nearest neighbor galaxy) and the large-scale (background density smoothed over 20 nearby galaxies) environments. The impacts of interaction on galaxy properties are detected at least out to the neighbor separation corresponding to the virial radius of galaxies, which is typically between 200 and 400 h -1 kpc for the galaxies in our sample. To detect these long-range interaction effects, it is crucial to divide galaxy interactions into four cases dividing the morphology of target and neighbor galaxies into early and late types. We show that there are two characteristic neighbor-separation scales where the galaxy interactions cause abrupt changes in the properties of galaxies. The first scale is the virial radius of the nearest neighbor galaxy r vir,nei . Many physical parameters start to deviate from those of extremely isolated galaxies at the projected neighbor separation r p of about r vir,nei . The second scale is at r p ∼ 0.05r vir,nei = 10-20 h -1 kpc, and is the scale at which the galaxies in pairs start to merge. We find that late-type neighbors enhance the star formation activity of galaxies while early-type neighbors reduce it, and that these effects occur within r vir,nei . The hot halo gas and cold disk gas must be participating in the interactions at separations less than the virial radius of the galaxy plus dark halo system. Our results also show that the role of the large-scale density in determining galaxy properties is minimal once luminosity and morphology are fixed. We propose that the weak residual dependence of galaxy properties on the large-scale density is due to the dependence of the halo gas property on the large-scale density.

  2. Tidal interaction of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, N.N.; Syunyaev, R.A.; Ehneev, T.M.

    1974-01-01

    One of the hypotheses explaining the occurrence of anomalous details in interacting galaxies has been investigated. Pairs of galaxies with 'tails' oppositely directed or neighbouring galaxies with cofferdams 'bridges', as if connecting the galaxies, are called interacting galaxies. The hypothesis connects the origin of cofferdams and 'tails' of interacting galaxies with tidal effects ; the action of power gravitational forces in the intergalactic space. A source of such forces may be neighbouring stellar systems or invisible bodies, for instance, 'dead' quasars after a gravitational collapse. The effect of large masses of matter on the galaxy evolution has been investigated in the Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSSR in 1971-1972 by numerical simulation of the process on a digital computer with the subsequent data transmission on a display. Different versions of a massive body flight relative to a galaxy disk are considered. Photographs of a display screen at different moments of time are presented. As a result of mathematical simulation of galaxies gravitational interactions effects are discovered which resemble real structures in photographs of galaxies. It seems to be premature to state that namely these mechanisms cause the formation of 'tails' and cofferdams between galaxies. However, even now it is clear that the gravitational interaction strongly affects the dynamics of the stellar system evolution. Further studies should ascertain a true scale of this effect and its genuine role in galaxy evolution

  3. Interactions between intergalactic medium and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Saar, E.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of galaxies with the environmental gas both in clusters and in small groups of galaxies is investigated. Interaction between galaxies and the ambient medium can be considered simply as final touches in the process of galaxy formation. Large relative velocities of galaxies in their clusters and of the intercluster gas result in a loss of the intergalactic gas, that in its turn affects the morphology of cluster galaxies. Interaction between the coronal clouds and the gas in the disk of spiral galaxies may result in regular patterns of star formation and in the bending of planes of galaxies

  4. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjacques, Vincent; Jeong, Donghui; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-02-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy statistics. We then review the excursion-set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  5. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Donghui; Desjacques, Vincent; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Here, we briefly introduce the key results of the recent review (arXiv:1611.09787), whose abstract is as following. This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy (or halo) statistics. We then review the excursion set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  6. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In studies of the large scale structure of the universe there is a continuing need for extensive galaxy redshift determinations. Optically selected redshift surveys are of particular importance, since flux-limited samples record much higher space densities of galaxies than samples of similar size selected in other wavebands. A considerable amount of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) observing time is currently being devoted to carrying out a large southern galaxy redshift survey. A recently completed study, the Durham-SAAO redshift survey suggests that the mean density of matter is well below the critical limit for a closed universe and also that the universe may be homogenous at very large scales. Other research conducted by the SAAO include studies on: the distribution of galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; starburst and IRAS galaxies; interacting and compact galaxies; a re-evaluation of the Cepheid distance to NGC 300, and a search for quasars behind galaxies. 1 fig

  7. Interactions of galaxies outside clusters and massive groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jaswant K.; Chen, Xuelei

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the dependence of physical properties of galaxies on small- and large-scale density environment. The galaxy population consists of mainly passively evolving galaxies in comparatively low-density regions of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We adopt (i) local density, ρ _{20}, derived using adaptive smoothing kernel, (ii) projected distance, r_p, to the nearest neighbor galaxy and (iii) the morphology of the nearest neighbor galaxy as various definitions of environment parameters of every galaxy in our sample. In order to detect long-range interaction effects, we group galaxy interactions into four cases depending on morphology of the target and neighbor galaxies. This study builds upon an earlier study by Park and Choi (2009) by including improved definitions of target and neighbor galaxies, thus enabling us to better understand the effect of "the nearest neighbor" interaction on the galaxy. We report that the impact of interaction on galaxy properties is detectable at least up to the pair separation corresponding to the virial radius of (the neighbor) galaxies. This turns out to be mostly between 210 and 360 h^{-1}kpc for galaxies included in our study. We report that early type fraction for isolated galaxies with r_p > r_{vir,nei} is almost ignorant of the background density and has a very weak density dependence for closed pairs. Star formation activity of a galaxy is found to be crucially dependent on neighbor galaxy morphology. We find star formation activity parameters and structure parameters of galaxies to be independent of the large-scale background density. We also exhibit that changing the absolute magnitude of the neighbor galaxies does not affect significantly the star formation activity of those target galaxies whose morphology and luminosities are fixed.

  8. INTERACTIONS OF GALAXIES IN THE GALAXY CLUSTER ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Changbom; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2009-01-01

    We study the dependence of galaxy properties on the clustercentric radius and the environment attributed to the nearest neighbor galaxy using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies associated with the Abell galaxy clusters. We find that there exists a characteristic scale where the properties of galaxies suddenly start to depend on the clustercentric radius at fixed neighbor environment. The characteristic scale is 1-3 times the cluster virial radius depending on galaxy luminosity. Existence of the characteristic scale means that the local galaxy number density is not directly responsible for the morphology-density relation in clusters because the local density varies smoothly with the clustercentric radius and has no discontinuity in general. What is really working in clusters is the morphology-clustercentric radius-neighbor environment relation, where the neighbor environment means both neighbor morphology and the local mass density attributed to the neighbor. The morphology-density relation appears working only because of the statistical correlation between the nearest neighbor distance and the local galaxy number density. We find strong evidence that the hydrodynamic interactions with nearby early-type galaxies is the main drive to quenching star formation activity of late-type galaxies in clusters. The hot cluster gas seems to play at most a minor role down to one tenth of the cluster virial radius. We also find that the viable mechanisms which can account for the clustercentric radius dependence of the structural and internal kinematics parameters are harassment and interaction of galaxies with the cluster potential. The morphology transformation of the late-type galaxies in clusters seems to have taken place through both galaxy-galaxy hydrodynamic interactions and galaxy-cluster/galaxy-galaxy gravitational interactions.

  9. INTERACTIONS OF GALAXIES IN THE GALAXY CLUSTER ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Changbom; Hwang, Ho Seong [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr, E-mail: hshwang@kias.re.kr

    2009-07-10

    We study the dependence of galaxy properties on the clustercentric radius and the environment attributed to the nearest neighbor galaxy using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies associated with the Abell galaxy clusters. We find that there exists a characteristic scale where the properties of galaxies suddenly start to depend on the clustercentric radius at fixed neighbor environment. The characteristic scale is 1-3 times the cluster virial radius depending on galaxy luminosity. Existence of the characteristic scale means that the local galaxy number density is not directly responsible for the morphology-density relation in clusters because the local density varies smoothly with the clustercentric radius and has no discontinuity in general. What is really working in clusters is the morphology-clustercentric radius-neighbor environment relation, where the neighbor environment means both neighbor morphology and the local mass density attributed to the neighbor. The morphology-density relation appears working only because of the statistical correlation between the nearest neighbor distance and the local galaxy number density. We find strong evidence that the hydrodynamic interactions with nearby early-type galaxies is the main drive to quenching star formation activity of late-type galaxies in clusters. The hot cluster gas seems to play at most a minor role down to one tenth of the cluster virial radius. We also find that the viable mechanisms which can account for the clustercentric radius dependence of the structural and internal kinematics parameters are harassment and interaction of galaxies with the cluster potential. The morphology transformation of the late-type galaxies in clusters seems to have taken place through both galaxy-galaxy hydrodynamic interactions and galaxy-cluster/galaxy-galaxy gravitational interactions.

  10. The Effects of Galaxy Interactions on Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverage, Aliza; Weiner, Aaron; Ramos Padilla, Andres; Ashby, Matthew; Smith, Howard A.

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy interactions are key events in galaxy evolution, and are widely thought to trigger significant increases in star formation. However, the mechanisms and timescales for these increases are still not well understood. In order to probe the effects of mergers, we undertook an investigation based on the Spitzer Interacting Galaxies Survey (SIGS), a sample of 102 nearby galaxies in 48 systems ranging from weakly interacting to near coalescence. Our study is unique in that we use both broadband photometry and a large sample of objects chosen to be statistically meaningful. Our data come from 32 broad bands ranging from the UV to far-IR, and we model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using the Code for Investigating Galaxy Emission (CIGALE) to estimate physical characteristics for each galaxy. We find marginal statistical correlations between galaxy interaction strength and dust luminosity and the distribution of dust mass as a function of heating intensity. The specific star formation rates, however, do not show any enhancement across the interaction stages. This result challenges conventional wisdom that mergers induce star formation throughout galaxy interaction.The SAO REU program is funded in part by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no. 1262851, and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  11. Galaxies interactions and induced star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kennicutt Jr, Robert C; Barnes, JE

    1998-01-01

    The papers that make up this volume present a comprehensive review of the field of galaxy interaction. Galaxies are dynamic forces that evolve, interact, merge, blaze and reshape. This book offers a historical perspective and studies such topics as induced star formation.

  12. Genesis of dwarf galaxies in interacting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain

    1995-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of interacting and merging galaxies, and more particularly the associated stellar formation episodes. The author first reports an analysis of the central regions of these objects by studying a specific class among them, i.e. galaxies discovered by the IRAS satellite which are ultra-luminous in the far infrared. The author presents results obtained by optical and infrared imagery and spectroscopy of a complete sample of objects located in the southern hemisphere. In the second part, the author focusses on outside regions of interacting galaxies, discusses the observation of filaments formed under the influence of tidal forces acting during galactic collisions, and of condensations which are as luminous as dwarf galaxies. Then a multi-wavelength study of several neighbouring systems revealed the existence of a specific class of objects, the tidal dwarf galaxies, which are formed from stellar and gaseous material snatched from the disk of interacting galaxies. Gas-rich tidal dwarf galaxies contain, like dwarf irregular galaxies or blue compact galaxies, newly formed stars. But, in opposition with these ones, they are richer in heavy elements: this is one of the consequences of a specific mode of galactic formation based on a cosmic recycling [fr

  13. Large-Scale Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Baum, S. A.

    1995-12-01

    \\catcode`\\@=11 \\ialign{m @th#1hfil ##hfil \\crcr#2\\crcr\\sim\\crcr}}} \\catcode`\\@=12 Highly collimated outflows extend out to Mpc scales in many radio-loud active galaxies. In Seyfert galaxies, which are radio-quiet, the outflows extend out to kpc scales and do not appear to be as highly collimated. In order to study the nature of large-scale (>~1 kpc) outflows in Seyferts, we have conducted optical, radio and X-ray surveys of a distance-limited sample of 22 edge-on Seyfert galaxies. Results of the optical emission-line imaging and spectroscopic survey imply that large-scale outflows are present in >~{{1} /{4}} of all Seyferts. The radio (VLA) and X-ray (ROSAT) surveys show that large-scale radio and X-ray emission is present at about the same frequency. Kinetic luminosities of the outflows in Seyferts are comparable to those in starburst-driven superwinds. Large-scale radio sources in Seyferts appear diffuse, but do not resemble radio halos found in some edge-on starburst galaxies (e.g. M82). We discuss the feasibility of the outflows being powered by the active nucleus (e.g. a jet) or a circumnuclear starburst.

  14. GALAXY INFALL BY INTERACTING WITH ITS ENVIRONMENT: A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF 340 GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Liyi [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Wen, Zhonglue [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Gandhi, Poshak [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Inada, Naohisa [Department of Physics, Nara National College of Technology, Yamatokohriyama, Nara 639-1080 (Japan); Kawaharada, Madoka [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Kodama, Tadayuki [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Konami, Saori [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Makishima, Kazuo [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Xu, Haiguang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Minhang, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-07-20

    To study systematically the evolution of the angular extents of the galaxy, intracluster medium (ICM), and dark matter components in galaxy clusters, we compiled the optical and X-ray properties of a sample of 340 clusters with redshifts <0.5, based on all the available data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Chandra / XMM-Newton . For each cluster, the member galaxies were determined primarily with photometric redshift measurements. The radial ICM mass distribution, as well as the total gravitational mass distribution, was derived from a spatially resolved spectral analysis of the X-ray data. When normalizing the radial profile of galaxy number to that of the ICM mass, the relative curve was found to depend significantly on the cluster redshift; it drops more steeply toward the outside in lower-redshift subsamples. The same evolution is found in the galaxy-to-total mass profile, while the ICM-to-total mass profile varies in an opposite way. The behavior of the galaxy-to-ICM distribution does not depend on the cluster mass, suggesting that the detected redshift dependence is not due to mass-related effects, such as sample selection bias. Also, it cannot be ascribed to various redshift-dependent systematic errors. We interpret that the galaxies, the ICM, and the dark matter components had similar angular distributions when a cluster was formed, while the galaxies traveling in the interior of the cluster have continuously fallen toward the center relative to the other components, and the ICM has slightly expanded relative to the dark matter although it suffers strong radiative loss. This cosmological galaxy infall, accompanied by an ICM expansion, can be explained by considering that the galaxies interact strongly with the ICM while they are moving through it. The interaction is considered to create a large energy flow of 10{sup 4445} erg s{sup 1} per cluster from the member galaxies to their environment, which is expected to continue over cosmological timescales.

  15. Is the Milky Way an interacting galaxy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Milky Way Galaxy is an interacting galaxy, according to radio astronomers. The disk of stars we live in is linked to the Magellanic Clouds, our Galaxy's satellites, by an enormous arc of neutral hydrogen called the Magellanic Stream. These startling facts have recently been established by piecing together many seemingly unrelated bits of evidence into a new picture of our Milky Way Galaxy. The discoveries that led up to this grand picture of the Milky Way's interaction data back over fifty years to create one of the best detective stories in modern astronomy. The realization that ours is an interacting galaxy is only the latest result of an intensive effort to map the Milky Way. Since the 1930s, astronomers have tried to discover just how our Galaxy is built. Charting the Milky Way hasn't been easy, because we are inside it and our view of the Milky Way is obscured by cosmic dust. This dust creates a region called the zone of avoidance, a band centered along the galactic plane that blocks visible light from objects beyond nearby objects in the Galaxy. Thus radio astronomers have become the Milky Way mappers because cosmic radio waves penetrate the dust and reveal the grand scheme of our Galaxy

  16. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented

  17. Bar-spheroid interaction in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, Martin D.

    1992-01-01

    N-body simulation and linear analysis is employed to investigate the secular evolution of barred galaxies, with emphasis on the interaction between bars and spheroidal components of galaxies. This interaction is argued to drive secular transfer of angular momentum from bars to spheroids, primarily through resonant coupling. A moderately strong bar, having mass within corotation about 0.3 times the enclosed spheroid mass, is predicted to shed all its angular momentum typically in less than about 10 exp 9 yr. Even shorter depletion time scales are found for relatively more massive bars. It is suggested either that spheroids around barred galaxies are structured so as to inhibit strong coupling with bars, or that bars can form by unknown processes long after disks are established. The present models reinforce the notion that bars can drive secular evolution in galaxies.

  18. Gasdynamics and star formation in interacting and merging galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, K.M.; Kwan, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various parameters on the interaction of two galaxies and on the gas cloud collisions which are induced to occur are considered by examining several simulations of an interaction with different impact parameters, similar to the simulations described by Olson and Kwan (1990). The results of the present calculations are consistent with those obtained earlier by Olson and Kwan. They show that the interaction of two galaxies can lead to an increase in the rate at which gas clouds collide, and that these collisions are of sufficient kinetic energy to disrupt the clouds and prevent the buildup of a large number of massive clouds. It was found that, as the inclination of the interaction is increased, the perturbation of the cloud system is decreased. It was also found that unbound orbits produce a smaller perturbation than bound orbits, and that decreasing the mass of the perturbing galaxy decreases the perturbation. 21 refs

  19. Recent star formation in interacting galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, R.D.; Wright, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The subset of galaxy-galaxy interactions which have resulted in a merger are, as a class, ultraluminous IR galaxies. Their IR luminosities span a narrow range which overlaps with the most luminous Seyfert galaxies. However, in contrast with Seyfert galaxies, the available optical, IR, and radio properties of mergers show no evidence for a compact non-thermal central source, and are easily understood in terms of a burst of star formation of extraordinary intensity and spatial extent; they are 'super starbursts'. We argue that super starbursts occur in the evolution of most mergers, and discuss the implications of super starbursts for the suggestion that mergers evolve into elliptical galaxies. Finally, we note that merger-induced shocks are likely to leave the gas from both galaxies in dense molecular form which will rapidly cool, collapse, and fragment. Thus a merger might in fact be expected to result in a burst of star formation of exceptional intensity and spatial extent, i.e. a super starburst. (author)

  20. UBV-photometry of nests of interacting galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipova, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    The results of photoelectric UBV-observations of 19 nests of interacting galaxies, made at the Crimean Station of the Sternberg Institute, are given. Most of the nests observed were found to be and to have high luminosity. The UBV and spectral data show a large amount of gas inside many nests [ru

  1. Paired and interacting galaxies: Conference summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The author gives a summary of the conference proceedings. The conference began with the presentation of the basic data sets on pairs, groups, and interacting galaxies with the latter being further discussed with respect to both global properties and properties of the galactic nuclei. Then followed the theory, modelling and interpretation using analytic techniques, simulations and general modelling for spirals and ellipticals, starbursts and active galactic nuclei. Before the conference the author wrote down the three questions concerning pairs, groups and interacting galaxies that he hoped would be answered at the meeting: (1) How do they form, including the role of initial conditions, the importance of subclustering, the evolution of groups to compact groups, and the fate of compact groups; (2) How do they evolve, including issues such as relevant timescales, the role of halos and the problem of overmerging, the triggering and enhancement of star formation and activity in the galactic nuclei, and the relative importance of dwarf versus giant encounters; and (3) Are they important, including the frequency of pairs and interactions, whether merging and interactions are very important aspects of the life of a normal galaxy at formation, during its evolution, in forming bars, shells, rings, bulges, etc., and in the formation and evolution of active galaxies? Where possible he focuses on these three central issues in the summary

  2. Formation of dwarf ellipticals and dwarf irregular galaxies by interaction of giant galaxies under environmental influence

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Debsarma, Suma; Karmakar, Pradip; Davoust, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    A model is proposed for the formation of gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies and gas-poor, rotating dwarf elliptical galaxies following the interaction between two giant galaxies as a function of space density. The formation of dwarf galaxies is considered to depend on a random variable, the tidal index theta, an environmental parameter defined by Karachentsev et al. (2004), such that for theta less than zero, the formation of dwarf irregular galaxy is assured whereas for theta greater than zer...

  3. Galaxy interactions : The HI signature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancisi, R; Barnes, JE; Sanders, DB

    1999-01-01

    HI observations are an excellent tool for investigating tidal interactions. Ongoing major and minor interactions which can lead to traumatic mergers or to accretion and the triggering of star formation, show distinct HI signatures. Interactions and mergers in the recent past can also be recognized

  4. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The size and nature of any large-scale anisotropy in the three-dimensional distribution of galaxies is still little understood. Recent studies have indicated that large fluctuations in the matter distribution on a scale from tens up to several hundreds of megaparsecs may exist. Work at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in recent years has made major contributions to studies of the large scale distribution of galaxies, as well as to solving the problems of the galactic and extragalactic distance scale. Other studies of galaxies undertaken at SAAO include: quasars in the fields of nearby galaxies; dwarf irregular galaxies; IRAS galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; 'hot spot' galaxies; supernovae in NGC 5128 and NGC 1559 and superclusters. 4 figs

  5. Quantifying the FIR interaction enhancement in paired galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cong; Sulentic, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the ''Catalogue of Isolated Pairs of Galaxies in the Northern Hemisphere'' by Karachentsev (1972) and a well matched comparison sample taken from the ''Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies'' by Karachentseva (1973) in order to quantify the enhanced FIR emission properties of interacting galaxies. 8 refs, 6 figs

  6. Alignment between galaxies and large-scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltenbacher, A.; Li Cheng; White, Simon D. M.; Jing, Yi-Peng; Mao Shude; Wang Jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR6 (SDSS) and the Millennium Simulation (MS), we investigate the alignment between galaxies and large-scale structure. For this purpose, we develop two new statistical tools, namely the alignment correlation function and the cos(2θ)-statistic. The former is a two-dimensional extension of the traditional two-point correlation function and the latter is related to the ellipticity correlation function used for cosmic shear measurements. Both are based on the cross correlation between a sample of galaxies with orientations and a reference sample which represents the large-scale structure. We apply the new statistics to the SDSS galaxy catalog. The alignment correlation function reveals an overabundance of reference galaxies along the major axes of red, luminous (L ∼ * ) galaxies out to projected separations of 60 h- 1 Mpc. The signal increases with central galaxy luminosity. No alignment signal is detected for blue galaxies. The cos(2θ)-statistic yields very similar results. Starting from a MS semi-analytic galaxy catalog, we assign an orientation to each red, luminous and central galaxy, based on that of the central region of the host halo (with size similar to that of the stellar galaxy). As an alternative, we use the orientation of the host halo itself. We find a mean projected misalignment between a halo and its central region of ∼ 25 deg. The misalignment decreases slightly with increasing luminosity of the central galaxy. Using the orientations and luminosities of the semi-analytic galaxies, we repeat our alignment analysis on mock surveys of the MS. Agreement with the SDSS results is good if the central orientations are used. Predictions using the halo orientations as proxies for central galaxy orientations overestimate the observed alignment by more than a factor of 2. Finally, the large volume of the MS allows us to generate a two-dimensional map of the alignment correlation function, which shows the reference

  7. Galaxy Portal: interacting with the galaxy platform through mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børnich, Claus; Grytten, Ivar; Hovig, Eivind; Paulsen, Jonas; Čech, Martin; Sandve, Geir Kjetil

    2016-06-01

    : We present Galaxy Portal app, an open source interface to the Galaxy system through smart phones and tablets. The Galaxy Portal provides convenient and efficient monitoring of job completion, as well as opportunities for inspection of results and execution history. In addition to being useful to the Galaxy community, we believe that the app also exemplifies a useful way of exploiting mobile interfaces for research/high-performance computing resources in general. The source is freely available under a GPL license on GitHub, along with user documentation and pre-compiled binaries and instructions for several platforms: https://github.com/Tarostar/QMLGalaxyPortal It is available for iOS version 7 (and newer) through the Apple App Store, and for Android through Google Play for version 4.1 (API 16) or newer. geirksa@ifi.uio.no. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Star-formation rates in the nuclei of violently interacting galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushouse, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Spectrophotometry has been obtained of the nuclear regions of a large sample of violently interacting spiral galaxies. The sample galaxies were chosen to include only those systems having tails, plumes, or other morphological features consistent with strong tidal interactions involving disk galaxies. The interacting galaxies are found to exhibit a wide range of nuclear optical emission-line strengths, but show a significantly higher overall level in both Hα emission-line equivalent width and luminosity than samples of field spirals observed in a similar fashion. While galaxy-galaxy interactions can lead to large nuclear star-formation bursts, this is not a ubiquitous phenomenon. A large fraction (approx.30%) of the nuclei show only weak or no detectable optical emission lines and are characterized by stellar absorption spectra of old, elliptical galaxy-like stellar populations, thus indicating little recent or continuing star-formation activity. These circumstances can occur even in instances where the nucleus of the other component has a large population of young stars. While exhaustion of a galaxy's gas supply during the later phases of interaction can account for post-burst systems, it cannot explain systems that have experienced no significant star-formation activity throughout the entire interaction process. Seyfert and low-ionization nuclei also are rare in violently interacting systems which, coupled with the large number of nuclei found to have little star-formation activity, suggests either an initial lack of near-nuclear gas or that gas is present but in inappropriate forms to support star formation or fuel nuclear activity

  9. Simulated galaxy interactions as probes of merger spectral energy distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanz, Lauranne; Zezas, Andreas; Smith, Howard A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hayward, Christopher C. [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Brassington, Nicola, E-mail: llanz@ipac.caltech.edu [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-10

    We present the first systematic comparison of ultraviolet-millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of observed and simulated interacting galaxies. Our sample is drawn from the Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Survey and probes a range of galaxy interaction parameters. We use 31 galaxies in 14 systems which have been observed with Herschel, Spitzer, GALEX, and 2MASS. We create a suite of GADGET-3 hydrodynamic simulations of isolated and interacting galaxies with stellar masses comparable to those in our sample of interacting galaxies. Photometry for the simulated systems is then calculated with the SUNRISE radiative transfer code for comparison with the observed systems. For most of the observed systems, one or more of the simulated SEDs match reasonably well. The best matches recover the infrared luminosity and the star formation rate of the observed systems, and the more massive systems preferentially match SEDs from simulations of more massive galaxies. The most morphologically distorted systems in our sample are best matched to the simulated SEDs that are close to coalescence, while less evolved systems match well with the SEDs over a wide range of interaction stages, suggesting that an SED alone is insufficient for identifying the interaction stage except during the most active phases in strongly interacting systems. This result is supported by our finding that the SEDs calculated for simulated systems vary little over the interaction sequence.

  10. A VIOLENT INTERACTION BETWEEN THE DWARF GALAXY UGC-7636 AND THE GIANT ELLIPTIC GALAXY NGC-4472

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MCNAMARA, BR; SANCISI, R; HENNING, PA; JUNOR, W

    We present new U, B, R, and H I imagery of the Virgo Cluster giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472 and its interacting dwarf companion galaxy UGC 7636. Using a composite image reconstruction technique, we show that a trail of debris similar to 5 arcmin in length and similar to 1 arcmin in width (30x6 kpc

  11. Paired and Interacting Galaxies: International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 124

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulentic, Jack W. (Editor); Keel, William C. (Editor); Telesco, C. M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 124, held at the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, on December 4 to 7, are given. The purpose of the conference was to describe the current state of theoretical and observational knowledge of interacting galaxies, with particular emphasis on galaxies in pairs.

  12. THE ORIGIN OF NEUTRAL HYDROGEN CLOUDS IN NEARBY GALAXY GROUPS: EXPLORING THE RANGE OF GALAXY INTERACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chynoweth, Katie M.; Polisensky, Emil; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Langston, Glen I.

    2011-01-01

    We combine high-resolution N-body simulations with deep observations of neutral hydrogen (H I) in nearby galaxy groups in order to explore two well-known theories of H I cloud formation: H I stripping by galaxy interactions and dark-matter minihalos with embedded H I gas. This paper presents new data from three galaxy groups-Canes Venatici I, NGC 672, and NGC 45-and assembles data from our previous galaxy group campaign to generate a rich H I cloud archive to compare to our simulated data. We find no H I clouds in the Canes Venatici I, NGC 672, or NGC 45 galaxy groups. We conclude that H I clouds in our detection space are most likely to be generated through recent, strong galaxy interactions. We find no evidence of H I clouds associated with dark-matter halos above M HI ∼ 10 6 M sun , within ±700 km s -1 of galaxies, and within 50 kpc projected distance of galaxies.

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF KNOTS OF STAR FORMATION IN INTERACTING VERSUS SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Beverly J.; Olmsted, Susan; Jones, Keith [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City TN 37614 (United States); Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Struck, Curtis, E-mail: smithbj@etsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Interacting galaxies are known to have higher global rates of star formation on average than normal galaxies, relative to their stellar masses. Using UV and IR photometry combined with new and published Hα images, we have compared the star formation rates (SFRs) of ∼700 star forming complexes in 46 nearby interacting galaxy pairs with those of regions in 39 normal spiral galaxies. The interacting galaxies have proportionally more regions with high SFRs than the spirals. The most extreme regions in the interacting systems lie at the intersections of spiral/tidal structures, where gas is expected to pile up and trigger star formation. Published Hubble Space Telescope images show unusually large and luminous star clusters in the highest luminosity regions. The SFRs of the clumps correlate with measures of the dust attenuation, consistent with the idea that regions with more interstellar gas have more star formation. For the clumps with the highest SFRs, the apparent dust attenuation is consistent with the Calzetti starburst dust attenuation law. This suggests that the high luminosity regions are dominated by a central group of young stars surrounded by a shell of clumpy interstellar gas. In contrast, the lower luminosity clumps are bright in the UV relative to Hα, suggesting either a high differential attenuation between the ionized gas and the stars, or a post-starburst population bright in the UV but faded in Hα. The fraction of the global light of the galaxies in the clumps is higher on average for the interacting galaxies than for the spirals. Thus either star formation in interacting galaxies is “clumpier” on average, or the star forming regions in interacting galaxies are more luminous, dustier, or younger on average.

  14. STAR Formation Histories Across the Interacting Galaxy NGC 6872, the Largest-Known Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, RIchard G.; deMello, Duilia F.; Gadotti, DImitri A.; Urrutia-Viscarra, Fernanda; deOliveira, CLaudia Mendes; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    NGC6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 micrometer) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  15. Understanding the faint red galaxy population using large-scale clustering measurements from SDSS DR7

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Ashley; Tojeiro, Rita; Percival, Will

    2011-01-01

    We use data from the SDSS to investigate the evolution of the large-scale galaxy bias as a function of luminosity for red galaxies. We carefully consider correlation functions of galaxies selected from both photometric and spectroscopic data, and cross-correlations between them, to obtain multiple measurements of the large-scale bias. We find, for our most robust analyses, a strong increase in bias with luminosity for the most luminous galaxies, an intermediate regime where bias does not evol...

  16. A large sample of Kohonen selected E+A (post-starburst) galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusinger, H.; Brünecke, J.; Schalldach, P.; in der Au, A.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The galaxy population in the contemporary Universe is characterised by a clear bimodality, blue galaxies with significant ongoing star formation and red galaxies with only a little. The migration between the blue and the red cloud of galaxies is an issue of active research. Post starburst (PSB) galaxies are thought to be observed in the short-lived transition phase. Aims: We aim to create a large sample of local PSB galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study their characteristic properties, particularly morphological features indicative of gravitational distortions and indications for active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Another aim is to present a tool set for an efficient search in a large database of SDSS spectra based on Kohonen self-organising maps (SOMs). Methods: We computed a huge Kohonen SOM for ∼106 spectra from SDSS data release 7. The SOM is made fully available, in combination with an interactive user interface, for the astronomical community. We selected a large sample of PSB galaxies taking advantage of the clustering behaviour of the SOM. The morphologies of both PSB galaxies and randomly selected galaxies from a comparison sample in SDSS Stripe 82 (S82) were inspected on deep co-added SDSS images to search for indications of gravitational distortions. We used the Portsmouth galaxy property computations to study the evolutionary stage of the PSB galaxies and archival multi-wavelength data to search for hidden AGNs. Results: We compiled a catalogue of 2665 PSB galaxies with redshifts z 3 Å and z cloud, in agreement with the idea that PSB galaxies represent the transitioning phase between actively and passively evolving galaxies. The relative frequency of distorted PSB galaxies is at least 57% for EW(Hδ) > 5 Å, significantly higher than in the comparison sample. The search for AGNs based on conventional selection criteria in the radio and MIR results in a low AGN fraction of ∼2-3%. We confirm an MIR excess in the mean SED of

  17. Effects of the environment on galaxies in the Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies: physical satellites and large scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argudo-Fernández, M.; Verley, S.; Bergond, G.; Sulentic, J.; Sabater, J.; Fernández Lorenzo, M.; Espada, D.; Leon, S.; Sánchez-Expósito, S.; Santander-Vela, J. D.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.

    2014-04-01

    Context. We present a study of the 3D environment for a sample of 386 galaxies in the Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies (CIG, Karachentseva 1973) using the Ninth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR9). Aims: We aim to identify and quantify the effects of the satellite distribution around a sample of galaxies in the CIG, as well as the effects of the large-scale structure (LSS). Methods: To recover the physically bound galaxies we first focused on the satellites that are within the escape speed of each CIG galaxy. We also propose a more conservative method using the stacked Gaussian distribution of the velocity difference of the neighbours. The tidal strengths affecting the primary galaxy were estimated to quantify the effects of the local and LSS environments. We also defined the projected number density parameter at the fifth nearest neighbour to characterise the LSS around the CIG galaxies. Results: Out of the 386 CIG galaxies considered in this study, at least 340 (88% of the sample) have no physically linked satellite. Following the more conservative Gaussian distribution of physical satellites around the CIG galaxies leads to upper limits. Out of the 386 CIG galaxies, 327 (85% of the sample) have no physical companion within a projected distance of 0.3 Mpc. The CIG galaxies are distributed following the LSS of the local Universe, although presenting a large heterogeneity in their degree of connection with it. When present around a CIG galaxy, the effect of physically bound galaxies largely dominates (typically by more than 90%) the tidal strengths generated by the LSS. Conclusions: The CIG samples a variety of environments, from galaxies with physical satellites to galaxies without neighbours within 3 Mpc. A clear segregation appears between early-type CIG galaxies with companions and isolated late-type CIG galaxies. Isolated galaxies are in general bluer, with probably younger stellar populations and very high star formation compared with older

  18. Starbursts triggered by central overpressure in interacting galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jog, Chanda J.; Das, Mousumi

    1993-01-01

    A triggering mechanism for the origin of enhanced, massive-star formation in the central regions of interacting spiral galaxy pairs is proposed. Our mechanism is based on the detailed evolution of a realistic interstellar medium in a galaxy following an encounter. As a disk giant molecular cloud (GMC) tumbles into the central region following a galaxy encounter, it undergoes a radiative shock compression via the pre-existing high pressure of the central intercloud medium. The shocked outer shell of a GMC becomes gravitationally unstable and begins to fragment thus resulting in a burst of star formation, when the growth time for the gravitational instabilities in the shell becomes smaller than the crossing time of the shock. The resulting values of typical infrared luminosity agree with observations.

  19. A violent interaction between the dwarf galaxy UGC 7636 and the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnamara, Brian R.; Sancisi, Renzo; Henning, Patricia A.; Junor, William

    1994-01-01

    We present new U, B, R, and H I imagery of the Virgo Cluster giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472 and its interacting dwarf companion galaxy UGC 7636. Using a composite image reconstruction technique, we show that a trail of debris approx. 5 arcmin in length and approx. 1 arcmin in width (30x6 kpc for a Virgo cluster distance of 20 Mpc) is projected northward from the dwarf galaxy. A cloud of H I is projected along the northwest edge of the debris between the dwarf and gE. The dwarf's nuclear morphology is irregular and bow-shaped on what appears to be its leading edge. Apart from a number of isolated blue regions, most of of the trailing debris is similar in color to the dwarf's nucleus. Only a modest enhancement of star formation appears to have been induced by the interaction. Although separated by 15 kpc, the H I and stellar morphologies are remarkably similar. The stars and H I appear to have been tidally distorted in situ, prior to the cloud's removal by ram pressure. If the H I has maintained its shape by magnetic support, a magnetic field strength an order of magnitude larger than the galaxy's is required. Ram pressure deceleration due to the cloud's motion through NGC 4472's x-ray-emitting interstellar medium shold be sufficient for the cloud to become gravitationally bound to NGC 4472. The H I cloud is not self-gravitating and may fragment and be destroyed in the interaction. UGC 7636 will probably be disrupted by NGC 4472's strong tidal forces; the stellar debris will disperse into the Virgo cluster or become bound to NGC 4472's halo on eccentric orbits. The debris captured in the collision will have a negligible impact on NGC 4472's stellar and gaseous content. On the other hand, if similar interactions are common in giant elliptical galaxies, they could alter or deplete surrounding dwarf galaxy populations, fuel bursts of nuclear activity, and perhaps provide a source of magnetic energy to their interstellar media.

  20. The Formation and Evolution of Star Clusters in Interacting Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Moupiya; Zhu, Qirong; Li, Yuexing; Charlton, Jane; Hernquist, Lars; Knebe, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Observations of globular clusters show that they have universal lognormal mass functions with a characteristic peak at ˜ 2× {10}5 {M}⊙ , but the origin of this peaked distribution is highly debated. Here we investigate the formation and evolution of star clusters (SCs) in interacting galaxies using high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations performed with two different codes in order to mitigate numerical artifacts. We find that massive SCs in the range of ˜ {10}5.5{--}{10}7.5 {M}⊙ form preferentially in the highly shocked regions produced by galaxy interactions. The nascent cluster-forming clouds have high gas pressures in the range of P/k˜ {10}8{--}{10}12 {{K}} {{cm}}-3, which is ˜ {10}4{--}{10}8 times higher than the typical pressure of the interstellar medium but consistent with recent observations of a pre-super-SC cloud in the Antennae Galaxies. Furthermore, these massive SCs have quasi-lognormal initial mass functions with a peak around ˜ {10}6 {M}⊙ . The number of clusters declines with time due to destructive processes, but the shape and the peak of the mass functions do not change significantly during the course of galaxy collisions. Our results suggest that gas-rich galaxy mergers may provide a favorable environment for the formation of massive SCs such as globular clusters, and that the lognormal mass functions and the unique peak may originate from the extreme high-pressure conditions of the birth clouds and may survive the dynamical evolution.

  1. Infrared emission and tidal interactions of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    Computer simulations of tidal interactions of spiral galaxies are used to attempt to understand recent discoveries about infrared (IR) emitting galaxies. It is found that the stronger tidal perturbation by a companion the more disk gas clouds are thrown into nucleus crossing orbits and the greater the velocity jumps crossing spiral arms. Both these tidally created characteristics would create more IR emission by high speed cloud collisions and more IR via effects of recently formed stars. This expectation at greater tidal perturbation matches the observation of greater IR emission for spiral galaxies with closer and/or more massive companions. The greater collision velocities found at stronger perturbations on the models will also result in higher dust temperature in the colliding clouds. In the IR pairs examined, most have only one member, the larger, detected and when both are detected, the larger is always the more luminous. In simulations and in a simple analytic description of the strong distance dependence of the tidal force, it is found that the big galaxy of a pair is more strongly affected than the small

  2. Tidal interaction, star formation and chemical evolution in blue compact dwarf galaxy Mrk 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paswan, A.; Omar, A.; Jaiswal, S.

    2018-02-01

    The optical spectroscopic and radio interferometric H I 21 cm-line observations of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Mrk 22 are presented. The Wolf-Rayet (WR) emission-line features corresponding to high ionization lines of He II λ4686 and C IV λ5808 from young massive stars are detected. The ages of two prominent star-forming regions in the galaxy are estimated as ∼10 and ∼ 4 Myr. The galaxy has non-thermal radio deficiency, which also indicates a young starburst and lack of supernovae events from the current star formation activities, consistent with the detection of WR emission-line features. A significant N/O enrichment is seen in the fainter star-forming region. The gas-phase metallicities [12 + log(O/H)] for the bright and faint regions are estimated as 7.98±0.07 and 7.46±0.09, respectively. The galaxy has a large diffuse H I envelop. The H I images reveal disturbed gas kinematics and H I clouds outside the optical extent of the galaxy, indicating recent tidal interaction or merger in the system. The results strongly indicate that Mrk 22 is undergoing a chemical and morphological evolution due to ongoing star formation, most likely triggered by a merger.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS IN THE INTERACTION AND MERGING OF GALAXIES IN zCOSMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampczyk, P.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Diener, C.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Maier, C.; Bordoloi, R. [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); De Ravel, L.; Le Fevre, O. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 6110 CNRS-Universite de Provence, BP8, F-13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Bolzonella, M.; Vergani, D.; Bardelli, S.; Coppa, G. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Renzini, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sargent, M. T. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Abbas, U. [Berkeley Laboratory and Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, University of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 50-5005, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bongiorno, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-84571 Garching (Germany); Caputi, K. [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3 HJ (United Kingdom); Contini, T., E-mail: kampczyk@phys.ethz.ch [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, CNRS, 14, avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); and others

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the environments and galactic properties (morphologies and star formation histories) of a sample of 153 close kinematic pairs in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1 identified in the zCOSMOS-bright 10 k spectroscopic sample of galaxies. Correcting for projection effects, the fraction of close kinematic pairs is three times higher in the top density quartile than in the lowest one. This translates to a three times higher merger rate because the merger timescales are shown, from mock catalogs based on the Millennium simulation, to be largely independent of environment once the same corrections for projection are applied. We then examine the morphologies and stellar populations of galaxies in the pairs, comparing them to control samples that are carefully matched in environment so as to remove as much of the well-known effects of environment on the properties of the parent population of galaxies as possible. Once the environment is properly taken into account in this way, we find that the early-late morphology mix is the same as for the parent population, but that the fraction of irregular galaxies is boosted by 50%-75%, with a disproportionate increase in the number of irregular-irregular pairs (factor of 4-8 times), due to the disturbance of disk galaxies. Future dry mergers, involving elliptical galaxies comprise less than 5% of all close kinematic pairs. In the closest pairs, there is a boost in the specific star formation rates of star-forming galaxies of a factor of 2-4, and there is also evidence for an increased incidence of post-starburst galaxies. Although significant for the galaxies involved, the 'excess' star formation associated with pairs represents only about 5% of the integrated star formation activity in the parent sample. Although most pair galaxies are in dense environments, the effects of interaction appear to be largest in the lower density environments. By preferentially bringing more pairs into the sample in lower density

  4. Cool infalling gas and its interaction with the hot ISM of elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe work leading to the suggestion that interaction between infalling cool gas and ambient hot, coronal plasma in elliptical galaxies is responsible for emission filaments, and might remove the need for large mass depositions in cooling flows. A test of the hypothesis is undertaken - the run of surface brightness with radius for the emission lines - and the prediction agrees well with the data.

  5. Massive Star Clusters in Ongoing Galaxy Interactions: Clues to Cluster Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; Borne, Kirk D.

    2003-09-01

    We present HST WFPC2 observations, supplemented by ground-based Hα data, of the star-cluster populations in two pairs of interacting galaxies selected for being in very different kinds of encounters seen at different stages. Dynamical information and n-body simulations provide the details of encounter geometry, mass ratio, and timing. In NGC 5752/4 we are seeing a weak encounter, well past closest approach, after about 2.5×108 yr. The large spiral NGC 5754 has a normal population of disk clusters, while the fainter companion NGC 5752 exhibits a rich population of luminous clusters with a flatter luminosity function. The strong, ongoing encounter in NGC 6621/2, seen about 1.0×108 yr past closest approach between roughly equal-mass galaxies, has produced an extensive population of luminous clusters, particularly young and luminous in a small region between the two nuclei. This region is dynamically interesting, with such a strong perturbation in the velocity field that the rotation curve reverses sign. From these results, in comparison with other strongly interacting systems discussed in the literature, cluster formation requires a threshold level of perturbation, with stage of the interaction a less important factor. The location of the most active star formation in NGC 6621/2 draws attention to a possible role for the Toomre stability threshold in shaping star formation in interacting galaxies. The rich cluster populations in NGC 5752 and NGC 6621 show that direct contact between gas-rich galaxy disks is not a requirement to form luminous clusters and that they can be triggered by processes happening within a single galaxy disk (albeit triggered by external perturbations). Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  6. 2D Bayesian automated tilted-ring fitting of disc galaxies in large H I galaxy surveys: 2DBAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se-Heon; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Spekkens, Kristine; Kamphuis, Peter; Koribalski, Bärbel S.

    2018-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm based on a Bayesian method for 2D tilted-ring analysis of disc galaxy velocity fields. Compared to the conventional algorithms based on a chi-squared minimization procedure, this new Bayesian-based algorithm suffers less from local minima of the model parameters even with highly multimodal posterior distributions. Moreover, the Bayesian analysis, implemented via Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling, only requires broad ranges of posterior distributions of the parameters, which makes the fitting procedure fully automated. This feature will be essential when performing kinematic analysis on the large number of resolved galaxies expected to be detected in neutral hydrogen (H I) surveys with the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders. The so-called 2D Bayesian Automated Tilted-ring fitter (2DBAT) implements Bayesian fits of 2D tilted-ring models in order to derive rotation curves of galaxies. We explore 2DBAT performance on (a) artificial H I data cubes built based on representative rotation curves of intermediate-mass and massive spiral galaxies, and (b) Australia Telescope Compact Array H I data from the Local Volume H I Survey. We find that 2DBAT works best for well-resolved galaxies with intermediate inclinations (20° < i < 70°), complementing 3D techniques better suited to modelling inclined galaxies.

  7. Soft X-ray Emission from Large-Scale Galactic Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Baum, S.; O'Dea, C.; Veilleux, S.

    1998-01-01

    Kiloparsec-scale soft X-ray nebulae extend along the galaxy minor axes in several Seyfert galaxies, including NGC 2992, NGC 4388 and NGC 5506. In these three galaxies, the extended X-ray emission observed in ROSAT HRI images has 0.2-2.4 keV X-ray luminosities of 0.4-3.5 x 10(40) erg s(-1) . The X-ray nebulae are roughly co-spatial with the large-scale radio emission, suggesting that both are produced by large-scale galactic outflows. Assuming pressure balance between the radio and X-ray plasmas, the X-ray filling factor is >~ 10(4) times as large as the radio plasma filling factor, suggesting that large-scale outflows in Seyfert galaxies are predominantly winds of thermal X-ray emitting gas. We favor an interpretation in which large-scale outflows originate as AGN-driven jets that entrain and heat gas on kpc scales as they make their way out of the galaxy. AGN- and starburst-driven winds are also possible explanations if the winds are oriented along the rotation axis of the galaxy disk. Since large-scale outflows are present in at least 50 percent of Seyfert galaxies, the soft X-ray emission from the outflowing gas may, in many cases, explain the ``soft excess" X-ray feature observed below 2 keV in X-ray spectra of many Seyfert 2 galaxies.

  8. The circumnuclear environment of nearby non-interacting Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogge, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation into the physical conditions prevailing in the regions immediately surrounding the active nuclei in 20 nearby, non-interacting Seyfert galaxies is reported. CCD interference-band images isolating the bright emission lines of Hα + [N II] λλ6548, 6583 and [O III] λ5007 have been obtained to search for spatially extended circumnuclear emission regions. Long-slit, low resolution spectrophotometry of interesting cases was used to probe the ionization state of the extended emission regions. For comparison, a CCD Hα + [N II] interference-band imaging survey of a statistically significant sample of 91 bright non-Seyfert spiral galaxies meeting the same non-interaction criteria has been carried out. Only three out of nine Seyfert 1s have spatially extended ionized gas regions compared with eight out of eleven Seyfert 2s. Enhanced circumnuclear star formation is uncommon to both Seyfert 1s and 2s. Extended emission in Seyfert 1s has essentially the same morphology in both Hα + [N II] and [O III] emission. In the Seyfert 2s, the Hα + [N II] and [O III] images show different extended emission morphologies. The [O III] emission regions appear as either one- or two-sided structures, four of which are resolved into two distinct cones of high-ionization gas emanating from the active nucleus. The morphology and ionization of these regions suggest collimation of the nuclear ionizing radiation field. The 91 non-interacting non-Seyfert spiral galaxies exhibit a rich variety of nuclear and circumnuclear emission-line structures ranging from no emission detected to bright stellar nuclei with complicated circumnuclear emission regions extending for many kiloparsecs

  9. Galaxy Evolution Insights from Spectral Modeling of Large Data Sets from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoversten, Erik A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-10-01

    This thesis centers on the use of spectral modeling techniques on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to gain new insights into current questions in galaxy evolution. The SDSS provides a large, uniform, high quality data set which can be exploited in a number of ways. One avenue pursued here is to use the large sample size to measure precisely the mean properties of galaxies of increasingly narrow parameter ranges. The other route taken is to look for rare objects which open up for exploration new areas in galaxy parameter space. The crux of this thesis is revisiting the classical Kennicutt method for inferring the stellar initial mass function (IMF) from the integrated light properties of galaxies. A large data set (~ 105 galaxies) from the SDSS DR4 is combined with more in-depth modeling and quantitative statistical analysis to search for systematic IMF variations as a function of galaxy luminosity. Galaxy Hα equivalent widths are compared to a broadband color index to constrain the IMF. It is found that for the sample as a whole the best fitting IMF power law slope above 0.5 M is Γ = 1.5 ± 0.1 with the error dominated by systematics. Galaxies brighter than around Mr,0.1 = -20 (including galaxies like the Milky Way which has Mr,0.1 ~ -21) are well fit by a universal Γ ~ 1.4 IMF, similar to the classical Salpeter slope, and smooth, exponential star formation histories (SFH). Fainter galaxies prefer steeper IMFs and the quality of the fits reveal that for these galaxies a universal IMF with smooth SFHs is actually a poor assumption. Related projects are also pursued. A targeted photometric search is conducted for strongly lensed Lyman break galaxies (LBG) similar to MS1512-cB58. The evolution of the photometric selection technique is described as are the results of spectroscopic follow-up of the best targets. The serendipitous discovery of two interesting blue compact dwarf galaxies is reported. These

  10. Galaxy masses in large surveys: Connecting luminous and dark matter with weak lensing and kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Reinabelle

    2011-01-01

    Galaxy masses are difficult to determine because light traces stars and gas in a non-trivial way, and does not trace dark matter, which extends well beyond the luminous regions of galaxies. In this thesis, I use the most direct probes of dark matter available---weak gravitational lensing and galaxy kinematics---to trace the total mass in galaxies (and galaxy clusters) in large surveys. In particular, I use the large, homogeneous dataset from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which provides spectroscopic redshifts for a large sample of galaxies at z ≲ 0.2 and imaging data to a depth of r < 22. By combining complementary probes, I am able to obtain robust observational constraints that cannot be obtained from any single technique alone. First, I use weak lensing of galaxy clusters to derive an optimal optical tracer of cluster mass, which was found to be a combination of cluster richness and the luminosity of the brightest cluster galaxy. Next, I combine weak lensing of luminous red galaxies with redshift distortions and clustering measurements to derive a robust probe of gravity on cosmological scales. Finally, I combine weak lensing with the kinematics of disk galaxies to constrain the total mass profile over several orders of magnitude. I derive a minimal-scatter relation between disk velocity and stellar mass (also known as the Tully-Fisher relation) that can be used, by construction, on a similarly-selected lens sample. Then, I combine this relation with halo mass measurements from weak lensing to place constraints on the ratio of the optical to virial velocities, as well as the ratio of halo to stellar masses, both as a function of stellar mass. These results will serve as inputs to and constraints on disk galaxy formation models, which will be explored in future work.

  11. Infrared Colors of Dwarf-Dwarf Galaxy Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Sandra; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Johnson, Kelsey; Patton, Dave; Kallivayalil, Nitya

    2015-10-01

    We request Spitzer Warm Mission IRAC Channel 1 & 2 imaging for a sample of 60 isolated dwarf galaxy pairs as a key component of a larger, multi-wavelength effort to understand the role low-mass mergers play in galaxy evolution. A systematic study of dwarf-dwarf mergers has never been done, and we wish to characterize the impact such interactions have on fueling star formation in the nearby universe. The Spitzer imaging proposed here will allow us to determine the extent to which the 3.6 and 4.5 mum bands are dominated by stellar light and investigate a) the extent to which interacting pairs show IR excess and b) whether the excess is related to the pair separation. Second, we will use this IR photometry to constrain the processes contributing to the observed color excess and scatter in each system. We will take advantage of the wealth of observations available in the Spitzer Heritage Archive for 'normal' non-interacting dwarfs by comparing the stellar populations of those dwarfs with the likely interacting dwarfs in our sample. Ultimately, we can combine the Spitzer imaging proposed here with our current, ongoing efforts to obtain groundbased optical photometry to model the star formation histories of these dwarfs and to help constrain the timescales and impact dwarf-dwarf mergers have on fueling star formation. The sensitivity and resolution offered by Spitzer are necessary to determine the dust properties of these interacting systems, and how these properties vary as a function of pair separation, mass ratio, and gas fraction.

  12. DISRUPTION OF STAR CLUSTERS IN THE INTERACTING ANTENNAE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, Simon J.; Naab, Thorsten; Fall, S. Michael

    2011-01-01

    We re-examine the age distribution of star clusters in the Antennae in the context of N-body+hydrodynamical simulations of these interacting galaxies. All of the simulations that account for the observed morphology and other properties of the Antennae have star formation rates that vary relatively slowly with time, by factors of only 1.3-2.5 in the past 10 8 yr. In contrast, the observed age distribution of the clusters declines approximately as a power law, dN/dτ∝τ γ with γ = -1.0, for ages 10 6 yr ∼ 9 yr. These two facts can only be reconciled if the clusters are disrupted progressively for at least ∼10 8 yr and possibly ∼10 9 yr. When we combine the simulated formation rates with a power-law model, f surv ∝τ δ , for the fraction of clusters that survive to each age τ, we match the observed age distribution with exponents in the range -0.9 ∼< δ ∼< -0.6 (with a slightly different δ for each simulation). The similarity between δ and γ indicates that dN/dτ is shaped mainly by the disruption of clusters rather than variations in their formation rate. Thus, the situation in the interacting Antennae resembles that in relatively quiescent galaxies such as the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds.

  13. The nongravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David; Massey, Richard; Kitching, Thomas; Taylor, Andy; Tittley, Eric

    2015-03-27

    Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a test of the nongravitational forces acting on dark matter. Dark matter's lack of deceleration in the "bullet cluster" collision constrained its self-interaction cross section σ(DM)/m dark matter) for long-ranged forces. Using the Chandra and Hubble Space Telescopes, we have now observed 72 collisions, including both major and minor mergers. Combining these measurements statistically, we detect the existence of dark mass at 7.6σ significance. The position of the dark mass has remained closely aligned within 5.8 ± 8.2 kiloparsecs of associated stars, implying a self-interaction cross section σ(DM)/m < 0.47 cm(2)/g (95% CL) and disfavoring some proposed extensions to the standard model. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Photometric Signatures of Starbursts in Interacting Galaxies and the Butcher-Oemler Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakos, Karl D.; Maindl, Thomas I.; Schombert, James M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents new and synthetic narrow band photometry of ellipticals, spirals, Seyferts and interacting galaxies in an attempt to identify the cause of the unusually high fraction of blue cluster galaxies in distant clusters (the Butcher-Oemler Effect). The properties and distribution of the low redshift sample specifically points to starbursts as the origin of the blue narrow band colors in interacting Arp galaxies.

  15. Protogalaxy interactions in newly formed clusters: Galaxy luminosities, colors, and intergalactic gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1978-01-01

    The role of protogalaxy interactions in galactic evolution is studied during the formation of galaxy clusters. In the early stages of the collapse, coalescent encounters of protogalaxies lead to the development of a galactic luminosity function. Once galaxies acquire appreciable random motions, mutual collisions between galaxies in rich clusters will trigger the collapse of interstellar clouds to form stars. This provides both a source for enriched intracluster gas and an interpretation of the correlation between luminosity and color for cluster elliptical galaxies. Other observational consequences that are considered include optical, X-ray, and diffuse nonthermal radio emission from newly formed clusters of galaxies

  16. THE HOT INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM OF THE INTERACTING GALAXY NGC 4490

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richings, A. J.; Fabbiano, G.; Wang Junfeng; Roberts, T. P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the hot interstellar medium (ISM) in the spiral galaxy NGC 4490, which is interacting with the irregular galaxy NGC 4485, using ∼100 ks of Chandra ACIS-S observations. The high angular resolution of Chandra enables us to remove discrete sources and perform spatially resolved spectroscopy for the star-forming regions and associated outflows, allowing us to look at how the physical properties of the hot ISM such as temperature, hydrogen column density, and metal abundances vary throughout these galaxies. We find temperatures of >0.41 keV and 0.85 +0.59 -0.12 keV, electron densities of >1.87η -1/2 x 10 -3 cm -3 and 0.21 +0.03 -0.04 η -1/2 x 10 -3 cm -3 , and hot gas masses of >1.1η 1/2 x 10 7 M sun and ∼3.7η 1/2 x 10 7 M sun in the plane and halo of NGC 4490, respectively, where η is the filling factor of the hot gas. The abundance ratios of Ne, Mg, and Si with respect to Fe are found to be consistent with those predicted by theoretical models of type II supernovae (SNe). The thermal energy in the hot ISM is ∼5% of the total mechanical energy input from SNe, so it is likely that the hot ISM has been enriched and heated by type II SNe. The X-ray emission is anticorrelated with the Hα and mid-infrared emission, suggesting that the hot gas is bounded by filaments of cooler ionized hydrogen mixed with warm dust.

  17. The Interaction of Hot and Cold Gas in the Disk and Halo of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Jonathan; Salamon, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    Most of the thermal energy in the Galaxy and perhaps most of the baryons in the Universe are found in hot (log T approximately 5.5 - 7) gas. Hot gas is detected in the local interstellar medium, in supernova remnants (SNR), the Galactic halo, galaxy clusters and the intergalactic medium (IGM). In our own Galaxy, hot gas exists in large superbubbles up to several hundred pc in diameter that locally dominate the interstellar medium (ISM) and determine its thermal and dynamic evolution. While X-ray observations using ROSAT, Chandra and XMM have allowed us to make dramatic progress in mapping out the morphology of the hot gas and in understanding some of its spectral characteristics, there remain fundamental questions that are unanswered. Chief among these questions is the way that hot gas interacts with cooler phase gas and the effects these interactions have on hot gas energetics. The theoretical investigations we proposed in this grant aim to explore these interactions and to develop observational diagnostics that will allow us to gain much improved information on the evolution of hot gas in the disk and halo of galaxies. The first of the series of investigations that we proposed was a thorough exploration of turbulent mixing layers and cloud evaporation. We proposed to employ a multi-dimensional hydrodynamical code that includes non-equilibrium ionization (NEI), radiative cooling and thermal conduction. These models are to be applied to high velocity clouds in our galactic halo that are seen to have O VI by FUSE (Sembach et ai. 2000) and other clouds for which sufficient constraining observations exist.

  18. Simulating the interaction of galaxies and the intergalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carin, Robert A.

    2008-11-01

    The co-evolution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium as a function of environment is studied using hydrodynamic simulations of the ΛCDM cosmogony. It is demonstrated with non-radiative calculations that, in the absence of non-gravitational mechanisms, dark matter haloes accrete a near-universal fraction (˜ 0.9Ω_{b}/&Omega_;{m}) of baryons. The absence of a mass or redshift dependence of this fraction augurs well for parameter tests that use X-ray clusters as cosmological probes. Moreover, this result indicates that non-gravitational processes must efficiently regulate the formation of stars in dark matter haloes if the halo mass function is to be reconciled with the observed galaxy luminosity function. Simulations featuring stellar evolution and non-gravitational feedback mechanisms (photo-heating by the ultraviolet background, and thermal and kinetic supernovae feedback) are used to follow the evolution of star formation, and the thermo- and chemo-dynamical evolution of baryons. The observed star formation history of the Universe is reproduced, except at low redshift where it is overestimated by a factor of a few, possibly indicating the need for feedback from active galactic nuclei to quench cooling flows around massive galaxies. The simulations more accurately reproduce the observed abundance of galaxies with late-type morphologies than has been reported elsewhere. The unique initial conditions of these simulations, based on the Millennium Simulation, allow an unprecedented study of the role of large-scale environment to be conducted. The cosmic star formation rate density is found to vary by an order of magnitude across the extremes of environment expected in the local Universe. The mass fraction of baryons in the observationally elusive warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), and the volume filling factor that this gas occupies, is also shown to vary by a factor of a few across such environments. This variation is attributed to differences in the halo

  19. The rapid formation of a large rotating disk galaxy three billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, R; Tacconi, L J; Eisenhauer, F; Schreiber, N M Förster; Cimatti, A; Daddi, E; Bouché, N; Davies, R; Lehnert, M D; Lutz, D; Nesvadba, N; Verma, A; Abuter, R; Shapiro, K; Sternberg, A; Renzini, A; Kong, X; Arimoto, N; Mignoli, M

    2006-08-17

    Observations and theoretical simulations have established a framework for galaxy formation and evolution in the young Universe. Galaxies formed as baryonic gas cooled at the centres of collapsing dark-matter haloes; mergers of haloes and galaxies then led to the hierarchical build-up of galaxy mass. It remains unclear, however, over what timescales galaxies were assembled and when and how bulges and disks--the primary components of present-day galaxies--were formed. It is also puzzling that the most massive galaxies were more abundant and were forming stars more rapidly at early epochs than expected from models. Here we report high-angular-resolution observations of a representative luminous star-forming galaxy when the Universe was only 20% of its current age. A large and massive rotating protodisk is channelling gas towards a growing central stellar bulge hosting an accreting massive black hole. The high surface densities of gas, the high rate of star formation and the moderately young stellar ages suggest rapid assembly, fragmentation and conversion to stars of an initially very gas-rich protodisk, with no obvious evidence for a major merger.

  20. Galaxies 800 million years after the Big Bang seen with the Atacama Large Millimetre Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Renske

    2018-01-01

    The identification of galaxies in the first billion years after the Big Bang presents a challenge for even the largest optical telescopes. When the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA) started science operations in 2011 it presented a tantalising opportunity to identify and characterise these first sources of light in a new window of the electromagnetic spectrum. I will present new sources successfully identified at z=6.8 using ALMA; the first spectroscopic confirmations of typical star-forming galaxies during the Epoch or Reionization using a sub-millimetre telescope. Moreover, these observations reveal the gas kinematics of such distant sources for the first time. The velocity gradient in these galaxies indicate that these galaxies likely have similar dynamical properties as the turbulent, yet rotation-dominated disks that have been observed for Hα emitting galaxies 2 billion years later at cosmic noon. This novel approach for confirming galaxies during Reionization paves the way for larger studies of distant galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. Particularly important, this opens up opportunities for the measurement of high angular-resolution dynamics in galaxies less than one billion years after the Big Bang.

  1. LARGE AREA SURVEY FOR z = 7 GALAXIES IN SDF AND GOODS-N: IMPLICATIONS FOR GALAXY FORMATION AND COSMIC REIONIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Masami; Mobasher, Bahram; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ono, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Okamura, Sadanori; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fall, S. Michael; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Morokuma, Tomoki; Dickinson, Mark; Giavalisco, Mauro; Ohta, Kouji

    2009-01-01

    We present results of our large area survey for z'-band dropout galaxies at z = 7 in a 1568 arcmin 2 sky area covering the SDF and GOODS-N fields. Combining our ultra-deep Subaru/Suprime-Cam z'- and y-band (λ eff = 1 μm) images with legacy data of Subaru and Hubble Space Telescope, we have identified 22 bright z-dropout galaxies down to y = 26, one of which has a spectroscopic redshift of z = 6.96 determined from Lyα emission. The z = 7 luminosity function yields the best-fit Schechter parameters of φ* = 0.69 +2.62 -0.55 x 10 -3 Mpc -3 , M* UV = -20.10 ± 0.76 mag, and α = -1.72 ± 0.65, and indicates a decrease from z = 6 at a >95% confidence level. This decrease is beyond the cosmic variance in our two fields, which is estimated to be a factor of ∼ 0.2), a lower metallicity, and/or a flatter initial mass function. Our SDF z-dropout galaxies appear to form 60 Mpc long filamentary structures, and the z = 6.96 galaxy with Lyα emission is located at the center of an overdense region consisting of four UV bright dropout candidates, which might suggest an existence of a well-developed ionized bubble at z = 7.

  2. Topology of Large-Scale Structure by Galaxy Type: Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, J. Richard, III; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1996-07-01

    The topology of large-scale structure is studied as a function of galaxy type using the genus statistic. In hydrodynamical cosmological cold dark matter simulations, galaxies form on caustic surfaces (Zeldovich pancakes) and then slowly drain onto filaments and clusters. The earliest forming galaxies in the simulations (defined as "ellipticals") are thus seen at the present epoch preferentially in clusters (tending toward a meatball topology), while the latest forming galaxies (defined as "spirals") are seen currently in a spongelike topology. The topology is measured by the genus (number of "doughnut" holes minus number of isolated regions) of the smoothed density-contour surfaces. The measured genus curve for all galaxies as a function of density obeys approximately the theoretical curve expected for random- phase initial conditions, but the early-forming elliptical galaxies show a shift toward a meatball topology relative to the late-forming spirals. Simulations using standard biasing schemes fail to show such an effect. Large observational samples separated by galaxy type could be used to test for this effect.

  3. TIDAL INTERACTION AS THE ORIGIN OF EARLY-TYPE DWARF GALAXIES IN GROUP ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Ree, Chang H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a sample of dwarf galaxies that suffer ongoing disruption by the tidal forces of nearby massive galaxies. By analyzing structural and stellar population properties using the archival imaging and spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that they are likely a ''smoking gun'' example of the formation through tidal stirring of early-type dwarf galaxies (dEs) in the galaxy group environment. The inner cores of these galaxies are fairly intact and the observed light profiles are well fit by the Sérsic functions while the tidally stretched stellar halos are prominent in the outer parts. They are all located within a sky-projected distance of 50 kpc from the centers of the host galaxies and no dwarf galaxies have relative line-of-sight velocities larger than 205 km s –1 to their hosts. We derive the Composite Stellar Population properties of these galaxies by fitting the SDSS optical spectra to a multiple-burst composite stellar population model. We find that these galaxies accumulate a significant fraction of stellar mass within the last 1 Gyr and contain a majority stellar population with an intermediate age of 2 to 4 Gyr. Based on this evidence, we argue that tidal stirring, particularly through the galaxy-galaxy interaction, might have an important role in the formation and evolution of dEs in the group environment where the influence of other gas stripping mechanism might be limited

  4. GLOBAL STAR FORMATION RATES AND DUST EMISSION OVER THE GALAXY INTERACTION SEQUENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanz, Lauranne; Zezas, Andreas; Smith, Howard A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brassington, Nicola [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Da Cunha, Elisabete [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Hayward, Christopher C. [Heidelberger Institut fuer Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118, Heidelberg (Germany); Jonsson, Patrik, E-mail: llanz@head.cfa.harvard.edu [Space Exploration Technologies, 1 Rocket Road, Hawthorne, CA 90250 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We measured and modeled spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in 28 bands from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared (FIR) for 31 interacting galaxies in 14 systems. The sample is drawn from the Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Survey, which probes a range of galaxy interaction parameters at multiple wavelengths with an emphasis on the infrared bands. The subset presented in this paper consists of all galaxies for which FIR Herschel SPIRE observations are publicly available. Our SEDs combine the Herschel photometry with multi-wavelength data from Spitzer, GALEX, Swift UVOT, and 2MASS. While the shapes of the SEDs are broadly similar across our sample, strongly interacting galaxies typically have more mid-infrared emission relative to their near-infrared and FIR emission than weakly or moderately interacting galaxies. We modeled the full SEDs to derive host galaxy star formation rates (SFRs), specific star formation rates (sSFRs), stellar masses, dust temperatures, dust luminosities, and dust masses. We find increases in the dust luminosity and mass, SFR, and cold (15-25 K) dust temperature as the interaction progresses from moderately to strongly interacting and between non-interacting and strongly interacting galaxies. We also find increases in the SFR between weakly and strongly interacting galaxies. In contrast, the sSFR remains unchanged across all the interaction stages. The ultraviolet photometry is crucial for constraining the age of the stellar population and the SFR, while dust mass is primarily determined by SPIRE photometry. The SFR derived from the SED modeling agrees well with rates estimated by proportionality relations that depend on infrared emission.

  5. Halo histories versus galaxy properties at z = 0 II: large-scale galactic conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Hahn, ChangHoon; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Conroy, Charlie

    2018-06-01

    Using group catalogues from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we measure galactic conformity in the local universe. We measure the quenched fraction of neighbour galaxies around isolated primary galaxies, dividing the isolated sample into star-forming and quiescent objects. We restrict our measurements to scales >1 Mpc to probe the correlations between halo formation histories. Over the stellar mass range 109.7 ≤ M*/M⊙ ≤ 1010.9, we find minimal evidence for conformity. We further compare these data to predictions of the halo age-matching model, in which the oldest galaxies are associated with the oldest haloes. For models with strong correlations between halo and stellar age, the conformity is too large to be consistent with the data. Weaker implementations of the age-matching model would not produce a detectable signal in SDSS data. We reproduce the results of Kauffmann et al., in which the star formation rates of neighbour galaxies are reduced around primary galaxies when the primaries are low star formers. However, we find this result is mainly driven by contamination in the isolation criterion; when removing the small fraction of satellite galaxies in the sample, the conformity signal largely goes away. Lastly, we show that small conformity signals, i.e. 2-5 per cent differences in the quenched fractions of neighbour galaxies, can be produced by mechanisms other than halo assembly bias. For example, if passive galaxies occupy more massive haloes than star-forming galaxies of the same stellar mass, a conformity signal that is consistent with recent measurements from PRIMUS (Berti et al.) can be produced.

  6. LUMINOUS RED GALAXY HALO DENSITY FIELD RECONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION TO LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Beth A.; Spergel, David N.; Bode, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The nontrivial relationship between observations of galaxy positions in redshift space and the underlying matter field complicates our ability to determine the linear theory power spectrum and extract cosmological information from galaxy surveys. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalog has the potential to place powerful constraints on cosmological parameters. LRGs are bright, highly biased tracers of large-scale structure. However, because they are highly biased, the nonlinear contribution of satellite galaxies to the galaxy power spectrum is large and fingers-of-God (FOGs) are significant. The combination of these effects leads to a ∼10% correction in the underlying power spectrum at k = 0.1 h Mpc -1 and ∼40% correction at k = 0.2 h Mpc -1 in the LRG P(k) analysis of Tegmark et al., thereby compromising the cosmological constraints when this potentially large correction is left as a free parameter. We propose an alternative approach to recovering the matter field from galaxy observations. Our approach is to use halos rather than galaxies to trace the underlying mass distribution. We identify FOGs and replace each FOG with a single halo object. This removes the nonlinear contribution of satellite galaxies, the one-halo term. We test our method on a large set of high-fidelity mock SDSS LRG catalogs and find that the power spectrum of the reconstructed halo density field deviates from the underlying matter power spectrum at the ≤1% level for k ≤ 0.1 h Mpc -1 and ≤4% at k = 0.2 h Mpc -1 . The reconstructed halo density field also removes the bias in the measurement of the redshift space distortion parameter β induced by the FOG smearing of the linear redshift space distortions.

  7. Large-scale correlations in gas traced by Mg II absorbers around low-mass galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Guinevere

    2018-03-01

    The physical origin of the large-scale conformity in the colours and specific star formation rates of isolated low-mass central galaxies and their neighbours on scales in excess of 1 Mpc is still under debate. One possible scenario is that gas is heated over large scales by feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), leading to coherent modulation of cooling and star formation between well-separated galaxies. In this Letter, the metal line absorption catalogue of Zhu & Ménard is used to probe gas out to large projected radii around a sample of a million galaxies with stellar masses ˜1010M⊙ and photometric redshifts in the range 0.4 Survey imaging data. This galaxy sample covers an effective volume of 2.2 Gpc3. A statistically significant excess of Mg II absorbers is present around the red-low-mass galaxies compared to their blue counterparts out to projected radii of 10 Mpc. In addition, the equivalent width distribution function of Mg II absorbers around low-mass galaxies is shown to be strongly affected by the presence of a nearby (Rp < 2 Mpc) radio-loud AGNs out to projected radii of 5 Mpc.

  8. DETERMINING THE LARGE-SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF GAS-PHASE METALLICITY IN DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, Kelly A.; Vogeley, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    We study how the cosmic environment affects galaxy evolution in the universe by comparing the metallicities of dwarf galaxies in voids with dwarf galaxies in more dense regions. Ratios of the fluxes of emission lines, particularly those of the forbidden [O iii] and [S ii] transitions, provide estimates of a region’s electron temperature and number density. From these two quantities and the emission line fluxes [O ii] λ 3727, [O iii] λ 4363, and [O iii] λλ 4959, 5007, we estimate the abundance of oxygen with the direct T e  method. We estimate the metallicity of 42 blue, star-forming void dwarf galaxies and 89 blue, star-forming dwarf galaxies in more dense regions using spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, as reprocessed in the MPA-JHU value-added catalog. We find very little difference between the two sets of galaxies, indicating little influence from the large-scale environment on their chemical evolution. Of particular interest are a number of extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies that are less prevalent in voids than in the denser regions.

  9. Induced star formation and colors of binary and interacting galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, M.A.; Komberg, B.V.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1980-01-01

    The colours of 208 galaxies in pairs and groups are compared (on colour-colour diagram) with those of single galaxies of the same morphological type. Different colours of galaxies in pairs and groups can be explained if one assumes that in some of them the star formation is slowed down, while in others it is speeded up. The latter is the most conspicuous in E, SO, and Ir2 galaxies when they are accompanied by brighter spirals. The relation of abundance rate to the rate of star formation in galaxies and to the activity level of their nuclei is discussed. This relation is particularly conspicuous in the galaxies of early morphological types (E, SO, Sa) and in systems of the type Ir2 where the relative abundance of gas is significantly above the normal. It is noted that such galaxies as well as galaxies with UV excess, Seyfertlike objects, emission-line galaxies and quasars - avoid regions occupied with rich clusters and frequently occur in pairs and small groups

  10. The role of interactions in galaxy evolution: A new perspective from the CALIFA and MaNGA Integral Field Spectroscopic surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Sanchez, S. F.; Califa Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Interactions and mergers have been playing a paramount role to understand how galaxies evolve. In recent years integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations have become routinely allowing researchers to conduct large IFS surveys. In this context, these surveys are providing a new observational scenario to probe the properties of galaxies at different stages of the interaction —from close pairs to post-merger galaxies. Even more, these surveys also include homogeneous observations of non-interacting galaxies which in turns allows to distinguish the processes induce by secular evolution from those driven by interactions. In this talk, We review the studies of interacting studies from the CALIFA survey. They consider from the thorough analysis of a single interactive systems (e.g., the Mice, Wild et al. 2014) to the the statistical study of physical properties of a large sample of interacting/merging galaxies such as their internal structure via their stellar and gas line-of-sight kinematic maps (Barrera-Ballesteros et al. 2015a) or the spatial distribution of the star-forming gas in these galaxies (Barrera-Ballesteros et al. 2015b). Then we present some of the on-going studies within the MaNGA survey. Due to its statistical power (sample size ~10000 objects), this survey will allow us to probe the properties of galaxies in a wide range of the interaction-parameter space. This in turn provides a unique view on the key parameters that affect the internal structure and properties of galaxies during the interaction and subsequent merger.

  11. Dynamical simulations of the interacting galaxies in the NGC 520/UGC 957 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, S. A.; Balcells, Marc

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the interacting galaxies in the NGC 520/UGC 957 system are presented. Two sets of models were produced to investigate the postulated three-galaxy system of two colliding disk galaxies within NGC 520 and the dwarf galaxy UGC 957. The first set of models simulated a dwarf perturbing one-disk galaxy, which tested the possibility that NGC 520 contains only one galaxy disturbed by the passage of UGC 957. The resulting morphology of the perturbed single disk in the simulation fails to reproduce the observed tidal tails and northwest mass condensation of NGC 520. A second set of models simulated two colliding disks, which tested the hypothesis that NGC 520 itself contains two galaxies in a strong collision and UGC 957 is unimportant to the interaction. These disk-disk models produced a good match to the morphology of the present NGC 520. It is concluded that (1) NGC 520 contains two colliding disk galaxies which have produced the brighter southern half of the long tidal tail and (2) UGC 957, which may originally have been a satellite of one of the disk galaxies, formed the diffuse northern tail as it orbited NGC 520.

  12. A VLT Large Programme to Study Galaxies at z ~ 2: GMASS — the Galaxy Mass Assembly Ultra-deep Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurk, Jaron; Cimatti, Andrea; Daddi, Emanuele; Mignoli, Marco; Bolzonella, Micol; Pozzetti, Lucia; Cassata, Paolo; Halliday, Claire; Zamorani, Gianni; Berta, Stefano; Brusa, Marcella; Dickinson, Mark; Franceschini, Alberto; Rodighiero, Guilia; Rosati, Piero; Renzini, Alvio

    2009-03-01

    We report on the motivation, sample selection and first results of our VLT FORS2 Large Programme (173.A-0687), which has obtained the longest targeted spectra of distant galaxies obtained so far with the VLT. These long exposures, up to 77 hours for objects included in three masks, were required to detect spectral features of extremely faint galaxies, such as absorption lines of passive galaxies at z > 1.4, a population that had previously escaped attention due to its faintness in the optical wavelength regime, but which represents a critical phase in the evolution of massive galaxies. The ultra-deep spectroscopy allowed us to estimate the stellar metallicity of star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2, to trace colour bimodality up to z = 2 and to characterise a galaxy cluster progenitor at z = 1.6. The approximately 200 spectra produced by GMASS constitute a lasting legacy, populating the “redshift desert” in GOODS-S.

  13. Large Area Survey for z = 7 Galaxies in SDF and GOODS-N: Implications for Galaxy Formation and Cosmic Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Masami; Mobasher, Bahram; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fall, S. Michael; Ono, Yoshiaki; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Morokuma, Tomoki; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Okamura, Sadanori; Dickinson, Mark; Giavalisco, Mauro; Ohta, Kouji

    2009-12-01

    We present results of our large area survey for z'-band dropout galaxies at z = 7 in a 1568 arcmin2 sky area covering the SDF and GOODS-N fields. Combining our ultra-deep Subaru/Suprime-Cam z'- and y-band (λeff = 1 μm) images with legacy data of Subaru and Hubble Space Telescope, we have identified 22 bright z-dropout galaxies down to y = 26, one of which has a spectroscopic redshift of z = 6.96 determined from Lyα emission. The z = 7 luminosity function yields the best-fit Schechter parameters of phi* = 0.69+2.62 -0.55 × 10-3 Mpc-3, M*UV = -20.10 ± 0.76 mag, and α = -1.72 ± 0.65, and indicates a decrease from z = 6 at a >95% confidence level. This decrease is beyond the cosmic variance in our two fields, which is estimated to be a factor of lsim2. We have found that the cosmic star formation rate density drops from the peak at z = 2-3 to z = 7 roughly by a factor of ~10 but not larger than ~100. A comparison with the reionization models suggests either that the universe could not be totally ionized by only galaxies at z = 7, or more likely that properties of galaxies at z = 7 are different from those at low redshifts having, e.g., a larger escape fraction (gsim0.2), a lower metallicity, and/or a flatter initial mass function. Our SDF z-dropout galaxies appear to form 60 Mpc long filamentary structures, and the z = 6.96 galaxy with Lyα emission is located at the center of an overdense region consisting of four UV bright dropout candidates, which might suggest an existence of a well-developed ionized bubble at z = 7. Based on data obtained with the Subaru Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Spitzer Space Telescope. The Subaru Telescope is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. HST is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. The Spitzer Space Telescope is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a

  14. A multicolor photometric study of the tidal features in interacting galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schombert, J.M.; Wallin, J.F.; Struck-Marcell, C.

    1990-01-01

    Four-color surface photometry (BVri) is presented for low-surface-brightness tidal features in interacting galaxies. Objects were selected on the basis of visual morphology including a cross section of tails, bridges, plumes, shells, and extended envelopes. Intensity cross sections and surface brightness suggests that plumes are face-on or near face-on sheets; tails and bridges are more nearly one-dimensional, linear figures. In many cases the colors of tidal features are similar to the outer regions of the primary galaxies, confirming the stripping origin hypothesis. However, large color variations are found among the morphological components within most systems, and within individual components. Blue colors in primaries and tidal features are most dramatic in B-V, not V-1, indicating that star formation, not metallicity or age, is the dominant component. There is clear evidence in the sample of a correlation between the magnitude of the color variation and the time. The color variations are largest a short time after the beginning of the interaction, and they diminish to a very low level in merged systems. This correlation provides an alternate estimator of interaction age in systems with ambiguous morphologies. 49 refs

  15. GESE: A Small UV Space Telescope to Conduct a Large Spectroscopic Survey of Z-1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Gong, Qian; Hull, Tony; Kruk, Jeffrey; Purves, Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    One of the key goals of NASA's astrophysics program is to answer the question: How did galaxies evolve into the spirals and elliptical galaxies that we see today? We describe a space mission concept called Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE) to address this question by making a large spectroscopic survey of galaxies at a redshift, z is approximately 1 (look-back time of approximately 8 billion years). GESE is a 1.5-meter space telescope with an ultraviolet (UV) multi-object slit spectrograph that can obtain spectra of hundreds of galaxies per exposure. The spectrograph covers the spectral range, 0.2-0.4 micrometers at a spectral resolving power, R approximately 500. This observed spectral range corresponds to 0.1-0.2 micrometers as emitted by a galaxy at a redshift, z=1. The mission concept takes advantage of two new technological advances: (1) light-weighted, wide-field telescope mirrors, and (2) the Next- Generation MicroShutter Array (NG-MSA) to be used as a slit generator in the multi-object slit spectrograph.

  16. Large turbulent reservoirs of cold molecular gas around high-redshift starburst galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgarone, E; Zwaan, M A; Godard, B; Bergin, E; Ivison, R J; Andreani, P M; Bournaud, F; Bussmann, R S; Elbaz, D; Omont, A; Oteo, I; Walter, F

    2017-08-24

    Starburst galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation are among the most extreme star-forming engines in the Universe, producing stars over about 100 million years (ref. 2). The star-formation rates of these galaxies, which exceed 100 solar masses per year, require large reservoirs of cold molecular gas to be delivered to their cores, despite strong feedback from stars or active galactic nuclei. Consequently, starburst galaxies are ideal for studying the interplay between this feedback and the growth of a galaxy. The methylidyne cation, CH + , is a most useful molecule for such studies because it cannot form in cold gas without suprathermal energy input, so its presence indicates dissipation of mechanical energy or strong ultraviolet irradiation. Here we report the detection of CH + (J = 1-0) emission and absorption lines in the spectra of six lensed starburst galaxies at redshifts near 2.5. This line has such a high critical density for excitation that it is emitted only in very dense gas, and is absorbed in low-density gas. We find that the CH + emission lines, which are broader than 1,000 kilometres per second, originate in dense shock waves powered by hot galactic winds. The CH + absorption lines reveal highly turbulent reservoirs of cool (about 100 kelvin), low-density gas, extending far (more than 10 kiloparsecs) outside the starburst galaxies (which have radii of less than 1 kiloparsec). We show that the galactic winds sustain turbulence in the 10-kiloparsec-scale environments of the galaxies, processing these environments into multiphase, gravitationally bound reservoirs. However, the mass outflow rates are found to be insufficient to balance the star-formation rates. Another mass input is therefore required for these reservoirs, which could be provided by ongoing mergers or cold-stream accretion. Our results suggest that galactic feedback, coupled jointly to turbulence and gravity, extends the starburst phase of a galaxy instead of quenching it.

  17. Computing the universe: how large-scale simulations illuminate galaxies and dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Brian

    2015-04-01

    High-performance and large-scale computing is absolutely to understanding astronomical objects such as stars, galaxies, and the cosmic web. This is because these are structures that operate on physical, temporal, and energy scales that cannot be reasonably approximated in the laboratory, and whose complexity and nonlinearity often defies analytic modeling. In this talk, I show how the growth of computing platforms over time has facilitated our understanding of astrophysical and cosmological phenomena, focusing primarily on galaxies and large-scale structure in the Universe.

  18. Red Geyser: A New Class of Galaxy with Large-scale AGN-driven Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Namrata; Bundy, Kevin; Cheung, Edmond; MaNGA Team

    2018-01-01

    A new class of quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies harboring possible AGN-driven winds have been discovered using the spatially resolved optical spectroscopy from the ongoing SDSS-IV MaNGA (Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) survey. These galaxies named "red geysers" constitute 5%-10% of the local quiescent galaxy population and are characterized by narrow bisymmetric ionized gas emission patterns. These enhanced patterns are seen in equivalent width maps of Hα, [OIII] and other strong emission lines. They are co-aligned with the ionized gas velocity gradients but significantly misaligned with stellar velocity gradients. They also show very high gas velocity dispersions (~200 km/s). Considering these observations in light of models of the gravitational potential, Cheung et al. argued that red geysers host large-scale AGN-driven winds of ionized gas that may play a role in suppressing star formation at late times. In this work, we test the hypothesis that AGN activity is ultimately responsible for the red geyser phenomenon. We compare the nuclear radio activity of the red geysers to a matched control sample of galaxies of similar stellar mass, redshift, rest frame NUV–r color and axis ratio. and additionally, control for the presence of ionized gas. We have used 1.4 GHz radio continuum data from the VLA FIRST Survey to stack the radio flux from the red geyser sample and control sample. We find that the red geysers have a higher average radio flux than the control galaxies at > 3σ significance. Our sample is restricted to rest-frame NUV–r color > 5, thus ruling out possible radio emission due to star formation activity. We conclude that red geysers are associated with more active AGN, supporting a feedback picture in which episodic AGN activity drives large-scale but relatively weak ionized winds in many in many early-type galaxies.

  19. EVIDENCE FOR AN INTERACTION IN THE NEAREST STARBURSTING DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY IC 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidever, David L.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Ashley, Trisha; Simpson, Caroline E.; Ott, Jürgen; Johnson, Megan; Stanimirović, Snežana; Putman, Mary; Majewski, Steven R.; Jütte, Eva; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Burton, W. Butler

    2013-01-01

    Using deep 21 cm H I data from the Green Bank Telescope we have detected an ≳18.3 kpc long gaseous extension associated with the starbursting dwarf galaxy IC 10. The newly found feature stretches 1.°3 to the northwest and has a large radial velocity gradient reaching to ∼65 km s –1 lower than the IC 10 systemic velocity. A region of higher column density at the end of the extension that possesses a coherent velocity gradient (∼10 km s –1 across ∼26') transverse to the extension suggests rotation and may be a satellite galaxy of IC 10. The H I mass of IC 10 is 9.5 × 10 7 (d/805 kpc) 2 M ☉ and the mass of the new extension is 7.1 × 10 5 (d/805 kpc) 2 M ☉ . An IC 10-M31 orbit using known radial velocity and proper motion values for IC 10 show that the H I extension is inconsistent with the trailing portion of the orbit so that an M31-tidal or ram pressure origin seems unlikely. We argue that the most plausible explanation for the new feature is that it is the result of a recent interaction (and possible late merger) with another dwarf galaxy. This interaction could not only have triggered the origin of the recent starburst in IC 10, but could also explain the existence of previously found counter-rotating H I gas in the periphery of the IC 10 which was interpreted as originating from primordial gas infall

  20. Imprint of thawing scalar fields on the large scale galaxy overdensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinda, Bikash R.; Sen, Anjan A.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the observed galaxy power spectrum for the thawing class of scalar field models taking into account various general relativistic corrections that occur on very large scales. We consider the full general relativistic perturbation equations for the matter as well as the dark energy fluid. We form a single autonomous system of equations containing both the background and the perturbed equations of motion which we subsequently solve for different scalar field potentials. First we study the percentage deviation from the Λ CDM model for different cosmological parameters as well as in the observed galaxy power spectra on different scales in scalar field models for various choices of scalar field potentials. Interestingly the difference in background expansion results from the enhancement of power from Λ CDM on small scales, whereas the inclusion of general relativistic (GR) corrections results in the suppression of power from Λ CDM on large scales. This can be useful to distinguish scalar field models from Λ CDM with future optical/radio surveys. We also compare the observed galaxy power spectra for tracking and thawing types of scalar field using some particular choices for the scalar field potentials. We show that thawing and tracking models can have large differences in observed galaxy power spectra on large scales and for smaller redshifts due to different GR effects. But on smaller scales and for larger redshifts, the difference is small and is mainly due to the difference in background expansion.

  1. Large-Scale Environment Properties of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies at z < 0.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Järvelä, Emilia [Metsähovi Radio Observatory, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Lähteenmäki, A. [Metsähovi Radio Observatory, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Tartu Observatory, Tõravere (Estonia); Lietzen, H., E-mail: emilia.jarvela@aalto.fi [Tartu Observatory, Tõravere (Estonia)

    2017-11-30

    The large-scale environment is believed to affect the evolution and intrinsic properties of galaxies. It offers a new perspective on narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1) which have not been extensively studied in this context before. We study a large and diverse sample of 960 NLS1 galaxies using a luminosity-density field constructed using Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We investigate how the large-scale environment is connected to the properties of NLS1 galaxies, especially their radio loudness. Furthermore, we compare the large-scale environment properties of NLS1 galaxies with other active galactic nuclei (AGN) classes, for example, other jetted AGN and broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) galaxies, to shed light on their possible relations. In general NLS1 galaxies reside in less dense large-scale environments than any of our comparison samples, thus supporting their young age. The average luminosity-density and distribution to different luminosity-density regions of NLS1 sources is significantly different compared to BLS1 galaxies. This contradicts the simple orientation-based unification of NLS1 and BLS1 galaxies, and weakens the hypothesis that BLS1 galaxies are the parent population of NLS1 galaxies. The large-scale environment density also has an impact on the intrinsic properties of NLS1 galaxies; the radio loudness increases with the increasing luminosity-density. However, our results suggest that the NLS1 population is indeed heterogeneous, and that a considerable fraction of them are misclassified. We support a suggested description that the traditional classification based on the radio loudness should be replaced with the division to jetted and non-jetted sources.

  2. A marked concentration of galaxy clusters: is this the origin of large-scale motions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaramella, R.; Baiesi-Pillastrini, G.; Vettolani, G.; Zamorani, G.

    1989-01-01

    The distances and velocities of 400 elliptical galaxies, out to redshifts equivalent to recession velocities of ∼ 6,000 km s -1 , suggest that the peculiar velocities obtained by subtraction of the general cosmological expansion are best fitted by a flow induced by a 'great attractor', a large mass of 5.4 x 10 16 M solar and centred on galactic longitude l = 307 0 and latitude b = 9 0 at a distance R m = 4,350 ± 350 km s -1 . A redshift survey of ∼ 900 galaxies shows that the excess galaxy number counts in this direction are due to two substantial concentrations of galaxies at recession velocities υ ∼ 3,000 km s -1 and 4,500 km s -1 . Here we show that in roughly the same direction there is also a very rich concentration of galaxy clusters which may have a considerable dynamical influence. The estimated redshift distances of these clusters range from 3,000 to 20,000 km s -1 , with a main complex at υ ∼ 14,000 km s -1 . The barycentre of this concentration lies ∼ 25 0 away from the cosmic microwave background dipole, and ∼ 10 0 away from the latest reported position of the Great Attractor. (author)

  3. Discovery of large-scale diffuse radio emission in low-mass galaxy cluster Abell 1931

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggen, M.; Rafferty, D.; Bonafede, A.; van Weeren, R. J.; Shimwell, T.; Intema, H.; Röttgering, H.; Brunetti, G.; Di Gennaro, G.; Savini, F.; Wilber, A.; O'Sullivan, S.; Ensslin, T. A.; De Gasperin, F.; Hoeft, M.

    2018-04-01

    Extended, steep-spectrum radio synchrotron sources are pre-dominantly found in massive galaxy clusters as opposed to groups. LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey images have revealed a diffuse, ultra-steep spectrum radio source in the low-mass cluster Abell 1931. The source has a fairly irregular morphology with a largest linear size of about 550 kpc. The source is only seen in LOFAR observations at 143 MHz and GMRT observations at 325 MHz. The spectral index of the total source between 143 MHz and 325 MHz is α _{143}^{325} = -2.86 ± 0.36. The source remains invisible in Very Large Array (1-2 GHz) observations as expected given the spectral index. Chandra X-ray observations of the cluster revealed a bolometric luminosity of LX = (1.65 ± 0.39) × 1043 erg s-1 and a temperature of 2.92_{-0.87}^{+1.89} keV which implies a mass of around ˜1014M⊙. We conclude that the source is a remnant radio galaxy that has shut off around 200 Myr ago. The brightest cluster galaxy, a radio-loud elliptical galaxy, could be the source for this extinct source. Unlike remnant sources studied in the literature, our source has a steep spectrum at low radio frequencies. Studying such remnant radio galaxies at low radio frequencies is important for understanding the scarcity of such sources and their role in feedback processes.

  4. Marvel-ous Dwarfs: Results from Four Heroically Large Simulated Volumes of Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Ferah; Brooks, Alyson; Weisz, Daniel; Bellovary, Jillian; Christensen, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    We present results from high resolution, fully cosmological simulations of cosmic sheets that contain many dwarf galaxies. Together, they create the largest collection of simulated dwarf galaxies to date, with z=0 stellar masses comparable to the LMC or smaller. In total, we have simulated almost 100 luminous dwarf galaxies, forming a sample of simulated dwarfs which span a wide range of physical (stellar and halo mass) and evolutionary properties (merger history). We show how they can be calibrated against a wealth of observations of nearby galaxies including star formation histories, HI masses and kinematics, as well as stellar metallicities. We present preliminary results answering the following key questions: What is the slope of the stellar mass function at extremely low masses? Do halos with HI and no stars exist? What is the scatter in the stellar to halo mass relationship as a function of dwarf mass? What drives the scatter? With this large suite, we are beginning to statistically characterize dwarf galaxies and identify the types and numbers of outliers to expect.

  5. The unexpectedly large dust and gas content of quiescent galaxies at z > 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobat, R.; Daddi, E.; Magdis, G.; Bournaud, F.; Sargent, M.; Martig, M.; Jin, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Béthermin, M.; Hwang, H. S.; Renzini, A.; Wilson, G. W.; Aretxaga, I.; Yun, M.; Strazzullo, V.; Valentino, F.

    2018-03-01

    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) contain most of the stars present in the local Universe and, above a stellar mass content of 5 × 1010 solar masses, vastly outnumber spiral galaxies such as the Milky Way. These massive spheroidal galaxies have, in the present day, very little gas or dust in proportion to their mass1, and their stellar populations have been evolving passively for over 10 billion years. The physical mechanisms that led to the termination of star formation in these galaxies and depletion of their interstellar medium remain largely conjectural. In particular, there are currently no direct measurements of the amount of residual gas that might still be present in newly quiescent spheroidals at high redshift2. Here we show that quiescent ETGs at redshift z 1.8, close to their epoch of quenching, contained at least two orders of magnitude more dust at a fixed stellar mass compared with local ETGs. This implies the presence of substantial amounts of gas (5-10%), which has been consumed less efficiently than in more active galaxies, probably due to their spheroidal morphology, consistent with our simulations. This lower star formation efficiency, combined with an extended hot gas halo possibly maintained by persistent feedback from an active galactic nucleus, keep ETGs mostly passive throughout cosmic time.

  6. SED fitting with MCMC: methodology and application to large galaxy surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric; Guaita, Lucia

    2012-08-01

    We present GalMC (Acquaviva et al. 2011), our publicly available Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm for SED fitting, show the results obtained for a stacked sample of Lyman Alpha Emitting galaxies at z ~ 3, and discuss the dependence of the inferred SED parameters on the assumptions made in modeling the stellar populations. We also introduce SpeedyMC, a version of GalMC based on interpolation of pre-computed template libraries. While the flexibility and number of SED fitting parameters is reduced with respect to GalMC, the average running time decreases by a factor of 20,000, enabling SED fitting of each galaxy in about one second on a 2.2GHz MacBook Pro laptop, and making SpeedyMC the ideal instrument to analyze data from large photometric galaxy surveys.

  7. Observations of neutral hydrogen in radio-loud and interacting galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, T. M.; Balick, B.; Van Breugel, W. J. W.; Miley, G. K.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a survey of H I in radio-loud and interacting galaxies is presented. Four cases of H I absorption and five of emission are reported. The interesting features found for individual galaxies are described, and the systematic properties are discussed. Column densities of absorbing gas generally exceed those expected for a 'Milky Way' H I disk by more than an order of magnitude. The absorbing gas must have a flattened, disklike morphology oriented roughly parallel to the optical disk of the galaxy. Turbulent noncircular gas motions are evidently present, which are shown to be almost certainly induced by galaxy-galaxy interactions. The set of galaxies in which H I absorption has been detected is dominated by morphologically peculiar objects. It is concluded that the detection of H I seen in absorption against a nuclear radio source permits direct determination of the sense of radial flow of extranuclear material, and is direct evidence that potential 'food' for a compact object in the nucleus exists in the galaxy.

  8. Galaxy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, F.

    1987-01-01

    Galaxies are not isolated systems of stars and gas, ''independent universes'' as believed by astronomers about ten years ago, but galaxies are formed and evolve by interaction with their environment, and in particular with their nearest neighbors. Gravitational interactions produce enormous tides in the disk of spiral galaxies, generate spiral arms and trigger bursts of star formation. Around elliptical galaxies, the collision with a small companion produces a series of waves, or shells. A galaxy interaction leads, in most cases, to the coalescence of the two coliders; therefore all galaxies are not formed just after the Big-Bang, when matter recombines: second generation galaxies are still forming now by galaxy mergers, essentially elliptical galaxies, but also compact dwarfs. Collisions between galaxies could also trigger activity in nuclei for radiogalaxies and quasars [fr

  9. The GALAXY Classroom: An Interactive, Thematic Approach to Literacy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewison, Mitzi

    The GALAXY Classroom, developed as a nation-wide reform effort, was designed to make a significant positive difference in the educational lives of elementary school students who have traditionally been labeled "at-risk." As part of a 2-year demonstration and research phase, 39 elementary schools across the United States (and one school…

  10. Cosmic rays in the large and small Magellanic clouds and the relationship to our galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtel, C.E.; Sreekumar, P.

    1991-01-01

    Information on the cosmic rays in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds may be obtained from measurements of the synchrotron radiation related to the energetic electrons, which are believed to contain only about 1% of the cosmic ray energy. Assuming the same ratio as in our galaxy between the cosmic ray electrons and nucleons, the energy density distribution may be estimated. This prediction is compared to that deduced from the matter density distribution, the concept of dynamic galance, and an appropriate coupling scale. For the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the condition of quasi-equilibrium seems satisfied as is required for dynamic balance to be a valid concept, but for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), this seems not to be the case. For the LMC, the scale of coupling is calculated to be about 2 1/2 kiloparsecs, within the range of estimates for our own galaxy, and the intensity level of the cosmic rays in the central region is similar to that in the local region of our own galaxy. In the SMC, the cosmic ray density seems to be lower than in our galaxy and lower than if the conditions required for dynamic equilibrium were in place for the SMC as a whole

  11. Superwind Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies? : Large-Scale Radio Maps of an Edge-On Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Gallimore, J.; Baum, S.; O'Dea, C.

    1995-03-01

    Large-scale galactic winds (superwinds) are commonly found flowing out of the nuclear region of ultraluminous infrared and powerful starburst galaxies. Stellar winds and supernovae from the nuclear starburst provide the energy to drive these superwinds. The outflowing gas escapes along the rotation axis, sweeping up and shock-heating clouds in the halo, which produces optical line emission, radio synchrotron emission, and X-rays. These features can most easily be studied in edge-on systems, so that the wind emission is not confused by that from the disk. We have begun a systematic search for superwind outflows in Seyfert galaxies. In an earlier optical emission-line survey, we found extended minor axis emission and/or double-peaked emission line profiles in >~30% of the sample objects. We present here large-scale (6cm VLA C-config) radio maps of 11 edge-on Seyfert galaxies, selected (without bias) from a distance-limited sample of 23 edge-on Seyferts. These data have been used to estimate the frequency of occurrence of superwinds. Preliminary results indicate that four (36%) of the 11 objects observed and six (26%) of the 23 objects in the distance-limited sample have extended radio emission oriented perpendicular to the galaxy disk. This emission may be produced by a galactic wind blowing out of the disk. Two (NGC 2992 and NGC 5506) of the nine objects for which we have both radio and optical data show good evidence for a galactic wind in both datasets. We suggest that galactic winds occur in >~30% of all Seyferts. A goal of this work is to find a diagnostic that can be used to distinguish between large-scale outflows that are driven by starbursts and those that are driven by an AGN. The presence of starburst-driven superwinds in Seyferts, if established, would have important implications for the connection between starburst galaxies and AGN.

  12. Galaxy mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, N.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis contains a series of four papers dealing with the effects of interactions among galaxies during the epoch of cluster formation. Galaxy interactions are investigated and the results incorporated in numerical simulations of the formation of groups and clusters of galaxies. The role of galaxy interactions is analysed in the more general context of simulations of an expanding universe. The evolution of galaxies in rich clusters is discussed. The results of the investigations are presented and their relation to other work done in the field are briefly reviewed and an attempt is made to link galaxy mergers to the occurrence of activity in galactic nuclei. (Auth.)

  13. Observations and models of star formation in the tidal features of interacting galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, J.F.; Schombert, J.M.; Struck-Marcell, C.

    1990-01-01

    Multi-color surface photometry (BVri) is presented for the tidal features in a sample of interacting galaxies. Large color variations are found between the morphological components and within the individual components. The blue colors in the primary and the tidal features are most dramatic in B-V, and not in V-i, indicating that star formation instead of metallicity or age dominates the colors. Color variations between components is larger in systems shortly after interaction begins and diminishes to a very low level in systems which are merged. Photometric models for interacting systems are presented which suggest that a weak burst of star formation in the tidal features could cause the observed color distributions. Dynamical models indicate that compression occurs during the development of tidal features causing an increase in the local density by a factor of between 1.5 and 5. Assuming this density increase can be related to the star formation rate by a Schmidt law, the density increases observed in the dynamical models may be responsible for the variations in color seen in some of the interacting systems. Limitations of the dynamical models are also discussed

  14. Large Display Interaction Using Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Large displays become more and more popular, due to dropping prices. Their size and high resolution leverages collaboration and they are capable of dis- playing even large datasets in one view. This becomes even more interesting as the number of big data applications increases. The increased screen size and other properties of large displays pose new challenges to the Human- Computer-Interaction with these screens. This includes issues such as limited scalability to the number of users, diver...

  15. DETECTION OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE STARBURST GALAXIES M82 AND NGC 253 WITH THE LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON FERMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of high-energy γ-ray emission from two starburst galaxies using data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Steady point-like emission above 200 MeV has been detected at significance levels of 6.8σ and 4.8σ, respectively, from sources positionally coincident with locations of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The total fluxes of the sources are consistent with γ-ray emission originating from the interaction of cosmic rays with local interstellar gas and radiation fields and constitute evidence for a link between massive star formation and γ-ray emission in star-forming galaxies.

  16. Evolution and interaction of large interplanetary streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whang, Y.C.; Burlaga, L.F.

    1985-02-01

    A computer simulation for the evolution and interaction of large interplanetary streams based on multi-spacecraft observations and an unsteady, one-dimensional MHD model is presented. Two events, each observed by two or more spacecraft separated by a distance of the order of 10 AU, were studied. The first simulation is based on the plasma and magnetic field observations made by two radially-aligned spacecraft. The second simulation is based on an event observed first by Helios-1 in May 1980 near 0.6 AU and later by Voyager-1 in June 1980 at 8.1 AU. These examples show that the dynamical evolution of large-scale solar wind structures is dominated by the shock process, including the formation, collision, and merging of shocks. The interaction of shocks with stream structures also causes a drastic decrease in the amplitude of the solar wind speed variation with increasing heliocentric distance, and as a result of interactions there is a large variation of shock-strengths and shock-speeds. The simulation results shed light on the interpretation for the interaction and evolution of large interplanetary streams. Observations were made along a few limited trajectories, but simulation results can supplement these by providing the detailed evolution process for large-scale solar wind structures in the vast region not directly observed. The use of a quantitative nonlinear simulation model including shock merging process is crucial in the interpretation of data obtained in the outer heliosphere

  17. Crashing galaxies, cosmic fireworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The study of binary systems is reviewed. The history of the study of interacting galaxies, the behavior of gas in binary systems, studies to identify the processes that occur when galaxies interact, and the relationship of Seyfert galaxies and quasars to binary systems are discussed. The development of an atlas of peculiar galaxies (Arp, 1966) and methods for modeling galaxy interactions are examined

  18. Analysis of candidates for interacting galaxy clusters. I. A1204 and A2029/A2033

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth Johana; de los Rios, Martín; Oio, Gabriel A.; Lang, Daniel Hernández; Tagliaferro, Tania Aguirre; Domínguez R., Mariano J.; Castellón, José Luis Nilo; Cuevas L., Héctor; Valotto, Carlos A.

    2018-04-01

    Context. Merging galaxy clusters allow for the study of different mass components, dark and baryonic, separately. Also, their occurrence enables to test the ΛCDM scenario, which can be used to put constraints on the self-interacting cross-section of the dark-matter particle. Aim. It is necessary to perform a homogeneous analysis of these systems. Hence, based on a recently presented sample of candidates for interacting galaxy clusters, we present the analysis of two of these cataloged systems. Methods: In this work, the first of a series devoted to characterizing galaxy clusters in merger processes, we perform a weak lensing analysis of clusters A1204 and A2029/A2033 to derive the total masses of each identified interacting structure together with a dynamical study based on a two-body model. We also describe the gas and the mass distributions in the field through a lensing and an X-ray analysis. This is the first of a series of works which will analyze these type of system in order to characterize them. Results: Neither merging cluster candidate shows evidence of having had a recent merger event. Nevertheless, there is dynamical evidence that these systems could be interacting or could interact in the future. Conclusions: It is necessary to include more constraints in order to improve the methodology of classifying merging galaxy clusters. Characterization of these clusters is important in order to properly understand the nature of these systems and their connection with dynamical studies.

  19. THE STELLAR HALOS OF MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES. II. DETAILED ABUNDANCE RATIOS AT LARGE RADIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Gunn, James E.; Raskutti, Sudhir [Department of Astrophysics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl [Department of Astronomy, UT Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 71712 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    We study the radial dependence in stellar populations of 33 nearby early-type galaxies with central stellar velocity dispersions σ{sub *} ∼> 150 km s{sup –1}. We measure stellar population properties in composite spectra, and use ratios of these composites to highlight the largest spectral changes as a function of radius. Based on stellar population modeling, the typical star at 2R{sub e} is old (∼10 Gyr), relatively metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≈ –0.5), and α-enhanced ([Mg/Fe] ≈ 0.3). The stars were made rapidly at z ≈ 1.5-2 in shallow potential wells. Declining radial gradients in [C/Fe], which follow [Fe/H], also arise from rapid star formation timescales due to declining carbon yields from low-metallicity massive stars. In contrast, [N/Fe] remains high at large radius. Stars at large radius have different abundance ratio patterns from stars in the center of any present-day galaxy, but are similar to average Milky Way thick disk stars. Our observations are thus consistent with a picture in which the stellar outskirts are built up through minor mergers with disky galaxies whose star formation is truncated early (z ≈ 1.5-2)

  20. Confirmation of general relativity on large scales from weak lensing and galaxy velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Seljak, Uros; Baldauf, Tobias; Gunn, James E.; Lombriser, Lucas; Smith, Robert E.

    2010-03-01

    Although general relativity underlies modern cosmology, its applicability on cosmological length scales has yet to be stringently tested. Such a test has recently been proposed, using a quantity, EG, that combines measures of large-scale gravitational lensing, galaxy clustering and structure growth rate. The combination is insensitive to `galaxy bias' (the difference between the clustering of visible galaxies and invisible dark matter) and is thus robust to the uncertainty in this parameter. Modified theories of gravity generally predict values of EG different from the general relativistic prediction because, in these theories, the `gravitational slip' (the difference between the two potentials that describe perturbations in the gravitational metric) is non-zero, which leads to changes in the growth of structure and the strength of the gravitational lensing effect. Here we report that EG = 0.39+/-0.06 on length scales of tens of megaparsecs, in agreement with the general relativistic prediction of EG~0.4. The measured value excludes a model within the tensor-vector-scalar gravity theory, which modifies both Newtonian and Einstein gravity. However, the relatively large uncertainty still permits models within f() theory, which is an extension of general relativity. A fivefold decrease in uncertainty is needed to rule out these models.

  1. Cluster galaxy dynamics and the effects of large-scale environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Martin; Cohn, J. D.; Smit, Renske

    2010-11-01

    Advances in observational capabilities have ushered in a new era of multi-wavelength, multi-physics probes of galaxy clusters and ambitious surveys are compiling large samples of cluster candidates selected in different ways. We use a high-resolution N-body simulation to study how the influence of large-scale structure in and around clusters causes correlated signals in different physical probes and discuss some implications this has for multi-physics probes of clusters (e.g. richness, lensing, Compton distortion and velocity dispersion). We pay particular attention to velocity dispersions, matching galaxies to subhaloes which are explicitly tracked in the simulation. We find that not only do haloes persist as subhaloes when they fall into a larger host, but groups of subhaloes retain their identity for long periods within larger host haloes. The highly anisotropic nature of infall into massive clusters, and their triaxiality, translates into an anisotropic velocity ellipsoid: line-of-sight galaxy velocity dispersions for any individual halo show large variance depending on viewing angle. The orientation of the velocity ellipsoid is correlated with the large-scale structure, and thus velocity outliers correlate with outliers caused by projection in other probes. We quantify this orientation uncertainty and give illustrative examples. Such a large variance suggests that velocity dispersion estimators will work better in an ensemble sense than for any individual cluster, which may inform strategies for obtaining redshifts of cluster members. We similarly find that the ability of substructure indicators to find kinematic substructures is highly viewing angle dependent. While groups of subhaloes which merge with a larger host halo can retain their identity for many Gyr, they are only sporadically picked up by substructure indicators. We discuss the effects of correlated scatter on scaling relations estimated through stacking, both analytically and in the simulations

  2. THE CFHTLS-DEEP CATALOG OF INTERACTING GALAXIES. I. MERGER RATE EVOLUTION TO z = 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, C. R.; Carlberg, R. G.; Sullivan, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rest-frame optical galaxy merger fraction between 0.2 vega ≤ 22.2 (∼27,000 galaxies) over 2 square degrees, we have compiled the CFHTLS-Deep Catalog of Interacting Galaxies, with ∼ 1600 merging galaxies. We find the merger fraction to be 4.3% ± 0.3% at z ∼ 0.3 and 19.0% ± 2.5% at z ∼ 1, implying evolution of the merger fraction going as (1 + z) m , with m = 2.25 ± 0.24. This result is inconsistent with a mild or non-evolving (m 4σ level of confidence. A mild trend, where by massive galaxies with M * >10 10.7 M sun are undergoing fewer mergers than less massive systems (M * ∼ 10 10 M sun ), consistent with the expectations of galaxy assembly downsizing is observed. Our results also show that interacting galaxies have on average SFRs double that found in non-interacting field galaxies. We conclude that (1) the optical galaxy merger fraction does evolve with redshift, (2) the merger fraction depends mildly on stellar mass, with lower mass galaxies having higher merger fractions at z < 1, and (3) star formation is triggered at all phases of a merger, with larger enhancements at later stages, consistent with N-body simulations.

  3. THE CASE AGAINST WARM OR SELF-INTERACTING DARK MATTER AS EXPLANATIONS FOR CORES IN LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Martinez, Gregory D.; Bullock, James S.; Kaplinghat, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) and self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) are often motivated by the inferred cores in the dark matter halos of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. We test thermal WDM, non-thermal WDM, and SIDM using high-resolution rotation curves of nine LSB galaxies. We fit these dark matter models to the data and determine the halo core radii and central densities. While the minimum core size in WDM models is predicted to decrease with halo mass, we find that the inferred core radii increase with halo mass and also cannot be explained with a single value of the primordial phase-space density. Moreover, if the core size is set by WDM particle properties, then even the smallest cores we infer would require primordial phase-space density values that are orders of magnitude smaller than lower limits obtained from the Lyα forest power spectra. We also find that the dark matter halo core densities vary by a factor of about 30 from system to system while showing no systematic trend with the maximum rotation velocity of the galaxy. This strongly argues against the core size being directly set by large self-interactions (scattering or annihilation) of dark matter. We therefore conclude that the inferred cores do not provide motivation to prefer WDM or SIDM over other dark matter models.

  4. Testing modified gravity at large distances with the HI Nearby Galaxy Survey's rotation curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastache, Jorge; Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.; de la Macorra, Axel

    2013-03-01

    Recently a new—quantum motivated—theory of gravity has been proposed that modifies the standard Newtonian potential at large distances when spherical symmetry is considered. Accordingly, Newtonian gravity is altered by adding an extra Rindler acceleration term that has to be phenomenologically determined. Here we consider a standard and a power-law generalization of the Rindler modified Newtonian potential. The new terms in the gravitational potential are hypothesized to play the role of dark matter in galaxies. Our galactic model includes the mass of the integrated gas, and stars for which we consider three stellar mass functions (Kroupa, diet-Salpeter, and free mass model). We test this idea by fitting rotation curves of seventeen low surface brightness galaxies from the HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS). We find that the Rindler parameters do not perform a suitable fit to the rotation curves in comparison to standard dark matter profiles (Navarro-Frenk-White and Burkert) and, in addition, the computed parameters of the Rindler gravity show a high spread, posing the model as a nonacceptable alternative to dark matter.

  5. Quiescent Galaxies in the 3D-HST Survey: Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Large Number of Galaxies with Relatively Old Stellar Populations at z ~ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Katherine E.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Skelton, Rosalind; Franx, Marijn; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt F.; Nelson, Erica J.; Patel, Shannon G.; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2013-06-01

    Quiescent galaxies at z ~ 2 have been identified in large numbers based on rest-frame colors, but only a small number of these galaxies have been spectroscopically confirmed to show that their rest-frame optical spectra show either strong Balmer or metal absorption lines. Here, we median stack the rest-frame optical spectra for 171 photometrically quiescent galaxies at 1.4 < z < 2.2 from the 3D-HST grism survey. In addition to Hβ (λ4861 Å), we unambiguously identify metal absorption lines in the stacked spectrum, including the G band (λ4304 Å), Mg I (λ5175 Å), and Na I (λ5894 Å). This finding demonstrates that galaxies with relatively old stellar populations already existed when the universe was ~3 Gyr old, and that rest-frame color selection techniques can efficiently select them. We find an average age of 1.3^{+0.1}_{-0.3} Gyr when fitting a simple stellar population to the entire stack. We confirm our previous result from medium-band photometry that the stellar age varies with the colors of quiescent galaxies: the reddest 80% of galaxies are dominated by metal lines and have a relatively old mean age of 1.6^{+0.5}_{-0.4} Gyr, whereas the bluest (and brightest) galaxies have strong Balmer lines and a spectroscopic age of 0.9^{+0.2}_{-0.1} Gyr. Although the spectrum is dominated by an evolved stellar population, we also find [O III] and Hβ emission. Interestingly, this emission is more centrally concentrated than the continuum with {L_{{O}\\,\\scriptsize{III}}}=1.7+/- 0.3\\times 10^{40} erg s-1, indicating residual central star formation or nuclear activity.

  6. Diversity in the stellar velocity dispersion profiles of a large sample of brightest cluster galaxies z ≤ 0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubser, S. I.; Hoekstra, H.; Babul, A.; O'Sullivan, E.

    2018-06-01

    We analyse spatially resolved deep optical spectroscopy of brightestcluster galaxies (BCGs) located in 32 massive clusters with redshifts of 0.05 ≤ z ≤ 0.30 to investigate their velocity dispersion profiles. We compare these measurements to those of other massive early-type galaxies, as well as central group galaxies, where relevant. This unique, large sample extends to the most extreme of massive galaxies, spanning MK between -25.7 and -27.8 mag, and host cluster halo mass M500 up to 1.7 × 1015 M⊙. To compare the kinematic properties between brightest group and cluster members, we analyse similar spatially resolved long-slit spectroscopy for 23 nearby brightest group galaxies (BGGs) from the Complete Local-Volume Groups Sample. We find a surprisingly large variety in velocity dispersion slopes for BCGs, with a significantly larger fraction of positive slopes, unique compared to other (non-central) early-type galaxies as well as the majority of the brightest members of the groups. We find that the velocity dispersion slopes of the BCGs and BGGs correlate with the luminosity of the galaxies, and we quantify this correlation. It is not clear whether the full diversity in velocity dispersion slopes that we see is reproduced in simulations.

  7. Interaction effects on galaxy pairs with Gemini/GMOS- III: stellar population synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe, A. C.; Rosa, D. A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Hägele, G. F.; Cardaci, M. V.; Dors, O. L., Jr.; Winge, C.

    2017-05-01

    We present an observational study of the impacts of interactions on the stellar population in a sample of galaxy pairs. Long-slit spectra in the wavelength range 3440-7300 Å obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) at Gemini South for 15 galaxies in nine close pairs were used. The spatial distributions of the stellar population contributions were obtained using the stellar population synthesis code starlight. Taking into account the different contributions to the emitted light, we found that most of the galaxies in our sample are dominated by young/intermediate stellar populations. This result differs from the one derived for isolated galaxies, where the old stellar population dominates the disc surface brightness. We interpreted such different behaviour as being due to the effect of gas inflows along the discs of interacting galaxies on the star formation over a time-scale of the order of about 2 Gyr. We also found that, in general, the secondary galaxy of a pair has a higher contribution from the young stellar population than the primary one. We compared the estimated values of stellar and nebular extinction derived from the synthesis method and the Hα/Hβ emission-line ratio, finding that nebular extinctions are systematically higher than stellar ones by about a factor of 2. We did not find any correlation between nebular and stellar metallicities. Neither did we find a correlation between stellar metallicities and ages, while a positive correlation between nebular metallicities and stellar ages was obtained, with older regions being the most metal-rich.

  8. Interacting on and around Large Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Anders

    version of the keyboard even showed text entry rates of 28.1 WPM on the first session of an accelerated learning study where a limited set of phrases were repeatedly transcribed. Paper 3 build on the result from Paper 1 and Paper 2, and propose new directions for text entry research for large displays......, the focus of this thesis is on three aspects of large display interactions: (1) Improved Mid-Air Text Entry; (2) Improved Understanding of Input Modalities; and (3) Extended Boundaries of Interaction. To improve support for mid-air text entry, Paper 1 conducted a design space analysis, and three mid......-air text entry methods were evaluated to establish a baseline for mid-air text entry performance. The most promising technique, Projected QWERTY, reached a text entry rate of 13.2 Words Per Minute (WPM). Paper 2 aimed to improve mid-air text entry rates by adapting Word- Gesture Keyboards (WGKs...

  9. Galaxy interactions trigger rapid black hole growth: An unprecedented view from the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Andy D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Greco, Johnny; Johnson, Sean; Leauthaud, Alexie; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Medezinski, Elinor; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.

    2018-01-01

    Collisions and interactions between gas-rich galaxies are thought to be pivotal stages in their formation and evolution, causing the rapid production of new stars, and possibly serving as a mechanism for fueling supermassive black holes (BHs). Harnessing the exquisite spatial resolution (˜0{^''.}5) afforded by the first ˜170 deg2 of the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey, we present our new constraints on the importance of galaxy-galaxy major mergers (1 : 4) in growing BHs throughout the last ˜8 Gyr. Utilizing mid-infrared observations in the WISE all-sky survey, we robustly select active galactic nuclei (AGN) and mass-matched control galaxy samples, totaling ˜140000 spectroscopically confirmed systems at i based on our comparison of AGN fractions in mass-matched samples, we determine that the most luminous AGN population (LAGN ≳ 1045 erg s-1) systematically reside in merging systems over non-interacting galaxies. Our findings show that galaxy-galaxy interactions do, on average, trigger luminous AGN activity substantially more often than in secularly evolving non-interacting galaxies, and we further suggest that the BH growth rate may be closely tied to the dynamical time of the merger system.

  10. Spectral evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca-Volmerange, B.

    1989-01-01

    A recent striking event in Observational Cosmology is the discovery of a large population of galaxies at extreme cosmological distances (extended from spectral redshifts ≅ 1 to ≥ 3) corresponding to a lookback time of 80% of the Universe's age. However when galaxies are observed at such remote epochs, their appearances are affected by at least two simultaneous effects which are respectively a cosmological effect and the intrinsic evolution of their stellar populations which appear younger than in our nearby galaxies. The fundamental problem is first to disentangle the respective contributions of these two effects to apparent magnitudes and colors of distant galaxies. Other effects which are likely to modify the appearance of galaxies are amplification by gravitational lensing and interaction with environment will also be considered. (author)

  11. Large gauge invariant nonstandard neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavela, M. B.; Hernandez, D.; Ota, T.; Winter, W.

    2009-01-01

    Theories beyond the standard model must necessarily respect its gauge symmetry. This implies strict constraints on the possible models of nonstandard neutrino interactions, which we analyze. The focus is set on the effective low-energy dimension six and eight operators involving four leptons, decomposing them according to all possible tree-level mediators, as a guide for model building. The new couplings are required to have sizable strength, while processes involving four charged leptons are required to be suppressed. For nonstandard interactions in matter, only diagonal tau-neutrino interactions can escape these requirements and can be allowed to result from dimension six operators. Large nonstandard neutrino interactions from dimension eight operators alone are phenomenologically allowed in all flavor channels and are shown to require at least two new mediator particles. The new couplings must obey general cancellation conditions both at the dimension six and dimension eight levels, which result from expressing the operators obtained from the mediator analysis in terms of a complete basis of operators. We illustrate with one example how to apply this information to model building.

  12. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF A LARGE SAMPLE OF NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES: LINKING CENTRAL ENGINE AND HOST PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dawei; Komossa, S.; Wang Jing; Yuan Weimin; Zhou Hongyan; Lu Honglin; Li Cheng; Grupe, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We present a statistical study of a large, homogeneously analyzed sample of narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies, accompanied by a comparison sample of broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) galaxies. Optical emission-line and continuum properties are subjected to correlation analyses, in order to identify the main drivers of the correlation space of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and of NLS1 galaxies in particular. For the first time, we have established the density of the narrow-line region as a key parameter in Eigenvector 1 space, as important as the Eddington ratio L/L Edd . This is important because it links the properties of the central engine with the properties of the host galaxy, i.e., the interstellar medium (ISM). We also confirm previously found correlations involving the line width of Hβ and the strength of the Fe II and [O III] λ5007 emission lines, and we confirm the important role played by L/L Edd in driving the properties of NLS1 galaxies. A spatial correlation analysis shows that large-scale environments of the BLS1 and NLS1 galaxies of our sample are similar. If mergers are rare in our sample, accretion-driven winds, on the one hand, or bar-driven inflows, on the other hand, may account for the strong dependence of Eigenvector 1 on ISM density.

  13. Signature of the interaction between dark energy and dark matter in galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Elcio; Abramo, L. Raul; Sodre, Laerte; Wang Bin

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the influence of an interaction between dark energy and dark matter upon the dynamics of galaxy clusters. We obtain the general Layser-Irvine equation in the presence of interactions, and find how, in that case, the virial theorem stands corrected. Using optical, X-ray and weak lensing data from 33 relaxed galaxy clusters, we put constraints on the strength of the coupling between the dark sectors. Available data suggests that this coupling is small but positive, indicating that dark energy might be decaying into dark matter. Systematic effects between the several mass estimates, however, should be better known, before definitive conclusions on the magnitude and significance of this coupling could be established

  14. GALAXY INTERACTIONS IN COMPACT GROUPS. I. THE GALACTIC WINDS OF HCG16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Frederic P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa J., E-mail: fvogt@mso.anu.edu.au [Mount Stromlo Observatory, Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-05-10

    Using the WiFeS integral field spectrograph, we have undertaken a series of observations of star-forming galaxies in compact groups. In this first paper dedicated to the project, we present the analysis of the spiral galaxy NGC 838, a member of the Hickson Compact Group 16, and of its galactic wind. Our observations reveal that the wind forms an asymmetric, bipolar, rotating structure, powered by a nuclear starburst. Emission line ratio diagnostics indicate that photoionization is the dominant excitation mechanism at the base of the wind. Mixing from slow shocks (up to 20%) increases further out along the outflow axis. The asymmetry of the wind is most likely caused by one of the two lobes of the wind bubble bursting out of its H I envelope, as indicated by line ratios and radial velocity maps. The characteristics of this galactic wind suggest that it is caught early (a few Myr) in the wind evolution sequence. The wind is also quite different from the galactic wind in the partner galaxy NGC 839 which contains a symmetric, shock-excited wind. Assuming that both galaxies have similar interaction histories, the two different winds must be a consequence of the intrinsic properties of NGC 838 and NGC 839 and their starbursts.

  15. COLDz: KARL G. JANSKY VERY LARGE ARRAY DISCOVERY OF A GAS-RICH GALAXY IN COSMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentati, L. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wagg, J. [Square Kilometre Array Organisation, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Lower Withington, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom); Carilli, C. L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Riechers, D.; Sharon, C. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Capak, P.; Scoville, N. [California Institute of Technology, MC 105-24, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walter, F.; Da Cunha, E.; Decarli, R. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Aravena, M. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Hodge, J. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ivison, R. J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Strasse, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Smail, I. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Daddi, E. [CEA-Saclay, Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sargent, M. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Smolčć, V., E-mail: ltl21@mrao.cam.ac.uk [University of Zagreb, Bijenicka cesta 32, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-02-10

    The broad spectral bandwidth at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths provided by the recent upgrades to the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has made it possible to conduct unbiased searches for molecular CO line emission at redshifts, z > 1.31. We present the discovery of a gas-rich, star-forming galaxy at z = 2.48 through the detection of CO J = 1-0 line emission in the COLDz survey and through a sensitive, Ka-band (31-39 GHz) VLA survey of a 6.5 arcmin{sup 2} region of the COSMOS field. We argue that the broad line (FWHM ∼ 570 ± 80 km s{sup –1}) is most likely to be CO J = 1-0 at z = 2.48, as the integrated emission is spatially coincident with an infrared-detected galaxy with a photometric redshift estimate of z {sub phot} = 3.2 ± 0.4. The CO J = 1-0 line luminosity is L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(2.2±0.3)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}, suggesting a cold molecular gas mass of M {sub gas} ∼ (2-8) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} depending on the assumed value of the molecular gas mass to CO luminosity ratio α{sub CO}. The estimated infrared luminosity from the (rest-frame) far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) is L {sub IR} = 2.5 × 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉} and the star formation rate is ∼250 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, with the SED shape indicating substantial dust obscuration of the stellar light. The infrared to CO line luminosity ratio is ∼114 ± 19 L {sub ☉}/(K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}), similar to galaxies with similar SFRs selected at UV/optical to radio wavelengths. This discovery confirms the potential for molecular emission line surveys as a route to study populations of gas-rich galaxies in the future.

  16. Bars and spirals in tidal interactions with an ensemble of galaxy mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, Alex R.; Wadsley, J. W.

    2018-03-01

    We present simulations of the gaseous and stellar material in several different galaxy mass models under the influence of different tidal fly-bys to assess the changes in their bar and spiral morphology. Five different mass models are chosen to represent the variety of rotation curves seen in nature. We find a multitude of different spiral and bar structures can be created, with their properties dependent on the strength of the interaction. We calculate pattern speeds, spiral wind-up rates, bar lengths, and angular momentum exchange to quantify the changes in disc morphology in each scenario. The wind-up rates of the tidal spirals follow the 2:1 resonance very closely for the flat and dark matter-dominated rotation curves, whereas the more baryon-dominated curves tend to wind-up faster, influenced by their inner bars. Clear spurs are seen in most of the tidal spirals, most noticeable in the flat rotation curve models. Bars formed both in isolation and interactions agree well with those seen in real galaxies, with a mixture of `fast' and `slow' rotators. We find no strong correlation between bar length or pattern speed and the interaction strength. Bar formation is, however, accelerated/induced in four out of five of our models. We close by briefly comparing the morphology of our models to real galaxies, easily finding analogues for nearly all simulations presenter here, showing passages of small companions can easily reproduce an ensemble of observed morphologies.

  17. KINEMATIC CLASSIFICATIONS OF LOCAL INTERACTING GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MERGER/DISK CLASSIFICATIONS AT HIGH-z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Larson, Kirsten L.; Sanders, D. B.; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Yuan, Tiantian; Kewley, Lisa J.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Smith, Howard A.; Hayward, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    The classification of galaxy mergers and isolated disks is key for understanding the relative importance of galaxy interactions and secular evolution during the assembly of galaxies. Galaxy kinematics as traced by emission lines have been used to suggest the existence of a significant population of high-z star-forming galaxies consistent with isolated rotating disks. However, recent studies have cautioned that post-coalescence mergers may also display disk-like kinematics. To further investigate the robustness of merger/disk classifications based on kinematic properties, we carry out a systematic classification of 24 local (U)LIRGs spanning a range of morphologies: from isolated spiral galaxies, ongoing interacting systems, to fully merged remnants. We artificially redshift the Wide Field Spectrograph observations of these local (U)LIRGs to z = 1.5 to make a realistic comparison with observations at high-z, and also to ensure that all galaxies have the same spatial sampling of ∼900 pc. Using both kinemetry-based and visual classifications, we find that the reliability of kinematic classification shows a strong trend with the interaction stage of galaxies. Mergers with two nuclei and tidal tails have the most distinct kinematics compared to isolated disks, whereas a significant population of the interacting disks and merger remnants are indistinguishable from isolated disks. The high fraction of mergers displaying disk-like kinematics reflects the complexity of the dynamics during galaxy interactions. Additional merger indicators such as morphological properties traced by stars or molecular gas are required to further constrain the merger/disk classifications at high-z

  18. Dark Matter Constraints from Observations of 25 Milky Way Satellite Galaxies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Albert, A.; Anderson, B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are some of the most dark-matter-dominated objects known. Due to their proximity, high dark matter content, and lack of astrophysical backgrounds, dwarf spheroidal galaxies are widely considered to be among the most promising targets for the indirect detection of dark matter via gamma rays. Here we report on gamma ray observations of 25 Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies based on 4 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. None of the dwarf galaxies are significantly detected in gamma rays, and we present gamma ray flux upper limits between 500MeV and 500 GeV. We determine the dark matter content of 18 dwarf spheroidal galaxies from stellar kinematic data and combine LAT observations of 15 dwarf galaxies to constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section. We set some of the tightest constraints to date on the annihilation of dark matter particles with masses between 2 GeV and 10TeV into prototypical standard model channels. We find these results to be robust against systematic uncertainties in the LAT instrument performance, diffuse gamma ray background modeling, and assumed dark matter density profile.

  19. GESE: a small UV space telescope to conduct a large spectroscopic survey of z˜1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Gong, Qian; Hull, Tony; Kruk, Jeffrey; Purves, Lloyd

    2014-11-01

    One of the key goals of NASA's astrophysics program is to answer the question: How did galaxies evolve into the spirals and elliptical galaxies that we see today? We describe a space mission concept called Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE) to address this question by making a large spectroscopic survey of galaxies at a redshift, z˜1 (look-back time of ˜8 billion years). GESE is a 1.5-m space telescope with an ultraviolet (UV) multi-object slit spectrograph that can obtain spectra of hundreds of galaxies per exposure. The spectrograph covers the spectral range, 0.2-0.4 μm at a spectral resolving power, R˜500. This observed spectral range corresponds to 0.1-0.2 μm as emitted by a galaxy at a redshift, z=1. The mission concept takes advantage of two new technological advances: (1) light-weighted, wide-field telescope mirrors, and (2) the Next-Generation MicroShutter Array (NG-MSA) to be used as a slit generator in the multi-object slit spectrograph.

  20. Dark matter constraints from observations of 25 Milky Way satellite galaxies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; et al.

    2014-02-11

    The dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are some of the most dark-matter-dominated objects known. Due to their proximity, high dark matter content, and lack of astrophysical backgrounds, dwarf spheroidal galaxies are widely considered to be among the most promising targets for the indirect detection of dark matter via gamma rays. Here we report on gamma-ray observations of 25 Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies based on 4 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. None of the dwarf galaxies are significantly detected in gamma rays, and we present gamma-ray flux upper limits between 500 MeV and 500 GeV. We determine the dark matter content of 18 dwarf spheroidal galaxies from stellar kinematic data and combine LAT observations of 15 dwarf galaxies to constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section. We set some of the tightest constraints to date on the the annihilation of dark matter particles with masses between 2 GeV and 10 TeV into prototypical Standard Model channels. We find these results to be robust against systematic uncertainties in the LAT instrument performance, diffuse gamma-ray background modeling, and assumed dark matter density profile.

  1. Discovery of a Large-Scale Filament Connected to the Massive Galaxy Cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 at z=0.551,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, H.; Barrett, E.; Donovan, D.

    2004-07-01

    We report the detection of a 4 h-170 Mpc long large-scale filament leading into the massive galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745. The extent of this object well beyond the cluster's nominal virial radius (~2.3 Mpc) rules out prior interaction between its constituent galaxies and the cluster and makes it a prime candidate for a genuine filament as opposed to a merger remnant or a double cluster. The structure was discovered as a pronounced overdensity of galaxies selected to have V-R colors close to the cluster red sequence. Extensive spectroscopic follow-up of over 300 of these galaxies in a region covering the filament and the cluster confirms that the entire structure is located at the cluster redshift of z=0.545. Featuring galaxy surface densities of typically 15 Mpc-2 down to luminosities of 0.13L*V, the most diffuse parts of the filament are comparable in density to the clumps of red galaxies found around A851 in the only similar study carried out to date (Kodama et al.). Our direct detection of an extended large-scale filament funneling matter onto a massive distant cluster provides a superb target for in-depth studies of the evolution of galaxies in environments of greatly varying density and supports the predictions from theoretical models and numerical simulations of structure formation in a hierarchical picture. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Based partly on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (US), the Particle Physics and Astronomy

  2. HADRONS-94: Soft interactions at large distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, David; Jenkovszky, Laszlo

    1994-01-01

    Ten years ago the Institute for Theoretical Physics (known since 1992 as the Bogolubov Institute after its founder) of the Academy of Science of the Ukraine initiated what has become a very successful series of annual meetings on strong interactions at large distances. Although sometimes overshadowed by the successes of the Standard Model isotope dilutions and the theoretical enticements of supertheories; the Hadrons series has overcome political barriers and financial chaos to bring together physicists from diverse backgrounds to discuss central physics issues. The latest workshop in the series was held from September 7-11 in Uzhgorod (Ungvar), a small university town in the westernmost reaches of the Ukraine, bordering on Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia.

  3. Interaction Between Flow Elements in Large Enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    and if this influences the overall air flow pattern in the enclosure. The main emphasis has been put on the pathways of chilled free air jets and whether the convective flows from both distributed and concentrated heat sources affect the pathway of the jet and the air flow pattern in the enclosure as a function......In this paper experiments in a scale model are used as a first attempt to investigate how different flow elements such as supply air jets, thermal plumes and free convection flows interact with each other in a large enclosure, if the path of each individual flow element changes...... of the location of the heat source and as a function of the heat supplied by the source....

  4. The diverse density profiles of galaxy clusters with self-interacting dark matter plus baryons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew; Massey, Richard; Eke, Vincent; Tulin, Sean; Yu, Hai-Bo; Bahé, Yannick; Barnes, David J.; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Kay, Scott T.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2018-05-01

    We present the first simulated galaxy clusters (M200 > 1014 M⊙) with both self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) and baryonic physics. They exhibit a greater diversity in both dark matter and stellar density profiles than their counterparts in simulations with collisionless dark matter (CDM), which is generated by the complex interplay between dark matter self-interactions and baryonic physics. Despite variations in formation history, we demonstrate that analytical Jeans modelling predicts the SIDM density profiles remarkably well, and the diverse properties of the haloes can be understood in terms of their different final baryon distributions.

  5. Constraints on dark matter annihilation in clusters of galaxies with the Fermi large area telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blanford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Bouvier, A.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R.A.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Drell, P.S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Edmonds, Y.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Johnson, A.S.; Kamae, T.; Lande, J.; Lee, S.H.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Omodei, N.; Panetta, J.H.; Porter, T.A.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.B.; Thayer, J.G.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Grenier, I.A.; Starck, J.L.; Tibaldo, L.

    2010-01-01

    Nearby clusters and groups of galaxies are potentially bright sources of high-energy gamma-ray emission resulting from the pair-annihilation of dark matter particles. However, no significant gamma-ray emission has been detected so far from clusters in the first 11 months of observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We interpret this non-detection in terms of constraints on dark matter particle properties. In particular for leptonic annihilation final states and particle masses greater than similar to 200 GeV, gamma-ray emission from inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons is expected to dominate the dark matter annihilation signal from clusters, and our gamma-ray limits exclude large regions of the parameter space that would give a good fit to the recent anomalous Pamela and Fermi-LAT electron-positron measurements. We also present constraints on the annihilation of more standard dark matter candidates, such as the lightest neutralino of supersymmetric models. The constraints are particularly strong when including the fact that clusters are known to contain substructure at least on galaxy scales, increasing the expected gamma-ray flux by a factor of similar to 5 over a smooth-halo assumption. We also explore the effect of uncertainties in cluster dark matter density profiles, finding a systematic uncertainty in the constraints of roughly a factor of two, but similar overall conclusions. In this work, we focus on deriving limits on dark matter models; a more general consideration of the Fermi-LAT data on clusters and clusters as gamma-ray sources is forthcoming. (authors)

  6. Dark matter statistics for large galaxy catalogs: power spectra and covariance matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Prada, Francisco

    2018-06-01

    Large-scale surveys of galaxies require accurate theoretical predictions of the dark matter clustering for thousands of mock galaxy catalogs. We demonstrate that this goal can be achieve with the new Parallel Particle-Mesh (PM) N-body code GLAM at a very low computational cost. We run ˜22, 000 simulations with ˜2 billion particles that provide ˜1% accuracy of the dark matter power spectra P(k) for wave-numbers up to k ˜ 1hMpc-1. Using this large data-set we study the power spectrum covariance matrix. In contrast to many previous analytical and numerical results, we find that the covariance matrix normalised to the power spectrum C(k, k΄)/P(k)P(k΄) has a complex structure of non-diagonal components: an upturn at small k, followed by a minimum at k ≈ 0.1 - 0.2 hMpc-1, and a maximum at k ≈ 0.5 - 0.6 hMpc-1. The normalised covariance matrix strongly evolves with redshift: C(k, k΄)∝δα(t)P(k)P(k΄), where δ is the linear growth factor and α ≈ 1 - 1.25, which indicates that the covariance matrix depends on cosmological parameters. We also show that waves longer than 1h-1Gpc have very little impact on the power spectrum and covariance matrix. This significantly reduces the computational costs and complexity of theoretical predictions: relatively small volume ˜(1h-1Gpc)3 simulations capture the necessary properties of dark matter clustering statistics. As our results also indicate, achieving ˜1% errors in the covariance matrix for k < 0.50 hMpc-1 requires a resolution better than ɛ ˜ 0.5h-1Mpc.

  7. DISCOVERY OF A LARGE NUMBER OF CANDIDATE PROTOCLUSTERS TRACED BY ∼15 Mpc-SCALE GALAXY OVERDENSITIES IN COSMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Gebhardt, Karl; Overzier, Roderik

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of studying the epoch of massive galaxy cluster formation in a more systematic manner using current and future galaxy surveys, we report the discovery of a large sample of protocluster candidates in the 1.62 deg 2 COSMOS/UltraVISTA field traced by optical/infrared selected galaxies using photometric redshifts. By comparing properly smoothed three-dimensional galaxy density maps of the observations and a set of matched simulations incorporating the dominant observational effects (galaxy selection and photometric redshift uncertainties), we first confirm that the observed ∼15 comoving Mpc-scale galaxy clustering is consistent with ΛCDM models. Using further the relation between high-z overdensity and the present day cluster mass calibrated in these matched simulations, we found 36 candidate structures at 1.6 < z < 3.1, showing overdensities consistent with the progenitors of M z = 0 ∼ 10 15 M ☉ clusters. Taking into account the significant upward scattering of lower mass structures, the probabilities for the candidates to have at least M z= 0 ∼ 10 14 M ☉ are ∼70%. For each structure, about 15%-40% of photometric galaxy candidates are expected to be true protocluster members that will merge into a cluster-scale halo by z = 0. With solely photometric redshifts, we successfully rediscover two spectroscopically confirmed structures in this field, suggesting that our algorithm is robust. This work generates a large sample of uniformly selected protocluster candidates, providing rich targets for spectroscopic follow-up and subsequent studies of cluster formation. Meanwhile, it demonstrates the potential for probing early cluster formation with upcoming redshift surveys such as the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment and the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph survey

  8. Test of Gravity on Large Scales with Weak Gravitational Lensing and Clustering Measurements of SDSS Luminous Red Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Mandelbaum, R.; Seljak, U.; Gunn, J.; Lombriser, L.

    2009-01-01

    We perform a test of gravity on large scales (5-50 Mpc/h) using 70,000 luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 with redshifts 0.16galaxy peculiar velocities, and galaxy clustering-- that can discriminate between different theories of gravity and is largely independent of galaxy bias and sigma_8. In particular, E_G is sensitive to the relation between the spatial and temporal scalar perturbations in the space-time metric. While these two potentials are equivalent in concordance cosmology (GR+LCDM) in the absence of anisotropic stress, they are not equivalent in alternative theories of gravity in general, so that different models make different predictions for E_G. We find E_G=0.37±0.05 averaged over scales 5galaxy surveys such as LSST, for which a very high signal-to-noise measurement will be possible.

  9. Revolutionizing Our Understanding of AGN Feedback and its Importance to Galaxy Evolution in the Era of the Next Generation Very Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, K.; Harwood, J. J.; Mukherjee, D.; Jagannathan, P.; Rujopakarn, W.; Emonts, B.; Alatalo, K.; Bicknell, G. V.; Davis, T. A.; Greene, J. E.; Kimball, A.; Lacy, M.; Lonsdale, Carol; Lonsdale, Colin; Maksym, W. P.; Molnár, D. C.; Morabito, L.; Murphy, E. J.; Patil, P.; Prandoni, I.; Sargent, M.; Vlahakis, C.

    2018-05-01

    Energetic feedback by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) plays an important evolutionary role in the regulation of star formation on galactic scales. However, the effects of this feedback as a function of redshift and galaxy properties such as mass, environment, and cold gas content remain poorly understood. The broad frequency coverage (1 to 116 GHz), high sensitivity (up to ten times higher than the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array), and superb angular resolution (maximum baselines of at least a few hundred kilometers) of the proposed next-generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) are uniquely poised to revolutionize our understanding of AGNs and their role in galaxy evolution. Here, we provide an overview of the science related to AGN feedback that will be possible in the ngVLA era and present new continuum ngVLA imaging simulations of resolved radio jets spanning a wide range of intrinsic extents. We also consider key computational challenges and discuss exciting opportunities for multiwavelength synergy with other next-generation instruments, such as the Square Kilometer Array and the James Webb Space Telescope. The unique combination of high-resolution, large collecting area, and wide frequency range will enable significant advancements in our understanding of the effects of jet-driven feedback on sub-galactic scales, particularly for sources with extents of a few parsec to a few kiloparsec, such as young and/or lower-power radio AGNs, AGNs hosted by low-mass galaxies, radio jets that are interacting strongly with the interstellar medium of the host galaxy, and AGNs at high redshift.

  10. An interaction scenario of the galaxy pair NGC 3893/96 (KPG 302): A single passage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbasov, R. F.; Rosado, M. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico (UNAM), A.P. 70-264,04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Klapp, J., E-mail: ruslan.gabb@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México (Mexico)

    2014-05-20

    Using the data obtained previously from Fabry-Perot interferometry, we study the orbital characteristics of the interacting pair of galaxies KPG 302 with the aim to estimate a possible interaction history, the conditions necessary for the spiral arm formation, and initial satellite mass. We found by performing N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of the interaction that a single passage can produce a grand design spiral pattern in less than 1 Gyr. Although we reproduce most of the features with the single passage, the required satellite to host mass ratio should be ∼1:5, which is not confirmed by the dynamical mass estimate made from the measured rotation curve. We conclude that a more realistic interaction scenario would require several passages in order to explain the mass ratio discrepancy.

  11. A LARGE NUMBER OF z > 6 GALAXIES AROUND A QSO AT z = 6.43: EVIDENCE FOR A PROTOCLUSTER?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Yousuke; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Goto, Tomotsugu; Furusawa, Hisanori; Overzier, Roderik

    2010-01-01

    QSOs have been thought to be important for tracing highly biased regions in the early universe, from which the present-day massive galaxies and galaxy clusters formed. While overdensities of star-forming galaxies have been found around QSOs at 2 6 is less clear. Previous studies with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have reported the detection of small excesses of faint dropout galaxies in some QSO fields, but these surveys probed a relatively small region surrounding the QSOs. To overcome this problem, we have observed the most distant QSO at z = 6.4 using the large field of view of the Suprime-Cam (34' x 27'). Newly installed red-sensitive fully depleted CCDs allowed us to select Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ∼ 6.4 more efficiently. We found seven LBGs in the QSO field, whereas only one exists in a comparison field. The significance of this apparent excess is difficult to quantify without spectroscopic confirmation and additional control fields. The Poisson probability to find seven objects when one expects four is ∼10%, while the probability to find seven objects in one field and only one in the other is less than 0.4%, suggesting that the QSO field is significantly overdense relative to the control field. These conclusions are supported by a comparison with a cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation which includes the higher order clustering of galaxies. We find some evidence that the LBGs are distributed in a ring-like shape centered on the QSO with a radius of ∼3 Mpc. There are no candidate LBGs within 2 Mpc from the QSO, i.e., galaxies are clustered around the QSO but appear to avoid the very center. These results suggest that the QSO is embedded in an overdense region when defined on a sufficiently large scale (i.e., larger than an HST/ACS pointing). This suggests that the QSO was indeed born in a massive halo. The central deficit of galaxies may indicate that (1) the strong UV radiation from the QSO suppressed galaxy formation in

  12. Alignment between Satellite and Central Galaxies in the SDSS DR7: Dependence on Large-scale Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Luo, Yu; Kang, Xi; Libeskind, Noam I.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Youcai; Tempel, Elmo; Guo, Quan

    2018-06-01

    The alignment between satellites and central galaxies has been studied in detail both in observational and theoretical works. The widely accepted fact is that satellites preferentially reside along the major axis of their central galaxy. However, the origin and large-scale environmental dependence of this alignment are still unknown. In an attempt to determine these variables, we use data constructed from Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 to investigate the large-scale environmental dependence of this alignment with emphasis on examining the alignment’s dependence on the color of the central galaxy. We find a very strong large-scale environmental dependence of the satellite–central alignment (SCA) in groups with blue centrals. Satellites of blue centrals in knots are preferentially located perpendicular to the major axes of the centrals, and the alignment angle decreases with environment, namely, when going from knots to voids. The alignment angle strongly depends on the {}0.1(g-r) color of centrals. We suggest that the SCA is the result of a competition between satellite accretion within large-scale structure (LSS) and galaxy evolution inside host halos. For groups containing red central galaxies, the SCA is mainly determined by the evolution effect, while for blue central dominated groups, the effect of the LSS plays a more important role, especially in knots. Our results provide an explanation for how the SCA forms within different large-scale environments. The perpendicular case in groups and knots with blue centrals may also provide insight into understanding similar polar arrangements, such as the formation of the Milky Way and Centaurus A’s satellite system.

  13. IRAS galaxies and the large-scale structure in the CfA slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babul, Arif; Postman, Marc

    1990-01-01

    The spatial distributions of the IRAS and the optical galaxies in the first CfA slice are compared. The IRAS galaxies are generally less clustered than optical ones, but their distribution is essentially identical to that of late-type optical galaxies. The discrepancy between the clustering properties of the IRAS and optical samples in the CfA slice region is found to be entirely due to the paucity of IRAS galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster. The spatial distributions of the IRAS and the optical galaxies, both late and early types, outside the dense core of the Coma cluster are entirely consistent with each other. This conflicts with the prediction of the linear biasing scenario.

  14. The Large Area Radio Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Survey (LARGESS): survey design, data catalogue and GAMA/WiggleZ spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, John H. Y.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Croom, Scott M.; Johnston, Helen M.; Pracy, Michael B.; Couch, Warrick J.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jurek, Russell J.; Pimbblet, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Large Area Radio Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Survey (LARGESS), a spectroscopic catalogue of radio sources designed to include the full range of radio AGN populations out to redshift z ˜ 0.8. The catalogue covers ˜800 deg2 of sky, and provides optical identifications for 19 179 radio sources from the 1.4 GHz Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey down to an optical magnitude limit of Imod point-like objects are included, and no colour cuts are applied. In collaboration with the WiggleZ and Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) spectroscopic survey teams, we have obtained new spectra for over 5000 objects in the LARGESS sample. Combining these new spectra with data from earlier surveys provides spectroscopic data for 12 329 radio sources in the survey area, of which 10 856 have reliable redshifts. 85 per cent of the LARGESS spectroscopic sample are radio AGN (median redshift z = 0.44), and 15 per cent are nearby star-forming galaxies (median z = 0.08). Low-excitation radio galaxies (LERGs) comprise the majority (83 per cent) of LARGESS radio AGN at z < 0.8, with 12 per cent being high-excitation radio galaxies (HERGs) and 5 per cent radio-loud QSOs. Unlike the more homogeneous LERG and QSO sub-populations, HERGs are a heterogeneous class of objects with relatively blue optical colours and a wide dispersion in mid-infrared colours. This is consistent with a picture in which most HERGs are hosted by galaxies with recent or ongoing star formation as well as a classical accretion disc.

  15. Large Binocular Telescope/LUCIFER spectroscopy: kinematics of a compact early-type galaxy at z ≃ 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhetti, M.; Saracco, P.; Gargiulo, A.; Tamburri, S.; Lonoce, I.

    2014-04-01

    We present a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N > 10) medium-resolution (R = 2000) Large Binocular Telescope/LUCIFER spectrum of the early-type galaxy (ETG) S2F1-142 at z ≃ 1.4. By means of the CaT line at 8662 Å, we measured its redshift z = 1.386 ± 0.001 and we estimated its velocity dispersion σ v=340^{-60}_{+120} km s-1. Its corresponding virial mass is 3.9 × 1011 M⊙, compatible with the stellar mass estimates obtained assuming initial mass functions (IMFs) less dwarf rich than the Salpeter one. S2F1-142 is a compact galaxy with Re = 3.1 ± 0.2 kpc, i.e. an effective radius more than three times smaller than the average Re of ETGs with the same mass in the local Universe. At the same time, we found local and high-redshift galaxies with a similar mass content and similar effective radius confirming that it is fully consistent with the already available measures of Re and σv both in the local and in the distant Universe. Considering the distribution of Re and σv as a function of the stellar mass content of ETGs, both in the local and in the distant Universe, we noticed that the measured velocity dispersions of the more compact galaxies are on average slightly lower than expected on the basis of their compactness and the virial theorem, suggesting that (i) their dark matter content is lower than in the more diffuse galaxies and/or (ii) their luminosity profiles are steeper than in the more diffuse galaxies and/or (iii) their larger compactness is an apparent effect caused by the overestimate of their stellar mass content (due to bottom lighter IMF and/or systematic affecting the stellar mass estimates).

  16. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, J.

    1979-01-01

    The current debate on the origin and evolution of galaxies is reviewed and evidence to support the so-called 'isothermal' and 'adiabatic' fluctuation models considered. It is shown that new theories have to explain the formation of both spiral and elliptical galaxies and the reason for their differences. It is stated that of the most recent models the best indicates that rotating spiral galaxies are formed naturally when gas concentrates in the centre of a great halo and forms stars while ellipticals are explained by later interactions between spiral galaxies and merging, which can cancel out the rotation while producing an elliptical galaxy in which the stars, coming from two original galaxies, follow very elliptical, anisotropic orbits. (UK)

  17. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. I. IRAS pointed observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Redshifts for 66 galaxies were obtained from a sample of 93 60-micron sources detected serendipitously in 22 IRAS deep pointed observations, covering a total area of 18.4 sq deg. The flux density limit of this survey is 150 mJy, 4 times fainter than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). The luminosity function is similar in shape with those previously published for samples selected from the PSC, with a median redshift of 0.048 for the fainter sample, but shifted to higher space densities. There is evidence that some of the excess number counts in the deeper sample can be explained in terms of a large-scale density enhancement beyond the Pavo-Indus supercluster. In addition, the faintest counts in the new sample confirm the result of Hacking et al. (1989) that faint IRAS 60-micron source counts lie significantly in excess of an extrapolation of the PSC counts assuming no luminosity or density evolution. 81 refs

  18. Galaxies distribution in the universe: large-scale statistics and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurogordato, Sophie

    1988-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the distribution of galaxies in the Universe, and more particularly large scale statistics and structures. Based on an assessment of the main used statistical techniques, the author outlines the need to develop additional tools to correlation functions in order to characterise the distribution. She introduces a new indicator: the probability of a volume randomly tested in the distribution to be void. This allows a characterisation of void properties at the work scales (until 10h"-"1 Mpc) in the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Redshift Survey, or CfA catalog. A systematic analysis of statistical properties of different sub-samples has then been performed with respect to the size and location, luminosity class, and morphological type. This analysis is then extended to different scenarios of structure formation. A program of radial speed measurements based on observations allows the determination of possible relationships between apparent structures. The author also presents results of the search for south extensions of Perseus supernova [fr

  19. Game theory in the death galaxy: interaction of cancer and stromal cells in tumour microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Tlsty, Thea D; Sturm, James C; Austin, Robert H

    2014-08-06

    Preventing relapse is the major challenge to effective therapy in cancer. Within the tumour, stromal (ST) cells play an important role in cancer progression and the emergence of drug resistance. During cancer treatment, the fitness of cancer cells can be enhanced by ST cells because their molecular signalling interaction delays the drug-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. On the other hand, competition among cancer and ST cells for space or resources should not be ignored. We explore the population dynamics of multiple myeloma (MM) versus bone marrow ST cells by using an experimental microecology that we call the death galaxy, with a stable drug gradient and connected microhabitats. Evolutionary game theory is a quantitative way to capture the frequency-dependent nature of interactive populations. Therefore, we use evolutionary game theory to model the populations in the death galaxy with the gradients of pay-offs and successfully predict the future densities of MM and ST cells. We discuss the possible clinical use of such analysis for predicting cancer progression.

  20. A study of environmental effects on galaxy spin using MaNGA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Chul; Hwang, Ho Seong; Chung, Haeun

    2018-06-01

    We investigate environmental effects on galaxy spin using the recent public data of Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) integral field spectroscopic survey containing ˜2800 galaxies. We measure the spin parameter of 1830 galaxies through the analysis of two-dimensional stellar kinematic maps within the effective radii, and obtain their large-scale (background mass density from 20 nearby galaxies) and small-scale (distance to and morphology of the nearest neighbour galaxy) environmental parameters for 1529 and 1767 galaxies, respectively. We first examine the mass dependence of galaxy spin, and find that the spin parameter of early-type galaxies decreases with stellar mass at log (M*/M⊙) ≳ 10, consistent with the results from previous studies. We then divide the galaxies into three subsamples using their stellar masses to minimize the mass effects on galaxy spin. The spin parameters of galaxies in each subsample do not change with background mass density, but do change with distance to and morphology of the nearest neighbour. In particular, the spin parameter of late-type galaxies decreases as early-type neighbours approach within the virial radius. These results suggest that the large-scale environments hardly affect the galaxy spin, but the small-scale environments such as hydrodynamic galaxy-galaxy interactions can play a substantial role in determining galaxy spin.

  1. ICLIC : interactive categorization of large image collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Corput, Paul; van Wijk, Jarke J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new approach for the analysis of large image collections. We argue that categorization plays an important role in this process, not only to label images as end result, but also during exploration. Furthermore, to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the categorization process we

  2. Blackthorn: Large-Scale Interactive Multimodal Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahálka, Jan; Rudinac, Stevan; Jónsson, Björn Thór

    2018-01-01

    learning process. The Ratio-64 data representation introduced in this work only costs tens of bytes per item yet preserves most of the visual and textual semantic information with good accuracy. The optimized interactive learning model scores the Ratio-64- compressed data directly, greatly reducing...... outperforming the baseline with respect to the relevance of results: it vastly outperforms the baseline on recall over time and reaches up to 108% of its precision. Compared to the product quantization variant, Blackthorn is just as fast, while producing more relevant results. On the full YFCC100M dataset...

  3. ALMA [N ii] 205 μ m Imaging Spectroscopy of the Interacting Galaxy System BRI 1202-0725 at Redshift 4.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin; Zhu, Lei [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100012 (China); Zhao, Yinghe [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Díaz-Santos, Tanio [Nucleo de Astronomia de la Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Gao, Yu [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Van der Werf, Paul P. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Privon, George C. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Inami, Hanae [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (CRAL), Observatoire de Lyon, CNRS, UMR5574, F-69230, Saint-Genis-Laval (France); Rigopoulou, Dimitra [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Sanders, David B., E-mail: nanyao.lu@gmail.com [University of Hawaii, Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-06-20

    We present the results from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array imaging in the [N ii] 205 μ m fine-structure line (hereafter [N ii]) and the underlying continuum of BRI 1202-0725, an interacting galaxy system at z = 4.7, consisting of a quasi-stellar object (QSO), a submillimeter galaxy (SMG), and two Ly α emitters, all within ∼25 kpc of the QSO. We detect the QSO and SMG in both [N ii] and continuum. At the ∼1″ (or 6.6 kpc) resolution, both the QSO and SMG are resolved in [N ii], with the de-convolved major axes of ∼9 and ∼14 kpc, respectively. In contrast, their continuum emissions are much more compact and unresolved even at an enhanced resolution of ∼0.″7. The ratio of the [N ii] flux to the existing CO(7−6) flux is used to constrain the dust temperature ( T {sub dust}) for a more accurate determination of the FIR luminosity L {sub FIR}. Our best estimated T {sub dust} equals 43 (±2) K for both galaxies (assuming an emissivity index β = 1.8). The resulting L {sub CO(7−6)}/ L {sub FIR} ratios are statistically consistent with that of local luminous infrared galaxies, confirming that L {sub CO(7−6)} traces the star formation (SF) rate (SFR) in these galaxies. We estimate that the ongoing SF of the QSO (SMG) has an SFR of 5.1 (6.9) × 10{sup 3} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} (±30%) assuming Chabrier initial mass function, takes place within a diameter (at half maximum) of 1.3 (1.5) kpc, and will consume the existing 5 (5) × 10{sup 11} M {sub ⊙} of molecular gas in 10 (7) × 10{sup 7} years.

  4. LYα FOREST TOMOGRAPHY FROM BACKGROUND GALAXIES: THE FIRST MEGAPARSEC-RESOLUTION LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE MAP AT z > 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Eilers, Anna-Christina [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Stark, Casey; White, Martin [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, B-20 Hearst Field Annex 3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [University of California Observatories, Lick Observatory, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Suzuki, Nao [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwano-ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba (Japan); Croft, Rupert A. C. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Caputi, Karina I. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Cassata, Paolo [Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaiso, Av. Gran Bretana 1111, Casilla 5030, Valparaiso (Chile); Ilbert, Olivier; Le Brun, Vincent; Le Fèvre, Olivier [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Garilli, Bianca [INAF-IASF, Via Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Maccagni, Dario [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani,1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Nugent, Peter, E-mail: lee@mpia.de [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    We present the first observations of foreground Lyα forest absorption from high-redshift galaxies, targeting 24 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with z ∼ 2.3-2.8 within a 5' × 14' region of the COSMOS field. The transverse sightline separation is ∼2 h {sup –1} Mpc comoving, allowing us to create a tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) Lyα forest absorption field over the redshift range 2.20 ≤ z ≤ 2.45. The resulting map covers 6 h {sup –1} Mpc × 14 h {sup –1} Mpc in the transverse plane and 230 h {sup –1} Mpc along the line of sight with a spatial resolution of ≈3.5 h {sup –1} Mpc, and is the first high-fidelity map of a large-scale structure on ∼Mpc scales at z > 2. Our map reveals significant structures with ≳ 10 h {sup –1} Mpc extent, including several spanning the entire transverse breadth, providing qualitative evidence for the filamentary structures predicted to exist in the high-redshift cosmic web. Simulated reconstructions with the same sightline sampling, spectral resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio recover the salient structures present in the underlying 3D absorption fields. Using data from other surveys, we identified 18 galaxies with known redshifts coeval with our map volume, enabling a direct comparison with our tomographic map. This shows that galaxies preferentially occupy high-density regions, in qualitative agreement with the same comparison applied to simulations. Our results establish the feasibility of the CLAMATO survey, which aims to obtain Lyα forest spectra for ∼1000 SFGs over ∼1 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field, in order to map out the intergalactic medium large-scale structure at (z) ∼ 2.3 over a large volume (100 h {sup –1} Mpc){sup 3}.

  5. Can the large-scale magnetic field lines cross the spiral arms in our Milky Way galaxy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    For the Sgr, Ori, and Per spiral arms, the pitch angle (i.e., deviation from a tangent parallel to a circular orbit around the center of the Galaxy) of the magnetic-field lines differs from the pitch angle of the spiral arms. For the spiral arms, the pitch angle of the magnetic-field lines can be measured independently from both quasars and galaxies as well as from pulsars, yielding a small (-6 deg) pitch angle, as predicted in the roughly circular oval gas streamline model of the density-wave theory. Meanwhile, the pitch angle of the spiral arms can be measured independently from both the O type stars and from the H II regions, yielding a large (-18 deg) pitch angle, also as predicted in the density-wave theory. Thus for these arms, the magnetic-field lines cross the spiral arms, to leave them outwardly at a sizable mean angle (+12 deg). 19 references

  6. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  7. The Galaxy Hosts And Large-Scale Environments of Short-Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochaska, Jason X.; Bloom, J.S.; Chen, H.-W.; Foley, R.J.; Perley, D.A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Granot, J.; Lee, W.H.; Pooley, D.; Alatalo, K.; Hurley, K.; Cooper, M.C.; Dupree, A.K.; Gerke, B.F.; Hansen, B.M.S.; Kalirai, J.S.; Newman, J.A.; Rich, R.M.; Richer, H.; Stanford, S.A.; Stern, D.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid succession of discovery of short-duration hard-spectrum GRBs has led to unprecedented insights into the energetics of the explosion and nature of the progenitors. Yet short of the detection of a smoking gun, like a burst of coincident gravitational radiation or a Li-Paczynski mini-supernova, it is unlikely that a definitive claim can be made for the progenitors. As was the case with long-duration soft-spectrum GRBs, however, the expectation is that a systematic study of the hosts and the locations of short GRBs could begin to yield fundamental clues about their nature. We present the first aggregate study of the host galaxies of short-duration hard-spectrum GRBs. In particular, we present the Gemini-North and Keck discovery spectra of the galaxies that hosted three short GRBs and a moderate-resolution (R ∼ 6000) spectrum of a fourth host. We find that these short-hard GRBs originate in a variety of low-redshift (z # circle d ot# yr -1 ) or recent star formation. Two of these galaxies are located within a cluster environment. These observations support an origin from the merger of compact stellar remnants, such as double neutron stars of a neutron star-black hole binary. The fourth event, in contrast, occurred within a dwarf galaxy with a star formation rate exceeding 0.5 M # circle d ot# yr -1 . Therefore, it appears that like supernovae of Type Ia, the progenitors of short-hard bursts are created in all galaxy types, suggesting a corresponding class with a wide distribution of delay times between formation and explosion

  8. A Study of Environmental Effects on Galaxy Spin Using MaNGA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Chul; Hwang, Ho Seong; Chung, Haeun

    2018-03-01

    We investigate environmental effects on galaxy spin using the recent public data of MaNGA integral field spectroscopic survey containing ˜2800 galaxies. We measure the spin parameter of 1830 galaxies through the analysis of two-dimensional stellar kinematic maps within the effective radii, and obtain their large- (background mass density from 20 nearby galaxies) and small-scale (distance to and morphology of the nearest neighbour galaxy) environmental parameters for 1529 and 1767 galaxies, respectively. We first examine the mass dependence of galaxy spin, and find that the spin parameter of early-type galaxies decreases with stellar mass at log (M*/M⊙) ≳ 10, consistent with the results from previous studies. We then divide the galaxies into three subsamples using their stellar masses to minimize the mass effects on galaxy spin. The spin parameters of galaxies in each subsample do not change with background mass density, but do change with distance to and morphology of the nearest neighbour. In particular, the spin parameter of late-type galaxies decreases as early-type neighbours approach within the virial radius. These results suggest that the large-scale environments hardly affect the galaxy spin, but the small-scale environments such as hydrodynamic galaxy-galaxy interactions can play a substantial role in determining galaxy spin.

  9. HISTORY OF GALAXY INTERACTIONS AND THEIR IMPACT ON STAR FORMATION OVER THE LAST 7 Gyr FROM GEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jogee, Shardha; Miller, Sarah H.; Penner, Kyle; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Bell, Eric F.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Borch, Andrea; Haeussler, Boris; Jahnke, Knud; Conselice, Christopher J.; Zheng, Xian Zhong; Barazza, Fabio D.; Barden, Marco; Beckwith, Steven V. W.; Caldwell, John A. R.; Peng, Chien Y.; Heymans, Catherine; McIntosh, Daniel H.

    2009-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive estimate of the frequency of galaxy mergers and their impact on star formation over z∼ 0.24-0.80 (lookback time T b ∼ 3-7 Gyr) using ∼3600 (M≥ 1 x 10 9 M sun ) galaxies with GEMS Hubble Space Telescope, COMBO-17, and Spitzer data. Our results are as follows. (1) Among ∼790 high-mass (M≥ 2.5 x 10 10 M sun ) galaxies, the visually based merger fraction over z∼ 0.24-0.80, ranges from 9% ± 5% to 8% ± 2%. Lower limits on the major merger and minor merger fraction over this interval range from 1.1% to 3.5%, and 3.6% to 7.5%, respectively. This is the first, albeit approximate, empirical estimate of the frequency of minor mergers over the last 7 Gyr. Assuming a visibility timescale of ∼0.5 Gyr, it follows that over T b ∼ 3-7 Gyr, ∼68% of high-mass systems have undergone a merger of mass ratio >1/10, with ∼16%, 45%, and 7% of these corresponding respectively to major, minor, and ambiguous 'major or minor' mergers. The average merger rate is ∼ a few x10 -4 galaxies Gyr -1 Mpc -3 . Among ∼2840 blue-cloud galaxies of mass M≥ 1.0 x 10 9 M sun , similar results hold. (2) We compare the empirical merger fraction and merger rate for high-mass galaxies to three Λ cold dark matter-based models: halo occupation distribution models, semi-analytic models, and hydrodynamic SPH simulations. We find qualitative agreement between observations and models such that the (major+minor) merger fraction or rate from different models bracket the observations, and show a factor of 5 dispersion. Near-future improvements can now start to rule out certain merger scenarios. (3) Among ∼3698 M≥ 1.0 x 10 9 M sun galaxies, we find that the mean star formation rate (SFR) of visibly merging systems is only modestly enhanced compared to non-interacting galaxies over z∼ 0.24-0.80. Visibly merging systems only account for a small fraction ( b ∼ 3-7 Gyr. This complements the results of Wolf et al. over a shorter time interval of T b ∼ 6

  10. Hidden Imprints of Minor Merging in Early-Type Galaxies: Inner Polar Rings and Inclined Large-Scale Gaseous Disks In S0s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sil’chenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available I discuss my latest observational data and ideas about decoupled gaseous subsystems in nearby lenticular galaxies. As an extreme case of inclined gaseous disks, I demonstrate a sample of inner polar disks, derive their incidence, about 10% among the volume-limited nearby S0 galaxies, and discuss their origin. However, large-scale decoupled gaseous disks at intermediate inclinations are also a rather common phenomenon among the field S0 galaxies. I suggest that the geometry of outer gas accretion and the final morphology of the galaxy may be tightly related: inclined gas infall may prevent star formation in the accreted disk and force the disk galaxy to be a lenticular.

  11. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: gas content and interaction as the drivers of kinematic asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, J. V.; Croom, S. M.; Bryant, J. J.; Schaefer, A. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Callingham, J.; Cortese, L.; Federrath, C.; Scott, N.; van de Sande, J.; D'Eugenio, F.; Sweet, S.; Tonini, C.; Allen, J. T.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A. W.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J.; Lorente, N.; Medling, A. M.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S. N.; Sharp, R.

    2018-05-01

    In order to determine the causes of kinematic asymmetry in the Hα gas in the SAMI (Sydney-AAO Multi-object IFS) Galaxy Survey sample, we investigate the comparative influences of environment and intrinsic properties of galaxies on perturbation. We use spatially resolved Hα velocity fields from the SAMI Galaxy Survey to quantify kinematic asymmetry (\\overline{v_asym}) in nearby galaxies and environmental and stellar mass data from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey. We find that local environment, measured as distance to nearest neighbour, is inversely correlated with kinematic asymmetry for galaxies with log (M*/M⊙) > 10.0, but there is no significant correlation for galaxies with log (M*/M⊙) < 10.0. Moreover, low-mass galaxies [log (M*/M⊙) < 9.0] have greater kinematic asymmetry at all separations, suggesting a different physical source of asymmetry is important in low-mass galaxies. We propose that secular effects derived from gas fraction and gas mass may be the primary causes of asymmetry in low-mass galaxies. High gas fraction is linked to high σ _m/V (where σm is Hα velocity dispersion and V the rotation velocity), which is strongly correlated with \\overline{v_asym}, and galaxies with log (M*/M⊙) < 9.0 have offset \\overline{σ _m/V} from the rest of the sample. Further, asymmetry as a fraction of dispersion decreases for galaxies with log (M*/M⊙) < 9.0. Gas mass and asymmetry are also inversely correlated in our sample. We propose that low gas masses in dwarf galaxies may lead to asymmetric distribution of gas clouds, leading to increased relative turbulence.

  12. Large Binocular Telescope and Sptizer Spectroscopy of Star-forming Galaxies at 1 Extinction and Star Formation Rate Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujopakarn, W.; Rieke, G. H.; Papovich, C. J.; Weiner, B. J.; Rigby, Jane; Rex, M.; Bian, F.; Kuhn, O. P.; Thompson, D.

    2012-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations in the rest-frame optical and near- to mid-infrared wavelengths of four gravitationally lensed infrared (IR) luminous star-forming galaxies at redshift 1 extinction, Av, of these systems, as well as testing star formation rate (SFR) indicators against the SFR measured by fitting spectral energy distributions to far-IR photometry. Our galaxies occupy a range of Av from 0 to 5.9 mag, larger than previously known for a similar range of IR luminosities at these redshifts. Thus, estimates of SFR even at z 2 must take careful count of extinction in the most IR luminous galaxies.We also measure extinction by comparing SFR estimates from optical emission lines with those from far- IR measurements. The comparison of results from these two independent methods indicates a large variety of dust distribution scenarios at 1 extinction, the Ha SFR indicator underestimates the SFR; the size of the necessary correction depends on the IR luminosity and dust distribution scenario. Individual SFR estimates based on the 6.2µm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission line luminosity do not show a systematic discrepancy with extinction, although a considerable, 0.2 dex, scatter is observed.

  13. Galactic interaction as the trigger for the young radio galaxy MRC B1221-423

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Craig; Johnston, Helen; Hunstead, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Mergers between a massive galaxy and a small gas-rich companion (minor mergers) have been proposed as a viable mechanism for triggering radio emission in an active galaxy. Until now the problem has been catching this sequence of events as they occur. With MRC B1221$-$423 we have an active radio galaxy that has only recently been triggered, and a companion galaxy that provides the "smoking gun". Using spectroscopic data taken with the VIMOS Integral Field Unit detector on the European Southern...

  14. Large-scale clustering of galaxies in the CfA Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeley, Michael S.; Park, Changbom; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1992-01-01

    The power spectrum of the galaxy distribution in the Center for Astrophysics Redshift Survey (de Lapparent et al., 1986; Geller and Huchra, 1989; and Huchra et al., 1992) is measured up to wavelengths of 200/h Mpc. Results are compared with several cosmological simulations with Gaussian initial conditions. It is shown that the power spectrum of the standard CDM model is inconsistent with the observed power spectrum at the 99 percent confidence level.

  15. The Galaxy Evolution Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jason; Galaxy Evolution Probe Team

    2018-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Probe (GEP) is a concept for a far-infrared observatory to survey large regions of sky for star-forming galaxies from z = 0 to beyond z = 3. Our knowledge of galaxy formation is incomplete and requires uniform surveys over a large range of redshifts and environments to accurately describe mass assembly, star formation, supermassive black hole growth, interactions between these processes, and what led to their decline from z ~ 2 to the present day. Infrared observations are sensitive to dusty, star-forming galaxies, which have bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features and warm dust continuum in the rest-frame mid infrared and cooler thermal dust emission in the far infrared. Unlike previous far-infrared continuum surveys, the GEP will measure photometric redshifts commensurate with galaxy detections from PAH emission and Si absorption features, without the need for obtaining spectroscopic redshifts of faint counterparts at other wavelengths.The GEP design includes a 2 m diameter telescope actively cooled to 4 K and two instruments: (1) An imager covering 10 to 300 um with 25 spectral resolution R ~ 8 bands (with lower R at the longest wavelengths) to detect star-forming galaxies and measure their redshifts photometrically. (2) A 23 – 190 um, R ~ 250 dispersive spectrometer for redshift confirmation and identification of obscured AGN using atomic fine-structure lines. Lines including [Ne V], [O IV], [O III], [O I], and [C II] will probe gas physical conditions, radiation field hardness, and metallicity. Notionally, the GEP will have a two-year mission: galaxy surveys with photometric redshifts in the first year and a second year devoted to follow-up spectroscopy. A comprehensive picture of star formation in galaxies over the last 10 billion years will be assembled from cosmologically relevant volumes, spanning environments from field galaxies and groups, to protoclusters, to dense galaxy clusters.Commissioned by NASA, the

  16. Demise of faint satellites around isolated early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Hyunbae; Lee, Jong Chul

    2018-02-01

    The hierarchical galaxy formation scenario in the Cold Dark Matter cosmology with a non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ and geometrically flat space (ΛCDM) has been very successful in explaining the large-scale distribution of galaxies. However, there have been claims that ΛCDM over-predicts the number of satellite galaxies associated with massive galaxies compared with observations—the missing satellite galaxy problem1-3. Isolated groups of galaxies hosted by passively evolving massive early-type galaxies are ideal laboratories for identifying the missing physics in the current theory4-11. Here, we report—based on a deep spectroscopic survey—that isolated massive and passive early-type galaxies without any signs of recent wet mergers or accretion episodes have almost no satellite galaxies fainter than the r-band absolute magnitude of about Mr = -14. If only early-type satellites are used, the cutoff is at the somewhat brighter magnitude of about Mr = -15. Such a cutoff has not been found in other nearby satellite galaxy systems hosted by late-type galaxies or those with merger features. Various physical properties of satellites depend strongly on the host-centric distance. Our observations indicate that the satellite galaxy luminosity function is largely determined by the interaction of satellites with the environment provided by their host.

  17. Some problems of the origin of galaxy nests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The origin of galaxy nests have been studied. The nests of galaxies consist of a few (more than two) galaxies in contact with each other and strongly distorted by mutual interaction. Their colour, geometrical and morphological characteristics are compared with ones of ordinary galaxies and groups of galaxies. Conclusions are drawn that 5% to 15% of the total number of nests may be the evolutionary products of tight groups of galaxies (with diameter 11 Msub(Sun)). About half of such objects consist of elliptical galaxies. Galaxies in sufficiently tight groups may merge in consequence of dynamical friction. The remaining (85-95%) nests origin may be possibly explained by different kinds of instabilities in certain flat galaxies, with transformation of one galaxy to the nest, or by interaction of two galaxies containing large amounts of gas and consequent intensive star formation in very large regions, or by other causes. To establish relative contribution of each possible phenomenon in nests origin, it is required to carry out further detailed investigations of these objects

  18. DISCOVERY OF MASSIVE, MOSTLY STAR FORMATION QUENCHED GALAXIES WITH EXTREMELY LARGE Lyα EQUIVALENT WIDTHS AT z ∼ 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kajisawa, Masaru; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Scoville, Nick Z.; Capak, Peter L. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sanders, David B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Toft, Sune [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); McCracken, Henry J. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Le Fèvre, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; Ilbert, Olivier [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille), UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Sheth, Kartik [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Renzini, Alvio [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padua (Italy); Lilly, Simon; Carollo, Marcella; Kovač, Katarina [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Schinnerer, Eva, E-mail: tani@cosmos.phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [MPI for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2015-08-10

    We report a discovery of six massive galaxies with both extremely large Lyα equivalent widths (EWs) and evolved stellar populations at z ∼ 3. These MAssive Extremely STrong Lyα emitting Objects (MAESTLOs) have been discovered in our large-volume systematic survey for strong Lyα emitters (LAEs) with 12 optical intermediate-band data taken with Subaru/Suprime-Cam in the COSMOS field. Based on the spectral energy distribution fitting analysis for these LAEs, it is found that these MAESTLOs have (1) large rest-frame EWs of EW{sub 0} (Lyα) ∼ 100–300 Å, (2) M{sub ⋆} ∼ 10{sup 10.5}–10{sup 11.1} M{sub ⊙}, and (3) relatively low specific star formation rates of SFR/M{sub ⋆} ∼ 0.03–1 Gyr{sup −1}. Three of the six MAESTLOs have extended Lyα emission with a radius of several kiloparsecs, although they show very compact morphology in the HST/ACS images, which correspond to the rest-frame UV continuum. Since the MAESTLOs do not show any evidence for active galactic nuclei, the observed extended Lyα emission is likely to be caused by a star formation process including the superwind activity. We suggest that this new class of LAEs, MAESTLOs, provides a missing link from star-forming to passively evolving galaxies at the peak era of the cosmic star formation history.

  19. Spectral fingerprints of large-scale neuronal interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, M.; Donner, T.H.; Engel, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Cognition results from interactions among functionally specialized but widely distributed brain regions; however, neuroscience has so far largely focused on characterizing the function of individual brain regions and neurons therein. Here we discuss recent studies that have instead investigated the

  20. Topology of Large-Scale Structures of Galaxies in two Dimensions—Systematic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Stephen; Park, Changbom; Hong, Sungwook E.; Kim, Juhan

    2017-02-01

    We study the two-dimensional topology of galactic distribution when projected onto two-dimensional spherical shells. Using the latest Horizon Run 4 simulation data, we construct the genus of the two-dimensional field and consider how this statistic is affected by late-time nonlinear effects—principally gravitational collapse and redshift space distortion (RSD). We also consider systematic and numerical artifacts, such as shot noise, galaxy bias, and finite pixel effects. We model the systematics using a Hermite polynomial expansion and perform a comprehensive analysis of known effects on the two-dimensional genus, with a view toward using the statistic for cosmological parameter estimation. We find that the finite pixel effect is dominated by an amplitude drop and can be made less than 1% by adopting pixels smaller than 1/3 of the angular smoothing length. Nonlinear gravitational evolution introduces time-dependent coefficients of the zeroth, first, and second Hermite polynomials, but the genus amplitude changes by less than 1% between z = 1 and z = 0 for smoothing scales {R}{{G}}> 9 {Mpc}/{{h}}. Non-zero terms are measured up to third order in the Hermite polynomial expansion when studying RSD. Differences in the shapes of the genus curves in real and redshift space are small when we adopt thick redshift shells, but the amplitude change remains a significant ˜ { O }(10 % ) effect. The combined effects of galaxy biasing and shot noise produce systematic effects up to the second Hermite polynomial. It is shown that, when sampling, the use of galaxy mass cuts significantly reduces the effect of shot noise relative to random sampling.

  1. SED fitting with MCMC: methodology and application to large galaxy surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric; Guaita, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    We present GalMC (Acquaviva et al 2011), our publicly available Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm for SED fitting, show the results obtained for a stacked sample of Lyman Alpha Emitting galaxies at z ~ 3, and discuss the dependence of the inferred SED parameters on the assumptions made in modeling the stellar populations. We also introduce SpeedyMC, a version of GalMC based on interpolation of pre-computed template libraries. While the flexibility and number of SED fitting parameters is redu...

  2. Boundary layer circulation in disk-halo galaxies. III. The dispersion relation for local disturbances and large-scale spiral waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waxman, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper concerns the geometry and physical properties of waves which arise from a shear-flow (i.e. inflection point) instability of the galactic boundary layer circulation. This circulation was shown to exist in the meridional plane of a model galaxy containing a gaseous disk embedded in a rotating gaseous halo. Previously derived equations describe the local effects of Boussinesq perturbations, in the form of spiral waves with aribitrary pitch angle, on the model disk-halo system. The equations are solved asymptotically for large values of the local Reynolds number. In passing to the limit of inviscid waves, it is possible to derive a locally valid dispersion relation. A perturbation technique is developed whereby the inviscid wave eigenvalues can be corrected for the effects of small but finite viscosity. In this way the roles of the buoyancy force, Coriolis acceleration, viscous stresses, and their interactions can be studied. It is found that, locally, the most unstable inviscid waves are leading and open with large azimuthal wavenumbers. However, these waves display little or no coherence over the face of the disk and so would not emerge as modes in a global analysis.The geometry of the dominant inviscid waves is found to be leading, tightly wound spirals. Viscous corrections shift the dominant wave form to trailing, tightly wound spirals with small azimuthal wavenumbers. These waves grow on a time scale of about 10 7 years. It is suggested that these waves can initiate spiral structure in galaxies during disk formation and that a subsequent transition to a self-gravitating acoustical mode with the same spiral geometry may occur. This transition becomes possible once the contrast in gas densities between the disk and surrounding halo becomes sufficiently large

  3. Dissecting the large-scale galactic conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongu

    2018-01-01

    Galactic conformity is an observed phenomenon that galaxies located in the same region have similar properties such as star formation rate, color, gas fraction, and so on. The conformity was first observed among galaxies within in the same halos (“one-halo conformity”). The one-halo conformity can be readily explained by mutual interactions among galaxies within a halo. Recent observations however further witnessed a puzzling connection among galaxies with no direct interaction. In particular, galaxies located within a sphere of ~5 Mpc radius tend to show similarities, even though the galaxies do not share common halos with each other ("two-halo conformity" or “large-scale conformity”). Using a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, Illustris, we investigate the physical origin of the two-halo conformity and put forward two scenarios. First, back-splash galaxies are likely responsible for the large-scale conformity. They have evolved into red galaxies due to ram-pressure stripping in a given galaxy cluster and happen to reside now within a ~5 Mpc sphere. Second, galaxies in strong tidal field induced by large-scale structure also seem to give rise to the large-scale conformity. The strong tides suppress star formation in the galaxies. We discuss the importance of the large-scale conformity in the context of galaxy evolution.

  4. The gravitational interaction between N-body (star clusters) and hydrodynamic (ISM) codes in disk galaxy simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.C.; Comins, N.F.

    1986-01-01

    During the past twenty years, three approaches to numerical simulations of the evolution of galaxies have been developed. The first approach, N-body programs, models the motion of clusters of stars as point particles which interact via their gravitational potentials to determine the system dynamics. Some N-body codes model molecular clouds as colliding, inelastic particles. The second approach, hydrodynamic models of galactic dynamics, simulates the activity of the interstellar medium as a compressible gas. These models presently do not include stars, the effect of gravitational fields, or allow for stellar evolution and exchange of mass or angular momentum between stars and the interstellar medium. The third approach, stochastic star formation simulations of disk galaxies, allows for the interaction between stars and interstellar gas, but does not allow the star particles to move under the influence of gravity

  5. Galaxy angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.A.

    1974-01-01

    In order to test the theories which purport to explain the origin of galaxy angular momentum, this study presents new data for about 1000 individual galaxies in eight rich clusters. The clusters which are studied include Virgo, A 119, A 400, A 1656 (Coma), A 2147, A 2151 (Hercules), A 2197, and A 2199. Selected samples of these data are used to investigate systematic alignment effects in clusters of galaxies and to investigate the intrinsic ellipticities of E, SO, and spiral galaxies. The following new results are reported: Galaxies in the cluster A 2197 show a significant alignment effect (chi 2 probability less than 0.0002), and the preferential direction of alignment corresponds approximately to the major axis of the overall cluster elongation. None of the other seven clusters show any significant alignment trends. The spiral galaxy samples in four clusters (Virgo, A 1656, A 2151, and A 2197) were large enough to analyze the number distributions of forward and reverse winding spirals. Large and small spiral galaxies have identical ellipticity distributions. Large E and SO galaxies tend to be more spherical, and small E and SO galaxies more flattened. The intrinsic ellipticities of E, SO, and spiral galaxies are the same for galaxies in the ''field'' and for galaxies in rich clusters. Six models of galaxy formation are reviewed, and the major []mphasis is placed on how each model explains the origin of galaxy angular momentum. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  6. A MINUET OF GALAXIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This troupe of four galaxies, known as Hickson Compact Group 87 (HCG 87), is performing an intricate dance orchestrated by the mutual gravitational forces acting between them. The dance is a slow, graceful minuet, occurring over a time span of hundreds of millions of years. The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) provides a striking improvement in resolution over previous ground-based imaging. In particular, this image reveals complex details in the dust lanes of the group's largest galaxy member (HCG 87a), which is actually disk-shaped, but tilted so that we see it nearly edge-on. Both 87a and its elliptically shaped nearest neighbor (87b) have active galactic nuclei which are believed to harbor black holes that are consuming gas. A third group member, the nearby spiral galaxy 87c, may be undergoing a burst of active star formation. Gas flows within galaxies can be intensified by the gravitational tidal forces between interacting galaxies. So interactions can provide fresh fuel for both active nuclei and starburst phenomena. These three galaxies are so close to each other that gravitational forces disrupt their structure and alter their evolution. From the analysis of its spectra, the small spiral near the center of the group could either be a fourth member or perhaps an unrelated background object. The HST image was made by combining images taken in four different color filters in order to create a three-color picture. Regions of active star formation are blue (hot stars) and also pinkish if hot hydrogen gas is present. The complex dark bands across the large edge-on disk galaxy are due to interstellar dust silhouetted against the galaxy's background starlight. A faint tidal bridge of stars can be seen between the edge-on and elliptical galaxies. HCG 87 was selected for Hubble imaging by members of the public who visited the Hubble Heritage website (http://heritage.stsci.edu) during the month of May and registered their votes

  7. Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchtmeier, W. K.; Richter, O. G.; Materne, J.

    1981-09-01

    The large-scale structure of the universe is dominated by clustering. Most galaxies seem to be members of pairs, groups, clusters, and superclusters. To that degree we are able to recognize a hierarchical structure of the universe. Our local group of galaxies (LG) is centred on two large spiral galaxies: the Andromeda nebula and our own galaxy. Three sr:naller galaxies - like M 33 - and at least 23 dwarf galaxies (KraanKorteweg and Tammann, 1979, Astronomische Nachrichten, 300, 181) can be found in the evironment of these two large galaxies. Neighbouring groups have comparable sizes (about 1 Mpc in extent) and comparable numbers of bright members. Small dwarf galaxies cannot at present be observed at great distances.

  8. Dark matter phenomenology of high-speed galaxy cluster collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishchenko, Yuriy [Izmir University of Economics, Faculty of Engineering, Izmir (Turkey); Ji, Chueng-Ryong [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-08-15

    We perform a general computational analysis of possible post-collision mass distributions in high-speed galaxy cluster collisions in the presence of self-interacting dark matter. Using this analysis, we show that astrophysically weakly self-interacting dark matter can impart subtle yet measurable features in the mass distributions of colliding galaxy clusters even without significant disruptions to the dark matter halos of the colliding galaxy clusters themselves. Most profound such evidence is found to reside in the tails of dark matter halos' distributions, in the space between the colliding galaxy clusters. Such features appear in our simulations as shells of scattered dark matter expanding in alignment with the outgoing original galaxy clusters, contributing significant densities to projected mass distributions at large distances from collision centers and large scattering angles of up to 90 {sup circle}. Our simulations indicate that as much as 20% of the total collision's mass may be deposited into such structures without noticeable disruptions to the main galaxy clusters. Such structures at large scattering angles are forbidden in purely gravitational high-speed galaxy cluster collisions. Convincing identification of such structures in real colliding galaxy clusters would be a clear indication of the self-interacting nature of dark matter. Our findings may offer an explanation for the ring-like dark matter feature recently identified in the long-range reconstructions of the mass distribution of the colliding galaxy cluster CL0024+017. (orig.)

  9. Dark matter phenomenology of high-speed galaxy cluster collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, Yuriy; Ji, Chueng-Ryong

    2017-01-01

    We perform a general computational analysis of possible post-collision mass distributions in high-speed galaxy cluster collisions in the presence of self-interacting dark matter. Using this analysis, we show that astrophysically weakly self-interacting dark matter can impart subtle yet measurable features in the mass distributions of colliding galaxy clusters even without significant disruptions to the dark matter halos of the colliding galaxy clusters themselves. Most profound such evidence is found to reside in the tails of dark matter halos' distributions, in the space between the colliding galaxy clusters. Such features appear in our simulations as shells of scattered dark matter expanding in alignment with the outgoing original galaxy clusters, contributing significant densities to projected mass distributions at large distances from collision centers and large scattering angles of up to 90 "c"i"r"c"l"e. Our simulations indicate that as much as 20% of the total collision's mass may be deposited into such structures without noticeable disruptions to the main galaxy clusters. Such structures at large scattering angles are forbidden in purely gravitational high-speed galaxy cluster collisions. Convincing identification of such structures in real colliding galaxy clusters would be a clear indication of the self-interacting nature of dark matter. Our findings may offer an explanation for the ring-like dark matter feature recently identified in the long-range reconstructions of the mass distribution of the colliding galaxy cluster CL0024+017. (orig.)

  10. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.; Conrow, T.P.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1990-01-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling. 105 refs

  11. Large-scale structure of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The problems, discussed at the ''Large-scale Structure of the Universe'' symposium are considered on a popular level. Described are the cell structure of galaxy distribution in the Universe, principles of mathematical galaxy distribution modelling. The images of cell structures, obtained after reprocessing with the computer are given. Discussed are three hypothesis - vortical, entropic, adiabatic, suggesting various processes of galaxy and galaxy clusters origin. A considerable advantage of the adiabatic hypothesis is recognized. The relict radiation, as a method of direct studying the processes taking place in the Universe is considered. The large-scale peculiarities and small-scale fluctuations of the relict radiation temperature enable one to estimate the turbance properties at the pre-galaxy stage. The discussion of problems, pertaining to studying the hot gas, contained in galaxy clusters, the interactions within galaxy clusters and with the inter-galaxy medium, is recognized to be a notable contribution into the development of theoretical and observational cosmology

  12. Evaluation of Mobile Phones for Large Display Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Jens; Thelen, Sebastian; Ebert, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Large displays have become more and more common in the last few years. While interaction with these displays can be conducted using standard methods such as computer mouse and keyboard, this approach causes issues in multi-user environments, where the various conditions for providing multiple keyboards and mice, together with the facilities to employ them, cannot be met. To solve this problem, interaction using mobile phones was proposed by several authors. Previous solutions were specialized...

  13. Normal black holes in bulge-less galaxies: the largely quiescent, merger-free growth of black holes over cosmic time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G.; Kaviraj, S.; Volonteri, M.; Simmons, B. D.; Devriendt, J. E. G.; Lintott, C. J.; Smethurst, R. J.; Dubois, Y.; Pichon, C.

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the processes that drive the formation of black holes (BHs) is a key topic in observational cosmology. While the observed MBH-MBulge correlation in bulge-dominated galaxies is thought to be produced by major mergers, the existence of an MBH-M⋆ relation, across all galaxy morphological types, suggests that BHs may be largely built by secular processes. Recent evidence that bulge-less galaxies, which are unlikely to have had significant mergers, are offset from the MBH-MBulge relation, but lie on the MBH-M⋆ relation, has strengthened this hypothesis. Nevertheless, the small size and heterogeneity of current data sets, coupled with the difficulty in measuring precise BH masses, make it challenging to address this issue using empirical studies alone. Here, we use Horizon-AGN, a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation to probe the role of mergers in BH growth over cosmic time. We show that (1) as suggested by observations, simulated bulge-less galaxies lie offset from the main MBH-MBulge relation, but on the MBH-M⋆ relation, (2) the positions of galaxies on the MBH-M⋆ relation are not affected by their merger histories, and (3) only ˜35 per cent of the BH mass in today's massive galaxies is directly attributable to merging - the majority (˜65 per cent) of BH growth, therefore, takes place gradually, via secular processes, over cosmic time.

  14. Cosmic Collisions The Hubble Atlas of Merging Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Lars Lindberg; Martin, Davide

    2009-01-01

    Lars Lindberg Christensen, Raquel Yumi Shida & Davide De Martin Cosmic Collisions: The Hubble Atlas of Merging Galaxies Like majestic ships in the grandest night, galaxies can slip ever closer until their mutual gravitational interaction begins to mold them into intricate figures that are finally, and irreversibly, woven together. It is an immense cosmic dance, choreographed by gravity. Cosmic Collisions contains a hundred new, many thus far unpublished, images of colliding galaxies from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. It is believed that many present-day galaxies, including the Milky Way, were assembled from such a coalescence of smaller galaxies, occurring over billions of years. Triggered by the colossal and violent interaction between the galaxies, stars form from large clouds of gas in firework bursts, creating brilliant blue star clusters. The importance of these cosmic encounters reaches far beyond the stunning Hubble images. They may, in fact, be among the most important processes that shape ...

  15. On interaction of large dust grains with fusion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Smirnov, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    So far the models used to study dust grain-plasma interactions in fusion plasmas neglect the effects of dust material vapor, which is always present around dust in rather hot and dense edge plasma environment in fusion devices. However, when the vapor density and/or the amount of ionized vapor atoms become large enough, they can alter the grain-plasma interactions. Somewhat similar processes occur during pellet injection in fusion plasma. In this brief communication the applicability limits of the models ignoring vapor effects in grain-plasma interactions are obtained.

  16. Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibata, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Sagittarius DWARF GALAXY is the closest member of the Milky Way's entourage of satellite galaxies. Discovered by chance in 1994, its presence had previously been overlooked because it is largely hidden by the most crowded regions of our own Galaxy with which it is merging....

  17. Searching for Dark Matter Annihilation from Milky Way Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies with Six Years of Fermi Large Area Telescope Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M; Albert, A; Anderson, B; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonino, R; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caputo, R; Caragiulo, M; Caraveo, P A; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cuoco, A; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Desiante, R; Digel, S W; Di Venere, L; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Essig, R; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Gomez-Vargas, G A; Grenier, I A; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hays, E; Hewitt, J W; Horan, D; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Kuss, M; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Li, J; Li, L; Llena Garde, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lubrano, P; Malyshev, D; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Meyer, M; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Murgia, S; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Sánchez-Conde, M; Schulz, A; Sehgal, N; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spada, F; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strigari, L; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Thayer, J B; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Troja, E; Vianello, G; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Zaharijas, G; Zimmer, S

    2015-12-04

    The dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) of the Milky Way are some of the most dark matter (DM) dominated objects known. We report on γ-ray observations of Milky Way dSphs based on six years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data processed with the new Pass8 event-level analysis. None of the dSphs are significantly detected in γ rays, and we present upper limits on the DM annihilation cross section from a combined analysis of 15 dSphs. These constraints are among the strongest and most robust to date and lie below the canonical thermal relic cross section for DM of mass ≲100  GeV annihilating via quark and τ-lepton channels.

  18. The mid-infrared properties and gas content of active galaxies over large lookback times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, S. J.; Duchesne, S. W.

    2018-05-01

    Upon an expansion of all of the searches for redshifted H I 21-cm absorption (0.002 1 ≤ z ≤ 5.19), we update recent results regarding the detection of 21-cm in the non-local Universe. Specifically, we confirm that photo-ionization of the gas is the mostly likely cause of the low detection rate at high redshift, in addition to finding that at z ≲ 0.1 there may also be a decrease in the detection rate, which we suggest is due to the dilution of the absorption strength by 21-cm emission. By assuming that associated and intervening absorbers have similar cosmological mass densities, we find evidence that the spin temperature of the gas evolves with redshift, consistent with heating by ultraviolet photons. From the near-infrared (λ = 3.4, 4.6 and 12 μm) colours, we see that radio galaxies become more quasar-like in their activity with increasing redshift. We also find that the non-detection of 21-cm absorption at high redshift is not likely to be due to the selection of gas-poor ellipticals, in addition to a strong correlation between the ionizing photon rate and the [3.4] - [4.6] colour, indicating that the UV photons arise from AGN activity. Like previous studies, we find a correlation between the detection of 21-cm absorption and the [4.6] - [12] colour, which is a tracer of star-forming activity. However, this only applies at the lowest redshifts (z ≲ 0.1), the range considered by the other studies.

  19. Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: Detection of Dust Emission in Multiple Images of a Normal Galaxy at z > 4 Lensed by a Frontier Fields Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Alexandra; Battisti, Andrew; Wilson, Grant W.; Calzetti, Daniela; Cybulski, Ryan; Giavalisco, Mauro; Kirkpatrick, Allison [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Montaña, Alfredo; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Luis Enrique Erro 1, Sta. Ma. Tonantzintla, 72840 Puebla (Mexico); Limousin, Marceau [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, LAM, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Marseille (France); Marchesini, Danilo; Kado-Fong, Erin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Alberts, Stacey [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Avila-Reese, Vladimir [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-264, 04510, CDMX (Mexico); Bermejo-Climent, José Ramón [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna. Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna 38200, Tenerife (Spain); Brammer, Gabriel [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bravo-Alfaro, Hector [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Guanajuato, Apdo. Postal 144, Guanajuato 36000 (Mexico); Chary, Ranga-Ram [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS314-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Keller, Erica, E-mail: pope@astro.umass.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); and others

    2017-04-01

    We directly detect dust emission in an optically detected, multiply imaged galaxy lensed by the Frontier Fields cluster MACSJ0717.5+3745. We detect two images of the same galaxy at 1.1 mm with the AzTEC camera on the Large Millimeter Telescope leaving no ambiguity in the counterpart identification. This galaxy, MACS0717-Az9, is at z > 4 and the strong lensing model ( μ = 7.5) allows us to calculate an intrinsic IR luminosity of 9.7 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ⊙} and an obscured star formation rate of 14.6 ± 4.5 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The unobscured star formation rate from the UV is only 4.1 ± 0.3 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, which means the total star formation rate (18.7 ± 4.5 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) is dominated (75%–80%) by the obscured component. With an intrinsic stellar mass of only 6.9 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙}, MACS0717-Az9 is one of only a handful of z > 4 galaxies at these lower masses that is detected in dust emission. This galaxy lies close to the estimated star formation sequence at this epoch. However, it does not lie on the dust obscuration relation (IRX- β ) for local starburst galaxies and is instead consistent with the Small Magellanic Cloud attenuation law. This remarkable lower mass galaxy, showing signs of both low metallicity and high dust content, may challenge our picture of dust production in the early universe.

  20. Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: Detection of Dust Emission in Multiple Images of a Normal Galaxy at z > 4 Lensed by a Frontier Fields Cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Alexandra; Battisti, Andrew; Wilson, Grant W.; Calzetti, Daniela; Cybulski, Ryan; Giavalisco, Mauro; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Montaña, Alfredo; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David; Limousin, Marceau; Marchesini, Danilo; Kado-Fong, Erin; Alberts, Stacey; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Bermejo-Climent, José Ramón; Brammer, Gabriel; Bravo-Alfaro, Hector; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Keller, Erica

    2017-01-01

    We directly detect dust emission in an optically detected, multiply imaged galaxy lensed by the Frontier Fields cluster MACSJ0717.5+3745. We detect two images of the same galaxy at 1.1 mm with the AzTEC camera on the Large Millimeter Telescope leaving no ambiguity in the counterpart identification. This galaxy, MACS0717-Az9, is at z > 4 and the strong lensing model ( μ = 7.5) allows us to calculate an intrinsic IR luminosity of 9.7 × 10 10 L ⊙ and an obscured star formation rate of 14.6 ± 4.5 M ⊙ yr −1 . The unobscured star formation rate from the UV is only 4.1 ± 0.3 M ⊙ yr −1 , which means the total star formation rate (18.7 ± 4.5 M ⊙ yr −1 ) is dominated (75%–80%) by the obscured component. With an intrinsic stellar mass of only 6.9 × 10 9 M ⊙ , MACS0717-Az9 is one of only a handful of z > 4 galaxies at these lower masses that is detected in dust emission. This galaxy lies close to the estimated star formation sequence at this epoch. However, it does not lie on the dust obscuration relation (IRX- β ) for local starburst galaxies and is instead consistent with the Small Magellanic Cloud attenuation law. This remarkable lower mass galaxy, showing signs of both low metallicity and high dust content, may challenge our picture of dust production in the early universe.

  1. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A large spectroscopically selected sample of massive early-type lens galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, AS; Burles, S; Koopmans, LVE; Treu, T; Moustakas, LA

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple

  2. Galaxy evolution in extreme environments: Molecular gas content star formation and AGN in isolated void galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mousumi; Iono, Daisuke; Saito, Toshiki; Subramanian, Smitha

    Since the early redshift surveys of the large scale structure of our universe, it has become clear that galaxies cluster along walls, sheet and filaments leaving large, empty regions called voids between them. Although voids represent the most under dense parts of our universe, they do contain a sparse but significant population of isolated galaxies that are generally low luminosity, late type disk galaxies. Recent studies show that most void galaxies have ongoing star formation and are in an early stage of evolution. We present radio, optical studies of the molecular gas content and star formation in a sample of void galaxies. Using SDSS data, we find that AGN are rare in these systems and are found only in the Bootes void; their black hole masses and radio properties are similar to bright spirals galaxies. Our studies suggest that close galaxy interactions and gas accretion are the main drivers of galaxy evolution in these systems despite their location in the underdense environment of the voids.

  3. Galaxy interactions and star formation: Results of a survey of global H-alpha emission in spiral galaxies in 8 clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, C.

    1990-01-01

    Kennicutt and Kent (1983) have shown that the global H alpha emission from a spiral galaxy is an indicator of the formation rate of massive stars. Moss, Whittle and Irwin (1988) have surveyed two clusters (Abell 347 and 1367) for galaxies with H alpha emission using a high dispersion objective prism technique. The purpose of the survey is to investigate environmental effects on star formation in spiral galaxies, and in particular to ascertain whether star formation is enhanced in cluster spirals. Approximately 20 percent of CGCG galaxies were detected in emission. Two plates of excellent quality were obtained for each of the two clusters, and galaxies were only identified to have emission if this was detected on both plates of a plate pair. In this way, plate flaws and other spurious identifications of emission could be rejected, and weak emission confirmed. The results of this survey have been discussed by Moss (1987). The detected galaxies are of types SO-a and later. The frequency with which galaxies are detected in emission increases towards later morphological type as expected (cf. Kennicutt and Kent 1983). There is no evidence of any dependence of the frequency of detected emission on the absolute magnitude of the galaxy (cf. Moss and Whittle 1990), but there is a strong correlation between a disturbed morphological appearance of the galaxy and the detection of emission. Furthermore it is found that the emission is more centrally concentrated in those galaxies which show a disturbed morphology. It may be noted that the objective prism plate gives a spectrum of a 400 A region around rest wavelength H alpha, but superposed on this is the H alpha emission from the galaxy which, because the light is essentially monochromatic, results in a true two-dimensional image of the H alpha distribution. The visual appearance of the emission on the prism plates was classified according to its diffuseness on a 5 point scale (very diffuse, diffuse, intermediate, compact, and

  4. Interactive Lecture Experiments in Large Introductory Physics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina M.; Kotlicki, A.; Rieger, G.; Bates, F.; Moll, R.; McPhee, K.; Nashon, S.

    2006-12-01

    We describe Interactive Lecture Experiments (ILE), which build on Interactive Lecture Demonstrations proposed by Sokoloff and Thornton (2004) and extends it by providing students with the opportunity to analyze experiments demonstrated in the lecture outside of the classroom. Real time experimental data is collected, using Logger Pro combined with the digital video technology. This data is uploaded to the Internet and made available to the students for further analysis. Student learning is assessed in the following lecture using conceptual questions (clickers). The goal of this project is to use ILE to make large lectures more interactive and promote student interest in science, critical thinking and data analysis skills. We report on the systematic study conducted using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey, Force Concept Inventory, open-ended physics problems and focus group interviews to determine the impact of ILE on student academic achievement, motivation and attitudes towards physics. Three sections of students (750 students) experienced four ILE experiments. The surveys were administered twice and academic results for students who experienced the ILE for a particular topic were compared to the students, from a different section, who did not complete the ILE for that topic. Additional qualitative data on students’ attitudes was collected using open ended survey questions and interviews. We will present preliminary conclusions about the role of ILEs as an effective pedagogy in large introductory physics courses. Sokoloff, D.R. and R.K. Thornton (2004). Interactive Lecture Demonstrations: Active Learning in Introductory Physics, J.Wiley & Sons, INC. Interactive Lecture Experiments: http://www.physics.ubc.ca/ year1lab/p100/LectureLabs/lectureLabs.html

  5. The role of 3-D interactive visualization in blind surveys of H I in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, D.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Ramatsoku, M.; Verheijen, M. A. W.

    2015-09-01

    Upcoming H I surveys will deliver large datasets, and automated processing using the full 3-D information (two positional dimensions and one spectral dimension) to find and characterize H I objects is imperative. In this context, visualization is an essential tool for enabling qualitative and quantitative human control on an automated source finding and analysis pipeline. We discuss how Visual Analytics, the combination of automated data processing and human reasoning, creativity and intuition, supported by interactive visualization, enables flexible and fast interaction with the 3-D data, helping the astronomer to deal with the analysis of complex sources. 3-D visualization, coupled to modeling, provides additional capabilities helping the discovery and analysis of subtle structures in the 3-D domain. The requirements for a fully interactive visualization tool are: coupled 1-D/2-D/3-D visualization, quantitative and comparative capabilities, combined with supervised semi-automated analysis. Moreover, the source code must have the following characteristics for enabling collaborative work: open, modular, well documented, and well maintained. We review four state of-the-art, 3-D visualization packages assessing their capabilities and feasibility for use in the case of 3-D astronomical data.

  6. Globular Clusters for Faint Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    The origin of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) has posed a long-standing mystery for astronomers. New observations of several of these faint giants with the Hubble Space Telescope are now lending support to one theory.Faint-Galaxy MysteryHubble images of Dragonfly 44 (top) and DFX1 (bottom). The right panels show the data with greater contrast and extended objects masked. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]UDGs large, extremely faint spheroidal objects were first discovered in the Virgo galaxy cluster roughly three decades ago. Modern telescope capabilities have resulted in many more discoveries of similar faint galaxies in recent years, suggesting that they are a much more common phenomenon than we originally thought.Despite the many observations, UDGs still pose a number of unanswered questions. Chief among them: what are UDGs? Why are these objects the size of normal galaxies, yet so dim? There are two primary models that explain UDGs:UDGs were originally small galaxies, hence their low luminosity. Tidal interactions then puffed them up to the large size we observe today.UDGs are effectively failed galaxies. They formed the same way as normal galaxies of their large size, but something truncated their star formation early, preventing them from gaining the brightness that we would expect for galaxies of their size.Now a team of scientists led by Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) has made some intriguing observations with Hubble that lend weight to one of these models.Globulars observed in 16 Coma-cluster UDGs by Hubble. The top right panel shows the galaxy identifications. The top left panel shows the derived number of globular clusters in each galaxy. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]Globulars GaloreVan Dokkum and collaborators imaged two UDGs with Hubble: Dragonfly 44 and DFX1, both located in the Coma galaxy cluster. These faint galaxies are both smooth and elongated, with no obvious irregular features, spiral arms, star-forming regions, or other indications of tidal interactions

  7. A History of H i Stripping in Virgo: A Phase-space View of VIVA Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyein; Chung, Aeree; Smith, Rory [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Jaffé, Yara L., E-mail: hiyoon@galaxy.yonsei.ac.kr, E-mail: achung@yonsei.ac.kr [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the orbital histories of Virgo galaxies at various stages of H i gas stripping. In particular, we compare the location of galaxies with different H i morphology in phase space. This method is a great tool for tracing the gas stripping histories of galaxies as they fall into the cluster. Most galaxies at the early stage of H i stripping are found in the first infall region of Virgo, while galaxies undergoing active H i stripping mostly appear to be falling in or moving out near the cluster core for the first time. Galaxies with severely stripped, yet symmetric, H i disks are found in one of two locations. Some are deep inside the cluster, but others are found in the cluster outskirts with low orbital velocities. We suggest that the latter group of galaxies belong to a “backsplash” population. These present the clearest candidates for backsplashed galaxies observationally identified to date. We further investigate the distribution of a large sample of H i-detected galaxies toward Virgo in phase space, confirming that most galaxies are stripped of their gas as they settle into the gravitational potential of the cluster. In addition, we discuss the impact of tidal interactions between galaxies and group preprocessing on the H i properties of the cluster galaxies, and link the associated star formation evolution to the stripping sequence of cluster galaxies.

  8. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via the evolution processes that are available to them. They do this by spreading -- the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand -- provided that some physical process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The reason is that self-gravitating systems have negative specific heats. As a result, the evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks are fundamentally similar. How evolution proceeds then depends on the evolution processes that are available to each kind of self-gravitating system. These processes and their consequences for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. I begin with a review of the formation, growth and death of bars. Then I review the slow (`secular') rearrangement of energy, angular momentum, and mass that results from interactions between stars or gas clouds and collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure and triaxial dark haloes. The `existence-proof' phase of this work is largely over: we have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the centre. The results of simulations correspond closely to the morphology of barred and oval galaxies. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities. Observations confirm that many barred and oval galaxies have dense central concentrations of gas and star formation. The result is to grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central components that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). The resulting picture of secular galaxy evolution accounts for the richness observed in galaxy structure. We can distinguish between classical and pseudo

  9. Dynamic Soil-Pile Interaction for large diameter monopile foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara

    2013-01-01

    of the study is to analyse the dynamic interaction of the soil and a single pile embedded in it by accounting for the geometric and stiffness properties of the pile. In doing so, a semi – analytical approach is adopted based on the fundamental solution of horizontal pile vibration by Novak and Nogami (1977...... eigenfrequencies of the soil layer do not affect the soil – pile interaction. The decrease of the eigefrequency of the OWT depends on the aforementioned variation of the dynamic stiffness and the slenderness ratio of the monopile.......Monopile foundations have been used in a large extent to support offshore wind turbines (OWT), being considered as a reliable and cost effective design solution. The accurate estimation of their dynamic response characteristics is essential, since the design of support structures for OWTs has been...

  10. Design of the large hadron electron collider interaction region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Alaniz, E.; Newton, D.; Tomás, R.; Korostelev, M.

    2015-11-01

    The large hadron electron collider (LHeC) is a proposed upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) within the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, to provide electron-nucleon collisions and explore a new regime of energy and luminosity for deep inelastic scattering. The design of an interaction region for any collider is always a challenging task given that the beams are brought into crossing with the smallest beam sizes in a region where there are tight detector constraints. In this case integrating the LHeC into the existing HL-LHC lattice, to allow simultaneous proton-proton and electron-proton collisions, increases the difficulty of the task. A nominal design was presented in the the LHeC conceptual design report in 2012 featuring an optical configuration that focuses one of the proton beams of the LHC to β*=10 cm in the LHeC interaction point to reach the desired luminosity of L =1033 cm-2 s-1 . This value is achieved with the aid of a new inner triplet of quadrupoles at a distance L*=10 m from the interaction point. However the chromatic beta beating was found intolerable regarding machine protection issues. An advanced chromatic correction scheme was required. This paper explores the feasibility of the extension of a novel optical technique called the achromatic telescopic squeezing scheme and the flexibility of the interaction region design, in order to find the optimal solution that would produce the highest luminosity while controlling the chromaticity, minimizing the synchrotron radiation power and maintaining the dynamic aperture required for stability.

  11. Design of the large hadron electron collider interaction region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cruz-Alaniz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The large hadron electron collider (LHeC is a proposed upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC within the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC project, to provide electron-nucleon collisions and explore a new regime of energy and luminosity for deep inelastic scattering. The design of an interaction region for any collider is always a challenging task given that the beams are brought into crossing with the smallest beam sizes in a region where there are tight detector constraints. In this case integrating the LHeC into the existing HL-LHC lattice, to allow simultaneous proton-proton and electron-proton collisions, increases the difficulty of the task. A nominal design was presented in the the LHeC conceptual design report in 2012 featuring an optical configuration that focuses one of the proton beams of the LHC to β^{*}=10  cm in the LHeC interaction point to reach the desired luminosity of L=10^{33}  cm^{-2} s^{-1}. This value is achieved with the aid of a new inner triplet of quadrupoles at a distance L^{*}=10  m from the interaction point. However the chromatic beta beating was found intolerable regarding machine protection issues. An advanced chromatic correction scheme was required. This paper explores the feasibility of the extension of a novel optical technique called the achromatic telescopic squeezing scheme and the flexibility of the interaction region design, in order to find the optimal solution that would produce the highest luminosity while controlling the chromaticity, minimizing the synchrotron radiation power and maintaining the dynamic aperture required for stability.

  12. The large-scale structure of the halo of the Andromeda galaxy. I. Global stellar density, morphology and metallicity properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Martin, Nicolas F. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de lUniversité, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Lewis, Geraint F. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Irwin, Michael J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Peñarrubia, Jorge [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Babul, Arif; Navarro, Julio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2 (Canada); Chapman, Scott C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 6310 Coburg Road, Halifax NS B3H 4R2 (Canada); Collins, Michelle [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Fardal, Mark [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, LGRT 619-E, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Mackey, A. D. [RSAA, The Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek ACT 2611 (Australia); Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, PAB, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Tanvir, Nial [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Widrow, Lawrence, E-mail: rodrigo.ibata@astro.unistra.fr [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2014-01-10

    We present an analysis of the large-scale structure of the halo of the Andromeda galaxy, based on the Pan-Andromeda Archeological Survey (PAndAS), currently the most complete map of resolved stellar populations in any galactic halo. Despite the presence of copious substructures, the global halo populations follow closely power-law profiles that become steeper with increasing metallicity. We divide the sample into stream-like populations and a smooth halo component (defined as the population that cannot be resolved into spatially distinct substructures with PAndAS). Fitting a three-dimensional halo model reveals that the most metal-poor populations ([Fe/H]<−1.7) are distributed approximately spherically (slightly prolate with ellipticity c/a = 1.09 ± 0.03), with only a relatively small fraction residing in discernible stream-like structures (f {sub stream} = 42%). The sphericity of the ancient smooth component strongly hints that the dark matter halo is also approximately spherical. More metal-rich populations contain higher fractions of stars in streams, with f {sub stream} becoming as high as 86% for [Fe/H]>−0.6. The space density of the smooth metal-poor component has a global power-law slope of γ = –3.08 ± 0.07, and a non-parametric fit shows that the slope remains nearly constant from 30 kpc to ∼300 kpc. The total stellar mass in the halo at distances beyond 2° is ∼1.1 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, while that of the smooth component is ∼3 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. Extrapolating into the inner galaxy, the total stellar mass of the smooth halo is plausibly ∼8 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. We detect a substantial metallicity gradient, which declines from ([Fe/H]) = –0.7 at R = 30 kpc to ([Fe/H]) = –1.5 at R = 150 kpc for the full sample, with the smooth halo being ∼0.2 dex more metal poor than the full sample at each radius. While qualitatively in line with expectations from cosmological simulations, these observations are of great importance as

  13. The cosmic large-scale structure, dark matter and the origin of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Frenk, Carlos S

    1998-01-01

    In this series of lectures, I will review the main events and processes which are thought to have led to the build of structure in the Universe. First, I will provide an overview of some basic ideas such as inflation, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the microwave background radiation and gravitanional instability. I will then dicuss the evidence for dark matter in the universe and current ideas on the nature and amount of this dark matter, including their consequences for the values of the fundamental cosmological parameters. Next, I will review the processes that give rise to the cosmic large-scale structure, starting with a discussion of the main fluctuation damping mechanisms at early times and finishing with a description of the non-linear phases of evolution. I will discuss how these calculations compare with observations and present the current status of competing cosmological models. Finally I will summarize the most recent and very exciting developments in observational and theoretical studies of gala...

  14. Blink and it's done: Interactive queries on very large data

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Sameer; Iyer, Anand P.; Panda, Aurojit; Mozafari, Barzan; Stoica, Ion; Madden, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    In this demonstration, we present BlinkDB, a massively parallel, sampling-based approximate query processing framework for running interactive queries on large volumes of data. The key observation in BlinkDB is that one can make reasonable decisions in the absence of perfect answers. BlinkDB extends the Hive/HDFS stack and can handle the same set of SPJA (selection, projection, join and aggregate) queries as supported by these systems. BlinkDB provides real-time answers along with statistical...

  15. Large scale sodium interactions. Part 1. Test facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.L.; Smaardyk, J.E.; Sallach, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    During the design of the test facility for large scale sodium interaction testing, an attempt was made to keep the system as simple and yet versatile as possible; therefore, a once through design was employed as opposed to any type of conventional sodium ''loop.'' The initial series of tests conducted at the facility call for rapidly dropping from 20 kg to 225 kg of sodium at temperatures from 825 0 K to 1125 0 K into concrete crucibles. The basic system layout is described. A commercial drum heater is used to melt the sodium which is in 55 gallon drums and then a slight argon pressurization is used to force the liquid sodium through a metallic filter and into a dump tank. Then the sodium dump tank is heated to the desired temperature. A diaphragm is mechanically ruptured and the sodium is dumped into a crucible that is housed inside a large steel test chamber

  16. Seismic soil-structure interaction of foundations with large piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, L.

    1996-01-01

    In seismic regions with soft soil deposits subjected to ground surface subsidence, there is the necessity to support the weight of constructions on large diameter piles or piers hearing on deep firm strata. To justify the action of these elements working under flexo compression and shear, it is necessary to perform calculations of soil pile interaction from a practical engineering point of view and estimate the order of magnitude of the forces and displacements to which these elements will be subjected during the seismic action assigned to the foundation. In this paper we defined a pier as a large diameter pile constructed on site. Furthermore, in the seismic analysis it is necessary to evaluate the seismic pore water pressure to learn on the effective seismic soil stresses close to the ground surface. (author)

  17. Combining Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngsoo [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Krause, Elisabeth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Jain, Bhuvnesh [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Amara, Adam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Becker, Matt [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bridle, Sarah [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Clampitt, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Crocce, Martin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gaztanaga, Enrique [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sanchez, Carles [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wechsler, Risa [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Combining galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth rate of large scale structure, a quantity that will shed light on the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a prime candidate for such an analysis, with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies on the sky and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. By constructing an end-to-end analysis that combines large-scale galaxy clustering and small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing, we also forecast the potential of a combined probes analysis on DES datasets. In particular, we develop a practical approach to a DES combined probes analysis by jointly modeling the assumptions and systematics affecting the different components of the data vector, employing a shared halo model, HOD parametrization, photometric redshift errors, and shear measurement errors. Furthermore, we study the effect of external priors on different subsets of these parameters. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/ optimistically constraining the growth function to 8%/4.9% with its first-year data covering 1000 square degrees, and to 4%/2.3% with its full five-year data covering 5000 square degrees.

  18. Unparticle self-interactions at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, Johannes; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effect of unparticle self-interactions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Especially, we discuss the three-point correlation function, which is determined by conformal symmetry up to a constant, and study its relation to processes with four-particle final states. These processes could be used as a favorable way to look for unparticle physics, and for weak enough couplings to the standard model, even the only way. We find updated upper bounds on the cross sections for unparticle-mediated 4γ final states at the LHC and novel upper bounds for the corresponding 2γ2l and 4l final states. The size of the allowed cross sections obtained are comparably large for large values of the scaling dimension of the unparticle sector, but they decrease with decreasing values of this parameter. In addition, we present relevant distributions for the different final states, enabling the possible identification of the unparticle scaling dimension if there was to be a large number of events of such final states at the LHC.

  19. Older Galaxy Pair Has Surprisingly Youthful Glow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version A pair of interacting galaxies might be experiencing the galactic equivalent of a mid-life crisis. For some reason, the pair, called Arp 82, didn't make their stars early on as is typical of most galaxies. Instead, they got a second wind later in life -- about 2 billion years ago -- and started pumping out waves of new stars as if they were young again. Arp 82 is an interacting pair of galaxies with a strong bridge and a long tail. NGC 2535 is the big galaxy and NGC 2536 is its smaller companion. The disk of the main galaxy looks like an eye, with a bright 'pupil' in the center and oval-shaped 'eyelids.' Dramatic 'beads on a string' features are visible as chains of evenly spaced star-formation complexes along the eyelids. These are presumably the result of large-scale gaseous shocks from a grazing encounter. The colors of this galaxy indicate that the observed stars are young to intermediate in age, around 2 million to 2 billion years old, much less than the age of the universe (13.7 billion years). The puzzle is: why didn't Arp 82 form many stars earlier, like most galaxies of that mass range? Scientifically, it is an oddball and provides a relatively nearby lab for studying the age of intermediate-mass galaxies. This picture is a composite captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera with light at wavelength 8 microns shown in red, NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer combined 1530 and 2310 Angstroms shown in blue, and the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy Observatory light at 6940 Angstroms shown in green.

  20. HIGH STAR FORMATION RATES IN TURBULENT ATOMIC-DOMINATED GAS IN THE INTERACTING GALAXIES IC 2163 AND NGC 2207

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Kaufman, Michele; Bournaud, Frédéric; Juneau, Stéphanie; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Struck, Curtis; Brinks, Elias

    2016-01-01

    CO observations of the interacting galaxies IC 2163 and NGC 2207 are combined with HI, H α , and 24 μ m observations to study the star formation rate (SFR) surface density as a function of the gas surface density. More than half of the high-SFR regions are HI dominated. When compared to other galaxies, these HI-dominated regions have excess SFRs relative to their molecular gas surface densities but normal SFRs relative to their total gas surface densities. The HI-dominated regions are mostly located in the outer part of NGC 2207 where the HI velocity dispersion is high, 40–50 km s −1 . We suggest that the star-forming clouds in these regions have envelopes at lower densities than normal, making them predominantly atomic, and cores at higher densities than normal because of the high turbulent Mach numbers. This is consistent with theoretical predictions of a flattening in the density probability distribution function for compressive, high Mach number turbulence.

  1. HIGH STAR FORMATION RATES IN TURBULENT ATOMIC-DOMINATED GAS IN THE INTERACTING GALAXIES IC 2163 AND NGC 2207

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Kaufman, Michele [110 Westchester Rd, Newton, MA 02458 (United States); Bournaud, Frédéric; Juneau, Stéphanie [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Elmegreen, Debra Meloy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Struck, Curtis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Brinks, Elias, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com, E-mail: kaufmanrallis@icloud.com, E-mail: frederic.bournaud@gmail.com, E-mail: stephanie.juneau@cea.fr, E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu, E-mail: struck@iastate.edu, E-mail: e.brinks@herts.ac.uk [University of Hertfordshire, Centre for Astrophysics Research, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-20

    CO observations of the interacting galaxies IC 2163 and NGC 2207 are combined with HI, H α , and 24 μ m observations to study the star formation rate (SFR) surface density as a function of the gas surface density. More than half of the high-SFR regions are HI dominated. When compared to other galaxies, these HI-dominated regions have excess SFRs relative to their molecular gas surface densities but normal SFRs relative to their total gas surface densities. The HI-dominated regions are mostly located in the outer part of NGC 2207 where the HI velocity dispersion is high, 40–50 km s{sup −1}. We suggest that the star-forming clouds in these regions have envelopes at lower densities than normal, making them predominantly atomic, and cores at higher densities than normal because of the high turbulent Mach numbers. This is consistent with theoretical predictions of a flattening in the density probability distribution function for compressive, high Mach number turbulence.

  2. Statistical measures of galaxy clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to the large-scale distribution of galaxies and ways in which this distribution may be statistically measured. Galaxy clustering is hierarchical in nature, so that the positions of clusters of galaxies are themselves spatially clustered. A simple identification of groups of galaxies would be an inadequate description of the true richness of galaxy clustering. Current observations of the large-scale structure of the universe and modern theories of cosmology may be studied with a statistical description of the spatial and velocity distributions of galaxies. 8 refs

  3. Imitating intrinsic alignments: a bias to the CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-correlation power spectrum induced by the large-scale structure bispectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Philipp M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2017-10-01

    Cross-correlating the lensing signals of galaxies and comic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations is expected to provide valuable cosmological information. In particular, it may help tighten constraints on parameters describing the properties of intrinsically aligned galaxies at high redshift. To access the information conveyed by the cross-correlation signal, its accurate theoretical description is required. We compute the bias to CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-correlation measurements induced by non-linear structure growth. Using tree-level perturbation theory for the large-scale structure bispectrum, we find that the bias is negative on most angular scales, therefore mimicking the signal of intrinsic alignments. Combining Euclid-like galaxy lensing data with a CMB experiment comparable to the Planck satellite mission, the bias becomes significant only on smallest scales (ℓ ≳ 2500). For improved CMB observations, however, the corrections amount to 10-15 per cent of the CMB lensing-intrinsic alignment signal over a wide multipole range (10 ≲ ℓ ≲ 2000). Accordingly, the power spectrum bias, if uncorrected, translates into 2σ and 3σ errors in the determination of the intrinsic alignment amplitude in the case of CMB stage III and stage IV experiments, respectively.

  4. Do Galaxies Follow Darwinian Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Using VIMOS on ESO's Very Large Telescope, a team of French and Italian astronomers have shown the strong influence the environment exerts on the way galaxies form and evolve. The scientists have for the first time charted remote parts of the Universe, showing that the distribution of galaxies has considerably evolved with time, depending on the galaxies' immediate surroundings. This surprising discovery poses new challenges for theories of the formation and evolution of galaxies. The 'nature versus nurture' debate is a hot topic in human psychology. But astronomers too face similar conundrums, in particular when trying to solve a problem that goes to the very heart of cosmological theories: are the galaxies we see today simply the product of the primordial conditions in which they formed, or did experiences in the past change the path of their evolution? ESO PR Photo 17/06 ESO PR Photo 45/06 Galaxy Distribution in Space In a large, three-year long survey carried out with VIMOS [1], the Visible Imager and Multi-Object Spectrograph on ESO's VLT, astronomers studied more than 6,500 galaxies over a wide range of distances to investigate how their properties vary over different timescales, in different environments and for varying galaxy luminosities [2]. They were able to build an atlas of the Universe in three dimensions, going back more than 9 billion years. This new census reveals a surprising result. The colour-density relation, that describes the relationship between the properties of a galaxy and its environment, was markedly different 7 billion years ago. The astronomers thus found that the galaxies' luminosity, their initial genetic properties, and the environments they reside in have a profound impact on their evolution. "Our results indicate that environment is a key player in galaxy evolution, but there's no simple answer to the 'nature versus nurture' problem in galaxy evolution," said Olivier Le Fèvre from the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille

  5. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). An unprecedented view of galaxies and large-scale structure at 0.5 < z < 1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Garilli, B.; Granett, B. R.; Fritz, A.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; de la Torre, S.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Hudelot, P.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zamorani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.

    2014-06-01

    We describe the construction and general features of VIPERS, the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey. This ESO Large Programme is using the Very Large Telescope with the aim of building a spectroscopic sample of ~ 100 000 galaxies with iABcontamination is found to be only 3.2%, endorsing the quality of the star-galaxy separation process and fully confirming the original estimates based on the VVDS data, which also indicate a galaxy incompleteness from this process of only 1.4%. Using a set of 1215 repeated observations, we estimate an rms redshift error σz/ (1 + z) = 4.7 × 10-4 and calibrate the internal spectral quality grading. Benefiting from the combination of size and detailed sampling of this dataset, we conclude by presenting a map showing in unprecedented detail the large-scale distribution of galaxies between 5 and 8 billion years ago. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programmes 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS website is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/

  6. The BAHAMAS project: the CMB-large-scale structure tension and the roles of massive neutrinos and galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Ian G.; Bird, Simeon; Schaye, Joop; Harnois-Deraps, Joachim; Font, Andreea S.; van Waerbeke, Ludovic

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence for tension between the constraints on Ωm and σ8 from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and measurements of large-scale structure (LSS). This tension can potentially be resolved by appealing to extensions of the standard model of cosmology and/or untreated systematic errors in the modelling of LSS, of which baryonic physics has been frequently suggested. We revisit this tension using, for the first time, carefully calibrated cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, which thus capture the backreaction of the baryons on the total matter distribution. We have extended the BAryons and HAloes of MAssive Sysmtes simulations to include a treatment of massive neutrinos, which currently represents the best-motivated extension to the standard model. We make synthetic thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, weak galaxy lensing, and CMB lensing maps and compare to observed auto- and cross-power spectra from a wide range of recent observational surveys. We conclude that: (i) in general, there is tension between the primary CMB and LSS when adopting the standard model with minimal neutrino mass; (ii) after calibrating feedback processes to match the gas fractions of clusters, the remaining uncertainties in the baryonic physics modelling are insufficient to reconcile this tension; and (iii) if one accounts for internal tensions in the Planck CMB data set (by allowing the lensing amplitude, ALens, to vary), invoking a non-minimal neutrino mass, typically of 0.2-0.4 eV, can resolve the tension. This solution is fully consistent with separate constraints from the primary CMB and baryon acoustic oscillations.

  7. Searching for dwarf spheroidal galaxies and other galactic dark matter substructures with the Fermi large area telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drlica-Wagner, Alex [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2013-08-01

    Over the past century, it has become clear that about a quarter of the known universe is composed of an invisible, massive component termed ''dark matter''. Some of the most popular theories of physics beyond the Standard Model suggest that dark matter may be a new fundamental particle that could self-annihilate to produce γ rays. Nearby over-densities in the dark matter halo of our Milky Way present some of the most promising targets for detecting the annihilation of dark matter. We used the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to search for γ rays produced by dark matter annihilation in Galactic dark matter substructures. We searched for γ-ray emission coincident with Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies, which trace the most massive Galactic dark matter substructures. We also sought to identify nearby dark matter substructures that lack all astrophysical tracers and would be detectable only through γ-ray emission from dark matter annihilation. We found no conclusive evidence for γ-ray emission from dark matter annihilation, and we set stringent and robust constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section. While γ-ray searches for dark matter substructure are currently the most sensitive and robust probes of dark matter annihilation, they are just beginning to intersect the theoretically preferred region of dark matter parameter space. Thus, we consider future prospects for increasing the sensitivity of γ-ray searches through improvements to the LAT instrument performance and through upcoming wide- field optical surveys.

  8. Probing the large-scale structure of the universe: an analysis of 55 bright southern clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olowin, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation presents the description of 55 bright, close (Z less than or equal to 0.1) clusters of galaxies as a homogeneous sample taken from a new effort to catalog galaxy clusters in the Southern Hemisphere. The positions of some 21,000 galaxies in clusters were cataloged along with visual magnitudes, morphological types, position angles of extended objects and pertinent remarks. For all of the clusters, various cluster parameters were determined and form the basis of comparative studies for these fundamental aggregates of matter in the universe. The aims of this study are to produce a homogeneous sample of galaxy clusters measured to a uniform limiting magnitude of m/sub v/ = 19.0 by means of a calibrated stepscale: catalogued with accurate positions relative to nearby astrometric standard stars; morphologically classified and population typed; and statistically analyzed in a uniform fashion to deduce certain cluster parameters. The cluster parameters of interest include an estimate of cluster distance, cluster center and cluster richness; galaxy distributions as a function of morphological type, magnitude distribution and core radius as determined by an isothermal gas sphere model

  9. Neighbours of our galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielebinski, R.

    1982-01-01

    Large telescope and radio-astronomy bring remote regions of the universe into view. Radio waves are emitted by all celestial objects. Precise examination of our own galaxy, the Milky Way, is useful for investigating more remote objects. Some of the remote galaxies are noteworthy, because they emit up to 1,000 times more radio waves than their neighbours. Centaurus A is an example of such an active galaxy. (orig.)

  10. ARCHANGEL: Galaxy Photometry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schombert, James

    2011-07-01

    ARCHANGEL is a Unix-based package for the surface photometry of galaxies. While oriented for large angular size systems (i.e. many pixels), its tools can be applied to any imaging data of any size. The package core contains routines to perform the following critical galaxy photometry functions: sky determination; frame cleaning; ellipse fitting; profile fitting; and total and isophotal magnitudes. The goal of the package is to provide an automated, assembly-line type of reduction system for galaxy photometry of space-based or ground-based imaging data. The procedures outlined in the documentation are flux independent, thus, these routines can be used for non-optical data as well as typical imaging datasets. ARCHANGEL has been tested on several current OS's (RedHat Linux, Ubuntu Linux, Solaris, Mac OS X). A tarball for installation is available at the download page. The main routines are Python and FORTRAN based, therefore, a current installation of Python and a FORTRAN compiler are required. The ARCHANGEL package also contains Python hooks to the PGPLOT package, an XML processor and network tools which automatically link to data archives (i.e. NED, HST, 2MASS, etc) to download images in a non-interactive manner.

  11. Multiclustered chimeras in large semiconductor laser arrays with nonlocal interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shena, J.; Hizanidis, J.; Hövel, P.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2017-09-01

    The dynamics of a large array of coupled semiconductor lasers is studied numerically for a nonlocal coupling scheme. Our focus is on chimera states, a self-organized spatiotemporal pattern of coexisting coherence and incoherence. In laser systems, such states have been previously found for global and nearest-neighbor coupling, mainly in small networks. The technological advantage of large arrays has motivated us to study a system of 200 nonlocally coupled lasers with respect to the emerging collective dynamics. Moreover, the nonlocal nature of the coupling allows us to obtain robust chimera states with multiple (in)coherent domains. The crucial parameters are the coupling strength, the coupling phase and the range of the nonlocal interaction. We find that multiclustered chimera states exist in a wide region of the parameter space and we provide quantitative characterization for the obtained spatiotemporal patterns. By proposing two different experimental setups for the realization of the nonlocal coupling scheme, we are confident that our results can be confirmed in the laboratory.

  12. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  13. EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXIES: THE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, M. E. [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria–Universidad de La Laguna, CIE Canarias: Tri-Continental Atlantic Campus, Canary Islands (Spain); Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nuza, S. E.; Kitaura, F.; Heß, S., E-mail: mfilho@astro.up.pt [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    We have analyzed bibliographical observational data and theoretical predictions, in order to probe the environment in which extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs) reside. We have assessed the H i component and its relation to the optical galaxy, the cosmic web type (voids, sheets, filaments and knots), the overdensity parameter and analyzed the nearest galaxy neighbors. The aim is to understand the role of interactions and cosmological accretion flows in the XMP observational properties, particularly the triggering and feeding of the star formation. We find that XMPs behave similarly to Blue Compact Dwarfs; they preferably populate low-density environments in the local universe: ∼60% occupy underdense regions, and ∼75% reside in voids and sheets. This is more extreme than the distribution of irregular galaxies, and in contrast to those regions preferred by elliptical galaxies (knots and filaments). We further find results consistent with previous observations; while the environment does determine the fraction of a certain galaxy type, it does not determine the overall observational properties. With the exception of five documented cases (four sources with companions and one recent merger), XMPs do not generally show signatures of major mergers and interactions; we find only one XMP with a companion galaxy within a distance of 100 kpc, and the H i gas in XMPs is typically well-behaved, demonstrating asymmetries mostly in the outskirts. We conclude that metal-poor accretion flows may be driving the XMP evolution. Such cosmological accretion could explain all the major XMP observational properties: isolation, lack of interaction/merger signatures, asymmetric optical morphology, large amounts of unsettled, metal-poor H i gas, metallicity inhomogeneities, and large specific star formation.

  14. Galaxies in the Diffuse Baryon Field Approaching Reionization: A Joint Study with JWST, HST, and Large Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcoe, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Our team is conducting a dedicated survey for emission-line galaxies at 5 6 quasars, using JWST/NIRCAM's slitless grism in a 110 hour GTO allocation. We have acquired deep near-IR spectra of the QSOs, revealing multiple heavy-element absorption systems and probing the HI optical depth within each object's survey volume. These data will provide the first systematic view of the circumgalactic medium at z > 4, allowing us to study early metal enrichment, correlations of the intergalactic HI optical depth with galaxy density, and the environment of the quasar hosts. These fields generally do not have deep multicolor photometry that would facilitate selection of broadband dropout galaxies for future observation with JWST/NIRSPEC. However during long spectroscopic integrations with NIRCAM's long channel we will obtain deep JWST photometry in F115W and F200W, together with F356W for wavelength calibration. Here we request 30 orbits with HST/ACS to acquire deep optical photometry that (together with the JWST IR bands) will constrain SED models and enable dropout selection of fainter objects. For lower redshift objects the rest-UV ACS data will improve estimates of star formation rate and stellar mass. Within a Small-GO program scope we will obtain sensitivity similar to CANDELS-Deep in all six fields, and approximately double the size of our galaxy sample appropriate for JWST/NIRSPEC followup at redshifts approaching the reionization epoch.

  15. Diversity among galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, M.F.; Rood, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The classification of galaxy clusters is discussed. Consideration is given to the classification scheme of Abell (1950's), Zwicky (1950's), Morgan, Matthews, and Schmidt (1964), and Morgan-Bautz (1970). Galaxies can be classified based on morphology, chemical composition, spatial distribution, and motion. The correlation between a galaxy's environment and morphology is examined. The classification scheme of Rood-Sastry (1971), which is based on clusters's morphology and galaxy population, is described. The six types of clusters they define include: (1) a cD-cluster dominated by a single large galaxy, (2) a cluster dominated by a binary, (3) a core-halo cluster, (4) a cluster dominated by several bright galaxies, (5) a cluster appearing flattened, and (6) an irregularly shaped cluster. Attention is also given to the evolution of cluster structures, which is related to initial density and cluster motion

  16. The imprint of the interaction between dark sectors in galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jian-Hua; Wang, Bin; Abdalla, Elcio; Pavon, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Based on perturbation theory, we study the dynamics of how dark matter and dark energy in the collapsing system approach dynamical equilibrium when they are in interaction. We find that the interaction between dark sectors cannot ensure the dark energy to fully cluster along with dark matter. When dark energy does not trace dark matter, we present a new treatment on studying the structure formation in the spherical collapsing system. Furthermore we examine the cluster number counts dependence on the interaction between dark sectors and analyze how dark energy inhomogeneities affect cluster abundances. It is shown that cluster number counts can provide specific signature of dark sectors interaction and dark energy inhomogeneities

  17. CHEMODYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF DWARF GALAXIES IN TIDAL FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, David; Martel, Hugo [Département de physique, de génie physique et d’optique, Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Romeo, Alessandro B., E-mail: david-john.williamson.1@ulaval.ca [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    The mass–metallicity relation shows that the galaxies with the lowest mass have the lowest metallicities. As most dwarf galaxies are in group environments, interaction effects such as tides could contribute to this trend. We perform a series of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of dwarf galaxies in external tidal fields to examine the effects of tides on their metallicities and metallicity gradients. In our simulated galaxies, gravitational instabilities drive gas inwards and produce centralized star formation and a significant metallicity gradient. Strong tides can contribute to these instabilities, but their primary effect is to strip the outer low-metallicity gas, producing a truncated gas disk with a large metallicity. This suggests that the effect of tides on the mass–metallicity relation is to move dwarf galaxies to higher metallicities.

  18. Clustering of very luminous infrared galaxies and their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, YU

    1993-01-01

    The IRAS survey reveals a class of ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies (ULIRG's) with IR luminosities comparable to the bolometric luminosities of quasars. The nature, origin, and evolution of ULIRG's are attracting more and more attention recently. Since galaxy morphology is certainly a function of environment, morphological observations show that ULIRG's are interacting/merging galaxies, and some ULIRG's might be the dust-enshrouded quasars (S88) or giant ellipticals, the study of ULIRG's environment and large scale clustering effects should be worthwhile. ULIRG's and very luminous IR galaxies have been selected from the 2Jy IRAS redshift survey. Meanwhile, a catalog of IRAS groups of galaxies has been constructed using a percolation-like algorithm. Therefore, whether ULIRG's and/or VLIRG's have a group environment can be checked immediately. Other aspects of the survey are discussed.

  19. Cold gas accretion in galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancisi, Renzo; Fraternali, Filippo; Oosterloo, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    Evidence for the accretion of cold gas in galaxies has been rapidly accumulating in the past years. HI observations of galaxies and their environment have brought to light new facts and phenomena which are evidence of ongoing or recent accretion: (1) A large number of galaxies are accompanied by

  20. Collisionless relaxation in spiral galaxy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, F.

    1974-01-01

    The increase in random kinetic energy of stars by rapidly fluctuating gravitational fields (collisionless or violent relaxation) in disk galaxy models is investigated for three interaction potentials of the stars corresponding to (1) point stars, (2) rod stars of length 2 kpc, and (3) uniform density spherical stars of radius 2 kpc. To stabilize the galaxy against the large scale bar forming instability, a fixed field corresponding to a central core or halo component of stars was added with the stars containing at most 20 percent of the total mass of the galaxy. Considerable heating occurred for both the point stars and the rod stars, whereas the use of spherical stars resulted in a very low heating rate. The use of spherical stars with the resulting low heating rate will be desirable for the study of large scale galactic stability or density wave propagation, since collective heating effects will no longer mask the phenomena under study.

  1. Cosmic rings from colliding galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitton, S

    1976-11-18

    Research on two ring galaxies has led to the proposal of an interaction model to account for the rings. It is envisaged that this class of galaxy is created when a compact galaxy crashes through the disc of a spiral galaxy. The results of a spectroscopic investigation of the galaxy known as the Cartwheel and of another ring galaxy 11 NZ 4 are discussed. The general picture of ring galaxies which emerges from these studies of a massive starry nucleus with a necklace of emitting gas and some spokes and along the spin axis of the wheel a small companion galaxy that is devoid of interstellar gas. An explanation of these properties is considered.

  2. A statistical analysis of the Einstein normal galaxy sample. III - Radio and X-ray properties of elliptical and S0 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiano, G.; Klein, U.; Trinchieri, G.; Wielebinski, R.

    1987-01-01

    Radioastronomy, optical and X-ray data were used to probe the cause of high X-ray luminosities of 28 radio-quiet elliptical galaxies (RQE) and S0 galaxies previously scanned by the Einstein Observatory. Comparisons were made with similar data on double-lobed 3CR galaxies. Radio luminosities were highly correlated with the X-ray luminosities, agreeing with models of radio nuclear sources in early-type galaxies as accreting compact objects. Additionally, 3CR galaxies seemed to be large-scale versions of normal RQE. The significance of interstellar medium/intracluster medium interactions for high correlations between the core and total radio power from X-ray emitting galaxies is discussed.

  3. Statistical analysis of the Einstein normal galaxy sample. III. Radio and X-ray properties of elliptical and S0 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbiano, G.; Klein, U.; Trinchieri, G.; Wielebinski, R.; Bonn Universitaet, West Germany; Arcetri, Osservatorio Astrofisico, Florence, Italy; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn, West Germany)

    1987-01-01

    Radioastronomy, optical and X-ray data were used to probe the cause of high X-ray luminosities of 28 radio-quiet elliptical galaxies (RQE) and S0 galaxies previously scanned by the Einstein Observatory. Comparisons were made with similar data on double-lobed 3CR galaxies. Radio luminosities were highly correlated with the X-ray luminosities, agreeing with models of radio nuclear sources in early-type galaxies as accreting compact objects. Additionally, 3CR galaxies seemed to be large-scale versions of normal RQE. The significance of interstellar medium/intracluster medium interactions for high correlations between the core and total radio power from X-ray emitting galaxies is discussed. 54 references

  4. A Numerical Study of Galaxy Formation and the Large Scale Structure of the Universe : Astrophysics and Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuyuki, YAMASHITA; Department of Physics, Kyoto University

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamical and hydrodynamical effects on the structure formation on scales of 20h^ Mpc in the Einstein de-Sitter universe by three-dimensional numerical simulation. Calculations involve cosmological expansion, self-gravity, hydrodynamics, and cooling processes with 100×100×100 mesh cells and the same number of CDM particles. Galactic bursts out of young galaxies as a heat input are parametrically taken into account. We find that the thermodynamics of the intergalactic ...

  5. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PIXEL ANALYSIS OF THE INTERACTING FACE-ON SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 5194 (M51A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Sang Chul; Park, Hong Soo; Ree, Chang Hee; Kyeong, Jaemann; Chung, Jiwon

    2011-01-01

    A pixel analysis is carried out on the interacting face-on spiral galaxy NGC 5194 (M51A), using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images in the F435W, F555W, and F814W (BVI) bands. After 4 x 4 binning of the HST/ACS images to secure a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for each pixel, we derive several quantities describing the pixel color-magnitude diagram (pCMD) of NGC 5194: blue/red color cut, red pixel sequence parameters, blue pixel sequence parameters, and blue-to-red pixel ratio. The red sequence pixels are mostly older than 1 Gyr, while the blue sequence pixels are mostly younger than 1 Gyr, in their luminosity-weighted mean stellar ages. The color variation in the red pixel sequence from V = 20 mag arcsec -2 to V = 17 mag arcsec -2 corresponds to a metallicity variation of Δ[Fe/H] ∼2 or an optical depth variation of Δτ V ∼ 4 by dust, but the actual sequence is thought to originate from the combination of those two effects. At V -2 , the color variation in the blue pixel sequence corresponds to an age variation from 5 Myr to 300 Myr under the assumption of solar metallicity and τ V = 1. To investigate the spatial distributions of stellar populations, we divide pixel stellar populations using the pixel color-color diagram and population synthesis models. As a result, we find that the pixel population distributions across the spiral arms agree with a compressing process by spiral density waves: dense dust → newly formed stars. The tidal interaction between NGC 5194 and NGC 5195 appears to enhance the star formation at the tidal bridge connecting the two galaxies. We find that the pixels corresponding to the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) area of NGC 5194 show a tight sequence at the bright-end of the pCMD, which are in the region of R ∼ 100 pc and may be a photometric indicator of AGN properties.

  6. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  7. On the interpretation of dark matter self-interactions in Abell 3827

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Kummer, Janis

    2015-01-01

    Self-interactions of dark matter (DM) particles can potentially lead to an observable separation between the DM halo and the stars of a galaxy moving through a region of large DM density. Such a separation has recently been observed in a galaxy falling into the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 3827...

  8. Gas flows in S-E binary systems of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikova, N. YA.

    1990-01-01

    Tidal interaction between the galaxies in binary systems leads to important consequences. Some peculiarities in galactic morphology as well as the transfer of matter from one galaxy to another may be due to this factor. In particular, gas flows in intergalactic space may be formed. Such flows enriching one component with gas from the other may play a substantial role in the evolution of mixed (S-E) pairs. One can mention several facts corroborating the possibility of the gas transfer from the spiral to the elliptical galaxy. High HI content (10(exp 7) to 10(exp 9) solar mass) is detected in nearly 40 E galaxies (Bottinelli and Gougenheim, 1979; Knapp et al., 1985). Such galaxies are often members of pairs or of multiple systems including an S galaxy, which may be the source of gas (Smirnov and Komberg, 1980). Moreover, the gas kinematics and its distribution also indicate an external origin for this gas (Knapp et al., 1985). In many cases there is an outer gaseous disk. The directions of the disk and of stellar rotation don't always coincide (van Gorkom et al., 1985; Varnas et al., 1987). The galaxy colors in S-E pairs are correlated (the Holmberg effect): bluer ellipticals have spiral components that are usually bluer (Demin et al., 1984). The fraction of E galaxies with emission lines (N sub em) in S-E pairs showing traces of tidal interaction is twice as large (N sub em approx. equals 0.24) as in pairs without interaction (N sub em approx. equals 0.12) (Sotnikova, 1988b). Since the presence of emission lines in a galaxy spectrum strongly depends on gas content, this fact also leads to the conclusion that ellipticals in interacting S-E pairs are enriched with gas. These facts may be considered as a serious indication of the existence of gas transfer. Hence, investigation of this process is of interest.

  9. Diffuse γ-ray emission observed by the Fermi large area telescope: massive stars, cosmic rays and the census of the interstellar medium in the galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibaldo, L.

    2011-01-01

    Galactic diffuse γ-ray emission is produced by interactions of cosmic rays (CRs) with interstellar gas and low-energy radiation fields. This is the brightest component of the high-energy γ-ray sky, surveyed since 2008 with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Galactic diffuse emission constitutes not only a bright and structured background which needs to be modeled in order to study individual sources and fainter diffuse components, but it can be used also as a probe of the interstellar environment of the Milky Way. We present in-depth studies of LAT γ-ray observations of selected regions in the local and outer Galaxy. LAT data are compared with multiwavelength tracers of the interstellar medium (ISM), including radio/mm-wave lines of gas and infrared emission/extinction from dust. The impact of the HI optical depth, often overlooked in the past, is carefully examined and recognized currently as the dominant source of uncertainty in the interpretation of observations. On one hand, we discuss the constraints provided by the γ-ray data on the census of the interstellar gas. We determine the X C O = N(H 2 )/W C O ratio for several clouds, finding no significant gradients in the Galactic disc over a range of ∼ 3.5 kpc in Galactocentric radius, and variations of a factor ≤ 2 in nearby local clouds. We also find evidence for an ubiquitous dark phase of interstellar gas which does not shine at radio/mm wavelengths and which provides a mass ∼ 50% of that traced by CO. For the first time we determine its γ-ray spectrum which is found to be well correlated with that of HI, thus further confirming that the emission originates from interstellar gas. On the other hand, we use the emissivity per hydrogen atom to infer the distribution of CRs in distant locations not accessible by direct measurements. While the local HI emissivity is consistent with the CR spectra measured near

  10. WITNESSING THE KEY EARLY PHASE OF QUASAR EVOLUTION: AN OBSCURED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS PAIR IN THE INTERACTING GALAXY IRAS 20210+1121

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piconcelli, Enrico; Fiore, Fabrizio; Maiolino, Roberto; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Vignali, Cristian; Bianchi, Stefano; Mathur, Smita; Guainazzi, Matteo; Lanzuisi, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) pair in the interacting galaxy system IRAS 20210+1121 at z = 0.056. An XMM-Newton observation reveals the presence of an obscured (N H ∼ 5 x 10 23 cm -2 ), Seyfert-like (L 2-10keV = 4.7 x 10 42 erg s -1 ) nucleus in the northern galaxy, which lacks unambiguous optical AGN signatures. Our spectral analysis also provides strong evidence that the IR-luminous southern galaxy hosts a Type 2 quasar embedded in a bright starburst emission. In particular, the X-ray primary continuum from the nucleus appears totally depressed in the XMM-Newton band as expected in the case of a Compton-thick absorber, and only the emission produced by Compton scattering ('reflection') of the continuum from circumnuclear matter is seen. As such, IRAS 20210+1121 seems to provide an excellent opportunity to witness a key, early phase in the quasar evolution predicted by the theoretical models of quasar activation by galaxy collisions.

  11. The catalog of edge-on disk galaxies from SDSS. I. The catalog and the structural parameters of stellar disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizyaev, D. V. [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, Sunspot, NM, 88349 (United States); Kautsch, S. J. [Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314 (United States); Mosenkov, A. V. [Central Astronomical Observatory of RAS (Russian Federation); Reshetnikov, V. P.; Sotnikova, N. Ya.; Yablokova, N. V. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Hillyer, R. W. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We present a catalog of true edge-on disk galaxies automatically selected from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). A visual inspection of the g, r, and i images of about 15,000 galaxies allowed us to split the initial sample of edge-on galaxy candidates into 4768 (31.8% of the initial sample) genuine edge-on galaxies, 8350 (55.7%) non-edge-on galaxies, and 1865 (12.5%) edge-on galaxies not suitable for simple automatic analysis because these objects either show signs of interaction and warps, or nearby bright stars project on it. We added more candidate galaxies from RFGC, EFIGI, RC3, and Galaxy Zoo catalogs found in the SDSS footprints. Our final sample consists of 5747 genuine edge-on galaxies. We estimate the structural parameters of the stellar disks (the stellar disk thickness, radial scale length, and central surface brightness) in the galaxies by analyzing photometric profiles in each of the g, r, and i images. We also perform simplified three-dimensional modeling of the light distribution in the stellar disks of edge-on galaxies from our sample. Our large sample is intended to be used for studying scaling relations in the stellar disks and bulges and for estimating parameters of the thick disks in different types of galaxies via the image stacking. In this paper, we present the sample selection procedure and general description of the sample.

  12. Interaction of Supernova Remnants with Interstellar Clouds: From the Nova Laser to the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Richard I.; Budil, Kimberly S.; Perry, Theodore S.; Bach, David R.

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of strong shock waves, such as those generated by the explosion of supernovae with interstellar clouds, is a problem of fundamental importance in understanding the evolution and the dynamics of the interstellar medium (ISM) as it is disrupted by shock waves. The physics of this essential interaction sheds light on several key questions: (1) What is the rate and total amount of gas stripped from the cloud, and what are the mechanisms responsible? (2) What is the rate of momentum transfer to the cloud? (3) What is the appearance of the shocked cloud, its morphology and velocity dispersion? (4) What is the role of vortex dynamics on the evolution of the cloud? (5) Can the interaction result in the formation of a new generation of stars? To address these questions, one of us has embarked on a comprehensive multidimensional numerical study of the shock cloud problem using high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hydrodynamics. Here we present the results of a series of Nova laser experiments investigating the evolution of a high-density sphere embedded in a low-density medium after the passage of a strong shock wave, thereby emulating the supernova shock-cloud interaction. The Nova laser was utilized to generate a strong (∼Mach 10) shock wave which traveled along a miniature beryllium shock tube, 750 μm in diameter, filled with a low-density plastic emulating the ISM. Embedded in the plastic was a copper microsphere (100 μm in diameter) emulating the interstellar cloud. Its morphology and evolution as well as the shock wave trajectory were diagnosed via side-on radiography. We describe here experimental results of this interaction for the first time out to several cloud crushing times and compare them to detailed two- and three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations using both arbitrary Lagrangian and Eulerian hydrodynamics (ALE) as well as high-resolution AMR hydrodynamics. We briefly discuss the key hydrodynamic instabilities

  13. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alka; Kantharia, Nimisha G.; Das, Mousumi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present radio observations of the giant low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies made using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). LSB galaxies are generally large, dark matter dominated spirals that have low star formation efficiencies and large HI gas disks. Their properties suggest that they are less evolved compared to high surface brightness galaxies. We present GMRT emission maps of LSB galaxies with an optically-identified active nucleus. Using our radio data and archival near-infrared (2MASS) and near-ultraviolet (GALEX) data, we studied morphology and star formation efficiencies in these galaxies. All the galaxies show radio continuum emission mostly associated with the centre of the galaxy.

  14. DWARF GALAXIES AND THE COSMIC WEB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez-Llambay, Alejandro; Abadi, Mario G. [Observatorio Astronomico, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba X5000BGR (Argentina); Navarro, Julio F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Gottloeber, Stefan; Steinmetz, Matthias [Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Yepes, Gustavo [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Hoffman, Yehuda [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2013-02-01

    We use a cosmological simulation of the formation of the Local Group of Galaxies to identify a mechanism that enables the removal of baryons from low-mass halos without appealing to feedback or reionization. As the Local Group forms, matter bound to it develops a network of filaments and pancakes. This moving web of gas and dark matter drifts and sweeps a large volume, overtaking many halos in the process. The dark matter content of these halos is unaffected but their gas can be efficiently removed by ram pressure. The loss of gas is especially pronounced in low-mass halos due to their lower binding energy and has a dramatic effect on the star formation history of affected systems. This 'cosmic web stripping' may help to explain the scarcity of dwarf galaxies compared with the numerous low-mass halos expected in {Lambda}CDM and the large diversity of star formation histories and morphologies characteristic of faint galaxies. Although our results are based on a single high-resolution simulation, it is likely that the hydrodynamical interaction of dwarf galaxies with the cosmic web is a crucial ingredient so far missing from galaxy formation models.

  15. Dwarf Galaxies and the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Llambay, Alejandro; Navarro, Julio F.; Abadi, Mario G.; Gottlöber, Stefan; Yepes, Gustavo; Hoffman, Yehuda; Steinmetz, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    We use a cosmological simulation of the formation of the Local Group of Galaxies to identify a mechanism that enables the removal of baryons from low-mass halos without appealing to feedback or reionization. As the Local Group forms, matter bound to it develops a network of filaments and pancakes. This moving web of gas and dark matter drifts and sweeps a large volume, overtaking many halos in the process. The dark matter content of these halos is unaffected but their gas can be efficiently removed by ram pressure. The loss of gas is especially pronounced in low-mass halos due to their lower binding energy and has a dramatic effect on the star formation history of affected systems. This "cosmic web stripping" may help to explain the scarcity of dwarf galaxies compared with the numerous low-mass halos expected in ΛCDM and the large diversity of star formation histories and morphologies characteristic of faint galaxies. Although our results are based on a single high-resolution simulation, it is likely that the hydrodynamical interaction of dwarf galaxies with the cosmic web is a crucial ingredient so far missing from galaxy formation models.

  16. DWARF GALAXIES AND THE COSMIC WEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benítez-Llambay, Alejandro; Abadi, Mario G.; Navarro, Julio F.; Gottlöber, Stefan; Steinmetz, Matthias; Yepes, Gustavo; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    We use a cosmological simulation of the formation of the Local Group of Galaxies to identify a mechanism that enables the removal of baryons from low-mass halos without appealing to feedback or reionization. As the Local Group forms, matter bound to it develops a network of filaments and pancakes. This moving web of gas and dark matter drifts and sweeps a large volume, overtaking many halos in the process. The dark matter content of these halos is unaffected but their gas can be efficiently removed by ram pressure. The loss of gas is especially pronounced in low-mass halos due to their lower binding energy and has a dramatic effect on the star formation history of affected systems. This 'cosmic web stripping' may help to explain the scarcity of dwarf galaxies compared with the numerous low-mass halos expected in ΛCDM and the large diversity of star formation histories and morphologies characteristic of faint galaxies. Although our results are based on a single high-resolution simulation, it is likely that the hydrodynamical interaction of dwarf galaxies with the cosmic web is a crucial ingredient so far missing from galaxy formation models.

  17. On the strong influence of molecular interactions over large distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of liquid water show deterministic chaos, i.e. an intentionally introduced molecular position shift of an individual molecule increases exponentially by a factor of 10 in 0.23 ps. This is a Lyaponov instability. As soon as it reaches molecular scale, the direction of the resulting shift in molecular motions is unpredictable. The influence of any individual distant particle on an observed molecule will be minute, but the effect will quickly increase to molecular scale and beyond due to this exponential growth. Consequently, any individual particle in the universe will affect the behavior of any molecule within at most 33 ps after the interaction reaches it. A larger distance of the faraway particle does not decrease the influence on an observed molecule, but the effect reaches molecular scale only some ps later. Thus in evaluating the interactions, nearby and faraway molecules have to be equally accounted for. The consequences of this quickly reacting network of interactions on universal scale are fundamental. Even in a strictly deterministic view, molecular behavior is principally unpredictable, and thus has to be regarded random. Corresponding statements apply for any particles interacting. This result leads to a fundamental rethinking of the structure of interactions of molecules and particles as well as the behavior of reality.

  18. A relation between the characteristic stellar ages of galaxies and their intrinsic shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Jesse; Scott, Nicholas; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Bryant, Julia J.; Colless, Matthew; Cortese, Luca; Croom, Scott M.; d'Eugenio, Francesco; Foster, Caroline; Goodwin, Michael; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; McDermid, Richard M.; Medling, Anne M.; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel N.; Sharp, Rob

    2018-04-01

    Stellar population and stellar kinematic studies provide unique but complementary insights into how galaxies build-up their stellar mass and angular momentum1-3. A galaxy's mean stellar age reveals when stars were formed, but provides little constraint on how the galaxy's mass was assembled. Resolved stellar dynamics4 trace the change in angular momentum due to mergers, but major mergers tend to obscure the effect of earlier interactions5. With the rise of large multi-object integral field spectroscopic surveys, such as SAMI6 and MaNGA7, and single-object integral field spectroscopic surveys (for example, ATLAS3D (ref. 8), CALIFA9, MASSIVE10), it is now feasible to connect a galaxy's star formation and merger history on the same resolved physical scales, over a large range in galaxy mass, morphology and environment4,11,12. Using the SAMI Galaxy Survey, here we present a combined study of spatially resolved stellar kinematics and global stellar populations. We find a strong correlation of stellar population age with location in the (V/σ, ɛe) diagram that links the ratio of ordered rotation to random motions in a galaxy to its observed ellipticity. For the large majority of galaxies that are oblate rotating spheroids, we find that characteristic stellar age follows the intrinsic ellipticity of galaxies remarkably well.

  19. A relation between the characteristic stellar ages of galaxies and their intrinsic shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Jesse; Scott, Nicholas; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Bryant, Julia J.; Colless, Matthew; Cortese, Luca; Croom, Scott M.; d'Eugenio, Francesco; Foster, Caroline; Goodwin, Michael; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; McDermid, Richard M.; Medling, Anne M.; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel N.; Sharp, Rob

    2018-06-01

    Stellar population and stellar kinematic studies provide unique but complementary insights into how galaxies build-up their stellar mass and angular momentum1-3. A galaxy's mean stellar age reveals when stars were formed, but provides little constraint on how the galaxy's mass was assembled. Resolved stellar dynamics4 trace the change in angular momentum due to mergers, but major mergers tend to obscure the effect of earlier interactions5. With the rise of large multi-object integral field spectroscopic surveys, such as SAMI6 and MaNGA7, and single-object integral field spectroscopic surveys (for example, ATLAS3D (ref. 8), CALIFA9, MASSIVE10), it is now feasible to connect a galaxy's star formation and merger history on the same resolved physical scales, over a large range in galaxy mass, morphology and environment4,11,12. Using the SAMI Galaxy Survey, here we present a combined study of spatially resolved stellar kinematics and global stellar populations. We find a strong correlation of stellar population age with location in the (V/σ, ɛe) diagram that links the ratio of ordered rotation to random motions in a galaxy to its observed ellipticity. For the large majority of galaxies that are oblate rotating spheroids, we find that characteristic stellar age follows the intrinsic ellipticity of galaxies remarkably well.

  20. The Seyfert galaxy population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meurs, E.

    1982-01-01

    A large sample of Seyfert galaxies, many of which are Markarian galaxies, has been observed with the WSRT in lambda 21 cm continuum radiation. The results are presented, and the number of radio detected Seyferts has now increased considerably. A number of accurate optical positions are given that were needed to identify radio sources with the Seyfert galaxies observed. Optical and radio luminosity functions of Seyfert galaxies are derived. The results are compared with such functions for other categories of objects that may be related to these galaxies. The discussions focus on the possible connections between normal galaxies, Seyferts, and optically selected quasars. Three investigations are reported on individual objects that are related to Seyfert galaxies. WSRT observations of four bright, optically selected quasars are presented. The identification of an X-ray discovered BL Lacertae object is discussed. Its radio emission is on a much lower level than for other BL Lacs. Perhaps it is a radio-quiet object in this class, suggesting a comparable difference in radio emission for BL Lacs as is known for quasars. Photo-electric photometry for the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1566 is reported. Besides a monitoring programme, multi-aperture photometry is described. (Auth.)

  1. Visibility of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that counts of galaxies could be seriously biased by selection effects, largely influenced by the brightness of the night sky. To illustrate this suppose the Earth were situated near the center of a giant elliptical galaxy. The mean surface brightness of the sky would then appear some 8 to 9 mag. brighter than is observed from our position in the Galaxy. Extragalactic space would then appear to be empty void; spiral and irregular galaxies would be invisible, and all that could be easily detected would be the core regions of galaxy ellipticals very similar to our own. Much of the Universe would be blinded by the surface brightness of the parent galaxy. This blinding, however, is a relative matter and the question arises as to what extent we are blinded by the spiral galaxy in which we exist. Strong indirect evidence exists that our knowledge of galaxies is heavily biased by the sky background, and the true population of extragalactic space may be very different from that seen. Other relevant work is also discussed, and further investigational work is indicated. (U.K.)

  2. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis interactions with large mammals in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behaviour on Cattle Egret numbers and distribution. Cattle Egrets ... Egret activity was classified as stationary, flying, foraging, or vigilant, while large mammal activity was .... ivLev v.s. 1961. Experimental ecology of the feeding of fishes.

  3. Interaction between users of large and small research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    An attitude of cooperation rather than competition should and does exist between large and small reactor centers with regard to neutron scattering. Two areas of clear mutual interest are the development of user communities and the development of improved instrumentation. The current situation in Europe and the United States is examined and contrasted for these two areas. A recommendation is advanced for increased cooperation in the US between large and small reactor centers in the education and training of neutron scattering users

  4. Software Tools For Large Scale Interactive Hydrodynamic Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; van Dam, A; Jagers, B; van der Pijl, S.; Piasecki, M.

    2014-01-01

    Developing easy-to-use software that combines components for simultaneous visualization, simulation and interaction is a great challenge. Mainly, because it involves a number of disciplines, like computational fluid dynamics, computer graphics, high-performance computing. One of the main

  5. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  6. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN GALAXY MERGERS AND STARBURST: EVIDENCE FROM THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Wentao; Yang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Youcai

    2014-01-01

    Major mergers and interactions between gas-rich galaxies with comparable masses are thought to be the main triggers of starburst. In this work, we study, for a large stellar mass range, the interaction rate of the starburst galaxies in the local universe. We focus independently on central and satellite star forming galaxies extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Here the starburst galaxies are selected in the star formation rate (SFR) stellar mass plane with SFRs five times larger than the median value found for ''star forming'' galaxies of the same stellar mass. Through visual inspection of their images together with close companions determined using spectroscopic redshifts, we find that ∼50% of the ''starburst'' populations show evident merger features, i.e., tidal tails, bridges between galaxies, double cores, and close companions. In contrast, in the control sample we selected from the normal star forming galaxies, only ∼19% of galaxies are associated with evident mergers. The interaction rates may increase by ∼5% for the starburst sample and 2% for the control sample if close companions determined using photometric redshifts are considered. The contrast of the merger rate between the two samples strengthens the hypothesis that mergers and interactions are indeed the main causes of starburst

  7. The interaction region of the large detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    design to study alternatives, e.g. the surface assembly of the detector. References. [1] T Behnke et al, Eds., TESLA Technical Design Report Part IV, DESY 2001-011, 2001. [2] The LDC Working Group: Detector outline document for the large detector concept, http://www.ilcldc.org/documents/dod/ (2006). Pramana – J. Phys.

  8. Superclusters and galaxy formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einasto, J; Joeveer, M; Saar, E [Tartu Astrophysical Observatory, Toravere, Estonia (USSR)

    1980-01-03

    A study of the structure of superclusters in the Southern galactic hemisphere using Zwicky clusters as principal tracers of the large-scale structure of the Universe is reported. The data presented suggest that the formation of galaxies was a two stage process involving larger spatial dimensions than earlier workers have postulated. In the first stage proto-superclusters and big holes had to form from the non-dissipative dark matter while in the second hot gas, by cooling and settling down into the potential wells caused by dark matter, will form galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

  9. The galaxy ancestor problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, M. J.; Lang, R. H.

    2012-11-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) findsgalaxies whose Tolman dimming exceeds 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore the latter hypothesis and argue that surface brightness selection effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus, the HST z = 7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighbourhood easily today. Conversely, the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbours would have completely sunk below the sky at z > 1.2, unless they were more luminous in the past, although their diffused light could account for the missing re-ionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well even without evolution, including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightness found in deep fields, the angular size ˜(1 + z)-1 law, 'downsizing' which turns out to be an 'illusion' in the sense that it does not imply evolution, 'infant mortality', that is, the discrepancy between stars born and stars seen, the existence of 'red nuggets', and finally the recently discovered and unexpected excess of quasar absorption line damped Lyα systems at high redshift. If galaxies were not significantly brighter in the past and the SPDH were true, then a large proportion of galaxies could remain sunk from sight, possibly at all redshifts, and these sunken galaxies could supply the missing re-ionization flux. We show that fishing these sunken galaxies out of the sky by their optical emissions alone is practically impossible, even when they are nearby. More ingenious methods are needed to detect them. It follows that disentangling galaxy evolution through studying ever higher redshift galaxies may be a forlorn hope because one could

  10. On the interaction of the PKS B1358–113 radio galaxy with the A1836 cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stawarz, Ł.; Simionescu, A.; Hagino, K. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Szostek, A.; Kozieł-Wierzbowska, D.; Ostrowski, M. [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ulica Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków (Poland); Cheung, C. C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Siemiginowska, A.; Harris, D. E. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Werner, N. [KIPAC, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Madejski, G. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Begelman, M. C., E-mail: stawarz@astro.isas.jaxa.jp [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    Here we present the analysis of multifrequency data gathered for the Fanaroff-Riley type-II (FR II) radio galaxy PKS B1358-113, hosted in the brightest cluster galaxy in the center of A1836. The galaxy harbors one of the most massive black holes known to date, and our analysis of the acquired optical data reveals that this black hole is only weakly active, with a mass accretion rate M-dot {sub acc}∼2×10{sup −4} M-dot {sub Edd}∼0.02 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup –1}. Based on analysis of new Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations and archival radio data, and assuming the well-established model for the evolution of FR II radio galaxies, we derive the preferred range for the jet kinetic luminosity L {sub j} ∼ (1-6) × 10{sup –3} L {sub Edd} ∼ (0.5-3) × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup –1}. This is above the values implied by various scaling relations proposed for radio sources in galaxy clusters, being instead very close to the maximum jet power allowed for the given accretion rate. We also constrain the radio source lifetime as τ{sub j} ∼ 40-70 Myr, meaning the total amount of deposited jet energy E {sub tot} ∼ (2-8) × 10{sup 60} erg. We argue that approximately half of this energy goes into shock heating of the surrounding thermal gas, and the remaining 50% is deposited into the internal energy of the jet cavity. The detailed analysis of the X-ray data provides indication for the presence of a bow shock driven by the expanding radio lobes into the A1836 cluster environment. We derive the corresponding shock Mach number in the range M{sub sh}∼2--4, which is one of the highest claimed for clusters or groups of galaxies. This, together with the recently growing evidence that powerful FR II radio galaxies may not be uncommon in the centers of clusters at higher redshifts, supports the idea that jet-induced shock heating may indeed play an important role in shaping the properties of clusters, galaxy groups, and galaxies in formation. In this context, we speculate on

  11. Hot Gas Halos in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulchaey, John

    Most galaxy formation models predict that massive low-redshift disk galaxies are embedded in extended hot halos of externally accreted gas. Such gas appears necessary to maintain ongoing star formation in isolated spirals like the Milky Way. To explain the large population of red galaxies in rich groups and clusters, most galaxy evolution models assume that these hot gas halos are stripped completely when a galaxy enters a denser environment. This simple model has been remarkably successful at reproducing many observed properties of galaxies. Although theoretical arguments suggest hot gas halos are an important component in galaxies, we know very little about this gas from an observational standpoint. In fact, previous observations have failed to detect soft X-ray emission from such halos in disk galaxies. Furthermore, the assumption that hot gas halos are stripped completely when a galaxy enters a group or cluster has not been verified. We propose to combine proprietary and archival XMM-Newton observations of galaxies in the field, groups and clusters to study how hot gas halos are impacted by environment. Our proposed program has three components: 1) The deepest search to date for a hot gas halo in a quiescent spiral galaxy. A detection will confirm a basic tenet of disk galaxy formation models, whereas a non-detection will seriously challenge these models and impose new constraints on the growth mode and feedback history of disk galaxies. 2) A detailed study of the hot gas halos properties of field early-type galaxies. As environmental processes such as stripping are not expected to be important in the field, a study of hot gas halos in this environment will allow us to better understand how feedback and other internal processes impact hot gas halos. 3) A study of hot gas halos in the outskirts of groups and clusters. By comparing observations with our suite of simulations we can begin to understand what role the stripping of hot gas halos plays in galaxy

  12. Large grazers modify effects of aboveground-belowground interactions on small-scale plant community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, G. F. (Ciska); Geuverink, Elzemiek; Olff, Han; Schmid, Bernhard

    Aboveground and belowground organisms influence plant community composition by local interactions, and their scale of impact may vary from millimeters belowground to kilometers aboveground. However, it still poorly understood how large grazers that select their forage on large spatial scales

  13. Large grazers modify effects of aboveground–belowground interactions on small-scale plant community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, G.F.; Geuverink, E.; Olff, H.

    2012-01-01

    Aboveground and belowground organisms influence plant community composition by local interactions, and their scale of impact may vary from millimeters belowground to kilometers aboveground. However, it still poorly understood how large grazers that select their forage on large spatial scales

  14. Tidal Dwarf Galaxies and Missing Baryons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Bournaud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tidal dwarf galaxies form during the interaction, collision, or merger of massive spiral galaxies. They can resemble “normal” dwarf galaxies in terms of mass, size, and become dwarf satellites orbiting around their massive progenitor. They nevertheless keep some signatures from their origin, making them interesting targets for cosmological studies. In particular, they should be free from dark matter from a spheroidal halo. Flat rotation curves and high dynamical masses may then indicate the presence of an unseen component, and constrain the properties of the “missing baryons,” known to exist but not directly observed. The number of dwarf galaxies in the Universe is another cosmological problem for which it is important to ascertain if tidal dwarf galaxies formed frequently at high redshift, when the merger rate was high, and many of them survived until today. In this paper, “dark matter” is used to refer to the nonbaryonic matter, mostly located in large dark halos, that is, CDM in the standard paradigm, and “missing baryons” or “dark baryons” is used to refer to the baryons known to exist but hardly observed at redshift zero, and are a baryonic dark component that is additional to “dark matter”.

  15. Rebuilding Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Major Observing Programme Leads to New Theory of Galaxy Formation Summary Most present-day large galaxies are spirals, presenting a disc surrounding a central bulge. Famous examples are our own Milky Way or the Andromeda Galaxy. When and how did these spiral galaxies form? Why do a great majority of them present a massive central bulge? An international team of astronomers [1] presents new convincing answers to these fundamental questions. For this, they rely on an extensive dataset of observations of galaxies taken with several space- and ground-based telescopes. In particular, they used over a two-year period, several instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope. Among others, their observations reveal that roughly half of the present-day stars were formed in the period between 8,000 million and 4,000 million years ago, mostly in episodic burst of intense star formation occurring in Luminous Infrared Galaxies. From this and other evidence, the astronomers devised an innovative scenario, dubbed the "spiral rebuilding". They claim that most present-day spiral galaxies are the results of one or several merger events. If confirmed, this new scenario could revolutionise the way astronomers think galaxies formed. PR Photo 02a/05: Luminosity - Oxygen Abundance Relation for Galaxies (VLT) PR Photo 02b/05: The Spiral Rebuilding Scenario A fleet of instruments How and when did galaxies form? How and when did stars form in these island universes? These questions are still posing a considerable challenge to present-day astronomers. Front-line observational results obtained with a fleet of ground- and space-based telescopes by an international team of astronomers [1] provide new insights into these fundamental issues. For this, they embarked on an ambitious long-term study at various wavelengths of 195 galaxies with a redshift [2] greater than 0.4, i.e. located more than 4000 million light-years away. These galaxies were studied using ESO's Very Large Telescope, as well as the

  16. Dynamical processes in galaxy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, Francoise

    2012-01-01

    How does the gas get in nuclear regions to fuel black holes? How efficient is the feedback? The different processes to cause rapid gas inflow (or outflow) in galaxy centers are reviewed. Non axisymmetries can be created or maintained by internal disk instabilities, or galaxy interactions. Simulations and observations tell us that the fueling is a chaotic and intermittent process, with different scenarios and time-scales, according to the various radial scales across a galaxy.

  17. Automated galaxy surface photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawson, M.G.M.; Kibblewhite, E.J.; Disney, M.J.; Phillipps, S.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional surface photometry of a very large number of galaxies on a deep Schmidt plate has been obtained using the Automatic Plate Measuring System (APM). A method of photometric calibration, suitable for APM measurements, via pixel-by-pixel comparison with CCD frames of a number of the brighter galaxies is described and its advantages are discussed. The same method is used to demonstrate the consistency of measurement of the APM machine when used for surface photometry. (author)

  18. Far-infrared line images of dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poglitsch, A.; Geis, N.; Herrmann, F.; Madden, S. C.; Stacey, G. J.; Townes, C. H.; Genzel, R.

    1993-01-01

    Irregular dwarf galaxies are about ten times more widespread in the universe than regular spiral galaxies. They are characterized by a relatively low metallicity, i.e., lower abundance of the heavier elements (metals) with respect to hydrogen than in the solar neighborhood. These heavier elements in the form of molecules, atoms, or ions, which have radiative transitions in the infrared play a decisive role in the energy balance of the ISM and thereby for the formation of stars. Dwarf galaxies are thus model cases for the physical conditions in the early phase of the universe. Large Magellanic Cloud: 30 Doradus. The two nearest dwarf galaxies are the Magellanic clouds at a distance approximately 50 kpc. The LMC contains 30 Dor, a region with young, extremely massive stars which strongly interact with the surrounding ISM on account of their stellar winds and intense UV radiation. 30 Dor is the brightest object in the LMC at almost all wavelengths.

  19. Nearby Galaxies: Templates for Galaxies Across Cosmic Time

    OpenAIRE

    Lockman, F. J.; Ott, J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of nearby galaxies including the Milky Way have provided fundamental information on the evolution of structure in the Universe, the existence and nature of dark matter, the origin and evolution of galaxies, and the global features of star formation. Yet despite decades of work, many of the most basic aspects of galaxies and their environments remain a mystery. In this paper we describe some outstanding problems in this area and the ways in which large radio facilities will contribute ...

  20. Faraday rotation at low frequencies: magnetoionic material of the large FRII radio galaxy PKS J0636-2036

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, S. P.; Lenc, E.; Anderson, C. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Murphy, T.

    2018-04-01

    We present a low-frequency, broad-band polarization study of the FRII radio galaxy PKS J0636-2036 (z = 0.0551), using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) from 70 to 230 MHz. The northern and southern hotspots (separated by ˜14.5 arcmin on the sky) are resolved by the MWA (3.3 arcmin resolution) and both are detected in linear polarization across the full frequency range. A combination of Faraday rotation measure (RM) synthesis and broad-band polarization model fitting is used to constrain the Faraday depolarization properties of the source. For the integrated southern hotspot emission, two-RM-component models are strongly favoured over a single RM component, and the best-fitting model requires Faraday dispersions of approximately 0.7 and 1.2 rad m-2 (with a mean RM of ˜50 rad m-2). High-resolution imaging at 5 arcsec with the Australia Telescope Compact Array shows significant sub-structure in the southern hotspot and highlights some of the limitations in the polarization modelling of the MWA data. Based on the observed depolarization, combined with extrapolations of gas density scaling relations for group environments, we estimate magnetic field strengths in the intergalactic medium between ˜0.04 and 0.5 μG. We also comment on future prospects of detecting more polarized sources at low frequencies.

  1. Low-Surface-Brightness Galaxies: Hidden Galaxies Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothun, G.; Impey, C.; McGaugh, S.

    1997-07-01

    In twenty years, low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies have evolved from being an idiosyncratic notion to being one of the major baryonic repositories in the Universe. The story of their discovery and the characterization of their properties is told here. Their recovery from the noise of the night sky background is a strong testament to the severity of surface brightness selection effects. LSB galaxies have a number of remarkable properties which distinguish them from the more familiar Hubble Sequence of spirals. The two most important are 1) they evolve at a significantly slower rate and may well experience star formation outside of the molecular cloud environment, 2) they are embedded in dark matter halos which are of lower density and more extended than the halos around high surface brightness (HSB) disk galaxies. Compared to HSB disks, LSB disks are strongly dark matter dominated at all radii and show a systematic increase in $M/L$ with decreasing central surface brightness. In addition, the recognition that large numbers of LSB galaxies actually exist has changed the form of the galaxy luminosity function and has clearly increased the space density of galaxies at z =0. Recent CCD surveys have uncovered a population of red LSB disks that may be related to the excess of faint blue galaxies detected at moderate redshifts. LSB galaxies offer us a new window into galaxy evolution and formation which is every bit as important as those processes which have produced easy to detect galaxies. Indeed, the apparent youth of some LSB galaxies suggest that galaxy formation is a greatly extended process. While the discovery of LSB galaxies have lead to new insights, it remains unwise to presume that we now have a representative sample which encompasses all galaxy types and forms. (SECTION: Invited Review Paper)

  2. Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into `bulgy' (early-type) and `discy' (late-type) spirals using the SDSS fracdeV (or fDeV) parameter and show that the average face-on colour of `bulgy' spirals is redder than the average edge-on colour of `discy' spirals. This shows that the observed optical colour of a spiral galaxy is determined almost equally by the spiral type (via the bulge-disc ratio and stellar populations), and reddening due to dust. We find that both luminosity and spiral type affect the total amount of extinction, with discy spirals at Mr ~ -21.5mag having the most reddening - more than twice as much as both the lowest luminosity and most massive, bulge-dominated spirals. An increase in dust content is well known for more luminous galaxies, but the decrease of the trend for the most luminous has not been observed before and may be related to their lower levels of recent star formation. We compare our results with the latest dust attenuation models of Tuffs et al. We find that the model reproduces the observed trends reasonably well but overpredicts the amount of u-band attenuation in edge-on galaxies. This could be an inadequacy in the Milky Way extinction law (when applied to external galaxies), but more likely indicates the need for a wider range of dust-star geometries. We end by discussing the effects of dust on large galaxy surveys and emphasize that these effects will become important as we push to higher precision measurements of galaxy properties and their clustering. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than

  3. Lithium-lead/water interaction. Large break experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savatteri, C.; Gemelli, A.

    1991-01-01

    One current concept in fusion blanket module design is to utilize water as coolant and liquid lithium-lead as breeding/neutron-multiplier material. Considering the possibility of certain off-normal events, it is possible that water leakage into the liquid metal may occur due to a tube rupture. The lithium-lead/water contact can lead to a thermal and chemical reaction which should provoke an intolerable pressure increase in the blanket module. For realistic simulation of such in-blanket events, the Blanket Safety Test (BLAST) facility has been built. It simulates the transient event by injecting subcooled water under high pressure into a stagnant pool of about 500 kg liquid Pb-17Li. Eight fully instrumented large break tests were carried out under different conditions. The aim of the experiments is to study the chemical and thermal process and particularly: The pressurization history of the reaction vessel, the formation and deposition of the reaction products, the identification and propagation of the reaction zones and the temperature transient in the liquid metal. In this paper the results of all tests performed are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  4. Stellar feedback in galaxies and the origin of galaxy-scale winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman

    2012-04-01

    Feedback from massive stars is believed to play a critical role in driving galactic super-winds that enrich the intergalactic medium and shape the galaxy mass function, mass-metallicity relation and other global galaxy properties. In previous papers, we have introduced new numerical methods for implementing stellar feedback on sub-giant molecular cloud (sub-GMC) through galactic scales in numerical simulations of galaxies; the key physical processes include radiation pressure in the ultraviolet through infrared, supernovae (Type I and Type II), stellar winds ('fast' O star through 'slow' asymptotic giant branch winds), and H II photoionization. Here, we show that these feedback mechanisms drive galactic winds with outflow rates as high as ˜10-20 times the galaxy star formation rate. The mass-loading efficiency (wind mass-loss rate divided by the star formation rate) scales roughly as ? (where Vc is the galaxy circular velocity), consistent with simple momentum-conservation expectations. We use our suite of simulations to study the relative contribution of each feedback mechanism to the generation of galactic winds in a range of galaxy models, from Small Magellanic Cloud like dwarfs and Milky Way (MW) analogues to z˜ 2 clumpy discs. In massive, gas-rich systems (local starbursts and high-z galaxies), radiation pressure dominates the wind generation. By contrast, for MW-like spirals and dwarf galaxies the gas densities are much lower and sources of shock-heated gas such as supernovae and stellar winds dominate the production of large-scale outflows. In all of our models, however, the winds have a complex multiphase structure that depends on the interaction between multiple feedback mechanisms operating on different spatial scales and time-scales: any single feedback mechanism fails to reproduce the winds observed. We use our simulations to provide fitting functions to the wind mass loading and velocities as a function of galaxy properties, for use in cosmological

  5. Dark matter halo properties from galaxy-galaxy lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brimioulle, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    The scientific results over the past years have shown that the Universe is by far not only composed of baryonic matter. In fact the major energy content of 72% of the Universe appears to be represented by so-called dark energy, while even from the remaining components only about one fifth is of baryonic origin, whereas 80% have to be attributed to dark matter. Originally appearing in observations of spiral galaxy rotation curves, the need for dark matter has also been verified investigating elliptical galaxies and galaxy clusters. In fact, it appears that dark matter played a major role during structure formation in the early Universe. Shortly after the Big Bang, when the matter distribution was almost homogeneous, initially very small inhomogeneities in the matter distribution formed the seeds for the gravitational collapse of the matter structures. Numerical n-body simulations, for instance, clearly indicate that the presently observable evolutionary state and complexity of the matter structure in the Universe would not have been possible without dark matter, which significantly accelerated the structure collapse due to its gravitational interaction. As dark matter does not interact electromagnetically and therefore is non-luminous but only interacts gravitationally, the gravitational lens effect provides an excellent opportunity for its detection and estimation of its amount. Weak gravitational lensing is a technique that makes use of the random orientation of the intrinsic galaxy ellipticities and thus their uniform distribution. Gravitational tidal forces introduce a coherent distortion of the background object shapes, leading to a deviation from the uniform distribution which depends on the lens galaxy properties and therefore can be used to study them. This thesis describes the galaxy-galaxy lensing analysis of 89deg 2 of optical data, observed within the CFHTLS-WIDE survey. In the framework of this thesis the data were used in order to create photometric

  6. Joint Interactions in Large Online Knowledge Communities: The A[subscript 3]C Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Heisawn; Cress, Ulrike; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Social interaction is crucial for understanding individual and collective processes in knowledge communities. We describe how technology has changed the way people interact in large communities. Building on this description, we propose a framework that distinguishes four types of joint interactions in online knowledge communities: Attendance,…

  7. Dark matter in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albada, T.S. van; Sancisi, R.

    1986-01-01

    Mass models of spiral galaxies based on the observed light distribution, assuming constant M/L for bulge and disc, are able to reproduce the observed rotation curves in the inner regions, but fail to do so increasingly towards and beyond the edge of the visible material. The discrepancy in the outer region can be accounted for by invoking dark matter; some galaxies require at least four times as much dark matter as luminous matter. There is no evidence for a dependence on galaxy luminosity or morphological type. Various arguments support the idea that a distribution of visible matter with constant M/L is responsible for the circular velocity in the inner region, i.e. inside approximately 2.5 disc scalelengths. Luminous matter and dark matter seem to 'conspire' to produce the flat observed rotation curves in the outer region. It seems unlikely that this coupling between disc and halo results from the large-scale gravitational interaction between the two components. Attempts to determine the shape of dark halos have not yet produced convincing results. (author)

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Circumnuclear Environments of the CfA Seyfert Galaxies: Nuclear Spirals and Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, Richard W.; Martini, Paul

    2002-01-01

    We present archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the nuclear regions of 43 of the 46 Seyfert galaxies found in the volume limited,spectroscopically complete CfA Redshift Survey sample. Using an improved method of image contrast enhancement, we created detailed high-quality " structure maps " that allow us to study the distributions of dust, star clusters, and emission-line gas in the circumnuclear regions (100-1000 pc scales) and in the associated host galaxy. Essentially all of these Seyfert galaxies have circumnuclear dust structures with morphologies ranging from grand-design two-armed spirals to chaotic dusty disks. In most Seyfert galaxies there is a clear physical connection between the nuclear dust spirals on hundreds of parsec scales and large-scale bars and spiral arms in the host galaxies proper. These connections are particularly striking in the interacting and barred galaxies. Such structures are predicted by numerical simulations of gas flows in barred and interacting galaxies and may be related to the fueling of active galactic nuclei by matter inflow from the host galaxy disks. We see no significant differences in the circumnuclear dust morphologies of Seyfert 1s and 2s, and very few Seyfert 2 nuclei are obscured by large-scale dust structures in the host galaxies. If Sevfert 2s are obscured Sevfert Is, then the obscuration must occur on smaller scales than those probed by HST.

  9. Hydrodynamic effects of nuclear active galaxy winds on host galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiano, A.V.R.

    1984-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesized existence of a powerful, thermal wind in active galactic nuclei, the hydrodynamic effects of such a wind on a model galactic interstellar medium (ISM) are investigated. The properties of several model ISMs are derived from observations of the Milky Way's ISM and those of nearby spiral and elliptical galaxies. The propagation of the wind into the low density gas component of the ISM is studied using the Kompaneets approximation of a strong explosion in an exponential atmosphere. Flattened gas distributions are shown to experience blow-out of wind gas along the symmetry axis. Next, the interaction of dense, interstellar clouds with the wind is investigated. The stability and mass loss of clouds in the wind are studied and it is proposed that clouds survive the encounter with the wind over large timescales. It is proposed that the narrow emission line regions (NELR) of active galaxies are the result of the interaction of active nuclei photons and a thermal wind on large, interstellar clouds

  10. Gas inflow and outflow in an interacting high-redshift galaxy. The remarkable host environment of GRB 080810 at z = 3.35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, P.; Perley, D. A.; Schady, P.; Prochaska, J. X.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Krühler, T.; Yates, R. M.; Greiner, J.

    2017-11-01

    We reveal multiple components of an interacting galaxy system at z ≈ 3.35 through a detailed analysis of the exquisite high-resolution Keck/HIRES spectrum of the afterglow of a gamma-ray burst (GRB). Through Voigt-profile fitting of absorption lines from the Lyman series, we constrain the neutral hydrogen column density to NH I ≤ 1018.35 cm-2 for the densest of four distinct systems at the host redshift of GRB 080810, which is among the lowest NH I ever observed in a GRB host, even though the line of sight passes within a projected 5 kpc of the galaxy centres. By detailed analysis of the corresponding metal absorption lines, we derive chemical, ionic, and kinematic properties of the individual absorbing systems, and thus build a picture of the host as a whole. Striking differences between the systems imply that the line of sight passes through several phases of gas: the star-forming regions of the GRB host; enriched material in the form of a galactic outflow; the hot and ionised halo of a second interacting galaxy falling towards the host at a line-of-sight velocity of 700 km s-1; and a cool metal-poor cloud that may represent one of the best candidates yet for the inflow of metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. The reduced spectrum is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/607/A107

  11. The dwarf galaxy population of nearby galaxy clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisker, Thorsten; Wittmann, Carolin; Pak, Mina; Janz, Joachim; Bialas, Daniel; Peletier, Reynier; Grebel, Eva; Falcon Barroso, Jesus; Toloba, Elisa; Smakced Collaboration, Focus Collaboration

    The Fornax, Virgo, Ursa Major and Perseus galaxy clusters all have very different characteristics, in terms of their density, mass, and large-scale environment. We can regard these clusters as laboratories for studying environmental influence on galaxy evolution, using the sensitive low-mass

  12. Investigating Cross-Device Interaction between a Handheld Device and a Large Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paay, Jeni; Raptis, Dimitrios; Kjeldskov, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    and mid-air gestures, pinching, swiping, swinging and flicking. We look specifically at their relative efficiency, effectiveness and accuracy in bi-directional interaction between a smartphone and large display in a point-click context. We report findings from two user studies, which show that swiping...... is both most effective, fastest and most accurate, closely followed by swinging. What these two approaches have in common is the ability to keep the pointer steady on the large display, unaffected by concurrent gestures or body movements used to complete the interaction, suggesting...... that this is an important factor for designing effective cross-device interaction with large displays....

  13. Coma cluster of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 34' x 34' on the sky, of the Coma cluster, aka Abell 1656. This is a particularly rich cluster of individual galaxies (over 1000 members), most prominently the two giant ellipticals, NGC 4874 (right) and NGC 4889 (left). The remaining members are mostly smaller ellipticals, but spiral galaxies are also evident in the 2MASS image. The cluster is seen toward the constellation Coma Berenices, but is actually at a distance of about 100 Mpc (330 million light years, or a redshift of 0.023) from us. At this distance, the cluster is in what is known as the 'Hubble flow,' or the overall expansion of the Universe. As such, astronomers can measure the Hubble Constant, or the universal expansion rate, based on the distance to this cluster. Large, rich clusters, such as Coma, allow astronomers to measure the 'missing mass,' i.e., the matter in the cluster that we cannot see, since it gravitationally influences the motions of the member galaxies within the cluster. The near-infrared maps the overall luminous mass content of the member galaxies, since the light at these wavelengths is dominated by the more numerous older stellar populations. Galaxies, as seen by 2MASS, look fairly smooth and homogeneous, as can be seen from the Hubble 'tuning fork' diagram of near-infrared galaxy morphology. Image mosaic by S. Van Dyk (IPAC).

  14. The Milky Way galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerden, H. van; Allen, R.J.; Burton, W.B.

    1985-01-01

    IAU Symposium 106, held at the Kapteyn Institute in Groningen, presents an overview of all major aspects of galactic astronomy. The vast subject is covered in 20 authoritative review papers and 22 invited papers, each with discussion, plus 81 shorter contributions. The book opens with 4 reviews by historians of science, outlining the history of galactic research. Part 2 deals with (i) galactic rotation, (ii) the large-scale distributions of matter, of both old and young stellar populations, and of the atomic, molecular and high-energy components of the interstellar medium, (iii) small-scale structure in the gas, (iv) the galactic nucleus, (v) the high-velocity clouds. Part 3 discusses the dynamics of the local group of Galaxies and of the Milky Way-Magellanic clouds system, the dynamical and chemical evolution of the Galaxy and of its disk and halo components and the formation of the Galaxy. The controversial subject of spiral structure and star formation is analyzed in several extensive reviews and lively discussions, featuring both observational and theoretical developments. Results of extragalactic research are blended with studies of our Galaxy throughout the book, and there is a separate comparison between Andromeda and Milky Way Galaxies. The Symposium featured the first maps produced by IRAS, and results from most major telescopes in a variety of wavebands. Many review papers present material not published elsewhere. The book closes with a lecture on life in the Galaxy and with an imaginative symposium summary. (orig.)

  15. Angular momentum content of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaya, E.J.; Tully, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    A schema of galaxy formation is developed in which the environmental influence of large-scale structure plays a dominant role. This schema was motivated by the observation that the fraction of E and S0 galaxies is much higher in clusters than in low-density regions and by an inference that those spirals that are found in clusters probably have fallen in relatively recently from the low-density regions. It is proposed that the tidal field of the Local Supercluster acts to determine the morphology of galaxies through two complementary mechanisms. In the first place, the supercluster can apply torques to protogalaxies. Galaxies which collapsed while expanding away from the central cluster decoupled from the external tidal field and conserved the angular momentum that they acquired before collapse. Galaxies which formed in the cluster while the cluster collapsed continued to feel the tidal field. In the latter case, the spin of outer collapsing layers can be halted and reversed, and tends to cancel the spin of inner layers. The result is a reduction of the total angular momentum content of the galaxy. In addition, the supercluster tidal field can regulate accretion of fresh material onto the galaxies since the field creates a Roche limit about galaxies and material beyond this limit is lost. Any material that has not collapsed onto a galaxy by the time the galaxy falls into a cluster will be tidally stripped. The angular momentum content of that part of the protogalactic cloud which has not yet collapsed . continues to grow linearly with time due to the continued torquing by the supercluster and neighbors. Galaxies at large distances from the cluster core can continue to accrete this high angular momentum material until the present, but galaxies that enter the cluster are cut off from replenishing material

  16. Detection of baryon acoustic oscillation features in the large-scale three-point correlation function of SDSS BOSS DR12 CMASS galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Zachary; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Ho, Shirley; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.; Rossi, Graziano; Seo, Hee-Jong; Slosar, Anže; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana

    2017-08-01

    We present the large-scale three-point correlation function (3PCF) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR12 Constant stellar Mass (CMASS) sample of 777 202 Luminous Red Galaxies, the largest-ever sample used for a 3PCF or bispectrum measurement. We make the first high-significance (4.5σ) detection of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the 3PCF. Using these acoustic features in the 3PCF as a standard ruler, we measure the distance to z = 0.57 to 1.7 per cent precision (statistical plus systematic). We find DV = 2024 ± 29 Mpc (stat) ± 20 Mpc (sys) for our fiducial cosmology (consistent with Planck 2015) and bias model. This measurement extends the use of the BAO technique from the two-point correlation function (2PCF) and power spectrum to the 3PCF and opens an avenue for deriving additional cosmological distance information from future large-scale structure redshift surveys such as DESI. Our measured distance scale from the 3PCF is fairly independent from that derived from the pre-reconstruction 2PCF and is equivalent to increasing the length of BOSS by roughly 10 per cent; reconstruction appears to lower the independence of the distance measurements. Fitting a model including tidal tensor bias yields a moderate-significance (2.6σ) detection of this bias with a value in agreement with the prediction from local Lagrangian biasing.

  17. BioPlex Display: An Interactive Suite for Large-Scale AP-MS Protein-Protein Interaction Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Devin K; Huttlin, Edward L; Harper, J Wade; Gygi, Steven P

    2018-01-05

    The development of large-scale data sets requires a new means to display and disseminate research studies to large audiences. Knowledge of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks has become a principle interest of many groups within the field of proteomics. At the confluence of technologies, such as cross-linking mass spectrometry, yeast two-hybrid, protein cofractionation, and affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS), detection of PPIs can uncover novel biological inferences at a high-throughput. Thus new platforms to provide community access to large data sets are necessary. To this end, we have developed a web application that enables exploration and dissemination of the growing BioPlex interaction network. BioPlex is a large-scale interactome data set based on AP-MS of baits from the human ORFeome. The latest BioPlex data set release (BioPlex 2.0) contains 56 553 interactions from 5891 AP-MS experiments. To improve community access to this vast compendium of interactions, we developed BioPlex Display, which integrates individual protein querying, access to empirical data, and on-the-fly annotation of networks within an easy-to-use and mobile web application. BioPlex Display enables rapid acquisition of data from BioPlex and development of hypotheses based on protein interactions.

  18. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Di Cintio, A.; Dvorkin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  19. SCALE INTERACTION IN A MIXING LAYER. THE ROLE OF THE LARGE-SCALE GRADIENTS

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, Daniele

    2015-08-23

    The interaction between scales is investigated in a turbulent mixing layer. The large-scale amplitude modulation of the small scales already observed in other works depends on the crosswise location. Large-scale positive fluctuations correlate with a stronger activity of the small scales on the low speed-side of the mixing layer, and a reduced activity on the high speed-side. However, from physical considerations we would expect the scales to interact in a qualitatively similar way within the flow and across different turbulent flows. Therefore, instead of the large-scale fluctuations, the large-scale gradients modulation of the small scales has been additionally investigated.

  20. Formation of stars and star clusters in colliding galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Mergers are known to be essential in the formation of large-scale structures and to have a significant role in the history of galaxy formation and evolution. Besides a morphological transformation, mergers induce important bursts of star formation. These starburst are characterised by high Star Formation Efficiencies (SFEs) and Specific Star Formation Rates, i.e., high Star Formation Rates (SFR) per unit of gas mass and high SFR per unit of stellar mass, respectively, compared to spiral galaxies. At all redshifts, starburst galaxies are outliers of the sequence of star-forming galaxies defined by spiral galaxies. We have investigated the origin of the starburst-mode of star formation, in three local interacting systems: Arp 245, Arp 105 and NGC 7252. We combined high-resolution JVLA observations of the 21-cm line, tracing the HI diffuse gas, with UV GALEX observations, tracing the young star-forming regions. We probe the local physical conditions of the Inter-Stellar Medium (ISM) for independent star-forming regions and explore the atomic-to-dense gas transformation in different environments. The SFR/HI ratio is found to be much higher in central regions, compared to outer regions, showing a higher dense gas fraction (or lower HI gas fraction) in these regions. In the outer regions of the systems, i.e., the tidal tails, where the gas phase is mostly atomic, we find SFR/HI ratios higher than in standard HI-dominated environments, i.e., outer discs of spiral galaxies and dwarf galaxies. Thus, our analysis reveals that the outer regions of mergers are characterised by high SFEs, compared to the standard mode of star formation. The observation of high dense gas fractions in interacting systems is consistent with the predictions of numerical simulations; it results from the increase of the gas turbulence during a merger. The merger is likely to affect the star-forming properties of the system at all spatial scales, from large scales, with a globally enhanced turbulence

  1. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    One of the major challenges for modern supernova surveys is identifying the galaxy that hosted each explosion. Is there an accurate and efficient way to do this that avoids investing significant human resources?Why Identify Hosts?One problem in host galaxy identification. Here, the supernova lies between two galaxies but though the centroid of the galaxy on the right is closer in angular separation, this may be a distant background galaxy that is not actually near the supernova. [Gupta et al. 2016]Supernovae are a critical tool for making cosmological predictions that help us to understand our universe. But supernova cosmology relies on accurately identifying the properties of the supernovae including their redshifts. Since spectroscopic followup of supernova detections often isnt possible, we rely on observations of the supernova host galaxies to obtain redshifts.But how do we identify which galaxy hosted a supernova? This seems like a simple problem, but there are many complicating factors a seemingly nearby galaxy could be a distant background galaxy, for instance, or a supernovas host could be too faint to spot.The authors algorithm takes into account confusion, a measure of how likely the supernova is to be mismatched. In these illustrations of low (left) and high (right) confusion, the supernova is represented by a blue star, and the green circles represent possible host galaxies. [Gupta et al. 2016]Turning to AutomationBefore the era of large supernovae surveys, searching for host galaxies was done primarily by visual inspection. But current projects like the Dark Energy Surveys Supernova Program is finding supernovae by the thousands, and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will likely discover hundreds of thousands. Visual inspection will not be possible in the face of this volume of data so an accurate and efficient automated method is clearly needed!To this end, a team of scientists led by Ravi Gupta (Argonne National Laboratory) has recently

  2. THE BOSS EMISSION-LINE LENS SURVEY (BELLS). I. A LARGE SPECTROSCOPICALLY SELECTED SAMPLE OF LENS GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT {approx}0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownstein, Joel R.; Bolton, Adam S.; Pandey, Parul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard College Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Connolly, Natalia [Department of Physics, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Maraston, Claudia [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Seitz, Stella [University Observatory Munich, Scheinstrasse 1, 81679 Muenchen (Germany); Wake, David A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Wood-Vasey, W. Michael [Pittsburgh Center for Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology (PITT-PACC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Brinkmann, Jon [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Weaver, Benjamin A. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We present a catalog of 25 definite and 11 probable strong galaxy-galaxy gravitational lens systems with lens redshifts 0.4 {approx}< z {approx}< 0.7, discovered spectroscopically by the presence of higher-redshift emission lines within the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of luminous galaxies, and confirmed with high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of 44 candidates. Our survey extends the methodology of the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys survey (SLACS) to higher redshift. We describe the details of the BOSS spectroscopic candidate detections, our HST ACS image processing and analysis methods, and our strong gravitational lens modeling procedure. We report BOSS spectroscopic parameters and ACS photometric parameters for all candidates, and mass-distribution parameters for the best-fit singular isothermal ellipsoid models of definite lenses. Our sample to date was selected using only the first six months of BOSS survey-quality spectroscopic data. The full five-year BOSS database should produce a sample of several hundred strong galaxy-galaxy lenses and in combination with SLACS lenses at lower redshift, strongly constrain the redshift evolution of the structure of elliptical, bulge-dominated galaxies as a function of luminosity, stellar mass, and rest-frame color, thereby providing a powerful test for competing theories of galaxy formation and evolution.

  3. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  4. Galaxy Alignments: Theory, Modelling & Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Alina; Cacciato, Marcello; Joachimi, Benjamin; Kirk, Donnacha; Kitching, Thomas D.; Leonard, Adrienne; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Sifón, Cristóbal; Brown, Michael L.; Rassat, Anais

    2015-11-01

    The shapes of galaxies are not randomly oriented on the sky. During the galaxy formation and evolution process, environment has a strong influence, as tidal gravitational fields in the large-scale structure tend to align nearby galaxies. Additionally, events such as galaxy mergers affect the relative alignments of both the shapes and angular momenta of galaxies throughout their history. These "intrinsic galaxy alignments" are known to exist, but are still poorly understood. This review will offer a pedagogical introduction to the current theories that describe intrinsic galaxy alignments, including the apparent difference in intrinsic alignment between early- and late-type galaxies and the latest efforts to model them analytically. It will then describe the ongoing efforts to simulate intrinsic alignments using both N-body and hydrodynamic simulations. Due to the relative youth of this field, there is still much to be done to understand intrinsic galaxy alignments and this review summarises the current state of the field, providing a solid basis for future work.

  5. Dark matter and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemura, Masayuki

    1987-01-01

    We propose a hybrid model of universe for galaxy formation, that is, an Einstein- de Sitter universe dominated by two-component dark matter: massive neutrinos and cold dark matter. In this hybrid model, the first luminous objects are dwarf galaxies. The neutrino density fluctuations produce large-scale high density and low density regions, which consequently evolve to superclusters of galaxies and voids, respectively. Dwarf galaxies are formed preferentially in supercluster regions. In voids, the formation of dwarf galaxies is fairly suppressed by diffuse UV flux from QSOs, and instead a number of expanding clouds are born, which produce Lyα forest as seen in QSO spectra. Ordinary galaxies are expected to form as aggregations of dwarf galaxies. In this model, some galaxies are born also in voids, and they tend to evolve to spiral galaxies. Additionally, if the same number of globular clusters are formed in a dwarf, the specific globular cluster frequencies are expected to be much larger in ellipticals than in spirals. (author)

  6. Globular clusters and galaxy halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Bergh, S.

    1984-01-01

    Using semipartial correlation coefficients and bootstrap techniques, a study is made of the important features of globular clusters with respect to the total number of galaxy clusters and dependence of specific galaxy cluster on parent galaxy type, cluster radii, luminosity functions and cluster ellipticity. It is shown that the ellipticity of LMC clusters correlates significantly with cluster luminosity functions, but not with cluster age. The cluter luminosity value above which globulars are noticeably flattened may differ by a factor of about 100 from galaxy to galaxy. Both in the Galaxy and in M31 globulars with small core radii have a Gaussian distribution over luminosity, whereas clusters with large core radii do not. In the cluster systems surrounding the Galaxy, M31 and NGC 5128 the mean radii of globular clusters was found to increase with the distance from the nucleus. Central galaxies in rich clusters have much higher values for specific globular cluster frequency than do other cluster ellipticals, suggesting that such central galaxies must already have been different from normal ellipticals at the time they were formed

  7. CHANG-ES. IV. RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION OF 35 EDGE-ON GALAXIES OBSERVED WITH THE KARL G. JANSKY VERY LARGE ARRAY IN D CONFIGURATION—DATA RELEASE 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegert, Theresa; Irwin, Judith; MacGregor, Stephen, E-mail: twiegert@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: irwin@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: 11sm36@queensu.ca [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); and others

    2015-09-15

    We present the first part of the observations made for the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies, an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) project. The aim of the CHANG-ES project is to study and characterize the nature of radio halos, their prevalence as well as their magnetic fields, and the cosmic rays illuminating these fields. This paper reports observations with the compact D configuration of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) for the sample of 35 nearby edge-on galaxies of CHANG-ES. With the new wide bandwidth capabilities of the VLA, an unprecedented sensitivity was achieved for all polarization products. The beam resolution is an average of 9.″6 and 36″ with noise levels reaching approximately 6 and 30 μJy beam{sup −1} for C- and L-bands, respectively (robust weighting). We present intensity maps in these two frequency bands (C and L), with different weightings, as well as spectral index maps, polarization maps, and new measurements of star formation rates (SFRs). The data products described herein are available to the public in the CHANG-ES data release available at http://www.queensu.ca/changes. We also present evidence of a trend among galaxies with larger halos having higher SFR surface density, and we show, for the first time, a radio continuum image of the median galaxy, taking advantage of the collective signal-to-noise ratio of 30 of our galaxies. This image shows clearly that a “typical” spiral galaxy is surrounded by a halo of magnetic fields and cosmic rays.

  8. Interactive computer graphics and its role in control system design of large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A. S. S. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper attempts to show the relevance of interactive computer graphics in the design of control systems to maintain attitude and shape of large space structures to accomplish the required mission objectives. The typical phases of control system design, starting from the physical model such as modeling the dynamics, modal analysis, and control system design methodology are reviewed and the need of the interactive computer graphics is demonstrated. Typical constituent parts of large space structures such as free-free beams and free-free plates are used to demonstrate the complexity of the control system design and the effectiveness of the interactive computer graphics.

  9. THE SCHMIDT-KENNICUTT LAW OF MATCHED-AGE STAR-FORMING REGIONS; Paα OBSERVATIONS OF THE EARLY-PHASE INTERACTING GALAXY TAFFY I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komugi, S.; Tateuchi, K.; Motohara, K.; Kato, N.; Konishi, M.; Koshida, S.; Morokuma, T.; Takahashi, H.; Tanabé, T.; Yoshii, Y.; Takagi, T.; Iono, D.; Kaneko, H.; Ueda, J.; Saitoh, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to test a recent hypothesis that the dispersion in the Schmidt-Kennicutt law arises from variations in the evolutionary stage of star-forming molecular clouds, we compared molecular gas and recent star formation in an early-phase merger galaxy pair, Taffy I (UGC 12915/UGC 12914, VV 254) which went through a direct collision 20 Myr ago and whose star-forming regions are expected to have similar ages. Narrowband Paα image is obtained using the ANIR near-infrared camera on the mini-TAO 1 m telescope. The image enables us to derive accurate star formation rates within the galaxy directly. The total star formation rate, 22.2 M ☉ yr –1 , was found to be much higher than previous estimates. Ages of individual star-forming blobs estimated from equivalent widths indicate that most star-forming regions are ∼7 Myr old, except for a giant H II region at the bridge which is much younger. Comparison between star formation rates and molecular gas masses for the regions with the same age exhibits a surprisingly tight correlation, a slope of unity, and star formation efficiencies comparable to those of starburst galaxies. These results suggest that Taffy I has just evolved into a starburst system after the collision, and the star-forming sites are at a similar stage in their evolution from natal molecular clouds except for the bridge region. The tight Schmidt-Kennicutt law supports the scenario that dispersion in the star formation law is in large part due to differences in evolutionary stage of star-forming regions.

  10. 3D rendering and interactive visualization technology in large industry CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yongshun; Zhang Li; Chen Zhiqiang; Kang Kejun

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the applications of interactive 3D rendering technology in the large ICT. It summarizes and comments on the iso-surfaces rendering and the direct volume rendering methods used in ICT. The paper emphasizes on the technical analysis of the 3D rendering process of ICT volume data sets, and summarizes the difficulties of the inspection subsystem design in large ICT

  11. Positive interactions between large herbivores and grasshoppers, and their consequences for grassland plant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhiwei; Wang, Deli; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Ling; Feng, Chao; Wang, Zhongnan

    2014-04-01

    Although the influence of positive interactions on plant and sessile communities has been well documented, surprisingly little is known about their role in structuring terrestrial animal communities. We evaluated beneficial interactions between two distantly related herbivore taxa, large vertebrate grazers (sheep) and smaller insect grazers (grasshoppers), using a set of field experiments in eastern Eurasian steppe of China. Grazing by large herbivores caused significantly higher grasshopper density, and this pattern persisted until the end of the experiment. Grasshoppers, in turn, increased the foraging time of larger herbivores, but such response occurred only during the peak of growing season (August). These reciprocal interactions were driven by differential herbivore foraging preferences for plant resources; namely, large herbivores preferred Artemisia forbs, whereas grasshoppers preferred Leymus grass. The enhancement of grasshopper density in areas grazed by large herbivores likely resulted from the selective consumption of Artemisia forbs by vertebrate grazers, which may potentially improve the host finding of grasshoppers. Likewise, grasshoppers appeared to benefit large herbivores by decreasing the cover and density of the dominant grass Leymus chinensis, which hampers large herbivores' access to palatable forbs. Moreover, we found that large herbivores grazing alone may significantly decrease plant diversity, yet grasshoppers appeared to mediate such negative effects when they grazed with large herbivores. Our results suggest that the positive, reciprocal interactions in terrestrial herbivore communities may be more prevalent and complex than previously thought.

  12. SCALE INTERACTION IN A MIXING LAYER. THE ROLE OF THE LARGE-SCALE GRADIENTS

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, Daniele; Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Elsinga, Gerrit E.

    2015-01-01

    from physical considerations we would expect the scales to interact in a qualitatively similar way within the flow and across different turbulent flows. Therefore, instead of the large-scale fluctuations, the large-scale gradients modulation of the small scales has been additionally investigated.

  13. 3D rendering and interactive visualization technology in large industry CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yongshun; Zhang Li; Chen Zhiqiang; Kang Kejun

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the applications of interactive 3D rendering technology in the large ICT. It summarizes and comments on the iso-surfaces rendering and the direct volume rendering methods used in ICT. The author emphasizes on the technical analysis of the 3D rendering process of ICT volume data sets, and summarizes the difficulties of the inspection subsystem design in large ICT

  14. How Do Students and Lecturers Experience the Interactive Use of Handheld Technology in Large Enrolment Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Daele, Tom; Frijns, Carolien; Lievens, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Although constructivist theories have shown learning is accelerated by involvement and meaningful lecturer-student and student-student interaction, these ingredients are mostly absent from large attendance lectures. A number of studies have already focused on more active ways of learning in large lecture classrooms, most often by using student…

  15. CLASSIFICATION OF STELLAR ORBITS IN AXISYMMETRIC GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Baile; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Khan, Fazeel Mahmood, E-mail: baile.li@vanderbilt.edu, E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu, E-mail: khanfazeel.ist@gmail.com [Department of Space Science, Institute of Space Technology, P.O. Box 2750 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-09-20

    It is known that two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) cannot merge in a spherical galaxy within a Hubble time; an emerging picture is that galaxy geometry, rotation, and large potential perturbations may usher the SMBH binary through the critical three-body scattering phase and ultimately drive the SMBH to coalesce. We explore the orbital content within an N-body model of a mildly flattened, non-rotating, SMBH-embedded elliptical galaxy. When used as the foundation for a study on the SMBH binary coalescence, the black holes bypassed the binary stalling often seen within spherical galaxies and merged on gigayear timescales. Using both frequency-mapping and angular momentum criteria, we identify a wealth of resonant orbits in the axisymmetric model, including saucers, that are absent from an otherwise identical spherical system and that can potentially interact with the binary. We quantified the set of orbits that could be scattered by the SMBH binary, and found that the axisymmetric model contained nearly six times the number of these potential loss cone orbits compared to our equivalent spherical model. In this flattened model, the mass of these orbits is more than three times that of the SMBH, which is consistent with what the SMBH binary needs to scatter to transition into the gravitational wave regime.

  16. Anisotropic Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing in the Illustris-1 Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, Tereasa G.

    2017-06-01

    In Cold Dark Matter universes, the dark matter halos of galaxies are expected to be triaxial, leading to a surface mass density that is not circularly symmetric. In principle, this "flattening" of the dark matter halos of galaxies should be observable as an anisotropy in the weak galaxy-galaxy lensing signal. The degree to which the weak lensing signal is observed to be anisotropic, however, will depend strongly on the degree to which mass (i.e., the dark matter) is aligned with light in the lensing galaxies. That is, the anisotropy will be maximized when the major axis of the projected mass distribution is well aligned with the projected light distribution of the lens galaxies. Observational studies of anisotropic galaxy-galaxy lensing have found an anisotropic weak lensing signal around massive, red galaxies. Detecting the signal around blue, disky galaxies has, however, been more elusive. A possible explanation for this is that mass and light are well aligned within red galaxies and poorly aligned within blue galaxies (an explanation that is supported by studies of the locations of satellites of large, relatively isolated galaxies). Here we compute the weak lensing signal of isolated central galaxies in the Illustris-1 simulation. We compute the anisotropy of the weak lensing signal using two definitions of the geometry: [1] the major axis of the projected dark matter mass distribution and [2] the major axis of the projected stellar mass. On projected scales less than 15% of the virial radius, an anisotropy of order 10% is found for both definitions of the geometry. On larger scales, the anisotropy computed relative to the major axis of the projected light distribution is less than the anisotropy computed relative to the major axis of the projected dark matter. On projected scales of order the virial radius, the anisotropy obtained when using the major axis of the light is an order of magnitude less than the anisotropy obtained when using the major axis of the

  17. Optical photometry of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, G.

    1981-01-01

    The present status of the optical and near-infrared photometry of galaxies is reviewed. Part I introduces to the goals and general methods of both photographic surface photometry and integrated multicolor aperture photoelectric photometry for extended stellar systems, with a summary of the necessary corrections to the observed magnitudes and colors. Part II (surface photometry) summarizes recent results on the empirical luminosity laws for spheroidal systems and the separation of components in disk-plus-bulge systems. Part III (color problems) discusses integrated color effects (color and gas content, color-absolute magnitude relation for early-type systems, colors of interacting galaxies) and color gradient across spheroidal and disk galaxies. In part IV are summarized some constraints on the luminosity function of the stellar population in spheroidal systems given by narrow-band photometry [fr

  18. Cosmic strings and galaxy formation: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbins, A.

    1987-04-01

    Successes and remaining problems with cosmic string theories of galaxy formation are outlined. Successes of the theory include predictions for the correct amplitude of initial inhomogeneities leading to galaxy formation, the distribution of observed inhomogeneities, the observed correlation function of clusters, and the density profiles of dark matter halos. Potentially serious problems which have been raised are the biased galaxy production (why do galaxies occur in clusters?), the core radius problem (density profiles of galactic halos do not match predictions), the maximal rotation velocity problem (why is there a sharp cutoff in observed rotational velocity of galaxies?), the small galaxy problem (why are all the galaxies relatively small structures?), the angular momentum problem (where do baryons acquire their angular momentum in order to form spirals), and the large-scale structure problem (why do most galaxies appear to lie on surfaces surrounding voids?). Possible approaches to each of these problems are suggested and the future of cosmic string theory is discussed. 25 refs

  19. A FUNDAMENTAL LINE FOR ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Preethi; Van den Bergh, Sidney; Abraham, Roberto G.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that massive galaxies in the distant universe are surprisingly compact, with typical sizes about a factor of three smaller than equally massive galaxies in the nearby universe. It has been suggested that these massive galaxies grow into systems resembling nearby galaxies through a series of minor mergers. In this model the size growth of galaxies is an inherently stochastic process, and the resulting size-luminosity relationship is expected to have considerable environmentally dependent scatter. To test whether minor mergers can explain the size growth in massive galaxies, we have closely examined the scatter in the size-luminosity relation of nearby elliptical galaxies using a large new database of accurate visual galaxy classifications. We demonstrate that this scatter is much smaller than has been previously assumed, and may even be so small as to challenge the plausibility of the merger-driven hierarchical models for the formation of massive ellipticals.

  20. Interacting star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Overmerging problem solved by cluster group formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Stéphane; Bergond, Gilles; Vallenari, Antonella

    1999-04-01

    We present the tidal tail distributions of a sample of candidate binary clusters located in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). One isolated cluster, SL 268, is presented in order to study the effect of the LMC tidal field. All the candidate binary clusters show tidal tails, confirming that the pairs are formed by physically linked objects. The stellar mass in the tails covers a large range, from 1.8x 10(3) to 3x 10(4) \\msun. We derive a total mass estimate for SL 268 and SL 356. At large radii, the projected density profiles of SL 268 and SL 356 fall off as r(-gamma ) , with gamma = 2.27 and gamma =3.44, respectively. Out of 4 pairs or multiple systems, 2 are older than the theoretical survival time of binary clusters (going from a few 10(6) years to 10(8) years). A pair shows too large age difference between the components to be consistent with classical theoretical models of binary cluster formation (Fujimoto & Kumai \\cite{fujimoto97}). We refer to this as the ``overmerging'' problem. A different scenario is proposed: the formation proceeds in large molecular complexes giving birth to groups of clusters over a few 10(7) years. In these groups the expected cluster encounter rate is larger, and tidal capture has higher probability. Cluster pairs are not born together through the splitting of the parent cloud, but formed later by tidal capture. For 3 pairs, we tentatively identify the star cluster group (SCG) memberships. The SCG formation, through the recent cluster starburst triggered by the LMC-SMC encounter, in contrast with the quiescent open cluster formation in the Milky Way can be an explanation to the paucity of binary clusters observed in our Galaxy. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile}

  1. Deficiency of normal galaxies among Markaryan galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyeveer, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Comparison of the morphological types of Markaryan galaxies and other galaxies in the Uppsala catalog indicates a strong deficiency of normal ellipticals among the Markaryan galaxies, for which the fraction of type E galaxies is ≤ 1% against 10% among the remaining galaxies. Among the Markaryan galaxies, an excess of barred galaxies is observed - among the Markaryan galaxies with types Sa-Scd, approximately half or more have bars, whereas among the remaining galaxies of the same types bars are found in about 1/3

  2. The interaction problems between large and small business in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyaev Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of market relations, changes of the conditions in the business environment encourage the enterprises to look for new management methods and to improve forms of interaction. In this regard, the identification of the interaction of large and small businesses, as well as the evaluation of their relation development seems important and urgent problem in modern conditions. The purpose of the survey – the study of the interaction of large and small businesses, as well as the evaluation of the relations between them. The study was conducted on the basis of a comprehensive and systematic approach in which methods of comparative, retrospective, statistical, mathematical analysis are used. In accordance with the purpose there are identified the prerequisites for the development of large and small businesses, features and their functioning problems, and the links between them. The most common form of interaction of large and small enterprises were identified - outsourcing, franchising, leasing, subcontracting, venture financing, the establishment of regional cooperation forms of large and small businesses. However, the cooperative processes of large and small business in Russia developed are not enough today.The authors identified factors that impede the growth of Russian production, offered recommendations for the development of large and small businesses, justified the state's role in this process. In addition, they described the mechanism of state support of small business, including organizational, financial, information and consulting components.

  3. The high energy galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1986-08-01

    The galaxy is host to a wide variety of high energy events. I review here recent results on large scale galactic phenomena: cosmic-ray origin and confinement, the connexion to ultra high energy gamma-ray emission from X-ray binaries, gamma ray and synchrotron emission in interstellar space, galactic soft and hard X-ray emission

  4. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  5. Quasars in galaxy cluster environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, E.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of radio loud quasars is found to be strongly dependent upon their galaxy cluster environment. Previous studies have shown that bright quasars are found in rich clusters, while high luminosity quasars are found only in poorer environments. The analysis of low luminosity radio quiet quasars indicate that they are never found in rich environments, suggesting that they are a physically different class of objects. Properties of the quasar environment are investigated to determine constraints on the physical mechanisms of quasar formation and evolution. The optical cluster morphology indicates that the cluster cores have smaller radii and higher galaxy densities than are typical for low redshift clusters of similar richness. Radio morphologies may indicate that the formation of a dense intra-cluster medium is associated with the quasars' fading at these epochs. Galaxy colors appear to be normal, but there may be a tendency for clusters associated with high luminosity quasars to contain a higher fraction of gas-rich galaxies than those associated with low luminosity quasars. Multislit spectroscopic observations of galaxies associated with high luminosity quasars indicate that quasars are preferentially located in regions of low relative velocity dispersion, either in rich clusters of abnormally low dispersion, or in poor groups which are dynamically normal. This suggests that galaxy-galaxy interactions may play a role in quasar formation and sustenanace. Virialization of rich clusters and the subsequent increase in galaxy velocities may therefore be responsible for the fading of quasars in rich environments

  6. Ultraviolet Extinction in Backlit Galaxies - from Galaxy Zoo to GALEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; Manning, A.; Holwerda, B. W.; Lintott, C.; Schawinski, K.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2012-01-01

    We examine the ultraviolet extinction of galaxies on large scales, combining optical and GALEX UV data on backlit galaxies (most found in the Galaxy Zoo citizen-science project). We analyze the images in matching ways, modelling both foreground and background galaxies by symmetry or elliptical isophote families as appropriate, and using the non-overlapping regions of the galaxies to estimate errors in the derived transmission T=e-κ. Spirals appear less symmetric in the UV, as star-forming regions become more dominant, so that our most reliable results are mean values across multiple regions and multiple galaxies. Our mean effective extinction curve is dominated by the contribution of luminous spirals,and shows a fairly flat gray" extinction law into the ultraviolet. For example, the median of κNUV/κB in spiral arms is only 1.3. Along with previous high-resolution HST studies of a few nearby backlit galaxies, this suggests that on kpc scales the effective extinction is dominated by the dust clumping rather than the intrinsic reddening law. This implies that extrapolation of local properties to short wavelengths, a step toward the history of dust in galaxies through comparison of local properties with a similar analysis in deep HST fields, can be done without introducing much additional error. This work was supported by NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX10AD54G.

  7. Galaxy Mission Completes Four Star-Studded Years in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer is celebrating its fourth year in space with some of M81's 'hottest' stars. In a new ultraviolet image, the magnificent M81 spiral galaxy is shown at the center. The orbiting observatory spies the galaxy's 'sizzling young starlets' as wisps of bluish-white swirling around a central golden glow. The tints of gold at M81's center come from a 'senior citizen' population of smoldering stars. 'This is a spectacular view of M81,' says Dr. John Huchra, of the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass. 'When we proposed to observe this galaxy with GALEX we hoped to see globular clusters, open clusters, and young stars...this view is everything that we were hoping for.' The image is one of thousands gathered so far by GALEX, which launched April 28, 2003. This mission uses ultraviolet wavelengths to measure the history of star formation 80 percent of the way back to the Big Bang. The large fluffy bluish-white material to the left of M81 is a neighboring galaxy called Holmberg IX. This galaxy is practically invisible to the naked human eye. However, it is illuminated brilliantly in GALEX's wide ultraviolet eyes. Its ultraviolet colors show that it is actively forming young stars. The bluish-white fuzz in the space surrounding M81 and Holmberg IX is new star formation triggered by gravitational interactions between the two galaxies. Huchra notes that the active star formation in Holmberg IX is a surprise, and says that more research needs to be done in light of the new findings from GALEX. 'Some astronomers suspect that the galaxy Holmberg IX is the result of a galactic interaction between M81 and another neighboring galaxy M82,' says Huchra. 'This particular galaxy is especially important because there are a lot of galaxies like Holmberg IX around our Milky Way galaxy. By understanding how Holmberg IX came to be, we hope to understand how all the little galaxies surrounding the Milky Way developed.' 'Four years after GALEX

  8. Groups and clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijleveld, W.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, a correlative study is performed with respect to the radio and X-ray parameters of galaxy clusters and groups of galaxies (Msub(v)-Psub(1.4); Msub(v)-Lsub(x); Lsub(x)-Psub(1.4); R-Msub(v) correlations). Special attention is paid to correlations with cD and elliptical galaxies. It is concluded that in rich clusters massive cD galaxies form; massive galaxies are able to bind a large X-ray halo; strong X-ray emitters fuel their central radio sources at a high rate; the total gas content of groups is low, which implies that the contribution of groups to the total matter density in the universe is small. (Auth.)

  9. Thermal interaction in crusted melt jets with large-scale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Ken-ichiro; Sotome, Fuminori; Ishikawa, Michio [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to experimentally observe thermal interaction which would be capable of triggering due to entrainment, or entrapment in crusted melt jets with `large-scale structure`. The present experiment was carried out by dropping molten zinc and molten tin of 100 grams, of which mass was sufficient to generate large-scale structures of melt jets. The experimental results show that the thermal interaction of entrapment type occurs in molten-zinc jets with rare probability, and the thermal interaction of entrainment type occurs in molten tin jets with high probability. The difference of thermal interaction between molten zinc and molten tin may attribute to differences of kinematic viscosity and melting point between them. (author)

  10. A sample of galaxy pairs identified from the LAMOST spectral survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Shi-Yin; Argudo-Fernández, Maria; Chen, Li; Feng, Shuai; Hou, Jin-Liang; Shao, Zheng-Yi; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Luo, A-Li; Wu, Hong; Yang, Hai-Feng; Yang, Ming; Hou, Yong-Hui; Wang, Yue-Fei; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Ting-Gui; Jing, Yi-Peng; Kong, Xu; Wang, Wen-Ting; Luo, Zhi-Jian; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2016-01-01

    A small fraction (< 10%) of the SDSS main galaxy (MG) sample has not been targeted with spectroscopy due to the effect of fiber collisions. These galaxies have been compiled into the input catalog of the LAMOST ExtraGAlactic Surveys and named the complementary galaxy sample. In this paper, we introduce this project and status of the spectroscopies associated with the complementary galaxies in the first two years of the LAMOST spectral survey (till Sep. of 2014). Moreover, we present a sample of 1102 galaxy pairs identified from the LAMOST complementary galaxies and SDSS MGs, which are defined as two members that have a projected distance smaller than 100 h −1 70 kpc and a recessional velocity difference smaller than 500 km s −1 . Compared with galaxy pairs that are only selected from SDSS, the LAMOST-SDSS pairs have the advantages of not being biased toward large separations and therefore act as a useful supplement in statistical studies of galaxy interaction and galaxy merging. (paper)

  11. Impact of ultralight axion self-interactions on the large scale structure of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjacques, Vincent; Kehagias, Alex; Riotto, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Ultralight axions have sparked attention because their tiny mass m ˜10-22 eV , which leads to a kiloparsec-scale de Broglie wavelength comparable to the size of a dwarf galaxy, could alleviate the so-called small-scale crisis of massive cold dark matter (CDM) candidates. However, recent analyses of the Lyman-α forest power spectrum set a tight lower bound on their mass of m ≳10-21 eV which makes them much less relevant from an astrophysical point of view. An important caveat to these numerical studies is that they do not take into account self-interactions among ultralight axions. Furthermore, for axions which acquired a mass through nonperturbative effects, this self-interaction is attractive and, therefore, could counteract the quantum "pressure" induced by the strong delocalization of the particles. In this work, we show that even a tiny attractive interaction among ultralight axions can have a significant impact on the stability of cosmic structures at low redshift. After a brief review of known results about solitons in the absence of gravity, we discuss the stability of filamentary and pancakelike solutions when quantum pressure, attractive interactions and gravity are present. The analysis based on 1 degree of freedom, namely the breathing mode, reveals that pancakes are stable, while filaments are unstable if the mass per unit length is larger than a critical value. However, we show that pancakes are unstable against transverse perturbations. We expect this to be true for halos and filaments as well. Instabilities driven by the breathing mode will not be seen in the low column density Lyman-α forest unless the axion decay constant is extremely small, f ≲1013 GeV . Notwithstanding, axion solitonic cores could leave a detectable signature in the Lyman-α forest if the normalization of the unknown axion core—filament mass relation is ˜100 larger than it is for spherical halos. We hope our work motivates future numerical studies of the impact of axion

  12. Neutral hydrogen in elliptical and IO galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottinelli, L.; Gouguenheim, L.

    1979-01-01

    New HI detections have been obtained using the Nancay radiotelescope for NGC 2974 and 3962. These results and the large scale distribution obtained for NGC 3962 indicate that the HI-rich elliptical galaxies exhibit common properties which are not easily explained by accretion of an intergalactic cloud. The field aroud NGC 1052 has been mapped and there is an HI connection with the neighbouring galaxies. The HI content of several IO galaxies indicates that the galaxies which are members of groups are relatively HI-rich; this could be produced by additional HI coming from companion galaxies [fr

  13. NGC 5291: Implications for the Formation of Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malphrus, Benjamin K.; Simpson, Caroline E.; Gottesman, S. T.; Hawarden, Timothy G.

    1997-01-01

    The possible formation and evolution of dwarf irregular galaxies from material derived from perturbed evolved galaxies is addressed via an H I study of a likely example, the peculiar system NGC 5291. This system, located in the western outskirts of the cluster Abell 3574, contains the lenticular galaxy NGC 5291 which is in close proximity to a disturbed companion and is flanked by an extensive complex of numerous knots extending roughly 4 min north and 4 min south of the galaxy. In an initial optical and radio study, Longmore et al. (1979, MNRAS, 188, 285) showed that these knots have the spectra of vigorous star-forming regions, and suggested that some may in fact be young dwarf irregular galaxies. High resolution 21-cm line observations taken with the VLA are presented here and reveal that the H I distribution associated with this system encompasses not only the entire N-S complex of optical knots, but also forms an incomplete ring or tail that extends approximately 3 min to the west. The H I associated with NGC 5291 itself shows a high velocity range; the Seashell is not detected. The formation mechanism for this unusual system is unclear and two models - a large, low-luminosity ram-swept disk, and a ram-swept interaction-are discussed. The H I in the system contains numerous concentrations, mostly along the N-S arc of the star-forming complexes, which generally coincide with one or more optical knots; the larger H I features contain several x 10(exp 9) solar mass of gas. Each of the knots is compared to a set of criteria designed to determine if these objects are bound against their own internal kinetic energy and are tidally stable relative to the host galaxy. An analysis of the properties of the H I concentrations surrounding the optical star-forming complexes indicates that at least the largest of these is a bound system; it also possesses a stellar component. It is suggested that this object is a genuinely young dwarf irregular galaxy that has evolved from

  14. Investigating Cross-Device Interaction between a Handheld Device and a Large Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paay, Jeni; Raptis, Dimitrios; Kjeldskov, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    and mid-air gestures, pinching, swiping, swinging and flicking. We look specifically at their relative efficiency, effectiveness and accuracy in bi-directional interaction between a smartphone and large display in a point-click context. We report findings from two user studies, which show that swiping...... is both most effective, fastest and most accurate, closely followed by swinging. What these two approaches have in common is the ability to keep the pointer steady on the large display, unaffected by concurrent gestures or body movements used to complete the interaction, suggesting...

  15. Optical appearance of distant galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchet, C.; Kline, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    We have used the recent evolutionary and K-corrections of Bruzual and Kron to predict the optical appearance of galaxies spanning a wide range of magnitudes and redshifts. It is found that nearly all galaxies with J< or approx. =25 are resolved in 1-arcsec seeing. At fixed apparent magnitude, galaxies with large redshifts are more diffuse in appearance than those at small z. This fact causes the most distant galaxies at any magnitude level to be missed, and, depending on the measurement algorithm employed, may cause the luminosities of detected galaxies to be seriously underestimated. Both of these effects deserve consideration when attempting to interpret number counts of faint galaxies. Observations made with the Space Telescope are expected to resolve nearly all galaxies at J< or approx. =27.5; however, several factors conspire to render Space Telescope observations less effective than certain ground-based CCD observations for the optical detection of distant galaxies. Finally, we note that most of our conclusions are unaffected by changes in the assumed cosmology

  16. CHLOE: A tool for automatic detection of peculiar galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Lior; Manning, Saundra; Wallin, John

    2014-09-01

    CHLOE is an image analysis unsupervised learning algorithm that detects peculiar galaxies in datasets of galaxy images. The algorithm first computes a large set of numerical descriptors reflecting different aspects of the visual content, and then weighs them based on the standard deviation of the values computed from the galaxy images. The weighted Euclidean distance of each galaxy image from the median is measured, and the peculiarity of each galaxy is determined based on that distance.

  17. Imprint of galaxy formation and evolution on globular cluster properties

    OpenAIRE

    Bekki, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the origin of physical properties of globular cluster systems (GCSs) in galaxies in terms of galaxy formation and evolution processes. Based on numerical simulations of dynamical evolution of GCSs in galaxies, we particularly discuss (1) the origin of radial density profiles of GCSs, (2) kinematics of GCSs in elliptical galaxies, (3) transformation from nucleated dwarf galaxies into GCs (e.g., omega Centauri), and (4) the origin of GCSs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC).

  18. The Metallicity of Void Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckel, K.; Croxall, K.; Groves, B.; van de Weygaert, R.; Pogge, R. W.

    2015-01-01

    The current ΛCDM cosmological model predicts that galaxy evolution proceeds more slowly in lower density environments, suggesting that voids are a prime location to search for relatively pristine galaxies that are representative of the building blocks of early massive galaxies. To test the assumption that void galaxies are more pristine, we compare the evolutionary properties of a sample of dwarf galaxies selected specifically to lie in voids with a sample of similar isolated dwarf galaxies in average density environments. We measure gas-phase oxygen abundances and gas fractions for eight dwarf galaxies (Mr > -16.2), carefully selected to reside within the lowest density environments of seven voids, and apply the same calibrations to existing samples of isolated dwarf galaxies. We find no significant difference between these void dwarf galaxies and the isolated dwarf galaxies, suggesting that dwarf galaxy chemical evolution proceeds independent of the large-scale environment. While this sample is too small to draw strong conclusions, it suggests that external gas accretion is playing a limited role in the chemical evolution of these systems, and that this evolution is instead dominated mainly by the internal secular processes that are linking the simultaneous growth and enrichment of these galaxies.

  19. The Cambridge photographic atlas of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    König, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Galaxies - the Milky Way's siblings - offer a surprising variety of forms and colours. Displaying symmetrical spiral arms, glowing red nebulae or diffuse halos, even the image of a galaxy can reveal much about its construction. All galaxies consist of gas, dust and stars, but the effects of gravity, dark matter and the interaction of star formation and stellar explosions all influence their appearances. This volume showcases more than 250 of the most beautiful galaxies within an amateur's reach and uses them to explain current astrophysical research. It features fantastic photographs, unique insights into our knowledge, tips on astrophotography and essential facts and figures based on the latest science. From the Andromeda Galaxy to galaxy clusters and gravitational lenses, the nature of galaxies is revealed through these stunning amateur photographs. This well illustrated reference atlas deserves a place on the bookshelves of astronomical imagers, observers and armchair enthusiasts.

  20. On the dynamics of binary galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verner, D.A.; Chernin, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of close noncontact binary galaxies is investigated. It is demonsrated that the tidal interaction is ineffective for circularization of galaxy orbits. Nonsphericity of galaxies develops a torque in a binary system. For a pair of elliptical galaxies this torque leads to swinging of the galaxies with respect to the orbital plane (which can be observed as a rotation about the minor axis) and to the excitation of internal degrees of freedom. Besides, this pendulum effect may be effective for elliptical galaxies in clusters due to the presence of the torque produced by a cluster as a whole. In the case of spiral galaxies the torque leads to the precession of their rotational axes. However this effect seems to be too weak to be observable

  1. Large distance modification of Newtonian potential and structure formation in universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameeda, Mir; Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Faizal, Mir; Ali, Ahmed F.; Pourhassan, Behnam

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of super-light brane world perturbative modes on structure formation in our universe. As these modes modify the large distance behavior of Newtonian potential, they effect the clustering of a system of galaxies. So, we explicitly calculate the clustering of galaxies interacting through such a modified Newtonian potential. We use a suitable approximation for analyzing this system of galaxies, and discuss the validity of such approximations. We observe that such corrections also modify the virial theorem for such a system of galaxies.

  2. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    bright active galaxies, often referred to as Active Galactic Nuclei, or AGN. Many astronomers think that all galaxies have central, supermassive black holes, yet only a small percent show activity. What is needed to power the AGN is fuel in the form of a nearby reservoir of gas and dust. Galaxy clusters contain hundreds to thousands of galaxies. They are the largest known structures in the universe and serve as a microcosm for the mechanics of the Universe at large. The galaxies in clusters are often old, reddish elliptically shaped galaxies, distinct from blue, spiral galaxies like our own. These old galaxies also do not have many young stars. The theory now in question is that as galaxies enter into clusters at high speeds, they are stripped of their interstellar gas, much as a strong wind strips leaves from a tree. Galaxies may also collide with one another and use up all of their gas in one huge burst of star formation triggered by this interaction. These processes remove most, if not all, of the gas that isn't locked up in stars. As they no longer have the raw material to form new stars, the stellar population slowly gets old and the Galaxy appears red. No gas is left to fuel an AGN. Previous surveys of galaxy clusters with optical telescopes have found that about only one percent of the galaxies in a cluster have AGN. This latest Chandra observation if typical, however, bumps the count up to about 5 percent. The team found six red galaxies with high X-ray activity during a nearly 14-hour Chandra observation of a galaxy cluster named Abell 2104, over 700 million light years from Earth. Based on previous optical surveys, only one was expected. "If we relied on optical data alone, we would have missed these hidden monsters," said co-author Dr. John Mulchaey. Only one of the six AGN, in fact, had the optical spectral properties typical of AGN activity. "The presence of these AGN indicate that supermassive black holes have somehow retained a fuel source, despite the

  3. QUENCHED COLD ACCRETION OF A LARGE-SCALE METAL-POOR FILAMENT DUE TO VIRIAL SHOCKING IN THE HALO OF A MASSIVE z = 0.7 GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, Christopher W.; Holtzman, Jon; Nielsen, Nikole M.; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Spitler, Lee R. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Steidel, Charles C. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    Using HST/COS/STIS and HIRES/Keck high-resolution spectra, we have studied a remarkable H I absorbing complex at z = 0.672 toward the quasar Q1317+277. The H I absorption has a velocity spread of {Delta}v = 1600 km s{sup -1}, comprises 21 Voigt profile components, and resides at an impact parameter of D = 58 kpc from a bright, high-mass (log M {sub vir}/M {sub Sun} {approx_equal} 13.7) elliptical galaxy that is deduced to have a 6 Gyr old, solar metallicity stellar population. Ionization models suggest the majority of the structure is cold gas surrounding a shock-heated cloud that is kinematically adjacent to a multi-phase group of clouds with detected C III, C IV, and O VI absorption, suggestive of a conductive interface near the shock. The deduced metallicities are consistent with the moderate in situ enrichment relative to the levels observed in the z {approx} 3 Ly{alpha} forest. We interpret the H I complex as a metal-poor filamentary structure being shock heated as it accretes into the halo of the galaxy. The data support the scenario of an early formation period (z > 4) in which the galaxy was presumably fed by cold-mode gas accretion that was later quenched via virial shocking by the hot halo such that, by intermediate redshift, the cold filamentary accreting gas is continuing to be disrupted by shock heating. Thus, continued filamentary accretion is being mixed into the hot halo, indicating that the star formation of the galaxy will likely remain quenched. To date, the galaxy and the H I absorption complex provide some of the most compelling observational data supporting the theoretical picture in which accretion is virial shocked in the hot coronal halos of high-mass galaxies.

  4. Smartphone Response System Using Twitter to Enable Effective Interaction and Improve Engagement in Large Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeongjun; Jeong, Soonmook; Ji, Yongwoon; Lee, Sangeun; Kwon, Key Ho; Jeon, Jae Wook

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for seamless interaction between students and their professor using Twitter, one of the typical social network service (SNS) platforms, in large lectures. During the lecture, the professor poses surprise questions in the form of a quiz on an overhead screen at unexpected moments, and students submit their answers…

  5. On the coupling of statistic sum of canonical and large canonical ensemble of interacting particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vall, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    Potentiality of refining the known result based on analytic properties of a great statistical sum, as a function of the absolute activity of the boundary integral contribution into statistical sum, is considered. A strict asymptotic ratio between statistical sums of canonical and large canonical ensemble of interacting particles was derived [ru

  6. Investigation of wake interaction using full-scale lidar measurements and large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Troldborg, Niels

    2016-01-01

    dynamics flow solver, using large eddy simulation and fully turbulent inflow. The rotors are modelled using the actuator disc technique. A mutual validation of the computational fluid dynamics model with the measurements is conducted for a selected dataset, where wake interaction occurs. This validation...

  7. Superclusters and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Joeveer, M.; Saar, E.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial distribution of Galaxies and Galaxy congestions in the southern galactic hemisphere is studied. The rich galaxy congestions, containing many elliptic Galaxies and radiogalaxies, are linked with each other by chains of scanty congestions with moderate content of elliptic Galaxies and radiogalaxies. The flat formation, linking the density pikes and the intermediate chains, can reasonably be called supercongestion. In the central region of supercongestions there is a thin layer of Galaxies consisting of only spiral Galaxies. The neighbouring supercongestions touch each other, while the intersupercongestion space contains no Galaxy congestions and almost no Galaxies. It is shown that such a structure was, apparently, formed before the formation of Galaxies

  8. Dark matter in elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carollo, C. M.; Zeeuw, P. T. DE; Marel, R. P. Van Der; Danziger, I. J.; Qian, E. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present measurements of the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution out to two effective radii along the major axes of the four elliptical galaxies NGC 2434, 2663, 3706, and 5018. The velocity dispersion profiles are flat or decline gently with radius. We compare the data to the predictions of f = f(E, L(sub z)) axisymmetric models with and without dark matter. Strong tangential anisotropy is ruled out at large radii. We conclude from our measurements that massive dark halos must be present in three of the four galaxies, while for the fourth galaxy (NGC 2663) the case is inconclusive.

  9. Stellar Populations in Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Lucio; Giannone, Pietro

    The R1/n law for the radial surface brightness of elliptical galaxies and the "Best Accretion Model" together with the "Concentration Model" have been combined in order to determine the mass and dynamical structure of largely-populated star systems. Families of models depending on four parameters have been used to fit the observed surface radial profiles of some spectro-photometric indices of a sample of eleven galaxies. We present the best agreements of the spectral index Mg2 with observations for three selected galaxies representative of the full sample. For them we have also computed the spatial distributions of the metal abundances, which are essential to achieve a population synthesis.

  10. Interstellar matter within elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jura, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations of elliptical galaxies are reviewed, with an emphasis on their implications for theoretical models proposed to explain the origin and evolution of the interstellar matter. Particular attention is given to interstellar matter at T less than 100 K (atomic and molecular gas and dust), gas at T = about 10,000 K, and gas at T = 10 to the 6th K or greater. The data are shown to confirm the occurrence of mass loss from evolved stars, significant accretion from companion galaxies, and cooling inflows; no evidence is found for large mass outflow from elliptical galaxies.

  11. S0 galaxies in Formax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedregal...[], A. G.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Merrifield, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1......Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1...

  12. Automatic Approach to Morphological Classification of Galaxies With Analysis of Galaxy Populations in Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanova, Madina; Barkhouse, Wayne; Rude, Cody

    2018-01-01

    The classification of galaxies based on their morphology is a field in astrophysics that aims to understand galaxy formation and evolution based on their physical differences. Whether structural differences are due to internal factors or a result of local environment, the dominate mechanism that determines galaxy type needs to be robustly quantified in order to have a thorough grasp of the origin of the different types of galaxies. The main subject of my Ph.D. dissertation is to explore the use of computers to automatically classify and analyze large numbers of galaxies according to their morphology, and to analyze sub-samples of galaxies selected by type to understand galaxy formation in various environments. I have developed a computer code to classify galaxies by measuring five parameters from their images in FITS format. The code was trained and tested using visually classified SDSS galaxies from Galaxy Zoo and the EFIGI data set. I apply my morphology software to numerous galaxies from diverse data sets. Among the data analyzed are the 15 Abell galaxy clusters (0.03 Frontier Field galaxy clusters. The high resolution of HST allows me to compare distant clusters with those nearby to look for evolutionary changes in the galaxy cluster population. I use the results from the software to examine the properties (e.g. luminosity functions, radial dependencies, star formation rates) of selected galaxies. Due to the large amount of data that will be available from wide-area surveys in the future, the use of computer software to classify and analyze the morphology of galaxies will be extremely important in terms of efficiency. This research aims to contribute to the solution of this problem.

  13. The mass-metallicity and fundamental metallicity relations at z > 2 using very large telescope and Subaru near-infrared spectroscopy of zCOSMOS galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, C.; Ziegler, B. L. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Lilly, S. J.; Peng, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Contini, T. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, CNRS, 14 avenue Édouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Pérez Montero, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Balestra, I., E-mail: christian.maier@univie.ac.at [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85741 Garching b. München (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    In the local universe, there is good evidence that, at a given stellar mass M, the gas-phase metallicity Z is anti-correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxies. It has also been claimed that the resulting Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with redshift—the so-called 'fundamental metallicity relation' (FMR). Given a number of difficulties in determining metallicities, especially at higher redshifts, the form of the Z(M, SFR) relation and whether it is really independent of redshift is still very controversial. To explore this issue at z > 2, we used VLT-SINFONI and Subaru-MOIRCS near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 zCOSMOS-deep galaxies at 2.1 < z < 2.5 to measure the strengths of up to five emission lines: [O II] λ3727, Hβ, [O III] λ5007, Hα, and [N II] λ6584. This near-infrared spectroscopy enables us to derive O/H metallicities, and also SFRs from extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) of these star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 2.3 is lower than the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than found by Erb et al. using [N II]/Hα-based metallicities from stacked spectra. We discuss how the different selections of the samples and metallicity calibrations used may be responsible for this discrepancy. The galaxies show direct evidence that the SFR is still a second parameter in the MZR at these redshifts. However, determining whether the Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with epoch depends on the choice of extrapolation used from local samples, because z > 2 galaxies of a given mass have much higher SFRs than the local SDSS galaxies. We find that the zCOSMOS galaxies are consistent with a non-evolving FMR if we use the physically motivated formulation of the Z(M, SFR) relation from Lilly et al., but not if we use the empirical formulation of Mannucci et al.

  14. Cannibalism in the world of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komberg, B.V.

    1986-01-01

    Modern ideas about the processes of interaction between galaxies are discussed in the popular form. It is shown that revaluation of the role of the processes of galaxy clustering has taken place for the last 10 years. It is marked that not only the possibility of galaxy coalescence in ''poor'' clusters for several billion years, but inevitability of this process have been shown by means of computerized calculations

  15. The topology of galaxy clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, P.; Plionis, M.

    The authors discuss an objective method for quantifying the topology of the galaxy distribution using only projected galaxy counts. The method is a useful complement to fully three-dimensional studies of topology based on the genus by virtue of the enormous projected data sets available. Applying the method to the Lick counts they find no evidence for large-scale non-gaussian behaviour, whereas the small-scale distribution is strongly non-gaussian, with a shift in the meatball direction.

  16. The Secret Lives of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The ground-based image in visible light locates the hub imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope. This barred galaxy feeds material into its hub, igniting star birth. The Hubble NICMOS instrument penetrates beneath the dust to reveal clusters of young stars. Footage shows ground-based, WFPC2, and NICMOS images of NGS 1365. An animation of a large spiral galaxy zooms from the edge to the galactic bulge.

  17. Coupled radiative gasdynamic interaction and non-equilibrium dissociation for large-scale returned space vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surzhikov, S.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: It has been shown that different coupled vibrational dissociation models, being applied for solving coupled radiative gasdynamic problems for large size space vehicles, exert noticeable effect on radiative heating of its surface at orbital entry on high altitudes (h ⩾ 70 km). This influence decreases with decreasing the space vehicles sizes. Figure shows translational (solid lines) and vibrational (dashed lines) temperatures in shock layer with (circle markers) and without (triangles markers) radiative-gasdynamic interaction for one trajectory point of entering space vehicle. Highlights: ► Nonequilibrium dissociation processes exert effect on radiation heating of space vehicles (SV). ► The radiation gas dynamic interaction enhances this influence. ► This influence increases with increasing the SV sizes. - Abstract: Radiative aerothermodynamics of large-scale space vehicles is considered for Earth orbital entry at zero angle of attack. Brief description of used radiative gasdynamic model of physically and chemically nonequilibrium, viscous, heat conductive and radiative gas of complex chemical composition is presented. Radiation gasdynamic (RadGD) interaction in high temperature shock layer is studied by means of numerical experiment. It is shown that radiation–gasdynamic coupling for orbital space vehicles of large size is important for high altitude part of entering trajectory. It is demonstrated that the use of different models of coupled vibrational dissociation (CVD) in conditions of RadGD interaction gives rise temperature variation in shock layer and, as a result, leads to significant variation of radiative heating of space vehicle.

  18. Revealing the large extra dimension effective interaction at an e+e- collider with polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankov, A. A.; Tsytrinov, A. V.; Paver, N.

    2007-01-01

    Several types of new physics scenarios are represented by contactlike effective interactions. An example is the exchange of nonstandard quanta of very large mass scales, beyond the kinematical limit for direct production set by the available collider energy. This kind of interactions can be revealed only through deviations of observables from the standard model predictions. If such deviations were observed, the relevant source should be identified among the possible models that could explain them. Here, we assess the expected 'identification reach' on the ADD model of gravity in large compactified extra dimensions, against the compositeness-inspired four-fermion contact interaction. As basic observables we take the differential cross sections for fermion-pair production at a 0.5-1 TeV electron-positron linear collider with both beams longitudinally polarized. For the four-fermion contact interaction, we assume a general linear combination of the individual models with definite chiralities, with arbitrary coupling constants. In this sense, the estimated identification reach on the ADD model can be considered as 'model independent'. In the analysis, we give estimates also for the expected ''discovery reaches'' on the various scenarios. We emphasize the substantial role of beams polarization in enhancing the sensitivity to the contactlike interactions under consideration

  19. PERSEUS-HUB: Interactive and Collective Exploration of Large-Scale Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Jin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphs emerge naturally in many domains, such as social science, neuroscience, transportation engineering, and more. In many cases, such graphs have millions or billions of nodes and edges, and their sizes increase daily at a fast pace. How can researchers from various domains explore large graphs interactively and efficiently to find out what is ‘important’? How can multiple researchers explore a new graph dataset collectively and “help” each other with their findings? In this article, we present Perseus-Hub, a large-scale graph mining tool that computes a set of graph properties in a distributed manner, performs ensemble, multi-view anomaly detection to highlight regions that are worth investigating, and provides users with uncluttered visualization and easy interaction with complex graph statistics. Perseus-Hub uses a Spark cluster to calculate various statistics of large-scale graphs efficiently, and aggregates the results in a summary on the master node to support interactive user exploration. In Perseus-Hub, the visualized distributions of graph statistics provide preliminary analysis to understand a graph. To perform a deeper analysis, users with little prior knowledge can leverage patterns (e.g., spikes in the power-law degree distribution marked by other users or experts. Moreover, Perseus-Hub guides users to regions of interest by highlighting anomalous nodes and helps users establish a more comprehensive understanding about the graph at hand. We demonstrate our system through the case study on real, large-scale networks.

  20. The Star Formation in Radio Survey: Jansky Very Large Array 33 GHz Observations of Nearby Galaxy Nuclei and Extranuclear Star-forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E. J.; Dong, D.; Momjian, E.; Linden, S.; Kennicutt, R. C., Jr.; Meier, D. S.; Schinnerer, E.; Turner, J. L.

    2018-02-01

    We present 33 GHz imaging for 112 pointings toward galaxy nuclei and extranuclear star-forming regions at ≈2″ resolution using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) as part of the Star Formation in Radio Survey. A comparison with 33 GHz Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope single-dish observations indicates that the interferometric VLA observations recover 78% ± 4% of the total flux density over 25″ regions (≈kpc scales) among all fields. On these scales, the emission being resolved out is most likely diffuse non-thermal synchrotron emission. Consequently, on the ≈30–300 pc scales sampled by our VLA observations, the bulk of the 33 GHz emission is recovered and primarily powered by free–free emission from discrete H II regions, making it an excellent tracer of massive star formation. Of the 225 discrete regions used for aperture photometry, 162 are extranuclear (i.e., having galactocentric radii r G ≥ 250 pc) and detected at >3σ significance at 33 GHz and in Hα. Assuming a typical 33 GHz thermal fraction of 90%, the ratio of optically-thin 33 GHz to uncorrected Hα star formation rates indicates a median extinction value on ≈30–300 pc scales of A Hα ≈ 1.26 ± 0.09 mag, with an associated median absolute deviation of 0.87 mag. We find that 10% of these sources are “highly embedded” (i.e., A Hα ≳ 3.3 mag), suggesting that on average, H II regions remain embedded for ≲1 Myr. Finally, we find the median 33 GHz continuum-to-Hα line flux ratio to be statistically larger within r G < 250 pc relative to the outer disk regions by a factor of 1.82 ± 0.39, while the ratio of 33 GHz to 24 μm flux densities is lower by a factor of 0.45 ± 0.08, which may suggest increased extinction in the central regions.

  1. An Interpretive Study of Meanings Citizen Scientists Make When Participating in Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, T. S.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2011-09-01

    As the Web 2.0 world lurches forward, so do intellectual opportunities for students and the general public to meaningfully engage in the scientific enterprise. In an effort to assess the intrinsic motivation afforded by participation in Galaxy Zoo, we have inductively analyzed more than 1,000 contributions in the Galaxy Zoo Forum and coded posts thematically. We find that participants overwhelmingly want to meaningfully contribute to a larger scientific enterprise as well as have seemingly unique access to high quality, professional astronomical data. While other citizen science projects work through large data sets, Galaxy Zoo is unique in its motivations and retention abilities. Many of these motivations originate in the aesthetic power of astronomical images, which Galaxy Zoo successfully harnesses, while not compromising the scientific value of the project. From the data emerged several trends of motivation, the primary being the sense of community created within the project that promotes professional-amateur collaboration; fulfilling a dream of being an astronomer, physicist, or astronaut; tapping into a potential well of interest created during the space race era; the spiritual aspect generated when the imagination interacts with Galaxy Zoo; and, uniting them all, the aesthetic appeal of the galaxy images. In addition, a very powerful tool also emerged as a method of retention unique to Galaxy Zoo. This tool, known as variable ratio reinforcement in behavioral psychology, uses the most appealing images as positive reinforcement to maintain classification rates over time.

  2. Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Richtler, Tom; Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters

    2009-01-01

    The principal question of whether and how globular clusters can contribute to a better understanding of galaxy formation and evolution is perhaps the main driving force behind the overall endeavour of studying globular cluster systems. Naturally, this splits up into many individual problems. The objective of the Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies was to bring together researchers, both observational and theoretical, to present and discuss the most recent results. Topics covered in these proceedings are: internal dynamics of globular clusters and interaction with host galaxies (tidal tails, evolution of cluster masses), accretion of globular clusters, detailed descriptions of nearby cluster systems, ultracompact dwarfs, formations of massive clusters in mergers and elsewhere, the ACS Virgo survey, galaxy formation and globular clusters, dynamics and kinematics of globular cluster systems and dark matter-related problems. With its wide coverage of the topic, this book constitute...

  3. Scale interactions in a mixing layer – the role of the large-scale gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, D.

    2016-02-15

    © 2016 Cambridge University Press. The interaction between the large and the small scales of turbulence is investigated in a mixing layer, at a Reynolds number based on the Taylor microscale of , via direct numerical simulations. The analysis is performed in physical space, and the local vorticity root-mean-square (r.m.s.) is taken as a measure of the small-scale activity. It is found that positive large-scale velocity fluctuations correspond to large vorticity r.m.s. on the low-speed side of the mixing layer, whereas, they correspond to low vorticity r.m.s. on the high-speed side. The relationship between large and small scales thus depends on position if the vorticity r.m.s. is correlated with the large-scale velocity fluctuations. On the contrary, the correlation coefficient is nearly constant throughout the mixing layer and close to unity if the vorticity r.m.s. is correlated with the large-scale velocity gradients. Therefore, the small-scale activity appears closely related to large-scale gradients, while the correlation between the small-scale activity and the large-scale velocity fluctuations is shown to reflect a property of the large scales. Furthermore, the vorticity from unfiltered (small scales) and from low pass filtered (large scales) velocity fields tend to be aligned when examined within vortical tubes. These results provide evidence for the so-called \\'scale invariance\\' (Meneveau & Katz, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., vol. 32, 2000, pp. 1-32), and suggest that some of the large-scale characteristics are not lost at the small scales, at least at the Reynolds number achieved in the present simulation.

  4. A Widespread, Clumpy Starburst in the Isolated Ongoing Dwarf Galaxy Merger dm1647+21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privon, G. C. [Instituto de Astrofśica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Stierwalt, S.; Johnson, K. E.; Kallivayalil, N.; Liss, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Patton, D. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9L 0G2 (Canada); Besla, G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pearson, S.; Putman, M., E-mail: gprivon@astro.puc.cl [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Collaboration: TiNy Titans

    2017-09-01

    Interactions between pairs of isolated dwarf galaxies provide a critical window into low-mass hierarchical, gas-dominated galaxy assembly and the build-up of stellar mass in low-metallicity systems. We present the first Very Large Telescope/Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT/MUSE) optical integral field unit (IFU) observations of the interacting dwarf pair dm1647+21 selected from the TiNy Titans survey. The H α emission is widespread and corresponds to a total unobscured star formation rate (SFR) of 0.44 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, which is 2.7 times higher than the SFR inferred from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. The implied specific SFR (sSFR) for the system is elevated by more than an order of magnitude above non-interacting dwarfs in the same mass range. This increase is dominated by the lower-mass galaxy, which has a sSFR enhancement of >50. Examining the spatially resolved maps of classic optical line diagnostics, we find that the interstellar medium (ISM) excitation can be fully explained by star formation. The velocity field of the ionized gas is not consistent with simple rotation. Dynamical simulations indicate that the irregular velocity field and the stellar structure is consistent with the identification of this system as an ongoing interaction between two dwarf galaxies. The widespread, clumpy enhancements in the star formation in this system point to important differences in the effect of mergers on dwarf galaxies, compared to massive galaxies; rather than the funneling of gas to the nucleus and giving rise to a nuclear starburst, starbursts in low-mass galaxy mergers may be triggered by large-scale ISM compression, and thus may be more distributed.

  5. Large-scale seismic test for soil-structure interaction research in Hualien, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueshima, T.; Kokusho, T.; Okamoto, T.

    1995-01-01

    It is important to evaluate dynamic soil-structure interaction more accurately in the aseismic design of important facilities such as nuclear power plants. A large-scale model structure with about 1/4th of commercial nuclear power plants was constructed on the gravelly layers in seismically active Hualien, Taiwan. This international joint project is called 'the Hualien LSST Project', where 'LSST' is short for Large-Scale Seismic Test. In this paper, research tasks and responsibilities, the process of the construction work and research tasks along the time-line, main results obtained up to now, and so on in this Project are described. (J.P.N.)

  6. Large-scale ab initio configuration interaction calculations for light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maris, Pieter; Potter, Hugh; Vary, James P; Aktulga, H Metin; Ng, Esmond G; Yang Chao; Caprio, Mark A; Çatalyürek, Ümit V; Saule, Erik; Oryspayev, Dossay; Sosonkina, Masha; Zhou Zheng

    2012-01-01

    In ab-initio Configuration Interaction calculations, the nuclear wavefunction is expanded in Slater determinants of single-nucleon wavefunctions and the many-body Schrodinger equation becomes a large sparse matrix problem. The challenge is to reach numerical convergence to within quantified numerical uncertainties for physical observables using finite truncations of the infinite-dimensional basis space. We discuss strategies for constructing and solving the resulting large sparse matrix eigenvalue problems on current multicore computer architectures. Several of these strategies have been implemented in the code MFDn, a hybrid MPI/OpenMP Fortran code for ab-initio nuclear structure calculations that can scale to 100,000 cores and more. Finally, we will conclude with some recent results for 12 C including emerging collective phenomena such as rotational band structures using SRG evolved chiral N3LO interactions.

  7. The Lion King and the Hyaena Queen: large carnivore interactions and coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périquet, Stéphanie; Fritz, Hervé; Revilla, Eloy

    2015-11-01

    Interactions among species, which range from competition to facilitation, have profound effects on ecosystem functioning. Large carnivores are of particular importance in shaping community structure since they are at the top of the food chain, and many efforts are made to conserve such keystone species. Despite this, the mechanisms of carnivore interactions are far from understood, yet they are key to enabling or hindering their coexistence and hence are highly relevant for their conservation. The goal of this review is thus to provide detailed information on the extents of competition and facilitation between large carnivores and their impact in shaping their life histories. Here, we use the example of spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) and lions (Panthera leo) and provide a comprehensive knowledge of their interactions based on meta-analyses from available literature (148 publications). Despite their strong potential for both exploitation and interference competition (range and diet overlap, intraguild predation and kleptoparasitism), we underline some mechanisms facilitating their coexistence (different prey-age selection and scavenging opportunities). We stress the fact that prey abundance is key to their coexistence and that hyaenas forming very large groups in rich ecosystems could have a negative impact on lions. We show that the coexistence of spotted hyaenas and lions is a complex balance between competition and facilitation, and that prey availability within the ecosystem determines which predator is dominant. However, there are still many gaps in our knowledge such as the spatio-temporal dynamics of their interactions. As both species' survival becomes increasingly dependent on protected areas, where their densities can be high, it is critical to understand their interactions to inform both reintroduction programs and protected area management. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. Interactive effects of fire and large herbivores on web-building spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, C N; Barton, P S; Wood, J T; Lindenmayer, D B

    2015-09-01

    Altered disturbance regimes are a major driver of biodiversity loss worldwide. Maintaining or re-creating natural disturbance regimes is therefore the focus of many conservation programmes. A key challenge, however, is to understand how co-occurring disturbances interact to affect biodiversity. We experimentally tested for the interactive effects of prescribed fire and large macropod herbivores on the web-building spider assemblage of a eucalypt forest understorey and investigated the role of vegetation in mediating these effects using path analysis. Fire had strong negative effects on the density of web-building spiders, which were partly mediated by effects on vegetation structure, while negative effects of large herbivores on web density were not related to changes in vegetation. Fire amplified the effects of large herbivores on spiders, both via vegetation-mediated pathways and by increasing herbivore activity. The importance of vegetation-mediated pathways and fire-herbivore interactions differed for web density and richness and also differed between web types. Our results demonstrate that for some groups of web-building spiders, the effects of co-occurring disturbance drivers may be mostly additive, whereas for other groups, interactions between drivers can amplify disturbance effects. In our study system, the use of prescribed fire in the presence of high densities of herbivores could lead to reduced densities and altered composition of web-building spiders, with potential cascading effects through the arthropod food web. Our study highlights the importance of considering both the independent and interactive effects of disturbances, as well as the mechanisms driving their effects, in the management of disturbance regimes.

  9. Rules of song development and their use in vocal interactions by birds with large repertoires

    OpenAIRE

    Geberzahn Nicole; Hultsch Henrike

    2004-01-01

    Songbirds are well known for settling their disputes by vocal signals, and their singing plays a dominant role. Most studies on this issue have concentrated on bird species that develop and use small vocal repertoires. In this article we will go farther and focus on examples of how species with large song repertoires make use of their vocal competence. In particular, we will outline the study of interaction rules which have been elucidated by examining time- and pattern-specific relationships...

  10. Investigating the Role of Large-Scale Domain Dynamics in Protein-Protein Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaforge, Elise; Milles, Sigrid; Huang, Jie-Rong; Bouvier, Denis; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Sattler, Michael; Hart, Darren J; Blackledge, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered linkers provide multi-domain proteins with degrees of conformational freedom that are often essential for function. These highly dynamic assemblies represent a significant fraction of all proteomes, and deciphering the physical basis of their interactions represents a considerable challenge. Here we describe the difficulties associated with mapping the large-scale domain dynamics and describe two recent examples where solution state methods, in particular NMR spectroscopy, are used to investigate conformational exchange on very different timescales.

  11. Investigating the Role of Large-Scale Domain Dynamics in Protein-Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Delaforge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically disordered linkers provide multi-domain proteins with degrees of conformational freedom that are often essential for function. These highly dynamic assemblies represent a significant fraction of all proteomes, and deciphering the physical basis of their interactions represents a considerable challenge. Here we describe the difficulties associated with mapping the large-scale domain dynamics and describe two recent examples where solution state methods, in particular NMR spectroscopy, are used to investigate conformational exchange on very different timescales.

  12. Seismic analysis of a large LMFBR with fluid-structure interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    The seismic analysis of a large LMFBR with many internal components and structures is presented. Both vertical and horizontal seismic excitations are considered. The important hydrodynamic phenomena such as fluid-structure interaction, sloshing, fluid coupling and fluid inertia effects are included in the analysis. The results of this study are discussed in detail. Information which is useful to the design of future reactions under seismic conditions is also given. 4 refs., 12 figs

  13. Projection Of The Stellar To Halo Mass Relation Into The Scaling Relations Of A Disc Galaxy Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancillas, Brisa; Ávila-Reese, Vladimir; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Valls-Gabaud, David

    2017-06-01

    Several pieces of evidence suggest that disk formation is the generic process of assembly of galaxies, while the spheroidal component arises from the merging/interactions of disks as well as from their secular evolution. To understand galaxy formation and evolution, a cosmological framework is required. The current cosmological paradigm is summarized in the so-called Λ-cold dark matter model (ΛCDM). The statistical connection between the masses of the observed galaxies and those of the simulated CDM halos in large volumes leads us to the galaxy-halo mass relation, which summarizes the main astrophysical processes of galaxy formation and evolution (gas heating and cooling, SF, SN- and AGN-driven feedback, etc.). An important question is how this relation constrained by semi-empirical methods (e.g., Rodriguez-Puebla et al. 2014) is "projected" into the disk galaxy scaling relations and other galaxy correlations. To explore this question, we generate a synthetic catalog of thousands of disk/halo systems by means of an extended Mo, Mao & White (1998) model, and by using as input the baryonic-to-halo mass relation, fbar(Mh), of local disk galaxy as recently constrained by Calette et al. (2015).

  14. Large Display Interaction via Multiple Acceleration Curves and Multifinger Pointer Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Esakia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large high-resolution displays combine high pixel density with ample physical dimensions. The combination of these factors creates a multiscale workspace where interactive targeting of on-screen objects requires both high speed for distant targets and high accuracy for small targets. Modern operating systems support implicit dynamic control-display gain adjustment (i.e., a pointer acceleration curve that helps to maintain both speed and accuracy. However, large high-resolution displays require a broader range of control-display gains than a single acceleration curve can usably enable. Some interaction techniques attempt to solve the problem by utilizing multiple explicit modes of interaction, where different modes provide different levels of pointer precision. Here, we investigate the alternative hypothesis of using a single mode of interaction for continuous pointing that enables both (1 standard implicit granularity control via an acceleration curve and (2 explicit switching between multiple acceleration curves in an efficient and dynamic way. We evaluate a sample solution that augments standard touchpad accelerated pointer manipulation with multitouch capability, where the choice of acceleration curve dynamically changes depending on the number of fingers in contact with the touchpad. Specifically, users can dynamically switch among three different acceleration curves by using one, two, or three fingers on the touchpad.

  15. THE ASSEMBLY OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Purcell, Chris W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2009-01-01

    We study the formation of 53 galaxy cluster-size dark matter halos (M = 10 14.0-14.76 M sun ) formed within a pair of cosmological Λ cold dark matter N-body simulations, and track the accretion histories of cluster subhalos with masses large enough to host ∼0.3 L * galaxies. By associating subhalos with cluster galaxies, we find the majority of galaxies in clusters experience no 'preprocessing' in the group environment prior to their accretion into the cluster. On average, 70% of cluster galaxies fall into the cluster potential directly from the field, with no luminous companions in their host halos at the time of accretion; less than 12% are accreted as members of groups with five or more galaxies. Moreover, we find that cluster galaxies are significantly less likely to have experienced a merger in the recent past (∼<6 Gyr) than a field halo of the same mass. These results suggest that local cluster processes such as ram pressure stripping, galaxy harassment, or strangulation play the dominant role in explaining the difference between cluster and field populations at a fixed stellar mass, and that pre-evolution or past merging in the group environment is of secondary importance for setting cluster galaxy properties for most clusters. The accretion times for z = 0 cluster members are quite extended, with ∼20% incorporated into the cluster halo more than 7 Gyr ago and ∼20% within the last 2 Gyr. By comparing the observed morphological fractions in cluster and field populations, we estimate an approximate timescale for late-type to early-type transformation within the cluster environment to be ∼6 Gyr.

  16. The effects of assembly bias on the inference of matter clustering from galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Joseph E.; Weinberg, David H.

    2018-04-01

    The combination of galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) and galaxy clustering is a promising route to measuring the amplitude of matter clustering and testing modified gravity theories of cosmic acceleration. Halo occupation distribution (HOD) modeling can extend the approach down to nonlinear scales, but galaxy assembly bias could introduce systematic errors by causing the HOD to vary with large scale environment at fixed halo mass. We investigate this problem using the mock galaxy catalogs created by Hearin & Watson (2013, HW13), which exhibit significant assembly bias because galaxy luminosity is tied to halo peak circular velocity and galaxy colour is tied to halo formation time. The preferential placement of galaxies (especially red galaxies) in older halos affects the cutoff of the mean occupation function for central galaxies, with halos in overdense regions more likely to host galaxies. The effect of assembly bias on the satellite galaxy HOD is minimal. We introduce an extended, environment dependent HOD (EDHOD) prescription to describe these results and fit galaxy correlation measurements. Crucially, we find that the galaxy-matter cross-correlation coefficient, rgm(r) ≡ ξgm(r) . [ξmm(r)ξgg(r)]-1/2, is insensitive to assembly bias on scales r ≳ 1 h^{-1} Mpc, even though ξgm(r) and ξgg(r) are both affected individually. We can therefore recover the correct ξmm(r) from the HW13 galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-matter correlations using either a standard HOD or EDHOD fitting method. For Mr ≤ -19 or Mr ≤ -20 samples the recovery of ξmm(r) is accurate to 2% or better. For a sample of red Mr ≤ -20 galaxies we achieve 2% recovery at r ≳ 2 h^{-1} Mpc with EDHOD modeling but lower accuracy at smaller scales or with a standard HOD fit. Most of our mock galaxy samples are consistent with rgm = 1 down to r = 1h-1Mpc, to within the uncertainties set by our finite simulation volume.

  17. The effects of assembly bias on the inference of matter clustering from galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Joseph E.; Weinberg, David H.

    2018-07-01

    The combination of galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising route to measuring the amplitude of matter clustering and testing modified gravity theories of cosmic acceleration. Halo occupation distribution (HOD) modelling can extend the approach down to non-linear scales, but galaxy assembly bias could introduce systematic errors by causing the HOD to vary with the large-scale environment at fixed halo mass. We investigate this problem using the mock galaxy catalogs created by Hearin & Watson (2013, HW13), which exhibit significant assembly bias because galaxy luminosity is tied to halo peak circular velocity and galaxy colour is tied to halo formation time. The preferential placement of galaxies (especially red galaxies) in older haloes affects the cutoff of the mean occupation function ⟨Ncen(Mmin)⟩ for central galaxies, with haloes in overdense regions more likely to host galaxies. The effect of assembly bias on the satellite galaxy HOD is minimal. We introduce an extended, environment-dependent HOD (EDHOD) prescription to describe these results and fit galaxy correlation measurements. Crucially, we find that the galaxy-matter cross-correlation coefficient, rgm(r) ≡ ξgm(r) . [ξmm(r)ξgg(r)]-1/2, is insensitive to assembly bias on scales r ≳ 1 h-1 Mpc, even though ξgm(r) and ξgg(r) are both affected individually. We can therefore recover the correct ξmm(r) from the HW13 galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-matter correlations using either a standard HOD or EDHOD fitting method. For Mr ≤ -19 or Mr ≤ -20 samples the recovery of ξmm(r) is accurate to 2 per cent or better. For a sample of red Mr ≤ -20 galaxies, we achieve 2 per cent recovery at r ≳ 2 h-1 Mpc with EDHOD modelling but lower accuracy at smaller scales or with a standard HOD fit. Most of our mock galaxy samples are consistent with rgm = 1 down to r = 1 h-1 Mpc, to within the uncertainties set by our finite simulation volume.

  18. ALIGNMENTS OF GROUP GALAXIES WITH NEIGHBORING GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yougang; Chen Xuelei; Park, Changbom; Yang Xiaohu; Choi, Yun-Young

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of galaxy groups found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4, we measure the following four types of alignment signals: (1) the alignment between the distributions of the satellites of each group relative to the direction of the nearest neighbor group (NNG); (2) the alignment between the major axis direction of the central galaxy of the host group (HG) and the direction of the NNG; (3) the alignment between the major axes of the central galaxies of the HG and the NNG; and (4) the alignment between the major axes of the satellites of the HG and the direction of the NNG. We find strong signal of alignment between the satellite distribution and the orientation of central galaxy relative to the direction of the NNG, even when the NNG is located beyond 3r vir of the host group. The major axis of the central galaxy of the HG is aligned with the direction of the NNG. The alignment signals are more prominent for groups that are more massive and with early-type central galaxies. We also find that there is a preference for the two major axes of the central galaxies of the HG and NNG to be parallel for the system with both early central galaxies, however, not for the systems with both late-type central galaxies. For the orientation of satellite galaxies, we do not find any significant alignment signals relative to the direction of the NNG. From these four types of alignment measurements, we conclude that the large-scale environment traced by the nearby group affects primarily the shape of the host dark matter halo, and hence also affects the distribution of satellite galaxies and the orientation of central galaxies. In addition, the NNG directly affects the distribution of the satellite galaxies by inducing asymmetric alignment signals, and the NNG at very small separation may also contribute a second-order impact on the orientation of the central galaxy in the HG.

  19. Galaxy Collisions Forging New Worlds from Cosmic Crashes

    CERN Document Server

    Struck, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Galaxy collisions are the key process in building galaxies, triggering the formation of stars and the build-up of heavy elements that allow the formation of planets and solar systems. This book presents the revolutionary research advances achieved in the last decade and lucidly explains the underlying dynamical processes. Galaxy Collisions takes a comprehensive trip through the visually spectacular world of galaxy collisions; investigates the interactions of stars, gas clouds, and dark matter in galaxy collisions; uses analogies and metaphors to help comprehend the bizarre world of galaxies; presents recent research results to enhance the understanding of galaxy formation and evolution; includes discoveries of minor collisions within our own group of galaxies; shows how a galaxy collision might affect a solar system, or a planet like ours.

  20. Spherical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, J. E.; de Souza, R. E.; Penereiro, J. C.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Presentamos fotometria fotografica de 8 objetos y espectrosco- pla para 3 galaxias, las cuales son buenos candidatos para galaxias esfericas. Los resultados fotometricos se presentan en la forma de iso- fotas y de perfiles radiales promedlo, de los cuales se derivan para- metros estructurales. Estas observaciones combinadas con parametros di- namicos obtenidos de observaciones espectrosc6picas, son consistentes con el plano fundamental derivado por Djorgovski y Davis (1987). ABSTRACT. We present photographic surface photometry for 8 objects and spectroscopy for 3 galaxies which are good candidates for spherical galaxies. Photometric results are presented in the form of isophotes and mean radial profiles from which we derived structural parameters. These observations combined with dynamical parameters obtained from spectroscopic observations are consistent with the fundamental plane derived by Djorgovski and Davis (1987). Keq wo : CALAXIES-ELLIPTICAL

  1. Chemical analysis of the Fornax Dwarf galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letarte, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is entitled “Chemical Analysis of the Fornax Dwarf Galaxy”, and it’s main goal is to determine what are the chemical elements present in the stars of this galaxy in order to try and understand it’s evolution. Galaxies are not “static” objects, they move, form stars and can interact with

  2. Star clusters in the Whirlpool Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepmaker, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of observational studies of the star cluster population in the interacting spiral galaxy M51, also known as the Whirlpool galaxy. Observations taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in the optical and the near-UV are used to determine fundamental properties of the star

  3. IRAC Imaging of LSB Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schombert, James; McGaugh, Stacy; Lelli, Federico

    2017-04-01

    We propose a program to observe a large sample of Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies. Large galaxy surveys conducted with Spitzer suffer from the unavoidable selection bias against LSB systems (e.g., the S4G survey). Even those programs thathave specifically targeted LSB galaxies have usually been restricted objects of intermediate surface brightness (between 22 and 23 B mag/ []). Our sample is selected to be of a more extreme LSB nature (with central surface brightness fainter than 23 Bmag/[]). Even warm, Spitzer is the ideal instrument to image these low contrast targets in the near infrared: our sample goes a considerable way towards remedying this hole in the Spitzer legacy archive, also increasing coverage in terms of stellar mass, gas mass, and SFR. The sample will be used to address the newly discovered radial acceleration relation (RAR) in disk galaxies. While issues involving the connection between baryons and dark matter have been known since the development of the global baryonic Tully-Fisher (bTF) relation, it is only in the last six months that the particle physics and theoretical communities have recognized and responded to the local coupling between dark and baryonic matter represented by the RAR. This important new correlation is effectively a new natural law for galaxies. Spitzer photometry has been at the forefront of resolving the stellar mass component in galaxies that make-up the RAR and is the primary reason for the discovery of this new kinematic law.

  4. Colors and the evolution of amorphous galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.S. III; Hunter, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    UBVRI and H-alpha photometric observations are presented for 16 amorphous galaxies and a comparison sample of Magellanic irregular (Im) and Sc spiral galaxies. These data are analyzed in terms of star-formation rates and histories in amorphous galaxies. Amorphous galaxies have mean global colors and star-formation rates per unit area that are similar to those in giant Im systems, despite differences in spatial distributions of star-forming centers in these two galactic structural classes. Amorphous galaxies differ from giant Im systems in having somewhat wider scatter in relationships between B - V and U - B colors, and between U - B and L(H-alpha)/L(B). This scatter is interpreted as resulting from rapid variations in star-formation rates during the recent past, which could be a natural consequence of the concentration of star-forming activity into centrally located, supergiant young stellar complexes in many amorphous galaxies. While the unusual spatial distribution and intensity of star formation in some amorphous galaxies is due to interactions with other galaxies, several amorphous galaxies are relatively isolated and thus the processes must be internal. The ultimate evolutionary fate of rapidly evolving amorphous galaxies remains unknown. 77 references

  5. Structure in radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breugel, W. van.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that radio jets are a rather common phenomenon in radio galaxies. Jets can be disguised as trails in head-tail sources, bridges in double sources or simply remain undetected because of lack of resolution and sensitivity. It is natural to associate these jets with the channels which had previously been suggested to supply energy to the extended radio lobes. The observations of optical emission suggest that a continuous non-thermal spectrum extending from 10 9 to 10 15 Hz is a common property of jets. Because significant amounts of interstellar matter are also observed in each of the galaxies surveyed it seems that models for jets which involve an interaction with this medium may be most appropriate. New information about the overall structure of extended radio sources has been obtained from the detailed multifrequency study with the WSRT. (Auth.)

  6. Dynamics of Disagreement: Large-Scale Temporal Network Analysis Reveals Negative Interactions in Online Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Yasseri, Taha

    2016-11-01

    Disagreement and conflict are a fact of social life. However, negative interactions are rarely explicitly declared and recorded and this makes them hard for scientists to study. In an attempt to understand the structural and temporal features of negative interactions in the community, we use complex network methods to analyze patterns in the timing and configuration of reverts of article edits to Wikipedia. We investigate how often and how fast pairs of reverts occur compared to a null model in order to control for patterns that are natural to the content production or are due to the internal rules of Wikipedia. Our results suggest that Wikipedia editors systematically revert the same person, revert back their reverter, and come to defend a reverted editor. We further relate these interactions to the status of the involved editors. Even though the individual reverts might not necessarily be negative social interactions, our analysis points to the existence of certain patterns of negative social dynamics within the community of editors. Some of these patterns have not been previously explored and carry implications for the knowledge collection practice conducted on Wikipedia. Our method can be applied to other large-scale temporal collaboration networks to identify the existence of negative social interactions and other social processes.

  7. Large-Scale Ocean Circulation-Cloud Interactions Reduce the Pace of Transient Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trossman, D. S.; Palter, J. B.; Merlis, T. M.; Huang, Y.; Xia, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Changes to the large scale oceanic circulation are thought to slow the pace of transient climate change due, in part, to their influence on radiative feedbacks. Here we evaluate the interactions between CO2-forced perturbations to the large-scale ocean circulation and the radiative cloud feedback in a climate model. Both the change of the ocean circulation and the radiative cloud feedback strongly influence the magnitude and spatial pattern of surface and ocean warming. Changes in the ocean circulation reduce the amount of transient global warming caused by the radiative cloud feedback by helping to maintain low cloud coverage in the face of global warming. The radiative cloud feedback is key in affecting atmospheric meridional heat transport changes and is the dominant radiative feedback mechanism that responds to ocean circulation change. Uncertainty in the simulated ocean circulation changes due to CO2 forcing may contribute a large share of the spread in the radiative cloud feedback among climate models.

  8. The Interaction of C-Band Microwaves with Large Plasma Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Liang; Huo Wenqing; Yang Xinjie; Xu Yuemin

    2012-01-01

    A large plasma sheet 60 cm×60 cm×2 cm in size was generated using a hollow cathode, and measurements were conducted for interactions including transmission, reflection and absorption. With different discharge parameters, plasma sheets can vary and influence microwave strength. Microwave reflection decreases when the discharge current rises, and the opposite occurs in transmission. The C-band microwave is absorbed when it is propagated through large plasma sheets at higher pressure. When plasma density and collision frequency are fitted with incident microwave frequency, a large amount of microwave energy is consumed. Reflection, transmission and absorption all exist simultaneously. Plasma sheets are an attractive alternative to microwave steering at low pressure, and the microwave reflection used in receiving radar can be altered by changing the discharge parameters.

  9. Reconstructing galaxy histories from globular clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael J; Côté, Patrick; Marzke, Ronald O; Jordán, Andrés

    2004-01-01

    Nearly a century after the true nature of galaxies as distant 'island universes' was established, their origin and evolution remain great unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. One of the most promising ways to investigate galaxy formation is to study the ubiquitous globular star clusters that surround most galaxies. Globular clusters are compact groups of up to a few million stars. They generally formed early in the history of the Universe, but have survived the interactions and mergers that alter substantially their parent galaxies. Recent advances in our understanding of the globular cluster systems of the Milky Way and other galaxies point to a complex picture of galaxy genesis driven by cannibalism, collisions, bursts of star formation and other tumultuous events.

  10. Infrared galaxies in the IRAS minisurvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Clegg, P. E.; Emerson, J. P.; Houck, J. R.; De Jong, T.; Aumann, H. H.; Beichman, C. A.; Boggess, N.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 86 galaxies have been detected at 60 microns in the high galactic latitude portion of the IRAS minisurvey. The surface density of detected galaxies with flux densities greater than 0.5 Jy is 0.25 sq deg. Virtually all the galaxies detected are spiral galaxies and have an infrared to blue luminosity ratio ranging from 50 to 0.5. For the infrared-selected sample, no obvious correlation exists between infrared excess and color temperature. The infrared flux from 10 to 100 microns contributes approximately 5 percent of the blue luminosity for galaxies in the magnitude range 14 less than m(pg) less than 18 mag. The fraction of interacting galaxies is between one-eighth and one-fourth of the sample.

  11. The cold interstellar medium - An HI view of spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancisi, R; Bender, R; Davies, RL

    1996-01-01

    An HI view of spiral galaxies is presented. In the first part the standard picture of isolated, normal spiral galaxies is briefly reviewed. In the second part attention is drawn to all those phenomena, such as tidal interactions, accretion and mergers, that depend on the galaxy environment and seem

  12. Network theory-based analysis of risk interactions in large engineering projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Chao; Marle, Franck; Zio, Enrico; Bocquet, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach based on network theory to deal with risk interactions in large engineering projects. Indeed, such projects are exposed to numerous and interdependent risks of various nature, which makes their management more difficult. In this paper, a topological analysis based on network theory is presented, which aims at identifying key elements in the structure of interrelated risks potentially affecting a large engineering project. This analysis serves as a powerful complement to classical project risk analysis. Its originality lies in the application of some network theory indicators to the project risk management field. The construction of the risk network requires the involvement of the project manager and other team members assigned to the risk management process. Its interpretation improves their understanding of risks and their potential interactions. The outcomes of the analysis provide a support for decision-making regarding project risk management. An example of application to a real large engineering project is presented. The conclusion is that some new insights can be found about risks, about their interactions and about the global potential behavior of the project. - Highlights: ► The method addresses the modeling of complexity in project risk analysis. ► Network theory indicators enable other risks than classical criticality analysis to be highlighted. ► This topological analysis improves project manager's understanding of risks and risk interactions. ► This helps project manager to make decisions considering the position in the risk network. ► An application to a real tramway implementation project in a city is provided.

  13. DISCOVERY OF A LARGE POPULATION OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN THE BULGELESS GALAXIES NGC 337 AND ESO 501-23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, Garrett; Mathur, Smita; Martini, Paul; Grier, Catherine J. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Watson, Linda [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ferrarese, Laura, E-mail: somers@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Hertzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2013-11-01

    We have used Chandra observations of eight bulgeless disk galaxies to identify new ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidates, study their high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) population, and search for low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We report the discovery of 16 new ULX candidates in our sample of galaxies. Eight of these are found in the star forming galaxy NGC 337, none of which are expected to be background contaminants. The HMXB luminosity function of NGC 337 implies a star formation rate (SFR) of 6.8{sup +4.4}{sub -3.5} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, consistent at 1.5σ with a recent state of the art SFR determination. We also report the discovery of a bright ULX candidate (X-1) in ESO 501-23. X-1's spectrum is well fit by an absorbed power law with Γ= 1.18{sup +0.19}{sub -0.11} and N{sub H} = 1.13{sup +7.07}{sub -1.13}×10{sup 20} cm{sup –2}, implying a 0.3-8 keV flux of 1.08{sup +0.05}{sub -0.07}×10{sup -12} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Its X-ray luminosity (L{sub X} ) is poorly constrained due to uncertainties in the host galaxy's distance, but we argue that its spectrum implies L{sub X} > 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. An optical counterpart to this object may be present in an Hubble Space Telescope image. We also identify ULX candidates in IC 1291, PGC 3853, NGC 5964, and NGC 2805. We find no evidence of nuclear activity in the galaxies in our sample, placing a flux upper limit of 4 × 10{sup –15} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2} on putative AGN. Additionally, the Type II-P supernova SN 2011DQ in NGC 337, which exploded two months before our X-ray observation, is undetected.

  14. Prioritization of gene regulatory interactions from large-scale modules in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bringas Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of groups of co-regulated genes and their transcription factors, called transcriptional modules, has been a focus of many studies about biological systems. While methods have been developed to derive numerous modules from genome-wide data, individual links between regulatory proteins and target genes still need experimental verification. In this work, we aim to prioritize regulator-target links within transcriptional modules based on three types of large-scale data sources. Results Starting with putative transcriptional modules from ChIP-chip data, we first derive modules in which target genes show both expression and function coherence. The most reliable regulatory links between transcription factors and target genes are established by identifying intersection of target genes in coherent modules for each enriched functional category. Using a combination of genome-wide yeast data in normal growth conditions and two different reference datasets, we show that our method predicts regulatory interactions with significantly higher predictive power than ChIP-chip binding data alone. A comparison with results from other studies highlights that our approach provides a reliable and complementary set of regulatory interactions. Based on our results, we can also identify functionally interacting target genes, for instance, a group of co-regulated proteins related to cell wall synthesis. Furthermore, we report novel conserved binding sites of a glycoprotein-encoding gene, CIS3, regulated by Swi6-Swi4 and Ndd1-Fkh2-Mcm1 complexes. Conclusion We provide a simple method to prioritize individual TF-gene interactions from large-scale transcriptional modules. In comparison with other published works, we predict a complementary set of regulatory interactions which yields a similar or higher prediction accuracy at the expense of sensitivity. Therefore, our method can serve as an alternative approach to prioritization for

  15. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark-matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  16. Galaxy formation: internal mechanisms and cosmological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martig, Marie

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to galaxy formation and evolution in a cosmological context. Cosmological simulations have unveiled two main modes of galaxy growth: hierarchical growth by mergers and accretion of cold gas from cosmic filaments. However, these simulations rarely take into account small scale mechanisms, that govern internal evolution and that are a key ingredient to understand galaxy formation and evolution. Thanks to a new simulation technique that I have developed, I first studied the colors of galaxies, and in particular the reddening of elliptical galaxies. I showed that the gas disk in an elliptical galaxy could be stabilized against star formation because of the galaxy's stellar component being within a spheroid instead of a disk. This mechanism can explain the red colors of some elliptical galaxies that contain a gas disk. I also studied the formation of spiral galaxies: most cosmological simulations cannot explain the formation of Milky Way-like galaxies, i.e. with a large disk and a small bulge. I showed that this issue could be partly solved by taking into account in the simulations the mass loss from evolved stars through stellar winds, planetary nebulae and supernovae explosions. (author) [fr

  17. MHD simulations of ram pressure stripping of a disc galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Martínez, Mariana; Gómez, Gilberto C.; Pérez-Villegas, Ángeles

    2018-05-01

    The removal of the interstellar medium (ISM) of disc galaxies through ram pressure stripping (RPS) has been extensively studied in numerous simulations. Nevertheless, the role of magnetic fields (MFs) on the gas dynamics in this process has been hardly studied, although the MF influence on the large-scale disc structure is well established. With this in mind, we present a 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulation of face-on RPS of a disc galaxy to study the impact of the galactic MF in the gas stripping. The main effect of including a galactic MF is a flared disc. When the intracluster medium wind hits this flared disc, oblique shocks are produced at the interaction interface, where the ISM is compressed, generating a gas inflow from large radii towards the central regions of the galaxy. This inflow is observed for {˜ } 150 {Myr} and may supply the central parts of the galaxy with material for star formation while the outskirts of the disc are being stripped of gas, thus the oblique shocks can induce and enhance the star formation in the remaining disc. We also observed that the MF alters the shape and structure of the swept gas, giving a smooth appearance in the magnetized case and clumpier and filamentary-like morphology in the hydro case. Finally, we estimated the truncation radius expected for our models using the Gunn-Gott criterion and found that that is in agreement with the simulations.

  18. The post-infall evolution of a satellite galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    {Nichols} M.; {Revaz} Y.; {Jablonka} P.

    2015-01-01

    As galaxy simulations increase in resolution more attention is being paid towards the evolution of dwarf galaxies and how the simulations compare to observations. Despite this increasing resolution we are however, far away from resolving the interactions of satellite dwarf galaxies and the hot coronae which surround host galaxies. We describe a new method which focuses only on the local region surrounding an infalling dwarf in an effort to understand how the hot baryonic halo will alter the c...

  19. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, Laurent

    1979-01-01

    This research thesis addresses theories on the chemical evolution of galaxies which aim at explaining abundances of different elements in galaxies, and more particularly aims at improving the model by modifying hypotheses. After a description of the simple model and of its uncertainties, the author shows how it is possible to understand the evolution of the main elements. Predictions obtained with this model are then compared with the present knowledge on galaxies by considering them according to an increasing complexity: Sun's neighbourhood, our galaxy, other spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies, and finally galaxy clusters. A specific attention is given to irregular galaxies which are the simplest systems [fr

  20. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Gas Fueling of Spiral Galaxies in the Local Universe. I. The Effect of the Group Environment on Star Formation in Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootes, M. W.; Tuffs, R. J.; Popescu, C. C.; Norberg, P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Liske, J.; Andrae, E.; Baldry, I. K.; Gunawardhana, M.; Kelvin, L. S.; Madore, B. F.; Seibert, M.; Taylor, E. N.; Alpaslan, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cluver, M. E.; Driver, S. P.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; Loveday, J.; Rushton, M.

    2017-03-01

    We quantify the effect of the galaxy group environment (for group masses of 1012.5-1014.0 M ⊙) on the current star formation rate (SFR) of a pure, morphologically selected sample of disk-dominated (I.e., late-type spiral) galaxies with redshift ≤0.13. The sample embraces a full representation of quiescent and star-forming disks with stellar mass M * ≥ 109.5 M ⊙. We focus on the effects on SFR of interactions between grouped galaxies and the putative intrahalo medium (IHM) of their host group dark matter halos, isolating these effects from those induced through galaxy-galaxy interactions, and utilizing a radiation transfer analysis to remove the inclination dependence of derived SFRs. The dependence of SFR on M * is controlled for by measuring offsets Δlog(ψ *) of grouped galaxies about a single power-law relation in specific SFR, {\\psi }* \\propto {M}* -0.45+/- 0.01, exhibited by non-grouped “field” galaxies in the sample. While a small minority of the group satellites are strongly quenched, the group centrals and a large majority of satellites exhibit levels of ψ * statistically indistinguishable from their field counterparts, for all M *, albeit with a higher scatter of 0.44 dex about the field reference relation (versus 0.27 dex for the field). Modeling the distributions in Δlog(ψ *), we find that (I) after infall into groups, disk-dominated galaxies continue to be characterized by a similar rapid cycling of gas into and out of their interstellar medium shown prior to infall, with inflows and outflows of ˜1.5-5 x SFR and ˜1-4 x SFR, respectively; and (II) the independence of the continuity of these gas flow cycles on M * appears inconsistent with the required fueling being sourced from gas in the circumgalactic medium on scales of ˜100 kpc. Instead, our data favor ongoing fueling of satellites from the IHM of the host group halo on ˜Mpc scales, I.e., from gas not initially associated with the galaxies upon infall. Consequently, the color

  1. Are We Really Missing Small Galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    One long-standing astrophysical puzzle is that of so-called missing dwarf galaxies: the number of small dwarf galaxies that we observe is far fewer than that predicted by theory. New simulations, however, suggest that perhaps theres no mystery after all.Missing DwarfsDark-matter cosmological simulations predict many small galaxy halos for every large halo that forms. [The Via Lactea project]Models of a lambda-cold-dark-matter (CDM) universe predict the distribution of galaxy halo sizes throughout the universe, suggesting there should be many more small galaxies than large ones. In what has become known as the missing dwarf problem, however, we find that while we observe the expected numbers of galaxies at the larger end of the scale, we dont see nearly enough small galaxies to match the predictions.Are these galaxies actually missing? Are our predictions wrong? Or are the galaxies there and were just not spotting them? A recent study led by Alyson Brooks (Rutgers University) uses new simulations to explore whatscausing the difference between theory and observation.The fraction of detectable halos as a function of velocity, according to the authors simulations. Below 35 km/s, the detectability of the galaxies drops precipitously. [Brooks et al. 2017]Simulating Galactic VelocitiesBecause we cant weigh a galaxy directly, one proxy used for galaxy mass is its circular velocity; the more massive a galaxy, the faster gas and stars rotate around its center. The discrepancy between models and observations lies in whats known as the galaxy velocity function, which describes the number density of galaxies for a given circular velocity. While theory and observations agree for galaxies with circular velocities above 100 km/s, theory predicts far more dwarfs below this velocity than we observe.To investigate this problem, Brooks and collaborators ran a series of cosmological simulations based on our understanding of a CDM universe. Instead of exploring the result using only

  2. Galaxy clusters and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    White, S

    1994-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the largest coherent objects in Universe. It has been known since 1933 that their dynamical properties require either a modification of the theory of gravity, or the presence of a dominant component of unseen material of unknown nature. Clusters still provide the best laboratories for studying the amount and distribution of this dark matter relative to the material which can be observed directly -- the galaxies themselves and the hot,X-ray-emitting gas which lies between them.Imaging and spectroscopy of clusters by satellite-borne X -ray telescopes has greatly improved our knowledge of the structure and composition of this intergalactic medium. The results permit a number of new approaches to some fundamental cosmological questions,but current indications from the data are contradictory. The observed irregularity of real clusters seems to imply recent formation epochs which would require a universe with approximately the critical density. On the other hand, the large baryon fraction observ...

  3. Radio emission in peculiar galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demellorabaca, Dulia F.; Abraham, Zulema

    1990-01-01

    During the last decades a number of surveys of peculiar galaxies have been carried out and accurate positions become available. Since peculiarities are a possible evidence of radio emission (Wright, 1974; Sulentic, 1976; Stocke et al., 1978), the authors selected a sample of 24 peculiar galaxies with optical jet-like features or extensions in different optical catalogues, mainly the Catalogue of Southern Peculiar Galaxies and Associations (Arp and Madore, 1987) and the ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO(B) Atlas (Lauberts, 1982) for observation at the radio continuum frequency of 22 GHz. The sample is listed in a table. Sol (1987) studied this sample and concluded that the majority of the jet-like features seem to admit an explanation in terms of interactive galaxies with bridges and/or tails due to tidal effects. Only in a few cases do the jets seem to be possibly linked to some nuclear activity of the host galaxy. The observations were made with the 13.7m-radome enclosed Itapetinga Radiotelescope (HPBW of 4.3 arcmin), in Brazil. The receiver was a 1 GHz d.s.b. super-heterodine mixer operated in total-power mode, with a system temperature of approximately 800 K. The observational technique consisted in scans in right ascention, centralized in the optical position of the galaxy. The amplitude of one scan was 43 arcmin, and its duration time was 20 seconds. The integration time was at least 2 hours (12 ten-minute observations) and the sensibility limit adopted was an antenna temperature greater than 3 times the r.m.s. error of the baseline determination. Virgo A was used as the calibrator source. Three galaxies were detected for the first time as radio sources and four other known galaxies at low frequencies had their flux densities measured at 22 GHz. The results for these sources are presented.

  4. Interactive exploration of large-scale time-varying data using dynamic tracking graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Widanagamaachchi, W.

    2012-10-01

    Exploring and analyzing the temporal evolution of features in large-scale time-varying datasets is a common problem in many areas of science and engineering. One natural representation of such data is tracking graphs, i.e., constrained graph layouts that use one spatial dimension to indicate time and show the "tracks" of each feature as it evolves, merges or disappears. However, for practical data sets creating the corresponding optimal graph layouts that minimize the number of intersections can take hours to compute with existing techniques. Furthermore, the resulting graphs are often unmanageably large and complex even with an ideal layout. Finally, due to the cost of the layout, changing the feature definition, e.g. by changing an iso-value, or analyzing properly adjusted sub-graphs is infeasible. To address these challenges, this paper presents a new framework that couples hierarchical feature definitions with progressive graph layout algorithms to provide an interactive exploration of dynamically constructed tracking graphs. Our system enables users to change feature definitions on-the-fly and filter features using arbitrary attributes while providing an interactive view of the resulting tracking graphs. Furthermore, the graph display is integrated into a linked view system that provides a traditional 3D view of the current set of features and allows a cross-linked selection to enable a fully flexible spatio-temporal exploration of data. We demonstrate the utility of our approach with several large-scale scientific simulations from combustion science. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Cosmological parameter constraints from galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering with the SDSS DR7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Slosar, Anže; Baldauf, Tobias; Seljak, Uroš; Hirata, Christopher M.; Nakajima, Reiko; Reyes, Reinabelle; Smith, Robert E.

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that the cross-correlation coefficient between galaxies and dark matter is very close to unity on scales outside a few virial radii of galaxy haloes, independent of the details of how galaxies populate dark matter haloes. This finding makes it possible to determine the dark matter clustering from measurements of galaxy-galaxy weak lensing and galaxy clustering. We present new cosmological parameter constraints based on large-scale measurements of spectroscopic galaxy samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 7. We generalize the approach of Baldauf et al. to remove small-scale information (below 2 and 4 h-1 Mpc for lensing and clustering measurements, respectively), where the cross-correlation coefficient differs from unity. We derive constraints for three galaxy samples covering 7131 deg2, containing 69 150, 62 150 and 35 088 galaxies with mean redshifts of 0.11, 0.28 and 0.40. We clearly detect scale-dependent galaxy bias for the more luminous galaxy samples, at a level consistent with theoretical expectations. When we vary both σ8 and Ωm (and marginalize over non-linear galaxy bias) in a flat Λ cold dark matter model, the best-constrained quantity is σ8(Ωm/0.25)0.57 = 0.80 ± 0.05 (1σ, stat. + sys.), where statistical and systematic errors (photometric redshift and shear calibration) have comparable contributions, and we have fixed ns = 0.96 and h = 0.7. These strong constraints on the matter clustering suggest that this method is competitive with cosmic shear in current data, while having very complementary and in some ways less serious systematics. We therefore expect that this method will play a prominent role in future weak lensing surveys. When we combine these data with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-year (WMAP7) cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, constraints on σ8, Ωm, H0, wde and ∑mν become 30-80 per cent tighter than with CMB data alone, since our data break several parameter

  6. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  7. Cosmology with void-galaxy correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Sutter, P M; Lavaux, Guilhem; Warren, Michael S

    2014-01-31

    Galaxy bias, the unknown relationship between the clustering of galaxies and the underlying dark matter density field is a major hurdle for cosmological inference from large-scale structure. While traditional analyses focus on the absolute clustering amplitude of high-density regions mapped out by galaxy surveys, we propose a relative measurement that compares those to the underdense regions, cosmic voids. On the basis of realistic mock catalogs we demonstrate that cross correlating galaxies and voids opens up the possibility to calibrate galaxy bias and to define a static ruler thanks to the observable geometric nature of voids. We illustrate how the clustering of voids is related to mass compensation and show that volume-exclusion significantly reduces the degree of stochasticity in their spatial distribution. Extracting the spherically averaged distribution of galaxies inside voids from their cross correlations reveals a remarkable concordance with the mass-density profile of voids.

  8. X-ray emssion from normal galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speybroeck, L. van; Bechtold, J.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of results obtained with the Einstein Observatory is presented. There are two general categories of normal galaxy investigation being pursued - detailed studies of nearby galaxies where individual sources can be detected and possibly correlated with galactic morphology, and shorter observations of many more distant objects to determine the total luminosity distribution of normal galaxies. The principal examples of the first type are the CFA study of M31 and the Columbia study of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The Columbia normal galaxy survey is the principal example of the second type, although there also are smaller CFA programs concentrating on early galaxies and peculiar galaxies, and MIT has observed some members of the local group. (Auth.)

  9. Research on the Design of Visually Impaired Interactive Accessibility in Large Urban Public Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiru

    2017-12-01

    In medieval times, due to people’s reliance on belief, public space of Christianity came into being. With the rise of secularization, religion gradually turned into private belief, and accordingly public space returned to private space. In the 21st century, due to people’s reliance on intelligent devices, information-interactive public space emerges, and as information interaction is constantly constraining the visually impaired, public space regressed to the exclusive space of limited people[1]. Modernity is marked by technical rationality, but an ensuing basic problem lies in the separation between human action, ethics and public space. When technology fails to overcome obstacles for a particular group, the gap between the burgeoning intelligent phenomena and the increasing ratio of visually impaired is also expanding, ultimately resulting in a growing number of “blind spots” in information-interactive space. Technological innovation not only promotes the development of the information industry, but also promotes the rapid development of the transportation industry. Traffic patterns are diversifying and diverging nowadays, but it’s a fatal blow for people with visually disabilities, Because they still can only experience the most traditional mode of transportation, sometimes even not go out. How to guarantee their interactive accessibility in large urban public transport system right, currently, is a very important research direction.

  10. Observational properties of compact groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickson, P.

    1990-01-01

    Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of galaxies with projected separations comparable to the diameters of the galaxies themselves. Two well-known examples are Stephan's Quintet (Stephan, 1877) and Seyfert's Sextet (Seyfert 1948a,b). In groups such as these, the apparent space density of galaxies approaches 10(exp 6) Mpc(sub -3), denser even than the cores of rich clusters. The apparent unlikeliness of the chance occurrence of such tight groupings lead Ambartsumyan (1958, 1975) to conclude that compact groups must be physically dense systems. This view is supported by clear signs of galaxy interactions that are seen in many groups. Spectroscopic observations reveal that typical relative velocities of galaxies in the groups are comparable to their internal stellar velocities. This should be conducive to strong gravitational interactions - more so than in rich clusters, where galaxy velocities are typically much higher. This suggests that compact groups could be excellent laboratories in which to study galaxy interactions and their effects. Compact groups often contain one or more galaxies whose redshift differs greatly from those of the other group members. If these galaxies are at the same distance as the other members, either entire galaxies are being ejected at high velocities from these groups, or some new physical phenomena must be occurring. If their redshifts are cosmological, we must explain why so many discordant galaxies are found in compact groups. In recent years much progress has been made in addressing these questions. Here, the author discusses the current observational data on compact groups and their implications

  11. The H IX galaxy survey - II. H I kinematics of H I eXtreme galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-05-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected H I content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these H I eXtreme (H IX) galaxies to be so H I-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed H IX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in H IX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of H IX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) H IX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most H IX galaxies live in higher spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that H IX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the H IX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of H IX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array through the large program C 2705.

  12. Stellar chemical signatures and hierarchical galaxy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venn, KA; Irwin, M; Shetrone, MD; Tout, CA; Hill, [No Value; Tolstoy, E

    To compare the chemistries of stars in the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellite galaxies with stars in the Galaxy, we have compiled a large sample of Galactic stellar abundances from the literature. When kinematic information is available, we have assigned the stars to standard Galactic

  13. Observation of large-amplitude ion acoustic wave in microwave-plasma interaction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugami, Noboru; Nishida, Yasushi

    1997-01-01

    Large amplitude ion acoustic wave, which is not satisfied with a linear dispersion relationship of ion acoustic wave, is observed in microwave-plasma interaction experiments. This ion acoustic wave is excited around critical density layer and begins to propagate to underdense region with a phase velocity one order faster than sound velocity C s , which is predicted by the linear theory, the phase velocity and the wave length of the wave decreases as it propagates. Finally, it converges to C s and strongly dumps. Diagnostic by the Faraday cup indicates that this ion acoustic wave is accompanied with a hot ion beam. (author)

  14. Envision: An interactive system for the management and visualization of large geophysical data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searight, K. R.; Wojtowicz, D. P.; Walsh, J. E.; Pathi, S.; Bowman, K. P.; Wilhelmson, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    Envision is a software project at the University of Illinois and Texas A&M, funded by NASA's Applied Information Systems Research Project. It provides researchers in the geophysical sciences convenient ways to manage, browse, and visualize large observed or model data sets. Envision integrates data management, analysis, and visualization of geophysical data in an interactive environment. It employs commonly used standards in data formats, operating systems, networking, and graphics. It also attempts, wherever possible, to integrate with existing scientific visualization and analysis software. Envision has an easy-to-use graphical interface, distributed process components, and an extensible design. It is a public domain package, freely available to the scientific community.

  15. Further simulations of merging galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.D.M.

    1979-01-01

    Galaxy collisions and the structure of the resulting merger remnants are studied using a large number of numerical simulations. These experiments extend earlier calculations of mergers between pairs of similar 'galaxies'. The tidal coupling in collisions is found to depend strongly on the rotational properties of the 'galaxies' involved. It is greatly enhanced if their spin vectors are aligned with that of their orbit, and it is suppressed if this alignment is reversed. The structure of a merger product depends only weakly on that of its progenitors. Such remnants are typically axisymmetric oblate systems with radially decreasing velocity dispersions and density profiles which have near power-law form over two decades in radius. This density structure is reasonably well described by de Vaucouleurs' empirical formula for the surface brightness distribution of elliptical galaxies. The flattening of merger remnants may be partly supported by an anisotropic pressure distribution, but the systems studied here nevertheless rotate considerably more rapidly than most observed elliptical galaxies, and a natural preference for nearly head-on collisions must be invoked if all ellipticals are to be identified as merger remnants. Mass and energy losses are found to be very small for mergers between bound or marginally unbound 'galaxies'. Escapers can, however, carry away a significant amount of angular momentum. (author)

  16. Soil-Structure Interaction for Non-Slender, Large-Diameter Offshore Monopiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal

    Offshore wind power is a domestic, sustainable and largely untapped energy resource. Today, the modern offshore wind turbine offers competitive production prices compared to other sources of renewable energy. Therefore, it is a key technology in breaking the dependence on fossil fuels...... and in achieving the energy and climate goals of the future. For offshore wind turbines, the costs of foundation typically constitute 20-30% of the total costs. Hence, improved methods for the design of foundations for offshore wind turbines can increase the competitiveness of offshore wind energy significantly....... The monopile foundation concept has been employed as the foundation for the majority of the currently installed offshore wind turbines. Therefore, this PhD thesis concerns the soil-pile interaction for non-slender, large-diameter offshore piles. A combination of numerical and physical modelling has been...

  17. Rules of song development and their use in vocal interactions by birds with large repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberzahn, Nicole; Hultsch, Henrike

    2004-06-01

    Songbirds are well known for settling their disputes by vocal signals, and their singing plays a dominant role. Most studies on this issue have concentrated on bird species that develop and use small vocal repertoires. In this article we will go farther and focus on examples of how species with large song repertoires make use of their vocal competence. In particular, we will outline the study of interaction rules which have been elucidated by examining time- and pattern-specific relationships between signals exchanged by territorial neighbors. First we present an inquiry into the rules of song learning and development. In birds with large song repertoires, the ontogeny of such rules proceeds along a number of trajectories which help in understanding the often remarkable accomplishments of adult birds. In both approaches, our model species will be the Common Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos that has been investigated intensively in the field and in the laboratory.

  18. Soil-Structure Interaction for Non-Slender, Large-Diameter Offshore Monopiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal

    conducted. The initial part of p-y curves for non-slender piles has been investigated by means of numerical modelling. The general behaviour of eccentrically loaded non-slender piles has been investigated by physical modelling. These tests have been conducted in the pressure tank at Aalborg University....... The monopile foundation concept has been employed as the foundation for the majority of the currently installed offshore wind turbines. Therefore, this PhD thesis concerns the soil-pile interaction for non-slender, large-diameter offshore piles. A combination of numerical and physical modelling has been....... Hence, the application of an overburden pressure is possible. The timescale of the backfill process and the compaction of soil material backfilled around piles in storm conditions have been investigated by means of large-scale physical modelling....

  19. Boundary driven Kawasaki process with long-range interaction: dynamical large deviations and steady states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourragui, Mustapha; Orlandi, Enza

    2013-01-01

    A particle system with a single locally-conserved field (density) in a bounded interval with different densities maintained at the two endpoints of the interval is under study here. The particles interact in the bulk through a long-range potential parametrized by β⩾0 and evolve according to an exclusion rule. It is shown that the empirical particle density under the diffusive scaling solves a quasilinear integro-differential evolution equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The associated dynamical large deviation principle is proved. Furthermore, when β is small enough, it is also demonstrated that the empirical particle density obeys a law of large numbers with respect to the stationary measures (hydrostatic). The macroscopic particle density solves a non-local, stationary, transport equation. (paper)

  20. The origin of extended disc galaxies at z=2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sales, Laura V.; Navarro, Julio F.; Schaye, Joop; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Springel, Volker; Haas, Marcel R.; Helmi, Amina

    2009-01-01

    Galaxy formation models typically assume that the size and rotation speed of galaxy discs are largely dictated by the mass, concentration and spin of their surrounding dark matter haloes. Equally important, however, is the fraction of baryons in the halo that collect into the central galaxy, as well

  1. CORES AND THE KINEMATICS OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, Tod R.

    2012-01-01

    I have combined the Emsellem et al. ATLAS 3D rotation measures of a large sample of early-type galaxies with Hubble Space Telescope based classifications of their central structure to characterize the rotation velocities of galaxies with cores. 'Core galaxies' rotate slowly, while 'power-law galaxies' (galaxies that lack cores) rotate rapidly, confirming the analysis of Faber et al. Significantly, the amplitude of rotation sharply discriminates between the two types in the –19 > M V > –22 domain over which the two types coexist. The slow rotation in the small set of core galaxies with M V > –20, in particular, brings them into concordance with the more massive core galaxies. The ATLAS 3D 'fast-rotating' and 'slow-rotating' early-type galaxies are essentially the same as power-law and core galaxies, respectively, or the Kormendy and Bender two families of elliptical galaxies based on rotation, isophote shape, and central structure. The ATLAS 3D fast rotators do include roughly half of the core galaxies, but their rotation amplitudes are always at the lower boundary of that subset. Essentially, all core galaxies have ATLAS 3D rotation amplitudes λ R e /2 ≤0.25, while all galaxies with λ R e /2 >0.25 and figure eccentricity >0.2 lack cores. Both figure rotation and the central structure of early-type galaxies should be used together to separate systems that appear to have formed from 'wet' versus 'dry' mergers.

  2. An interactive display system for large-scale 3D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zijian; Sun, Kun; Tao, Wenbing; Liu, Liman

    2018-04-01

    With the improvement of 3D reconstruction theory and the rapid development of computer hardware technology, the reconstructed 3D models are enlarging in scale and increasing in complexity. Models with tens of thousands of 3D points or triangular meshes are common in practical applications. Due to storage and computing power limitation, it is difficult to achieve real-time display and interaction with large scale 3D models for some common 3D display software, such as MeshLab. In this paper, we propose a display system for large-scale 3D scene models. We construct the LOD (Levels of Detail) model of the reconstructed 3D scene in advance, and then use an out-of-core view-dependent multi-resolution rendering scheme to realize the real-time display of the large-scale 3D model. With the proposed method, our display system is able to render in real time while roaming in the reconstructed scene and 3D camera poses can also be displayed. Furthermore, the memory consumption can be significantly decreased via internal and external memory exchange mechanism, so that it is possible to display a large scale reconstructed scene with over millions of 3D points or triangular meshes in a regular PC with only 4GB RAM.

  3. Exploring the nearby galaxies 0 present and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Galaxies: . Content l Stars. Gas, Dust . Structure & Kinematics . Dynamics & Ecology . Formation & Evolution. Star formation. Chemical evolution. Dynamic evolution. Interaction with neighbours . Galactic Centre ...

  4. Internal and environmental secular evolution of disk galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2015-03-01

    This Special Session is devoted to the secular evolution of disk galaxies. Here `secular' means `slow' i.e., evolution on time scales that are generally much longer than the galaxy crossing or rotation time. Internal and environmentally driven evolution both are covered. I am indebted to Albert Bosma for reminding me at the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School on Secular Evolution that our subject first appeared in print in a comment made by Ivan King (1977) in his introductory talk at the Yale University meeting on The Evolution of Galaxies and Stellar Populations: `John Kormendy would like us to consider the possibility that a galaxy can interact with itself.. . . I'm not at all convinced, but John can show you some interesting pictures.' Two of the earliest papers that followed were Kormendy (1979a, b); the first discusses the interaction of galaxy components with each other, and the second studies these phenomena in the context of a morphological survey of barred galaxies. The earliest modeling paper that we still use regularly is Combes & Sanders (1981), which introduces the now well known idea that box-shaped bulges in edge-on galaxies are side-on, vertically thickened bars. It is gratifying to see how this subject has grown since that time. Hundreds of papers have been written, and the topic features prominently at many meetings (e.g., Block et al. 2004; Falcoń-Barroso & Knapen 2012, and this Special Session). My talk here introduces both internal and environmental secular evolution; a brief abstract follows. My Canary Islands Winter School review covers both subjects in more detail (Kormendy 2012). Kormendy & Kennicutt (2004) is a comprehensive review of internal secular evolution, and Kormendy & Bender (2012) covers environmental evolution. Both of these subject make significant progress at this meeting. Secular evolution happens because self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable by the evolution processes

  5. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Troughs in DES Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, D. [Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany). et al.

    2015-09-29

    We measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. Furthermore, the prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. Finally, the lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  6. HOT GAS HALOS IN EARLY-TYPE FIELD GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Jeltema, Tesla E.

    2010-01-01

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study the hot gas content in a sample of field early-type galaxies. We find that the L X -L K relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. The low hot gas content of field galaxies with L K ∼ * suggests that internal processes such as supernovae-driven winds or active galactic nucleus feedback expel hot gas from low-mass galaxies. Such mechanisms may be less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium can confine outflowing material. In addition, galaxies in groups and clusters may be able to accrete gas from the ambient medium. While there is a population of L K ∼ * galaxies in groups and clusters that retain hot gas halos, some galaxies in these rich environments, including brighter galaxies, are largely devoid of hot gas. In these cases, the hot gas halos have likely been removed via ram pressure stripping. This suggests a very complex interplay between the intragroup/intracluster medium and hot gas halos of galaxies in rich environments, with the ambient medium helping to confine or even enhance the halos in some cases and acting to remove gas in others. In contrast, the hot gas content of more isolated galaxies is largely a function of the mass of the galaxy, with more massive galaxies able to maintain their halos, while in lower mass systems the hot gas escapes in outflowing winds.

  7. PAndAS' CUBS: DISCOVERY OF TWO NEW DWARF GALAXIES IN THE SURROUNDINGS OF THE ANDROMEDA AND TRIANGULUM GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Irwin, Mike; Chapman, Scott; Widrow, Lawrence M.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Dubinski, John; Babul, Arif; Navarro, Julio; Fardal, Mark; Lewis, Geraint F.; Rich, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    We present the discovery of two new dwarf galaxies, Andromeda XXI and Andromeda XXII, located in the surroundings of the Andromeda and Triangulum galaxies (M31 and M33). These discoveries stem from the first year data of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey, a photometric survey of the M31/M33 group conducted with the Megaprime/MegaCam Wide-Field Camera mounted on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Both satellites appear as spatial overdensities of stars which, when plotted in a color-magnitude diagram, follow metal-poor, [Fe/H] = -1.8, red giant branches at the distance of M31/M33. Andromeda XXI is a moderately bright dwarf galaxy (M V = -9.9 ± 0.6), albeit with low surface brightness, emphasizing again that many relatively luminous M31 satellites still remain to be discovered. It is also a large satellite, with a half-light radius close to 1 kpc, making it the fourth largest Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxy after the recently discovered Andromeda XIX, Andromeda II, and Sagittarius around the Milky Way, and supports the trend that M31 satellites are larger than their Milky Way counterparts. Andromeda XXII is much fainter (M V = -6.5 ± 0.8) and lies a lot closer in projection to M33 than it does to M31 (42 versus 224 kpc), suggesting that it could be the first Triangulum satellite to be discovered. Although this is a very exciting possibility in the context of a past interaction of M33 with M31 and the fate of its satellite system, a confirmation will have to await a good distance estimate to confirm its physical proximity to M33. Along with the dwarf galaxies found in previous surveys of the M31 surroundings, these two new satellites bring the number of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in this region to 20.

  8. Large-eddy simulation of wind turbine wake interactions on locally refined Cartesian grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Dionysios; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-11-01

    Performing high-fidelity numerical simulations of turbulent flow in wind farms remains a challenging issue mainly because of the large computational resources required to accurately simulate the turbine wakes and turbine/turbine interactions. The discretization of the governing equations on structured grids for mesoscale calculations may not be the most efficient approach for resolving the large disparity of spatial scales. A 3D Cartesian grid refinement method enabling the efficient coupling of the Actuator Line Model (ALM) with locally refined unstructured Cartesian grids adapted to accurately resolve tip vortices and multi-turbine interactions, is presented. Second order schemes are employed for the discretization of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a hybrid staggered/non-staggered formulation coupled with a fractional step method that ensures the satisfaction of local mass conservation to machine zero. The current approach enables multi-resolution LES of turbulent flow in multi-turbine wind farms. The numerical simulations are in good agreement with experimental measurements and are able to resolve the rich dynamics of turbine wakes on grids containing only a small fraction of the grid nodes that would be required in simulations without local mesh refinement. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0005482 and the National Science Foundation under Award number NSF PFI:BIC 1318201.

  9. Flocculent and grand design spiral galaxies in groups: time scales for the persistence of grand design spiral structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Spiral arm classifications were made for 261 low-inclination galaxies in groups listed by Huchra and Geller. The fractional occurrence of grand design spiral structure in nonbarred galaxies was found to increase from approx.0.1 to approx.0.6 and then level off as the group crossing rate or galaxy collision rate in a group increases. A simple model is discussed where the random encounters between galaxies of any type and flocculent galaxies induce transient grand design spirals in the flocculent galaxies. If this grand-design stimulation occurs for binary collisions with impact parameters less than αR 25 , were R 25 is the galactic radius at 25 mag arcsec - 2 , and if the induced grand design spirals persist for an average time equal to #betta# galactic rotations, then the quantity α 2 #betta# equals approximately 3 x 10 4 . If binary collisions are responsible for grand design spirals, then this result implies either that the induced spirals last for many galactic rotations (#betta#>15), or that they can be stimulated by very remote encounters (α>45.) Alternatively, grand design spirals may be stimulated by multiple galaxy encounters, which would be the case for such large α, or by interactions with the potential well of the associated group, rather than by simple binary encounters. Weak correlations between the grand design fraction and the galaxy size, or between this fraction and the total number of galaxies in a group, were also found. Spiral structures of barred galaxies show no correlations with group environment

  10. INTERACTION BETWEEN TWO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS IN THE 2013 MAY 22 LARGE SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Liu-Guan; Xu, Fei; Gu, Bin; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Li, Gang; Jiang, Yong; Le, Gui-Ming; Shen, Cheng-Long; Wang, Yu-Ming; Chen, Yao

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the eruption and interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during the large 2013 May 22 solar energetic particle event using multiple spacecraft observations. Two CMEs, having similar propagation directions, were found to erupt from two nearby active regions (ARs), AR11748 and AR11745, at ∼08:48 UT and ∼13:25 UT, respectively. The second CME was faster than the first CME. Using the graduated cylindrical shell model, we reconstructed the propagation of these two CMEs and found that the leading edge of the second CME caught up with the trailing edge of the first CME at a height of ∼6 solar radii. After about two hours, the leading edges of the two CMEs merged at a height of ∼20 solar radii. Type II solar radio bursts showed strong enhancement during this two hour period. Using the velocity dispersion method, we obtained the solar particle release (SPR) time and the path length for energetic electrons. Further assuming that energetic protons propagated along the same interplanetary magnetic field, we also obtained the SPR time for energetic protons, which were close to that of electrons. These release times agreed with the time when the second CME caught up with the trailing edge of the first CME, indicating that the CME-CME interaction (and shock-CME interaction) plays an important role in the process of particle acceleration in this event

  11. Computational investigation of large-scale vortex interaction with flexible bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Benjamin; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2003-11-01

    The interaction of large-scale vortices with flexible bodies is examined with particular interest paid to the energy and momentum budgets of the system. Finite difference direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations on a moving curvilinear grid is coupled with a finite difference structural solver of both a linear membrane under tension and linear Euler-Bernoulli beam. The hydrodynamics and structural dynamics are solved simultaneously using an iterative procedure with the external structural forcing calculated from the hydrodynamics at the surface and the flow-field velocity boundary condition given by the structural motion. We focus on an investigation into the canonical problem of a vortex-dipole impinging on a flexible membrane. It is discovered that the structural properties of the membrane direct the interaction in terms of the flow evolution and the energy budget. Pressure gradients associated with resonant membrane response are shown to sustain the oscillatory motion of the vortex pair. Understanding how the key mechanisms in vortex-body interactions are guided by the structural properties of the body is a prerequisite to exploiting these mechanisms.

  12. Interdisciplinary Interactions During R&D and Early Design of Large Engineered Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas

    2014-01-01

    Designing Large-Scale Complex Engineered Systems (LaCES) such as aircraft and submarines requires the input of thousands of engineers and scientists whose work is proximate in neither time nor space. Comprehensive knowledge of the system is dispersed among specialists whose expertise is in typically one system component or discipline. This study examined the interactive work practices among such specialists seeking to improve engineering practice through a rigorous and theoretical understanding of current practice. This research explored current interdisciplinary practices and perspectives during R&D and early LaCES design and identified why these practices and perspectives prevail and persist. The research design consisted of a three-fold, integrative approach that combined an open-ended survey, semi-structured interviews, and ethnography. Significant empirical data from experienced engineers and scientists in a large engineering organization were obtained and integrated with theories from organization science and engineering. Qualitative analysis was used to obtain a holistic, contextualized understanding. The over-arching finding is that issues related to cognition, organization, and social interrelations mostly dominate interactions across disciplines. Engineering issues, such as the integration of hardware or physics-based models, are not as significant. For example, organization culture is an important underlying factor that guided researchers more toward individual sovereignty over cross-disciplinarity. The organization structure and the engineered system architecture also serve as constraints to the engineering work. Many differences in work practices were observed, including frequency and depth of interactions, definition or co-construction of requirements, clarity or creation of the system architecture, work group proximity, and cognitive challenges. Practitioners are often unaware of these differences resulting in confusion and incorrect assumptions

  13. Organizational Influences on Interdisciplinary Interactions during Research and Design of Large-Scale Complex Engineered Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Seifert, Colleen M.; Papalambros, Panos Y.

    2012-01-01

    The design of large-scale complex engineered systems (LaCES) such as an aircraft is inherently interdisciplinary. Multiple engineering disciplines, drawing from a team of hundreds to thousands of engineers and scientists, are woven together throughout the research, development, and systems engineering processes to realize one system. Though research and development (R&D) is typically focused in single disciplines, the interdependencies involved in LaCES require interdisciplinary R&D efforts. This study investigates the interdisciplinary interactions that take place during the R&D and early conceptual design phases in the design of LaCES. Our theoretical framework is informed by both engineering practices and social science research on complex organizations. This paper provides preliminary perspective on some of the organizational influences on interdisciplinary interactions based on organization theory (specifically sensemaking), data from a survey of LaCES experts, and the authors experience in the research and design. The analysis reveals couplings between the engineered system and the organization that creates it. Survey respondents noted the importance of interdisciplinary interactions and their significant benefit to the engineered system, such as innovation and problem mitigation. Substantial obstacles to interdisciplinarity are uncovered beyond engineering that include communication and organizational challenges. Addressing these challenges may ultimately foster greater efficiencies in the design and development of LaCES and improved system performance by assisting with the collective integration of interdependent knowledge bases early in the R&D effort. This research suggests that organizational and human dynamics heavily influence and even constrain the engineering effort for large-scale complex systems.

  14. Galaxies with jet streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Describes recent research work on supersonic gas flow. Notable examples have been observed in cosmic radio sources, where jet streams of galactic dimensions sometimes occur, apparently as the result of interaction between neighbouring galaxies. The current theory of jet behaviour has been convincingly demonstrated using computer simulation. The surprisingly long-term stability is related to the supersonic velocity, and is analagous to the way in which an Appollo spacecraft re-entering the atmosphere supersonically is protected by the gas from the burning shield. (G.F.F.)

  15. Galaxy bias from galaxy-galaxy lensing in the DES Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, J.; et al.

    2016-09-26

    We present a measurement of galaxy-galaxy lensing around a magnitude-limited ($i_{AB} < 22.5$) sample of galaxies selected from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES-SV) data. We split these lenses into three photometric-redshift bins from 0.2 to 0.8, and determine the product of the galaxy bias $b$ and cross-correlation coefficient between the galaxy and dark matter overdensity fields $r$ in each bin, using scales above 4 Mpc/$h$ comoving, where we find the linear bias model to be valid given our current uncertainties. We compare our galaxy bias results from galaxy-galaxy lensing with those obtained from galaxy clustering (Crocce et al. 2016) and CMB lensing (Giannantonio et al. 2016) for the same sample of galaxies, and find our measurements to be in good agreement with those in Crocce et al. (2016), while, in the lowest redshift bin ($z\\sim0.3$), they show some tension with the findings in Giannantonio et al. (2016). Our results are found to be rather insensitive to a large range of systematic effects. We measure $b\\cdot r$ to be $0.87\\pm 0.11$, $1.12 \\pm 0.16$ and $1.24\\pm 0.23$, respectively for the three redshift bins of width $\\Delta z = 0.2$ in the range $0.2galaxy sample, except possibly at the lowest redshift bin ($z\\sim 0.3$), where we find $r = 0.71 \\pm 0.11$ when using TPZ, and $0.83 \\pm 0.12$ with BPZ, assuming the difference between the results from the two probes can be solely attributed to the cross-correlation parameter.

  16. Star Formation in Merging Galaxies Using FIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adrianna; Hung, Chao-Ling; Naiman, Jill; Moreno, Jorge; Hopkins, Philip

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy interactions and mergers are efficient mechanisms to birth stars at rates that are significantly higher than found in our Milky Way galaxy. The Kennicut-Schmidt (KS) relation is an empirical relationship between the star-forming rate and gas surface densities of galaxies (Schmidt 1959; Kennicutt 1998). Although most galaxies follow the KS relation, the high levels of star formation in galaxy mergers places them outside of this otherwise tight relationship. The goal of this research is to analyze the gas content and star formation of simulated merging galaxies. Our work utilizes the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high-resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star-forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. In this work, we have noticed a significant increase in the star formation rate at first and second passage, when the two black holes of each galaxy approach one other. Next, we will analyze spatially resolved star-forming regions over the course of the interacting system. Then, we can study when and how the rates that gas converts into stars deviate from the standard KS. These analyses will provide important insights into the physical mechanisms that regulate star formation of normal and merging galaxies and valuable theoretical predictions that can be used to compare with current and future observations from ALMA or the James Webb Space Telescope.

  17. Towards Interactive Steering of a Very Large Floating Structure Code by Using HPC Parallelisation Strategies

    KAUST Repository

    Frisch, Jerome

    2012-09-01

    Very large floating structures (VLFSs) have been used for broad applications such as floating storage facilities, floating piers, floating bridges, floating airports, entertainment facilities, even habitation, and other purposes. Owing to its small bending rigidity, VLFS deforms elastically when subjected to wave action. This elastic deformation due to wave is called hydro elastic response and it can be obtained by solving the interaction between the surface wave and the floating structure in the frequency domain. In solving the fluid-structure interaction, the floating structure can be modelled by applying the finite element method, whereas the fluid part may be analyzed by using the Green\\'s function method. When using the Green\\'s function which satisfies the boundary condition on the free-surface, the sea bottom and that at infinite distance from the floating structure, the unknown parameters to be determined for the fluid part can be minimized to be only those associated with the wetted surface of the floating structure. However, in the evaluation of the Green\\'s function, extensive computation time O(N2) is needed (N is the number of unknowns). Therefore, acceleration techniques are necessary to tackle the computational complexity. Nowadays, standard multi-core office PCs are already quite powerful if all the cores can be used efficiently. This paper will show different parallelisation strategies for speeding up the Green\\'s function computation. A shared memory based implementation as well as a distributed memory concept will be analysed regarding speed-up and efficiency. For large computations, batch jobs can be used to compute detailed results in high resolution on a large computational cluster or supercomputer. Different speed-up computations on clusters will be included for showing strong speed-up results. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Alignments of galaxies within cosmic filaments from SDSS DR7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youcai; Yang, Xiaohu; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Lei; Mo, H. J.; Van den Bosch, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of galaxy groups selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we examine the alignment between the orientation of galaxies and their surrounding large-scale structure in the context of the cosmic web. The latter is quantified using the large-scale tidal field, reconstructed from the data using galaxy groups above a certain mass threshold. We find that the major axes of galaxies in filaments tend to be preferentially aligned with the directions of the filaments, while galaxies in sheets have their major axes preferentially aligned parallel to the plane of the sheets. The strength of this alignment signal is strongest for red, central galaxies, and in good agreement with that of dark matter halos in N-body simulations. This suggests that red, central galaxies are well aligned with their host halos, in quantitative agreement with previous studies based on the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies. There is a luminosity and mass dependence that brighter and more massive galaxies in filaments and sheets have stronger alignment signals. We also find that the orientation of galaxies is aligned with the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of the tidal tensor. These observational results indicate that galaxy formation is affected by large-scale environments and strongly suggest that galaxies are aligned with each other over scales comparable to those of sheets and filaments in the cosmic web.

  19. Alignments of galaxies within cosmic filaments from SDSS DR7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Youcai; Yang, Xiaohu [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wang, Huiyuan [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang, Lei [Purple Mountain Observatory, the Partner Group of MPI für Astronomie, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Mo, H. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Van den Bosch, Frank C., E-mail: yczhang@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: xyang@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    Using a sample of galaxy groups selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we examine the alignment between the orientation of galaxies and their surrounding large-scale structure in the context of the cosmic web. The latter is quantified using the large-scale tidal field, reconstructed from the data using galaxy groups above a certain mass threshold. We find that the major axes of galaxies in filaments tend to be preferentially aligned with the directions of the filaments, while galaxies in sheets have their major axes preferentially aligned parallel to the plane of the sheets. The strength of this alignment signal is strongest for red, central galaxies, and in good agreement with that of dark matter halos in N-body simulations. This suggests that red, central galaxies are well aligned with their host halos, in quantitative agreement with previous studies based on the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies. There is a luminosity and mass dependence that brighter and more massive galaxies in filaments and sheets have stronger alignment signals. We also find that the orientation of galaxies is aligned with the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of the tidal tensor. These observational results indicate that galaxy formation is affected by large-scale environments and strongly suggest that galaxies are aligned with each other over scales comparable to those of sheets and filaments in the cosmic web.

  20. A Galaxy is Born in a Swirling Hydrogen Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    radio images are combined, it is seen that a radio `jet' emerges from the centre of the galaxy and interacts vigorously with the inner region of the gas cloud. This jet is believed to be a narrow stream of high-energy electrons spewed out at the edge of a black hole located at the center of the galaxy. Such jets are often seen in distant radio galaxies. But the most intriguing property of 1243+036 is revealed by the faint glow from the hydrogen atoms in the outer regions of the gas cloud, now detected on the EMMI spectra. The extent of this faint light shows that the size of the gas cloud is almost 500,000 light years, i.e. many times larger than the clouds seen around normal galaxies. The mass of this enormous cloud probably exceeds 10,000 million times that of the Sun. This Press Release is accompanied by ESO Press Photo 32/95 [86K] with an explanatory text that shows these features. The Giant Hydrogen Cloud Rotates ! Even more exciting, the astronomers also found that the measured wavelength of the Lyman-alpha emission from the hydrogen gas differs slightly, but systematically from one side of the cloud to the other. The difference implies that the two extremities of the cloud are rushing away from us with speeds that differ by 450 km/s. This is the first time ever that organized motion in such a large and distant structure has been detected and measured. According to van Ojik and his colleagues, the most likely explanation of the variation in speed is that the huge gas cloud rotates in such a way that the Northwest edge is receding and the Southeast edge is approaching, relative to the embedded galaxy at its centre. The measured size of the cloud and the rotation velocity indicate that it has made about one complete revolution since the Big Bang. The cloud around 1243+036 may be a relic of the earliest stages of formation of this galaxy. The observed motion may in fact represent a typical state of the gas around primeval galaxies in the young Universe, before it is

  1. Thermal motion in proteins: Large effects on the time-averaged interaction energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethe, Martin; Rubi, J. Miguel; Fita, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    As a consequence of thermal motion, inter-atomic distances in proteins fluctuate strongly around their average values, and hence, also interaction energies (i.e. the pair-potentials evaluated at the fluctuating distances) are not constant in time but exhibit pronounced fluctuations. These fluctuations cause that time-averaged interaction energies do generally not coincide with the energy values obtained by evaluating the pair-potentials at the average distances. More precisely, time-averaged interaction energies behave typically smoother in terms of the average distance than the corresponding pair-potentials. This averaging effect is referred to as the thermal smoothing effect. Here, we estimate the strength of the thermal smoothing effect on the Lennard-Jones pair-potential for globular proteins at ambient conditions using x-ray diffraction and simulation data of a representative set of proteins. For specific atom species, we find a significant smoothing effect where the time-averaged interaction energy of a single atom pair can differ by various tens of cal/mol from the Lennard-Jones potential at the average distance. Importantly, we observe a dependency of the effect on the local environment of the involved atoms. The effect is typically weaker for bulky backbone atoms in beta sheets than for side-chain atoms belonging to other secondary structure on the surface of the protein. The results of this work have important practical implications for protein software relying on free energy expressions. We show that the accuracy of free energy expressions can largely be increased by introducing environment specific Lennard-Jones parameters accounting for the fact that the typical thermal motion of protein atoms depends strongly on their local environment.

  2. Thermal motion in proteins: Large effects on the time-averaged interaction energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethe, Martin, E-mail: martingoethe@ub.edu; Rubi, J. Miguel [Departament de Física Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fita, Ignacio [Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona, Baldiri Reixac 10, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    As a consequence of thermal motion, inter-atomic distances in proteins fluctuate strongly around their average values, and hence, also interaction energies (i.e. the pair-potentials evaluated at the fluctuating distances) are not constant in time but exhibit pronounced fluctuations. These fluctuations cause that time-averaged interaction energies do generally not coincide with the energy values obtained by evaluating the pair-potentials at the average distances. More precisely, time-averaged interaction energies behave typically smoother in terms of the average distance than the corresponding pair-potentials. This averaging effect is referred to as the thermal smoothing effect. Here, we estimate the strength of the thermal smoothing effect on the Lennard-Jones pair-potential for globular proteins at ambient conditions using x-ray diffraction and simulation data of a representative set of proteins. For specific atom species, we find a significant smoothing effect where the time-averaged interaction energy of a single atom pair can differ by various tens of cal/mol from the Lennard-Jones potential at the average distance. Importantly, we observe a dependency of the effect on the local environment of the involved atoms. The effect is typically weaker for bulky backbone atoms in beta sheets than for side-chain atoms belonging to other secondary structure on the surface of the protein. The results of this work have important practical implications for protein software relying on free energy expressions. We show that the accuracy of free energy expressions can largely be increased by introducing environment specific Lennard-Jones parameters accounting for the fact that the typical thermal motion of protein atoms depends strongly on their local environment.

  3. Large-eddy simulation of passive shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquariello, Vito; Grilli, Muzio; Hickel, Stefan; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The present study investigates a passive flow-control technique for shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. • The control configuration consists of local suction and injection through a pressure feedback duct. • Implicit LES have been conducted for three different suction locations. • Suction reduces the size of the separation zone. • Turbulence amplification and reflected shock dynamics can be significantly reduced. - Abstract: We investigate a passive flow-control technique for the interaction of an oblique shock generated by an 8.8° wedge with a turbulent boundary-layer at a free-stream Mach number of Ma ∞ =2.3 and a Reynolds number based on the incoming boundary-layer thickness of Re δ 0 =60.5×10 3 by means of large-eddy simulation (LES). The compressible Navier–Stokes equations in conservative form are solved using the adaptive local deconvolution method (ALDM) for physically consistent subgrid scale modeling. Emphasis is placed on the correct description of turbulent inflow boundary conditions, which do not artificially force low-frequency periodic motion of the reflected shock. The control configuration combines suction inside the separation zone and blowing upstream of the interaction region by a pressure feedback through a duct embedded in the wall. We vary the suction location within the recirculation zone while the injection position is kept constant. Suction reduces the size of the separation zone with strongest effect when applied in the rear part of the separation bubble. The analysis of wall-pressure spectra reveals that all control configurations shift the high-energy low-frequency range to higher frequencies, while the energy level is significantly reduced only if suction acts in the rear part of the separated zone. In that case also turbulence production within the interaction region is significantly reduced as a consequence of mitigated reflected shock dynamics and near-wall flow acceleration

  4. An Analysis Framework for Understanding the Origin of Nuclear Activity in Low-power Radio Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Huang, Hung-Jin; Chen, Yen-Chi

    2018-05-01

    Using large samples containing nearly 2300 active galaxies of low radio luminosity (1.4 GHz luminosity between 2 × 1023 and 3 × 1025 W Hz‑1, essentially low-excitation radio galaxies) at z ≲ 0.3, we present a self-contained analysis of the dependence of the nuclear radio activity on both intrinsic and extrinsic properties of galaxies, with the goal of identifying the best predictors of the nuclear radio activity. While confirming the established result that stellar mass must play a key role on the triggering of radio activities, we point out that for the central, most massive galaxies, the radio activity also shows a strong dependence on halo mass, which is not likely due to enhanced interaction rates in denser regions in massive, cluster-scale halos. We thus further investigate the effects of various properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) in massive clusters on the radio activities, employing two standard statistical tools, principle component analysis and logistic regression. It is found that ICM entropy, local cooling time, and pressure are the most effective in predicting the radio activity, pointing to the accretion of gas cooling out of a hot atmosphere to be the likely origin in triggering such activities in galaxies residing in massive dark matter halos. Our analysis framework enables us to logically discern the mechanisms responsible for the radio activity separately for central and satellite galaxies.

  5. On the Formation of Ultra-Difuse Galaxies as Tidally-Stripped Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Timothy; Cooper, Michael; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Errani, Raphael; Penarrubia, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    The recent identification of a large population of so-called 'Ultra-Diffuse' Galaxies (UDGs), with stellar masses ~108 M⊙, but half light radii over 1.5 kpc, has challenged our understanding of galaxy evolution. Motivated by the environmental dependence of UDG properties and abundance, I present a model for the formation of UDGs through tidal-stripping of dwarf galaxies in cored dark matter halos. To test this scenario, I utilize results from simulations of tidal stripping, which demonstrate that changes in the stellar profile of a tidally stripped galaxy can be written as a function of the amount of tidal stripping experienced by the halo (tidal tracks). These tracks, however, are different for cored and cuspy halos. Additional simulations show how the halo responds to tidal interactions given the halo orbit within a cluster.In particular, dwarf elliptical galaxies, born in 1010-10.5 M⊙ halos, expand significantly as a result of tidal stripping and produce UDGs. Applying these models to the population of halos in the Bolshoi simulation, I am able to follow the effects of tidal stripping on the dwarf galaxy population in clusters. Using tidal tracks for cuspy halos does not reproduce the observed properties of UDGs. However, using the tidal tracks for cored halos, I reproduce the distribution of sizes, stellar masses, and abundance of UDGs in clusters remarkably well.

  6. Cosmic web and star formation activity in galaxies at z ∼ 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvish, B.; Mobasher, B.; Sales, L. V. [University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Sobral, D. [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade de Lisboa, OAL, Tapada da Ajuda, PT 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Scoville, N. Z. [California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Best, P. [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, Royal Observatory of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Smail, I., E-mail: bdarv001@ucr.edu [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-20

    We investigate the role of the delineated cosmic web/filaments on star formation activity by exploring a sample of 425 narrow-band selected Hα emitters, as well as 2846 color-color selected underlying star-forming galaxies for a large-scale structure at z = 0.84 in the COSMOS field from the HiZELS survey. Using the scale-independent Multi-scale Morphology Filter algorithm, we are able to quantitatively describe the density field and disentangle it into its major components: fields, filaments, and clusters. We show that the observed median star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, specific SFR, the mean SFR-mass relation, and its scatter for both Hα emitters and underlying star-forming galaxies do not strongly depend on different classes of environment, in agreement with previous studies. However, the fraction of Hα emitters varies with environment and is enhanced in filamentary structures at z ∼ 1. We propose mild galaxy-galaxy interactions as the possible physical agent for the elevation of the fraction of Hα star-forming galaxies in filaments. Our results show that filaments are the likely physical environments that are often classed as the 'intermediate' densities and that the cosmic web likely plays a major role in galaxy formation and evolution which has so far been poorly investigated.

  7. Galaxy formation and physical bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1992-01-01

    We have supplemented our code, which computes the evolution of the physical state of a representative piece of the universe to include, not only the dynamics of dark matter (with a standard PM code), and the hydrodynamics of the gaseous component (including detailed collisional and radiative processes), but also galaxy formation on a heuristic but plausible basis. If, within a cell the gas is Jeans' unstable, collapsing, and cooling rapidly, it is transformed to galaxy subunits, which are then followed with a collisionless code. After grouping them into galaxies, we estimate the relative distributions of galaxies and dark matter and the relative velocities of galaxies and dark matter. In a large scale CDM run of 80/h Mpc size with 8 x 10 exp 6 cells and dark matter particles, we find that physical bias b is on the 8/h Mpc scale is about 1.6 and increases towards smaller scales, and that velocity bias is about 0.8 on the same scale. The comparable HDM simulation is highly biased with b = 2.7 on the 8/h Mpc scale. Implications of these results are discussed in the light of the COBE observations which provide an accurate normalization for the initial power spectrum. CDM can be ruled out on the basis of too large a predicted small scale velocity dispersion at greater than 95 percent confidence level.

  8. Active Galactic Nuclei in Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Megan; Secrest, N.; Satyapal, S.

    2014-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) one million to a few billion times the mass of our sun are thought to reside in the center of most, if not all, bulge-dominated galaxies. It has been observed that the mass of these SMBHs is strongly correlated with the mass of these bulges, leading to the popular view that these central black holes are formed by galaxy mergers, which induce the growth of the galaxy's bulge and provide matter with which to feed the black hole. Although these properties and their possible consequences have been studied extensively in high mass galaxies and galaxies with large bulges, there is very little research on the possible existence and subsequent properties of SMBHs in low mass galaxies or galaxies with small or no central bulges. This is a significant weakness in the research of these objects as the study of this population of galaxies would allow us to gain valuable insight into SMBH seeds, black holes thought to have formed in the early universe. Strong X-rays are a good indicator of an accreting black hole, because they require more energy to produce and SMBHs are highly energetic, as well as being easier to see due to their ability to penetrate matter more easily than other forms of radiation. In this poster, I will present the results from an X-ray investigation using data matched from the Chandra X-ray observatory to a sample of low mass galaxies (with a mass of log(M) < 9).

  9. SUPERDENSE MASSIVE GALAXIES IN WINGS LOCAL CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentinuzzi, T.; D'Onofrio, M.; Fritz, J.; Poggianti, B. M.; Bettoni, D.; Fasano, G.; Moretti, A.; Omizzolo, A.; Varela, J.; Cava, A.; Couch, W. J.; Dressler, A.; Moles, M.; Kjaergaard, P.; Vanzella, E.

    2010-01-01

    Massive quiescent galaxies at z > 1 have been found to have small physical sizes, and hence to be superdense. Several mechanisms, including minor mergers, have been proposed for increasing galaxy sizes from high- to low-z. We search for superdense massive galaxies in the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) of X-ray selected galaxy clusters at 0.04 10 M sun , are mostly S0 galaxies, have a median effective radius (R e ) = 1.61 ± 0.29 kpc, a median Sersic index (n) = 3.0 ± 0.6, and very old stellar populations with a median mass-weighted age of 12.1 ± 1.3 Gyr. We calculate a number density of 2.9 x 10 -2 Mpc -3 for superdense galaxies in local clusters, and a hard lower limit of 1.3 x 10 -5 Mpc -3 in the whole comoving volume between z = 0.04 and z = 0.07. We find a relation between mass, effective radius, and luminosity-weighted age in our cluster galaxies, which can mimic the claimed evolution of the radius with redshift, if not properly taken into account. We compare our data with spectroscopic high-z surveys and find that-when stellar masses are considered-there is consistency with the local WINGS galaxy sizes out to z ∼ 2, while a discrepancy of a factor of 3 exists with the only spectroscopic z > 2 study. In contrast, there is strong evidence for a large evolution in radius for the most massive galaxies with M * > 4 x 10 11 M sun compared to similarly massive galaxies in WINGS, i.e., the brightest cluster galaxies.

  10. ORBITAL DEPENDENCE OF GALAXY PROPERTIES IN SATELLITE SYSTEMS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Changbom

    2010-01-01

    We study the dependence of satellite galaxy properties on the distance to the host galaxy and the orbital motion (prograde and retrograde orbits) using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. From SDSS Data Release 7, we find 3515 isolated satellite systems of galaxies at z -1 . It is found that the radial distribution of early-type satellites in prograde orbit is strongly concentrated toward the host while that of retrograde ones shows much less concentration. We also find the orbital speed of late-type satellites in prograde orbit increases as the projected distance to the host (R) decreases while the speed decreases for those in retrograde orbit. At R less than 0.1 times the host virial radius (R vir,host ), the orbital speed decreases in both prograde and retrograde orbit cases. Prograde satellites are on average fainter than retrograde satellites for both early and late morphological types. The u - r color becomes redder as R decreases for both prograde and retrograde orbit late-type satellites. The differences between prograde and retrograde orbit satellite galaxies may be attributed to their different origin or the different strength of physical processes that they have experienced through hydrodynamic interactions with their host galaxies.

  11. Spatial and kinematic distributions of transition populations in intermediate redshift galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Steven M.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the spatial and velocity distributions of confirmed members in five massive clusters of galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 0.9) to investigate the physical processes driving galaxy evolution. Based on spectral classifications derived from broad- and narrow-band photometry, we define four distinct galaxy populations representing different evolutionary stages: red sequence (RS) galaxies, blue cloud (BC) galaxies, green valley (GV) galaxies, and luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs). For each galaxy class, we derive the projected spatial and velocity distribution and characterize the degree of subclustering. We find that RS, BC, and GV galaxies in these clusters have similar velocity distributions, but that BC and GV galaxies tend to avoid the core of the two z ≈ 0.55 clusters. GV galaxies exhibit subclustering properties similar to RS galaxies, but their radial velocity distribution is significantly platykurtic compared to the RS galaxies. The absence of GV galaxies in the cluster cores may explain their somewhat prolonged star-formation history. The LCBGs appear to have recently fallen into the cluster based on their larger velocity dispersion, absence from the cores of the clusters, and different radial velocity distribution than the RS galaxies. Both LCBG and BC galaxies show a high degree of subclustering on the smallest scales, leading us to conclude that star formation is likely triggered by galaxy-galaxy interactions during infall into the cluster.

  12. Groups of Galaxies in the Nearby Universe Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held at Santiago de Chile

    CERN Document Server

    Saviane, Ivo; Borissova, Jordanka

    2007-01-01

    For every galaxy in the field or in clusters, there are about three galaxies in groups. The Milky Way itself resides in a group, and groups can be found at high redshift. The current generation of 10-m class telescopes and space facilities allows the observation of the members of nearby groups with exquisite detail, and their properties can be correlated with the global properties of their host group. Groups in the local Universe offer us the chance to study galaxies in environments characterized by strong interactions. In the cosmological context, groups trace large-scale structures better than clusters, and the evolution of groups and clusters appears to be related. All these aspects of research on groups of galaxies are summarized in this book written by scientists working in various fields.

  13. Joint analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering: Methodology and forecasts for Dark Energy Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Krause, E.; Dodelson, S.; Jain, B.; Amara, A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, the joint analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth function of large-scale structure. Anticipating a near future application of this analysis to Dark Energy Survey (DES) measurements of galaxy positions and shapes, we develop a practical approach to modeling the assumptions and systematic effects affecting the joint analysis of small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing and large-scale galaxy clustering. Introducing parameters that characterize the halo occupation distribution (HOD), photometric redshift uncertainties, and shear measurement errors, we study how external priors on different subsets of these parameters affect our growth constraints. Degeneracies within the HOD model, as well as between the HOD and the growth function, are identified as the dominant source of complication, with other systematic effects being subdominant. The impact of HOD parameters and their degeneracies necessitate the detailed joint modeling of the galaxy sample that we employ. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the Universe, conservatively/optimistically constraining the growth function to 7.9%/4.8% with its first-year data that cover over 1000 square degrees, and to 3.9%/2.3% with its full five-year data that will survey 5000 square degrees, including both statistical and systematic uncertainties.

  14. The Unexpected Past of a Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    New Light on Cannibalism in the Local Group of Galaxies The Local Group of Galaxies consists of a few large spiral galaxies - for instance the Milky Way galaxy in which we live, and the Andromeda galaxy that is visible to the unaided eye in the northern constellation of the same name - as well as two dozen much smaller galaxies of mostly irregular shape. Whereas the larger galaxies have extended halos of very old stars, no such halos have ever been seen around the smaller ones. Now, however, Dante Minniti and Albert Zijlstra [1], working at the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT), have found a large halo of old and metal-poor stars around one of the dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. This finding is quite unexpected. It revises our understanding of star formation in these galaxies and provides important information about the past evolution of galaxies [2]. Galaxy halos The Milky Way galaxy is surrounded by a large, roughly spherical halo of old stars. The diameter is about 100,000 light years and the stars therein, known as Population II stars, are among the oldest known, with ages of 10 billion years or even more. They also differ from the younger stars nearer to the main plane of the Milky Way (in which our 4.7 billion year old Sun is located) by being very metal-poor. Many of the halo stars consist almost solely of hydrogen and helium, reflecting the composition of matter in the young Universe. This halo is important for our understanding of the processes that led to the formation of the Milky Way galaxy. It is believed that many of the halo stars and those of the same type found in globular clusters existed already before the Milky Way had fully formed. Galaxy cannibalism Many astronomers suspect that galaxies evolve and gradually grow larger and heavier by practising cannibalism on their own kind. In this picture, when two galaxies collide in space, the stars and nebulae in the smaller one will disperse and soon be taken over by the larger one, which

  15. 'Death Star' Galaxy Black Hole Fires at Neighboring Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This "death star" galaxy was discovered through the combined efforts of both space and ground-based telescopes. NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer Space Telescope were part of the effort. The Very Large Array telescope, Socorro, N.M., and the Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) telescopes in the United Kingdom also were needed for the finding. Illustration of Jet Striking Galaxy (unlabeled) Illustration of Jet Striking Galaxy (unlabeled) "We've seen many jets produced by black holes, but this is the first time we've seen one punch into another galaxy like we're seeing here," said Dan Evans, a scientist at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and leader of the study. "This jet could be causing all sorts of problems for the smaller galaxy it is pummeling." Jets from super massive black holes produce high amounts of radiation, especially high-energy X-rays and gamma-rays, which can be lethal in large quantities. The combined effects of this radiation and particles traveling at almost the speed of light could severely damage the atmospheres of planets lying in the path of the jet. For example, protective layers of ozone in the upper atmosphere of planets could be destroyed. X-ray & Radio Full Field Image of 3C321 X-ray & Radio Full Field Image of 3C321 Jets produced by super massive black holes transport enormous amounts of energy far from black holes and enable them to affect matter on scales vastly larger than the size of the black hole. Learning more about jets is a key goal for astrophysical research. "We see jets all over the Universe, but we're still struggling to understand some of their basic properties," said co-investigator Martin Hardcastle of the University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. "This system of 3C321 gives us a chance to learn how they're affected when they slam into something - like a galaxy - and what they do after that." Optical Image of 3C321 Optical Image of 3C321 The

  16. Enriched gas in clusters and the dynamics of galaxies and clusters: implications for theories of galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binney, J.; Silk, J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments in relation to the origin of galaxies are cited: the discovery that the intergalactic medium which seems to pervade rich clusters of galaxies has an iron abundance that lies within an order of magnitude of the solar value; the discovery that elliptical galaxies rotate much more slowly than the models of these galaxies had predicted; and the results of studies of cosmological infall in the context of the formation of galaxies and galaxy clusters, which have shown that the resulting density profile is fairly insensitive to initial conditions. After discussing the implications of these recent observations of X-ray clusters and of the rotation of elliptical galaxies, an attempt is made to construct a picture of the formation of elliptical and spiral galaxies in which galaxies form continuously from redshift z approximately 100 onwards. It is suggested that at a redshift z of roughly 5, a fundamental change occurred in the manner in which the cosmic material fragmented into stellar objects. It seems possible that explanations of a variety of puzzling aspects of galactic evolution, including the formation of Population I disks, the origin of the hot intracluster gas, the mass-to-light ratio stratification of galaxies, and the nature of the galaxy luminosity function, should all be sought in the context of this change of regime. Some remarks are made about gas in poor groups of galaxies and the interaction of disk galaxies with their environments. (U.K.)

  17. Evidence for large-scale winds from starburst galaxies. I. The nature of the ionized gas in M82 and NGC 253

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccarthy, P.J.; Van breugel, W.; Heckman, T.; Maryland Univ., College Park)

    1987-01-01

    The results of long-slit spectroscopy and narrow-band imaging of M82 and NGC 253, the two nearest examples of FIR luminous galaxies believed to be undergoing intense bursts of star formation, are presented. The profile of the gas pressure in the emission-line filaments in M82 is derived and found to be in good agreement with the model of Chevalier and Clegg (1985) of a supernovae-driven wind from a starburst nucleus. Lower quality data from NGC 253 support the same interpretation. Analysis of the emission-line ratios suggests that the line-emitting gas may be heated by low-velocity shocks, although photoionization from dilute UV radiation from unusually hot stars in the central starburst may also be important. 56 references

  18. Peering Into an Early Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Thirteen billion years ago, early galaxies ionized the gas around them, producing some of the first light that brought our universe out of its dark ages. Now the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has provided one of the first detailed looks into the interior of one of these early, distant galaxies.Sources of LightArtists illustration of the reionization of the universe (time progresses left to right), in which ionized bubbles that form around the first sources of light eventually overlap to form the fully ionized universe we observe today. [Avi Loeb/Scientific American]For the first roughly hundred million years of its existence, our universe expanded in relative darkness there were no sources of light at that time besides the cosmic microwave background. But as mass started to condense to form the first objects, these objects eventually shone as the earliest luminous sources, contributing to the reionization of the universe.To learn about the early production of light in the universe, our best bet is to study in detail the earliest luminous sources stars, galaxies, or quasars that we can hunt down. One ideal target is the galaxy COSMOS Redshift 7, known as CR7 for short.Targeting CR7CR7 is one of the oldest, most distant galaxies known, lying at a redshift of z 6.6. Its discovery in 2015 and subsequent observations of bright, ultraviolet-emitting clumps within it have led to broad speculation about the source of its emission. Does this galaxy host an active nucleus? Or could it perhaps contain the long-theorized first generation of stars, metal-free Population III stars?To determine the nature of CR7 and the other early galaxies that contributed to reionization, we need to explore their gas and dust in detail a daunting task for such distant sources! Conveniently, this is a challenge that is now made possible by ALMAs incredible capabilities. In a new publication led by Jorryt Matthee (Leiden University, the Netherlands), a team of scientists now

  19. Immersive Interaction, Manipulation and Analysis of Large 3D Datasets for Planetary and Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariser, O.; Calef, F.; Manning, E. M.; Ardulov, V.

    2017-12-01

    We will present implementation and study of several use-cases of utilizing Virtual Reality (VR) for immersive display, interaction and analysis of large and complex 3D datasets. These datasets have been acquired by the instruments across several Earth, Planetary and Solar Space Robotics Missions. First, we will describe the architecture of the common application framework that was developed to input data, interface with VR display devices and program input controllers in various computing environments. Tethered and portable VR technologies will be contrasted and advantages of each highlighted. We'll proceed to presenting experimental immersive analytics visual constructs that enable augmentation of 3D datasets with 2D ones such as images and statistical and abstract data. We will conclude by presenting comparative analysis with traditional visualization applications and share the feedback provided by our users: scientists and engineers.

  20. D-GENIES: dot plot large genomes in an interactive, efficient and simple way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanettes, Floréal; Klopp, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Dot plots are widely used to quickly compare sequence sets. They provide a synthetic similarity overview, highlighting repetitions, breaks and inversions. Different tools have been developed to easily generated genomic alignment dot plots, but they are often limited in the input sequence size. D-GENIES is a standalone and web application performing large genome alignments using minimap2 software package and generating interactive dot plots. It enables users to sort query sequences along the reference, zoom in the plot and download several image, alignment or sequence files. D-GENIES is an easy-to-install, open-source software package (GPL) developed in Python and JavaScript. The source code is available at https://github.com/genotoul-bioinfo/dgenies and it can be tested at http://dgenies.toulouse.inra.fr/.

  1. Large-dimension configuration-interaction calculations of positron binding to the group-II atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromley, M. W. J.; Mitroy, J.

    2006-01-01

    The configuration-interaction (CI) method is applied to the calculation of the structures of a number of positron binding systems, including e + Be, e + Mg, e + Ca, and e + Sr. These calculations were carried out in orbital spaces containing about 200 electron and 200 positron orbitals up to l=12. Despite the very large dimensions, the binding energy and annihilation rate converge slowly with l, and the final values do contain an appreciable correction obtained by extrapolating the calculation to the l→∞ limit. The binding energies were 0.00317 hartree for e + Be, 0.0170 hartree for e + Mg, 0.0189 hartree for e + Ca, and 0.0131 hartree for e + Sr

  2. Generating functional analysis of complex formation and dissociation in large protein interaction networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, A C C; Rabello, S

    2009-01-01

    We analyze large systems of interacting proteins, using techniques from the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of disordered many-particle systems. Apart from protein production and removal, the most relevant microscopic processes in the proteome are complex formation and dissociation, and the microscopic degrees of freedom are the evolving concentrations of unbound proteins (in multiple post-translational states) and of protein complexes. Here we only include dimer-complexes, for mathematical simplicity, and we draw the network that describes which proteins are reaction partners from an ensemble of random graphs with an arbitrary degree distribution. We show how generating functional analysis methods can be used successfully to derive closed equations for dynamical order parameters, representing an exact macroscopic description of the complex formation and dissociation dynamics in the infinite system limit. We end this paper with a discussion of the possible routes towards solving the nontrivial order parameter equations, either exactly (in specific limits) or approximately.

  3. Protein complex prediction in large ontology attributed protein-protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijia; Lin, Hongfei; Yang, Zhihao; Wang, Jian; Li, Yanpeng; Xu, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Protein complexes are important for unraveling the secrets of cellular organization and function. Many computational approaches have been developed to predict protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. However, most existing approaches focus mainly on the topological structure of PPI networks, and largely ignore the gene ontology (GO) annotation information. In this paper, we constructed ontology attributed PPI networks with PPI data and GO resource. After constructing ontology attributed networks, we proposed a novel approach called CSO (clustering based on network structure and ontology attribute similarity). Structural information and GO attribute information are complementary in ontology attributed networks. CSO can effectively take advantage of the correlation between frequent GO annotation sets and the dense subgraph for protein complex prediction. Our proposed CSO approach was applied to four different yeast PPI data sets and predicted many well-known protein complexes. The experimental results showed that CSO was valuable in predicting protein complexes and achieved state-of-the-art performance.

  4. The three phases of galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauwens, Bart; Schaye, Joop; Franx, Marijn; Bower, Richard G.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the origin of the Hubble sequence by analysing the evolution of the kinematic morphologies of central galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological simulation. By separating each galaxy into disc and spheroidal stellar components and tracing their evolution along the merger tree, we find that the morphology of galaxies follows a common evolutionary trend. We distinguish three phases of galaxy formation. These phases are determined primarily by mass, rather than redshift. For M* ≲ 109.5M⊙ galaxies grow in a disorganised way, resulting in a morphology that is dominated by random stellar motions. This phase is dominated by in-situ star formation, partly triggered by mergers. In the mass range 109.5M⊙ ≲ M* ≲ 1010.5M⊙ galaxies evolve towards a disc-dominated morphology, driven by in-situ star formation. The central spheroid (i.e. the bulge) at z = 0 consists mostly of stars that formed in-situ, yet the formation of the bulge is to a large degree associated with mergers. Finally, at M* ≳ 1010.5M⊙ growth through in-situ star formation slows down considerably and galaxies transform towards a more spheroidal morphology. This transformation is driven more by the buildup of spheroids than by the destruction of discs. Spheroid formation in these galaxies happens mostly by accretion at large radii of stars formed ex-situ (i.e. the halo rather than the bulge).

  5. Black Holes Lead Galaxy Growth, New Research Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers may have solved a cosmic chicken-and-egg problem -- the question of which formed first in the early Universe -- galaxies or the supermassive black holes seen at their cores. "It looks like the black holes came first. The evidence is piling up," said Chris Carilli, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). Carilli outlined the conclusions from recent research done by an international team studying conditions in the first billion years of the Universe's history in a lecture presented to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Long Beach, California. Gas in Distant Galaxy VLA image (right) of gas in young galaxy seen as it was when the Universe was only 870 million years old. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF, SDSS Full-size JPEG, 323 KB PDF file, 180 KB Galaxy image, no annotation, JPEG 21 KB Earlier studies of galaxies and their central black holes in the nearby Universe revealed an intriguing linkage between the masses of the black holes and of the central "bulges" of stars and gas in the galaxies. The ratio of the black hole and the bulge mass is nearly the same for a wide range of galactic sizes and ages. For central black holes from a few million to many billions of times the mass of our Sun, the black hole's mass is about one one-thousandth of the mass of the surrounding galactic bulge. "This constant ratio indicates that the black hole and the bulge affect each others' growth in some sort of interactive relationship," said Dominik Riechers, of Caltech. "The big question has been whether one grows before the other or if they grow together, maintaining their mass ratio throughout the entire process." In the past few years, scientists have used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array radio telescope and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in France to peer far back in the 13.7 billion-year history of the Universe, to the dawn of the first galaxies. "We finally have been able to measure black-hole and bulge masses in several galaxies seen

  6. The interaction of a very large interplanetary magnetic cloud with the magnetosphere and with cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepping, R.P.; Burlaga, L.F.; Ogilvie, K.W.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Lazarus, A.J.; Evans, D.S.; Klein, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    A large interplanetary magnetic cloud has been observed in the mid-December 1982 data from ISEE 3. It is estimated to have a heliocentric radial extent of approx-gt 0.4 AU, making it one of the largest magnetic clouds yet observed at 1 AU. The magnetic field measured throughout the main portion of the cloud was fairly tightly confined to a plane as it changed direction by 174 degree while varying only moderately in magnitude. Throughout nearly the entire duration of the cloud's passage, IMP 8 was located in the Earth's dawn magnetosheath providing observations of this cloud's interaction with the bow shock and magnetopause; the cloud is shown to maintain its solar wind characteristics during the interaction. Near the end of the cloud passage, at 0806 UT on December 17, ISEE 3 (and IMP 8 at nearly the same time) observed an oblique fast forward interplanetary shock closely coincident in time with a geomagnetic storm sudden commencement. The shock, moving much faster than the cloud (radial speeds of 700 and 390 km/s, respectively, on the average), was in the process of overtaking the cloud. The index Dst decreased monotonically by ∼ 130 nT during the 2-day cloud passage by the Earth and was well correlated with the B z component of the interplanetary magnetic field. There was no significant decrease in the cosmic ray intensity recorded by ground-based neutron monitors at this time of rather strong, smoothly changing fields. However, a Forbush decrease did occur immediately after the interplanetary shock, during a period of significant field turbulence. Thus a large, smooth, interplanetary helical magnetic field configuration engulfing the Earth does not necessarily deflect cosmic rays sufficiently to cause a Forbush decrease, but there is a suggestion that such a decrease may be caused by particle scattering by turbulent magnetic fields

  7. A large-scale soil-structure interaction experiment: Design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Tang, Y.K.; Stepp, J.C.; Wall, I.B.; Lin, E.; Cheng, S.C.; Lee, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the design and construction phase of the Large-Scale Soil-Structure Interaction Experiment project jointly sponsored by EPRI and Taipower. The project has two objectives: 1. to obtain an earthquake database which can be used to substantiate soil-structure interaction (SSI) models and analysis methods; and 2. to quantify nuclear power plant reactor containment and internal components seismic margin based on earthquake experience data. These objectives were accomplished by recording and analyzing data from two instrumented, scaled down, reinforced concrete containment structures during seismic events. The two model structures are sited in a high seismic region in Taiwan (SMART-1). A strong-motion seismic array network is located at the site. The containment models (1/4- and 1/12-scale) were constructed and instrumented specially for this experiment. Construction was completed and data recording began in September 1985. By November 1986, 18 strong motion earthquakes ranging from Richter magnitude 4.5 to 7.0 were recorded. (orig./HP)

  8. FUn: a framework for interactive visualizations of large, high-dimensional datasets on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Daniel; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2018-04-15

    During the past decade, big data have become a major tool in scientific endeavors. Although statistical methods and algorithms are well-suited for analyzing and summarizing enormous amounts of data, the results do not allow for a visual inspection of the entire data. Current scientific software, including R packages and Python libraries such as ggplot2, matplotlib and plot.ly, do not support interactive visualizations of datasets exceeding 100 000 data points on the web. Other solutions enable the web-based visualization of big data only through data reduction or statistical representations. However, recent hardware developments, especially advancements in graphical processing units, allow for the rendering of millions of data points on a wide range of consumer hardware such as laptops, tablets and mobile phones. Similar to the challenges and opportunities brought to virtually every scientific field by big data, both the visualization of and interaction with copious amounts of data are both demanding and hold great promise. Here we present FUn, a framework consisting of a client (Faerun) and server (Underdark) module, facilitating the creation of web-based, interactive 3D visualizations of large datasets, enabling record level visual inspection. We also introduce a reference implementation providing access to SureChEMBL, a database containing patent information on more than 17 million chemical compounds. The source code and the most recent builds of Faerun and Underdark, Lore.js and the data preprocessing toolchain used in the reference implementation, are available on the project website (http://doc.gdb.tools/fun/). daniel.probst@dcb.unibe.ch or jean-louis.reymond@dcb.unibe.ch.

  9. The dynamical fingerprint of core scouring in massive elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.; Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Erwin, P.; Fabricius, M.

    2014-01-01

    The most massive elliptical galaxies have low-density centers or cores that differ dramatically from the high-density centers of less massive ellipticals and bulges of disk galaxies. These cores have been interpreted as the result of mergers of supermassive black hole binaries, which depopulate galaxy centers by gravitationally slingshotting central stars toward large radii. Such binaries naturally form in mergers of luminous galaxies. Here, we analyze the population of central stellar orbits in 11 massive elliptical galaxies that we observed with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. Our dynamical analysis is orbit-based and includes the effects of a central black hole, the mass distribution of the stars, and a dark matter halo. We show that the use of integral field kinematics and the inclusion of dark matter is important to conclude on the distribution of stellar orbits in galaxy centers. Six of our galaxies are core galaxies. In these six galaxies, but not in the galaxies without cores, we detect a coherent lack of stars on radial orbits in the core region and a uniform excess of radial orbits outside of it: when scaled by the core radius r b , the radial profiles of the classical anisotropy parameter β(r) are nearly identical in core galaxies. Moreover, they quantitatively match the predictions of black hole binary simulations, providing the first convincing dynamical evidence for core scouring in the most massive elliptical galaxies.

  10. Star Formation in low mass galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vihang

    2018-01-01

    Our current hierarchical view of the universe asserts that the large galaxies we see today grew via mergers of numerous smaller galaxies. As evidenced by recent literature, the collective impact of these low mass galaxies on the universe is more substantial than previously thought. Studying the growth and evolution of these low mass galaxies is critical to our understanding of the universe as a whole. Star formation is one of the most important ongoing processes in galaxies. Forming stars is fundamental to the growth of a galaxy. One of the main goals of my thesis is to analyze the star formation in these low mass galaxies at different redshifts.Using the Hubble UltraViolet Ultra Deep Field (UVUDF), I investigate the star formation in galaxies at the peak of the cosmic star formation history using the ultraviolet (UV) light as a star formation indicator. Particularly, I measure the UV luminosity function (LF) to probe the volume-averaged star formation properties of galaxies at these redshifts. The depth of the UVUDF is ideal for a direct measurement of the faint end slope of the UV LF. This redshift range also provides a unique opportunity to directly compare UV to the "gold standard" of star formation indicators, namely the Hα nebular emission line. A joint analysis of the UV and Hα LFs suggests that, on average, the star formation histories in low mass galaxies (~109 M⊙) are more bursty compared to their higher mass counterparts at these redshifts.Complementary to the analysis of the average star formation properties of the bulk galaxy population, I investigate the details of star formation in some very bursty galaxies at lower redshifts selected from Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime Cam (SPLASH). Using a broadband color-excess selection technique, I identify a sample of low redshift galaxies with bright nebular emission lines in the Subaru-XMM Deep Field (SXDF) from the SPLASH-SXDF catalog. These galaxies are highly star forming and have

  11. Barred spiral structure of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Weng, s.; Xu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Observational data indicate the grand design of spiral or barred spiral structure in disk galaxies. The problem of spiral structure has been thoroughly investigated by C. C. Lin and his collaborators, but yet the problem of barred spiral structure has not been investigated systematically, although much work has been done, such as in Ref. 3--7. Using the gasdynamic model for galaxies and a method of integral transform presented in Ref. 1, we investigated the barred spiral structure and obtained an analytical solution. It gives the large-scale pattern of barred-spirals, which is in fairly good agreement with observational data

  12. "Annotated Lectures": Student-Instructor Interaction in Large-Scale Global Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Diehl

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe an "Annotated Lectures" system, which will be used in a global virtual teaching and student collaboration event on embodied intelligence presented by the University of Zurich. The lectures will be broadcasted via video-conference to lecture halls of different universities around the globe. Among other collaboration features, an "Annotated Lectures" system will be implemented in a 3D collaborative virtual environment and used by the participating students to make annotations to the video-recorded lectures, which will be sent to and answered by their supervisors, and forwarded to the lecturers in an aggregated way. The "Annotated Lectures" system aims to overcome the issues of limited studentinstructor interaction in large-scale education, and to foster an intercultural and multidisciplinary discourse among students who review the lectures in a group. After presenting the concept of the "Annotated Lectures" system, we discuss a prototype version including a description of the technical components and its expected benefit for large-scale global education.

  13. Geospatial Augmented Reality for the interactive exploitation of large-scale walkable orthoimage maps in museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüest, Robert; Nebiker, Stephan

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we present an app framework for augmenting large-scale walkable maps and orthoimages in museums or public spaces using standard smartphones and tablets. We first introduce a novel approach for using huge orthoimage mosaic floor prints covering several hundred square meters as natural Augmented Reality (AR) markers. We then present a new app architecture and subsequent tests in the Swissarena of the Swiss National Transport Museum in Lucerne demonstrating the capabilities of accurately tracking and augmenting different map topics, including dynamic 3d data such as live air traffic. The resulting prototype was tested with everyday visitors of the museum to get feedback on the usability of the AR app and to identify pitfalls when using AR in the context of a potentially crowded museum. The prototype is to be rolled out to the public after successful testing and optimization of the app. We were able to show that AR apps on standard smartphone devices can dramatically enhance the interactive use of large-scale maps for different purposes such as education or serious gaming in a museum context.

  14. Wave interaction with large roughness elements on an impermeable sloping bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the flow between large roughness elements on a steep sloping impermeable bed during wave action. The setup is designed to resemble a breakwater structure. The work is part of a study where the focus is on the......The present paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the flow between large roughness elements on a steep sloping impermeable bed during wave action. The setup is designed to resemble a breakwater structure. The work is part of a study where the focus...... is on the details in the porous core flow and the armour layer flow i.e. the interaction between the two flow domains and the effect on the armour layer stability. In order to isolate the processes involved with the flow in the porous core the investigations are first carried out with a completely impermeable bed...... and successively repeated with a porous bed. In this paper the focus is on the impermeable bed. Results are obtained experimentally for flow and turbulence between the roughness elements on the sloping bed. Numerical simulations have reproduced the experimental results with good agreements and can hereby add more...

  15. Partially acoustic dark matter, interacting dark radiation, and large scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacko, Zackaria [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland,Stadium Dr., College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Cui, Yanou [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland,Stadium Dr., College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Riverside,University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline Street, North Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Hong, Sungwoo [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland,Stadium Dr., College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Okui, Takemichi [Department of Physics, Florida State University,College Avenue, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Tsai, Yuhsinz [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland,Stadium Dr., College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2016-12-21

    The standard paradigm of collisionless cold dark matter is in tension with measurements on large scales. In particular, the best fit values of the Hubble rate H{sub 0} and the matter density perturbation σ{sub 8} inferred from the cosmic microwave background seem inconsistent with the results from direct measurements. We show that both problems can be solved in a framework in which dark matter consists of two distinct components, a dominant component and a subdominant component. The primary component is cold and collisionless. The secondary component is also cold, but interacts strongly with dark radiation, which itself forms a tightly coupled fluid. The growth of density perturbations in the subdominant component is inhibited by dark acoustic oscillations due to its coupling to the dark radiation, solving the σ{sub 8} problem, while the presence of tightly coupled dark radiation ameliorates the H{sub 0} problem. The subdominant component of dark matter and dark radiation continue to remain in thermal equilibrium until late times, inhibiting the formation of a dark disk. We present an example of a simple model that naturally realizes this scenario in which both constituents of dark matter are thermal WIMPs. Our scenario can be tested by future stage-IV experiments designed to probe the CMB and large scale structure.

  16. High resolution imaging of particle interactions in a large bubble chamber using holographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, Homaira.

    1988-01-01

    Particle interactions were recorded holographically in a large volume of the 15-foot Bubble Chamber at Fermilab. This cryogenic bubble chamber was filled with a heavy Neon-Hydrogen mixture and was exposed to a wideband neutrino beam with mean energy of 150 GeV. The use of holography in combination with conventional photography provides a powerful tool for direct detection of short-lived particles. Holography gives a high resolution over a large depth of field which can not be achieved with conventional photography. A high-power pulsed ruby laser was used as the holographic light source. Since short pulses of some 50 ns duration at the required energy were found to give rise to boiling during the chamber's expansion, a reduction of the instantaneous power at a given energy was required to suppress this unwanted after-effect. This was achieved by developing a unique technique for stretching the pulses using an electro-optic feedback loop. One hundred thousand holograms were produced during a wide-band neutrino experiment (E-632, 1985) using a dark-field holographic system. Analysis of a sample of holograms shows a resolution of 150 μm was achieved in an ovoidal shape fiducial volume of 0.48 m 3 % of the 14 m 3 total fiducial volume of the chamber

  17. Partially acoustic dark matter, interacting dark radiation, and large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacko, Zackaria; Cui, Yanou; Hong, Sungwoo; Okui, Takemichi; Tsai, Yuhsinz

    2016-01-01

    The standard paradigm of collisionless cold dark matter is in tension with measurements on large scales. In particular, the best fit values of the Hubble rate H 0 and the matter density perturbation σ 8 inferred from the cosmic microwave background seem inconsistent with the results from direct measurements. We show that both problems can be solved in a framework in which dark matter consists of two distinct components, a dominant component and a subdominant component. The primary component is cold and collisionless. The secondary component is also cold, but interacts strongly with dark radiation, which itself forms a tightly coupled fluid. The growth of density perturbations in the subdominant component is inhibited by dark acoustic oscillations due to its coupling to the dark radiation, solving the σ 8 problem, while the presence of tightly coupled dark radiation ameliorates the H 0 problem. The subdominant component of dark matter and dark radiation continue to remain in thermal equilibrium until late times, inhibiting the formation of a dark disk. We present an example of a simple model that naturally realizes this scenario in which both constituents of dark matter are thermal WIMPs. Our scenario can be tested by future stage-IV experiments designed to probe the CMB and large scale structure.

  18. Identifying gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia: contemporary challenges for integrated, large-scale investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Jim; Rutten, Bart P; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Delespaul, Philippe; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; van Zelst, Catherine; Bruggeman, Richard; Reininghaus, Ulrich; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Robin M; Di Forti, Marta; McGuire, Philip; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Kempton, Matthew J; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Hubbard, Kathryn; Beards, Stephanie; Stilo, Simona A; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Bourque, Francois; Modinos, Gemma; Tognin, Stefania; Calem, Maria; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Holmans, Peter; Williams, Nigel; Craddock, Nicholas; Richards, Alexander; Humphreys, Isla; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Leweke, F Markus; Tost, Heike; Akdeniz, Ceren; Rohleder, Cathrin; Bumb, J Malte; Schwarz, Emanuel; Alptekin, Köksal; Üçok, Alp; Saka, Meram Can; Atbaşoğlu, E Cem; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Gumus-Akay, Guvem; Cihan, Burçin; Karadağ, Hasan; Soygür, Haldan; Cankurtaran, Eylem Şahin; Ulusoy, Semra; Akdede, Berna; Binbay, Tolga; Ayer, Ahmet; Noyan, Handan; Karadayı, Gülşah; Akturan, Elçin; Ulaş, Halis; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara; Bernardo, Miguel; Sanjuán, Julio; Bobes, Julio; Arrojo, Manuel; Santos, Jose Luis; Cuadrado, Pedro; Rodríguez Solano, José Juan; Carracedo, Angel; García Bernardo, Enrique; Roldán, Laura; López, Gonzalo; Cabrera, Bibiana; Cruz, Sabrina; Díaz Mesa, Eva Ma; Pouso, María; Jiménez, Estela; Sánchez, Teresa; Rapado, Marta; González, Emiliano; Martínez, Covadonga; Sánchez, Emilio; Olmeda, Ma Soledad; de Haan, Lieuwe; Velthorst, Eva; van der Gaag, Mark; Selten, Jean-Paul; van Dam, Daniella; van der Ven, Elsje; van der Meer, Floor; Messchaert, Elles; Kraan, Tamar; Burger, Nadine; Leboyer, Marion; Szoke, Andrei; Schürhoff, Franck; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Jamain, Stéphane; Tortelli, Andrea; Frijda, Flora; Vilain, Jeanne; Galliot, Anne-Marie; Baudin, Grégoire; Ferchiou, Aziz; Richard, Jean-Romain; Bulzacka, Ewa; Charpeaud, Thomas; Tronche, Anne-Marie; De Hert, Marc; van Winkel, Ruud; Decoster, Jeroen; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Stefanis, Nikos C; Sachs, Gabriele; Aschauer, Harald; Lasser, Iris; Winklbaur, Bernadette; Schlögelhofer, Monika; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Borgwardt, Stefan; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Smieskova, Renata; Rapp, Charlotte; Ittig, Sarah; Soguel-dit-Piquard, Fabienne; Studerus, Erich; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Paruch, Julia; Julkowski, Dominika; Hilboll, Desiree; Sham, Pak C; Cherny, Stacey S; Chen, Eric Y H; Campbell, Desmond D; Li, Miaoxin; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos María; Emaldi Cirión, Aitziber; Urruela Mora, Asier; Jones, Peter; Kirkbride, James; Cannon, Mary; Rujescu, Dan; Tarricone, Ilaria; Berardi, Domenico; Bonora, Elena; Seri, Marco; Marcacci, Thomas; Chiri, Luigi; Chierzi, Federico; Storbini, Viviana; Braca, Mauro; Minenna, Maria Gabriella; Donegani, Ivonne; Fioritti, Angelo; La Barbera, Daniele; La Cascia, Caterina Erika; Mulè, Alice; Sideli, Lucia; Sartorio, Rachele; Ferraro, Laura; Tripoli, Giada; Seminerio, Fabio; Marinaro, Anna Maria; McGorry, Patrick; Nelson, Barnaby; Amminger, G Paul; Pantelis, Christos; Menezes, Paulo R; Del-Ben, Cristina M; Gallo Tenan, Silvia H; Shuhama, Rosana; Ruggeri, Mirella; Tosato, Sarah; Lasalvia, Antonio; Bonetto, Chiara; Ira, Elisa; Nordentoft, Merete; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Cristóbal, Paula; Kwapil, Thomas R; Brietzke, Elisa; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Gadelha, Ary; Maric, Nadja P; Andric, Sanja; Mihaljevic, Marina; Mirjanic, Tijana

    2014-07-01

    Recent years have seen considerable progress in epidemiological and molecular genetic research into environmental and genetic factors in schizophrenia, but methodological uncertainties remain with regard to validating environmental exposures, and the population risk conferred by individual molecular genetic variants is small. There are now also a limited number of studies that have investigated molecular genetic candidate gene-environment interactions (G × E), however, so far, thorough replication of findings is rare and G × E research still faces several conceptual and methodological challenges. In this article, we aim to review these recent developments and illustrate how integrated, large-scale investigations may overcome contemporary challenges in G × E research, drawing on the example of a large, international, multi-center study into the identification and translational application of G × E in schizophrenia. While such investigations are now well underway, new challenges emerge for G × E research from late-breaking evidence that genetic variation and environmental exposures are, to a significant degree, shared across a range of psychiatric disorders, with potential overlap in phenotype. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. PERCEPTION OF INTERN TEACHERS’ USE OF INTERACTIVE STRATEGIES IN TEACHING LARGE CLASSES IN ONLINE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Adaku Obiefuna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions experience large classes despite the National Universities’ Commission’s (NUC and other supervisory agencies emphasis on carrying capacity of the institutions in Nigeria. The overpopulation affects effective teaching and learning and quality assurance. This study focused on perception of intern teachers of the use of interactive strategies in teaching Curriculum Studies in an online environment in a College of Education. 200 computer science students (intern teachers in a Curriculum Studies class formed the study sample. Three research questions guided the study. A structured and validated questionnaire with reliability index of 0.79, made up of 25 items constructed on a four-point Likert-type scale was administered on the students for data collection. The data were analysed using simple mean and the results showed that the intern teachers supported the use of the teaching strategies in an online class as a complement to the face to face method of teaching. They are also recommended as alternative strategies to reduce the problems associated with large classes. However, the research subjects were sceptical about the implementation of online teaching as a result of power supply and access to internet facilities. The findings have a far reaching implication for the 21st Century teaching and learning. Suggestions towards effective online teaching and learning were made especially with theGovernment’s reiteration of the need for Information and Communication Technology (ICT in the schools in Nigeria.

  20. Evolution of disk galaxies and the origin of SO galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.B.; Tinsley, B.M.; Caldwell, C.N.

    1980-01-01

    We reconsider the relation between spiral and SO galaxies in the light of recent data on the colors and morphology of disk systems, and on the content of clusters at different redshifts. Star formation will strongly deplete the gas in most spirals in a fraction of the Hubble time, so we suggest that the gas in spirals has been replenished by infall from residual envelopes, probably including gas-rich companions and tidal debris. SO's may then be disk systems that lost their gas-rich envelopes at an early stage and consumed their remaining gas by star formation. This picture is consistent with the color of SO's if most of their star formation stopped at least a few gigayears ago, and it is consistent with their small disk-to-bulge ratios relative to spirals, since this is a direct result of the early truncation of star formation. Numerical simulations show that the gas envelopes of disk galaxies in clusters are largely stripped away when the clusters collapse, but star formation can continue in the spirals for several gigayears while their remaining disk gas is consumed. These results can explain the blue galaxies observed by Butcher and Oemler in two condensed clusters at zapprox.0.4: these clusters are seen just before most of their galaxies run out of gas, so that star formation is still occurring in them but will soon die out, causing the spirals to evolve into SO's with normal present colors. A rapid evolution of the galaxy content of condensed clusters is predicted at moderate redshifts, ranging from a large fraction of blue galaxies at zapprox.0.4 to very few at zapprox.0

  1. Large-Scale Multi-Resolution Representations for Accurate Interactive Image and Volume Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell B.

    2015-11-25

    The resolutions of acquired image and volume data are ever increasing. However, the resolutions of commodity display devices remain limited. This leads to an increasing gap between data and display resolutions. To bridge this gap, the standard approach is to employ output-sensitive operations on multi-resolution data representations. Output-sensitive operations facilitate interactive applications since their required computations are proportional only to the size of the data that is visible, i.e., the output, and not the full size of the input. Multi-resolution representations, such as image mipmaps, and volume octrees, are crucial in providing these operations direct access to any subset of the data at any resolution corresponding to the output. Despite its widespread use, this standard approach has some shortcomings in three important application areas, namely non-linear image operations, multi-resolution volume rendering, and large-scale image exploration. This dissertation presents new multi-resolution representations for large-scale images and volumes that address these shortcomings. Standard multi-resolution representations require low-pass pre-filtering for anti- aliasing. However, linear pre-filters do not commute with non-linear operations. This becomes problematic when applying non-linear operations directly to any coarse resolution levels in standard representations. Particularly, this leads to inaccurate output when applying non-linear image operations, e.g., color mapping and detail-aware filters, to multi-resolution images. Similarly, in multi-resolution volume rendering, this leads to inconsistency artifacts which manifest as erroneous differences in rendering outputs across resolution levels. To address these issues, we introduce the sparse pdf maps and sparse pdf volumes representations for large-scale images and volumes, respectively. These representations sparsely encode continuous probability density functions (pdfs) of multi-resolution pixel

  2. Science Roles and Interactions in Adaptive Management of Large River Restoration Projects, Midwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R. B.; Galat, D. L.; Smith, C. B.

    2010-12-01

    Most large-