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Sample records for large intel paragon

  1. Applications Performance on NAS Intel Paragon XP/S - 15#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Subhash; Simon, Horst D.; Copper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Systems Division received an Intel Touchstone Sigma prototype model Paragon XP/S- 15 in February, 1993. The i860 XP microprocessor with an integrated floating point unit and operating in dual -instruction mode gives peak performance of 75 million floating point operations (NIFLOPS) per second for 64 bit floating point arithmetic. It is used in the Paragon XP/S-15 which has been installed at NAS, NASA Ames Research Center. The NAS Paragon has 208 nodes and its peak performance is 15.6 GFLOPS. Here, we will report on early experience using the Paragon XP/S- 15. We have tested its performance using both kernels and applications of interest to NAS. We have measured the performance of BLAS 1, 2 and 3 both assembly-coded and Fortran coded on NAS Paragon XP/S- 15. Furthermore, we have investigated the performance of a single node one-dimensional FFT, a distributed two-dimensional FFT and a distributed three-dimensional FFT Finally, we measured the performance of NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) on the Paragon and compare it with the performance obtained on other highly parallel machines, such as CM-5, CRAY T3D, IBM SP I, etc. In particular, we investigated the following issues, which can strongly affect the performance of the Paragon: a. Impact of the operating system: Intel currently uses as a default an operating system OSF/1 AD from the Open Software Foundation. The paging of Open Software Foundation (OSF) server at 22 MB to make more memory available for the application degrades the performance. We found that when the limit of 26 NIB per node out of 32 MB available is reached, the application is paged out of main memory using virtual memory. When the application starts paging, the performance is considerably reduced. We found that dynamic memory allocation can help applications performance under certain circumstances. b. Impact of data cache on the i860/XP: We measured the performance of the BLAS both assembly coded and Fortran

  2. Balancing Contention and Synchronization on the Intel Paragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.; Nicol, David M.

    1996-01-01

    The Intel Paragon is a mesh-connected distributed memory parallel computer. It uses an oblivious and deterministic message routing algorithm: this permits us to develop highly optimized schedules for frequently needed communication patterns. The complete exchange is one such pattern. Several approaches are available for carrying it out on the mesh. We study an algorithm developed by Scott. This algorithm assumes that a communication link can carry one message at a time and that a node can only transmit one message at a time. It requires global synchronization to enforce a schedule of transmissions. Unfortunately global synchronization has substantial overhead on the Paragon. At the same time the powerful interconnection mechanism of this machine permits 2 or 3 messages to share a communication link with minor overhead. It can also overlap multiple message transmission from the same node to some extent. We develop a generalization of Scott's algorithm that executes complete exchange with a prescribed contention. Schedules that incur greater contention require fewer synchronization steps. This permits us to tradeoff contention against synchronization overhead. We describe the performance of this algorithm and compare it with Scott's original algorithm as well as with a naive algorithm that does not take interconnection structure into account. The Bounded contention algorithm is always better than Scott's algorithm and outperforms the naive algorithm for all but the smallest message sizes. The naive algorithm fails to work on meshes larger than 12 x 12. These results show that due consideration of processor interconnect and machine performance parameters is necessary to obtain peak performance from the Paragon and its successor mesh machines.

  3. A fast random number generator for the Intel Paragon supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutbrod, F.

    1995-06-01

    A pseudo-random number generator is presented which makes optimal use of the architecture of the i860-microprocessor and which is expected to have a very long period. It is therefore a good candidate for use on the parallel supercomputer Paragon XP. In the assembler version, it needs 6.4 cycles for a real∗4 random number. There is a FORTRAN routine which yields identical numbers up to rare and minor rounding discrepancies, and it needs 28 cycles. The FORTRAN performance on other microprocessors is somewhat better. Arguments for the quality of the generator and some numerical tests are given.

  4. Paragon

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Paragon and Tririga Applications are project management programs utilized by CFM for construction programs. The contents of the databases are a compiliation of...

  5. A new shared-memory programming paradigm for molecular dynamics simulations on the Intel Paragon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-12-01

    This report describes the use of shared memory emulation with DOLIB (Distributed Object Library) to simplify parallel programming on the Intel Paragon. A molecular dynamics application is used as an example to illustrate the use of the DOLIB shared memory library. SOTON-PAR, a parallel molecular dynamics code with explicit message-passing using a Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential, is rewritten using DOLIB primitives. The resulting code has no explicit message primitives and resembles a serial code. The new code can perform dynamic load balancing and achieves better performance than the original parallel code with explicit message-passing

  6. Communication overhead on the Intel Paragon, IBM SP2 and Meiko CS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.

    1995-01-01

    Interprocessor communication overhead is a crucial measure of the power of parallel computing systems-its impact can severely limit the performance of parallel programs. This report presents measurements of communication overhead on three contemporary commercial multicomputer systems: the Intel Paragon, the IBM SP2 and the Meiko CS-2. In each case the time to communicate between processors is presented as a function of message length. The time for global synchronization and memory access is discussed. The performance of these machines in emulating hypercubes and executing random pairwise exchanges is also investigated. It is shown that the interprocessor communication time depends heavily on the specific communication pattern required. These observations contradict the commonly held belief that communication overhead on contemporary machines is independent of the placement of tasks on processors. The information presented in this report permits the evaluation of the efficiency of parallel algorithm implementations against standard baselines.

  7. Navier-Stokes Aerodynamic Simulation of the V-22 Osprey on the Intel Paragon MPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadyak, Joseph; Shrewsbury, George E.; Narramore, Jim C.; Montry, Gary; Holst, Terry; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The paper will describe the Development of a general three-dimensional multiple grid zone Navier-Stokes flowfield simulation program (ENS3D-MPP) designed for efficient execution on the Intel Paragon Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) supercomputer, and the subsequent application of this method to the prediction of the viscous flowfield about the V-22 Osprey tiltrotor vehicle. The flowfield simulation code solves the thin Layer or full Navier-Stoke's equation - for viscous flow modeling, or the Euler equations for inviscid flow modeling on a structured multi-zone mesh. In the present paper only viscous simulations will be shown. The governing difference equations are solved using a time marching implicit approximate factorization method with either TVD upwind or central differencing used for the convective terms and central differencing used for the viscous diffusion terms. Steady state or Lime accurate solutions can be calculated. The present paper will focus on steady state applications, although time accurate solution analysis is the ultimate goal of this effort. Laminar viscosity is calculated using Sutherland's law and the Baldwin-Lomax two layer algebraic turbulence model is used to compute the eddy viscosity. The Simulation method uses an arbitrary block, curvilinear grid topology. An automatic grid adaption scheme is incorporated which concentrates grid points in high density gradient regions. A variety of user-specified boundary conditions are available. This paper will present the application of the scalable and superscalable versions to the steady state viscous flow analysis of the V-22 Osprey using a multiple zone global mesh. The mesh consists of a series of sheared cartesian grid blocks with polar grids embedded within to better simulate the wing tip mounted nacelle. MPP solutions will be shown in comparison to equivalent Cray C-90 results and also in comparison to experimental data. Discussions on meshing considerations, wall clock execution time

  8. The parallel processing of EGS4 code on distributed memory scalar parallel computer:Intel Paragon XP/S15-256

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemiya, Hiroshi; Ohta, Hirofumi; Honma, Ichirou

    1996-03-01

    The parallelization of Electro-Magnetic Cascade Monte Carlo Simulation Code, EGS4 on distributed memory scalar parallel computer: Intel Paragon XP/S15-256 is described. EGS4 has the feature that calculation time for one incident particle is quite different from each other because of the dynamic generation of secondary particles and different behavior of each particle. Granularity for parallel processing, parallel programming model and the algorithm of parallel random number generation are discussed and two kinds of method, each of which allocates particles dynamically or statically, are used for the purpose of realizing high speed parallel processing of this code. Among four problems chosen for performance evaluation, the speedup factors for three problems have been attained to nearly 100 times with 128 processor. It has been found that when both the calculation time for each incident particles and its dispersion are large, it is preferable to use dynamic particle allocation method which can average the load for each processor. And it has also been found that when they are small, it is preferable to use static particle allocation method which reduces the communication overhead. Moreover, it is pointed out that to get the result accurately, it is necessary to use double precision variables in EGS4 code. Finally, the workflow of program parallelization is analyzed and tools for program parallelization through the experience of the EGS4 parallelization are discussed. (author).

  9. EPRI depletion benchmark calculations using PARAGON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukboyaci, Vefa N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PARAGON depletion calculations are benchmarked against the EPRI reactivity decrement experiments. • Benchmarks cover a wide range of enrichments, burnups, cooling times, and burnable absorbers, and different depletion and storage conditions. • Results from PARAGON-SCALE scheme are more conservative relative to the benchmark data. • ENDF/B-VII based data reduces the excess conservatism and brings the predictions closer to benchmark reactivity decrement values. - Abstract: In order to conservatively apply burnup credit in spent fuel pool criticality analyses, code validation for both fresh and used fuel is required. Fresh fuel validation is typically done by modeling experiments from the “International Handbook.” A depletion validation can determine a bias and bias uncertainty for the worth of the isotopes not found in the fresh fuel critical experiments. Westinghouse’s burnup credit methodology uses PARAGON™ (Westinghouse 2-D lattice physics code) and its 70-group cross-section library, which have been benchmarked, qualified, and licensed both as a standalone transport code and as a nuclear data source for core design simulations. A bias and bias uncertainty for the worth of depletion isotopes, however, are not available for PARAGON. Instead, the 5% decrement approach for depletion uncertainty is used, as set forth in the Kopp memo. Recently, EPRI developed a set of benchmarks based on a large set of power distribution measurements to ascertain reactivity biases. The depletion reactivity has been used to create 11 benchmark cases for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 GWd/MTU and 3 cooling times 100 h, 5 years, and 15 years. These benchmark cases are analyzed with PARAGON and the SCALE package and sensitivity studies are performed using different cross-section libraries based on ENDF/B-VI.3 and ENDF/B-VII data to assess that the 5% decrement approach is conservative for determining depletion uncertainty

  10. ANALISA PARKIR PARAGON MALL SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudjiastuti Handajani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pull traffic that occurs in complex Paragon Mall affect parking demand in these locations. For that we need research to obtain data - data that is requirsed by way of observations of drivers and parking attendants. The intent and purpose of this paper is to get the amount of traffic traveling tug toward Paragon Mall shopping complex and to determine parking demand at Paragon Mall shopping complex. Furthermore, based on the data that has been obtained so that data processing is done to obtain the desired result of which the accumulated maximum parking, towing trips, towing traffic, parking demand factors. From the calculation it is known that the maximum accumulation occurs on a Saturday, which is 173 to 295 types of automobiles and vehicle type motorcycle. Pull the whole trip occurred on Sunday at 4.76 people/100m2 Floor Area Groos. The amount of traffic tug Day on Saturday by 219 smp / hour for this type of car and 108 smp / hour for this type of motorcycle. Thus Paragon Mall has considerable pull the trip and have enough parking area where the number of plots for the car park as many as 260 plots for motorcycle parking and 800 parking plots.

  11. The new lattice code Paragon and its qualification for PWR core applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouisloumen, M.; Huria, H.C.; Mayhue, L.T.; Smith, R.M.; Kichty, M.J.; Matsumoto, H.; Tahara, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Paragon is a new two-dimensional transport code based on collision probability with interface current method and written entirely in Fortran 90/95. The qualification of Paragon has been completed and the results are very good. This qualification included a number of critical experiments. Comparisons to the Monte Carlo code MCNP for a wide variety of PWR assembly lattice types were also performed. In addition, Paragon-based core simulator models have been compared against PWR plant startup and operational data for a large number of plants. Some results of these calculations and also comparisons against models developed with a licensed Westinghouse lattice code, Phoenix-P, are presented. The qualification described in this paper provided the basis for the qualification of Paragon both as a validated transport code and as the nuclear data source for core simulator codes

  12. Intel Galileo essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Grimmett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This book is for anyone who has ever been curious about using the Intel Galileo to create electronics projects. Some programming background is useful, but if you know how to use a personal computer, with the aid of the step-by-step instructions in this book, you can construct complex electronics projects that use the Intel Galileo.

  13. Feasibility Study for Paragon - Bisti Solar Ranch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benally, Thomas [Navajo Hopi Land Commission Office (NHLCO), Window Rock, AZ (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Navajo Hopi Land Commission Office (NHLCO) and Navajo Nation (NN) plan to develop renewable energy (RE) projects on the Paragon-Bisti Ranch (PBR) lands, set aside under the Navajo Hopi Land Settlement Act (NHLSA) for the benefit of Relocatees. This feasibility study (FS), which was funded under a grant from DOE’s Tribal Energy Program (TEP), was prepared in order to explore the development of the 22,000-acre PBR in northwestern New Mexico for solar energy facilities. Topics covered include: • Site Selection • Analysis of RE, and a Preliminary Design • Transmission, Interconnection Concerns and Export Markets • Financial and Economic Analysis • Environmental Study • Socioeconomic and Cultural Factors • Next Steps.

  14. The Chesty Puller Paragon: Leadership Dogma or Model Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quintrall, Mickey

    1997-01-01

    In this study, I examine whether or not the United States Marine Corps senior warrior leaders should continue to use heroic warriors from the 1942-52 era as contemporary paragons of tactical leadership...

  15. Home automation with Intel Galileo

    CERN Document Server

    Dundar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    This book is for anyone who wants to learn Intel Galileo for home automation and cross-platform software development. No knowledge of programming with Intel Galileo is assumed, but knowledge of the C programming language is essential.

  16. Intel: High Throughput Computing Collaboration: A CERN openlab / Intel collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The Intel/CERN High Throughput Computing Collaboration studies the application of upcoming Intel technologies to the very challenging environment of the LHC trigger and data-acquisition systems. These systems will need to transport and process many terabits of data every second, in some cases with tight latency constraints. Parallelisation and tight integration of accelerators and classical CPU via Intel's OmniPath fabric are the key elements in this project.

  17. Windows for Intel Macs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Even the most devoted Mac OS X user may need to use Windows XP, or may just be curious about XP and its applications. This Short Cut is a concise guide for OS X users who need to quickly get comfortable and become productive with Windows XP basics on their Macs. It covers: Security Networking ApplicationsMac users can easily install and use Windows thanks to Boot Camp and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Boot Camp lets an Intel-based Mac install and boot Windows XP on its own hard drive partition. Parallels Desktop for Mac uses virtualization technology to run Windows XP (or other operating systems

  18. INTEL: Intel based systems move up in supercomputing ranks

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "The TOP500 supercomputer rankings released today at the Supercomputing 2002 conference show a dramatic increase in the number of Intel-based systems being deployed in high-performance computing (HPC) or supercomputing areas" (1/2 page).

  19. Roofline Analysis in the Intel® Advisor to Deliver Optimized Performance for applications on Intel® Xeon Phi™ Processor

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, TS; Lobet, M

    2017-01-01

    In this session we show, in two case studies, how the roofline feature of Intel Advisor has been utilized to optimize the performance of kernels of the XGC1 and PICSAR codes in preparation for Intel Knights Landing architecture. The impact of the implemented optimizations and the benefits of using the automatic roofline feature of Intel Advisor to study performance of large applications will be presented. This demonstrates an effective optimization strategy that has enabled these science appl...

  20. Accessing Intel FPGAs for Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    In this presentation, we will discuss the latest tools and products from Intel that enables FPGAs to be deployed as Accelerators. We will first talk about the Acceleration Stack for Intel Xeon CPU with FPGAs which makes it easy to create, verify, and execute functions on the Intel Programmable Acceleration Card in a Data Center. We will then talk about the OpenCL flow which allows parallel software developers to create FPGA systems and deploy them using the OpenCL standard. Next, we will talk about the Intel High-Level Synthesis compiler which can convert C++ code into custom RTL code optimized for Intel FPGAs. Lastly, we will focus on the task of running Machine Learning inference on the FPGA leveraging some of the tools we discussed. About the speaker Karl Qi is Sr. Staff Applications Engineer, Technical Training. He has been with the Customer Training department at Altera/Intel for 8 years. Most recently, he is responsible for all training content relating to High-Level Design tools, including the OpenCL...

  1. Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffers, James

    2013-01-01

    Authors Jim Jeffers and James Reinders spent two years helping educate customers about the prototype and pre-production hardware before Intel introduced the first Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. They have distilled their own experiences coupled with insights from many expert customers, Intel Field Engineers, Application Engineers and Technical Consulting Engineers, to create this authoritative first book on the essentials of programming for this new architecture and these new products. This book is useful even before you ever touch a system with an Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. To ensure that your applications run at maximum efficiency, the authors emphasize key techniques for programming any modern parallel computing system whether based on Intel Xeon processors, Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors, or other high performance microprocessors. Applying these techniques will generally increase your program performance on any system, and better prepare you for Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors and the Intel MIC architecture. It off...

  2. Endf/B-VII.0 Based Library for Paragon - 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huria, H.C.; Kucukboyaci, V.N.; Ouisloumen, M.

    2010-01-01

    A new 70-group library has been generated for the Westinghouse lattice physics code PARAGON using the ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data files. The new library retains the major features of the current library, including the number of energy groups and the reduction in the U-238 resonance integral. The upper bound for the up-scattering effects in the new library, however, has been moved to 4.0 eV from 2.1 eV for better MOX fuel predictions. The new library has been used to analyze standard benchmarks and also to compare the measured and predicted parameters for different types of Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering (CE) type operating reactor cores. Results indicate that the new library will not impact the reactivity, power distribution and the temperature coefficient predictions over a wide range of physics design parameters; however, will improve the MOX core predictions. In other words, the ENDF/B-VI.3 and ENDF/B-VII.0 produce similar results for reactor core calculations. (authors)

  3. New compilers speed up applications for Intel-based systems; Intel Compilers pave the way for Intel's Hyper-threading technology

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Intel Corporation today introduced updated tools to help software developers optimize applications for Intel's expanding family of architectures with key innovations such as Intel's Hyper Threading Technology (1 page).

  4. Scientific Computing and Apple's Intel Transition

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Intel's published processor roadmap and how it may affect the future of personal and scientific computing About the speaker: Eric Albert is Senior Software Engineer in Apple's Core Technologies group. During Mac OS X's transition to Intel processors he has worked on almost every part of the operating system, from the OS kernel and compiler tools to appli...

  5. Unlock performance secrets of next-gen Intel hardware

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Intel® Xeon Phi Product. About the speaker Zakhar is a software architect in Intel SSG group. His current role is Parallel Studio architect with focus on SIMD vector parallelism assistance tools. Before it he was working as Intel Advisor XE software architect and software development team-lead. Before joining Intel he was...

  6. Intel Corporation osaleb Eesti koolitusprogrammis / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2001-01-01

    Haridusministeeriumis tutvustati infotehnoloogiaalast koolitusprogrammi, milles osaleb maailma suuremaid arvutifirmasid Intel Corporation. Koolituskursuse käigus õpetatakse aineõpetajaid oma ainetundides interneti võimalusi kasutama. 50-tunnised kursused viiakse läbi kõigis maakondades

  7. PARAGON-IPS: A Portable Imaging Software System For Multiple Generations Of Image Processing Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelione, John

    1989-07-01

    Paragon-IPS is a comprehensive software system which is available on virtually all generations of image processing hardware. It is designed for an image processing department or a scientist and engineer who is doing image processing full-time. It is being used by leading R&D labs in government agencies and Fortune 500 companies. Applications include reconnaissance, non-destructive testing, remote sensing, medical imaging, etc.

  8. Effective SIMD Vectorization for Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessors

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Xinmin; Saito, Hideki; Preis, Serguei V.; Garcia, Eric N.; Kozhukhov, Sergey S.; Masten, Matt; Cherkasov, Aleksei G.; Panchenko, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    Efficiently exploiting SIMD vector units is one of the most important aspects in achieving high performance of the application code running on Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. In this paper, we present several effective SIMD vectorization techniques such as less-than-full-vector loop vectorization, Intel MIC specific alignment optimization, and small matrix transpose/multiplication 2D vectorization implemented in the Intel C/C++ and Fortran production compilers for Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. A ...

  9. Optimizing Performance of Combustion Chemistry Solvers on Intel's Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitaraman, Hariswaran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grout, Ray W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-09

    This work investigates novel algorithm designs and optimization techniques for restructuring chemistry integrators in zero and multidimensional combustion solvers, which can then be effectively used on the emerging generation of Intel's Many Integrated Core/Xeon Phi processors. These processors offer increased computing performance via large number of lightweight cores at relatively lower clock speeds compared to traditional processors (e.g. Intel Sandybridge/Ivybridge) used in current supercomputers. This style of processor can be productively used for chemistry integrators that form a costly part of computational combustion codes, in spite of their relatively lower clock speeds. Performance commensurate with traditional processors is achieved here through the combination of careful memory layout, exposing multiple levels of fine grain parallelism and through extensive use of vendor supported libraries (Cilk Plus and Math Kernel Libraries). Important optimization techniques for efficient memory usage and vectorization have been identified and quantified. These optimizations resulted in a factor of ~ 3 speed-up using Intel 2013 compiler and ~ 1.5 using Intel 2017 compiler for large chemical mechanisms compared to the unoptimized version on the Intel Xeon Phi. The strategies, especially with respect to memory usage and vectorization, should also be beneficial for general purpose computational fluid dynamics codes.

  10. Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, John

    2009-01-01

    For the past decade, a framework combining model checking (symbolic trajectory evaluation) and higher-order logic theorem proving has been in production use at Intel. Our tools and methodology have been used to formally verify execution cluster functionality (including floating-point operations) for a number of Intel products, including the Pentium(Registered TradeMark)4 and Core(TradeMark)i7 processors. Hardware verification in 2009 is much more challenging than it was in 1999 - today s CPU chip designs contain many processor cores and significant firmware content. This talk will attempt to distill the lessons learned over the past ten years, discuss how they apply to today s problems, outline some future directions.

  11. CERN welcomes Intel Science Fair winners

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This June, CERN welcomed twelve gifted young scientists aged 15-18 for a week-long visit of the Laboratory. These talented students were the winners of a special award co-funded by CERN and Intel, given yearly at the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF).   The CERN award winners at the Intel ISEF 2012 Special Awards Ceremony. © Society for Science & the Public (SSP). The CERN award was set up back in 2009 as an opportunity to bring some of the best and brightest young minds to the Laboratory. The award winners are selected from among 1,500 talented students participating in ISEF – the world's largest pre-university science competition, in which students compete for more than €3 million in awards. “CERN gave an award – which was obviously this trip – to students studying physics, maths, electrical engineering and computer science,” says Benjamin Craig Bartlett, 17, from South Carolina, USA, wh...

  12. Intel Xeon Phi accelerated Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Goddard microphysics scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, J.; Huang, B.; Huang, A. H.-L.

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is a numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both atmospheric research and operational forecasting needs. The WRF development is a done in collaboration around the globe. Furthermore, the WRF is used by academic atmospheric scientists, weather forecasters at the operational centers and so on. The WRF contains several physics components. The most time consuming one is the microphysics. One microphysics scheme is the Goddard cloud microphysics scheme. It is a sophisticated cloud microphysics scheme in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The Goddard microphysics scheme is very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. Compared to the earlier microphysics schemes, the Goddard scheme incorporates a large number of improvements. Thus, we have optimized the Goddard scheme code. In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the Goddard microphysics scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The Intel MIC is capable of executing a full operating system and entire programs rather than just kernels as the GPU does. The MIC coprocessor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is one familiar to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of MICs will require using some novel optimization techniques. Those optimization techniques are discussed in this paper. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of Goddard microphysics scheme on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 4.7×. In addition, the optimizations reduced the Goddard microphysics scheme's share of the total WRF processing time from 20.0 to 7.5%. Furthermore, the same optimizations

  13. Experience with Intel's Many Integrated Core Architecture in ATLAS Software

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischmann, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Lavrijsen, W; Neumann, M; Vitillo, R

    2014-01-01

    Intel recently released the first commercial boards of its Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architecture. MIC is Intel's solution for the domain of throughput computing, currently dominated by general purpose programming on graphics processors (GPGPU). MIC allows the use of the more familiar x86 programming model and supports standard technologies such as OpenMP, MPI, and Intel's Threading Building Blocks. This should make it possible to develop for both throughput and latency devices using a single code base.\

  14. Experience with Intel's Many Integrated Core Architecture in ATLAS Software

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischmann, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Lavrijsen, W; Neumann, M; Vitillo, R

    2013-01-01

    Intel recently released the first commercial boards of its Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architecture. MIC is Intel's solution for the domain of throughput computing, currently dominated by general purpose programming on graphics processors (GPGPU). MIC allows the use of the more familiar x86 programming model and supports standard technologies such as OpenMP, MPI, and Intel's Threading Building Blocks. This should make it possible to develop for both throughput and latency devices using a single code base.\

  15. Parallel Programming with Intel Parallel Studio XE

    CERN Document Server

    Blair-Chappell , Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Optimize code for multi-core processors with Intel's Parallel Studio Parallel programming is rapidly becoming a "must-know" skill for developers. Yet, where to start? This teach-yourself tutorial is an ideal starting point for developers who already know Windows C and C++ and are eager to add parallelism to their code. With a focus on applying tools, techniques, and language extensions to implement parallelism, this essential resource teaches you how to write programs for multicore and leverage the power of multicore in your programs. Sharing hands-on case studies and real-world examples, the

  16. Trusted Computing Technologies, Intel Trusted Execution Technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guise, Max Joseph; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We describe the current state-of-the-art in Trusted Computing Technologies - focusing mainly on Intel's Trusted Execution Technology (TXT). This document is based on existing documentation and tests of two existing TXT-based systems: Intel's Trusted Boot and Invisible Things Lab's Qubes OS. We describe what features are lacking in current implementations, describe what a mature system could provide, and present a list of developments to watch. Critical systems perform operation-critical computations on high importance data. In such systems, the inputs, computation steps, and outputs may be highly sensitive. Sensitive components must be protected from both unauthorized release, and unauthorized alteration: Unauthorized users should not access the sensitive input and sensitive output data, nor be able to alter them; the computation contains intermediate data with the same requirements, and executes algorithms that the unauthorized should not be able to know or alter. Due to various system requirements, such critical systems are frequently built from commercial hardware, employ commercial software, and require network access. These hardware, software, and network system components increase the risk that sensitive input data, computation, and output data may be compromised.

  17. Radiation Failures in Intel 14nm Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossev, Dobrin P.; Duncan, Adam R.; Gadlage, Matthew J.; Roach, Austin H.; Kay, Matthew J.; Szabo, Carl; Berger, Tammy J.; York, Darin A.; Williams, Aaron; LaBel, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this study the 14 nm Intel Broadwell 5th generation core series 5005U-i3 and 5200U-i5 was mounted on Dell Inspiron laptops, MSI Cubi and Gigabyte Brix barebones and tested with Windows 8 and CentOS7 at idle. Heavy-ion-induced hard- and catastrophic failures do not appear to be related to the Intel 14nm Tri-Gate FinFET process. They originate from a small (9 m 140 m) area on the 32nm planar PCH die (not the CPU) as initially speculated. The hard failures seem to be due to a SEE but the exact physical mechanism has yet to be identified. Some possibilities include latch-ups, charge ion trapping or implantation, ion channels, or a combination of those (in biased conditions). The mechanism of the catastrophic failures seems related to the presence of electric power (1.05V core voltage). The 1064 nm laser mimics ionization radiation and induces soft- and hard failures as a direct result of electron-hole pair production, not heat. The 14nm FinFET processes continue to look promising for space radiation environments.

  18. An INTEL 8080 microprocessor development system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    The INTEL 8080 has become one of the two most widely used microprocessors at CERN, the other being the MOTOROLA 6800. Even thouth this is the case, there have been, to date, only rudimentary facilities available for aiding the development of application programs for this microprocessor. An ideal development system is one which has a sophisticated editing and filing system, an assembler/compiler, and access to the microprocessor application. In many instances access to a PROM programmer is also required, as the application may utilize only PROMs for program storage. With these thoughts in mind, an INTEL 8080 microprocessor development system was implemented in the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Division. This system utilizes a PDP 11/45 as the editing and file-handling machine, and an MSC 8/MOD 80 microcomputer for assembling, PROM programming and debugging user programs at run time. The two machines are linked by an existing CAMAC crate system which will also provide the means of access to microprocessor applications in CAMAC and the interface of the development system to any other application. (Auth.)

  19. Extension of the AMBER molecular dynamics software to Intel's Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Perri J.; Bhuiyan, Ashraf; Walker, Ross C.

    2016-04-01

    We present an implementation of explicit solvent particle mesh Ewald (PME) classical molecular dynamics (MD) within the PMEMD molecular dynamics engine, that forms part of the AMBER v14 MD software package, that makes use of Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors by offloading portions of the PME direct summation and neighbor list build to the coprocessor. We refer to this implementation as pmemd MIC offload and in this paper present the technical details of the algorithm, including basic models for MPI and OpenMP configuration, and analyze the resultant performance. The algorithm provides the best performance improvement for large systems (>400,000 atoms), achieving a ∼35% performance improvement for satellite tobacco mosaic virus (1,067,095 atoms) when 2 Intel E5-2697 v2 processors (2 ×12 cores, 30M cache, 2.7 GHz) are coupled to an Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor (Model 7120P-1.238/1.333 GHz, 61 cores). The implementation utilizes a two-fold decomposition strategy: spatial decomposition using an MPI library and thread-based decomposition using OpenMP. We also present compiler optimization settings that improve the performance on Intel Xeon processors, while retaining simulation accuracy.

  20. Effective SIMD Vectorization for Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmin Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiently exploiting SIMD vector units is one of the most important aspects in achieving high performance of the application code running on Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. In this paper, we present several effective SIMD vectorization techniques such as less-than-full-vector loop vectorization, Intel MIC specific alignment optimization, and small matrix transpose/multiplication 2D vectorization implemented in the Intel C/C++ and Fortran production compilers for Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. A set of workloads from several application domains is employed to conduct the performance study of our SIMD vectorization techniques. The performance results show that we achieved up to 12.5x performance gain on the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. We also demonstrate a 2000x performance speedup from the seamless integration of SIMD vectorization and parallelization.

  1. Parallel supercomputing: Advanced methods, algorithms, and software for large-scale linear and nonlinear problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, G.F.; Young, D.M.

    1993-12-31

    The program outlined here is directed to research on methods, algorithms, and software for distributed parallel supercomputers. Of particular interest are finite element methods and finite difference methods together with sparse iterative solution schemes for scientific and engineering computations of very large-scale systems. Both linear and nonlinear problems will be investigated. In the nonlinear case, applications with bifurcation to multiple solutions will be considered using continuation strategies. The parallelizable numerical methods of particular interest are a family of partitioning schemes embracing domain decomposition, element-by-element strategies, and multi-level techniques. The methods will be further developed incorporating parallel iterative solution algorithms with associated preconditioners in parallel computer software. The schemes will be implemented on distributed memory parallel architectures such as the CRAY MPP, Intel Paragon, the NCUBE3, and the Connection Machine. We will also consider other new architectures such as the Kendall-Square (KSQ) and proposed machines such as the TERA. The applications will focus on large-scale three-dimensional nonlinear flow and reservoir problems with strong convective transport contributions. These are legitimate grand challenge class computational fluid dynamics (CFD) problems of significant practical interest to DOE. The methods developed and algorithms will, however, be of wider interest.

  2. Blocked All-Pairs Shortest Paths Algorithm on Intel Xeon Phi KNL Processor: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rucci, Enzo; De Giusti, Armando Eduardo; Naiouf, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Manycores are consolidating in HPC community as a way of improving performance while keeping power efficiency. Knights Landing is the recently released second generation of Intel Xeon Phi architec- ture.While optimizing applications on CPUs, GPUs and first Xeon Phi’s has been largely studied in the last years, the new features in Knights Landing processors require the revision of programming and optimization techniques for these devices. In this work, we selected the Floyd-Warshall algorithm ...

  3. Practical Implementation of Lattice QCD Simulation on Intel Xeon Phi Knights Landing

    OpenAIRE

    Kanamori, Issaku; Matsufuru, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    We investigate implementation of lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) code on the Intel Xeon Phi Knights Landing (KNL). The most time consuming part of the numerical simulations of lattice QCD is a solver of linear equation for a large sparse matrix that represents the strong interaction among quarks. To establish widely applicable prescriptions, we examine rather general methods for the SIMD architecture of KNL, such as using intrinsics and manual prefetching, to the matrix multiplication an...

  4. Analysis of Intel IA-64 Processor Support for Secure Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unalmis, Bugra

    2001-01-01

    .... Systems could be constructed for which serious security threats would be eliminated. This thesis explores the Intel IA-64 processor's hardware support and its relationship to software for building a secure system...

  5. MILC staggered conjugate gradient performance on Intel KNL

    OpenAIRE

    DeTar, Carleton; Doerfler, Douglas; Gottlieb, Steven; Jha, Ashish; Kalamkar, Dhiraj; Li, Ruizi; Toussaint, Doug

    2016-01-01

    We review our work done to optimize the staggered conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm in the MILC code for use with the Intel Knights Landing (KNL) architecture. KNL is the second gener- ation Intel Xeon Phi processor. It is capable of massive thread parallelism, data parallelism, and high on-board memory bandwidth and is being adopted in supercomputing centers for scientific research. The CG solver consumes the majority of time in production running, so we have spent most of our effort on it. ...

  6. [Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong

    2004-09-01

    To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.

  7. Performance of Artificial Intelligence Workloads on the Intel Core 2 Duo Series Desktop Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Kareem PARCHUR; Kuppangari Krishna RAO; Fazal NOORBASHA; Ram Asaray SINGH

    2010-01-01

    As the processor architecture becomes more advanced, Intel introduced its Intel Core 2 Duo series processors. Performance impact on Intel Core 2 Duo processors are analyzed using SPEC CPU INT 2006 performance numbers. This paper studied the behavior of Artificial Intelligence (AI) benchmarks on Intel Core 2 Duo series processors. Moreover, we estimated the task completion time (TCT) @1 GHz, @2 GHz and @3 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo series processors frequency. Our results show the performance scalab...

  8. Performance optimization of Qbox and WEST on Intel Knights Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huihuo; Knight, Christopher; Galli, Giulia; Govoni, Marco; Gygi, Francois

    We present the optimization of electronic structure codes Qbox and WEST targeting the Intel®Xeon Phi™processor, codenamed Knights Landing (KNL). Qbox is an ab-initio molecular dynamics code based on plane wave density functional theory (DFT) and WEST is a post-DFT code for excited state calculations within many-body perturbation theory. Both Qbox and WEST employ highly scalable algorithms which enable accurate large-scale electronic structure calculations on leadership class supercomputer platforms beyond 100,000 cores, such as Mira and Theta at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. In this work, features of the KNL architecture (e.g. hierarchical memory) are explored to achieve higher performance in key algorithms of the Qbox and WEST codes and to develop a road-map for further development targeting next-generation computing architectures. In particular, the optimizations of the Qbox and WEST codes on the KNL platform will target efficient large-scale electronic structure calculations of nanostructured materials exhibiting complex structures and prediction of their electronic and thermal properties for use in solar and thermal energy conversion device. This work was supported by MICCoM, as part of Comp. Mats. Sci. Program funded by the U.S. DOE, Office of Sci., BES, MSE Division. This research used resources of the ALCF, which is a DOE Office of Sci. User Facility under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  9. Comparative VME Performance Tests for MEN A20 Intel-L865 and RIO-3 PPC-LynxOS platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, M; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    This benchmark note presents test results from reading values over VME using different methods and different sizes of data registers, running on two different platforms Intel-L865 and PPC-LynxOS. We find that the PowerPC is a factor 3 faster in accessing an array of contiguous VME memory locations. Block transfer and DMA read accesses are also tested and compared with conventional single access reads.

  10. Revisiting Intel Xeon Phi optimization of Thompson cloud microphysics scheme in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen

    2015-10-01

    The Thompson cloud microphysics scheme is a sophisticated cloud microphysics scheme in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The scheme is very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. Compared to the earlier microphysics schemes, the Thompson scheme incorporates a large number of improvements. Thus, we have optimized the speed of this important part of WRF. Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) ushers in a new era of supercomputing speed, performance, and compatibility. It allows the developers to run code at trillions of calculations per second using the familiar programming model. In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the Thompson microphysics scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The coprocessor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is familiar one to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of MICs will require using some novel optimization techniques. New optimizations for an updated Thompson scheme are discusses in this paper. The optimizations improved the performance of the original Thompson code on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 1.8x. Furthermore, the same optimizations improved the performance of the Thompson on a dual socket configuration of eight core Intel Xeon E5-2670 CPUs by a factor of 1.8x compared to the original Thompson code.

  11. Implementation of an Agent-Based Parallel Tissue Modelling Framework for the Intel MIC Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Cytowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Timothy is a novel large scale modelling framework that allows simulating of biological processes involving different cellular colonies growing and interacting with variable environment. Timothy was designed for execution on massively parallel High Performance Computing (HPC systems. The high parallel scalability of the implementation allows for simulations of up to 109 individual cells (i.e., simulations at tissue spatial scales of up to 1 cm3 in size. With the recent advancements of the Timothy model, it has become critical to ensure appropriate performance level on emerging HPC architectures. For instance, the introduction of blood vessels supplying nutrients to the tissue is a very important step towards realistic simulations of complex biological processes, but it greatly increased the computational complexity of the model. In this paper, we describe the process of modernization of the application in order to achieve high computational performance on HPC hybrid systems based on modern Intel® MIC architecture. Experimental results on the Intel Xeon Phi™ coprocessor x100 and the Intel Xeon Phi processor x200 are presented.

  12. Scaling deep learning workloads: NVIDIA DGX-1/Pascal and Intel Knights Landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawande, Nitin A.; Landwehr, Joshua B.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2017-08-24

    Deep Learning (DL) algorithms have become ubiquitous in data analytics. As a result, major computing vendors --- including NVIDIA, Intel, AMD, and IBM --- have architectural road-maps influenced by DL workloads. Furthermore, several vendors have recently advertised new computing products as accelerating large DL workloads. Unfortunately, it is difficult for data scientists to quantify the potential of these different products. This paper provides a performance and power analysis of important DL workloads on two major parallel architectures: NVIDIA DGX-1 (eight Pascal P100 GPUs interconnected with NVLink) and Intel Knights Landing (KNL) CPUs interconnected with Intel Omni-Path or Cray Aries. Our evaluation consists of a cross section of convolutional neural net workloads: CifarNet, AlexNet, GoogLeNet, and ResNet50 topologies using the Cifar10 and ImageNet datasets. The workloads are vendor-optimized for each architecture. Our analysis indicates that although GPUs provide the highest overall performance, the gap can close for some convolutional networks; and the KNL can be competitive in performance/watt. We find that NVLink facilitates scaling efficiency on GPUs. However, its importance is heavily dependent on neural network architecture. Furthermore, for weak-scaling --- sometimes encouraged by restricted GPU memory --- NVLink is less important.

  13. Parallelization of particle transport using Intel® TBB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, J; Brun, R; Carminati, F; Gheata, A; Wenzel, S; Belogurov, S; Ovcharenko, E

    2014-01-01

    One of the current challenges in HEP computing is the development of particle propagation algorithms capable of efficiently use all performance aspects of modern computing devices. The Geant-Vector project at CERN has recently introduced an approach in this direction. This paper describes the implementation of a similar workflow using the Intel(r) Threading Building Blocks (Intel(r) TBB) library. This approach is intended to overcome the potential bottleneck of having a single dispatcher on many-core architectures and to result in better scalability compared to the initial pthreads-based version.

  14. Intel Legend and CERN would build up high speed Internet

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Intel, Legend and China Education and Research Network jointly announced on the 25th of April that they will be cooperating with each other to build up the new generation high speed internet, over the next three years (1/2 page).

  15. Communication overhead on the Intel iPSC-860 hypercube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on the Intel iPSC-860 hypercube in order to evaluate the overhead of interprocessor communication. It is demonstrated that: (1) contrary to popular belief, the distance between two communicating processors has a significant impact on communication time, (2) edge contention can increase communication time by a factor of more than 7, and (3) node contention has no measurable impact.

  16. Connecting Effective Instruction and Technology. Intel-elebration: Safari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Larry D.; Prest, Sharon

    Intel-ebration is an attempt to integrate the following research-based instructional frameworks and strategies: (1) dimensions of learning; (2) multiple intelligences; (3) thematic instruction; (4) cooperative learning; (5) project-based learning; and (6) instructional technology. This paper presents a thematic unit on safari, using the…

  17. Using the Intel Math Kernel Library on Peregrine | High-Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computing | NREL the Intel Math Kernel Library on Peregrine Using the Intel Math Kernel Library on Peregrine Learn how to use the Intel Math Kernel Library (MKL) with Peregrine system software. MKL architectures. Core math functions in MKL include BLAS, LAPACK, ScaLAPACK, sparse solvers, fast Fourier

  18. MILC staggered conjugate gradient performance on Intel KNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ruiz [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Detar, Carleton [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Doerfler, Douglas W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Gottlieb, Steven [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Jha, Asish [Intel Corp., Hillsboro, OR (United States). Sofware and Services Group; Kalamkar, Dhiraj [Intel Labs., Bangalore (India). Parallel Computing Lab.; Toussaint, Doug [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Physics Dept.

    2016-11-03

    We review our work done to optimize the staggered conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm in the MILC code for use with the Intel Knights Landing (KNL) architecture. KNL is the second gener- ation Intel Xeon Phi processor. It is capable of massive thread parallelism, data parallelism, and high on-board memory bandwidth and is being adopted in supercomputing centers for scientific research. The CG solver consumes the majority of time in production running, so we have spent most of our effort on it. We compare performance of an MPI+OpenMP baseline version of the MILC code with a version incorporating the QPhiX staggered CG solver, for both one-node and multi-node runs.

  19. Vectorization for Molecular Dynamics on Intel Xeon Phi Corpocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongsuk

    2014-03-01

    Many modern processors are capable of exploiting data-level parallelism through the use of single instruction multiple data (SIMD) execution. The new Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor supports 512 bit vector registers for the high performance computing. In this paper, we have developed a hierarchical parallelization scheme for accelerated molecular dynamics simulations with the Terfoff potentials for covalent bond solid crystals on Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor systems. The scheme exploits multi-level parallelism computing. We combine thread-level parallelism using a tightly coupled thread-level and task-level parallelism with 512-bit vector register. The simulation results show that the parallel performance of SIMD implementations on Xeon Phi is apparently superior to their x86 CPU architecture.

  20. Full cycle trigonometric function on Intel Quartus II Verilog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Muhazam; Zulkarnain, Nur Antasha

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses about an improvement of a previous research on hardware based trigonometric calculations. Tangent function will also be implemented to get a complete set. The functions have been simulated using Quartus II where the result will be compared to the previous work. The number of bits has also been extended for each trigonometric function. The design is based on RTL due to its resource efficient nature. At earlier stage, a technology independent test bench simulation was conducted on ModelSim due to its convenience in capturing simulation data so that accuracy information can be obtained. On second stage, Intel/Altera Quartus II will be used to simulate on technology dependent platform, particularly on the one belonging to Intel/Altera itself. Real data on no. logic elements used and propagation delay have also been obtained.

  1. Porting FEASTFLOW to the Intel Xeon Phi: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios Goumas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report our experiences in porting the FEASTFLOW software infrastructure to the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. Our efforts involved both the evaluation of programming models including OpenCL, POSIX threads and OpenMP and typical optimization strategies like parallelization and vectorization. Since the straightforward porting process of the already existing OpenCL version of the code encountered performance problems that require further analysis, we focused our efforts on the impl...

  2. Protein Alignment on the Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessor

    OpenAIRE

    Ramstad, Jorun

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing need for sensitive, high perfomance sequence alignemnet tools. With the growing databases of scientificly analyzed protein sequences, more compute power is necessary. Specialized architectures arise, and a transition from serial to specialized implementationsis is required. This thesis is a study of whether Intel 60's cores Xeon Phi coprocessor is a suitable architecture for implementation of a sequence alignment tool. The performance relative to existing tools are eval...

  3. Staggered Dslash Performance on Intel Xeon Phi Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ruizi; Gottlieb, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm is among the most essential and time consuming parts of lattice calculations with staggered quarks. We test the performance of CG and dslash, the key step in the CG algorithm, on the Intel Xeon Phi, also known as the Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture. We try different parallelization strategies using MPI, OpenMP, and the vector processing units (VPUs).

  4. Intel·ligència emocional a maternal

    OpenAIRE

    Missé Cortina, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Inclusió d'activitats d'intel·ligència emocional a maternal A i B per al treball de l'adquisició de valors com l'autoestima, el respecte, la tolerància, etc. Inclusión de actividades de inteligencia emocional en maternal A y B para el trabajo de la adquisición de valores como la autoestima, el respeto, la tolerancia, etc. Practicum for the Psychology program on Educational Psychology.

  5. 3-D electromagnetic plasma particle simulations on the Intel Delta parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Liewer, P.C.

    1994-01-01

    A three-dimensional electromagnetic PIC code has been developed on the 512 node Intel Touchstone Delta MIMD parallel computer. This code is based on the General Concurrent PIC algorithm which uses a domain decomposition to divide the computation among the processors. The 3D simulation domain can be partitioned into 1-, 2-, or 3-dimensional sub-domains. Particles must be exchanged between processors as they move among the subdomains. The Intel Delta allows one to use this code for very-large-scale simulations (i.e. over 10 8 particles and 10 6 grid cells). The parallel efficiency of this code is measured, and the overall code performance on the Delta is compared with that on Cray supercomputers. It is shown that their code runs with a high parallel efficiency of ≥ 95% for large size problems. The particle push time achieved is 115 nsecs/particle/time step for 162 million particles on 512 nodes. Comparing with the performance on a single processor Cray C90, this represents a factor of 58 speedup. The code uses a finite-difference leap frog method for field solve which is significantly more efficient than fast fourier transforms on parallel computers. The performance of this code on the 128 node Cray T3D will also be discussed

  6. Optimizing zonal advection of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) dynamics for Intel MIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is the most widely used community weather forecast and research model in the world. There are two distinct varieties of WRF. The Advanced Research WRF (ARW) is an experimental, advanced research version featuring very high resolution. The WRF Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (WRF-NMM) has been designed for forecasting operations. WRF consists of dynamics code and several physics modules. The WRF-ARW core is based on an Eulerian solver for the fully compressible nonhydrostatic equations. In the paper, we will use Intel Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture to substantially increase the performance of a zonal advection subroutine for optimization. It is of the most time consuming routines in the ARW dynamics core. Advection advances the explicit perturbation horizontal momentum equations by adding in the large-timestep tendency along with the small timestep pressure gradient tendency. We will describe the challenges we met during the development of a high-speed dynamics code subroutine for MIC architecture. Furthermore, lessons learned from the code optimization process will be discussed. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 5110P by a factor of 2.4x.

  7. Implementation of a 3-D nonlinear MHD [magnetohydrodynamics] calculation on the Intel hypercube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Drake, J.B.; Hicks, H.R.; Lawkins, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    The optimization of numerical schemes and increasing computer capabilities in the last ten years have improved the efficiency of 3-D nonlinear resistive MHD calculations by about two to three orders of magnitude. However, we are still very limited in performing these types of calculations. Hypercubes have a large number of processors with only local memory and bidirectional links among neighbors. The Intel Hypercube at Oak Ridge has 64 processors with 0.5 megabytes of memory per processor. The multiplicity of processors opens new possibilities for the treatment of such computations. The constraint on time and resources favored the approach of using the existing RSF code which solves as an initial value problem the reduced set of MHD equations for a periodic cylindrical geometry. This code includes minimal physics and geometry, but contains the basic three dimensionality and nonlinear structure of the equations. The code solves the reduced set of MHD equations by Fourier expansion in two angular coordinates and finite differences in the radial one. Due to the continuing interest in these calculations and the likelihood that future supercomputers will take greater advantage of parallelism, the present study was initiated by the ORNL Exploratory Studies Committee and funded entirely by Laboratory Discretionary Funds. The objectives of the study were: to ascertain the suitability of MHD calculation for parallel computation, to design and implement a parallel algorithm to perform the computations, and to evaluate the hypercube, and in particular, ORNL's Intel iPSC, for use in MHD computations

  8. Performance of Artificial Intelligence Workloads on the Intel Core 2 Duo Series Desktop Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kareem PARCHUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the processor architecture becomes more advanced, Intel introduced its Intel Core 2 Duo series processors. Performance impact on Intel Core 2 Duo processors are analyzed using SPEC CPU INT 2006 performance numbers. This paper studied the behavior of Artificial Intelligence (AI benchmarks on Intel Core 2 Duo series processors. Moreover, we estimated the task completion time (TCT @1 GHz, @2 GHz and @3 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo series processors frequency. Our results show the performance scalability in Intel Core 2 Duo series processors. Even though AI benchmarks have similar execution time, they have dissimilar characteristics which are identified using principal component analysis and dendogram. As the processor frequency increased from 1.8 GHz to 3.167 GHz the execution time is decreased by ~370 sec for AI workloads. In the case of Physics/Quantum Computing programs it was ~940 sec.

  9. Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture optimization strategies for a memory-bound Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Goddard microphysics scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    The Goddard cloud microphysics scheme is a sophisticated cloud microphysics scheme in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The WRF is a widely used weather prediction system in the world. It development is a done in collaborative around the globe. The Goddard microphysics scheme is very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. Compared to the earlier microphysics schemes, the Goddard scheme incorporates a large number of improvements. Thus, we have optimized the code of this important part of WRF. In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the Goddard microphysics scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The Intel MIC is capable of executing a full operating system and entire programs rather than just kernels as the GPU do. The MIC coprocessor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is familiar one to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of MICs will require using some novel optimization techniques. Those optimization techniques are discusses in this paper. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 4.7x. Furthermore, the same optimizations improved performance on a dual socket Intel Xeon E5-2670 system by a factor of 2.8x compared to the original code.

  10. GW Calculations of Materials on the Intel Xeon-Phi Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslippe, Jack; da Jornada, Felipe H.; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Biller, Ariel; Chelikowsky, James R.; Louie, Steven G.

    Intel Xeon-Phi processors are expected to power a large number of High-Performance Computing (HPC) systems around the United States and the world in the near future. We evaluate the ability of GW and pre-requisite Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations for materials on utilizing the Xeon-Phi architecture. We describe the optimization process and performance improvements achieved. We find that the GW method, like other higher level Many-Body methods beyond standard local/semilocal approximations to Kohn-Sham DFT, is particularly well suited for many-core architectures due to the ability to exploit a large amount of parallelism over plane-waves, band-pairs and frequencies. Support provided by the SCIDAC program, Department of Energy, Office of Science, Advanced Scientic Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences. Grant Numbers DE-SC0008877 (Austin) and DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL).

  11. Comparison of Processor Performance of SPECint2006 Benchmarks of some Intel Xeon Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Kareem PARCHUR; Ram Asaray SINGH

    2012-01-01

    High performance is a critical requirement to all microprocessors manufacturers. The present paper describes the comparison of performance in two main Intel Xeon series processors (Type A: Intel Xeon X5260, X5460, E5450 and L5320 and Type B: Intel Xeon X5140, 5130, 5120 and E5310). The microarchitecture of these processors is implemented using the basis of a new family of processors from Intel starting with the Pentium 4 processor. These processors can provide a performance boost for many ke...

  12. "Personified as Paragon of Suffering...... Optimistic Being of Achieving Normalcy:" A Conceptual Model Derived from Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Shalini G; Pai, Mamatha Shivananda; George, Linu Sara

    2018-01-01

    Background: Conceptual models developed through qualitative research are based on the unique experiences of suffering and individuals’ adoptions of each participant. A wide array of problems are faced by head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients due to disease pathology and treatment modalities which are sufficient to influence the quality of life (QOL). Men possess greater self-acceptance and are better equipped with intrapersonal strength to cope with stress and adequacy compared to women. Methodology: A qualitative phenomenology study was conducted among seven women suffering from HNC, with the objective to understand their experiences of suffering and to describe the phenomenon. Data were collected by face-to-face, in-depth, open-ended interviews. Data were analyzed using Open Code software (OPC 4.0) by following the steps of Colaizzi process. Results: The phenomenon that emerged out of the lived experiences of HNC women was "Personified as paragon of suffering.optimistic being of achieving normalcy," with five major themes and 13 subthemes. Conclusion: The conceptual model developed with the phenomenological approach is very specific to the women suffering from HNC, which will be contributing to develop strategies to improve the QOL of women. PMID:29440812

  13. Does the Intel Xeon Phi processor fit HEP workloads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, A.; Bitzes, G.; Dotti, A.; Lazzaro, A.; Jarp, S.; Szostek, P.; Valsan, L.; Botezatu, M.; Leduc, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper summarizes the five years of CERN openlab's efforts focused on the Intel Xeon Phi co-processor, from the time of its inception to public release. We consider the architecture of the device vis a vis the characteristics of HEP software and identify key opportunities for HEP processing, as well as scaling limitations. We report on improvements and speedups linked to parallelization and vectorization on benchmarks involving software frameworks such as Geant4 and ROOT. Finally, we extrapolate current software and hardware trends and project them onto accelerators of the future, with the specifics of offline and online HEP processing in mind.

  14. Does the Intel Xeon Phi processor fit HEP workloads?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, A; Bitzes, G; Dotti, A; Lazzaro, A; Jarp, S; Szostek, P; Valsan, L; Botezatu, M; Leduc, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the five years of CERN openlab's efforts focused on the Intel Xeon Phi co-processor, from the time of its inception to public release. We consider the architecture of the device vis a vis the characteristics of HEP software and identify key opportunities for HEP processing, as well as scaling limitations. We report on improvements and speedups linked to parallelization and vectorization on benchmarks involving software frameworks such as Geant4 and ROOT. Finally, we extrapolate current software and hardware trends and project them onto accelerators of the future, with the specifics of offline and online HEP processing in mind.

  15. Exploring synchrotron radiation capabilities: The ALS-Intel CRADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzo, F.; Cossy-Favre, A.; Padmore, H.

    1997-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy were applied, at the Advanced Light Source, to the analysis of materials and problems of interest to the commercial semiconductor industry. The authors discuss some of the results obtained at the ALS using existing capabilities, in particular the small spot ultra-ESCA instrument on beamline 7.0 and the AMS (Applied Material Science) endstation on beamline 9.3.2. The continuing trend towards smaller feature size and increased performance for semiconductor components has driven the semiconductor industry to invest in the development of sophisticated and complex instrumentation for the characterization of microstructures. Among the crucial milestones established by the Semiconductor Industry Association are the needs for high quality, defect free and extremely clean silicon wafers, very thin gate oxides, lithographies near 0.1 micron and advanced material interconnect structures. The requirements of future generations cannot be met with current industrial technologies. The purpose of the ALS-Intel CRADA (Cooperative Research And Development Agreement) is to explore, compare and improve the utility of synchrotron-based techniques for practical analysis of substrates of interest to semiconductor chip manufacturing. The first phase of the CRADA project consisted in exploring existing ALS capabilities and techniques on some problems of interest. Some of the preliminary results obtained on Intel samples are discussed here

  16. Evaluation of the Intel Westmere-EX server processor

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, S; Leduc, J; Nowak, A; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2011-01-01

    One year after the arrival of the Intel Xeon 7500 systems (“Nehalem-EX”), CERN openlab is presenting a set of benchmark results obtained when running on the new Xeon E7-4870 Processors, representing the “Westmere-EX” family. A modern 4-socket, 40-core system is confronted with the previous generation of expandable (“EX”) platforms, represented by a 4-socket, 32-core Intel Xeon X7560 based system – both being “top of the line” systems. Benchmarking of modern processors is a very complex affair. One has to control (at least) the following features: processor frequency, overclocking via Turbo mode, the number of physical cores in use, the use of logical cores via Symmetric MultiThreading (SMT), the cache sizes available, the configured memory topology, as well as the power configuration if throughput per watt is to be measured. As in previous activities, we have tried to do a good job of comparing like with like. In a “top of the line” comparison based on the HEPSPEC06 benchmark, the “We...

  17. Global synchronization algorithms for the Intel iPSC/860

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Steven R.; Davis, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    In a distributed memory multicomputer that has no global clock, global processor synchronization can only be achieved through software. Global synchronization algorithms are used in tridiagonal systems solvers, CFD codes, sequence comparison algorithms, and sorting algorithms. They are also useful for event simulation, debugging, and for solving mutual exclusion problems. For the Intel iPSC/860 in particular, global synchronization can be used to ensure the most effective use of the communication network for operations such as the shift, where each processor in a one-dimensional array or ring concurrently sends a message to its right (or left) neighbor. Three global synchronization algorithms are considered for the iPSC/860: the gysnc() primitive provided by Intel, the PICL primitive sync0(), and a new recursive doubling synchronization (RDS) algorithm. The performance of these algorithms is compared to the performance predicted by communication models of both the long and forced message protocols. Measurements of the cost of shift operations preceded by global synchronization show that the RDS algorithm always synchronizes the nodes more precisely and costs only slightly more than the other two algorithms.

  18. A performance study of sparse Cholesky factorization on INTEL iPSC/860

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, M.; Ghose, M.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of Cholesky factorization of a sparse matrix has been very well investigated on sequential machines. A number of efficient codes exist for factorizing large unstructured sparse matrices. However, there is a lack of such efficient codes on parallel machines in general, and distributed machines in particular. Some of the issues that are critical to the implementation of sparse Cholesky factorization on a distributed memory parallel machine are ordering, partitioning and mapping, load balancing, and ordering of various tasks within a processor. Here, we focus on the effect of various partitioning schemes on the performance of sparse Cholesky factorization on the Intel iPSC/860. Also, a new partitioning heuristic for structured as well as unstructured sparse matrices is proposed, and its performance is compared with other schemes.

  19. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory selects Intel Itanium 2 processors for world's most powerful Linux cluster

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Intel Corporation, system manufacturer California Digital and the University of California at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) today announced they are building one of the world's most powerful supercomputers. The supercomputer project, codenamed "Thunder," uses nearly 4,000 Intel® Itanium® 2 processors... is expected to be complete in January 2004" (1 page).

  20. 75 FR 48338 - Intel Corporation; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... product road maps, its compilers, and product benchmarking (Sections VI, VII, and VIII). The Proposed... alleges that Intel's failure to fully disclose the changes it made to its compilers and libraries... benchmarking organizations the effects of its compiler redesign on non-Intel CPUs. Several benchmarking...

  1. Efficient Implementation of Many-body Quantum Chemical Methods on the Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apra, Edoardo; Klemm, Michael; Kowalski, Karol

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the implementation and performance of the highly accurate CCSD(T) quantum chemistry method on the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor within the context of the NWChem computational chemistry package. The widespread use of highly correlated methods in electronic structure calculations is contingent upon the interplay between advances in theory and the possibility of utilizing the ever-growing computer power of emerging heterogeneous architectures. We discuss the design decisions of our implementation as well as the optimizations applied to the compute kernels and data transfers between host and coprocessor. We show the feasibility of adopting the Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture and the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor for developing efficient computational chemistry modeling tools. Remarkable scalability is demonstrated by benchmarks. Our solution scales up to a total of 62560 cores with the concurrent utilization of Intel Xeon processors and Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors.

  2. Analysis OpenMP performance of AMD and Intel architecture for breaking waves simulation using MPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsyah, M. N. A.; Utomo, A.; Gunawan, P. H.

    2018-03-01

    Simulation of breaking waves by using Navier-Stokes equation via moving particle semi-implicit method (MPS) over close domain is given. The results show the parallel computing on multicore architecture using OpenMP platform can reduce the computational time almost half of the serial time. Here, the comparison using two computer architectures (AMD and Intel) are performed. The results using Intel architecture is shown better than AMD architecture in CPU time. However, in efficiency, the computer with AMD architecture gives slightly higher than the Intel. For the simulation by 1512 number of particles, the CPU time using Intel and AMD are 12662.47 and 28282.30 respectively. Moreover, the efficiency using similar number of particles, AMD obtains 50.09 % and Intel up to 49.42 %.

  3. Roofline Analysis in the Intel® Advisor to Deliver Optimized Performance for applications on Intel® Xeon Phi™ Processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, Tuomas S.; Lobet, Mathieu; Deslippe, Jack; Matveev, Zakhar

    2017-05-23

    In this session we show, in two case studies, how the roofline feature of Intel Advisor has been utilized to optimize the performance of kernels of the XGC1 and PICSAR codes in preparation for Intel Knights Landing architecture. The impact of the implemented optimizations and the benefits of using the automatic roofline feature of Intel Advisor to study performance of large applications will be presented. This demonstrates an effective optimization strategy that has enabled these science applications to achieve up to 4.6 times speed-up and prepare for future exascale architectures. # Goal/Relevance of Session The roofline model [1,2] is a powerful tool for analyzing the performance of applications with respect to the theoretical peak achievable on a given computer architecture. It allows one to graphically represent the performance of an application in terms of operational intensity, i.e. the ratio of flops performed and bytes moved from memory in order to guide optimization efforts. Given the scale and complexity of modern science applications, it can often be a tedious task for the user to perform the analysis on the level of functions or loops to identify where performance gains can be made. With new Intel tools, it is now possible to automate this task, as well as base the estimates of peak performance on measurements rather than vendor specifications. The goal of this session is to demonstrate how the roofline feature of Intel Advisor can be used to balance memory vs. computation related optimization efforts and effectively identify performance bottlenecks. A series of typical optimization techniques: cache blocking, structure refactoring, data alignment, and vectorization illustrated by the kernel cases will be addressed. # Description of the codes ## XGC1 The XGC1 code [3] is a magnetic fusion Particle-In-Cell code that uses an unstructured mesh for its Poisson solver that allows it to accurately resolve the edge plasma of a magnetic fusion device. After

  4. Using Intel Xeon Phi to accelerate the WRF TEMF planetary boundary layer scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen

    2014-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is designed for numerical weather prediction and atmospheric research. The WRF software infrastructure consists of several components such as dynamic solvers and physics schemes. Numerical models are used to resolve the large-scale flow. However, subgrid-scale parameterizations are for an estimation of small-scale properties (e.g., boundary layer turbulence and convection, clouds, radiation). Those have a significant influence on the resolved scale due to the complex nonlinear nature of the atmosphere. For the cloudy planetary boundary layer (PBL), it is fundamental to parameterize vertical turbulent fluxes and subgrid-scale condensation in a realistic manner. A parameterization based on the Total Energy - Mass Flux (TEMF) that unifies turbulence and moist convection components produces a better result that the other PBL schemes. For that reason, the TEMF scheme is chosen as the PBL scheme we optimized for Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC), which ushers in a new era of supercomputing speed, performance, and compatibility. It allows the developers to run code at trillions of calculations per second using the familiar programming model. In this paper, we present our optimization results for TEMF planetary boundary layer scheme. The optimizations that were performed were quite generic in nature. Those optimizations included vectorization of the code to utilize vector units inside each CPU. Furthermore, memory access was improved by scalarizing some of the intermediate arrays. The results show that the optimization improved MIC performance by 14.8x. Furthermore, the optimizations increased CPU performance by 2.6x compared to the original multi-threaded code on quad core Intel Xeon E5-2603 running at 1.8 GHz. Compared to the optimized code running on a single CPU socket the optimized MIC code is 6.2x faster.

  5. 75 FR 21353 - Intel Corporation, Fab 20 Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,642] Intel Corporation, Fab 20... of Intel Corporation, Fab 20 Division, including on-site leased workers of Volt Technical Resources... Precision, Inc. were employed on-site at the Hillsboro, Oregon location of Intel Corporation, Fab 20...

  6. Comparison of Processor Performance of SPECint2006 Benchmarks of some Intel Xeon Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kareem PARCHUR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available High performance is a critical requirement to all microprocessors manufacturers. The present paper describes the comparison of performance in two main Intel Xeon series processors (Type A: Intel Xeon X5260, X5460, E5450 and L5320 and Type B: Intel Xeon X5140, 5130, 5120 and E5310. The microarchitecture of these processors is implemented using the basis of a new family of processors from Intel starting with the Pentium 4 processor. These processors can provide a performance boost for many key application areas in modern generation. The scaling of performance in two major series of Intel Xeon processors (Type A: Intel Xeon X5260, X5460, E5450 and L5320 and Type B: Intel Xeon X5140, 5130, 5120 and E5310 has been analyzed using the performance numbers of 12 CPU2006 integer benchmarks, performance numbers that exhibit significant differences in performance. The results and analysis can be used by performance engineers, scientists and developers to better understand the performance scaling in modern generation processors.

  7. Performance of a plasma fluid code on the Intel parallel computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Drake, J.B.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Liewer, P.

    1992-01-01

    One approach to improving the real-time efficiency of plasma turbulence calculations is to use a parallel algorithm. A parallel algorithm for plasma turbulence calculations was tested on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and the Touchtone Delta machine. Using the 128 processors of the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube, a factor of 5 improvement over a single-processor CRAY-2 is obtained. For the Touchtone Delta machine, the corresponding improvement factor is 16. For plasma edge turbulence calculations, an extrapolation of the present results to the Intel σ machine gives an improvement factor close to 64 over the single-processor CRAY-2

  8. Performance of a plasma fluid code on the Intel parallel computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Drake, J.B.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Liewer, P.

    1992-01-01

    One approach to improving the real-time efficiency of plasma turbulence calculations is to use a parallel algorithm. A parallel algorithm for plasma turbulence calculations was tested on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and the Touchtone Delta machine. Using the 128 processors of the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube, a factor of 5 improvement over a single-processor CRAY-2 is obtained. For the Touchtone Delta machine, the corresponding improvement factor is 16. For plasma edge turbulence calculations, an extrapolation of the present results to the Intel (sigma) machine gives an improvement factor close to 64 over the single-processor CRAY-2. 12 refs

  9. Performance of a plasma fluid code on the Intel parallel computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, V. E.; Carreras, B. A.; Drake, J. B.; Leboeuf, J. N.; Liewer, P.

    1992-01-01

    One approach to improving the real-time efficiency of plasma turbulence calculations is to use a parallel algorithm. A parallel algorithm for plasma turbulence calculations was tested on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and the Touchtone Delta machine. Using the 128 processors of the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube, a factor of 5 improvement over a single-processor CRAY-2 is obtained. For the Touchtone Delta machine, the corresponding improvement factor is 16. For plasma edge turbulence calculations, an extrapolation of the present results to the Intel (sigma) machine gives an improvement factor close to 64 over the single-processor CRAY-2.

  10. Single event effect testing of the Intel 80386 family and the 80486 microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, A.; LaBel, K.; Gates, M.; Seidleck, C.; McGraw, R.; Broida, M.; Firer, J.; Sprehn, S.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present single event effect test results for the Intel 80386 microprocessor, the 80387 coprocessor, the 82380 peripheral device, and on the 80486 microprocessor. Both single event upset and latchup conditions were monitored

  11. CAMSHIFT Tracker Design Experiments With Intel OpenCV and SAI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francois, Alexandre R

    2004-01-01

    ... (including multi-modal) systems, must be specifically addressed. This report describes design and implementation experiments for CAMSHIFT-based tracking systems using Intel's Open Computer Vision library and SAI...

  12. Multi-threaded ATLAS simulation on Intel Knights Landing processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Steven; Calafiura, Paolo; Leggett, Charles; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Dotti, Andrea; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The Knights Landing (KNL) release of the Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) Xeon Phi line of processors is a potential game changer for HEP computing. With 72 cores and deep vector registers, the KNL cards promise significant performance benefits for highly-parallel, compute-heavy applications. Cori, the newest supercomputer at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), was delivered to its users in two phases with the first phase online at the end of 2015 and the second phase now online at the end of 2016. Cori Phase 2 is based on the KNL architecture and contains over 9000 compute nodes with 96GB DDR4 memory. ATLAS simulation with the multithreaded Athena Framework (AthenaMT) is a good potential use-case for the KNL architecture and supercomputers like Cori. ATLAS simulation jobs have a high ratio of CPU computation to disk I/O and have been shown to scale well in multi-threading and across many nodes. In this paper we will give an overview of the ATLAS simulation application with details on its multi-threaded design. Then, we will present a performance analysis of the application on KNL devices and compare it to a traditional x86 platform to demonstrate the capabilities of the architecture and evaluate the benefits of utilizing KNL platforms like Cori for ATLAS production.

  13. Multi-threaded ATLAS simulation on Intel Knights Landing processors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00014247; The ATLAS collaboration; Calafiura, Paolo; Leggett, Charles; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Dotti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The Knights Landing (KNL) release of the Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) Xeon Phi line of processors is a potential game changer for HEP computing. With 72 cores and deep vector registers, the KNL cards promise significant performance benefits for highly-parallel, compute-heavy applications. Cori, the newest supercomputer at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), was delivered to its users in two phases with the first phase online at the end of 2015 and the second phase now online at the end of 2016. Cori Phase 2 is based on the KNL architecture and contains over 9000 compute nodes with 96GB DDR4 memory. ATLAS simulation with the multithreaded Athena Framework (AthenaMT) is a good potential use-case for the KNL architecture and supercomputers like Cori. ATLAS simulation jobs have a high ratio of CPU computation to disk I/O and have been shown to scale well in multi-threading and across many nodes. In this paper we will give an overview of the ATLAS simulation application with detai...

  14. Multi-threaded ATLAS Simulation on Intel Knights Landing Processors

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, Steven; The ATLAS collaboration; Calafiura, Paolo; Leggett, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The Knights Landing (KNL) release of the Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) Xeon Phi line of processors is a potential game changer for HEP computing. With 72 cores and deep vector registers, the KNL cards promise significant performance benefits for highly-parallel, compute-heavy applications. Cori, the newest supercomputer at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), will be delivered to its users in two phases with the first phase online now and the second phase expected in mid-2016. Cori Phase 2 will be based on the KNL architecture and will contain over 9000 compute nodes with 96GB DDR4 memory. ATLAS simulation with the multithreaded Athena Framework (AthenaMT) is a great use-case for the KNL architecture and supercomputers like Cori. Simulation jobs have a high ratio of CPU computation to disk I/O and have been shown to scale well in multi-threading and across many nodes. In this presentation we will give an overview of the ATLAS simulation application with details on its multi-thr...

  15. Evaluation of the Intel Sandy Bridge-EP server processor

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, S; Leduc, J; Nowak, A; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on a set of benchmark results recently obtained by CERN openlab when comparing an 8-core “Sandy Bridge-EP” processor with Intel’s previous microarchitecture, the “Westmere-EP”. The Intel marketing names for these processors are “Xeon E5-2600 processor series” and “Xeon 5600 processor series”, respectively. Both processors are produced in a 32nm process, and both platforms are dual-socket servers. Multiple benchmarks were used to get a good understanding of the performance of the new processor. We used both industry-standard benchmarks, such as SPEC2006, and specific High Energy Physics benchmarks, representing both simulation of physics detectors and data analysis of physics events. Before summarizing the results we must stress the fact that benchmarking of modern processors is a very complex affair. One has to control (at least) the following features: processor frequency, overclocking via Turbo mode, the number of physical cores in use, the use of logical cores ...

  16. Evaluation of the Intel Nehalem-EX server processor

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, S; Leduc, J; Nowak, A; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on a set of benchmark results recently obtained by the CERN openlab by comparing the 4-socket, 32-core Intel Xeon X7560 server with the previous generation 4-socket server, based on the Xeon X7460 processor. The Xeon X7560 processor represents a major change in many respects, especially the memory sub-system, so it was important to make multiple comparisons. In most benchmarks the two 4-socket servers were compared. It should be underlined that both servers represent the “top of the line” in terms of frequency. However, in some cases, it was important to compare systems that integrated the latest processor features, such as QPI links, Symmetric multithreading and over-clocking via Turbo mode, and in such situations the X7560 server was compared to a dual socket L5520 based system with an identical frequency of 2.26 GHz. Before summarizing the results we must stress the fact that benchmarking of modern processors is a very complex affair. One has to control (at least) the following ...

  17. Performance Characterization of Multi-threaded Graph Processing Applications on Intel Many-Integrated-Core Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xu; Chen, Langshi; Firoz, Jesun S.; Qiu, Judy; Jiang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Intel Xeon Phi many-integrated-core (MIC) architectures usher in a new era of terascale integration. Among emerging killer applications, parallel graph processing has been a critical technique to analyze connected data. In this paper, we empirically evaluate various computing platforms including an Intel Xeon E5 CPU, a Nvidia Geforce GTX1070 GPU and an Xeon Phi 7210 processor codenamed Knights Landing (KNL) in the domain of parallel graph processing. We show that the KNL gains encouraging per...

  18. Adaptation of MPDATA Heterogeneous Stencil Computation to Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Szustak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The multidimensional positive definite advection transport algorithm (MPDATA belongs to the group of nonoscillatory forward-in-time algorithms and performs a sequence of stencil computations. MPDATA is one of the major parts of the dynamic core of the EULAG geophysical model. In this work, we outline an approach to adaptation of the 3D MPDATA algorithm to the Intel MIC architecture. In order to utilize available computing resources, we propose the (3 + 1D decomposition of MPDATA heterogeneous stencil computations. This approach is based on combination of the loop tiling and fusion techniques. It allows us to ease memory/communication bounds and better exploit the theoretical floating point efficiency of target computing platforms. An important method of improving the efficiency of the (3 + 1D decomposition is partitioning of available cores/threads into work teams. It permits for reducing inter-cache communication overheads. This method also increases opportunities for the efficient distribution of MPDATA computation onto available resources of the Intel MIC architecture, as well as Intel CPUs. We discuss preliminary performance results obtained on two hybrid platforms, containing two CPUs and Intel Xeon Phi. The top-of-the-line Intel Xeon Phi 7120P gives the best performance results, and executes MPDATA almost 2 times faster than two Intel Xeon E5-2697v2 CPUs.

  19. OpenMP-accelerated SWAT simulation using Intel C and FORTRAN compilers: Development and benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Seo Jin; Sugimura, Tak; Kim, Albert S.

    2015-02-01

    We developed a practical method to accelerate execution of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using open (free) computational resources. The SWAT source code (rev 622) was recompiled using a non-commercial Intel FORTRAN compiler in Ubuntu 12.04 LTS Linux platform, and newly named iOMP-SWAT in this study. GNU utilities of make, gprof, and diff were used to develop the iOMP-SWAT package, profile memory usage, and check identicalness of parallel and serial simulations. Among 302 SWAT subroutines, the slowest routines were identified using GNU gprof, and later modified using Open Multiple Processing (OpenMP) library in an 8-core shared memory system. In addition, a C wrapping function was used to rapidly set large arrays to zero by cross compiling with the original SWAT FORTRAN package. A universal speedup ratio of 2.3 was achieved using input data sets of a large number of hydrological response units. As we specifically focus on acceleration of a single SWAT run, the use of iOMP-SWAT for parameter calibrations will significantly improve the performance of SWAT optimization.

  20. A comparison of SuperLU solvers on the intel MIC architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Mehmet; Duran, Ahmet; Celebi, M. Serdar; Akaydin, Bora; Topkaya, Figen O.

    2016-10-01

    In many science and engineering applications, problems may result in solving a sparse linear system AX=B. For example, SuperLU_MCDT, a linear solver, was used for the large penta-diagonal matrices for 2D problems and hepta-diagonal matrices for 3D problems, coming from the incompressible blood flow simulation (see [1]). It is important to test the status and potential improvements of state-of-the-art solvers on new technologies. In this work, sequential, multithreaded and distributed versions of SuperLU solvers (see [2]) are examined on the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors using offload programming model at the EURORA cluster of CINECA in Italy. We consider a portfolio of test matrices containing patterned matrices from UFMM ([3]) and randomly located matrices. This architecture can benefit from high parallelism and large vectors. We find that the sequential SuperLU benefited up to 45 % performance improvement from the offload programming depending on the sparse matrix type and the size of transferred and processed data.

  1. An efficient MPI/OpenMP parallelization of the Hartree–Fock–Roothaan method for the first generation of Intel® Xeon Phi™ processor architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, Vladimir; Moskovsky, Alexander; D’Mello, Michael; Alexeev, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    The Hartree-Fock (HF) method in the quantum chemistry package GAMESS represents one of the most irregular algorithms in computation today. Major steps in the calculation are the irregular computation of electron repulsion integrals (ERIs) and the building of the Fock matrix. These are the central components of the main Self Consistent Field (SCF) loop, the key hotspot in Electronic Structure (ES) codes. By threading the MPI ranks in the official release of the GAMESS code, we not only speed up the main SCF loop (4x to 6x for large systems), but also achieve a significant (>2x) reduction in the overall memory footprint. These improvements are a direct consequence of memory access optimizations within the MPI ranks. We benchmark our implementation against the official release of the GAMESS code on the Intel R Xeon PhiTM supercomputer. Here, scaling numbers are reported on up to 7,680 cores on Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors.

  2. Time-efficient simulations of tight-binding electronic structures with Intel Xeon PhiTM many-core processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hoon; Jeong, Yosang; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Cho, Kyu Nam

    2016-12-01

    Modelling of multi-million atomic semiconductor structures is important as it not only predicts properties of physically realizable novel materials, but can accelerate advanced device designs. This work elaborates a new Technology-Computer-Aided-Design (TCAD) tool for nanoelectronics modelling, which uses a sp3d5s∗ tight-binding approach to describe multi-million atomic structures, and simulate electronic structures with high performance computing (HPC), including atomic effects such as alloy and dopant disorders. Being named as Quantum simulation tool for Advanced Nanoscale Devices (Q-AND), the tool shows nice scalability on traditional multi-core HPC clusters implying the strong capability of large-scale electronic structure simulations, particularly with remarkable performance enhancement on latest clusters of Intel Xeon PhiTM coprocessors. A review of the recent modelling study conducted to understand an experimental work of highly phosphorus-doped silicon nanowires, is presented to demonstrate the utility of Q-AND. Having been developed via Intel Parallel Computing Center project, Q-AND will be open to public to establish a sound framework of nanoelectronics modelling with advanced HPC clusters of a many-core base. With details of the development methodology and exemplary study of dopant electronics, this work will present a practical guideline for TCAD development to researchers in the field of computational nanoelectronics.

  3. Optimizing meridional advection of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) dynamics for Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.-L.

    2015-05-01

    The most widely used community weather forecast and research model in the world is the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Two distinct varieties of WRF exist. The one we are interested is the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) is an experimental, advanced research version featuring very high resolution. The WRF Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (WRF-NMM) has been designed for forecasting operations. WRF consists of dynamics code and several physics modules. The WRF-ARW core is based on an Eulerian solver for the fully compressible nonhydrostatic equations. In the paper, we optimize a meridional (north-south direction) advection subroutine for Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. Advection is of the most time consuming routines in the ARW dynamics core. It advances the explicit perturbation horizontal momentum equations by adding in the large-timestep tendency along with the small timestep pressure gradient tendency. We will describe the challenges we met during the development of a high-speed dynamics code subroutine for MIC architecture. Furthermore, lessons learned from the code optimization process will be discussed. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 1.2x.

  4. Software and DVFS Tuning for Performance and Energy-Efficiency on Intel KNL Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Calore

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption of processors and memories is quickly becoming a limiting factor in the deployment of large computing systems. For this reason, it is important to understand the energy performance of these processors and to study strategies allowing their use in the most efficient way. In this work, we focus on the computing and energy performance of the Knights Landing Xeon Phi, the latest Intel many-core architecture processor for HPC applications. We consider the 64-core Xeon Phi 7230 and profile its performance and energy efficiency using both its on-chip MCDRAM and the off-chip DDR4 memory as the main storage for application data. As a benchmark application, we use a lattice Boltzmann code heavily optimized for this architecture and implemented using several different arrangements of the application data in memory (data-layouts, in short. We also assess the dependence of energy consumption on data-layouts, memory configurations (DDR4 or MCDRAM and the number of threads per core. We finally consider possible trade-offs between computing performance and energy efficiency, tuning the clock frequency of the processor using the Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS technique.

  5. Parallel spatial direct numerical simulations on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Zubair, Mohammad

    1993-01-01

    The implementation and performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) approach on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube is documented. The direct numerical simulation approach is used to compute spatially evolving disturbances associated with the laminar-to-turbulent transition in boundary-layer flows. The feasibility of using the PSDNS on the hypercube to perform transition studies is examined. The results indicate that the direct numerical simulation approach can effectively be parallelized on a distributed-memory parallel machine. By increasing the number of processors nearly ideal linear speedups are achieved with nonoptimized routines; slower than linear speedups are achieved with optimized (machine dependent library) routines. This slower than linear speedup results because the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) routine dominates the computational cost and because the routine indicates less than ideal speedups. However with the machine-dependent routines the total computational cost decreases by a factor of 4 to 5 compared with standard FORTRAN routines. The computational cost increases linearly with spanwise wall-normal and streamwise grid refinements. The hypercube with 32 processors was estimated to require approximately twice the amount of Cray supercomputer single processor time to complete a comparable simulation; however it is estimated that a subgrid-scale model which reduces the required number of grid points and becomes a large-eddy simulation (PSLES) would reduce the computational cost and memory requirements by a factor of 10 over the PSDNS. This PSLES implementation would enable transition simulations on the hypercube at a reasonable computational cost.

  6. Deployment of the OSIRIS EM-PIC code on the Intel Knights Landing architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ricardo

    2017-10-01

    Electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) codes such as OSIRIS have found widespread use in modelling the highly nonlinear and kinetic processes that occur in several relevant plasma physics scenarios, ranging from astrophysical settings to high-intensity laser plasma interaction. Being computationally intensive, these codes require large scale HPC systems, and a continuous effort in adapting the algorithm to new hardware and computing paradigms. In this work, we report on our efforts on deploying the OSIRIS code on the new Intel Knights Landing (KNL) architecture. Unlike the previous generation (Knights Corner), these boards are standalone systems, and introduce several new features, include the new AVX-512 instructions and on-package MCDRAM. We will focus on the parallelization and vectorization strategies followed, as well as memory management, and present a detailed performance evaluation of code performance in comparison with the CPU code. This work was partially supported by Fundaçã para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal, through Grant No. PTDC/FIS-PLA/2940/2014.

  7. Multi-Kepler GPU vs. multi-Intel MIC for spin systems simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaschi, M.; Bisson, M.; Salvadore, F.

    2014-10-01

    We present and compare the performances of two many-core architectures: the Nvidia Kepler and the Intel MIC both in a single system and in cluster configuration for the simulation of spin systems. As a benchmark we consider the time required to update a single spin of the 3D Heisenberg spin glass model by using the Over-relaxation algorithm. We present data also for a traditional high-end multi-core architecture: the Intel Sandy Bridge. The results show that although on the two Intel architectures it is possible to use basically the same code, the performances of a Intel MIC change dramatically depending on (apparently) minor details. Another issue is that to obtain a reasonable scalability with the Intel Phi coprocessor (Phi is the coprocessor that implements the MIC architecture) in a cluster configuration it is necessary to use the so-called offload mode which reduces the performances of the single system. As to the GPU, the Kepler architecture offers a clear advantage with respect to the previous Fermi architecture maintaining exactly the same source code. Scalability of the multi-GPU implementation remains very good by using the CPU as a communication co-processor of the GPU. All source codes are provided for inspection and for double-checking the results.

  8. Reflective memory recorder upgrade: an opportunity to benchmark PowerPC and Intel architectures for real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuter, Roberto; Tischer, Helmut; Frahm, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Several high frequency loops are required to run the VLTI (Very Large Telescope Interferometer) 2, e.g. for fringe tracking11, 5, angle tracking, vibration cancellation, data capture. All these loops rely on low latency real time computers based on the VME bus, Motorola PowerPC14 hardware architecture. In this context, one highly demanding application in terms of cycle time, latency and data transfer volume is the VLTI centralized recording facility, so called, RMN recorder1 (Reflective Memory Recorder). This application captures and transfers data flowing through the distributed memory of the system in real time. Some of the VLTI data producers are running with frequencies up to 8 KHz. With the evolution from first generation instruments like MIDI3, PRIMA5, and AMBER4 which use one or two baselines, to second generation instruments like MATISSE10 and GRAVITY9 which will use all six baselines simultaneously, the quantity of signals has increased by, at least, a factor of six. This has led to a significant overload of the RMN recorder1 which has reached the natural limits imposed by the underlying hardware. At the same time, new, more powerful computers, based on the Intel multicore families of CPUs and PCI buses have become available. With the purpose of improving the performance of the RMN recorder1 application and in order to make it capable of coping with the demands of the new generation instruments, a slightly modified implementation has been developed and integrated into an Intel based multicore computer15 running the VxWorks17 real time operating system. The core of the application is based on the standard VLT software framework for instruments13. The real time task reads from the reflective memory using the onboard DMA access12 and captured data is transferred to the outside world via a TCP socket on a dedicated Ethernet connection. The diversity of the software and hardware that are involved makes this application suitable as a benchmarking platform. A

  9. High-performance computing on the Intel Xeon Phi how to fully exploit MIC architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Endong; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Guangyong; Lu, Xiaowei; Wu, Qing; Wang, Yajuan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this book is to explain to high-performance computing (HPC) developers how to utilize the Intel® Xeon Phi™ series products efficiently. To that end, it introduces some computing grammar, programming technology and optimization methods for using many-integrated-core (MIC) platforms and also offers tips and tricks for actual use, based on the authors' first-hand optimization experience.The material is organized in three sections. The first section, "Basics of MIC", introduces the fundamentals of MIC architecture and programming, including the specific Intel MIC programming environment

  10. Evaluating the transport layer of the ALFA framework for the Intel® Xeon Phi™ Coprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santogidis, Aram; Hirstius, Andreas; Lalis, Spyros

    2015-12-01

    The ALFA framework supports the software development of major High Energy Physics experiments. As part of our research effort to optimize the transport layer of ALFA, we focus on profiling its data transfer performance for inter-node communication on the Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessor. In this article we present the collected performance measurements with the related analysis of the results. The optimization opportunities that are discovered, help us to formulate the future plans of enabling high performance data transfer for ALFA on the Intel Xeon Phi architecture.

  11. Implementation of High-Order Multireference Coupled-Cluster Methods on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprà, E; Kowalski, K

    2016-03-08

    In this paper we discuss the implementation of multireference coupled-cluster formalism with singles, doubles, and noniterative triples (MRCCSD(T)), which is capable of taking advantage of the processing power of the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. We discuss the integration of two levels of parallelism underlying the MRCCSD(T) implementation with computational kernels designed to offload the computationally intensive parts of the MRCCSD(T) formalism to Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. Special attention is given to the enhancement of the parallel performance by task reordering that has improved load balancing in the noniterative part of the MRCCSD(T) calculations. We also discuss aspects regarding efficient optimization and vectorization strategies.

  12. Towards Porting a Real-World Seismological Application to the Intel MIC Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    V. Weinberg

    2014-01-01

    This whitepaper aims to discuss first experiences with porting an MPI-based real-world geophysical application to the new Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture. The selected code SeisSol is an application written in Fortran that can be used to simulate earthquake rupture and radiating seismic wave propagation in complex 3-D heterogeneous materials. The PRACE prototype cluster EURORA at CINECA, Italy, was accessed to analyse the MPI-performance of SeisSol on Intel Xeon Phi on both sing...

  13. Evaluating the networking characteristics of the Cray XC-40 Intel Knights Landing-based Cori supercomputer at NERSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerfler, Douglas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Austin, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cook, Brandon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deslippe, Jack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kandalla, Krishna [Cray Inc, Bloomington, MN (United States); Mendygral, Peter [Cray Inc, Bloomington, MN (United States)

    2017-09-12

    There are many potential issues associated with deploying the Intel Xeon Phi™ (code named Knights Landing [KNL]) manycore processor in a large-scale supercomputer. One in particular is the ability to fully utilize the high-speed communications network, given that the serial performance of a Xeon Phi TM core is a fraction of a Xeon®core. In this paper, we take a look at the trade-offs associated with allocating enough cores to fully utilize the Aries high-speed network versus cores dedicated to computation, e.g., the trade-off between MPI and OpenMP. In addition, we evaluate new features of Cray MPI in support of KNL, such as internode optimizations. We also evaluate one-sided programming models such as Unified Parallel C. We quantify the impact of the above trade-offs and features using a suite of National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center applications.

  14. Thread-level parallelization and optimization of NWChem for the Intel MIC architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Hongzhang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); de Jong, Wibe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the multicore era it was possible to exploit the increase in on-chip parallelism by simply running multiple MPI processes per chip. Unfortunately, manycore processors' greatly increased thread- and data-level parallelism coupled with a reduced memory capacity demand an altogether different approach. In this paper we explore augmenting two NWChem modules, triples correction of the CCSD(T) and Fock matrix construction, with OpenMP in order that they might run efficiently on future manycore architectures. As the next NERSC machine will be a self-hosted Intel MIC (Xeon Phi) based supercomputer, we leverage an existing MIC testbed at NERSC to evaluate our experiments. In order to proxy the fact that future MIC machines will not have a host processor, we run all of our experiments in native mode. We found that while straightforward application of OpenMP to the deep loop nests associated with the tensor contractions of CCSD(T) was sufficient in attaining high performance, significant e ort was required to safely and efeciently thread the TEXAS integral package when constructing the Fock matrix. Ultimately, our new MPI+OpenMP hybrid implementations attain up to 65× better performance for the triples part of the CCSD(T) due in large part to the fact that the limited on-card memory limits the existing MPI implementation to a single process per card. Additionally, we obtain up to 1.6× better performance on Fock matrix constructions when compared with the best MPI implementations running multiple processes per card.

  15. Thread-Level Parallelization and Optimization of NWChem for the Intel MIC Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Hongzhang; Williams, Samuel; Jong, Wibe de; Oliker, Leonid

    2014-10-10

    In the multicore era it was possible to exploit the increase in on-chip parallelism by simply running multiple MPI processes per chip. Unfortunately, manycore processors' greatly increased thread- and data-level parallelism coupled with a reduced memory capacity demand an altogether different approach. In this paper we explore augmenting two NWChem modules, triples correction of the CCSD(T) and Fock matrix construction, with OpenMP in order that they might run efficiently on future manycore architectures. As the next NERSC machine will be a self-hosted Intel MIC (Xeon Phi) based supercomputer, we leverage an existing MIC testbed at NERSC to evaluate our experiments. In order to proxy the fact that future MIC machines will not have a host processor, we run all of our experiments in tt native mode. We found that while straightforward application of OpenMP to the deep loop nests associated with the tensor contractions of CCSD(T) was sufficient in attaining high performance, significant effort was required to safely and efficiently thread the TEXAS integral package when constructing the Fock matrix. Ultimately, our new MPI OpenMP hybrid implementations attain up to 65x better performance for the triples part of the CCSD(T) due in large part to the fact that the limited on-card memory limits the existing MPI implementation to a single process per card. Additionally, we obtain up to 1.6x better performance on Fock matrix constructions when compared with the best MPI implementations running multiple processes per card.

  16. Accelerating the Pace of Protein Functional Annotation With Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Wei P; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark; Brylinski, Michal

    2015-06-01

    Intel Xeon Phi is a new addition to the family of powerful parallel accelerators. The range of its potential applications in computationally driven research is broad; however, at present, the repository of scientific codes is still relatively limited. In this study, we describe the development and benchmarking of a parallel version of eFindSite, a structural bioinformatics algorithm for the prediction of ligand-binding sites in proteins. Implemented for the Intel Xeon Phi platform, the parallelization of the structure alignment portion of eFindSite using pragma-based OpenMP brings about the desired performance improvements, which scale well with the number of computing cores. Compared to a serial version, the parallel code runs 11.8 and 10.1 times faster on the CPU and the coprocessor, respectively; when both resources are utilized simultaneously, the speedup is 17.6. For example, ligand-binding predictions for 501 benchmarking proteins are completed in 2.1 hours on a single Stampede node equipped with the Intel Xeon Phi card compared to 3.1 hours without the accelerator and 36.8 hours required by a serial version. In addition to the satisfactory parallel performance, porting existing scientific codes to the Intel Xeon Phi architecture is relatively straightforward with a short development time due to the support of common parallel programming models by the coprocessor. The parallel version of eFindSite is freely available to the academic community at www.brylinski.org/efindsite.

  17. Game-Based Experiential Learning in Online Management Information Systems Classes Using Intel's IT Manager 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliemel, Michael; Ali-Hassan, Hossam

    2014-01-01

    For several years, we used Intel's flash-based game "IT Manager 3: Unseen Forces" as an experiential learning tool, where students had to act as a manager making real-time prioritization decisions about repairing computer problems, training and upgrading systems with better technologies as well as managing increasing numbers of technical…

  18. Newsgroups, Activist Publics, and Corporate Apologia: The Case of Intel and Its Pentium Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearit, Keith Michael

    1999-01-01

    Applies J. Grunig's theory of publics to the phenomenon of Internet newsgroups using the case of the flawed Intel Pentium chip. Argues that technology facilitates the rapid movement of publics from the theoretical construct stage to the active stage. Illustrates some of the difficulties companies face in establishing their identity in cyberspace.…

  19. Why K-12 IT Managers and Administrators Are Embracing the Intel-Based Mac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Over the past year, Apple has dramatically increased its share of the school computer marketplace--especially in the category of notebook computers. A recent study conducted by Grunwald Associates and Rockman et al. reports that one of the major reasons for this growth is Apple's introduction of the Intel processor to the entire line of Mac…

  20. Performance tuning Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on Intel Xeon Phi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2015-10-01

    Next-generation mesoscale numerical weather prediction system, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, is a designed for dual use for forecasting and research. WRF offers multiple physics options that can be combined in any way. One of the physics options is radiance computation. The major source for energy for the earth's climate is solar radiation. Thus, it is imperative to accurately model horizontal and vertical distribution of the heating. Goddard solar radiative transfer model includes the absorption duo to water vapor,ozone, ozygen, carbon dioxide, clouds and aerosols. The model computes the interactions among the absorption and scattering by clouds, aerosols, molecules and surface. Finally, fluxes are integrated over the entire longwave spectrum.In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The coprocessor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is familiar one to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of MICs will require using some novel optimization techniques. Those optimization techniques are discusses in this paper. The optimizations improved the performance of the original Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 2.2x. Furthermore, the same optimizations improved the performance of the Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on a dual socket configuration of eight core Intel Xeon E5-2670 CPUs by a factor of 2.1x compared to the original Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme code.

  1. Investigating the Use of the Intel Xeon Phi for Event Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Keegan; Gilfoyle, Gerard

    2014-09-01

    The physics goal of Jefferson Lab is to understand how quarks and gluons form nuclei and it is being upgraded to a higher, 12-GeV beam energy. The new CLAS12 detector in Hall B will collect 5-10 terabytes of data per day and will require considerable computing resources. We are investigating tools, such as the Intel Xeon Phi, to speed up the event reconstruction. The Kalman Filter is one of the methods being studied. It is a linear algebra algorithm that estimates the state of a system by combining existing data and predictions of those measurements. The tools required to apply this technique (i.e. matrix multiplication, matrix inversion) are being written using C++ intrinsics for Intel's Xeon Phi Coprocessor, which uses the Many Integrated Cores (MIC) architecture. The Intel MIC is a new high-performance chip that connects to a host machine through the PCIe bus and is built to run highly vectorized and parallelized code making it a well-suited device for applications such as the Kalman Filter. Our tests of the MIC optimized algorithms needed for the filter show significant increases in speed. For example, matrix multiplication of 5x5 matrices on the MIC was able to run up to 69 times faster than the host core. The physics goal of Jefferson Lab is to understand how quarks and gluons form nuclei and it is being upgraded to a higher, 12-GeV beam energy. The new CLAS12 detector in Hall B will collect 5-10 terabytes of data per day and will require considerable computing resources. We are investigating tools, such as the Intel Xeon Phi, to speed up the event reconstruction. The Kalman Filter is one of the methods being studied. It is a linear algebra algorithm that estimates the state of a system by combining existing data and predictions of those measurements. The tools required to apply this technique (i.e. matrix multiplication, matrix inversion) are being written using C++ intrinsics for Intel's Xeon Phi Coprocessor, which uses the Many Integrated Cores (MIC

  2. Benchmarking Data Analysis and Machine Learning Applications on the Intel KNL Many-Core Processor

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Chansup; Kepner, Jeremy; Arcand, William; Bestor, David; Bergeron, Bill; Gadepally, Vijay; Houle, Michael; Hubbell, Matthew; Jones, Michael; Klein, Anna; Michaleas, Peter; Milechin, Lauren; Mullen, Julie; Prout, Andrew; Rosa, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Knights Landing (KNL) is the code name for the second-generation Intel Xeon Phi product family. KNL has generated significant interest in the data analysis and machine learning communities because its new many-core architecture targets both of these workloads. The KNL many-core vector processor design enables it to exploit much higher levels of parallelism. At the Lincoln Laboratory Supercomputing Center (LLSC), the majority of users are running data analysis applications such as MATLAB and O...

  3. Accelerating the Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (GNAQPMS) model on Intel Xeon Phi processors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Huansheng; Wu, Qizhong; Lin, Junming; Chen, Xueshun; Xie, Xinwei; Wang, Rongrong; Tang, Xiao; Wang, Zifa

    2017-01-01

    The GNAQPMS model is the global version of the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modelling System (NAQPMS), which is a multi-scale chemical transport model used for air quality forecast and atmospheric environmental research. In this study, we present our work of porting and optimizing the GNAQPMS model on the second generation Intel Xeon Phi processor codename “Knights Landing” (KNL). Compared with the first generation Xeon Phi coprocessor, KNL introduced many new hardware features such as a boo...

  4. Applying the roofline performance model to the intel xeon phi knights landing processor

    OpenAIRE

    Doerfler, D; Deslippe, J; Williams, S; Oliker, L; Cook, B; Kurth, T; Lobet, M; Malas, T; Vay, JL; Vincenti, H

    2016-01-01

    � Springer International Publishing AG 2016. The Roofline Performance Model is a visually intuitive method used to bound the sustained peak floating-point performance of any given arithmetic kernel on any given processor architecture. In the Roofline, performance is nominally measured in floating-point operations per second as a function of arithmetic intensity (operations per byte of data). In this study we determine the Roofline for the Intel Knights Landing (KNL) processor, determining t...

  5. Efficient irregular wavefront propagation algorithms on Intel® Xeon Phi™

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Jeremias M.; Teodoro, George; de Melo, Alba; Kong, Jun; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel H.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the execution of the Irregular Wavefront Propagation Pattern (IWPP), a fundamental computing structure used in several image analysis operations, on the Intel® Xeon Phi™ co-processor. An efficient implementation of IWPP on the Xeon Phi is a challenging problem because of IWPP’s irregularity and the use of atomic instructions in the original IWPP algorithm to resolve race conditions. On the Xeon Phi, the use of SIMD and vectorization instructions is critical to attain high perfo...

  6. Performance Engineering for a Medical Imaging Application on the Intel Xeon Phi Accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Johannes; Treibig, Jan; Hager, Georg; Wellein, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    We examine the Xeon Phi, which is based on Intel's Many Integrated Cores architecture, for its suitability to run the FDK algorithm--the most commonly used algorithm to perform the 3D image reconstruction in cone-beam computed tomography. We study the challenges of efficiently parallelizing the application and means to enable sensible data sharing between threads despite the lack of a shared last level cache. Apart from parallelization, SIMD vectorization is critical for good performance on t...

  7. DBPQL: A view-oriented query language for the Intel Data Base Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    An interactive query language (BDPQL) for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. DBPQL includes a parser generator package which permits the analyst to easily create and manipulate the query statement syntax and semantics. The prototype language, DBPQL, includes trace and performance commands to aid the analyst when implementing new commands and analyzing the execution characteristics of the DBP. The DBPQL grammar file and associated key procedures are included as an appendix to this report.

  8. Autonomous controller (JCAM 10) for CAMAC crate with 8080 (INTEL) microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallice, P.; Mathis, M.

    1975-01-01

    The CAMAC crate autonomous controller JCAM-10 is designed around an INTEL 8080 microprocessor in association with a 5K RAM and 4K REPROM memory. The concept of the module is described, in which data transfers between CAMAC modules and the memory are optimised from software point of view as well as from execution time. In fact, the JCAM-10 is a microcomputer with a set of 1000 peripheral units represented by the CAMAC modules commercially available

  9. Acceleration of Blender Cycles Path-Tracing Engine Using Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroš , Milan; Říha , Lubomír; Strakoš , Petr; Karásek , Tomáš; Vašatová , Alena; Jarošová , Marta; Kozubek , Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Part 2: Algorithms; International audience; This paper describes the acceleration of the most computationally intensive kernels of the Blender rendering engine, Blender Cycles, using Intel Many Integrated Core architecture (MIC). The proposed parallelization, which uses OpenMP technology, also improves the performance of the rendering engine when running on multi-core CPUs and multi-socket servers. Although the GPU acceleration is already implemented in Cycles, its functionality is limited. O...

  10. Real-time data acquisition and feedback control using Linux Intel computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaflor, B.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Piglowski, D.A.; Johnson, R.D.; Walker, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of the DIII-D programming staff in adapting Linux based Intel computing hardware for use in real-time data acquisition and feedback control systems. Due to the highly dynamic and unstable nature of magnetically confined plasmas in tokamak fusion experiments, real-time data acquisition and feedback control systems are in routine use with all major tokamaks. At DIII-D, plasmas are created and sustained using a real-time application known as the digital plasma control system (PCS). During each experiment, the PCS periodically samples data from hundreds of diagnostic signals and provides these data to control algorithms implemented in software. These algorithms compute the necessary commands to send to various actuators that affect plasma performance. The PCS consists of a group of rack mounted Intel Xeon computer systems running an in-house customized version of the Linux operating system tailored specifically to meet the real-time performance needs of the plasma experiments. This paper provides a more detailed description of the real-time computing hardware and custom developed software, including recent work to utilize dual Intel Xeon equipped computers within the PCS

  11. Experience with Intel's many integrated core architecture in ATLAS software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, S; Neumann, M; Kama, S; Lavrijsen, W; Vitillo, R

    2014-01-01

    Intel recently released the first commercial boards of its Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architecture. MIC is Intel's solution for the domain of throughput computing, currently dominated by general purpose programming on graphics processors (GPGPU). MIC allows the use of the more familiar x86 programming model and supports standard technologies such as OpenMP, MPI, and Intel's Threading Building Blocks (TBB). This should make it possible to develop for both throughput and latency devices using a single code base. In ATLAS Software, track reconstruction has been shown to be a good candidate for throughput computing on GPGPU devices. In addition, the newly proposed offline parallel event-processing framework, GaudiHive, uses TBB for task scheduling. The MIC is thus, in principle, a good fit for this domain. In this paper, we report our experiences of porting to and optimizing ATLAS tracking algorithms for the MIC, comparing the programmability and relative cost/performance of the MIC against those of current GPGPUs and latency-optimized CPUs.

  12. Scaling Deep Learning Workloads: NVIDIA DGX-1/Pascal and Intel Knights Landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawande, Nitin A.; Landwehr, Joshua B.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2017-07-03

    Deep Learning (DL) algorithms have become ubiquitous in data analytics. As a result, major computing vendors --- including NVIDIA, Intel, AMD and IBM --- have architectural road-maps influenced by DL workloads. Furthermore, several vendors have recently advertised new computing products as accelerating DL workloads. Unfortunately, it is difficult for data scientists to quantify the potential of these different products. This paper provides a performance and power analysis of important DL workloads on two major parallel architectures: NVIDIA DGX-1 (eight Pascal P100 GPUs interconnected with NVLink) and Intel Knights Landing (KNL) CPUs interconnected with Intel Omni-Path. Our evaluation consists of a cross section of convolutional neural net workloads: CifarNet, CaffeNet, AlexNet and GoogleNet topologies using the Cifar10 and ImageNet datasets. The workloads are vendor optimized for each architecture. GPUs provide the highest overall raw performance. Our analysis indicates that although GPUs provide the highest overall performance, the gap can close for some convolutional networks; and KNL can be competitive when considering performance/watt. Furthermore, NVLink is critical to GPU scaling.

  13. ELT-scale Adaptive Optics real-time control with thes Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Core Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David R.; Basden, Alastair; Myers, Richard M.

    2018-05-01

    We propose a solution to the increased computational demands of Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) scale adaptive optics (AO) real-time control with the Intel Xeon Phi Knights Landing (KNL) Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architecture. The computational demands of an AO real-time controller (RTC) scale with the fourth power of telescope diameter and so the next generation ELTs require orders of magnitude more processing power for the RTC pipeline than existing systems. The Xeon Phi contains a large number (≥64) of low power x86 CPU cores and high bandwidth memory integrated into a single socketed server CPU package. The increased parallelism and memory bandwidth are crucial to providing the performance for reconstructing wavefronts with the required precision for ELT scale AO. Here, we demonstrate that the Xeon Phi KNL is capable of performing ELT scale single conjugate AO real-time control computation at over 1.0kHz with less than 20μs RMS jitter. We have also shown that with a wavefront sensor camera attached the KNL can process the real-time control loop at up to 966Hz, the maximum frame-rate of the camera, with jitter remaining below 20μs RMS. Future studies will involve exploring the use of a cluster of Xeon Phis for the real-time control of the MCAO and MOAO regimes of AO. We find that the Xeon Phi is highly suitable for ELT AO real time control.

  14. OpenMP GNU and Intel Fortran programs for solving the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-S., Luis E.; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Adhikari, Sadhan K.; Lončar, Vladimir; Vudragović, Dušan; Balaž, Antun

    2017-11-01

    reduce the execution time cannot be overemphasized. To address this issue, we provide here such OpenMP Fortran programs, optimized for both Intel and GNU Fortran compilers and capable of using all available CPU cores, which can significantly reduce the execution time. Summary of revisions: Previous Fortran programs [1] for solving the time-dependent GP equation in 1d, 2d, and 3d with different trap symmetries have been parallelized using the OpenMP interface to reduce the execution time on multi-core processors. There are six different trap symmetries considered, resulting in six programs for imaginary-time propagation and six for real-time propagation, totaling to 12 programs included in BEC-GP-OMP-FOR software package. All input data (number of atoms, scattering length, harmonic oscillator trap length, trap anisotropy, etc.) are conveniently placed at the beginning of each program, as before [2]. Present programs introduce a new input parameter, which is designated by Number_of_Threads and defines the number of CPU cores of the processor to be used in the calculation. If one sets the value 0 for this parameter, all available CPU cores will be used. For the most efficient calculation it is advisable to leave one CPU core unused for the background system's jobs. For example, on a machine with 20 CPU cores such that we used for testing, it is advisable to use up to 19 CPU cores. However, the total number of used CPU cores can be divided into more than one job. For instance, one can run three simulations simultaneously using 10, 4, and 5 CPU cores, respectively, thus totaling to 19 used CPU cores on a 20-core computer. The Fortran source programs are located in the directory src, and can be compiled by the make command using the makefile in the root directory BEC-GP-OMP-FOR of the software package. The examples of produced output files can be found in the directory output, although some large density files are omitted, to save space. The programs calculate the values of

  15. Evaluation of vectorization potential of Graph500 on Intel's Xeon Phi

    OpenAIRE

    Stanic, Milan; Palomar, Oscar; Ratkovic, Ivan; Duric, Milovan; Unsal, Osman; Cristal, Adrian; Valero, Mateo

    2014-01-01

    Graph500 is a data intensive application for high performance computing and it is an increasingly important workload because graphs are a core part of most analytic applications. So far there is no work that examines if Graph500 is suitable for vectorization mostly due a lack of vector memory instructions for irregular memory accesses. The Xeon Phi is a massively parallel processor recently released by Intel with new features such as a wide 512-bit vector unit and vector scatter/gather instru...

  16. Performance Analysis of an Astrophysical Simulation Code on the Intel Xeon Phi Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Noormofidi, Vahid; Atlas, Susan R.; Duan, Huaiyu

    2015-01-01

    We have developed the astrophysical simulation code XFLAT to study neutrino oscillations in supernovae. XFLAT is designed to utilize multiple levels of parallelism through MPI, OpenMP, and SIMD instructions (vectorization). It can run on both CPU and Xeon Phi co-processors based on the Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC). We analyze the performance of XFLAT on configurations with CPU only, Xeon Phi only and both CPU and Xeon Phi. We also investigate the impact of I/O and the multi-n...

  17. Optimizing the MapReduce Framework on Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessor

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Mian; Zhang, Lei; Huynh, Huynh Phung; Ong, Zhongliang; Liang, Yun; He, Bingsheng; Goh, Rick Siow Mong; Huynh, Richard

    2013-01-01

    With the ease-of-programming, flexibility and yet efficiency, MapReduce has become one of the most popular frameworks for building big-data applications. MapReduce was originally designed for distributed-computing, and has been extended to various architectures, e,g, multi-core CPUs, GPUs and FPGAs. In this work, we focus on optimizing the MapReduce framework on Xeon Phi, which is the latest product released by Intel based on the Many Integrated Core Architecture. To the best of our knowledge...

  18. Mashup d'aplicacions basat en un buscador intel·ligent

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho Piqueras, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Mashup de funcionalitats, basat en un cercador intel·ligent, en aquest cas pensat per a cursos, carreres màsters, etc. La finalitat és adjuntar diverses aplicacions amb l'únic propòsit que en aquest cas és un buscador però que també ens permet utilitzar eines per a la connectivitat mitjançant web Services, o xarxes socials. Mashup de funcionalidades, basado en un buscador inteligente, en este caso pensado para cursos, carreras másters, etc. La finalidad es juntar diversas aplicaciones con ...

  19. Profiling CPU-bound workloads on Intel Haswell-EP platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Guerri, Marco; Cristovao, Cordeiro; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of public and private cloud resources to support the demands in terms of computing capacity of the WLCG, the HEP community has begun studying several benchmarking applications aimed at continuously assessing the performance of virtual machines procured from commercial providers. In order to characterise the behaviour of these benchmarks, in-depth profiling activities have been carried out. In this document we outline our experience in profiling one specific application, the ATLAS Kit Validation, in an attempt to explain an unexpected distribution in the performance samples obtained on systems based on Intel Haswell-EP processors.

  20. Optimizing the updated Goddard shortwave radiation Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) scheme for Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.-L.

    2015-05-01

    Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) ushers in a new era of supercomputing speed, performance, and compatibility. It allows the developers to run code at trillions of calculations per second using the familiar programming model. In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the updated Goddard shortwave radiation Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The co-processor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is familiar one to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of Xeon Phi will require using some novel optimization techniques. Those optimization techniques are discusses in this paper. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 1.3x.

  1. Application of Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) accelerators to the Pleim-Xiu land surface scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Melin; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2015-10-01

    The land-surface model (LSM) is one physics process in the weather research and forecast (WRF) model. The LSM includes atmospheric information from the surface layer scheme, radiative forcing from the radiation scheme, and precipitation forcing from the microphysics and convective schemes, together with internal information on the land's state variables and land-surface properties. The LSM is to provide heat and moisture fluxes over land points and sea-ice points. The Pleim-Xiu (PX) scheme is one LSM. The PX LSM features three pathways for moisture fluxes: evapotranspiration, soil evaporation, and evaporation from wet canopies. To accelerate the computation process of this scheme, we employ Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architecture as it is a multiprocessor computer structure with merits of efficient parallelization and vectorization essentials. Our results show that the MIC-based optimization of this scheme running on Xeon Phi coprocessor 7120P improves the performance by 2.3x and 11.7x as compared to the original code respectively running on one CPU socket (eight cores) and on one CPU core with Intel Xeon E5-2670.

  2. Optimizing the Betts-Miller-Janjic cumulus parameterization with Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Melin; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.-L.

    2015-10-01

    The schemes of cumulus parameterization are responsible for the sub-grid-scale effects of convective and/or shallow clouds, and intended to represent vertical fluxes due to unresolved updrafts and downdrafts and compensating motion outside the clouds. Some schemes additionally provide cloud and precipitation field tendencies in the convective column, and momentum tendencies due to convective transport of momentum. The schemes all provide the convective component of surface rainfall. Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) is one scheme to fulfill such purposes in the weather research and forecast (WRF) model. National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) has tried to optimize the BMJ scheme for operational application. As there are no interactions among horizontal grid points, this scheme is very suitable for parallel computation. With the advantage of Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture, efficient parallelization and vectorization essentials, it allows us to optimize the BMJ scheme. If compared to the original code respectively running on one CPU socket (eight cores) and on one CPU core with Intel Xeon E5-2670, the MIC-based optimization of this scheme running on Xeon Phi coprocessor 7120P improves the performance by 2.4x and 17.0x, respectively.

  3. Transitioning to Intel-based Linux Servers in the Payload Operations Integration Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillebeau, P. L.

    2004-01-01

    The MSFC Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) is the focal point for International Space Station (ISS) payload operations. The POIC contains the facilities, hardware, software and communication interface necessary to support payload operations. ISS ground system support for processing and display of real-time spacecraft and telemetry and command data has been operational for several years. The hardware components were reaching end of life and vendor costs were increasing while ISS budgets were becoming severely constrained. Therefore it has been necessary to migrate the Unix portions of our ground systems to commodity priced Intel-based Linux servers. hardware architecture including networks, data storage, and highly available resources. This paper will concentrate on the Linux migration implementation for the software portion of our ground system. The migration began with 3.5 million lines of code running on Unix platforms with separate servers for telemetry, command, Payload information management systems, web, system control, remote server interface and databases. The Intel-based system is scheduled to be available for initial operational use by August 2004 The overall migration to Intel-based Linux servers in the control center involves changes to the This paper will address the Linux migration study approach including the proof of concept, criticality of customer buy-in and importance of beginning with POSlX compliant code. It will focus on the development approach explaining the software lifecycle. Other aspects of development will be covered including phased implementation, interim milestones and metrics measurements and reporting mechanisms. This paper will also address the testing approach covering all levels of testing including development, development integration, IV&V, user beta testing and acceptance testing. Test results including performance numbers compared with Unix servers will be included. need for a smooth transition while maintaining

  4. High-throughput sockets over RDMA for the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor

    CERN Document Server

    Santogidis, Aram

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design, implementation and performance of Trans4SCIF, a user-level socket-like transport library for the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. Trans4SCIF library is primarily intended for high-throughput applications. It uses RDMA transfers over the native SCIF support, in a way that is transparent for the application, which has the illusion of using conventional stream sockets. We also discuss the integration of Trans4SCIF with the ZeroMQ messaging library, used extensively by several applications running at CERN. We show that this can lead to a substantial, up to 3x, increase of application throughput compared to the default TCP/IP transport option.

  5. Heterogeneous High Throughput Scientific Computing with APM X-Gene and Intel Xeon Phi

    CERN Document Server

    Abdurachmanov, David; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Knight, Robert; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2014-01-01

    Electrical power requirements will be a constraint on the future growth of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) as used by High Energy Physics. Performance-per-watt is a critical metric for the evaluation of computer architectures for cost- efficient computing. Additionally, future performance growth will come from heterogeneous, many-core, and high computing density platforms with specialized processors. In this paper, we examine the Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Cores (MIC) co-processor and Applied Micro X-Gene ARMv8 64-bit low-power server system-on-a-chip (SoC) solutions for scientific computing applications. We report our experience on software porting, performance and energy efficiency and evaluate the potential for use of such technologies in the context of distributed computing systems such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG).

  6. Heterogeneous High Throughput Scientific Computing with APM X-Gene and Intel Xeon Phi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurachmanov, David; Bockelman, Brian; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Knight, Robert; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2015-05-01

    Electrical power requirements will be a constraint on the future growth of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) as used by High Energy Physics. Performance-per-watt is a critical metric for the evaluation of computer architectures for cost- efficient computing. Additionally, future performance growth will come from heterogeneous, many-core, and high computing density platforms with specialized processors. In this paper, we examine the Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Cores (MIC) co-processor and Applied Micro X-Gene ARMv8 64-bit low-power server system-on-a-chip (SoC) solutions for scientific computing applications. We report our experience on software porting, performance and energy efficiency and evaluate the potential for use of such technologies in the context of distributed computing systems such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG).

  7. Heterogeneous High Throughput Scientific Computing with APM X-Gene and Intel Xeon Phi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurachmanov, David; Bockelman, Brian; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Muzaffar, Shahzad; Knight, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Electrical power requirements will be a constraint on the future growth of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) as used by High Energy Physics. Performance-per-watt is a critical metric for the evaluation of computer architectures for cost- efficient computing. Additionally, future performance growth will come from heterogeneous, many-core, and high computing density platforms with specialized processors. In this paper, we examine the Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Cores (MIC) co-processor and Applied Micro X-Gene ARMv8 64-bit low-power server system-on-a-chip (SoC) solutions for scientific computing applications. We report our experience on software porting, performance and energy efficiency and evaluate the potential for use of such technologies in the context of distributed computing systems such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). (paper)

  8. Plasma turbulence calculations on the Intel iPSC/860 (rx) hypercube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, V.E.; Ruiter, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    One approach to improving the real-time efficiency of plasma turbulence calculations is to use a parallel algorithm. A serial algorithm used for plasma turbulence calculations was modified to allocate a radial region in each node. In this way, convolutions at a fixed radius are performed in parallel, and communication is limited to boundary values for each radial region. For a semi-implicity numerical scheme (tridiagonal matrix solver), there is a factor of 3 improvement in efficiency with the Intel iPSC/860 machine using 64 processors over a single-processor Cray-II. For block-tridiagonal matrix cases (fully implicit code), a second parallelization takes place. The Fourier components are distributed in nodes. In each node, the block-tridiagonal matrix is inverted for each of allocated Fourier components. The algorithm for this second case has not yet been optimized. 10 refs., 4 figs

  9. Performance Evaluation of Multithreaded Geant4 Simulations Using an Intel Xeon Phi Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schweitzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the performances of Intel Xeon Phi hardware accelerators for Geant4 simulations, especially for multithreaded applications. We present the complete methodology to guide users for the compilation of their Geant4 applications on Phi processors. Then, we propose series of benchmarks to compare the performance of Xeon CPUs and Phi processors for a Geant4 example dedicated to the simulation of electron dose point kernels, the TestEm12 example. First, we compare a distributed execution of a sequential version of the Geant4 example on both architectures before evaluating the multithreaded version of the Geant4 example. If Phi processors demonstrated their ability to accelerate computing time (till a factor 3.83 when distributing sequential Geant4 simulations, we do not reach the same level of speedup when considering the multithreaded version of the Geant4 example.

  10. Evaluation of the Intel iWarp parallel processor for space flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, Butler P., III; Fong, Terrence W.

    1993-01-01

    The potential of a DARPA-sponsored advanced processor, the Intel iWarp, for use in future SSF Data Management Systems (DMS) upgrades is evaluated through integration into the Ames DMS testbed and applications testing. The iWarp is a distributed, parallel computing system well suited for high performance computing applications such as matrix operations and image processing. The system architecture is modular, supports systolic and message-based computation, and is capable of providing massive computational power in a low-cost, low-power package. As a consequence, the iWarp offers significant potential for advanced space-based computing. This research seeks to determine the iWarp's suitability as a processing device for space missions. In particular, the project focuses on evaluating the ease of integrating the iWarp into the SSF DMS baseline architecture and the iWarp's ability to support computationally stressing applications representative of SSF tasks.

  11. Lattice QCD with Domain Decomposition on Intel Xeon Phi Co-Processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heybrock, Simon; Joo, Balint; Kalamkar, Dhiraj D; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Vaidyanathan, Karthikeyan; Wettig, Tilo; Dubey, Pradeep

    2014-12-01

    The gap between the cost of moving data and the cost of computing continues to grow, making it ever harder to design iterative solvers on extreme-scale architectures. This problem can be alleviated by alternative algorithms that reduce the amount of data movement. We investigate this in the context of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics and implement such an alternative solver algorithm, based on domain decomposition, on Intel Xeon Phi co-processor (KNC) clusters. We demonstrate close-to-linear on-chip scaling to all 60 cores of the KNC. With a mix of single- and half-precision the domain-decomposition method sustains 400-500 Gflop/s per chip. Compared to an optimized KNC implementation of a standard solver [1], our full multi-node domain-decomposition solver strong-scales to more nodes and reduces the time-to-solution by a factor of 5.

  12. Acceleration of Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration in complex heterogeneous media using Intel many-integrated core architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, Anton V; Kirillin, Mikhail Yu

    2015-08-01

    Over two decades, the Monte Carlo technique has become a gold standard in simulation of light propagation in turbid media, including biotissues. Technological solutions provide further advances of this technique. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is a new type of accelerator for highly parallel general purpose computing, which allows execution of a wide range of applications without substantial code modification. We present a technical approach of porting our previously developed Monte Carlo (MC) code for simulation of light transport in tissues to the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. We show that employing the accelerator allows reducing computational time of MC simulation and obtaining simulation speed-up comparable to GPU. We demonstrate the performance of the developed code for simulation of light transport in the human head and determination of the measurement volume in near-infrared spectroscopy brain sensing.

  13. Performance Evaluation of an Intel Haswell- and Ivy Bridge-Based Supercomputer Using Scientific and Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Subhash; Hood, Robert T.; Chang, Johnny; Baron, John

    2016-01-01

    We present a performance evaluation conducted on a production supercomputer of the Intel Xeon Processor E5- 2680v3, a twelve-core implementation of the fourth-generation Haswell architecture, and compare it with Intel Xeon Processor E5-2680v2, an Ivy Bridge implementation of the third-generation Sandy Bridge architecture. Several new architectural features have been incorporated in Haswell including improvements in all levels of the memory hierarchy as well as improvements to vector instructions and power management. We critically evaluate these new features of Haswell and compare with Ivy Bridge using several low-level benchmarks including subset of HPCC, HPCG and four full-scale scientific and engineering applications. We also present a model to predict the performance of HPCG and Cart3D within 5%, and Overflow within 10% accuracy.

  14. GNAQPMS v1.1: accelerating the Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (GNAQPMS) on Intel Xeon Phi processors

    OpenAIRE

    H. Wang; H. Wang; H. Wang; H. Wang; H. Chen; H. Chen; Q. Wu; Q. Wu; J. Lin; X. Chen; X. Xie; R. Wang; R. Wang; X. Tang; Z. Wang

    2017-01-01

    The Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (GNAQPMS) is the global version of the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS), which is a multi-scale chemical transport model used for air quality forecast and atmospheric environmental research. In this study, we present the porting and optimisation of GNAQPMS on a second-generation Intel Xeon Phi processor, codenamed Knights Landing (KNL). Compared with the first-generation Xeon Phi coprocessor (code...

  15. Student Intern Ben Freed Competes as Finalist in Intel STS Competition, Three Other Interns Named Semifinalists | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Werner H. Kirstin (WHK) student intern Ben Freed was one of 40 finalists to compete in the Intel Science Talent Search (STS) in Washington, DC, in March. “It was seven intense days of interacting with amazing judges and incredibly smart and interesting students. We met President Obama, and then the MIT astronomy lab named minor planets after each

  16. Evaluating the transport layer of the ALFA framework for the Intel(®) Xeon Phi(™) Coprocessor

    OpenAIRE

    Santogidis, Aram; Hirstius, Andreas; Lalis, Spyros

    2015-01-01

    The ALFA framework supports the software development of major High Energy Physics experiments. As part of our research effort to optimize the transport layer of ALFA, we focus on profiling its data transfer performance for inter-node communication on the Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessor. In this article we present the collected performance measurements with the related analysis of the results. The optimization opportunities that are discovered, help us to formulate the future plans of enabling high...

  17. Computationally efficient implementation of sarse-tap FIR adaptive filters with tap-position control on intel IA-32 processors

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Akihiro; Nakayama, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an computationally ef cient implementation of sparse-tap FIR adaptive lters with tapposition control on Intel IA-32 processors with single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) capability. In order to overcome randomorder memory access which prevents a ectorization, a blockbased processing and a re-ordering buffer are introduced. A dynamic register allocation and the use of memory-to-register operations help the maximization of the loop-unrolling level. Up to 66percent speedup ...

  18. Efficient irregular wavefront propagation algorithms on Intel® Xeon Phi™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Jeremias M; Teodoro, George; de Melo, Alba; Kong, Jun; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel H

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the execution of the Irregular Wavefront Propagation Pattern (IWPP), a fundamental computing structure used in several image analysis operations, on the Intel ® Xeon Phi ™ co-processor. An efficient implementation of IWPP on the Xeon Phi is a challenging problem because of IWPP's irregularity and the use of atomic instructions in the original IWPP algorithm to resolve race conditions. On the Xeon Phi, the use of SIMD and vectorization instructions is critical to attain high performance. However, SIMD atomic instructions are not supported. Therefore, we propose a new IWPP algorithm that can take advantage of the supported SIMD instruction set. We also evaluate an alternate storage container (priority queue) to track active elements in the wavefront in an effort to improve the parallel algorithm efficiency. The new IWPP algorithm is evaluated with Morphological Reconstruction and Imfill operations as use cases. Our results show performance improvements of up to 5.63 × on top of the original IWPP due to vectorization. Moreover, the new IWPP achieves speedups of 45.7 × and 1.62 × , respectively, as compared to efficient CPU and GPU implementations.

  19. Modeling high-temperature superconductors and metallic alloys on the Intel IPSC/860

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, G. A.; Peyton, B. W.; Shelton, W. A.; Stocks, G. M.

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has embarked on several computational Grand Challenges, which require the close cooperation of physicists, mathematicians, and computer scientists. One of these projects is the determination of the material properties of alloys from first principles and, in particular, the electronic structure of high-temperature superconductors. While the present focus of the project is on superconductivity, the approach is general enough to permit study of other properties of metallic alloys such as strength and magnetic properties. This paper describes the progress to date on this project. We include a description of a self-consistent KKR-CPA method, parallelization of the model, and the incorporation of a dynamic load balancing scheme into the algorithm. We also describe the development and performance of a consolidated KKR-CPA code capable of running on CRAYs, workstations, and several parallel computers without source code modification. Performance of this code on the Intel iPSC/860 is also compared to a CRAY 2, CRAY YMP, and several workstations. Finally, some density of state calculations of two perovskite superconductors are given.

  20. Efficient irregular wavefront propagation algorithms on Intel® Xeon Phi™

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Jeremias M.; Teodoro, George; de Melo, Alba; Kong, Jun; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the execution of the Irregular Wavefront Propagation Pattern (IWPP), a fundamental computing structure used in several image analysis operations, on the Intel® Xeon Phi™ co-processor. An efficient implementation of IWPP on the Xeon Phi is a challenging problem because of IWPP’s irregularity and the use of atomic instructions in the original IWPP algorithm to resolve race conditions. On the Xeon Phi, the use of SIMD and vectorization instructions is critical to attain high performance. However, SIMD atomic instructions are not supported. Therefore, we propose a new IWPP algorithm that can take advantage of the supported SIMD instruction set. We also evaluate an alternate storage container (priority queue) to track active elements in the wavefront in an effort to improve the parallel algorithm efficiency. The new IWPP algorithm is evaluated with Morphological Reconstruction and Imfill operations as use cases. Our results show performance improvements of up to 5.63× on top of the original IWPP due to vectorization. Moreover, the new IWPP achieves speedups of 45.7× and 1.62×, respectively, as compared to efficient CPU and GPU implementations. PMID:27298591

  1. Plasma Science and Applications at the Intel Science Fair: A Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Lee

    2009-11-01

    For the past five years, the Coalition for Plasma Science (CPS) has presented an award for a plasma project at the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF). Eligible projects have ranged from grape-based plasma production in a microwave oven to observation of the effects of viscosity in a fluid model of quark-gluon plasma. Most projects have been aimed at applications, including fusion, thrusters, lighting, materials processing, and GPS improvements. However diagnostics (spectroscopy), technology (magnets), and theory (quark-gluon plasmas) have also been represented. All of the CPS award-winning projects so far have been based on experiments, with two awards going to women students and three to men. Since the award was initiated, both the number and quality of plasma projects has increased. The CPS expects this trend to continue, and looks forward to continuing its work with students who are excited about the possibilities of plasma. You too can share this excitement by judging at the 2010 fair in San Jose on May 11-12.

  2. Implementation of 5-layer thermal diffusion scheme in weather research and forecasting model with Intel Many Integrated Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Melin; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    For weather forecasting and research, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been developed, consisting of several components such as dynamic solvers and physical simulation modules. WRF includes several Land- Surface Models (LSMs). The LSMs use atmospheric information, the radiative and precipitation forcing from the surface layer scheme, the radiation scheme, and the microphysics/convective scheme all together with the land's state variables and land-surface properties, to provide heat and moisture fluxes over land and sea-ice points. The WRF 5-layer thermal diffusion simulation is an LSM based on the MM5 5-layer soil temperature model with an energy budget that includes radiation, sensible, and latent heat flux. The WRF LSMs are very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. The features, efficient parallelization and vectorization essentials, of Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture allow us to optimize this WRF 5-layer thermal diffusion scheme. In this work, we present the results of the computing performance on this scheme with Intel MIC architecture. Our results show that the MIC-based optimization improved the performance of the first version of multi-threaded code on Xeon Phi 5110P by a factor of 2.1x. Accordingly, the same CPU-based optimizations improved the performance on Intel Xeon E5- 2603 by a factor of 1.6x as compared to the first version of multi-threaded code.

  3. Evaluation of the Intel Xeon Phi 7120 and NVIDIA K80 as accelerators for two-dimensional panel codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einkemmer, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    To optimize the geometry of airfoils for a specific application is an important engineering problem. In this context genetic algorithms have enjoyed some success as they are able to explore the search space without getting stuck in local optima. However, these algorithms require the computation of aerodynamic properties for a significant number of airfoil geometries. Consequently, for low-speed aerodynamics, panel methods are most often used as the inner solver. In this paper we evaluate the performance of such an optimization algorithm on modern accelerators (more specifically, the Intel Xeon Phi 7120 and the NVIDIA K80). For that purpose, we have implemented an optimized version of the algorithm on the CPU and Xeon Phi (based on OpenMP, vectorization, and the Intel MKL library) and on the GPU (based on CUDA and the MAGMA library). We present timing results for all codes and discuss the similarities and differences between the three implementations. Overall, we observe a speedup of approximately 2.5 for adding an Intel Xeon Phi 7120 to a dual socket workstation and a speedup between 3.4 and 3.8 for adding a NVIDIA K80 to a dual socket workstation.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Computation and Communication Kernels of the Fast Multipole Method on Intel Manycore Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulJabbar, Mustafa Abdulmajeed

    2017-07-31

    Manycore optimizations are essential for achieving performance worthy of anticipated exascale systems. Utilization of manycore chips is inevitable to attain the desired floating point performance of these energy-austere systems. In this work, we revisit ExaFMM, the open source Fast Multiple Method (FMM) library, in light of highly tuned shared-memory parallelization and detailed performance analysis on the new highly parallel Intel manycore architecture, Knights Landing (KNL). We assess scalability and performance gain using task-based parallelism of the FMM tree traversal. We also provide an in-depth analysis of the most computationally intensive part of the traversal kernel (i.e., the particle-to-particle (P2P) kernel), by comparing its performance across KNL and Broadwell architectures. We quantify different configurations that exploit the on-chip 512-bit vector units within different task-based threading paradigms. MPI communication-reducing and NUMA-aware approaches for the FMM’s global tree data exchange are examined with different cluster modes of KNL. By applying several algorithm- and architecture-aware optimizations for FMM, we show that the N-Body kernel on 256 threads of KNL achieves on average 2.8× speedup compared to the non-vectorized version, whereas on 56 threads of Broadwell, it achieves on average 2.9× speedup. In addition, the tree traversal kernel on KNL scales monotonically up to 256 threads with task-based programming models. The MPI-based communication-reducing algorithms show expected improvements of the data locality across the KNL on-chip network.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Computation and Communication Kernels of the Fast Multipole Method on Intel Manycore Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulJabbar, Mustafa Abdulmajeed; Al Farhan, Mohammed; Yokota, Rio; Keyes, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Manycore optimizations are essential for achieving performance worthy of anticipated exascale systems. Utilization of manycore chips is inevitable to attain the desired floating point performance of these energy-austere systems. In this work, we revisit ExaFMM, the open source Fast Multiple Method (FMM) library, in light of highly tuned shared-memory parallelization and detailed performance analysis on the new highly parallel Intel manycore architecture, Knights Landing (KNL). We assess scalability and performance gain using task-based parallelism of the FMM tree traversal. We also provide an in-depth analysis of the most computationally intensive part of the traversal kernel (i.e., the particle-to-particle (P2P) kernel), by comparing its performance across KNL and Broadwell architectures. We quantify different configurations that exploit the on-chip 512-bit vector units within different task-based threading paradigms. MPI communication-reducing and NUMA-aware approaches for the FMM’s global tree data exchange are examined with different cluster modes of KNL. By applying several algorithm- and architecture-aware optimizations for FMM, we show that the N-Body kernel on 256 threads of KNL achieves on average 2.8× speedup compared to the non-vectorized version, whereas on 56 threads of Broadwell, it achieves on average 2.9× speedup. In addition, the tree traversal kernel on KNL scales monotonically up to 256 threads with task-based programming models. The MPI-based communication-reducing algorithms show expected improvements of the data locality across the KNL on-chip network.

  6. Using Intel's Knight Landing Processor to Accelerate Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (GNAQPMS) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Chen, H.; Chen, X.; Wu, Q.; Wang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System for Hg (GNAQPMS-Hg) is a global chemical transport model coupled Hg transport module to investigate the mercury pollution. In this study, we present our work of transplanting the GNAQPMS model on Intel Xeon Phi processor, Knights Landing (KNL) to accelerate the model. KNL is the second-generation product adopting Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) architecture. Compared with the first generation Knight Corner (KNC), KNL has more new hardware features, that it can be used as unique processor as well as coprocessor with other CPU. According to the Vtune tool, the high overhead modules in GNAQPMS model have been addressed, including CBMZ gas chemistry, advection and convection module, and wet deposition module. These high overhead modules were accelerated by optimizing code and using new techniques of KNL. The following optimized measures was done: 1) Changing the pure MPI parallel mode to hybrid parallel mode with MPI and OpenMP; 2.Vectorizing the code to using the 512-bit wide vector computation unit. 3. Reducing unnecessary memory access and calculation. 4. Reducing Thread Local Storage (TLS) for common variables with each OpenMP thread in CBMZ. 5. Changing the way of global communication from files writing and reading to MPI functions. After optimization, the performance of GNAQPMS is greatly increased both on CPU and KNL platform, the single-node test showed that optimized version has 2.6x speedup on two sockets CPU platform and 3.3x speedup on one socket KNL platform compared with the baseline version code, which means the KNL has 1.29x speedup when compared with 2 sockets CPU platform.

  7. GNAQPMS v1.1: accelerating the Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (GNAQPMS) on Intel Xeon Phi processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Huansheng; Wu, Qizhong; Lin, Junmin; Chen, Xueshun; Xie, Xinwei; Wang, Rongrong; Tang, Xiao; Wang, Zifa

    2017-08-01

    The Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (GNAQPMS) is the global version of the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS), which is a multi-scale chemical transport model used for air quality forecast and atmospheric environmental research. In this study, we present the porting and optimisation of GNAQPMS on a second-generation Intel Xeon Phi processor, codenamed Knights Landing (KNL). Compared with the first-generation Xeon Phi coprocessor (codenamed Knights Corner, KNC), KNL has many new hardware features such as a bootable processor, high-performance in-package memory and ISA compatibility with Intel Xeon processors. In particular, we describe the five optimisations we applied to the key modules of GNAQPMS, including the CBM-Z gas-phase chemistry, advection, convection and wet deposition modules. These optimisations work well on both the KNL 7250 processor and the Intel Xeon E5-2697 V4 processor. They include (1) updating the pure Message Passing Interface (MPI) parallel mode to the hybrid parallel mode with MPI and OpenMP in the emission, advection, convection and gas-phase chemistry modules; (2) fully employing the 512 bit wide vector processing units (VPUs) on the KNL platform; (3) reducing unnecessary memory access to improve cache efficiency; (4) reducing the thread local storage (TLS) in the CBM-Z gas-phase chemistry module to improve its OpenMP performance; and (5) changing the global communication from writing/reading interface files to MPI functions to improve the performance and the parallel scalability. These optimisations greatly improved the GNAQPMS performance. The same optimisations also work well for the Intel Xeon Broadwell processor, specifically E5-2697 v4. Compared with the baseline version of GNAQPMS, the optimised version was 3.51 × faster on KNL and 2.77 × faster on the CPU. Moreover, the optimised version ran at 26 % lower average power on KNL than on the CPU. With the combined performance and energy

  8. GNAQPMS v1.1: accelerating the Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (GNAQPMS on Intel Xeon Phi processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (GNAQPMS is the global version of the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS, which is a multi-scale chemical transport model used for air quality forecast and atmospheric environmental research. In this study, we present the porting and optimisation of GNAQPMS on a second-generation Intel Xeon Phi processor, codenamed Knights Landing (KNL. Compared with the first-generation Xeon Phi coprocessor (codenamed Knights Corner, KNC, KNL has many new hardware features such as a bootable processor, high-performance in-package memory and ISA compatibility with Intel Xeon processors. In particular, we describe the five optimisations we applied to the key modules of GNAQPMS, including the CBM-Z gas-phase chemistry, advection, convection and wet deposition modules. These optimisations work well on both the KNL 7250 processor and the Intel Xeon E5-2697 V4 processor. They include (1 updating the pure Message Passing Interface (MPI parallel mode to the hybrid parallel mode with MPI and OpenMP in the emission, advection, convection and gas-phase chemistry modules; (2 fully employing the 512 bit wide vector processing units (VPUs on the KNL platform; (3 reducing unnecessary memory access to improve cache efficiency; (4 reducing the thread local storage (TLS in the CBM-Z gas-phase chemistry module to improve its OpenMP performance; and (5 changing the global communication from writing/reading interface files to MPI functions to improve the performance and the parallel scalability. These optimisations greatly improved the GNAQPMS performance. The same optimisations also work well for the Intel Xeon Broadwell processor, specifically E5-2697 v4. Compared with the baseline version of GNAQPMS, the optimised version was 3.51 × faster on KNL and 2.77 × faster on the CPU. Moreover, the optimised version ran at 26 % lower average power on KNL than on the CPU. With the combined

  9. Emmarcar el debat: Lliure expressió contra propietat intel·lectual, els propers cinquanta anys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eben Moglen

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    El Prof. Moglen explica i analitza, des d'una perspectiva històrica, la profunda revolució social i legal que resulta de la tecnologia digital quan aquesta s'aplica a tots els camps: programari, música i tot tipus de creacions. En concret, explica la manera en què la tecnologia digital està forçant una modificació substancial (desaparició dels sistemes de propietat intel·lectual i fa prediccions per al futur pròxim dels mercats de la PI.

  10. Evaluation of the OpenCL AES Kernel using the Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zheming [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoshii, Kazutomo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-04-20

    The OpenCL standard is an open programming model for accelerating algorithms on heterogeneous computing system. OpenCL extends the C-based programming language for developing portable codes on different platforms such as CPU, Graphics processing units (GPUs), Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL is a suite of tools that allows developers to abstract away the complex FPGA-based development flow for a high-level software development flow. Users can focus on the design of hardware-accelerated kernel functions in OpenCL and then direct the tools to generate the low-level FPGA implementations. The approach makes the FPGA-based development more accessible to software users as the needs for hybrid computing using CPUs and FPGAs are increasing. It can also significantly reduce the hardware development time as users can evaluate different ideas with high-level language without deep FPGA domain knowledge. In this report, we evaluate the performance of the kernel using the Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL and Nallatech 385A FPGA board. Compared to the M506 module, the board provides more hardware resources for a larger design exploration space. The kernel performance is measured with the compute kernel throughput, an upper bound to the FPGA throughput. The report presents the experimental results in details. The Appendix lists the kernel source code.

  11. Evaluation of the Single-precision Floatingpoint Vector Add Kernel Using the Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zheming [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoshii, Kazutomo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-04-20

    Open Computing Language (OpenCL) is a high-level language that enables software programmers to explore Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) for application acceleration. The Intel FPGA software development kit (SDK) for OpenCL allows a user to specify applications at a high level and explore the performance of low-level hardware acceleration. In this report, we present the FPGA performance and power consumption results of the single-precision floating-point vector add OpenCL kernel using the Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL on the Nallatech 385A FPGA board. The board features an Arria 10 FPGA. We evaluate the FPGA implementations using the compute unit duplication and kernel vectorization optimization techniques. On the Nallatech 385A FPGA board, the maximum compute kernel bandwidth we achieve is 25.8 GB/s, approximately 76% of the peak memory bandwidth. The power consumption of the FPGA device when running the kernels ranges from 29W to 42W.

  12. Efficient sparse matrix-matrix multiplication for computing periodic responses by shooting method on Intel Xeon Phi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoykov, S.; Atanassov, E.; Margenov, S.

    2016-10-01

    Many of the scientific applications involve sparse or dense matrix operations, such as solving linear systems, matrix-matrix products, eigensolvers, etc. In what concerns structural nonlinear dynamics, the computations of periodic responses and the determination of stability of the solution are of primary interest. Shooting method iswidely used for obtaining periodic responses of nonlinear systems. The method involves simultaneously operations with sparse and dense matrices. One of the computationally expensive operations in the method is multiplication of sparse by dense matrices. In the current work, a new algorithm for sparse matrix by dense matrix products is presented. The algorithm takes into account the structure of the sparse matrix, which is obtained by space discretization of the nonlinear Mindlin's plate equation of motion by the finite element method. The algorithm is developed to use the vector engine of Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. It is compared with the standard sparse matrix by dense matrix algorithm and the one developed by Intel MKL and it is shown that by considering the properties of the sparse matrix better algorithms can be developed.

  13. A parallel implementation of particle tracking with space charge effects on an INTEL iPSC/860

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.; Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Machida, S.

    1993-05-01

    Particle-tracking simulation is one of the scientific applications that is well-suited to parallel computations. At the Superconducting Super Collider, it has been theoretically and empirically demonstrated that particle tracking on a designed lattice can achieve very high parallel efficiency on a MIMD Intel iPSC/860 machine. The key to such success is the realization that the particles can be tracked independently without considering their interaction. The perfectly parallel nature of particle tracking is broken if the interaction effects between particles are included. The space charge introduces an electromagnetic force that will affect the motion of tracked particles in 3-D space. For accurate modeling of the beam dynamics with space charge effects, one needs to solve three-dimensional Maxwell field equations, usually by a particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm. This will require each particle to communicate with its neighbor grids to compute the momentum changes at each time step. It is expected that the 3-D PIC method will degrade parallel efficiency of particle-tracking implementation on any parallel computer. In this paper, we describe an efficient scheme for implementing particle tracking with space charge effects on an INTEL iPSC/860 machine. Experimental results show that a parallel efficiency of 75% can be obtained

  14. Parallel computation for biological sequence comparison: comparing a portable model to the native model for the Intel Hypercube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, P M; Miller, P L

    1991-01-01

    A parallel program for inter-database sequence comparison was developed on the Intel Hypercube using two models of parallel programming. One version was built using machine-specific Hypercube parallel programming commands. The other version was built using Linda, a machine-independent parallel programming language. The two versions of the program provide a case study comparing these two approaches to parallelization in an important biological application area. Benchmark tests with both programs gave comparable results with a small number of processors. As the number of processors was increased, the Linda version was somewhat less efficient. The Linda version was also run without change on Network Linda, a virtual parallel machine running on a network of desktop workstations.

  15. Analysis of the Intel 386 and i486 microprocessors for the Space Station Freedom Data Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility is analyzed of upgrading the Intel 386 microprocessor, which has been proposed as the baseline processor for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS), to the more advanced i486 microprocessors. The items compared between the two processors include the instruction set architecture, power consumption, the MIL-STD-883C Class S (Space) qualification schedule, and performance. The advantages of the i486 over the 386 are (1) lower power consumption; and (2) higher floating point performance. The i486 on-chip cache does not have parity check or error detection and correction circuitry. The i486 with on-chip cache disabled, however, has lower integer performance than the 386 without cache, which is the current DMS design choice. Adding cache to the 386/386 DX memory hierachy appears to be the most beneficial change to the current DMS design at this time.

  16. La responsabilitat davant la intel·ligència artificial en el comerç electrònic

    OpenAIRE

    Martín i Palomas, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Es planteja en aquesta tesi l'efecte produït sobre la responsabilitat derivada de les accions realitzades autònomament per sistemes dotats d'intel·ligència artificial, sense la participació directa de cap ésser humà, en els temes més directament relacionats amb el comerç electrònic. Per a això s'analitzen les activitats realitzades per algunes de les principals empreses internacionals de comerç electrònic, com el grup nord-americà eBay o el grup xinès Alibaba. Després de desenvolupar els prin...

  17. Les multituds intel·ligents com a generadores de dades massives : la intel·ligència col·lectiva al servei de la innovació social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz, Sandra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Les últimes dècades es registra un increment de mobilitzacions socials organitzades, intervingudes, narrades i coordinades a través de les TIC. Són mostra de multituds intel·ligents (smart mobs que s'aprofiten dels nous mitjans de comunicació per organitzar-se. Tant pel nombre de missatges intercanviats i generats com per les pròpies interaccions generades, aquestes multituds intel·ligents es converteixen en objecte de les dades massives. La seva anàlisi a partir de les possibilitats que brinda l'enginyeria de dades pot contribuir a detectar idees construïdes com també sabers compartits fruit de la intel·ligència col·lectiva. Aquest fet afavoriria la reutilització d'aquesta informació per incrementar el coneixement del col·lectiu i contribuir al desenvolupament de la innovació social. És per això que en aquest article s'assenyalen els interrogants i les limitacions que encara presenten aquestes anàlisis i es posa en relleu la necessitat d'aprofundir en el desenvolupament de nous mètodes i tècniques d'anàlisi.En las últimas décadas se registra un incremento de movilizaciones sociales organizadas, mediadas, narradas y coordinadas a través de TICs. Son muestra de smart mobs o multitudes inteligentes que se aprovechan de los nuevos medios de comunicación para organizarse. Tanto por el número de mensajes intercambiados y generados como por las propias interacciones generadas, estas multitudes inteligentes se convierten en objeto del big data. Su análisis a partir de las posibilidades que brinda la ingeniería de datos puede contribuir a detectar ideas construidas así como saberes compartidos fruto de la inteligencia colectiva. Ello favorecería la reutilización de esta información para incrementar el conocimiento del colectivo y contribuir al desarrollo de la innovación social. Es por ello que en este artículo se señalan los interrogantes y limitaciones que todavía presentan estos análisis y se pone de relieve la

  18. Object identification with deep learning using Intel DAAL on Knights Landing processor [Vidyo

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The problem of object recognition is computationally expensive, especially when large amounts of data is involved. Recently, techniques in deep neural networks (DNN) - including convolutional neural networks and residual neural networks - have shown great recognition accuracy compared to traditional methods (artificial neural networks, decision tress, etc.). However, experience reveals that there are still a number of factors that limit scientists from deriving the full performance benefits of large, DNNs. We summarize these challenges as follows: (1) large number of hyperparameters that have to be tuned against the DNN during training phase, leading to several data re-computations over a large design-space, (2) the share volume of data used for training, resulting in prolonged training time, (3) how to effectively utilize underlying hardware (compute, network and storage) to achieve maximum performance during this training phase. In this presentation, we discuss a cross-layer perspective into realizing effic...

  19. A scalable parallel algorithm for multiple objective linear programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecek, Malgorzata M.; Zhang, Hong

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an ADBASE-based parallel algorithm for solving multiple objective linear programs (MOLP's). Job balance, speedup and scalability are of primary interest in evaluating efficiency of the new algorithm. Implementation results on Intel iPSC/2 and Paragon multiprocessors show that the algorithm significantly speeds up the process of solving MOLP's, which is understood as generating all or some efficient extreme points and unbounded efficient edges. The algorithm gives specially good results for large and very large problems. Motivation and justification for solving such large MOLP's are also included.

  20. Evaluation of the Intel Xeon Phi Co-processor to accelerate the sensitivity map calculation for PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, T.; Rodrigue, P.

    2015-07-01

    We aim to evaluate the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor for acceleration of 3D Positron Emission Tomography (PET) image reconstruction. We focus on the sensitivity map calculation as one computational intensive part of PET image reconstruction, since it is a promising candidate for acceleration with the Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture of the Xeon Phi. The computation of the voxels in the field of view (FoV) can be done in parallel and the 103 to 104 samples needed to calculate the detection probability of each voxel can take advantage of vectorization. We use the ray tracing kernels of the Embree project to calculate the hit points of the sample rays with the detector and in a second step the sum of the radiological path taking into account attenuation is determined. The core components are implemented using the Intel single instruction multiple data compiler (ISPC) to enable a portable implementation showing efficient vectorization either on the Xeon Phi and the Host platform. On the Xeon Phi, the calculation of the radiological path is also implemented in hardware specific intrinsic instructions (so-called `intrinsics') to allow manually-optimized vectorization. For parallelization either OpenMP and ISPC tasking (based on pthreads) are evaluated.Our implementation achieved a scalability factor of 0.90 on the Xeon Phi coprocessor (model 5110P) with 60 cores at 1 GHz. Only minor differences were found between parallelization with OpenMP and the ISPC tasking feature. The implementation using intrinsics was found to be about 12% faster than the portable ISPC version. With this version, a speedup of 1.43 was achieved on the Xeon Phi coprocessor compared to the host system (HP SL250s Gen8) equipped with two Xeon (E5-2670) CPUs, with 8 cores at 2.6 to 3.3 GHz each. Using a second Xeon Phi card the speedup could be further increased to 2.77. No significant differences were found between the results of the different Xeon Phi and the Host implementations. The examination

  1. Evaluation of the Intel Xeon Phi Co-processor to accelerate the sensitivity map calculation for PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, T.; Rodrigue, P.

    2015-01-01

    We aim to evaluate the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor for acceleration of 3D Positron Emission Tomography (PET) image reconstruction. We focus on the sensitivity map calculation as one computational intensive part of PET image reconstruction, since it is a promising candidate for acceleration with the Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture of the Xeon Phi. The computation of the voxels in the field of view (FoV) can be done in parallel and the 10 3 to 10 4 samples needed to calculate the detection probability of each voxel can take advantage of vectorization. We use the ray tracing kernels of the Embree project to calculate the hit points of the sample rays with the detector and in a second step the sum of the radiological path taking into account attenuation is determined. The core components are implemented using the Intel single instruction multiple data compiler (ISPC) to enable a portable implementation showing efficient vectorization either on the Xeon Phi and the Host platform. On the Xeon Phi, the calculation of the radiological path is also implemented in hardware specific intrinsic instructions (so-called 'intrinsics') to allow manually-optimized vectorization. For parallelization either OpenMP and ISPC tasking (based on pthreads) are evaluated.Our implementation achieved a scalability factor of 0.90 on the Xeon Phi coprocessor (model 5110P) with 60 cores at 1 GHz. Only minor differences were found between parallelization with OpenMP and the ISPC tasking feature. The implementation using intrinsics was found to be about 12% faster than the portable ISPC version. With this version, a speedup of 1.43 was achieved on the Xeon Phi coprocessor compared to the host system (HP SL250s Gen8) equipped with two Xeon (E5-2670) CPUs, with 8 cores at 2.6 to 3.3 GHz each. Using a second Xeon Phi card the speedup could be further increased to 2.77. No significant differences were found between the results of the different Xeon Phi and the Host implementations. The

  2. Evaluation of CHO Benchmarks on the Arria 10 FPGA using Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zheming [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoshii, Kazutomo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-05-23

    The OpenCL standard is an open programming model for accelerating algorithms on heterogeneous computing system. OpenCL extends the C-based programming language for developing portable codes on different platforms such as CPU, Graphics processing units (GPUs), Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL is a suite of tools that allows developers to abstract away the complex FPGA-based development flow for a high-level software development flow. Users can focus on the design of hardware-accelerated kernel functions in OpenCL and then direct the tools to generate the low-level FPGA implementations. The approach makes the FPGA-based development more accessible to software users as the needs for hybrid computing using CPUs and FPGAs are increasing. It can also significantly reduce the hardware development time as users can evaluate different ideas with high-level language without deep FPGA domain knowledge. Benchmarking of OpenCL-based framework is an effective way for analyzing the performance of system by studying the execution of the benchmark applications. CHO is a suite of benchmark applications that provides support for OpenCL [1]. The authors presented CHO as an OpenCL port of the CHStone benchmark. Using Altera OpenCL (AOCL) compiler to synthesize the benchmark applications, they listed the resource usage and performance of each kernel that can be successfully synthesized by the compiler. In this report, we evaluate the resource usage and performance of the CHO benchmark applications using the Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL and Nallatech 385A FPGA board that features an Arria 10 FPGA device. The focus of the report is to have a better understanding of the resource usage and performance of the kernel implementations using Arria-10 FPGA devices compared to Stratix-5 FPGA devices. In addition, we also gain knowledge about the limitations of the current compiler when it fails to synthesize a benchmark

  3. Experience with low-power x86 processors (Atom) for HEP usage. An initial analysis of the Intel® dual core Atom™ N330 processor

    CERN Document Server

    Balazs, G; Nowak, A; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we compare a system based on an Intel Atom N330 low-power processor to a modern Intel Xeon® dual-socket server using CERN IT’s standard criteria for comparing price-performance and performance per watt. The Xeon server corresponds to what is typically acquired as servers in the LHC Computing Grid. The comparisons used public pricing information from November 2008. After the introduction in section 1, section 2 describes the hardware and software setup. In section 3 we describe the power measurements we did and in section 4 we discuss the throughput performance results. In section 5 we summarize our initial conclusions. We then go on to describe our long term vision and possible future scenarios for using such low-power processors, and finally we list interesting development directions.

  4. Heat dissipation for the Intel Core i5 processor using multiwalled carbon-nanotube-based ethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thang, Bui Hung; Trinh, Pham Van; Quang, Le Dinh; Khoi, Phan Hong; Minh, Phan Ngoc; Huong, Nguyen Thi

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are some of the most valuable materials with high thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) grown by using chemical vapor deposition is 600 ± 100 Wm -1 K -1 compared with the thermal conductivity 419 Wm -1 K -1 of Ag. Carbon-nanotube-based liquids - a new class of nanomaterials, have shown many interesting properties and distinctive features offering potential in heat dissipation applications for electronic devices, such as computer microprocessor, high power LED, etc. In this work, a multiwalled carbon-nanotube-based liquid was made of well-dispersed hydroxyl-functional multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-OH) in ethylene glycol (EG)/distilled water (DW) solutions by using Tween-80 surfactant and an ultrasonication method. The concentration of MWCNT-OH in EG/DW solutions ranged from 0.1 to 1.2 gram/liter. The dispersion of the MWCNT-OH-based EG/DW solutions was evaluated by using a Zeta-Sizer analyzer. The MWCNT-OH-based EG/DW solutions were used as coolants in the liquid cooling system for the Intel Core i5 processor. The thermal dissipation efficiency and the thermal response of the system were evaluated by directly measuring the temperature of the micro-processor using the Core Temp software and the temperature sensors built inside the micro-processor. The results confirmed the advantages of CNTs in thermal dissipation systems for computer processors and other high-power electronic devices.

  5. Quantum Chemical Calculations Using Accelerators: Migrating Matrix Operations to the NVIDIA Kepler GPU and the Intel Xeon Phi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leang, Sarom S; Rendell, Alistair P; Gordon, Mark S

    2014-03-11

    Increasingly, modern computer systems comprise a multicore general-purpose processor augmented with a number of special purpose devices or accelerators connected via an external interface such as a PCI bus. The NVIDIA Kepler Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) and the Intel Phi are two examples of such accelerators. Accelerators offer peak performances that can be well above those of the host processor. How to exploit this heterogeneous environment for legacy application codes is not, however, straightforward. This paper considers how matrix operations in typical quantum chemical calculations can be migrated to the GPU and Phi systems. Double precision general matrix multiply operations are endemic in electronic structure calculations, especially methods that include electron correlation, such as density functional theory, second order perturbation theory, and coupled cluster theory. The use of approaches that automatically determine whether to use the host or an accelerator, based on problem size, is explored, with computations that are occurring on the accelerator and/or the host. For data-transfers over PCI-e, the GPU provides the best overall performance for data sizes up to 4096 MB with consistent upload and download rates between 5-5.6 GB/s and 5.4-6.3 GB/s, respectively. The GPU outperforms the Phi for both square and nonsquare matrix multiplications.

  6. Stereoscopic-3D display design: a new paradigm with Intel Adaptive Stable Image Technology [IA-SIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sunil

    2012-03-01

    Stereoscopic-3D (S3D) proliferation on personal computers (PC) is mired by several technical and business challenges: a) viewing discomfort due to cross-talk amongst stereo images; b) high system cost; and c) restricted content availability. Users expect S3D visual quality to be better than, or at least equal to, what they are used to enjoying on 2D in terms of resolution, pixel density, color, and interactivity. Intel Adaptive Stable Image Technology (IA-SIT) is a foundational technology, successfully developed to resolve S3D system design challenges and deliver high quality 3D visualization at PC price points. Optimizations in display driver, panel timing firmware, backlight hardware, eyewear optical stack, and synch mechanism combined can help accomplish this goal. Agnostic to refresh rate, IA-SIT will scale with shrinking of display transistors and improvements in liquid crystal and LED materials. Industry could profusely benefit from the following calls to action:- 1) Adopt 'IA-SIT S3D Mode' in panel specs (via VESA) to help panel makers monetize S3D; 2) Adopt 'IA-SIT Eyewear Universal Optical Stack' and algorithm (via CEA) to help PC peripheral makers develop stylish glasses; 3) Adopt 'IA-SIT Real Time Profile' for sub-100uS latency control (via BT Sig) to extend BT into S3D; and 4) Adopt 'IA-SIT Architecture' for Monitors and TVs to monetize via PC attach.

  7. Initial results on computational performance of Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture: implementation of the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) Purdue-Lin microphysics scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    Purdue-Lin scheme is a relatively sophisticated microphysics scheme in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The scheme includes six classes of hydro meteors: water vapor, cloud water, raid, cloud ice, snow and graupel. The scheme is very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. In this paper, we accelerate the Purdue Lin scheme using Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi is a high performance coprocessor consists of up to 61 cores. The Xeon Phi is connected to a CPU via the PCI Express (PICe) bus. In this paper, we will discuss in detail the code optimization issues encountered while tuning the Purdue-Lin microphysics Fortran code for Xeon Phi. In particularly, getting a good performance required utilizing multiple cores, the wide vector operations and make efficient use of memory. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 5110P by a factor of 4.2x. Furthermore, the same optimizations improved performance on Intel Xeon E5-2603 CPU by a factor of 1.2x compared to the original code.

  8. Acceleration of Cherenkov angle reconstruction with the new Intel Xeon/FPGA compute platform for the particle identification in the LHCb Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerber, Christian

    2017-10-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC will upgrade its detector by 2018/2019 to a ‘triggerless’ readout scheme, where all the readout electronics and several sub-detector parts will be replaced. The new readout electronics will be able to readout the detector at 40 MHz. This increases the data bandwidth from the detector down to the Event Filter farm to 40 TBit/s, which also has to be processed to select the interesting proton-proton collision for later storage. The architecture of such a computing farm, which can process this amount of data as efficiently as possible, is a challenging task and several compute accelerator technologies are being considered for use inside the new Event Filter farm. In the high performance computing sector more and more FPGA compute accelerators are used to improve the compute performance and reduce the power consumption (e.g. in the Microsoft Catapult project and Bing search engine). Also for the LHCb upgrade the usage of an experimental FPGA accelerated computing platform in the Event Building or in the Event Filter farm is being considered and therefore tested. This platform from Intel hosts a general CPU and a high performance FPGA linked via a high speed link which is for this platform a QPI link. On the FPGA an accelerator is implemented. The used system is a two socket platform from Intel with a Xeon CPU and an FPGA. The FPGA has cache-coherent memory access to the main memory of the server and can collaborate with the CPU. As a first step, a computing intensive algorithm to reconstruct Cherenkov angles for the LHCb RICH particle identification was successfully ported in Verilog to the Intel Xeon/FPGA platform and accelerated by a factor of 35. The same algorithm was ported to the Intel Xeon/FPGA platform with OpenCL. The implementation work and the performance will be compared. Also another FPGA accelerator the Nallatech 385 PCIe accelerator with the same Stratix V FPGA were tested for performance. The results show that the Intel

  9. Parallel Application Performance on Two Generations of Intel Xeon HPC Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Christopher H.; Long, Hai; Sides, Scott; Vaidhynathan, Deepthi; Jones, Wesley

    2015-10-15

    Two next-generation node configurations hosting the Haswell microarchitecture were tested with a suite of microbenchmarks and application examples, and compared with a current Ivy Bridge production node on NREL" tm s Peregrine high-performance computing cluster. A primary conclusion from this study is that the additional cores are of little value to individual task performance--limitations to application parallelism, or resource contention among concurrently running but independent tasks, limits effective utilization of these added cores. Hyperthreading generally impacts throughput negatively, but can improve performance in the absence of detailed attention to runtime workflow configuration. The observations offer some guidance to procurement of future HPC systems at NREL. First, raw core count must be balanced with available resources, particularly memory bandwidth. Balance-of-system will determine value more than processor capability alone. Second, hyperthreading continues to be largely irrelevant to the workloads that are commonly seen, and were tested here, at NREL. Finally, perhaps the most impactful enhancement to productivity might occur through enabling multiple concurrent jobs per node. Given the right type and size of workload, more may be achieved by doing many slow things at once, than fast things in order.

  10. Heat dissipation for the Intel Core i5 processor using multiwalled carbon-nanotube-based ethylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thang, Bui Hung; Trinh, Pham Van; Quang, Le Dinh; Khoi, Phan Hong; Minh, Phan Ngoc [Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Ho Chi Minh CIty (Viet Nam); Huong, Nguyen Thi [Hanoi University of Science, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vietnam National University, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2014-08-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are some of the most valuable materials with high thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) grown by using chemical vapor deposition is 600 ± 100 Wm{sup -1}K{sup -1} compared with the thermal conductivity 419 Wm{sup -1}K{sup -1} of Ag. Carbon-nanotube-based liquids - a new class of nanomaterials, have shown many interesting properties and distinctive features offering potential in heat dissipation applications for electronic devices, such as computer microprocessor, high power LED, etc. In this work, a multiwalled carbon-nanotube-based liquid was made of well-dispersed hydroxyl-functional multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-OH) in ethylene glycol (EG)/distilled water (DW) solutions by using Tween-80 surfactant and an ultrasonication method. The concentration of MWCNT-OH in EG/DW solutions ranged from 0.1 to 1.2 gram/liter. The dispersion of the MWCNT-OH-based EG/DW solutions was evaluated by using a Zeta-Sizer analyzer. The MWCNT-OH-based EG/DW solutions were used as coolants in the liquid cooling system for the Intel Core i5 processor. The thermal dissipation efficiency and the thermal response of the system were evaluated by directly measuring the temperature of the micro-processor using the Core Temp software and the temperature sensors built inside the micro-processor. The results confirmed the advantages of CNTs in thermal dissipation systems for computer processors and other high-power electronic devices.

  11. Scalability of Parallel Spatial Direct Numerical Simulations on Intel Hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.; Zubair, Mohammad

    1995-01-01

    The implementation and performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) approach on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2 parallel computers is documented. Spatially evolving disturbances associated with the laminar-to-turbulent transition in boundary-layer flows are computed with the PSDNS code. The feasibility of using the PSDNS to perform transition studies on these computers is examined. The results indicate that PSDNS approach can effectively be parallelized on a distributed-memory parallel machine by remapping the distributed data structure during the course of the calculation. Scalability information is provided to estimate computational costs to match the actual costs relative to changes in the number of grid points. By increasing the number of processors, slower than linear speedups are achieved with optimized (machine-dependent library) routines. This slower than linear speedup results because the computational cost is dominated by FFT routine, which yields less than ideal speedups. By using appropriate compile options and optimized library routines on the SP1, the serial code achieves 52-56 M ops on a single node of the SP1 (45 percent of theoretical peak performance). The actual performance of the PSDNS code on the SP1 is evaluated with a "real world" simulation that consists of 1.7 million grid points. One time step of this simulation is calculated on eight nodes of the SP1 in the same time as required by a Cray Y/MP supercomputer. For the same simulation, 32-nodes of the SP1 and SP2 are required to reach the performance of a Cray C-90. A 32 node SP1 (SP2) configuration is 2.9 (4.6) times faster than a Cray Y/MP for this simulation, while the hypercube is roughly 2 times slower than the Y/MP for this application. KEY WORDS: Spatial direct numerical simulations; incompressible viscous flows; spectral methods; finite differences; parallel computing.

  12. Accelerating 3D Elastic Wave Equations on Knights Landing based Intel Xeon Phi processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourouri, Mohammed; Birger Raknes, Espen

    2017-04-01

    In advanced imaging methods like reverse-time migration (RTM) and full waveform inversion (FWI) the elastic wave equation (EWE) is numerically solved many times to create the seismic image or the elastic parameter model update. Thus, it is essential to optimize the solution time for solving the EWE as this will have a major impact on the total computational cost in running RTM or FWI. From a computational point of view applications implementing EWEs are associated with two major challenges. The first challenge is the amount of memory-bound computations involved, while the second challenge is the execution of such computations over very large datasets. So far, multi-core processors have not been able to tackle these two challenges, which eventually led to the adoption of accelerators such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Compared to conventional CPUs, GPUs are densely populated with many floating-point units and fast memory, a type of architecture that has proven to map well to many scientific computations. Despite its architectural advantages, full-scale adoption of accelerators has yet to materialize. First, accelerators require a significant programming effort imposed by programming models such as CUDA or OpenCL. Second, accelerators come with a limited amount of memory, which also require explicit data transfers between the CPU and the accelerator over the slow PCI bus. The second generation of the Xeon Phi processor based on the Knights Landing (KNL) architecture, promises the computational capabilities of an accelerator but require the same programming effort as traditional multi-core processors. The high computational performance is realized through many integrated cores (number of cores and tiles and memory varies with the model) organized in tiles that are connected via a 2D mesh based interconnect. In contrary to accelerators, KNL is a self-hosted system, meaning explicit data transfers over the PCI bus are no longer required. However, like most

  13. Experiences implementing the MPI standard on Sandia`s lightweight kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brightwell, R.; Greenberg, D.S.

    1997-10-01

    This technical report describes some lessons learned from implementing the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard, and some proposed extentions to MPI, at Sandia. The implementations were developed using Sandia-developed lightweight kernels running on the Intel Paragon and Intel TeraFLOPS platforms. The motivations for this research are discussed, and a detailed analysis of several implementation issues is presented.

  14. Application of Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture to the Yonsei University planetary boundary layer scheme in Weather Research and Forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Melin; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model provided operational services worldwide in many areas and has linked to our daily activity, in particular during severe weather events. The scheme of Yonsei University (YSU) is one of planetary boundary layer (PBL) models in WRF. The PBL is responsible for vertical sub-grid-scale fluxes due to eddy transports in the whole atmospheric column, determines the flux profiles within the well-mixed boundary layer and the stable layer, and thus provide atmospheric tendencies of temperature, moisture (including clouds), and horizontal momentum in the entire atmospheric column. The YSU scheme is very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. To accelerate the computation process of the YSU scheme, we employ Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architecture as it is a multiprocessor computer structure with merits of efficient parallelization and vectorization essentials. Our results show that the MIC-based optimization improved the performance of the first version of multi-threaded code on Xeon Phi 5110P by a factor of 2.4x. Furthermore, the same CPU-based optimizations improved the performance on Intel Xeon E5-2603 by a factor of 1.6x as compared to the first version of multi-threaded code.

  15. Mesa de coordenadas cartesianas (x,y para la perforación de materiales por medio de un microcontrolador 8051 de intel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Yesid Flórez-Prada

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In our environment we are surrounded by a number of electronic systems that perform automatic operations according to a number of parameters previously programmed by the operator. This paper presents the prototype of a table of two coordinates (Cartesian plane (X, Y, which uses a development system based on the 8051 microcontroller INTEL (R (computer system, making the system function sending the respective control commands to locate the tool at different points of the work area of the table, the points are previously programmed by the operator, interacting with the keyboard. To make the movements of the table (X, Y, actuator devices responsible for carrying out a linear movement that moves the tool to the specified distance are used.

  16. Simulating the Euclidean time Schroedinger equations using an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube: Application to the t-J model of high-Tc superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarik, M.D.; Barnes, T.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1993-01-01

    We describe a Monte Carlo simulation of a dynamical fermion problem in two spatial dimensions on an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube. The problem studied is the determination of the dispersion relation of a dynamical hole in the t-J model of the high temperature superconductors. Since this problem involves the motion of many fermions in more than one spatial dimensions, it is representative of the class of systems that suffer from the ''minus sign problem'' of dynamical fermions which has made Monte Carlo simulation very difficult. We demonstrate that for small values of the hole hopping parameter one can extract the entire hole dispersion relation using the GRW Monte Carlo algorithm, which is a simulation of the Euclidean time Schroedinger equation, and present results on 4 x 4 and 6 x 6 lattices. Generalization to physical hopping parameter values wig only require use of an improved trial wavefunction for importance sampling

  17. Solving Large Quadratic|Assignment Problems in Parallel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Perregaard, Michael

    1997-01-01

    and recalculation of bounds between branchings when used in a parallel Branch-and-Bound algorithm. The algorithm has been implemented on a 16-processor MEIKO Computing Surface with Intel i860 processors. Computational results from the solution of a number of large QAPs, including the classical Nugent 20...... processors, and have hence not been ideally suited for computations essentially involving non-vectorizable computations on integers.In this paper we investigate the combination of one of the best bound functions for a Branch-and-Bound algorithm (the Gilmore-Lawler bound) and various testing, variable binding...

  18. Vectorization, parallelization and implementation of Quantum molecular dynamics codes (QQQF, MONTEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Kaori [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kunugi, Tomoaki; Kotake, Susumu; Shibahara, Masahiko

    1998-03-01

    This report describes parallelization, vectorization and implementation for two simulation codes, Quantum molecular dynamics simulation code QQQF and Photon montecalro molecular dynamics simulation code MONTEV, that have been developed for the analysis of the thermalization of photon energies in the molecule or materials. QQQF has been vectorized and parallelized on Fujitsu VPP and has been implemented from VPP to Intel Paragon XP/S and parallelized. MONTEV has been implemented from VPP to Paragon and parallelized. (author)

  19. A Monte Carlo study of the ''minus sign problem'' in the t-J model using an intel IPSC/860 hypercube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarik, M.D.; Barnes, T.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1993-01-01

    We describe a Monte Carlo simulation of the 2-dimensional t-J model on an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube. The problem studied is the determination of the dispersion relation of a dynamical hole in the t-J model of the high temperature superconductors. Since this problem involves the motion of many fermions in more than one spatial dimensions, it is representative of the class of systems that suffer from the ''minus sign problem'' of dynamical fermions which has made Monte Carlo simulation very difficult. We demonstrate that for small values of the hole hopping parameter one can extract the entire hole dispersion relation using the GRW Monte Carlo algorithm, which is a simulation of the Euclidean time Schroedinger equation, and present results on 4 x 4 and 6 x 6 lattices. We demonstrate that a qualitative picture at higher hopping parameters may be found by extrapolating weak hopping results where the minus sign problem is less severe. Generalization to physical hopping parameter values will only require use of an improved trial wavefunction for importance sampling

  20. Parallelization of quantum molecular dynamics simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kaori; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Shibahara, Masahiko; Kotake, Susumu

    1998-02-01

    A quantum molecular dynamics simulation code has been developed for the analysis of the thermalization of photon energies in the molecule or materials in Kansai Research Establishment. The simulation code is parallelized for both Scalar massively parallel computer (Intel Paragon XP/S75) and Vector parallel computer (Fujitsu VPP300/12). Scalable speed-up has been obtained with a distribution to processor units by division of particle group in both parallel computers. As a result of distribution to processor units not only by particle group but also by the particles calculation that is constructed with fine calculations, highly parallelization performance is achieved in Intel Paragon XP/S75. (author)

  1. TH-A-19A-08: Intel Xeon Phi Implementation of a Fast Multi-Purpose Monte Carlo Simulation for Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souris, K; Lee, J; Sterpin, E [Universite catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recent studies have demonstrated the capability of graphics processing units (GPUs) to compute dose distributions using Monte Carlo (MC) methods within clinical time constraints. However, GPUs have a rigid vectorial architecture that favors the implementation of simplified particle transport algorithms, adapted to specific tasks. Our new, fast, and multipurpose MC code, named MCsquare, runs on Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. This technology offers 60 independent cores, and therefore more flexibility to implement fast and yet generic MC functionalities, such as prompt gamma simulations. Methods: MCsquare implements several models and hence allows users to make their own tradeoff between speed and accuracy. A 200 MeV proton beam is simulated in a heterogeneous phantom using Geant4 and two configurations of MCsquare. The first one is the most conservative and accurate. The method of fictitious interactions handles the interfaces and secondary charged particles emitted in nuclear interactions are fully simulated. The second, faster configuration simplifies interface crossings and simulates only secondary protons after nuclear interaction events. Integral depth-dose and transversal profiles are compared to those of Geant4. Moreover, the production profile of prompt gammas is compared to PENH results. Results: Integral depth dose and transversal profiles computed by MCsquare and Geant4 are within 3%. The production of secondaries from nuclear interactions is slightly inaccurate at interfaces for the fastest configuration of MCsquare but this is unlikely to have any clinical impact. The computation time varies between 90 seconds for the most conservative settings to merely 59 seconds in the fastest configuration. Finally prompt gamma profiles are also in very good agreement with PENH results. Conclusion: Our new, fast, and multi-purpose Monte Carlo code simulates prompt gammas and calculates dose distributions in less than a minute, which complies with clinical time

  2. TH-A-19A-08: Intel Xeon Phi Implementation of a Fast Multi-Purpose Monte Carlo Simulation for Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souris, K; Lee, J; Sterpin, E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent studies have demonstrated the capability of graphics processing units (GPUs) to compute dose distributions using Monte Carlo (MC) methods within clinical time constraints. However, GPUs have a rigid vectorial architecture that favors the implementation of simplified particle transport algorithms, adapted to specific tasks. Our new, fast, and multipurpose MC code, named MCsquare, runs on Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. This technology offers 60 independent cores, and therefore more flexibility to implement fast and yet generic MC functionalities, such as prompt gamma simulations. Methods: MCsquare implements several models and hence allows users to make their own tradeoff between speed and accuracy. A 200 MeV proton beam is simulated in a heterogeneous phantom using Geant4 and two configurations of MCsquare. The first one is the most conservative and accurate. The method of fictitious interactions handles the interfaces and secondary charged particles emitted in nuclear interactions are fully simulated. The second, faster configuration simplifies interface crossings and simulates only secondary protons after nuclear interaction events. Integral depth-dose and transversal profiles are compared to those of Geant4. Moreover, the production profile of prompt gammas is compared to PENH results. Results: Integral depth dose and transversal profiles computed by MCsquare and Geant4 are within 3%. The production of secondaries from nuclear interactions is slightly inaccurate at interfaces for the fastest configuration of MCsquare but this is unlikely to have any clinical impact. The computation time varies between 90 seconds for the most conservative settings to merely 59 seconds in the fastest configuration. Finally prompt gamma profiles are also in very good agreement with PENH results. Conclusion: Our new, fast, and multi-purpose Monte Carlo code simulates prompt gammas and calculates dose distributions in less than a minute, which complies with clinical time

  3. Large Scale GW Calculations on the Cori System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslippe, Jack; Del Ben, Mauro; da Jornada, Felipe; Canning, Andrew; Louie, Steven

    The NERSC Cori system, powered by 9000+ Intel Xeon-Phi processors, represents one of the largest HPC systems for open-science in the United States and the world. We discuss the optimization of the GW methodology for this system, including both node level and system-scale optimizations. We highlight multiple large scale (thousands of atoms) case studies and discuss both absolute application performance and comparison to calculations on more traditional HPC architectures. We find that the GW method is particularly well suited for many-core architectures due to the ability to exploit a large amount of parallelism across many layers of the system. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, as part of the Computational Materials Sciences Program.

  4. African Instituted Churches in Southern Africa: Paragons of Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-05-23

    May 23, 2006 ... reducing discussions on regional cooperation to purely economic and materialistic ..... references to religion and culture in a document dealing with economic .... nomic Cooperation and Integration, Harare: SAPES Books.

  5. A dynamic programming approach for quickly estimating large network-based MEV models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Tien; Frejinger, Emma; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    We propose a way to estimate a family of static Multivariate Extreme Value (MEV) models with large choice sets in short computational time. The resulting model is also straightforward and fast to use for prediction. Following Daly and Bierlaire (2006), the correlation structure is defined by a ro...... to converge (4.3 h on an Intel(R) 3.2 GHz machine using a non-parallelized code). We also show that our approach allows to estimate a cross-nested logit model of 111 nests with a real data set of more than 100,000 observations in 14 h....

  6. A fast global sum on the coarse-grained scalar parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Toshio.

    1996-03-01

    A new global sum subroutine, which has the same function as the prepared one on the Intel Paragon, is developed. The algorithm is simple and faster. It makes the performance 10 times faster than the original one in case of 128 nodes. The results will be shown with the characteristics, restrictions and extendability. (author)

  7. Performance modeling of hybrid MPI/OpenMP scientific applications on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore supercomputers: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and BlueGene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks and Intel\\'s MPI benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore supercomputers because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore supercomputers. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore supercomputers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  8. Parallelization of pressure equation solver for incompressible N-S equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Yokokawa, Mitsuo; Kaburaki, Hideo.

    1996-03-01

    A pressure equation solver in a code for 3-dimensional incompressible flow analysis has been parallelized by using red-black SOR method and PCG method on Fujitsu VPP500, a vector parallel computer with distributed memory. For the comparison of scalability, the solver using the red-black SOR method has been also parallelized on the Intel Paragon, a scalar parallel computer with a distributed memory. The scalability of the red-black SOR method on both VPP500 and Paragon was lost, when number of processor elements was increased. The reason of non-scalability on both systems is increasing communication time between processor elements. In addition, the parallelization by DO-loop division makes the vectorizing efficiency lower on VPP500. For an effective implementation on VPP500, a large scale problem which holds very long vectorized DO-loops in the parallel program should be solved. PCG method with red-black SOR method applied to incomplete LU factorization (red-black PCG) has more iteration steps than normal PCG method with forward and backward substitution, in spite of same number of the floating point operations in a DO-loop of incomplete LU factorization. The parallelized red-black PCG method has less merits than the parallelized red-black SOR method when the computational region has fewer grids, because the low vectorization efficiency is obtained in red-black PCG method. (author)

  9. Comparison of two accelerators for Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations, Nvidia Tesla M2090 GPU and Intel Xeon Phi 5110p coprocessor: A case study for X-ray CT imaging dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, T.; Xu, X.G.; Carothers, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new Monte Carlo photon transport code ARCHER-CT for CT dose calculations is developed to execute on the GPU and coprocessor. • ARCHER-CT is verified against MCNP. • The GPU code on an Nvidia M2090 GPU is 5.15–5.81 times faster than the parallel CPU code on an Intel X5650 6-core CPU. • The coprocessor code on an Intel Xeon Phi 5110p coprocessor is 3.30–3.38 times faster than the CPU code. - Abstract: Hardware accelerators are currently becoming increasingly important in boosting high performance computing systems. In this study, we tested the performance of two accelerator models, Nvidia Tesla M2090 GPU and Intel Xeon Phi 5110p coprocessor, using a new Monte Carlo photon transport package called ARCHER-CT we have developed for fast CT imaging dose calculation. The package contains three components, ARCHER-CT CPU , ARCHER-CT GPU and ARCHER-CT COP designed to be run on the multi-core CPU, GPU and coprocessor architectures respectively. A detailed GE LightSpeed Multi-Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) scanner model and a family of voxel patient phantoms are included in the code to calculate absorbed dose to radiosensitive organs under user-specified scan protocols. The results from ARCHER agree well with those from the production code Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX). It is found that all the code components are significantly faster than the parallel MCNPX run on 12 MPI processes, and that the GPU and coprocessor codes are 5.15–5.81 and 3.30–3.38 times faster than the parallel ARCHER-CT CPU , respectively. The M2090 GPU performs better than the 5110p coprocessor in our specific test. Besides, the heterogeneous computation mode in which the CPU and the hardware accelerator work concurrently can increase the overall performance by 13–18%

  10. Parallel solution of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations and other experiences using BlockComm-Chameleon and PCN on the IBM SP, Intel iPSC/860, and clusters of workstations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskun, E.

    1995-09-01

    Time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equations are considered for modeling a thin-film finite size superconductor placed under magnetic field. The problem then leads to the use of so-called natural boundary conditions. Computational domain is partitioned into subdomains and bond variables are used in obtaining the corresponding discrete system of equations. An efficient time-differencing method based on the Forward Euler method is developed. Finally, a variable strength magnetic field resulting in a vortex motion in Type II High T c superconducting films is introduced. The authors tackled the problem using two different state-of-the-art parallel computing tools: BlockComm/Chameleon and PCN. They had access to two high-performance distributed memory supercomputers: the Intel iPSC/860 and IBM SP1. They also tested the codes using, as a parallel computing environment, a cluster of Sun Sparc workstations

  11. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  12. Scientific Programming with High Performance Fortran: A Case Study Using the xHPF Compiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric De Sturler

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the first commercial High Performance Fortran (HPF subset compilers have appeared. This article reports on our experiences with the xHPF compiler of Applied Parallel Research, version 1.2, for the Intel Paragon. At this stage, we do not expect very High Performance from our HPF programs, even though performance will eventually be of paramount importance for the acceptance of HPF. Instead, our primary objective is to study how to convert large Fortran 77 (F77 programs to HPF such that the compiler generates reasonably efficient parallel code. We report on a case study that identifies several problems when parallelizing code with HPF; most of these problems affect current HPF compiler technology in general, although some are specific for the xHPF compiler. We discuss our solutions from the perspective of the scientific programmer, and presenttiming results on the Intel Paragon. The case study comprises three programs of different complexity with respect to parallelization. We use the dense matrix-matrix product to show that the distribution of arrays and the order of nested loops significantly influence the performance of the parallel program. We use Gaussian elimination with partial pivoting to study the parallelization strategy of the compiler. There are various ways to structure this algorithm for a particular data distribution. This example shows how much effort may be demanded from the programmer to support the compiler in generating an efficient parallel implementation. Finally, we use a small application to show that the more complicated structure of a larger program may introduce problems for the parallelization, even though all subroutines of the application are easy to parallelize by themselves. The application consists of a finite volume discretization on a structured grid and a nested iterative solver. Our case study shows that it is possible to obtain reasonably efficient parallel programs with xHPF, although the compiler

  13. Multi-processing CTH: Porting legacy FORTRAN code to MP hardware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.L.; Elrick, M.G.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    CTH is a family of codes developed at Sandia National Laboratories for use in modeling complex multi-dimensional, multi-material problems that are characterized by large deformations and/or strong shocks. A two-step, second-order accurate Eulerian solution algorithm is used to solve the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations. CTH has historically been run on systems where the data are directly accessible to the cpu, such as workstations and vector supercomputers. Multiple cpus can be used if all data are accessible to all cpus. This is accomplished by placing compiler directives or subroutine calls within the source code. The CTH team has implemented this scheme for Cray shared memory machines under the Unicos operating system. This technique is effective, but difficult to port to other (similar) shared memory architectures because each vendor has a different format of directives or subroutine calls. A different model of high performance computing is one where many (> 1,000) cpus work on a portion of the entire problem and communicate by passing messages that contain boundary data. Most, if not all, codes that run effectively on parallel hardware were written with a parallel computing paradigm in mind. Modifying an existing code written for serial nodes poses a significantly different set of challenges that will be discussed. CTH, a legacy FORTRAN code, has been modified to allow for solutions on distributed memory parallel computers such as the IBM SP2, the Intel Paragon, Cray T3D, or a network of workstations. The message passing version of CTH will be discussed and example calculations will be presented along with performance data. Current timing studies indicate that CTH is 2--3 times faster than equivalent C++ code written specifically for parallel hardware. CTH on the Intel Paragon exhibits linear speed up with problems that are scaled (constant problem size per node) for the number of parallel nodes.

  14. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Deuschel, Jean-Dominique

    2001-01-01

    This is the second printing of the book first published in 1988. The first four chapters of the volume are based on lectures given by Stroock at MIT in 1987. They form an introduction to the basic ideas of the theory of large deviations and make a suitable package on which to base a semester-length course for advanced graduate students with a strong background in analysis and some probability theory. A large selection of exercises presents important material and many applications. The last two chapters present various non-uniform results (Chapter 5) and outline the analytic approach that allow

  15. Comparison of 2 accelerators of Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations, NVIDIA tesla M2090 GPU and Intel Xeon Phi 5110p coprocessor: a case study for X-ray CT Imaging Dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, T.; Xu, X.G.; Carothers, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Hardware accelerators are currently becoming increasingly important in boosting high performance computing systems. In this study, we tested the performance of two accelerator models, NVIDIA Tesla M2090 GPU and Intel Xeon Phi 5110p coprocessor, using a new Monte Carlo photon transport package called ARCHER-CT we have developed for fast CT imaging dose calculation. The package contains three code variants, ARCHER-CT(CPU), ARCHER-CT(GPU) and ARCHER-CT(COP) to run in parallel on the multi-core CPU, GPU and coprocessor architectures respectively. A detailed GE LightSpeed Multi-Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) scanner model and a family of voxel patient phantoms were included in the code to calculate absorbed dose to radiosensitive organs under specified scan protocols. The results from ARCHER agreed well with those from the production code Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX). It was found that all the code variants were significantly faster than the parallel MCNPX running on 12 MPI processes, and that the GPU and coprocessor performed equally well, being 2.89-4.49 and 3.01-3.23 times faster than the parallel ARCHER-CT(CPU) running with 12 hyper-threads. (authors)

  16. Implementación a nivel universitario del curso INTEL educar para el futuro: sistematización de la experiencia en la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Eugenia Salas Madriz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La Facultad de Educación de la Universidad de Costa Rica, consciente del impacto e importancia que están adquiriendo las tecnologías educativas digitales en el ámbito educativo a nivel nacional y mundial, ha creado el Programa Tecnologías Educativas Avanzadas (PROTEA para el desarrollo y la investigación en este campo. En este artículo se sistematiza la experiencia de nueve docentes de la Universidad de Costa Rica, que colaboraron en la adecuación para el nivel universitario del curso Intel Educar para el Futuro, impartido por la Fundación Omar Dengo. Éste está orientado a educadores de primaria y secundaria, y su propósito es poner a disposición de los educadores las herramientas del Office® de Microsoft ® para desarrollar los procesos de enseñanza. Debido a las diferencias de fondo y forma entre la educación primaria y secundaria, y la universitaria, se hizo necesario revisar el manual y la metodología a fin de adaptarlos a las necesidades de la docencia universitaria y de la formación de formadores. En este sentido, la experiencia y colaboración de los docentes participantes fue determinante para lograr que el curso alcance hoy sus objetivos de poner estas herramientas al servicio de la docencia universitaria

  17. Comparison of Two Accelerators for Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Calculations, NVIDIA Tesla M2090 GPU and Intel Xeon Phi 5110p Coprocessor: A Case Study for X-ray CT Imaging Dose Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyu; Xu, X. George; Carothers, Christopher D.

    2014-06-01

    Hardware accelerators are currently becoming increasingly important in boosting high performance computing sys- tems. In this study, we tested the performance of two accelerator models, NVIDIA Tesla M2090 GPU and Intel Xeon Phi 5110p coprocessor, using a new Monte Carlo photon transport package called ARCHER-CT we have developed for fast CT imaging dose calculation. The package contains three code variants, ARCHER - CTCPU, ARCHER - CTGPU and ARCHER - CTCOP to run in parallel on the multi-core CPU, GPU and coprocessor architectures respectively. A detailed GE LightSpeed Multi-Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) scanner model and a family of voxel patient phantoms were included in the code to calculate absorbed dose to radiosensitive organs under specified scan protocols. The results from ARCHER agreed well with those from the production code Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX). It was found that all the code variants were significantly faster than the parallel MCNPX running on 12 MPI processes, and that the GPU and coprocessor performed equally well, being 2.89~4.49 and 3.01~3.23 times faster than the parallel ARCHER - CTCPU running with 12 hyperthreads.

  18. The Intelence aNd pRezista Once A Day Study (INROADS): a multicentre, single-arm, open-label study of etravirine and darunavir/ritonavir as dual therapy in HIV-1-infected early treatment-experienced subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, P J; Brinson, C; Ramgopal, M; Ryan, R; Coate, B; Cho, M; Kakuda, T N; Anderson, D

    2015-05-01

    Following antiretroviral therapy failure, patients are often treated with a three-drug regimen that includes two nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors [N(t)RTIs]. An alternative two-drug nucleoside-sparing regimen may decrease the pill burden and drug toxicities associated with the use of N(t)RTIs. The Intelence aNd pRezista Once A Day Study (INROADS; NCT01199939) evaluated the nucleoside-sparing regimen of etravirine 400 mg with darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once-daily in HIV-1-infected treatment-experienced subjects or treatment-naïve subjects with transmitted resistance. In this exploratory phase 2b, single-arm, open-label, multicentre, 48-week study, the primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects who achieved HIV-1 RNA treatment-experienced subjects or treatment-naïve subjects with transmitted resistance was virologically efficacious and well tolerated. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  19. Large ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  20. Parallel decomposition of the tight-binding fictitious Lagrangian algorithm for molecular dynamics simulations of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, M.; Kim, J.; Khan, F.S.

    1995-01-01

    We present a parallel decomposition of the tight-binding fictitious Lagrangian algorithm for the Intel iPSC/860 and the Intel Paragon parallel computers. We show that it is possible to perform long simulations, of the order of 10 000 time steps, on semiconducting clusters consisting of as many as 512 atoms, on a time scale of the order of 20 h or less. We have made a very careful timing analysis of all parts of our code, and have identified the bottlenecks. We have also derived formulas which can predict the timing of our code, based on the number of processors, message passing bandwidth, floating point performance of each node, and the set up time for message passing, appropriate to the machine being used. The time of the simulation scales as the square of the number of particles, if the number of processors is made to scale linearly with the number of particles. We show that for a system as large as 512 atoms, the main bottleneck of the computation is the orthogonalization of the wave functions, which consumes about 90% of the total time of the simulation

  1. Optimizing Excited-State Electronic-Structure Codes for Intel Knights Landing: A Case Study on the BerkeleyGW Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deslippe, Jack; da Jornada, Felipe H.; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Barnes, Taylor; Wichmann, Nathan; Raman, Karthik; Sasanka, Ruchira; Louie, Steven G.

    2016-10-06

    We profile and optimize calculations performed with the BerkeleyGW code on the Xeon-Phi architecture. BerkeleyGW depends both on hand-tuned critical kernels as well as on BLAS and FFT libraries. We describe the optimization process and performance improvements achieved. We discuss a layered parallelization strategy to take advantage of vector, thread and node-level parallelism. We discuss locality changes (including the consequence of the lack of L3 cache) and effective use of the on-package high-bandwidth memory. We show preliminary results on Knights-Landing including a roofline study of code performance before and after a number of optimizations. We find that the GW method is particularly well-suited for many-core architectures due to the ability to exploit a large amount of parallelism over plane-wave components, band-pairs, and frequencies.

  2. PCG: A software package for the iterative solution of linear systems on scalar, vector and parallel computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Carey, G.F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A great need exists for high performance numerical software libraries transportable across parallel machines. This talk concerns the PCG package, which solves systems of linear equations by iterative methods on parallel computers. The features of the package are discussed, as well as techniques used to obtain high performance as well as transportability across architectures. Representative numerical results are presented for several machines including the Connection Machine CM-5, Intel Paragon and Cray T3D parallel computers.

  3. Internet of Things with Intel Galileo

    CERN Document Server

    de Sousa, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    This book employs an incremental, step-by-step approach to get you familiarized with everything from the basic terms, board components, and development environments to developing real projects. Each project will demonstrate how to use specific board components and tools. Both Galileo and Galileo Gen 2 are covered in this book.

  4. Wafer of Intel Pentium 4 Prescott Chips

    CERN Multimedia

    Silicon wafer with hundreds of Penryn cores (microprocessor). There are around four times as many Prescott chips can be made per wafer than with the previous generation of Northwood-core Pentium 4 processors. It is faster and cheaper.

  5. La reforma projectada de la Comissió de Propietat Intel·lectual del Ministeri de Cultura i el “procediment per al restabliment de la legalitat”, la instrucció i resolució del qual es vol atribuir a la seva proposada Secció Segona.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ferrándiz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La disposició final segona del Projecte de llei d'economia sostenible que el Govern ha presentat al Congrés dels Diputats projecta crear una nova comissió de propietat intel·lectual al si del Ministeri de Cultura, que passarà a estar integrada per dues seccions: la Secció Primera i la Secció Segona. En particular, a la Secció Segona es vol atribuir la instrucció i resolució d'un nou procediment administratiu, anomenat per al restabliment de la legalitat, el qual podrà finalitzar amb l'adopció de mesures de restricció a la prestació de serveis de la societat de la informació, com ara la interrupció del servei o la retirada de les dades, quan vulnerin drets de propietat intel·lectual, però sempre que el seu responsable ho dugui a terme amb ànim de lucre, directe o indirecte, o hagi causat o sigui susceptible de causar un dany patrimonial. Encara que l'execució de tals mesures requerirà l'autorització judicial prèvia mitjançant una interlocutòria, l'òrgan competent per a la qual és el Jutjat Central Contenciós Administratiu de l'Audiència Nacional, l'atribució a una administració pública de competències per a resoldre controvèrsies o conflictes entre particulars, sobre drets (els de propietat intel·lectual de naturalesa estrictament privada (això és, uns drets, encara que sigui especial, de propietat, planteja no pocs interrogants passant l'assumpte pel tamís del principi de separació de poders que consagra l'article 117 de la Constitució i qüestiona la neutralitat de l'Administració pública, ja que no es justifica degudament en el projecte de llei que amb la seva actuació serveix, com exigeix l'article 103 del text fonamental, amb objectivitat, als interessos generals.

  6. Computation of large covariance matrices by SAMMY on graphical processing units and multicore CPUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbanas, G.; Dunn, M.E.; Wiarda, D., E-mail: arbanasg@ornl.gov, E-mail: dunnme@ornl.gov, E-mail: wiardada@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Computational power of Graphical Processing Units and multicore CPUs was harnessed by the nuclear data evaluation code SAMMY to speed up computations of large Resonance Parameter Covariance Matrices (RPCMs). This was accomplished by linking SAMMY to vendor-optimized implementations of the matrix-matrix multiplication subroutine of the Basic Linear Algebra Library to compute the most time-consuming step. The {sup 235}U RPCM computed previously using a triple-nested loop was re-computed using the NVIDIA implementation of the subroutine on a single Tesla Fermi Graphical Processing Unit, and also using the Intel's Math Kernel Library implementation on two different multicore CPU systems. A multiplication of two matrices of dimensions 16,000×20,000 that had previously taken days, took approximately one minute on the GPU. Comparable performance was achieved on a dual six-core CPU system. The magnitude of the speed-up suggests that these, or similar, combinations of hardware and libraries may be useful for large matrix operations in SAMMY. Uniform interfaces of standard linear algebra libraries make them a promising candidate for a programming framework of a new generation of SAMMY for the emerging heterogeneous computing platforms. (author)

  7. Performance modeling of hybrid MPI/OpenMP scientific applications on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu; Taylor, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore supercomputers: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and BlueGene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks and Intel's MPI benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore supercomputers because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore supercomputers. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore supercomputers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  8. Computation of large covariance matrices by SAMMY on graphical processing units and multicore CPUs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbanas, G.; Dunn, M.E.; Wiarda, D.

    2011-01-01

    Computational power of Graphical Processing Units and multicore CPUs was harnessed by the nuclear data evaluation code SAMMY to speed up computations of large Resonance Parameter Covariance Matrices (RPCMs). This was accomplished by linking SAMMY to vendor-optimized implementations of the matrix-matrix multiplication subroutine of the Basic Linear Algebra Library to compute the most time-consuming step. The 235 U RPCM computed previously using a triple-nested loop was re-computed using the NVIDIA implementation of the subroutine on a single Tesla Fermi Graphical Processing Unit, and also using the Intel's Math Kernel Library implementation on two different multicore CPU systems. A multiplication of two matrices of dimensions 16,000×20,000 that had previously taken days, took approximately one minute on the GPU. Comparable performance was achieved on a dual six-core CPU system. The magnitude of the speed-up suggests that these, or similar, combinations of hardware and libraries may be useful for large matrix operations in SAMMY. Uniform interfaces of standard linear algebra libraries make them a promising candidate for a programming framework of a new generation of SAMMY for the emerging heterogeneous computing platforms. (author)

  9. Instantons and Large N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Marcos

    2015-09-01

    Preface; Part I. Instantons: 1. Instantons in quantum mechanics; 2. Unstable vacua in quantum field theory; 3. Large order behavior and Borel summability; 4. Non-perturbative aspects of Yang-Mills theories; 5. Instantons and fermions; Part II. Large N: 6. Sigma models at large N; 7. The 1=N expansion in QCD; 8. Matrix models and matrix quantum mechanics at large N; 9. Large N QCD in two dimensions; 10. Instantons at large N; Appendix A. Harmonic analysis on S3; Appendix B. Heat kernel and zeta functions; Appendix C. Effective action for large N sigma models; References; Author index; Subject index.

  10. Winckelmann, a bela alegoria e a superação do 'paragone' entre as artes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Valladão de Mattos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto faz uma análise do conceito de Alegoria em Winckelmann. Procuramos mostrar como o autor faz um uso muito particular do termo, adotando-o principalmente em suas análises de pintura. O conceito de Alegoria em pintura parece ter favorecido, aos olhos de Winckelmann, tanto a realização da ut picura poesis, quanto a adoção das esculturas clássicas como modelo para a pintura, mas ao mesmo tempo esta opção implicou em uma rejeição do modelo narrativo privilegiado pela tradição clássica do século XVII, em favor de um modelo semelhante ao adotado por grandes artistas da tradição barroca do período.

  11. Field Marshal Sir William J. Slim - Paragon of Moral and Ethical Courage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baylor, Richard

    1998-01-01

    ... during the most desperate and brutal times. This paper looks closely at Field Marshal Slim's ethical development and leadership during his younger years, his senior leader years, and his later years...

  12. Large Neighborhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, David; Røpke, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Heuristics based on large neighborhood search have recently shown outstanding results in solving various transportation and scheduling problems. Large neighborhood search methods explore a complex neighborhood by use of heuristics. Using large neighborhoods makes it possible to find better...... candidate solutions in each iteration and hence traverse a more promising search path. Starting from the large neighborhood search method,we give an overview of very large scale neighborhood search methods and discuss recent variants and extensions like variable depth search and adaptive large neighborhood...

  13. Large scale electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Bello; M Junker

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production by water electrolysis represents nearly 4 % of the world hydrogen production. Future development of hydrogen vehicles will require large quantities of hydrogen. Installation of large scale hydrogen production plants will be needed. In this context, development of low cost large scale electrolysers that could use 'clean power' seems necessary. ALPHEA HYDROGEN, an European network and center of expertise on hydrogen and fuel cells, has performed for its members a study in 2005 to evaluate the potential of large scale electrolysers to produce hydrogen in the future. The different electrolysis technologies were compared. Then, a state of art of the electrolysis modules currently available was made. A review of the large scale electrolysis plants that have been installed in the world was also realized. The main projects related to large scale electrolysis were also listed. Economy of large scale electrolysers has been discussed. The influence of energy prices on the hydrogen production cost by large scale electrolysis was evaluated. (authors)

  14. Large Pelagics Intercept Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Intercept Survey (LPIS) is a dockside survey of private and charterboat captains who have just completed fishing trips directed at large pelagic...

  15. Large electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is divided into four parts: a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year

  16. A new parallel molecular dynamics algorithm for organic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plimpton, S.; Hendrickson, B.; Heffelfinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    A new parallel algorithm for simulating bonded molecular systems such as polymers and proteins by molecular dynamics (MD) is presented. In contrast to methods that extract parallelism by breaking the spatial domain into sub-pieces, the new method does not require regular geometries or uniform particle densities to achieve high parallel efficiency. For very large, regular systems spatial methods are often the best choice, but in practice the new method is faster for systems with tens-of-thousands of atoms simulated on large numbers of processors. It is also several times faster than the techniques commonly used for parallelizing bonded MD that assign a subset of atoms to each processor and require all-to-all communication. Implementation of the algorithm in a CHARMm-like MD model with many body forces and constraint dynamics is discussed and timings on the Intel Delta and Paragon machines are given. Example calculations using the algorithm in simulations of polymers and liquid-crystal molecules will also be briefly discussed

  17. Large mass storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  18. Large N Scalars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We construct effective Lagrangians, and corresponding counting schemes, valid to describe the dynamics of the lowest lying large N stable massive composite state emerging in strongly coupled theories. The large N counting rules can now be employed when computing quantum corrections via an effective...

  19. Large bowel resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blockage in the intestine due to scar tissue Colon cancer Diverticular disease (disease of the large bowel) Other reasons for bowel resection are: Familial polyposis (polyps are growths on the lining of the colon or rectum) Injuries that damage the large bowel ...

  20. Parallelization of 2-D lattice Boltzmann codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Soichiro; Kaburaki, Hideo; Yokokawa, Mitsuo.

    1996-03-01

    Lattice Boltzmann (LB) codes to simulate two dimensional fluid flow are developed on vector parallel computer Fujitsu VPP500 and scalar parallel computer Intel Paragon XP/S. While a 2-D domain decomposition method is used for the scalar parallel LB code, a 1-D domain decomposition method is used for the vector parallel LB code to be vectorized along with the axis perpendicular to the direction of the decomposition. High parallel efficiency of 95.1% by the vector parallel calculation on 16 processors with 1152x1152 grid and 88.6% by the scalar parallel calculation on 100 processors with 800x800 grid are obtained. The performance models are developed to analyze the performance of the LB codes. It is shown by our performance models that the execution speed of the vector parallel code is about one hundred times faster than that of the scalar parallel code with the same number of processors up to 100 processors. We also analyze the scalability in keeping the available memory size of one processor element at maximum. Our performance model predicts that the execution time of the vector parallel code increases about 3% on 500 processors. Although the 1-D domain decomposition method has in general a drawback in the interprocessor communication, the vector parallel LB code is still suitable for the large scale and/or high resolution simulations. (author)

  1. An efficient communication scheme for solving Sn equations on message-passing multiprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Early models of Intel's hypercube multiprocessors, e.g., the iPSC/1 and iPSC/2, were characterized by the high latency of message passing. This relatively weak dependence of the communication penalty on the size of messages, in contrast to its strong dependence on the number of messages, justified using the Fan-in Fan-out algorithm (which implements a minimum spanning tree path) to perform global operations, such as global sums, etc. Recent models of message-passing computers, such as the iPSC/860 and the Paragon, have been found to possess much smaller latency, thus forcing a reexamination of the issue of performance optimization with respect to communication schemes. Essentially, the Fan-in Fan-out scheme minimizes the number of nonsimultaneous messages sent but not the volume of data traffic across the network. Furthermore, if a global operation is performed in conjunction with the message passing, a large fraction of the attached nodes remains idle as the number of utilized processors is halved in each step of the process. On the other hand, the Recursive Halving scheme offers the smallest communication cost for global operations but has some drawbacks

  2. Parallel computing by Monte Carlo codes MVP/GMVP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Yasunobu; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Mori, Takamasa

    2001-01-01

    General-purpose Monte Carlo codes MVP/GMVP are well-vectorized and thus enable us to perform high-speed Monte Carlo calculations. In order to achieve more speedups, we parallelized the codes on the different types of parallel computing platforms or by using a standard parallelization library MPI. The platforms used for benchmark calculations are a distributed-memory vector-parallel computer Fujitsu VPP500, a distributed-memory massively parallel computer Intel paragon and a distributed-memory scalar-parallel computer Hitachi SR2201, IBM SP2. As mentioned generally, linear speedup could be obtained for large-scale problems but parallelization efficiency decreased as the batch size per a processing element(PE) was smaller. It was also found that the statistical uncertainty for assembly powers was less than 0.1% by the PWR full-core calculation with more than 10 million histories and it took about 1.5 hours by massively parallel computing. (author)

  3. Parallelization of 2-D lattice Boltzmann codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Soichiro; Kaburaki, Hideo; Yokokawa, Mitsuo

    1996-03-01

    Lattice Boltzmann (LB) codes to simulate two dimensional fluid flow are developed on vector parallel computer Fujitsu VPP500 and scalar parallel computer Intel Paragon XP/S. While a 2-D domain decomposition method is used for the scalar parallel LB code, a 1-D domain decomposition method is used for the vector parallel LB code to be vectorized along with the axis perpendicular to the direction of the decomposition. High parallel efficiency of 95.1% by the vector parallel calculation on 16 processors with 1152x1152 grid and 88.6% by the scalar parallel calculation on 100 processors with 800x800 grid are obtained. The performance models are developed to analyze the performance of the LB codes. It is shown by our performance models that the execution speed of the vector parallel code is about one hundred times faster than that of the scalar parallel code with the same number of processors up to 100 processors. We also analyze the scalability in keeping the available memory size of one processor element at maximum. Our performance model predicts that the execution time of the vector parallel code increases about 3% on 500 processors. Although the 1-D domain decomposition method has in general a drawback in the interprocessor communication, the vector parallel LB code is still suitable for the large scale and/or high resolution simulations. (author).

  4. Adaptive Large Neighbourhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan

    Large neighborhood search is a metaheuristic that has gained popularity in recent years. The heuristic repeatedly moves from solution to solution by first partially destroying the solution and then repairing it. The best solution observed during this search is presented as the final solution....... This tutorial introduces the large neighborhood search metaheuristic and the variant adaptive large neighborhood search that dynamically tunes parameters of the heuristic while it is running. Both heuristics belong to a broader class of heuristics that are searching a solution space using very large...... neighborhoods. The tutorial also present applications of the adaptive large neighborhood search, mostly related to vehicle routing problems for which the heuristic has been extremely successful. We discuss how the heuristic can be parallelized and thereby take advantage of modern desktop computers...

  5. ERP inside Large Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Daniel AVRAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many large companies in Romania are still functioning without an ERP system. Instead they are using traditional application systems built around the strong boundaries of specific functions: finance, selling, HR, production. An ERP will offer lots of advantages among which the integration of functionalities and support for top management decisions. Although the total cost of ownership is not small and there are some risks when implementing an ERP inside large and very large organizations, having such a system is mandatory. Choosing the right product and vendor and using a correct risk management strategy, will ensure a successful implementation.

  6. Large Pelagics Telephone Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Telephone Survey (LPTS) collects fishing effort information directly from captains holding Highly Migratory Species (HMS) permits (required by...

  7. Large Customers (DR Sellers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccot, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-10-25

    State of the large customers for demand response integration of solar and wind into electric grid; openADR; CAISO; DR as a pseudo generation; commercial and industrial DR strategies; California regulations

  8. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  9. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  10. Large transverse momentum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1977-09-01

    It is pointed out that it is particularly significant that the quantum numbers of the leading particles are strongly correlated with the quantum numbers of the incident hadrons indicating that the valence quarks themselves are transferred to large p/sub t/. The crucial question is how they get there. Various hadron reactions are discussed covering the structure of exclusive reactions, inclusive reactions, normalization of inclusive cross sections, charge correlations, and jet production at large transverse momentum. 46 references

  11. Large Retailers’ Financial Services

    OpenAIRE

    Risso, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, large retailers offering financial services have considerably grown in the financial services sector. Retailers are increasing the wideness and complexity of their offer of financial services. Large retail companies provide financial services to their customers following different strategic ways. The provision of financial services in the retailers offer is implemented in several different ways related to the strategies, the structures and the degree of financial know...

  12. Large momentum transfer phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.

    1978-01-01

    The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)

  13. A Digital Motion Control System for Large Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T. R.; Wilson, R. W.; Kimberk, R.; Leiker, P. S.

    2001-05-01

    We have designed and programmed a digital motion control system for large telescopes, in particular, the 6-meter antennas of the Submillimeter Array on Mauna Kea. The system consists of a single robust, high-reliability microcontroller board which implements a two-axis velocity servo while monitoring and responding to critical safety parameters. Excellent tracking performance has been achieved with this system (0.3 arcsecond RMS at sidereal rate). The 24x24 centimeter four-layer printed circuit board contains a multitude of hardware devices: 40 digital inputs (for limit switches and fault indicators), 32 digital outputs (to enable/disable motor amplifiers and brakes), a quad 22-bit ADC (to read the motor tachometers), four 16-bit DACs (that provide torque signals to the motor amplifiers), a 32-LED status panel, a serial port to the LynxOS PowerPC antenna computer (RS422/460kbps), a serial port to the Palm Vx handpaddle (RS232/115kbps), and serial links to the low-resolution absolute encoders on the azimuth and elevation axes. Each section of the board employs independent ground planes and power supplies, with optical isolation on all I/O channels. The processor is an Intel 80C196KC 16-bit microcontroller running at 20MHz on an 8-bit bus. This processor executes an interrupt-driven, scheduler-based software system written in C and assembled into an EPROM with user-accessible variables stored in NVSRAM. Under normal operation, velocity update requests arrive at 100Hz from the position-loop servo process running independently on the antenna computer. A variety of telescope safety checks are performed at 279Hz including routine servicing of a 6 millisecond watchdog timer. Additional ADCs onboard the microcontroller monitor the winding temperature and current in the brushless three-phase drive motors. The PID servo gains can be dynamically changed in software. Calibration factors and software filters can be applied to the tachometer readings prior to the application of

  14. Large electrostatic accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators.

  15. Large electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators

  16. Large field radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanasek, J.; Chvojka, Z.; Zouhar, M.

    1984-01-01

    Calculations may prove that irradiation procedures, commonly used in radiotherapy and represented by large-capacity irradiation techniques, do not exceed certain limits of integral doses with favourable radiobiological action on the organism. On the other hand integral doses in supralethal whole-body irradiation, used in the therapy of acute leukemia, represent radiobiological values which without extreme and exceptional further interventions and teamwork are not compatible with life, and the radiotherapeutist cannot use such high doses without the backing of a large team. (author)

  17. Developing Large Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Loudon, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    How do you create a mission-critical site that provides exceptional performance while remaining flexible, adaptable, and reliable 24/7? Written by the manager of a UI group at Yahoo!, Developing Large Web Applications offers practical steps for building rock-solid applications that remain effective even as you add features, functions, and users. You'll learn how to develop large web applications with the extreme precision required for other types of software. Avoid common coding and maintenance headaches as small websites add more pages, more code, and more programmersGet comprehensive soluti

  18. Choice of large projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R

    1978-08-01

    Conventional cost/benefit or project analysis has generally not taken into account circumstances in which the project under consideration is large enough that its introduction to the economy would have significant general equilibrium effects. In this paper, rules are examined that would indicate whether such large projects should be accepted or rejected. The rules utilize information yielded by before-project and after-project equilibrium prices and production data. Rules are developed for the undistorted ''first-best'' case, the case in which the fixed costs of the project are covered by distortionary taxation, and for the case of projects producing public goods. 34 references.

  19. Investigation of Large Scale Cortical Models on Clustered Multi-Core Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Playstation 3 with 6 available SPU cores outperforms the Intel Xeon processor (with 4 cores) by about 1.9 times for the HTM model and by 2.4 times...runtime breakdowns of the HTM and Dean models respectively on the Cell processor (on the Playstation 3) and the Intel Xeon processor ( 4 thread...YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  20. LARGE SCALE GLAZED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    OF SELECTED EXISTING BUILDINGS IN AND AROUND COPENHAGEN COVERED WITH MOSAIC TILES, UNGLAZED OR GLAZED CLAY TILES. ITS BUILDINGS WHICH HAVE QUALITIES THAT I WOULD LIKE APPLIED, PERHAPS TRANSFORMED OR MOST PREFERABLY, INTERPRETED ANEW, FOR THE LARGE GLAZED CONCRETE PANELS I AM DEVELOPING. KEYWORDS: COLOR, LIGHT...

  1. Large hydropower generating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents the Brazilian experience with the design, fabrication, construction, commissioning and operation of large scale and generation capacity unities. The experience had been acquired with the implementation of Itumbiara, Paulo Afonso IV, Tucurui, Itaipu and Xingo power plants, which are among the largest world unities.

  2. Large Data Set Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, I.B.; Broomhall, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Digital emotion research has yet to make history. Until now large data set mining has not been a very active field of research in early modern emotion studies. This is indeed surprising since first, the early modern field has such rich, copyright-free, digitized data sets and second, emotion studies

  3. Representing Large Virtual Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kol, T.R.

    2018-01-01

    The ubiquity of large virtual worlds and their growing complexity in computer graphics require efficient representations. This means that we need smart solutions for the underlying storage of these complex environments, but also for their visualization. How the virtual world is best stored and how

  4. The large hadron computer

    CERN Multimedia

    Hirstius, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Plans for dealing with the torrent of data from the Large Hadron Collider's detectors have made the CERN particle-phycis lab, yet again, a pioneer in computing as well as physics. The author describes the challenges of processing and storing data in the age of petabyt science. (4 pages)

  5. LARGE BUILDING HVAC SIMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the monitoring and collection of data relating to indoor pressures and radon concentrations under several test conditions in a large school building in Bartow, Florida. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) used an integrated computational software, FSEC 3.0...

  6. Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "In the spring 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine at CERN (the European Particle Physics laboratory) will be switched on for the first time. The huge machine is housed in a circular tunnel, 27 km long, excavated deep under the French-Swiss border near Geneva." (1,5 page)

  7. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  8. Large Hadron Collider manual

    CERN Document Server

    Lavender, Gemma

    2018-01-01

    What is the universe made of? How did it start? This Manual tells the story of how physicists are seeking answers to these questions using the world’s largest particle smasher – the Large Hadron Collider – at the CERN laboratory on the Franco-Swiss border. Beginning with the first tentative steps taken to build the machine, the digestible text, supported by color photographs of the hardware involved, along with annotated schematic diagrams of the physics experiments, covers the particle accelerator’s greatest discoveries – from both the perspective of the writer and the scientists who work there. The Large Hadron Collider Manual is a full, comprehensive guide to the most famous, record-breaking physics experiment in the world, which continues to capture the public imagination as it provides new insight into the fundamental laws of nature.

  9. [Large benign prostatic hiperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Fernández, Guillermo René; Jungfermann-Guzman, José René; Lomelín-Ramos, José Pedro; Jaspersen-Gastelum, Jorge; Rosas-Nava, Jesús Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    the term prostatic hyperplasia is most frequently used to describe the benign prostatic growth, this being a widely prevalent disorder associated with age that affects most men as they age. The association between prostate growth and urinary obstruction in older adults is well documented. large benign prostatic hyperplasia is rare and few cases have been published and should be taken into account during the study of tumors of the pelvic cavity. we report the case of an 81-year-old who had significant symptoms relating to storage and bladder emptying, with no significant elevation of prostate specific antigen. this is a rare condition but it is still important to diagnose and treat as it may be related to severe obstructive uropathy and chronic renal failure. In our institution, cases of large prostatic hyperplasia that are solved by suprapubic adenomectomy are less than 3%.

  10. [Large vessel vasculitides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Puksić, Silva; Gracanin, Ana Gudelj

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Although all large arteries can be affected, the aorta, subclavian and carotid arteries are most commonly involved. The most common symptoms included upper extremity claudication, hypertension, pain over the carotid arteries (carotidynia), dizziness and visual disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment has improved the outcome in patients with TA.

  11. Large tandem accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of tandem accelerators designed to operate at maximum terminal potentials in the range 14 to 30 MV. In addition, a number of older tandem accelerators are now being significantly upgraded to improve their heavy ion performance. Both of these developments have reemphasized the importance of negative heavy ion sources. The new large tandem accelerators are described, and the requirements placed on negative heavy ion source technology by these and other tandem accelerators used for the acceleration of heavy ions are discussed. First, a brief description is given of the large tandem accelerators which have been completed recently, are under construction, or are funded for construction, second, the motivation for construction of these accelerators is discussed, and last, criteria for negative ion sources for use with these accelerators are presented

  12. Large scale reflood test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kemmei; Murao, Yoshio

    1980-01-01

    The large-scale reflood test with a view to ensuring the safety of light water reactors was started in fiscal 1976 based on the special account act for power source development promotion measures by the entrustment from the Science and Technology Agency. Thereafter, to establish the safety of PWRs in loss-of-coolant accidents by joint international efforts, the Japan-West Germany-U.S. research cooperation program was started in April, 1980. Thereupon, the large-scale reflood test is now included in this program. It consists of two tests using a cylindrical core testing apparatus for examining the overall system effect and a plate core testing apparatus for testing individual effects. Each apparatus is composed of the mock-ups of pressure vessel, primary loop, containment vessel and ECCS. The testing method, the test results and the research cooperation program are described. (J.P.N.)

  13. Large scale model testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Filip, R.; Polachova, H.; Stepanek, S.

    1989-01-01

    Fracture mechanics and fatigue calculations for WWER reactor pressure vessels were checked by large scale model testing performed using large testing machine ZZ 8000 (with a maximum load of 80 MN) at the SKODA WORKS. The results are described from testing the material resistance to fracture (non-ductile). The testing included the base materials and welded joints. The rated specimen thickness was 150 mm with defects of a depth between 15 and 100 mm. The results are also presented of nozzles of 850 mm inner diameter in a scale of 1:3; static, cyclic, and dynamic tests were performed without and with surface defects (15, 30 and 45 mm deep). During cyclic tests the crack growth rate in the elastic-plastic region was also determined. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  14. Large mass storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, Arnold M.

    1978-08-01

    This is the final report of a study group organized to investigate questions surrounding the acquisition of a large mass storage facility. The programatic justification for such a system at Brookhaven is reviewed. Several candidate commercial products are identified and discussed. A draft of a procurement specification is developed. Some thoughts on possible new directions for computing at Brookhaven are also offered, although this topic was addressed outside of the context of the group's deliberations. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  15. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Juettner Fernandes, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    What really happened during the Big Bang? Why did matter form? Why do particles have mass? To answer these questions, scientists and engineers have worked together to build the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world: the Large Hadron Collider. Includes glossary, websites, and bibliography for further reading. Perfect for STEM connections. Aligns to the Common Core State Standards for Language Arts. Teachers' Notes available online.

  16. Large Right Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rowe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: An 83-year-old male with a distant history of tuberculosis status post treatment and resection approximately fifty years prior presented with two days of worsening shortness of breath. He denied any chest pain, and reported his shortness of breath was worse with exertion and lying flat. Significant findings: Chest x-ray and bedside ultrasound revealed a large right pleural effusion, estimated to be greater than two and a half liters in size. Discussion: The incidence of pleural effusion is estimated to be at least 1.5 million cases annually in the United States.1 Erect posteroanterior and lateral chest radiography remains the mainstay for diagnosis of a pleural effusion; on upright chest radiography small effusions (>400cc will blunt the costophrenic angles, and as the size of an effusion grows it will begin to obscure the hemidiphragm.1 Large effusions will cause mediastinal shift away from the affected side (seen in effusions >1000cc.1 Lateral decubitus chest radiography can detect effusions greater than 50cc.1 Ultrasonography can help differentiate large pulmonary masses from effusions and can be instrumental in guiding thoracentesis.1 The patient above was comfortable at rest and was admitted for a non-emergent thoracentesis. The pulmonology team removed 2500cc of fluid, and unfortunately the patient subsequently developed re-expansion pulmonary edema and pneumothorax ex-vacuo. It is generally recommended that no more than 1500cc be removed to minimize the risk of re-expansion pulmonary edema.2

  17. Large litter sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Rutherford, K.M.D.; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some key results and conclusions from a review (Rutherford et al. 2011) undertaken regarding the ethical and welfare implications of breeding for large litter size in the domestic pig and about different ways of dealing with these implications. Focus is primarily on the direct...... possible to achieve a drop in relative piglet mortality and the related welfare problems. However, there will be a growing problem with the need to use foster or nurse sows which may have negative effects on both sows and piglets. This gives rise to new challenges for management....

  18. Large lithium loop experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430 0 C and flow to 0.038 m 3 /s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed

  19. Large coil test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelms, L.W.; Thompson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Final design of the facility is nearing completion, and 20% of the construction has been accomplished. A large vacuum chamber, houses the test assembly which is coupled to appropriate cryogenic, electrical, instrumentation, diagnostc systems. Adequate assembly/disassembly areas, shop space, test control center, offices, and test support laboratories are located in the same building. Assembly and installation operations are accomplished with an overhead crane. The major subsystems are the vacuum system, the test stand assembly, the cryogenic system, the experimental electric power system, the instrumentation and control system, and the data aquisition system

  20. Massively parallel computation of PARASOL code on the Origin 3800 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Masanari; Takizuka, Tomonori

    2001-10-01

    The divertor particle simulation code named PARASOL simulates open-field plasmas between divertor walls self-consistently by using an electrostatic PIC method and a binary collision Monte Carlo model. The PARASOL parallelized with MPI-1.1 for scalar parallel computer worked on Intel Paragon XP/S system. A system SGI Origin 3800 was newly installed (May, 2001). The parallel programming was improved at this switchover. As a result of the high-performance new hardware and this improvement, the PARASOL is speeded up by about 60 times with the same number of processors. (author)

  1. A Fast parallel tridiagonal algorithm for a class of CFD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Stuti; Sun, Xian-He

    1996-01-01

    The parallel diagonal dominant (PDD) algorithm is an efficient tridiagonal solver. This paper presents for study a variation of the PDD algorithm, the reduced PDD algorithm. The new algorithm maintains the minimum communication provided by the PDD algorithm, but has a reduced operation count. The PDD algorithm also has a smaller operation count than the conventional sequential algorithm for many applications. Accuracy analysis is provided for the reduced PDD algorithm for symmetric Toeplitz tridiagonal (STT) systems. Implementation results on Langley's Intel Paragon and IBM SP2 show that both the PDD and reduced PDD algorithms are efficient and scalable.

  2. A Portable Parallel Implementation of the U.S. Navy Layered Ocean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Wallcraft, PhD (I.C. 1981) Planning Systems Inc. & P. R. Moore, PhD (Camb. 1971) IC Dept. Math. DR Moore 1° Encontro de Metodos Numericos...Kendall Square, Hypercube, D R Moore 1 ° Encontro de Metodos Numericos para Equacöes de Derivadas Parciais A. J. Wallcraft IC Mathematics...chips: Chips Machine DEC Alpha CrayT3D/E SUN Sparc Fujitsu AP1000 Intel 860 Paragon D R Moore 1° Encontro de Metodos Numericos para Equacöes

  3. Large orbit neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Neoclassical transport in the presence of large ion orbits is investigated. The study is motivated by the recent experimental results that ion thermal transport levels in enhanced confinement tokamak plasmas fall below the open-quotes irreducible minimum levelclose quotes predicted by standard neoclassical theory. This apparent contradiction is resolved in the present analysis by relaxing the basic neoclassical assumption that the ions orbital excursions are much smaller than the local toroidal minor radius and the equilibrium scale lengths of the system. Analytical and simulation results are in agreement with trends from experiments. The development of a general formalism for neoclassical transport theory with finite orbit width is also discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Large Superconducting Magnet Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Védrine, P.

    2014-07-17

    The increase of energy in accelerators over the past decades has led to the design of superconducting magnets for both accelerators and the associated detectors. The use of Nb−Ti superconducting materials allows an increase in the dipole field by up to 10 T compared with the maximum field of 2 T in a conventional magnet. The field bending of the particles in the detectors and generated by the magnets can also be increased. New materials, such as Nb$_{3}$Sn and high temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors, can open the way to higher fields, in the range 13–20 T. The latest generations of fusion machines producing hot plasma also use large superconducting magnet systems.

  5. Large Scale Solar Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out...... model is designed and validated on the Marstal case. Applying the Danish Reference Year, a design tool is presented. The simulation tool is used for proposals for application of alternative designs, including high-performance solar collector types (trough solar collectors, vaccum pipe collectors......). Simulation programs are proposed as control supporting tool for daily operation and performance prediction of central solar heating plants. Finaly the CSHP technolgy is put into persepctive with respect to alternatives and a short discussion on the barries and breakthrough of the technology are given....

  6. Large Superconducting Magnet Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Védrine, P [Saclay (France)

    2014-07-01

    The increase of energy in accelerators over the past decades has led to the design of superconducting magnets for both accelerators and the associated detectors. The use of Nb−Ti superconducting materials allows an increase in the dipole field by up to 10 T compared with the maximum field of 2 T in a conventional magnet. The field bending of the particles in the detectors and generated by the magnets can also be increased. New materials, such as Nb3Sn and high temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors, can open the way to higher fields, in the range 13–20 T. The latest generations of fusion machines producing hot plasma also use large superconducting magnet systems.

  7. Large forging manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamboo, Samuel V.; Yang, Ling

    2002-01-01

    A process for forging large components of Alloy 718 material so that the components do not exhibit abnormal grain growth includes the steps of: a) providing a billet with an average grain size between ASTM 0 and ASTM 3; b) heating the billet to a temperature of between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; c) upsetting the billet to obtain a component part with a minimum strain of 0.125 in at least selected areas of the part; d) reheating the component part to a temperature between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; e) upsetting the component part to a final configuration such that said selected areas receive no strains between 0.01 and 0.125; f) solution treating the component part at a temperature of between 1725.degree. F. and 1750.degree. F.; and g) aging the component part over predetermined times at different temperatures. A modified process achieves abnormal grain growth in selected areas of a component where desirable.

  8. Large scale tracking algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ross L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Love, Joshua Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Melgaard, David Kennett [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Karelitz, David B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pitts, Todd Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zollweg, Joshua David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, Dylan Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nandy, Prabal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitlow, Gary L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bender, Daniel A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Byrne, Raymond Harry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  9. The large binocular telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010.

  10. Large Format Radiographic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, J. S.; Stewart, Lacey; Wilke, M. D.; King, N. S.; Baker A, S.; Lewis, Wilfred

    1999-01-01

    Radiographic imaging continues to be a key diagnostic in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiographic recording systems have taken on many form, from high repetition-rate, gated systems to film recording and storage phosphors. Some systems are designed for synchronization to an accelerator while others may be single shot or may record a frame sequence in a dynamic radiography experiment. While film recording remains a reliable standby in the radiographic community, there is growing interest in investigating electronic recording for many applications. The advantages of real time access to remote data acquisition are highly attractive. Cooled CCD camera systems are capable of providing greater sensitivity with improved signal-to-noise ratio. This paper begins with a review of performance characteristics of the Bechtel Nevada large format imaging system, a gated system capable of viewing scintillators up to 300 mm in diameter. We then examine configuration alternatives in lens coupled and fiber optically coupled electro-optical recording systems. Areas of investigation include tradeoffs between fiber optic and lens coupling, methods of image magnification, and spectral matching from scintillator to CCD camera. Key performance features discussed include field of view, resolution, sensitivity, dynamic range, and system noise characteristics

  11. Large Ventral Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryl Abrams, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 46-year-old female presented to the emergency department (ED with diffuse abdominal pain and three days of poor oral intake associated with non-bilious, non-bloody vomiting. Initial vital signs consisted of a mild resting tachycardia of 111 with a temperature of 38.0 degrees Celsius (°C. On examination, the patient had a large pannus extending to the knees, which contained a hernia. She was tender in this region on examination. Laboratory values included normal serum chemistries and mild leukocytosis of 12.2. The patient reports that her abdomen had been enlarging over the previous 8 years but had not been painful until 3 days prior to presentation. The patient had no associated fever, chills, diarrhea, constipation, chest pain or shortness of breath. Significant findings: Computed tomography (CT scan with intravenous (IV contrast of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large pannus containing a ventral hernia with abdominal contents extending below the knees (white circle, elongation of mesenteric vessels to accommodate abdominal contents outside of the abdomen (white arrow and air fluid levels (white arrow indicating a small bowel obstruction. Discussion: Hernias are a common chief complaint seen in the emergency department. The estimated lifetime risk of a spontaneous abdominal hernia is 5%.1 The most common type of hernia is inguinal while the next most common type of hernia is femoral, which are more common in women.1 Ventral hernias can be epigastric, incisional, or primary abdominal. An asymptomatic, reducible hernia can be followed up as outpatient with a general surgeon for elective repair.2 Hernias become problematic when they are either incarcerated or strangulated. A hernia is incarcerated when the hernia is irreducible and strangulated when its blood supply is compromised. A complicated hernia, especially strangulated, can have a mortality of greater than 50%.1 It is key to perform a thorough history

  12. Real-time operating system for selected Intel processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for system development is given along with reasons for not using vendor supplied operating systems. Although many system design and performance goals were dictated by problems with vendor supplied systems, other goals surfaced as a result of a design for a custom system able to span multiple projects. System development and management problems and areas that required redesign or major code changes for system implementation are examined as well as the relative successes of the initial projects. A generic description of the actual project is provided and the ongoing support requirements and future plans are discussed.

  13. Lexicografia i intel·ligència artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Cerdà Massó

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlike most of traditional approaches to grammar, today's formal and computational models make use of the lexicon as an essential part of the whole system. Differences between current theoretical and computational models are more and more insignificant albeit the latter are perhaps still characterized by yielding full priority to minimalist solutions over more abstract considerations such as exhaustivity or formal elegance. The paper introduces some strategies in linguistic computation for natural language processing (NLP according to a typology based on functional complexity and describing in every case the scope and the role performed by the dictionary: pattern matching, semàntic grammars, syntactic parsers, augmented transition networks, unification formalisms, case frame grammars, etc. It ends with an exploration into lexicographically oriented procedures of conceptual dependency, which are found beyond the NLP, deeply within the domain of artificial intelligence.

  14. Small range logarithm calculation on Intel Quartus II Verilog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Muhazam; Mokhtar, Anis Shahida; Ahmad, Azfar Asyrafie

    2018-02-01

    Logarithm function is the inverse of exponential function. This paper implement power series of natural logarithm function using Verilog HDL in Quartus II. The mode of design used is RTL in order to decrease the number of megafunctions. The simulations were done to determine the precision and number of LEs used so that the output calculated accurately. It is found that the accuracy of the system only valid for the range of 1 to e.

  15. Intel vahetab Pentiumi uute protsessorite vastu / Kuldar Kullasepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kullasepp, Kuldar, 1980-

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 19. juuni, lk. 14. Maailma suurim protsessoritootja kavatseb aasta jooksul pea täielikult üle minna mitme tuumaga protsessorite tootmisele, rääkis Inteli firma Euroopa turundusjuht Alex Roessler

  16. Adaptación de Neurite a Intel Xeon Phi

    OpenAIRE

    Yanguas Martín, Jorge Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Hoy en día, podremos comprobar que todos los súper computadores que se utilizan alrededor del mundo aprovechan numerosos procesadores en paralelo con la intención de conseguir el mejor rendimiento posible. La lista de los diez súper computadores más potentes del mundo de noviembre de 2015 utilizan esta filosofía.Con la particularidad de que dos de ellos utilizan a modo de coprocesador las GPUs K20x de Nvidia y otros dos, uno de ellos siendo actualmente el súper computador má...

  17. Evaluation of the Intel Westmere-EP server processor

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, S; Leduc, J; Nowak, A; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on a set of benchmark results recently obtained by CERN openlab when comparing the 6-core “Westmere-EP” processor with Intel’s previous generation of the same microarchitecture, the “Nehalem-EP”. The former is produced in a new 32nm process, the latter in 45nm. Both platforms are dual-socket servers. Multiple benchmarks were used to get a good understanding of the performance of the new processor. We used both industry-standard benchmarks, such as SPEC2006, and specific High Energy Physics benchmarks, representing both simulation of physics detectors and data analysis of physics events. Before summarizing the results we must stress the fact that benchmarking of modern processors is a very complex affair. One has to control (at least) the following features: processor frequency, overclocking via Turbo mode, the number of physical cores in use, the use of logical cores via Simultaneous Multi-Threading (SMT), the cache sizes available, the memory configuration installed, as well...

  18. Unification, small and large

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1993-04-15

    Full text: Fruitful exchanges between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology have become a common feature in the last decade. In January, Coral Gables near Miami was the stage for a 'Unified Symmetry in the Small and the Large' meeting. Coral Gables is a famous physics venue. In January 1964, the year that the quark model of hadrons emerged, Behram Kursunoglu initiated a series of particle physics meetings that continued for 20 years and formed a regular focus for this development. The final such meeting was in 1983, coinciding with both the 80th birthday of field theory pioneer Paul Dirac, who worked in Florida towards the end of his career, and the discovery of the W bosons at CERN. The resurrected Coral Gables meeting began with historical accounts of the emergence of Big Bang cosmology, by Robert Ralph and Herman Alpher, while Andrei Linde proposed our expanding universe as a small part of a stationary system, infinite both in space and in time. The observational status of Big Bang cosmology was reviewed by Bruce Partridge, John Mather and Martin Harwit, emphasizing the cosmic background radiation, where temperature is now measured by the COBE satellite detectors to 2.726 ± 0.01 OK. The tiny fluctuations observed by COBE pose problems for standard cold dark matter models. Edward ('Rocky') Kolb reported on new studies on the electroweak phase transition, based on an analogy with the physics of liquid crystals. Richard Holman discussed the fate of global symmetries at energies near the Planck (grand unification) energy, and Paul Steinhardt talked about tensorial and scalar metric fluctuations in the light of the COBE results. Anthony Tyson gave an impressive description of dark matter studies using gravitational lensing, now emerging as a unique tool for indirectly observing intervening dark matter. A neutrino mass of 10 electronvolts could account for observed dark matter distributions, but fails to provide the necessary seeds for galaxy formation. A

  19. Unification, small and large

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Fruitful exchanges between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology have become a common feature in the last decade. In January, Coral Gables near Miami was the stage for a 'Unified Symmetry in the Small and the Large' meeting. Coral Gables is a famous physics venue. In January 1964, the year that the quark model of hadrons emerged, Behram Kursunoglu initiated a series of particle physics meetings that continued for 20 years and formed a regular focus for this development. The final such meeting was in 1983, coinciding with both the 80th birthday of field theory pioneer Paul Dirac, who worked in Florida towards the end of his career, and the discovery of the W bosons at CERN. The resurrected Coral Gables meeting began with historical accounts of the emergence of Big Bang cosmology, by Robert Ralph and Herman Alpher, while Andrei Linde proposed our expanding universe as a small part of a stationary system, infinite both in space and in time. The observational status of Big Bang cosmology was reviewed by Bruce Partridge, John Mather and Martin Harwit, emphasizing the cosmic background radiation, where temperature is now measured by the COBE satellite detectors to 2.726 ± 0.01 OK. The tiny fluctuations observed by COBE pose problems for standard cold dark matter models. Edward ('Rocky') Kolb reported on new studies on the electroweak phase transition, based on an analogy with the physics of liquid crystals. Richard Holman discussed the fate of global symmetries at energies near the Planck (grand unification) energy, and Paul Steinhardt talked about tensorial and scalar metric fluctuations in the light of the COBE results. Anthony Tyson gave an impressive description of dark matter studies using gravitational lensing, now emerging as a unique tool for indirectly observing intervening dark matter. A neutrino mass of 10 electronvolts could account for observed dark matter distributions, but fails to provide the necessary seeds for

  20. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  1. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  2. Laboratory for Large Data Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Laboratory for Large Data Research (LDR) addresses a critical need to rapidly prototype shared, unified access to large amounts of data across both the...

  3. Large-D gravity and low-D strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emparan, Roberto; Grumiller, Daniel; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2013-06-21

    We show that in the limit of a large number of dimensions a wide class of nonextremal neutral black holes has a universal near-horizon limit. The limiting geometry is the two-dimensional black hole of string theory with a two-dimensional target space. Its conformal symmetry explains the properties of massless scalars found recently in the large-D limit. For black branes with string charges, the near-horizon geometry is that of the three-dimensional black strings of Horne and Horowitz. The analogies between the α' expansion in string theory and the large-D expansion in gravity suggest a possible effective string description of the large-D limit of black holes. We comment on applications to several subjects, in particular to the problem of critical collapse.

  4. Quenches in large superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, P.H.; Alston-Garnjost, M.; Green, M.A.; Lecomte, P.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.; Vuillemin, V.

    1977-08-01

    The development of large high current density superconducting magnets requires an understanding of the quench process by which the magnet goes normal. A theory which describes the quench process in large superconducting magnets is presented and compared with experimental measurements. The use of a quench theory to improve the design of large high current density superconducting magnets is discussed

  5. Masters and Paragons. Learning, Power and the Formation of a European Academic Culture c. 900-1230

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster-Swendsen, Mia

    and educational practices within the school milieus, particularly in relation to the structures of power and authority. As part of this, it deals with strategies of identity-formation and the self-perceptions of the medieval schoolmen. The final, third section is devoted to the content of learned discourse...

  6. Health impacts of large dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerer, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    Large dams have been criticized because of their negative environmental and social impacts. Public health interest largely has focused on vector-borne diseases, such as schistosomiasis, associated with reservoirs and irrigation projects. Large dams also influence health through changes in water and food security, increases in communicable diseases, and the social disruption caused by construction and involuntary resettlement. Communities living in close proximity to large dams often do not benefit from water transfer and electricity generation revenues. A comprehensive health component is required in environmental and social impact assessments for large dam projects

  7. Parallel community climate model: Description and user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, J.B.; Flanery, R.E.; Semeraro, B.D.; Worley, P.H. [and others

    1996-07-15

    This report gives an overview of a parallel version of the NCAR Community Climate Model, CCM2, implemented for MIMD massively parallel computers using a message-passing programming paradigm. The parallel implementation was developed on an Intel iPSC/860 with 128 processors and on the Intel Delta with 512 processors, and the initial target platform for the production version of the code is the Intel Paragon with 2048 processors. Because the implementation uses a standard, portable message-passing libraries, the code has been easily ported to other multiprocessors supporting a message-passing programming paradigm. The parallelization strategy used is to decompose the problem domain into geographical patches and assign each processor the computation associated with a distinct subset of the patches. With this decomposition, the physics calculations involve only grid points and data local to a processor and are performed in parallel. Using parallel algorithms developed for the semi-Lagrangian transport, the fast Fourier transform and the Legendre transform, both physics and dynamics are computed in parallel with minimal data movement and modest change to the original CCM2 source code. Sequential or parallel history tapes are written and input files (in history tape format) are read sequentially by the parallel code to promote compatibility with production use of the model on other computer systems. A validation exercise has been performed with the parallel code and is detailed along with some performance numbers on the Intel Paragon and the IBM SP2. A discussion of reproducibility of results is included. A user`s guide for the PCCM2 version 2.1 on the various parallel machines completes the report. Procedures for compilation, setup and execution are given. A discussion of code internals is included for those who may wish to modify and use the program in their own research.

  8. Large deviations and idempotent probability

    CERN Document Server

    Puhalskii, Anatolii

    2001-01-01

    In the view of many probabilists, author Anatolii Puhalskii''s research results stand among the most significant achievements in the modern theory of large deviations. In fact, his work marked a turning point in the depth of our understanding of the connections between the large deviation principle (LDP) and well-known methods for establishing weak convergence results.Large Deviations and Idempotent Probability expounds upon the recent methodology of building large deviation theory along the lines of weak convergence theory. The author develops an idempotent (or maxitive) probability theory, introduces idempotent analogues of martingales (maxingales), Wiener and Poisson processes, and Ito differential equations, and studies their properties. The large deviation principle for stochastic processes is formulated as a certain type of convergence of stochastic processes to idempotent processes. The author calls this large deviation convergence.The approach to establishing large deviation convergence uses novel com...

  9. Large-scale grid management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdal, Bjoern Inge; Eggen, Arnt Ove

    2003-01-01

    The network companies in the Norwegian electricity industry now have to establish a large-scale network management, a concept essentially characterized by (1) broader focus (Broad Band, Multi Utility,...) and (2) bigger units with large networks and more customers. Research done by SINTEF Energy Research shows so far that the approaches within large-scale network management may be structured according to three main challenges: centralization, decentralization and out sourcing. The article is part of a planned series

  10. Large-scale solar purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The principal objective of the project was to participate in the definition of a new IEA task concerning solar procurement (''the Task'') and to assess whether involvement in the task would be in the interest of the UK active solar heating industry. The project also aimed to assess the importance of large scale solar purchasing to UK active solar heating market development and to evaluate the level of interest in large scale solar purchasing amongst potential large scale purchasers (in particular housing associations and housing developers). A further aim of the project was to consider means of stimulating large scale active solar heating purchasing activity within the UK. (author)

  11. Application of a parallel 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry HPF code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwo, Jin-Ping; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to parallelize a 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code and (2) to apply the parallel code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 2-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code HYDROGEOCHEM, developed at the Pennsylvania State University for coupled subsurface solute transport and chemical equilibrium processes, was first modified to accommodate 3-dimensional problem domains. A bi-conjugate gradient stabilized linear matrix solver was then incorporated to solve the matrix equation. We chose to parallelize the 3-dimensional code on the Intel Paragons at ORNL by using an HPF (high performance FORTRAN) compiler developed at PGI. The data- and task-parallel algorithms available in the HPF compiler proved to be highly efficient for the geochemistry calculation. This calculation can be easily implemented in HPF formats and is perfectly parallel because the chemical speciation on one finite-element node is virtually independent of those on the others. The parallel code was applied to a subwatershed of the Melton Branch at ORNL. Chemical heterogeneity, in addition to physical heterogeneities of the geological formations, has been identified as one of the major factors that affect the fate and transport of contaminants at ORNL. This study demonstrated an application of the 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code on the Melton Branch site. A uranium tailing problem that involved in aqueous complexation and precipitation-dissolution was tested. Performance statistics was collected on the Intel Paragons at ORNL. Implications of these results on the further optimization of the code were discussed

  12. Physics with large extra dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the sub- ... strongly coupled heterotic theory with one large dimension is described by a weakly ..... one additional U(1) factor corresponding to an extra 'U(1)' D-brane is ...

  13. MPQS with three large primes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyland, P.; Lenstra, A.K.; Dodson, B.; Muffett, A.; Wagstaff, S.; Fieker, C.; Kohel, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    We report the factorization of a 135-digit integer by the triple-large-prime variation of the multiple polynomial quadratic sieve. Previous workers [6][10] had suggested that using more than two large primes would be counterproductive, because of the greatly increased number of false reports from

  14. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsoy, Gunhan

    2013-01-01

    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  15. Large-scale data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    Provides cutting-edge research in large-scale data analytics from diverse scientific areas Surveys varied subject areas and reports on individual results of research in the field Shares many tips and insights into large-scale data analytics from authors and editors with long-term experience and specialization in the field

  16. Mobility and powering of large detectors. Moving large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility is considered of moving large lepton detectors at ISABELLE for readying new experiments, detector modifications, and detector repair. A large annex (approximately 25 m x 25 m) would be built adjacent to the Lepton Hall separated from the Lepton Hall by a wall of concrete 11 m high x 12 m wide (for clearance of the detector) and approximately 3 m thick (for radiation shielding). A large pad would support the detector, the door, the cryogenic support system and the counting house. In removing the detector from the beam hall, one would push the pad into the annex, add a dummy beam pipe, bake out the beam pipe, and restack and position the wall on a small pad at the door. The beam could then operate again while experimenters could work on the large detector in the annex. A consideration and rough price estimate of various questions and proposed solutions are given

  17. Measuring happiness in large population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenas, Annabelle; Sjahputri, Smita; Takwin, Bagus; Primaldhi, Alfindra; Muhamad, Roby

    2016-01-01

    The ability to know emotional states for large number of people is important, for example, to ensure the effectiveness of public policies. In this study, we propose a measure of happiness that can be used in large scale population that is based on the analysis of Indonesian language lexicons. Here, we incorporate human assessment of Indonesian words, then quantify happiness on large-scale of texts gathered from twitter conversations. We used two psychological constructs to measure happiness: valence and arousal. We found that Indonesian words have tendency towards positive emotions. We also identified several happiness patterns during days of the week, hours of the day, and selected conversation topics.

  18. Large Hadron Collider nears completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Installation of the final component of the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator is under way along the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. When completed this summer, the LHC will be the world's largest and most complex scientific instrument.

  19. Phenomenology of large Nc QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed, R.F.

    1999-01-01

    These lectures are designed to introduce the methods and results of large N c QCD in a presentation intended for nuclear and particle physicists alike. Beginning with definitions and motivations of the approach, we demonstrate that all quark and gluon Feynman diagrams are organized into classes based on powers of 1/N c . We then show that this result can be translated into definite statements about mesons and baryons containing arbitrary numbers of constituents. In the mesons, numerous well-known phenomenological properties follow as immediate consequences of simply counting powers of N c , while for the baryons, quantitative large N c analyses of masses and other properties are seen to agree with experiment, even when 'large' N c is set equal to its observed value of 3. Large N c reasoning is also used to explain some simple features of nuclear interactions. (author)

  20. Phenomenology of large Nc QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard Lebed

    1998-01-01

    These lectures are designed to introduce the methods and results of large N c QCD in a presentation intended for nuclear and particle physicists alike. Beginning with definitions and motivations of the approach, they demonstrate that all quark and gluon Feynman diagrams are organized into classes based on powers of 1/N c . They then show that this result can be translated into definite statements about mesons and baryons containing arbitrary numbers of constituents. In the mesons, numerous well-known phenomenological properties follow as immediate consequences of simply counting powers of N c , while for the baryons, quantitative large N c analyses of masses and other properties are seen to agree with experiment, even when ''large'' N c is set equal to its observed value of 3. Large N c reasoning is also used to explain some simple features of nuclear interactions

  1. Community Detection for Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin; Kolda, Tamara G.; Pinar, Ali; Zhang, Zhihua; Keyes, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Many real world networks have inherent community structures, including social networks, transportation networks, biological networks, etc. For large scale networks with millions or billions of nodes in real-world applications, accelerating current

  2. Physics with large extra dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 62; Issue 2 ... The recent understanding of string theory opens the possibility that the string scale can be as ... by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the sub-millimeter region.

  3. Utility unbundling : large consumer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, C.

    1997-01-01

    The perspectives of Sunoco as a large user of electric power on utility unbundling were presented. Sunoco's Sarnia refinery runs up an energy bill of over $60 million per year for electricity, natural gas (used both as a feedstock as well as a fuel), natural gas liquids and steam. As a large customer Sunoco advocates unbundling of all services, leaving only the 'pipes and wires' as true monopolies. In their view, regulation distorts the market place and prevents the lower prices that would result from competition as has been seen in the airline and telephone industries. Sunoco's expectation is that in the post-deregulated environment large and small consumers will have a choice of energy supplier, and large consumers will increasingly turn to co-generation as the most desirable way of meeting their power needs

  4. LSD: Large Survey Database framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Mario

    2012-09-01

    The Large Survey Database (LSD) is a Python framework and DBMS for distributed storage, cross-matching and querying of large survey catalogs (>10^9 rows, >1 TB). The primary driver behind its development is the analysis of Pan-STARRS PS1 data. It is specifically optimized for fast queries and parallel sweeps of positionally and temporally indexed datasets. It transparently scales to more than >10^2 nodes, and can be made to function in "shared nothing" architectures.

  5. Large-scale solar heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this project a large domestic solar heating system was built and a solar district heating system was modelled and simulated. Objectives were to improve the performance and reduce costs of a large-scale solar heating system. As a result of the project the benefit/cost ratio can be increased by 40 % through dimensioning and optimising the system at the designing stage. (orig.)

  6. Optimization theory for large systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lasdon, Leon S

    2002-01-01

    Important text examines most significant algorithms for optimizing large systems and clarifying relations between optimization procedures. Much data appear as charts and graphs and will be highly valuable to readers in selecting a method and estimating computer time and cost in problem-solving. Initial chapter on linear and nonlinear programming presents all necessary background for subjects covered in rest of book. Second chapter illustrates how large-scale mathematical programs arise from real-world problems. Appendixes. List of Symbols.

  7. Hidden supersymmetry and large N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method to deal with the leading order in the large-N expansion of a quantum field theory. The method uses explicitly the hidden supersymmetry that is present in the path-integral formulation of a stochastic process. In addition to this we derive a new relation that is valid in the leading order of the large-N expansion of the hermitian-matrix model for any spacetime dimension. (orig.)

  8. Navier-Stokes Simulation of Airconditioning Facility of a Large Modem Computer Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NASA recently assembled one of the world's fastest operational supercomputers to meet the agency's new high performance computing needs. This large-scale system, named Columbia, consists of 20 interconnected SGI Altix 512-processor systems, for a total of 10,240 Intel Itanium-2 processors. High-fidelity CFD simulations were performed for the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) computer room at Ames Research Center. The purpose of the simulations was to assess the adequacy of the existing air handling and conditioning system and make recommendations for changes in the design of the system if needed. The simulations were performed with NASA's OVERFLOW-2 CFD code which utilizes overset structured grids. A new set of boundary conditions were developed and added to the flow solver for modeling the roomls air-conditioning and proper cooling of the equipment. Boundary condition parameters for the flow solver are based on cooler CFM (flow rate) ratings and some reasonable assumptions of flow and heat transfer data for the floor and central processing units (CPU) . The geometry modeling from blue prints and grid generation were handled by the NASA Ames software package Chimera Grid Tools (CGT). This geometric model was developed as a CGT-scripted template, which can be easily modified to accommodate any changes in shape and size of the room, locations and dimensions of the CPU racks, disk racks, coolers, power distribution units, and mass-storage system. The compute nodes are grouped in pairs of racks with an aisle in the middle. High-speed connection cables connect the racks with overhead cable trays. The cool air from the cooling units is pumped into the computer room from a sub-floor through perforated floor tiles. The CPU cooling fans draw cool air from the floor tiles, which run along the outside length of each rack, and eject warm air into the center isle between the racks. This warm air is eventually drawn into the cooling units located near the walls of the room. One

  9. Large transverse momentum hadronic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriulat, P.

    1977-01-01

    The possible relations between deep inelastic leptoproduction and large transverse momentum (psub(t)) processes in hadronic collisions are usually considered in the framework of the quark-parton picture. Experiments observing the structure of the final state in proton-proton collisions producing at least one large transverse momentum particle have led to the following conclusions: a large fraction of produced particles are uneffected by the large psub(t) process. The other products are correlated to the large psub(t) particle. Depending upon the sign of scalar product they can be separated into two groups of ''towards-movers'' and ''away-movers''. The experimental evidence are reviewed favouring such a picture and the properties are discussed of each of three groups (underlying normal event, towards-movers and away-movers). Some phenomenological interpretations are presented. The exact nature of away- and towards-movers must be further investigated. Their apparent jet structure has to be confirmed. Angular correlations between leading away and towards movers are very informative. Quantum number flow, both within the set of away and towards-movers, and between it and the underlying normal event, are predicted to behave very differently in different models

  10. The large-s field-reversed configuration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.L.; Carey, L.N.; Crawford, E.A.; Harding, D.G.; DeHart, T.E.; McDonald, K.F.; McNeil, J.L.; Milroy, R.D.; Slough, J.T.; Maqueda, R.; Wurden, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Large-s Experiment (LSX) was built to study the formation and equilibrium properties of field-reversed configurations (FRCs) as the scale size increases. The dynamic, field-reversed theta-pinch method of FRC creation produces axial and azimuthal deformations and makes formation difficult, especially in large devices with large s (number of internal gyroradii) where it is difficult to achieve initial plasma uniformity. However, with the proper technique, these formation distortions can be minimized and are then observed to decay with time. This suggests that the basic stability and robustness of FRCs formed, and in some cases translated, in smaller devices may also characterize larger FRCs. Elaborate formation controls were included on LSX to provide the initial uniformity and symmetry necessary to minimize formation disturbances, and stable FRCs could be formed up to the design goal of s = 8. For x ≤ 4, the formation distortions decayed away completely, resulting in symmetric equilibrium FRCs with record confinement times up to 0.5 ms, agreeing with previous empirical scaling laws (τ∝sR). Above s = 4, reasonably long-lived (up to 0.3 ms) configurations could still be formed, but the initial formation distortions were so large that they never completely decayed away, and the equilibrium confinement was degraded from the empirical expectations. The LSX was only operational for 1 yr, and it is not known whether s = 4 represents a fundamental limit for good confinement in simple (no ion beam stabilization) FRCs or whether it simply reflects a limit of present formation technology. Ideally, s could be increased through flux buildup from neutral beams. Since the addition of kinetic or beam ions will probably be desirable for heating, sustainment, and further stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic modes at reactor-level s values, neutral beam injection is the next logical step in FRC development. 24 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Large aperture optical switching devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    We have developed a new approach to constructing large aperture optical switches for next generation inertial confinement fusion lasers. A transparent plasma electrode formed in low pressure ionized gas acts as a conductive coating to allow the uniform charging of the optical faces of an electro-optic material. In this manner large electric fields can be applied longitudinally to large aperture, high aspect ratio Pockels cells. We propose a four-electrode geometry to create the necessary high conductivity plasma sheets, and have demonstrated fast (less than 10 nsec) switching in a 5x5 cm aperture KD*P Pockels cell with such a design. Detaid modelling of Pockels cell performance with plasma electrodes has been carried out for 15 and 30 cm aperture designs

  12. Assembling large, complex environmental metagenomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, A. C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Plant Soil and Microbial Sciences; Jansson, J. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Malfatti, S. A. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tringe, S. G. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tiedje, J. M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Plant Soil and Microbial Sciences; Brown, C. T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Computer Science and Engineering

    2012-12-28

    The large volumes of sequencing data required to sample complex environments deeply pose new challenges to sequence analysis approaches. De novo metagenomic assembly effectively reduces the total amount of data to be analyzed but requires significant computational resources. We apply two pre-assembly filtering approaches, digital normalization and partitioning, to make large metagenome assemblies more computationaly tractable. Using a human gut mock community dataset, we demonstrate that these methods result in assemblies nearly identical to assemblies from unprocessed data. We then assemble two large soil metagenomes from matched Iowa corn and native prairie soils. The predicted functional content and phylogenetic origin of the assembled contigs indicate significant taxonomic differences despite similar function. The assembly strategies presented are generic and can be extended to any metagenome; full source code is freely available under a BSD license.

  13. Large scale structure and baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilova, D.P.; Chizhov, M.V.

    2001-08-01

    We discuss a possible connection between the large scale structure formation and the baryogenesis in the universe. An update review of the observational indications for the presence of a very large scale 120h -1 Mpc in the distribution of the visible matter of the universe is provided. The possibility to generate a periodic distribution with the characteristic scale 120h -1 Mpc through a mechanism producing quasi-periodic baryon density perturbations during inflationary stage, is discussed. The evolution of the baryon charge density distribution is explored in the framework of a low temperature boson condensate baryogenesis scenario. Both the observed very large scale of a the visible matter distribution in the universe and the observed baryon asymmetry value could naturally appear as a result of the evolution of a complex scalar field condensate, formed at the inflationary stage. Moreover, for some model's parameters a natural separation of matter superclusters from antimatter ones can be achieved. (author)

  14. Large ceramics for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, W.E.; Stoddard, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Prominent ceramic raw materials and products manufacturers were surveyed to determine the state of the art for alumina ceramic fabrication. This survey emphasized current capabilities and limitations for fabrication of large, high-density, high-purity, complex shapes. Some directions are suggested for future needs and development. Ceramic-to-ceramic sealing has applications for several technologies that require large and/or complex vacuum-tight ceramic shapes. Information is provided concerning the assembly of complex monolithic ceramic shapes by bonding of subassemblies at temperatures ranging from 450 to 1500 0 C. Future applications and fabrication techniques for various materials are presented

  15. Dijets at large rapidity intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, B G

    2001-01-01

    Inclusive diet production at large pseudorapidity intervals ( Delta eta ) between the two jets has been suggested as a regime for observing BFKL dynamics. We have measured the dijet cross section for large Delta eta in pp collisions at square root s = 1800 and 630 GeV using the DOE detector. The partonic cross section increases strongly with the size of Delta eta . The observed growth is even stronger than expected on the basis of BFKL resummation in the leading logarithmic approximation. The growth of the partonic cross section can be accommodated with an effective BFKL intercept of alpha /sub BFKL/(20 GeV) = 1.65 +or- 0.07.

  16. Large Eddy Simulation of turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poullet, P.; Sancandi, M.

    1994-12-01

    Results of Large Eddy Simulation of 3D isotropic homogeneous turbulent flows are presented. A computer code developed on Connexion Machine (CM5) has allowed to compare two turbulent viscosity models (Smagorinsky and structure function). The numerical scheme influence on the energy density spectrum is also studied [fr

  17. The Large Vector Multiplet Action

    OpenAIRE

    Ryb, Itai

    2007-01-01

    We discuss possible actions for the d=2, N=(2,2) large vector multiplet that gauges isometries of generalized Kahler geometries. We explore two scenarios that allow us to write kinetic and superpotential terms for the scalar field-strengths, and write kinetic terms for the spinor invariants that can introduce topological terms for the connections.

  18. Qatar - large capital investment planned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.

    1996-01-01

    Large capital investments are planned throughout Qatar's energy industry over the next five years totalling $25 billion. This article describes the successful commissioning of Qatar's first liquefied natural gas (LNG) project on time and within budget. The second LNG plant is well underway and plans for a third are under negotiation. (UK)

  19. Large deviations and portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.

  20. Inconsistency in large pharmacogenomic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; El-Hachem, Nehme; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul

    2013-01-01

    Two large-scale pharmacogenomic studies were published recently in this journal. Genomic data are well correlated between studies; however, the measured drug response data are highly discordant. Although the source of inconsistencies remains uncertain, it has potential implications for using...

  1. Strategic Management of Large Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangYingluo; LiuYi; LiYuan

    2004-01-01

    The strategic management of large projects is both theoretically and practically important. Some scholars have advanced flexible strategy theory in China. The difference of strategic flexibility and flexible strategy is pointed out. The supporting system and characteristics of flexible strategy are analyzed. The changes of flexible strategy and integration of strategic management are discussed.

  2. Mass spectrometry of large molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchetti, S.

    1985-01-01

    The lectures in this volume were given at a course on mass spectrometry of large molecules, organized within the framework of the Training and Education programme of the Joint Research Centre of the European Communities. Although first presented in 1983, most of the lectures have since been updated by their authors. (orig.)

  3. Large for Gestational Age (LGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mother Other risk factors for having large-for-gestational-age newborns include Maternal obesity Having had previous LGA babies Genetic abnormalities or syndromes (for example, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome or Sotos syndrome) Excessive weight gain during pregnancy (the fetus gets more calories as ...

  4. Large-scale pool fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhaus Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of research into the burning behavior of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters result in radiation blockage effects around the perimeter of large fire plumes; this yields lower emissive powers and a drastic reduction in the radiative loss fraction; whilst there are simplifying factors with these phenomena, arising from the fact that soot yield can saturate, there are other complications deriving from the intermittency of the behavior, with luminous regions of efficient combustion appearing randomly in the outer surface of the fire according the turbulent fluctuations in the fire plume. Knowledge of the fluid flow instabilities, which lead to the formation of large eddies, is also key to understanding the behavior of large-scale fires. Here modeling tools can be effectively exploited in order to investigate the fluid flow phenomena, including RANS- and LES-based computational fluid dynamics codes. The latter are well-suited to representation of the turbulent motions, but a number of challenges remain with their practical application. Massively-parallel computational resources are likely to be necessary in order to be able to adequately address the complex coupled phenomena to the level of detail that is necessary.

  5. Active Learning in Large Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    teaching large classes (more than 50 students), and describe how we successfully have in a second semester course in the Bachelor of Engineering (BEng) and Bachelor of Science Engineering (BSc Eng) program at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Approximately 200 students is attending...

  6. Adding large EM stack support

    KAUST Repository

    Holst, Glendon

    2016-12-01

    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  7. Protection of large capacitor banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprott, J.C.; Lovell, T.W.

    1982-06-01

    Large capacitor banks, as used in many pulsed plasma experiments, are subject to catastrophic failure in the event of a short in the output or in an individual capacitor. Methods are described for protecting such banks to minimize the damage and down-time caused by such a failure

  8. CERN's Large Hadron Collider project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Tom A.

    1997-03-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. After an outline of the physics motivation, we describe the LHC machine, interaction rates, experimental challenges, and some important physics channels to be studied. Finally we discuss the four experiments planned at the LHC: ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHC-B.

  9. CERN's Large Hadron Collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnley, Tom A.

    1997-01-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. After an outline of the physics motivation, we describe the LHC machine, interaction rates, experimental challenges, and some important physics channels to be studied. Finally we discuss the four experiments planned at the LHC: ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHC-B

  10. Large area CMOS image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchetta, R; Guerrini, N; Sedgwick, I

    2011-01-01

    CMOS image sensors, also known as CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS) or Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), are today the dominant imaging devices. They are omnipresent in our daily life, as image sensors in cellular phones, web cams, digital cameras, ... In these applications, the pixels can be very small, in the micron range, and the sensors themselves tend to be limited in size. However, many scientific applications, like particle or X-ray detection, require large format, often with large pixels, as well as other specific performance, like low noise, radiation hardness or very fast readout. The sensors are also required to be sensitive to a broad spectrum of radiation: photons from the silicon cut-off in the IR down to UV and X- and gamma-rays through the visible spectrum as well as charged particles. This requirement calls for modifications to the substrate to be introduced to provide optimized sensitivity. This paper will review existing CMOS image sensors, whose size can be as large as a single CMOS wafer, and analyse the technical requirements and specific challenges of large format CMOS image sensors.

  11. The large hadron collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiani, L.

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter has greatly advanced, over the last decades. The standard theory of fundamental interactions presents us with a theoretically sound picture, which describes with great accuracy known physical phenomena on most diverse energy and distance scales. These range from 10 -16 cm, inside the nucleons, up to large-scale astrophysical bodies, including the early Universe at some nanosecond after the Big-Bang and temperatures of the order of 10 2 GeV. The picture is not yet completed, however, as we lack the observation of the Higgs boson, predicted in the 100-500 GeV range - a particle associated with the generation of particle masses and with the quantum fluctuations in the primordial Universe. In addition, the standard theory is expected to undergo a change of regime in the 10 3 GeV region, with the appearance of new families of particles, most likely associated with the onset of a new symmetry (supersymmetry). In 1994, the CERN Council approved the construction of the large hadron collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider of a new design to be installed in the existing LEP tunnel, with an energy of 7 TeV per beam and extremely large luminosity, of ∝10 34 cm -2 s -1 . Construction was started in 1996, with the additional support of the US, Japan, Russia, Canada and other European countries, making the LHC a really global project, the first one in particle physics. After a short review of the physics scenario, I report on the present status of the LHC construction. Special attention is given to technological problems such as the realization of the super-conducting dipoles, following an extensive R and D program with European industries. The construction of the large LHC detectors has required a vast R and D program by a large international community, to overcome the problems posed by the complexity of the collisions and by the large luminosity of the machine. (orig.)

  12. Degassing a large LHe cryopump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denhoy, B.S.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    A method has been developed and successfully tested to degas a large LHe cryopump. Use of this method inhibits the normally excessive pressure rise during the degassing cycle when the degassing rate exceeds the external pumping capabilities of the system. A small appendage pump, installed close to the main cryopump, absorbs all the gas, as it is desorbed from the main cryopump, with no rise in the system pressure. The appendage pump can then be isolated from the main vacuum system and degassed at high pressure. We pumped 15 to 20 x 10 3 Torr . 1 of H 2 on a 1.25 m 2 panel. During the degassing cycle the system pressure never rose above 1 x 10 -4 Torr. In large vacuum systems for future fusion machines that contain cryopump panels as well as cryogenic magnets, this method is a unique and very useful tool. It will allow the degassing of cryopumps without affecting the temperature equilibrium of cryogenic magnets

  13. Large-capacity current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballarino, A.

    2008-01-01

    Feeding superconducting magnets with reliable low-loss devices is a key issue for any cryo-electrical system. Conventional or HTS current leads can be used, and cooling methods, materials, and geometries can be chosen to optimize the thermo-electrical performance of the system. The LHC magnets are powered via more than 3000 current leads transporting altogether about 3 MA of current. With thousands of leads, the LHC lead project represents today the largest project of its kind ever undertaken. Following a review of the LHC lead project, an overview of the choices that can be made for the optimization of large capacity current leads is presented. Examples are given of other leads for large scale magnet systems for which the use of HTS is being envisaged

  14. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1980-06-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  15. Parametric instabilities in large plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, Marco; Liberman, Bernardo.

    1979-01-01

    Parametric decay processes in large plasmas are considered as the linear stage of a three wave interaction (pump, sideband and beat wave) in which the amplitude of the externally excited pump is sufficiently large to neglect pump depletion to first order, yet sufficiently small to allow a linearized treatment of the pump propagation to zeroth order. The coupling coefficients are then obtained from an iterative solution of Vlasov equation, and a compact expression is derived, in which the multiple series over Bessel functions is explicitly summed. Even in the limit of a very long wavelength pump, the dispersion relation obtained in this way does not coincide with the one obtained using the well-known ''dipole'' approximation, unless both the sideband and beat wave are resonant modes of the plasma. An analysis of the origin of this discrepancy allows us to conclude that ''quasimodes'' (evanescent waves driven absolutely unstable by the pump) are more correctly described by the iterative approach

  16. Plasma diagnostics on large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlinskij, D.V.; Magyar, G.

    1988-01-01

    The main tasks of the large tokamaks which are under construction (T-15 and Tore Supra) and of those which have already been built (TFTR, JET, JT-60 and DIII-D) together with their design features which are relevant to plasma diagnostics are briefly discussed. The structural features and principal characteristics of the diagnostic systems being developed or already being used on these devices are also examined. The different diagnostic methods are described according to the physical quantities to be measured: electric and magnetic diagnostics, measurements of electron density, electron temperature, the ion components of the plasma, radiation loss measurements, spectroscopy of impurities, edge diagnostics and study of plasma stability. The main parameters of the various diagnostic systems used on the six large tokamaks are summarized in tables. (author). 351 refs, 44 figs, 22 tabs

  17. Foam rheology at large deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géminard, J.-C.; Pastenes, J. C.; Melo, F.

    2018-04-01

    Large deformations are prone to cause irreversible changes in materials structure, generally leading to either material hardening or softening. Aqueous foam is a metastable disordered structure of densely packed gas bubbles. We report on the mechanical response of a foam layer subjected to quasistatic periodic shear at large amplitude. We observe that, upon increasing shear, the shear stress follows a universal curve that is nearly exponential and tends to an asymptotic stress value interpreted as the critical yield stress at which the foam structure is completely remodeled. Relevant trends of the foam mechanical response to cycling are mathematically reproduced through a simple law accounting for the amount of plastic deformation upon increasing stress. This view provides a natural interpretation to stress hardening in foams, demonstrating that plastic effects are present in this material even for minute deformation.

  18. Physics with large extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2004-01-01

    The recent understanding of string theory opens the possibility that the string scale can be as low as a few TeV. The apparent weakness of gravitational interactions can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region. Furthermore, our world must be confined to live on a brane transverse to these large dimensions, with which it interacts only gravitationally. In my lecture, I describe briefly this scenario which gives a new theoretical framework for solving the gauge hierarchy problem and the unification of all interactions. I also discuss its main properties and implications for observations at both future particle colliders, and in non-accelerator gravity experiments. Such effects are for instance the production of Kaluza-Klein resonances, graviton emission in the bulk of extra dimensions, and a radical change of gravitational forces in the submillimeter range.

  19. Chunking of Large Multidimensional Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotem, Doron; Otoo, Ekow J.; Seshadri, Sridhar

    2007-02-28

    Data intensive scientific computations as well on-lineanalytical processing applications as are done on very large datasetsthat are modeled as k-dimensional arrays. The storage organization ofsuch arrays on disks is done by partitioning the large global array intofixed size hyper-rectangular sub-arrays called chunks or tiles that formthe units of data transfer between disk and memory. Typical queriesinvolve the retrieval of sub-arrays in a manner that accesses all chunksthat overlap the query results. An important metric of the storageefficiency is the expected number of chunks retrieved over all suchqueries. The question that immediately arises is "what shapes of arraychunks give the minimum expected number of chunks over a query workload?"In this paper we develop two probabilistic mathematical models of theproblem and provide exact solutions using steepest descent and geometricprogramming methods. Experimental results, using synthetic workloads onreal life data sets, show that our chunking is much more efficient thanthe existing approximate solutions.

  20. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    These antimicrobial peptides are implicated in the resistance of epithelial surfaces to microbial colonisation and have been shown to be upregulated...be equivalent to standard autograft repair in rodent models. Outcomes have now been validated in a large animal (swine) model with 5 cm ulnar nerve...Goals of the Project Task 1– Determine mechanical properties, seal strength and resistance to biodegradation of candidate photochemical nerve wrap

  1. Community Detection for Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2014-05-04

    Many real world networks have inherent community structures, including social networks, transportation networks, biological networks, etc. For large scale networks with millions or billions of nodes in real-world applications, accelerating current community detection algorithms is in demand, and we present two approaches to tackle this issue -A K-core based framework that can accelerate existing community detection algorithms significantly; -A parallel inference algorithm via stochastic block models that can distribute the workload.

  2. Large floating structures technological advances

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, BT

    2015-01-01

    This book surveys key projects that have seen the construction of large floating structures or have attained detailed conceptual designs. This compilation of key floating structures in a single volume captures the innovative features that mark the technological advances made in this field of engineering, and will provide a useful reference for ideas, analysis, design, and construction of these unique and emerging urban projects to offshore and marine engineers, urban planners, architects and students.

  3. Visualising large hierarchies with Flextree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongzhi; Curran, Edwin P.; Sterritt, Roy

    2003-05-01

    One of the main tasks in Information Visualisation research is creating visual tools to facilitate human understanding of large and complex information spaces. Hierarchies, being a good mechanism in organising such information, are ubiquitous. Although much research effort has been spent on finding useful representations for hierarchies, visualising large hierarchies is still a difficult topic. One of the difficulties is how to show both tructure and node content information in one view. Another is how to achieve multiple foci in a focus+context visualisation. This paper describes a novel hierarchy visualisation technique called FlexTree to address these problems. It contains some important features that have not been exploited so far. In this visualisation, a profile or contour unique to the hierarchy being visualised can be gained in a histogram-like layout. A normalised view of a common attribute of all nodes can be acquired, and selection of this attribute is controllable by the user. Multiple foci are consistently accessible within a global context through interaction. Furthermore it can handle a large hierarchy that contains several thousand nodes in a PC environment. In addition results from an informal evaluation are also presented.

  4. The large sample size fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Björn

    2013-06-01

    Significance in the statistical sense has little to do with significance in the common practical sense. Statistical significance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for practical significance. Hence, results that are extremely statistically significant may be highly nonsignificant in practice. The degree of practical significance is generally determined by the size of the observed effect, not the p-value. The results of studies based on large samples are often characterized by extreme statistical significance despite small or even trivial effect sizes. Interpreting such results as significant in practice without further analysis is referred to as the large sample size fallacy in this article. The aim of this article is to explore the relevance of the large sample size fallacy in contemporary nursing research. Relatively few nursing articles display explicit measures of observed effect sizes or include a qualitative discussion of observed effect sizes. Statistical significance is often treated as an end in itself. Effect sizes should generally be calculated and presented along with p-values for statistically significant results, and observed effect sizes should be discussed qualitatively through direct and explicit comparisons with the effects in related literature. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  5. Large nuclear steam turbine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urushidani, Haruo; Moriya, Shin-ichi; Tsuji, Kunio; Fujita, Isao; Ebata, Sakae; Nagai, Yoji.

    1986-01-01

    The technical development of the large capacity steam turbines for ABWR plants was partially completed, and that in progress is expected to be completed soon. In this report, the outline of those new technologies is described. As the technologies for increasing the capacity and heightening the efficiency, 52 in long blades and moisture separating heaters are explained. Besides, in the large bore butterfly valves developed for making the layout compact, the effect of thermal efficiency rise due to the reduction of pressure loss can be expected. As the new technology on the system side, the simplification of the turbine system and the effect of heightening the thermal efficiency by high pressure and low pressure drain pumping-up method based on the recent improvement of feed water quality are discussed. As for nuclear steam turbines, the actual records of performance of 1100 MW class, the largest output at present, have been obtained, and as a next large capacity machine, the development of a steam turbine of 1300 MWe class for an ABWR plant is in progress. It can be expected that by the introduction of those new technologies, the plants having high economical efficiency are realized. (Kako, I.)

  6. Perturbation theory in large order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    For many quantum mechanical models, the behavior of perturbation theory in large order is strikingly simple. For example, in the quantum anharmonic oscillator, which is defined by -y'' + (x 2 /4 + ex 4 /4 - E) y = 0, y ( +- infinity) = 0, the perturbation coefficients, A/sub n/, in the expansion for the ground-state energy, E(ground state) approx. EPSILON/sub n = 0//sup infinity/ A/sub n/epsilon/sup n/, simplify dramatically as n → infinity: A/sub n/ approx. (6/π 3 )/sup 1/2/(-3)/sup n/GAMMA(n + 1/2). Methods of applied mathematics are used to investigate the nature of perturbation theory in quantum mechanics and show that its large-order behavior is determined by the semiclassical content of the theory. In quantum field theory the perturbation coefficients are computed by summing Feynman graphs. A statistical procedure in a simple lambda phi 4 model for summing the set of all graphs as the number of vertices → infinity is presented. Finally, the connection between the large-order behavior of perturbation theory in quantum electrodynamics and the value of α, the charge on the electron, is discussed. 7 figures

  7. Foreshock occurrence before large earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured in two worldwide catalogs over ???20-year intervals. The overall rates observed are similar to ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California. The aftershock model was extended to the case of moderate foreshocks preceding large mainshocks. Overall, the observed worldwide foreshock rates exceed the extended California generic model by a factor of ???2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events, a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, had a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, had a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have found low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggests the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich. If this is so, then the California generic model may significantly underestimate the conditional probability for a very large (M ??? 8) earthquake following a potential (M ??? 7) foreshock in Cascadia. The magnitude differences among the identified foreshock-mainshock pairs in the Harvard catalog are consistent with a uniform

  8. Large number discrimination by mosquitofish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Agrillo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that fish display rudimentary numerical abilities similar to those observed in mammals and birds. The mechanisms underlying the discrimination of small quantities (<4 were recently investigated while, to date, no study has examined the discrimination of large numerosities in fish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of small geometric figures using social reinforcement. In the first experiment mosquitofish were required to discriminate 4 from 8 objects with or without experimental control of the continuous variables that co-vary with number (area, space, density, total luminance. Results showed that fish can use the sole numerical information to compare quantities but that they preferentially use cumulative surface area as a proxy of the number when this information is available. A second experiment investigated the influence of the total number of elements to discriminate large quantities. Fish proved to be able to discriminate up to 100 vs. 200 objects, without showing any significant decrease in accuracy compared with the 4 vs. 8 discrimination. The third experiment investigated the influence of the ratio between the numerosities. Performance was found to decrease when decreasing the numerical distance. Fish were able to discriminate numbers when ratios were 1:2 or 2:3 but not when the ratio was 3:4. The performance of a sample of undergraduate students, tested non-verbally using the same sets of stimuli, largely overlapped that of fish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fish are able to use pure numerical information when discriminating between quantities larger than 4 units. As observed in human and non-human primates, the numerical system of fish appears to have virtually no upper limit while the numerical ratio has a clear effect on performance. These similarities further reinforce the view of a common origin of non-verbal numerical systems in all

  9. Radiosurgery for Large Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Gyu; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Paek, Sun Ha; Park, Chul-Kee; Jung, Hee-Won

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy and safety of radiosurgery in patients with large brain metastases treated with radiosurgery. Patients and Methods: Eighty patients with large brain metastases (>14 cm 3 ) were treated with radiosurgery between 1998 and 2009. The mean age was 59 ± 11 years, and 49 (61.3%) were men. Neurologic symptoms were identified in 77 patients (96.3%), and 30 (37.5%) exhibited a dependent functional status. The primary disease was under control in 36 patients (45.0%), and 44 (55.0%) had a single lesion. The mean tumor volume was 22.4 ± 8.8 cm 3 , and the mean marginal dose prescribed was 13.8 ± 2.2 Gy. Results: The median survival time from radiosurgery was 7.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.343–10.46), and the 1-year survival rate was 39.2%. Functional improvement within 1–4 months or the maintenance of the initial independent status was observed in 48 (60.0%) and 20 (25.0%) patients after radiosurgery, respectively. Control of the primary disease, a marginal dose of ≥11 Gy, and a tumor volume ≥26 cm 3 were significantly associated with overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.479; p = .018; 95% CI, 0.261–0.880; hazard ratio, 0.350; p = .004; 95% CI, 0.171–0.718; hazard ratio, 2.307; p = .006; 95% CI, 1.274–4.180, respectively). Unacceptable radiation-related toxicities (Radiation Toxicity Oncology Group central nervous system toxicity Grade 3, 4, and 5 in 7, 6, and 2 patients, respectively) developed in 15 patients (18.8%). Conclusion: Radiosurgery seems to have a comparable efficacy with surgery for large brain metastases. However, the rate of radiation-related toxicities after radiosurgery should be considered when deciding on a treatment modality.

  10. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system

  11. The IEA Large Coil Task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, D.S.; Klose, W.; Shimamoto, S.; Vecsey, G.

    1988-01-01

    A multinational program of cooperative research, development, demonstrations, and exchanges of information on superconducting magnets for fusion was initiated in 1977 under an IEA agreement. The first major step in the development of TF magnets was called the Large Coil Task. Participants in LCT were the U.S. DOE, EURATOM, JAERI, and the Departement Federal de l'Interieur of Switzerland. The goals of LCT were to obtain experimental data, to demonstrate reliable operation of large superconducting coils, and to prove design principles and fabrication techniques being considered for the toroidal magnets of thermonuclear reactors. These goals were to be accomplished through coordinated but largely independent design, development, and construction of six test coils, followed by collaborative testing in a compact toroidal test array at fields of 8 T and higher. Under the terms of the IEA Agreement, the United States built and operated the test facility at Oak Ridge and provided three test coils. The other participants provided one coil each. Information on design and manufacturing and all test data were shared by all. The LCT team of each participant included a government laboratory and industrial partners or contractors. The last coil was completed in 1985, and the test assembly was completed in October of that year. Over the next 23 months, the six-coil array was cooled down and extensive testing was performed. Results were gratifying, as tests achieved design-point performance and well beyond. (Each coil reached a peak field of 9 T.) Experiments elucidated coil behavior, delineated limits of operability, and demonstrated coil safety. (orig./KP)

  12. Large block test status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.; Lin, W.; Blair, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report is intended to serve as a status report, which essentially transmits the data that have been collected to date on the Large Block Test (LBT). The analyses of data will be performed during FY98, and then a complete report will be prepared. This status report includes introductory material that is not needed merely to transmit data but is available at this time and therefore included. As such, this status report will serve as the template for the future report, and the information is thus preserved

  13. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braggio, C.; Boscardin, M.; Bressi, G.; Carugno, G.; Corti, D.; Galeazzi, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm 3 , cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  14. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy); Bressi, G. [INFN sez. di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Carugno, G.; Corti, D. [INFN sez. di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Galeazzi, G. [INFN lab. naz. Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm{sup 3}, cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  15. Large area and flexible electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Caironi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    From materials to applications, this ready reference covers the entire value chain from fundamentals via processing right up to devices, presenting different approaches to large-area electronics, thus enabling readers to compare materials, properties and performance.Divided into two parts, the first focuses on the materials used for the electronic functionality, covering organic and inorganic semiconductors, including vacuum and solution-processed metal-oxide semiconductors, nanomembranes and nanocrystals, as well as conductors and insulators. The second part reviews the devices and applicatio

  16. Japanese large-scale interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, K; Miyoki, S; Ishizuka, H; Taylor, C T; Yamamoto, K; Miyakawa, O; Fujimoto, M K; Kawamura, S; Takahashi, R; Yamazaki, T; Arai, K; Tatsumi, D; Ueda, A; Fukushima, M; Sato, S; Shintomi, T; Yamamoto, A; Suzuki, T; Saitô, Y; Haruyama, T; Sato, N; Higashi, Y; Uchiyama, T; Tomaru, T; Tsubono, K; Ando, M; Takamori, A; Numata, K; Ueda, K I; Yoneda, H; Nakagawa, K; Musha, M; Mio, N; Moriwaki, S; Somiya, K; Araya, A; Kanda, N; Telada, S; Sasaki, M; Tagoshi, H; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, T; Ohara, K

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the TAMA 300 interferometer was to develop advanced technologies for kilometre scale interferometers and to observe gravitational wave events in nearby galaxies. It was designed as a power-recycled Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer and was intended as a step towards a final interferometer in Japan. The present successful status of TAMA is presented. TAMA forms a basis for LCGT (large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope), a 3 km scale cryogenic interferometer to be built in the Kamioka mine in Japan, implementing cryogenic mirror techniques. The plan of LCGT is schematically described along with its associated R and D.

  17. Large spin systematics in CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F.; Bissi, Agnese; Łukowski, Tomasz [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter,Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-16

    Using conformal field theory (CFT) arguments we derive an infinite number of constraints on the large spin expansion of the anomalous dimensions and structure constants of higher spin operators. These arguments rely only on analyticity, unitarity, crossing-symmetry and the structure of the conformal partial wave expansion. We obtain results for both, perturbative CFT to all order in the perturbation parameter, as well as non-perturbatively. For the case of conformal gauge theories this provides a proof of the reciprocity principle to all orders in perturbation theory and provides a new “reciprocity' principle for structure constants. We argue that these results extend also to non-conformal theories.

  18. Large spin systematics in CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alday, Luis F.; Bissi, Agnese; Łukowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Using conformal field theory (CFT) arguments we derive an infinite number of constraints on the large spin expansion of the anomalous dimensions and structure constants of higher spin operators. These arguments rely only on analyticity, unitarity, crossing-symmetry and the structure of the conformal partial wave expansion. We obtain results for both, perturbative CFT to all order in the perturbation parameter, as well as non-perturbatively. For the case of conformal gauge theories this provides a proof of the reciprocity principle to all orders in perturbation theory and provides a new “reciprocity' principle for structure constants. We argue that these results extend also to non-conformal theories.

  19. Quick Mining of Isomorphic Exact Large Patterns from Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Almasri, Islam

    2014-12-01

    The applications of the sub graph isomorphism search are growing with the growing number of areas that model their systems using graphs or networks. Specifically, many biological systems, such as protein interaction networks, molecular structures and protein contact maps, are modeled as graphs. The sub graph isomorphism search is concerned with finding all sub graphs that are isomorphic to a relevant query graph, the existence of such sub graphs can reflect on the characteristics of the modeled system. The most computationally expensive step in the search for isomorphic sub graphs is the backtracking algorithm that traverses the nodes of the target graph. In this paper, we propose a pruning approach that is inspired by the minimum remaining value heuristic that achieves greater scalability over large query and target graphs. Our testing on various biological networks shows that performance enhancement of our approach over existing state-of-the-art approaches varies between 6x and 53x. © 2014 IEEE.

  20. Quick Mining of Isomorphic Exact Large Patterns from Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Almasri, Islam; Gao, Xin; Fedoroff, Nina V.

    2014-01-01

    The applications of the sub graph isomorphism search are growing with the growing number of areas that model their systems using graphs or networks. Specifically, many biological systems, such as protein interaction networks, molecular structures and protein contact maps, are modeled as graphs. The sub graph isomorphism search is concerned with finding all sub graphs that are isomorphic to a relevant query graph, the existence of such sub graphs can reflect on the characteristics of the modeled system. The most computationally expensive step in the search for isomorphic sub graphs is the backtracking algorithm that traverses the nodes of the target graph. In this paper, we propose a pruning approach that is inspired by the minimum remaining value heuristic that achieves greater scalability over large query and target graphs. Our testing on various biological networks shows that performance enhancement of our approach over existing state-of-the-art approaches varies between 6x and 53x. © 2014 IEEE.

  1. Quantum chromodynamics at large distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Properties of QCD at large distances are considered in the framework of traditional quantum field theory. An investigation of asymptotic behaviour of lower Green functions in QCD is the starting point of the approach. The recent works are reviewed which confirm the singular infrared behaviour of gluon propagator M 2 /(k 2 ) 2 at least under some gauge conditions. A special covariant gauge comes out to be the most suitable for description of infrared region due to absence of ghost contributions to infrared asymptotics of Green functions. Solutions of Schwinger-Dyson equation for quark propagator are obtained in this special gauge and are shown to possess desirable properties: spontaneous breaking of chiral invariance and nonperturbative character. The infrared asymptotics of lower Green functions are used for calculation of vacuum expectation values of gluon and quark fields. These vacuum expectation values are obtained in a good agreement with the corresponding phenomenological values which are needed in the method of sum rules in QCD, that confirms adequacy of the infrared region description. The consideration of a behaviour of QCD at large distances leads to the conclusion that at contemporary stage of theory development one may consider two possibilities. The first one is the well-known confinement hypothesis and the second one is called incomplete confinement and stipulates for open color to be observable. Possible manifestations of incomplete confinement are discussed

  2. Large scale cluster computing workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dane Skow; Alan Silverman

    2002-01-01

    Recent revolutions in computer hardware and software technologies have paved the way for the large-scale deployment of clusters of commodity computers to address problems heretofore the domain of tightly coupled SMP processors. Near term projects within High Energy Physics and other computing communities will deploy clusters of scale 1000s of processors and be used by 100s to 1000s of independent users. This will expand the reach in both dimensions by an order of magnitude from the current successful production facilities. The goals of this workshop were: (1) to determine what tools exist which can scale up to the cluster sizes foreseen for the next generation of HENP experiments (several thousand nodes) and by implication to identify areas where some investment of money or effort is likely to be needed. (2) To compare and record experimences gained with such tools. (3) To produce a practical guide to all stages of planning, installing, building and operating a large computing cluster in HENP. (4) To identify and connect groups with similar interest within HENP and the larger clustering community

  3. Nonlinear electrokinetics at large voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazant, Martin Z [Department of Chemical Engineering and Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sabri Kilic, Mustafa; Ajdari, Armand [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Storey, Brian D [Franklin W Olin College of Engineering, Needham, MA 02492 (United States)], E-mail: bazant@mit.edu

    2009-07-15

    The classical theory of electrokinetic phenomena assumes a dilute solution of point-like ions in chemical equilibrium with a surface whose double-layer voltage is of order the thermal voltage, k{sub B}T/e=25 mV. In nonlinear 'induced-charge' electrokinetic phenomena, such as ac electro-osmosis, several volts {approx}100k{sub B}T/e are applied to the double layer, and the theory breaks down and cannot explain many observed features. We argue that, under such a large voltage, counterions 'condense' near the surface, even for dilute bulk solutions. Based on simple models, we predict that the double-layer capacitance decreases and the electro-osmotic mobility saturates at large voltages, due to steric repulsion and increased viscosity of the condensed layer, respectively. The former suffices to explain observed high-frequency flow reversal in ac electro-osmosis; the latter leads to a salt concentration dependence of induced-charge flows comparable to experiments, although a complete theory is still lacking.

  4. Large shaft development test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, A.D.

    1984-03-01

    This test plan proposes the conduct of a large shaft development test at the Hanford site in support of the repository development program. The purpose and objective of the test plan is to obtain the information necessary to establish feasibility and to predict the performance of the drilling system used to drill large diameter shafts. The test plan is based upon drilling a 20 ft diameter shaft to a depth of 1,000 feet. The test plan specifies series of tests to evaluate the performance of the downhole assembly, the performance of the rig, and the ability of the system to cope with geologic hazards. The quality of the hole produced will also be determined. This test plan is considered to be preliminary in that it was prepared as input for the decision to determine if development testing is required in this area. Should the decision be made to proceed with development testing, this test plan shall be updated and revised. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  5. How Large Asexual Populations Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Michael

    2007-03-01

    We often think of beneficial mutations as being rare, and of adaptation as a sequence of selected substitutions: a beneficial mutation occurs, spreads through a population in a selective sweep, then later another beneficial mutation occurs, and so on. This simple picture is the basis for much of our intuition about adaptive evolution, and underlies a number of practical techniques for analyzing sequence data. Yet many large and mostly asexual populations -- including a wide variety of unicellular organisms and viruses -- live in a very different world. In these populations, beneficial mutations are common, and frequently interfere or cooperate with one another as they all attempt to sweep simultaneously. This radically changes the way these populations adapt: rather than an orderly sequence of selective sweeps, evolution is a constant swarm of competing and interfering mutations. I will describe some aspects of these dynamics, including why large asexual populations cannot evolve very quickly and the character of the diversity they maintain. I will explain how this changes our expectations of sequence data, how sex can help a population adapt, and the potential role of ``mutator'' phenotypes with abnormally high mutation rates. Finally, I will discuss comparisons of these predictions with evolution experiments in laboratory yeast populations.

  6. Creating Large Scale Database Servers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becla, Jacek

    2001-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is designed to perform a high precision investigation of the decays of the B-meson produced from electron-positron interactions. The experiment, started in May 1999, will generate approximately 300TB/year of data for 10 years. All of the data will reside in Objectivity databases accessible via the Advanced Multi-threaded Server (AMS). To date, over 70TB of data have been placed in Objectivity/DB, making it one of the largest databases in the world. Providing access to such a large quantity of data through a database server is a daunting task. A full-scale testbed environment had to be developed to tune various software parameters and a fundamental change had to occur in the AMS architecture to allow it to scale past several hundred terabytes of data. Additionally, several protocol extensions had to be implemented to provide practical access to large quantities of data. This paper will describe the design of the database and the changes that we needed to make in the AMS for scalability reasons and how the lessons we learned would be applicable to virtually any kind of database server seeking to operate in the Petabyte region

  7. Creating Large Scale Database Servers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becla, Jacek

    2001-12-14

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is designed to perform a high precision investigation of the decays of the B-meson produced from electron-positron interactions. The experiment, started in May 1999, will generate approximately 300TB/year of data for 10 years. All of the data will reside in Objectivity databases accessible via the Advanced Multi-threaded Server (AMS). To date, over 70TB of data have been placed in Objectivity/DB, making it one of the largest databases in the world. Providing access to such a large quantity of data through a database server is a daunting task. A full-scale testbed environment had to be developed to tune various software parameters and a fundamental change had to occur in the AMS architecture to allow it to scale past several hundred terabytes of data. Additionally, several protocol extensions had to be implemented to provide practical access to large quantities of data. This paper will describe the design of the database and the changes that we needed to make in the AMS for scalability reasons and how the lessons we learned would be applicable to virtually any kind of database server seeking to operate in the Petabyte region.

  8. Histotripsy Liquefaction of Large Hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Monsky, Wayne L; Haider, Yasser A; Maxwell, Adam D; Wang, Yak-Nam; Matula, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Intra- and extra-muscular hematomas result from repetitive injury as well as sharp and blunt limb trauma. The clinical consequences can be serious, including debilitating pain and functional deficit. There are currently no short-term treatment options for large hematomas, only lengthy conservative treatment. The goal of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-based technique, termed histotripsy, for rapid (within a clinically relevant timeframe of 15-20 min) liquefaction of large volume (up to 20 mL) extra-vascular hematomas for subsequent fine-needle aspiration. Experiments were performed using in vitro extravascular hematoma phantoms-fresh bovine blood poured into 50 mL molds and allowed to clot. The resulting phantoms were treated by boiling histotripsy (BH), cavitation histotripsy (CH) or a combination in a degassed water tank under ultrasound guidance. Two different transducers operating at 1 MHz and 1.5 MHz with f-number = 1 were used. The liquefied lysate was aspirated and analyzed by histology and sized in a Coulter Counter. The peak instantaneous power to achieve BH was lower than (at 1.5 MHz) or equal to (at 1 MHz) that which was required to initiate CH. Under the same exposure duration, BH-induced cavities were one and a half to two times larger than the CH-induced cavities, but the CH-induced cavities were more regularly shaped, facilitating easier aspiration. The lysates contained a small amount of debris larger than 70 μm, and 99% of particulates were smaller than 10 μm. A combination treatment of BH (for initial debulking) and CH (for liquefaction of small residual fragments) yielded 20 mL of lysate within 17.5 minutes of treatment and was found to be most optimal for liquefaction of large extravascular hematomas. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Book review: Large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive compilation of all aspects of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Published in 2014, the book is now the definitive source of information on the petrogenesis of this type of globally important, voluminous magmatic activity. In the first few pages, LIPs are characterized as magmatic provinces with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 that are dominated by mafic magmas emplaced or erupted in intraplate settings during relatively short (1–5 m.y.) time intervals. Given these parameters, particularly areal extent, LIPs clearly represent significant contributions to global geologic evolution through time. This point is underscored, also in the introductory chapter, by a series of figures that aptly characterize the global time-space distribution of LIPs; an accompanying, particularly useful table identifies individual LIPs, quantifies their basic characteristics, and enumerates pertinent references. Accordingly, this compilation is a welcome addition to the geologic literature.

  10. Large errors and severe conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D L; Van Wormer, L A

    2002-01-01

    Physical parameters that can assume real-number values over a continuous range are generally represented by inherently positive random variables. However, if the uncertainties in these parameters are significant (large errors), conventional means of representing and manipulating the associated variables can lead to erroneous results. Instead, all analyses involving them must be conducted in a probabilistic framework. Several issues must be considered: First, non-linear functional relations between primary and derived variables may lead to significant 'error amplification' (severe conditions). Second, the commonly used normal (Gaussian) probability distribution must be replaced by a more appropriate function that avoids the occurrence of negative sampling results. Third, both primary random variables and those derived through well-defined functions must be dealt with entirely in terms of their probability distributions. Parameter 'values' and 'errors' should be interpreted as specific moments of these probabil...

  11. Large shaft development test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, A.D.

    1984-03-01

    This test plan proposes the conduct of shaft liner tests as part of the large shaft development test proposed for the Hanford Site in support of the repository development program. The objectives of these tests are to develop techniques for measuring liner alignment (straightness), both construction assembly alignment and downhole cumulative alignment, and to assess the alignment information as a real time feedback to aid the installation procedure. The test plan is based upon installing a 16 foot ID shaft liner into a 20 foot diameter shaft to a depth of 1000 feet. This test plan is considered to be preliminary in that it was prepared as input for the decision to determine if development testing is required in this area. Should the decision be made to proceed with development testing, this test plan shall be updated and revised. 6 refs., 2 figs

  12. Large scale biomimetic membrane arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard; Perry, Mark; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    To establish planar biomimetic membranes across large scale partition aperture arrays, we created a disposable single-use horizontal chamber design that supports combined optical-electrical measurements. Functional lipid bilayers could easily and efficiently be established across CO2 laser micro......-structured 8 x 8 aperture partition arrays with average aperture diameters of 301 +/- 5 mu m. We addressed the electro-physical properties of the lipid bilayers established across the micro-structured scaffold arrays by controllable reconstitution of biotechnological and physiological relevant membrane...... peptides and proteins. Next, we tested the scalability of the biomimetic membrane design by establishing lipid bilayers in rectangular 24 x 24 and hexagonal 24 x 27 aperture arrays, respectively. The results presented show that the design is suitable for further developments of sensitive biosensor assays...

  13. Model of large pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, J.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)]. E-mail: jfay@mit.edu

    2006-08-21

    A two zone entrainment model of pool fires is proposed to depict the fluid flow and flame properties of the fire. Consisting of combustion and plume zones, it provides a consistent scheme for developing non-dimensional scaling parameters for correlating and extrapolating pool fire visible flame length, flame tilt, surface emissive power, and fuel evaporation rate. The model is extended to include grey gas thermal radiation from soot particles in the flame zone, accounting for emission and absorption in both optically thin and thick regions. A model of convective heat transfer from the combustion zone to the liquid fuel pool, and from a water substrate to cryogenic fuel pools spreading on water, provides evaporation rates for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic fires. The model is tested against field measurements of large scale pool fires, principally of LNG, and is generally in agreement with experimental values of all variables.

  14. Model of large pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A two zone entrainment model of pool fires is proposed to depict the fluid flow and flame properties of the fire. Consisting of combustion and plume zones, it provides a consistent scheme for developing non-dimensional scaling parameters for correlating and extrapolating pool fire visible flame length, flame tilt, surface emissive power, and fuel evaporation rate. The model is extended to include grey gas thermal radiation from soot particles in the flame zone, accounting for emission and absorption in both optically thin and thick regions. A model of convective heat transfer from the combustion zone to the liquid fuel pool, and from a water substrate to cryogenic fuel pools spreading on water, provides evaporation rates for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic fires. The model is tested against field measurements of large scale pool fires, principally of LNG, and is generally in agreement with experimental values of all variables

  15. Large-scale solar heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Solar heating market is growing in many European countries and annually installed collector area has exceeded one million square meters. There are dozens of collector manufacturers and hundreds of firms making solar heating installations in Europe. One tendency in solar heating is towards larger systems. These can be roof integrated, consisting of some tens or hundreds of square meters of collectors, or they can be larger centralized solar district heating plants consisting of a few thousand square meters of collectors. The increase of size can reduce the specific investments of solar heating systems, because e.g. the costs of some components (controllers, pumps, and pipes), planning and installation can be smaller in larger systems. The solar heat output can also be higher in large systems, because more advanced technique is economically viable

  16. Large aspect ratio tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Sardella, C.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) investigated the potential for producing a viable long burn tokamak reactor through enhanced volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer by employing high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were accessed in the context of extended burn operation. Plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed using a one-dimensional transport code. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the field in the ohmic heating coil and the wave shape of the ohmic heating discharge. A high aspect ratio reference reactor was chosen and configured

  17. LARGE BLOCK TEST STATUS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.G. WILDER, W. LIN, S.C. BLAIR, T. BUSCHECK, R.C. CARLSON, K. LEE, A. MEIKE, A.L. RAMIREZ, J.L. WAGONER, AND J. WANG

    1997-01-01

    This report is intended to serve as a status report, which essentially transmits the data that have been collected to date on the Large Block Test (LBT). The analyses of data will be performed during FY98, and then a complete report will be prepared. This status report includes introductory material that is not needed merely to transmit data but is available at this time and therefore included. As such, this status report will serve as the template for the future report, and the information is thus preserved. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is investigatinq the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential site for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. As shown in Fig. 1-1, the site is located about 120 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in an area of uninhabited desert

  18. Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Hensley, R.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 v has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

  19. Conference on Large Scale Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Hearn, D; Pardalos, P

    1994-01-01

    On February 15-17, 1993, a conference on Large Scale Optimization, hosted by the Center for Applied Optimization, was held at the University of Florida. The con­ ference was supported by the National Science Foundation, the U. S. Army Research Office, and the University of Florida, with endorsements from SIAM, MPS, ORSA and IMACS. Forty one invited speakers presented papers on mathematical program­ ming and optimal control topics with an emphasis on algorithm development, real world applications and numerical results. Participants from Canada, Japan, Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, Greece, and Denmark gave the meeting an important international component. At­ tendees also included representatives from IBM, American Airlines, US Air, United Parcel Serice, AT & T Bell Labs, Thinking Machines, Army High Performance Com­ puting Research Center, and Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, the NSF sponsored attendance of thirteen graduate students from universities in the United States and abro...

  20. Large scale nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of large scale nuclear structure studies are reported. The starting point is the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov solution with angular momentum and proton and neutron number projection after variation. This model for number and spin projected two-quasiparticle excitations with realistic forces yields in sd-shell nuclei similar good results as the 'exact' shell-model calculations. Here the authors present results for a pf-shell nucleus 46 Ti and results for the A=130 mass region where they studied 58 different nuclei with the same single-particle energies and the same effective force derived from a meson exchange potential. They carried out a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov variation after mean field projection in realistic model spaces. In this way, they determine for each yrast state the optimal mean Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov field. They apply this method to 130 Ce and 128 Ba using the same effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. (Auth.)

  1. Analysis of large urban fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.W.; Reitter, T.A.; Takata, A.N.

    1984-11-01

    Fires in urban areas caused by a nuclear burst are analyzed as a first step towards determining their smoke-generation chacteristics, which may have grave implications for global-scale climatic consequences. A chain of events and their component processes which would follow a nuclear attack are described. A numerical code is currently being developed to calculate ultimately the smoke production rate for a given attack scenario. Available models for most of the processes are incorporated into the code. Sample calculations of urban fire-development history performed in the code for an idealized uniform city are presented. Preliminary results indicate the importance of the wind, thermal radiation transmission, fuel distributions, and ignition thresholds on the urban fire spread characteristics. Future plans are to improve the existing models and develop new ones to characterize smoke production from large urban fires. 21 references, 18 figures

  2. Large-scale river regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petts, G.

    1994-01-01

    Recent concern over human impacts on the environment has tended to focus on climatic change, desertification, destruction of tropical rain forests, and pollution. Yet large-scale water projects such as dams, reservoirs, and inter-basin transfers are among the most dramatic and extensive ways in which our environment has been, and continues to be, transformed by human action. Water running to the sea is perceived as a lost resource, floods are viewed as major hazards, and wetlands are seen as wastelands. River regulation, involving the redistribution of water in time and space, is a key concept in socio-economic development. To achieve water and food security, to develop drylands, and to prevent desertification and drought are primary aims for many countries. A second key concept is ecological sustainability. Yet the ecology of rivers and their floodplains is dependent on the natural hydrological regime, and its related biochemical and geomorphological dynamics. (Author)

  3. Large-order perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.T.

    1982-01-01

    The original motivation for studying the asymptotic behavior of the coefficients of perturbation series came from quantum field theory. An overview is given of some of the attempts to understand quantum field theory beyond finite-order perturbation series. At least is the case of the Thirring model and probably in general, the full content of a relativistic quantum field theory cannot be recovered from its perturbation series. This difficulty, however, does not occur in quantum mechanics, and the anharmonic oscillator is used to illustrate the methods used in large-order perturbation theory. Two completely different methods are discussed, the first one using the WKB approximation, and a second one involving the statistical analysis of Feynman diagrams. The first one is well developed and gives detailed information about the desired asymptotic behavior, while the second one is still in its infancy and gives instead information about the distribution of vertices of the Feynman diagrams

  4. Great expectations: large wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, E.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on wind turbine product development, and traces the background to wind turbines from the first generation 1.5 MW machines in 1995-6, plans for the second generation 3-5 MW class turbines to meet the expected boom in offshore wind projects, to the anticipated installation of a 4.5 MW turbine, and offshore wind projects planned for 2000-2002. The switch by the market leader Vestas to variable speed operation in 2000, the new product development and marketing strategy taken by the German Pro + Pro consultancy in their design of a 1.5 MW variable speed pitch control concept, the possible limiting of the size of turbines due to logistical difficulties, opportunities offered by air ships for large turbines, and the commissioning of offshore wind farms are discussed. Details of some 2-5 MW offshore wind turbine design specifications are tabulated

  5. Perspectives on large linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1987-11-01

    Three main items in the design of large linear colliders are presented. The first is the interrelation of energy and luminosity requirements. These two items impose severe constraints on the accelerator builder who must design a machine to meet the needs of experimentl high energy physics rather than designing a machine for its own sake. An introduction is also given for linear collider design, concentrating on what goes on at the collision point, for still another constraint comes here from the beam-beam interaction which further restricts the choices available to the accelerator builder. The author also gives his impressions of the state of the technology available for building these kinds of machines within the next decade. The paper concludes with a brief recommendation for how we can all get on with the work faster, and hope to realize these machines sooner by working together. 10 refs., 9 figs

  6. Joint studies on large CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ikhwan; Yu, S. K. W.

    1994-01-01

    from economic, safety and strategic viewpoints. A large number of research and development programs are now in place at AECL and KAERI that will permit substantial improvements to be realized in the next generation of CANDU okabts, Furthermore, opportunities exist for engineered improvements based on the research and development in advancing the generic CANDU Technology. Final Large CANDU joint study report with technical deliverables will be issued 1994 October. Phase 2 R and D program of the joint studies will be determined this year and implemented in next year. CANDU neutron economy permits versatility in choices of fuel cycles. This allows a utility to choose fuel cycle options for lower fuelling cost, better security of supply, and ultimately for much lower spent-fuel volume, than with PWR's alone. To meet Korea's strategic requirements, CANDU should be an integral part of the electricity supply mix.

  7. Large Volcanic Rises on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-01-01

    Large volcanic rises on Venus have been interpreted as hotspots, or the surface manifestation of mantle upwelling, on the basis of their broad topographic rises, abundant volcanism, and large positive gravity anomalies. Hotspots offer an important opportunity to study the behavior of the lithosphere in response to mantle forces. In addition to the four previously known hotspots, Atla, Bell, Beta, and western Eistla Regiones, five new probable hotspots, Dione, central Eistla, eastern Eistla, Imdr, and Themis, have been identified in the Magellan radar, gravity and topography data. These nine regions exhibit a wider range of volcano-tectonic characteristics than previously recognized for venusian hotspots, and have been classified as rift-dominated (Atla, Beta), coronae-dominated (central and eastern Eistla, Themis), or volcano-dominated (Bell, Dione, western Eistla, Imdr). The apparent depths of compensation for these regions ranges from 65 to 260 km. New estimates of the elastic thickness, using the 90 deg and order spherical harmonic field, are 15-40 km at Bell Regio, and 25 km at western Eistla Regio. Phillips et al. find a value of 30 km at Atla Regio. Numerous models of lithospheric and mantle behavior have been proposed to interpret the gravity and topography signature of the hotspots, with most studies focusing on Atla or Beta Regiones. Convective models with Earth-like parameters result in estimates of the thickness of the thermal lithosphere of approximately 100 km. Models of stagnant lid convection or thermal thinning infer the thickness of the thermal lithosphere to be 300 km or more. Without additional constraints, any of the model fits are equally valid. The thinner thermal lithosphere estimates are most consistent with the volcanic and tectonic characteristics of the hotspots. Estimates of the thermal gradient based on estimates of the elastic thickness also support a relatively thin lithosphere (Phillips et al.). The advantage of larger estimates of

  8. Reviving large-scale projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desiront, A.

    2003-01-01

    For the past decade, most large-scale hydro development projects in northern Quebec have been put on hold due to land disputes with First Nations. Hydroelectric projects have recently been revived following an agreement signed with Aboriginal communities in the province who recognized the need to find new sources of revenue for future generations. Many Cree are working on the project to harness the waters of the Eastmain River located in the middle of their territory. The work involves building an 890 foot long dam, 30 dikes enclosing a 603 square-km reservoir, a spillway, and a power house with 3 generating units with a total capacity of 480 MW of power for start-up in 2007. The project will require the use of 2,400 workers in total. The Cree Construction and Development Company is working on relations between Quebec's 14,000 Crees and the James Bay Energy Corporation, the subsidiary of Hydro-Quebec which is developing the project. Approximately 10 per cent of the $735-million project has been designated for the environmental component. Inspectors ensure that the project complies fully with environmental protection guidelines. Total development costs for Eastmain-1 are in the order of $2 billion of which $735 million will cover work on site and the remainder will cover generating units, transportation and financial charges. Under the treaty known as the Peace of the Braves, signed in February 2002, the Quebec government and Hydro-Quebec will pay the Cree $70 million annually for 50 years for the right to exploit hydro, mining and forest resources within their territory. The project comes at a time when electricity export volumes to the New England states are down due to growth in Quebec's domestic demand. Hydropower is a renewable and non-polluting source of energy that is one of the most acceptable forms of energy where the Kyoto Protocol is concerned. It was emphasized that large-scale hydro-electric projects are needed to provide sufficient energy to meet both

  9. Large Scale Glazed Concrete Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Today, there is a lot of focus on concrete surface’s aesthitic potential, both globally and locally. World famous architects such as Herzog De Meuron, Zaha Hadid, Richard Meyer and David Chippenfield challenge the exposure of concrete in their architecture. At home, this trend can be seen...... in the crinkly façade of DR-Byen (the domicile of the Danish Broadcasting Company) by architect Jean Nouvel and Zaha Hadid’s Ordrupgård’s black curved smooth concrete surfaces. Furthermore, one can point to initiatives such as “Synlig beton” (visible concrete) that can be seen on the website www.......synligbeton.dk and spæncom’s aesthetic relief effects by the designer Line Kramhøft (www.spaencom.com). It is my hope that the research-development project “Lasting large scale glazed concrete formwork,” I am working on at DTU, department of Architectural Engineering will be able to complement these. It is a project where I...

  10. The Large Hadron Collider project

    CERN Document Server

    Maiani, Luciano

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter has greatly advanced, over the last decades. The standard theory of fundamental interactions presents us with a theoretically sound picture, which describes with great accuracy known physical phenomena on most diverse energy and distance scales. These range from 10/sup -16/ cm, inside the nucleons, up to large-scale astrophysical bodies, including the early Universe at some nanosecond after the Big-Bang and temperatures of the order of 10/sup 2/ GeV. The picture is not yet completed, however, as we lack the observation of the Higgs boson, predicted in the 100-500 GeV range-a particle associated with the generation of particle masses and with the quantum fluctuations in the primordial Universe. In addition, the standard theory is expected to undergo a change of regime in the 10/sup 3/ GeV region, with the appearance of new families of particles, most likely associated with the onset of a new symmetry (supersymmetry). In 1994, the CERN Council approved the con...

  11. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  12. Large-area photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Tilmann; Spahn, Peter; Hellmann, Gotz P.; Winkler, Holger

    2004-09-01

    Materials with a periodically modulated refractive index, with periods on the scale of light wavelengths, are currently attracting much attention because of their unique optical properties which are caused by Bragg scattering of the visible light. In nature, 3d structures of this kind are found in the form of opals in which monodisperse silica spheres with submicron diameters form a face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattice. Artificial opals, with the same colloidal-crystalline fcc structure, have meanwhile been prepared by crystallizing spherical colloidal particles via sedimentation or drying of dispersions. In this report, colloidal crystalline films are introduced that were produced by a novel technique based on shear flow in the melts of specially designed submicroscopic silica-polymer core-shell hybrid spheres: when the melt of these spheres flows between the plates of a press, the spheres crystallize along the plates, layer by layer, and the silica cores assume the hexagonal order corresponding to the (111) plane of the fcc lattice. This process is fast and yields large-area films, thin or thick. To enhance the refractive index contrast in these films, the colloidal crystalline structure was inverted by etching out the silica cores with hydrofluoric acid. This type of an inverse opal, in which the fcc lattice is formed by mesopores, is referred to as a polymer-air photonic crystal.

  13. Shutdown problems in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    Some of the problems connected with a normal shutdown at the end of the burn phase (soft shutdown) and with a shutdown caused by disruptive instability (hard shutdown) have been considered. For a soft shutdown a cursory literature search was undertaken and methods for controlling the thermal wall loading were listed. Because shutdown computer codes are not widespread, some of the differences between start-up codes and shutdown codes were discussed along with program changes needed to change a start-up code to a shutdown code. For a hard shutdown, the major problems are large induced voltages in the ohmic-heating and equilibrium-field coils and high first wall erosion. A literature search of plasma-wall interactions was carried out. Phenomena that occur at the plasma-wall interface can be quite complicated. For example, material evaporated from the wall can form a virtual limiter or shield protecting the wall from major damage. Thermal gradients that occur during the interaction can produce currents whose associated magnetic field also helps shield the wall

  14. Large scale cross hole testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.K.; Black, J.H.; Doe, T.

    1991-05-01

    As part of the Site Characterisation and Validation programme the results of the large scale cross hole testing have been used to document hydraulic connections across the SCV block, to test conceptual models of fracture zones and obtain hydrogeological properties of the major hydrogeological features. The SCV block is highly heterogeneous. This heterogeneity is not smoothed out even over scales of hundreds of meters. Results of the interpretation validate the hypothesis of the major fracture zones, A, B and H; not much evidence of minor fracture zones is found. The uncertainty in the flow path, through the fractured rock, causes sever problems in interpretation. Derived values of hydraulic conductivity were found to be in a narrow range of two to three orders of magnitude. Test design did not allow fracture zones to be tested individually. This could be improved by testing the high hydraulic conductivity regions specifically. The Piezomac and single hole equipment worked well. Few, if any, of the tests ran long enough to approach equilibrium. Many observation boreholes showed no response. This could either be because there is no hydraulic connection, or there is a connection but a response is not seen within the time scale of the pumping test. The fractional dimension analysis yielded credible results, and the sinusoidal testing procedure provided an effective means of identifying the dominant hydraulic connections. (10 refs.) (au)

  15. Mapping change in large networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rosvall

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Change is a fundamental ingredient of interaction patterns in biology, technology, the economy, and science itself: Interactions within and between organisms change; transportation patterns by air, land, and sea all change; the global financial flow changes; and the frontiers of scientific research change. Networks and clustering methods have become important tools to comprehend instances of these large-scale structures, but without methods to distinguish between real trends and noisy data, these approaches are not useful for studying how networks change. Only if we can assign significance to the partitioning of single networks can we distinguish meaningful structural changes from random fluctuations. Here we show that bootstrap resampling accompanied by significance clustering provides a solution to this problem. To connect changing structures with the changing function of networks, we highlight and summarize the significant structural changes with alluvial diagrams and realize de Solla Price's vision of mapping change in science: studying the citation pattern between about 7000 scientific journals over the past decade, we find that neuroscience has transformed from an interdisciplinary specialty to a mature and stand-alone discipline.

  16. Tipping device for large components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guigon, J.P.; Beraudier, D.

    1984-01-01

    For large components machining as components of a pressurized water reactor, it is necessary to have means allowing to present them in a position determined with regard to the machine tool used. The aim of the invention is a tipping device which consists of a base resting on the ground, a support-table mounted on this base, moving in rotation with the aid of at least a pivot joint of which axis is horizontal and parallel to the table and a gear pivot allowing to get a very good precision for the orientation of the piece and a very good stability whatever the orientation may be. The output shaft pinion of the base meshes with a gear wheel segment fixed to the table structure. Safety straps fasten the table structure to the base, as they are secured by horizontal pins. The toe pins run in straight slot holes incorporated in base jaws. The table rotation may be controlled by a spring-loaded braking mechanism which acts on the pivot axis and can be released by a hydraulic jack. The hydraulic pressure is used to prevent motor operation, unless the brakes have been released [fr

  17. Natural Selection in Large Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Michael

    2011-03-01

    I will discuss theoretical and experimental approaches to the evolutionary dynamics and population genetics of natural selection in large populations. In these populations, many mutations are often present simultaneously, and because recombination is limited, selection cannot act on them all independently. Rather, it can only affect whole combinations of mutations linked together on the same chromosome. Methods common in theoretical population genetics have been of limited utility in analyzing this coupling between the fates of different mutations. In the past few years it has become increasingly clear that this is a crucial gap in our understanding, as sequence data has begun to show that selection appears to act pervasively on many linked sites in a wide range of populations, including viruses, microbes, Drosophila, and humans. I will describe approaches that combine analytical tools drawn from statistical physics and dynamical systems with traditional methods in theoretical population genetics to address this problem, and describe how experiments in budding yeast can help us directly observe these evolutionary dynamics.

  18. Assembly considerations for large reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, H.

    1988-01-01

    The technologies developed at LaRC in the area of erectable instructures are discussed. The information is of direct value to the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) because an option for the LDR backup structure is to assemble it in space. The efforts in this area, which include development of joints, underwater assembly simulation tests, flight assembly/disassembly tests, and fabrication of 5-meter trusses, led to the use of the LaRC concept as the baseline configuration for the Space Station Structure. The Space Station joint is linear in the load and displacement range of interest to Space Station; the ability to manually assemble and disassemble a 45-foot truss structure was demonstrated by astronauts in space as part of the ACCESS Shuttle Flight Experiment. The structure was built in 26 minutes 46 seconds, and involved a total of 500 manipulations of untethered hardware. Also, the correlation of the space experience with the neutral buoyancy simulation was very good. Sections of the proposed 5-meter bay Space Station truss have been built on the ground. Activities at LaRC have included the development of mobile remote manipulator systems (which can traverse the Space Station 5-meter structure), preliminary LDR sun shield concepts, LDR construction scenarios, and activities in robotic assembly of truss-type structures.

  19. Large superconducting coil fabrication development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Allred, E.L.; Anderson, W.C.; Burn, P.B.; Deaderick, R.I.; Henderson, G.M.; Marguerat, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    Toroidal fields for some fusion devices will be produced by an array of large superconducting coils. Their size, space limitation, and field requirements dictate that they be high performance coils. Once installed, accessibility for maintenance and repairs is severely restricted; therefore, good reliability is an obvious necessity. Sufficient coil fabrication will be undertaken to develop and test methods that are reliable, fast, and economical. Industrial participation will be encouraged from the outset to insure smooth transition from development phases to production phases. Initially, practice equipment for three meter bore circular coils will be developed. Oval shape coil forms will be included in the practice facility later. Equipment that is more automated will be developed with the expectation of winding faster and obtaining good coil quality. Alternate types of coil construction, methods of winding and insulating, will be investigated. Handling and assembly problems will be studied. All technology developed must be feasible for scaling up when much larger coils are needed. Experimental power reactors may need coils having six meter or larger bores

  20. Large earthquakes and creeping faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth A.

    2017-01-01

    Faults are ubiquitous throughout the Earth's crust. The majority are silent for decades to centuries, until they suddenly rupture and produce earthquakes. With a focus on shallow continental active-tectonic regions, this paper reviews a subset of faults that have a different behavior. These unusual faults slowly creep for long periods of time and produce many small earthquakes. The presence of fault creep and the related microseismicity helps illuminate faults that might not otherwise be located in fine detail, but there is also the question of how creeping faults contribute to seismic hazard. It appears that well-recorded creeping fault earthquakes of up to magnitude 6.6 that have occurred in shallow continental regions produce similar fault-surface rupture areas and similar peak ground shaking as their locked fault counterparts of the same earthquake magnitude. The behavior of much larger earthquakes on shallow creeping continental faults is less well known, because there is a dearth of comprehensive observations. Computational simulations provide an opportunity to fill the gaps in our understanding, particularly of the dynamic processes that occur during large earthquake rupture and arrest.

  1. Pressing technology for large bottoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilek, L.

    1986-01-01

    The technology has been selected of a circular plate bent into the shape of a trough, for pressing bottoms of pressure vessels from a circular plate of large diameter. The initial sheet is first bent in the middle by heating with the edges remaining straight. These are then welded longitudinally by electroslag welding and the circular shape is flame cut. The result will be a plate with a straight surface in the middle with raised edges which may be pressed into the desired shape. In this manner it is also possible to press pressure vessel bottoms with tube couplings from plates which are thickened in the middle and drilled; additional welding is then eliminated. Deformation from heat treatment may be avoided by the use of a fixture in the shape of a ring with a groove into which is fixed the edge of the bottom. During hardening of the bottom it will be necessary to care for the withdrawal of vapours and gases which would hamper uniform cooling. Bottom hardening with the grill and the cupola downwards has been proven. Deformation which occurs during treatment may to a certain extent be removed by calibration which cannot, however, be made without special fixtures and instruments. (J.B.)

  2. Relaxing a large cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Florian; Sola, Joan; Stefancic, Hrvoje

    2009-01-01

    The cosmological constant (CC) problem is the biggest enigma of theoretical physics ever. In recent times, it has been rephrased as the dark energy (DE) problem in order to encompass a wider spectrum of possibilities. It is, in any case, a polyhedric puzzle with many faces, including the cosmic coincidence problem, i.e. why the density of matter ρ m is presently so close to the CC density ρ Λ . However, the oldest, toughest and most intriguing face of this polyhedron is the big CC problem, namely why the measured value of ρ Λ at present is so small as compared to any typical density scale existing in high energy physics, especially taking into account the many phase transitions that our Universe has undergone since the early times, including inflation. In this Letter, we propose to extend the field equations of General Relativity by including a class of invariant terms that automatically relax the value of the CC irrespective of the initial size of the vacuum energy in the early epochs. We show that, at late times, the Universe enters an eternal de Sitter stage mimicking a tiny positive cosmological constant. Thus, these models could be able to solve the big CC problem without fine-tuning and have also a bearing on the cosmic coincidence problem. Remarkably, they mimic the ΛCDM model to a large extent, but they still leave some characteristic imprints that should be testable in the next generation of experiments.

  3. The LUVOIR Large Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, John; LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team

    2018-01-01

    LUVOIR is one of four large mission concepts for which the NASA Astrophysics Division has commissioned studies by Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDTs) drawn from the astronomical community. We are currently developing two architectures: Architecture A with a 15.1 meter segmented primary mirror, and Architecture B with a 9.2 meter segmented primary mirror. Our focus in this presentation is the Architecture A LUVOIR. LUVOIR will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 point. It will be designed to support a broad range of astrophysics and exoplanet studies. The initial instruments developed for LUVOIR Architecture A include 1) a high-performance optical/NIR coronagraph with imaging and spectroscopic capability, 2) a UV imager and spectrograph with high spectral resolution and multi-object capability, 3) a high-definition wide-field optical/NIR camera, and 4) a high resolution UV/optical spectropolarimeter. LUVOIR will be designed for extreme stability to support unprecedented spatial resolution and coronagraphy. It is intended to be a long-lifetime facility that is both serviceable, upgradable, and primarily driven by guest observer science programs. In this presentation, we will describe the observatory, its instruments, and survey the transformative science LUVOIR can accomplish.

  4. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjacques, Vincent; Jeong, Donghui; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-02-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy statistics. We then review the excursion-set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  5. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Donghui; Desjacques, Vincent; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Here, we briefly introduce the key results of the recent review (arXiv:1611.09787), whose abstract is as following. This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy (or halo) statistics. We then review the excursion set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  6. One to Large N Gradiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    The seismic wave gradient tensor can be derived from a variety of field observations including measurements of the wavefield by a dense seismic array, strain meters, and rotation meters. Coupled with models of wave propagation, wave gradients along with the original wavefield can give estimates of wave attributes that can be used to infer wave propagation directions, apparent velocities, spatial amplitude behavior, and wave type. Compact geodetic arrays with apertures of 0.1 wavelength or less can be deployed to provide wavefield information at a localized spot similar to larger phased arrays with apertures of many wavelengths. Large N, spatially distributed arrays can provide detailed information over an area to detect structure changes. Key to accurate computation of spatial gradients from arrays of seismic instruments is knowledge of relative instrument responses, particularly component sensitivities and gains, along with relative sensor orientations. Array calibration has been successfully performed for the 14-element Pinyon Flat, California, broadband array using long-period teleseisms to achieve relative precisions as small as 0.2% in amplitude and 0.35o in orientation. Calibration has allowed successful comparison of horizontal seismic strains from local and regional seismic events with the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) borehole strainmeter located at the facility. Strains from the borehole strainmeter in conjunction with ground velocity from a co-located seismometer are used as a "point" array in estimating wave attributes for the P-SV components of the wavefield. An effort is underway to verify the calibration of PBO strainmeters in southern California and their co-located borehole seismic sensors to create an array of point arrays for use in studies of regional wave propagation and seismic sources.

  7. Large capacity temporary visual memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Potter, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to three or four items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor — proactive interference — is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of 5 to 21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory, but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

  8. Seismic analysis of large pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, R.G.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-11-17

    Large pools for storing spent, nuclear fuel elements are being proposed to augment present storage capacity. To preserve the ability to isolate portions of these pools, a modularization requirement appears desirable. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance and to assess the adequacy of current design methods for seismic loads. After determining probable representative pool geometries, three rectangular pool configurations, all 240 x 16 ft and 40 ft deep, were examined. One was unmodularized; two were modularized into 80 x 40 ft cells in one case and 80 x 80 ft cells in the other. Both embedded and above-ground installations for a hard site and embedded installations for an intermediate hard site were studied. It was found that modularization was unfavorable in terms of reducing the total structural load attributable to dynamic effects, principally because one or more cells could be left unfilled. The walls of unfilled cells would be subjected to significantly higher loads than the walls of a filled, unmodularized pool. Generally, embedded installations were preferable to above-ground installations, and the hard site was superior to the intermediate hard site. It was determined that Housner's theory was adequate for calculating hydrodynamic effects on spent fuel storage pools. Current design methods for seismic loads were found to be satisfactory when results from these methods were compared with those from LUSH analyses. As a design method for dynamic soil pressure, we found the Mononobe-Okabe theory, coupled with correction factors as suggested by Seed, to be acceptable. The factors we recommend for spent fuel storage pools are tabulated.

  9. Seismic analysis of large pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Large pools for storing spent, nuclear fuel elements are being proposed to augment present storage capacity. To preserve the ability to isolate portions of these pools, a modularization requirement appears desirable. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance and to assess the adequacy of current design methods for seismic loads. After determining probable representative pool geometries, three rectangular pool configurations, all 240 x 16 ft and 40 ft deep, were examined. One was unmodularized; two were modularized into 80 x 40 ft cells in one case and 80 x 80 ft cells in the other. Both embedded and above-ground installations for a hard site and embedded installations for an intermediate hard site were studied. It was found that modularization was unfavorable in terms of reducing the total structural load attributable to dynamic effects, principally because one or more cells could be left unfilled. The walls of unfilled cells would be subjected to significantly higher loads than the walls of a filled, unmodularized pool. Generally, embedded installations were preferable to above-ground installations, and the hard site was superior to the intermediate hard site. It was determined that Housner's theory was adequate for calculating hydrodynamic effects on spent fuel storage pools. Current design methods for seismic loads were found to be satisfactory when results from these methods were compared with those from LUSH analyses. As a design method for dynamic soil pressure, we found the Mononobe-Okabe theory, coupled with correction factors as suggested by Seed, to be acceptable. The factors we recommend for spent fuel storage pools are tabulated

  10. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Marion Jay [Brentwood, CA; Ayers, Shannon Lee [Brentwood, CA

    2010-08-24

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  11. Large dams and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazelais, N.

    2003-01-01

    In July 1996, Quebec's Saguenay region was subjected to intensive rainfall which caused severe floods and uncontrolled release of several reservoirs, resulting in extensive damage to dam structures and reservoirs. The probability of occurrence for that disaster was 1:10,000. Following the disaster, the Quebec government established a dam management body entitled the Commission scientifique et technique sur la gestion des barrages, which pointed out several safety shortcomings of existing dams. Many were either very old or had undergone significant function change without being subsequently re-evaluated. A report by the Commission stated that damage following the floods could have been limited if the design and operating standards of the dams had been more stringent. A Dam Safety Act was adopted by the Quebec National Assembly on May 30, 2000 following recommendations to retain safer structures. The Act demands regular reporting of operating procedures. Seismic activity was noted as being a topic that requires in-depth examination since Quebec's St. Lawrence Valley, particularly the Charlevoix region, is one of Canada's largest seismic zones. The other is on the west coast in British Columbia. Earthquakes in Quebec are less intense than the ones in British Columbia, but they have higher frequency content which exerts a quasi-resonance wave effect which impacts roads, bridges, buildings and hydroelectric generating facilities. Hydro-Quebec is a public utility which owns 563 retaining structures, of which 228 are ranked as large dams that measure more than 15 metres high, 400 metres long and with a reservoir capacity of more than 1 million cubic metres of water. Hydro-Quebec addresses hydrological, seismic, technological and human risks through a dam safety procedure that includes structured plans for choosing best alternatives through staged exercises. Hazard levels are minimized through the adoption of emergency, prevention and alleviation measures. The utility

  12. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2010. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  13. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2012. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  14. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2013. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  15. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2009. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  16. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2011. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  17. Superconducting materials for large scale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dew-Hughes, D.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of superconductors capable of carrying large current densities in large-scale electrical devices are examined. Discussions are included on critical current density, superconducting materials available, and future prospects for improved superconducting materials. (JRD)

  18. Investing in a Large Stretch Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, M.; Nealson, W.; Jay, G.; Buss, W.

    1986-01-01

    Press for forming large aluminum parts from plates provides substantial economies. Study assessed advantages and disadvantages of investing in large stretch-forming press, and also developed procurement specification for press.

  19. Large-scale energy consumers pay less

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denneman, A.

    2012-01-01

    The price of electricity in the Netherlands rose with 6 percent in the first quarter of 2012, whereas large business consumers are paying less. The natural gas price has risen with about 10 percent in the last year, both for households and for large business consumers. Meanwhile, households are paying twice as much for electricity and gas as large business consumers. [nl

  20. 27 CFR 19.915 - Large plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Large plants. 19.915... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Permits § 19.915 Large plants. Any person wishing to establish a large plant shall make application for and obtain an...

  1. 75 FR 73983 - Assessments, Large Bank Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... 327 RIN 3064-AD66 Assessments, Large Bank Pricing AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC... Pricing. This correction clarifies that the comment period for the Assessments, Large Bank Pricing ends January 3, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lisa Ryu, Chief, Large Bank Pricing Section, Division of...

  2. 76 FR 10671 - Assessments, Large Bank Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... 327 Assessments, Large Bank Pricing; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 38 / Friday... Part 327 RIN 3064-AD66 Assessments, Large Bank Pricing AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation..., (202) 898-6796; Lisa Ryu, Chief, Large Bank Pricing Section, Division of Insurance and Research, (202...

  3. Why did humans develop a large brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat Baron, Yves

    2012-01-01

    "Of all animals, man has the largest brain in proportion to his size"- Aristotle. Dr Yves Muscat Baron shares his theory on how humans evolved large brains. The theory outlines how gravity could have helped humans develop a large brain- the author has named the theory 'The Gravitational Vascular Theory'. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/why-did-humans-develop-a-large-brain/

  4. Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakita, B.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)

  5. Forecasting distribution of numbers of large fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Jeff Eidenshink; Stephen Howard; Robert E. Burgan

    2015-01-01

    Systems to estimate forest fire potential commonly utilize one or more indexes that relate to expected fire behavior; however they indicate neither the chance that a large fire will occur, nor the expected number of large fires. That is, they do not quantify the probabilistic nature of fire danger. In this work we use large fire occurrence information from the...

  6. Parallel algorithms for large-scale biological sequence alignment on Xeon-Phi based clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Haidong; Chan, Yuandong; Xu, Kai; Schmidt, Bertil; Peng, Shaoliang; Liu, Weiguo

    2016-07-19

    Computing alignments between two or more sequences are common operations frequently performed in computational molecular biology. The continuing growth of biological sequence databases establishes the need for their efficient parallel implementation on modern accelerators. This paper presents new approaches to high performance biological sequence database scanning with the Smith-Waterman algorithm and the first stage of progressive multiple sequence alignment based on the ClustalW heuristic on a Xeon Phi-based compute cluster. Our approach uses a three-level parallelization scheme to take full advantage of the compute power available on this type of architecture; i.e. cluster-level data parallelism, thread-level coarse-grained parallelism, and vector-level fine-grained parallelism. Furthermore, we re-organize the sequence datasets and use Xeon Phi shuffle operations to improve I/O efficiency. Evaluations show that our method achieves a peak overall performance up to 220 GCUPS for scanning real protein sequence databanks on a single node consisting of two Intel E5-2620 CPUs and two Intel Xeon Phi 7110P cards. It also exhibits good scalability in terms of sequence length and size, and number of compute nodes for both database scanning and multiple sequence alignment. Furthermore, the achieved performance is highly competitive in comparison to optimized Xeon Phi and GPU implementations. Our implementation is available at https://github.com/turbo0628/LSDBS-mpi .

  7. Scalable Algorithms for Clustering Large Geospatiotemporal Data Sets on Manycore Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. T.; Hoffman, F. M.; Kumar, J.; Sreepathi, S.; Sripathi, V.

    2016-12-01

    The increasing availability of high-resolution geospatiotemporal data sets from sources such as observatory networks, remote sensing platforms, and computational Earth system models has opened new possibilities for knowledge discovery using data sets fused from disparate sources. Traditional algorithms and computing platforms are impractical for the analysis and synthesis of data sets of this size; however, new algorithmic approaches that can effectively utilize the complex memory hierarchies and the extremely high levels of available parallelism in state-of-the-art high-performance computing platforms can enable such analysis. We describe a massively parallel implementation of accelerated k-means clustering and some optimizations to boost computational intensity and utilization of wide SIMD lanes on state-of-the art multi- and manycore processors, including the second-generation Intel Xeon Phi ("Knights Landing") processor based on the Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture, which includes several new features, including an on-package high-bandwidth memory. We also analyze the code in the context of a few practical applications to the analysis of climatic and remotely-sensed vegetation phenology data sets, and speculate on some of the new applications that such scalable analysis methods may enable.

  8. Large-group psychodynamics and massive violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamik D. Volkan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with Freud, psychoanalytic theories concerning large groups have mainly focused on individuals' perceptions of what their large groups psychologically mean to them. This chapter examines some aspects of large-group psychology in its own right and studies psychodynamics of ethnic, national, religious or ideological groups, the membership of which originates in childhood. I will compare the mourning process in individuals with the mourning process in large groups to illustrate why we need to study large-group psychology as a subject in itself. As part of this discussion I will also describe signs and symptoms of large-group regression. When there is a threat against a large-group's identity, massive violence may be initiated and this violence in turn, has an obvious impact on public health.

  9. Empirical study of parallel LRU simulation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Eric; Nicol, David M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on the performance of five parallel algorithms for simulating a fully associative cache operating under the LRU (Least-Recently-Used) replacement policy. Three of the algorithms are SIMD, and are implemented on the MasPar MP-2 architecture. Two other algorithms are parallelizations of an efficient serial algorithm on the Intel Paragon. One SIMD algorithm is quite simple, but its cost is linear in the cache size. The two other SIMD algorithm are more complex, but have costs that are independent on the cache size. Both the second and third SIMD algorithms compute all stack distances; the second SIMD algorithm is completely general, whereas the third SIMD algorithm presumes and takes advantage of bounds on the range of reference tags. Both MIMD algorithm implemented on the Paragon are general and compute all stack distances; they differ in one step that may affect their respective scalability. We assess the strengths and weaknesses of these algorithms as a function of problem size and characteristics, and compare their performance on traces derived from execution of three SPEC benchmark programs.

  10. Multi-CPU plasma fluid turbulence calculations on a CRAY Y-MP C90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Curtis, B.C.; Troutman, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Significant improvements in real-time efficiency have been obtained for plasma fluid turbulence calculations by microtasking the nonlinear fluid code KITE in which they are implemented on the CRAY Y-MP C90 at the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). The number of processors accessed concurrently scales linearly with problem size. Close to six concurrent processors have so far been obtained with a three-dimensional nonlinear production calculation at the currently allowed memory size of 80 Mword. With a calculation size corresponding to the maximum allowed memory of 200 Mword in the next system configuration, they expect to be able to access close to ten processors of the C90 concurrently with a commensurate improvement in real-time efficiency. These improvements in performance are comparable to those expected from a massively parallel implementation of the same calculations on the Intel Paragon

  11. Multi-CPU plasma fluid turbulence calculations on a CRAY Y-MP C90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Curtis, B.C.; Troutman, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Significant improvements in real-time efficiency have been obtained for plasma fluid turbulence calculations by microtasking the nonlinear fluid code KITE in which they are implemented on the CRAY Y-MP C90 at the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). The number of processors accessed concurrently scales linearly with problem size. Close to six concurrent processors have so far been obtained with a three-dimensional nonlinear production calculation at the currently allowed memory size of 80 Mword. With a calculation size corresponding to the maximum allowed memory of 200 Mword in the next system configuration, we expect to be able to access close to nine processors of the C90 concurrently with a commensurate improvement in real-time efficiency. These improvements in performance are comparable to those expected from a massively parallel implementation of the same calculations on the Intel Paragon

  12. Survey on present status and trend of parallel programming environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemiya, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Kenji; Honma, Ichiro; Ohta, Hirofumi; Kawasaki, Takuji; Imamura, Toshiyuki; Koide, Hiroshi; Akimoto, Masayuki.

    1997-03-01

    This report intends to provide useful information on software tools for parallel programming through the survey on parallel programming environments of the following six parallel computers, Fujitsu VPP300/500, NEC SX-4, Hitachi SR2201, Cray T94, IBM SP, and Intel Paragon, all of which are installed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), moreover, the present status of R and D's on parallel softwares of parallel languages, compilers, debuggers, performance evaluation tools, and integrated tools is reported. This survey has been made as a part of our project of developing a basic software for parallel programming environment, which is designed on the concept of STA (Seamless Thinking Aid to programmers). (author)

  13. Ethics of large-scale change

    OpenAIRE

    Arler, Finn

    2006-01-01

      The subject of this paper is long-term large-scale changes in human society. Some very significant examples of large-scale change are presented: human population growth, human appropriation of land and primary production, the human use of fossil fuels, and climate change. The question is posed, which kind of attitude is appropriate when dealing with large-scale changes like these from an ethical point of view. Three kinds of approaches are discussed: Aldo Leopold's mountain thinking, th...

  14. Large Display Interaction Using Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Large displays become more and more popular, due to dropping prices. Their size and high resolution leverages collaboration and they are capable of dis- playing even large datasets in one view. This becomes even more interesting as the number of big data applications increases. The increased screen size and other properties of large displays pose new challenges to the Human- Computer-Interaction with these screens. This includes issues such as limited scalability to the number of users, diver...

  15. Large transverse momentum behavior of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquereaux, Robert; De Rafael, Eduardo.

    1977-05-01

    The large transverse momentum behavior of Compton scattering and Moeller scattering in Quantum Electrodynamics; and of elastic quark-quark scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics are examined in perturbation theory. The results strongly suggest that the large transverse momentum regime in gauge theories is governed by a differential equation of the Callan-Symanzik type with a suitable momentum dependent anomalous dimension term. An explicit solution for the quark-quark elastic scattering amplitude at large transverse momentum is given

  16. Large-scale grid management; Storskala Nettforvaltning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdal, Bjoern Inge; Eggen, Arnt Ove

    2003-07-01

    The network companies in the Norwegian electricity industry now have to establish a large-scale network management, a concept essentially characterized by (1) broader focus (Broad Band, Multi Utility,...) and (2) bigger units with large networks and more customers. Research done by SINTEF Energy Research shows so far that the approaches within large-scale network management may be structured according to three main challenges: centralization, decentralization and out sourcing. The article is part of a planned series.

  17. Reliability of large and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kolowrocki, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Reliability of Large and Complex Systems, previously titled Reliability of Large Systems, is an innovative guide to the current state and reliability of large and complex systems. In addition to revised and updated content on the complexity and safety of large and complex mechanisms, this new edition looks at the reliability of nanosystems, a key research topic in nanotechnology science. The author discusses the importance of safety investigation of critical infrastructures that have aged or have been exposed to varying operational conditions. This reference provides an asympt

  18. Applications Performance Under MPL and MPI on NAS IBM SP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Subhash; Simon, Horst D.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    On July 5, 1994, an IBM Scalable POWER parallel System (IBM SP2) with 64 nodes, was installed at the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Facility Each node of NAS IBM SP2 is a "wide node" consisting of a RISC 6000/590 workstation module with a clock of 66.5 MHz which can perform four floating point operations per clock with a peak performance of 266 Mflop/s. By the end of 1994, 64 nodes of IBM SP2 will be upgraded to 160 nodes with a peak performance of 42.5 Gflop/s. An overview of the IBM SP2 hardware is presented. The basic understanding of architectural details of RS 6000/590 will help application scientists the porting, optimizing, and tuning of codes from other machines such as the CRAY C90 and the Paragon to the NAS SP2. Optimization techniques such as quad-word loading, effective utilization of two floating point units, and data cache optimization of RS 6000/590 is illustrated, with examples giving performance gains at each optimization step. The conversion of codes using Intel's message passing library NX to codes using native Message Passing Library (MPL) and the Message Passing Interface (NMI) library available on the IBM SP2 is illustrated. In particular, we will present the performance of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) kernel from NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) under MPL and MPI. We have also optimized some of Fortran BLAS 2 and BLAS 3 routines, e.g., the optimized Fortran DAXPY runs at 175 Mflop/s and optimized Fortran DGEMM runs at 230 Mflop/s per node. The performance of the NPB (Class B) on the IBM SP2 is compared with the CRAY C90, Intel Paragon, TMC CM-5E, and the CRAY T3D.

  19. Pengaruh Perceived Value terhadap Behavioral Intentions melalui Kepuasan Konsumen sebagai Variabel Mediasi di Restoran Mr. Pancake Solo Paragon Life Style Mall

    OpenAIRE

    SL Triyaningsihadmin, Arum Permata Sari &

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the research are to analyses (1) effect of perceived value to behavioral intentions, (2) effect of perceived value to consumer satisfaction, (3) effect consumer satisfaction to behavioral intentions, (4) effect of perceived value to behavioral intentions, through consumer satisfaction as the mediating variable. Population on this research are all consumer of Hartono Life Style Mall in Solo Baru. The samples of this research consist of 100 responden, taken with convenience sam...

  20. Disseny d'una arquitectura IoT per a ciutats intel·ligents i desenvolupament d'un servei d'enllumenat intel·ligent

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Jordán, Ana Leticia

    2013-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] Smart cities have been recently pointed out by experts an emerging market with enormous potential, which is expected to drive the digital economy forward in the coming years. Nowadays, cities hold half of the global population, consume 75% of the world´s energy resources and emit 80% of the carbon that is harming the environment. Making a city “smart” is emerging as a strategy to mitigate the problems generated by the urban population growth and rapid urbanization. In that way, by us...

  1. Implementing Large Projects in Software Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppit, David

    2006-01-01

    In software engineering education, large projects are widely recognized as a useful way of exposing students to the real-world difficulties of team software development. But large projects are difficult to put into practice. First, educators rarely have additional time to manage software projects. Second, classrooms have inherent limitations that…

  2. Asian Eden : large herbivore ecology in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahrestani, F.S.

    2009-01-01

    The study of large mammalian herbivore ecology has a strong allometric tradition. The
    majority of studies that have helped better understand how body mass affects large herbivore
    ecology in the tropics, from a biological, functional, and ecological perspective, are from
    Africa.

  3. The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchette, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein's theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.

  4. Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Brandt, J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  5. Reflections on Teaching a Large Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Rick

    1992-01-01

    Uses an analysis of small- and large-class differences as a framework for planning for and teaching a large class. Analyzes the process of developing and offering an organizational behavior class to 141 college students. Suggests ways to improve teaching effectiveness by minimizing psychological and physical distances, redistributing resources,…

  6. Superconducting magnets technologies for large accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, Toru

    2017-01-01

    The first hadron collider with superconducting magnet technologies was built at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory as TEVATRON. Since then, the superconducting magnet technologies are widely used in large accelerator applications. The paper summarizes the superconducting magnet technologies used for large accelerators. (author)

  7. Automating large-scale reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper conveys a philosophy for developing automated large-scale control systems that behave in an integrated, intelligent, flexible manner. Methods for operating large-scale systems under varying degrees of equipment degradation are discussed, and a design approach that separates the effort into phases is suggested. 5 refs., 1 fig

  8. Comb-drive actuators for large displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, Rob; Legtenberg, R.; Groeneveld, A.W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    The design, fabrication and experimental results of lateral-comb-drive actuators for large displacements at low driving voltages is presented. A comparison of several suspension designs is given, and the lateral large deflection behaviour of clamped-clamped beams and a folded flexure design is

  9. Large-scale perspective as a challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.

    2012-01-01

    1. Scale forms a challenge for chain researchers: when exactly is something ‘large-scale’? What are the underlying factors (e.g. number of parties, data, objects in the chain, complexity) that determine this? It appears to be a continuum between small- and large-scale, where positioning on that

  10. Computing in Large-Scale Dynamic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruteanu, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Software applications developed for large-scale systems have always been difficult to de- velop due to problems caused by the large number of computing devices involved. Above a certain network size (roughly one hundred), necessary services such as code updating, topol- ogy discovery and data

  11. Decentralized Large-Scale Power Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    problem is formulated as a centralized large-scale optimization problem but is then decomposed into smaller subproblems that are solved locally by each unit connected to an aggregator. For large-scale systems the method is faster than solving the full problem and can be distributed to include an arbitrary...

  12. Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2001 ... Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects in Latin America, Canada, and Spain. Couverture du livre Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects in Latin America. Directeur(s):. Gary McMahon et Felix Remy. Maison(s) d'édition: Banque ...

  13. The algebras of large N matrix mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpern, M.B.; Schwartz, C.

    1999-09-16

    Extending early work, we formulate the large N matrix mechanics of general bosonic, fermionic and supersymmetric matrix models, including Matrix theory: The Hamiltonian framework of large N matrix mechanics provides a natural setting in which to study the algebras of the large N limit, including (reduced) Lie algebras, (reduced) supersymmetry algebras and free algebras. We find in particular a broad array of new free algebras which we call symmetric Cuntz algebras, interacting symmetric Cuntz algebras, symmetric Bose/Fermi/Cuntz algebras and symmetric Cuntz superalgebras, and we discuss the role of these algebras in solving the large N theory. Most important, the interacting Cuntz algebras are associated to a set of new (hidden!) local quantities which are generically conserved only at large N. A number of other new large N phenomena are also observed, including the intrinsic nonlocality of the (reduced) trace class operators of the theory and a closely related large N field identification phenomenon which is associated to another set (this time nonlocal) of new conserved quantities at large N.

  14. The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchette, Hugo

    2009-07-01

    The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein’s theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.

  15. Efficient querying of large process model repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Tao; Wang, Jianmin; La Rosa, M.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Wen, Lijie

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increased uptake of business process management technology in industries. This has resulted in organizations trying to manage large collections of business process models. One of the challenges facing these organizations concerns the retrieval of models from large business

  16. Environmental effects and large space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    When planning large scale operations in space, environmental impact must be considered in addition to radiation, spacecraft charging, contamination, high power and size. Pollution of the atmosphere and space is caused by rocket effluents and by photoelectrons generated by sunlight falling on satellite surfaces even light pollution may result (the SPS may reflect so much light as to be a nuisance to astronomers). Large (100 Km 2) structures also will absorb the high energy particles that impinge on them. Altogether, these effects may drastically alter the Earth's magnetosphere. It is not clear if these alterations will in any way affect the Earth's surface climate. Large structures will also generate large plasma wakes and waves which may cause interference with communications to the vehicle. A high energy, microwave beam from the SPS will cause ionospheric turbulence, affecting UHF and VHF communications. Although none of these effects may ultimately prove critical, they must be considered in the design of large structures.

  17. Entanglement transitions induced by large deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Udaysinh T.

    2017-12-01

    The probability of large deviations of the smallest Schmidt eigenvalue for random pure states of bipartite systems, denoted as A and B , is computed analytically using a Coulomb gas method. It is shown that this probability, for large N , goes as exp[-β N2Φ (ζ ) ] , where the parameter β is the Dyson index of the ensemble, ζ is the large deviation parameter, while the rate function Φ (ζ ) is calculated exactly. Corresponding equilibrium Coulomb charge density is derived for its large deviations. Effects of the large deviations of the extreme (largest and smallest) Schmidt eigenvalues on the bipartite entanglement are studied using the von Neumann entropy. Effect of these deviations is also studied on the entanglement between subsystems 1 and 2, obtained by further partitioning the subsystem A , using the properties of the density matrix's partial transpose ρ12Γ. The density of states of ρ12Γ is found to be close to the Wigner's semicircle law with these large deviations. The entanglement properties are captured very well by a simple random matrix model for the partial transpose. The model predicts the entanglement transition across a critical large deviation parameter ζ . Log negativity is used to quantify the entanglement between subsystems 1 and 2. Analytical formulas for it are derived using the simple model. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical results.

  18. Analysis of large databases in vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Louis L; Barshes, Neal R

    2010-09-01

    Large databases can be a rich source of clinical and administrative information on broad populations. These datasets are characterized by demographic and clinical data for over 1000 patients from multiple institutions. Since they are often collected and funded for other purposes, their use for secondary analysis increases their utility at relatively low costs. Advantages of large databases as a source include the very large numbers of available patients and their related medical information. Disadvantages include lack of detailed clinical information and absence of causal descriptions. Researchers working with large databases should also be mindful of data structure design and inherent limitations to large databases, such as treatment bias and systemic sampling errors. Withstanding these limitations, several important studies have been published in vascular care using large databases. They represent timely, "real-world" analyses of questions that may be too difficult or costly to address using prospective randomized methods. Large databases will be an increasingly important analytical resource as we focus on improving national health care efficacy in the setting of limited resources.

  19. Recent quality of ultra large rotor shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Akira; Kinoshita, Shushi; Morita, Kikuo; Kikuchi, Hideo; Takada, Masayoshi

    1983-01-01

    Large size and high quality are required for rotor shafts accompanying recent trend of thermal and nuclear power generation toward large capacity. As for the low pressure rotor shafts for large capacity turbines, the disks and a shaft tend to be made into one body instead of conventional shrink fit construction, because of the experience of rotor accidents and the improvement of reliability. Therefore the ingots required become more and more large, and excellent production techniques are required for steel making, forging and heat treatment. Kobe Steel Ltd. have made about 20 large generator shafts from 420 t and 500 t ingots, and confirmed their stable high quality. Also a one-body low pressure rotor of 2600 mm diameter was made for trial, and its quality was examined. It was confirmed that the effect of forging and heat treatment was given sufficiently, and the production techniques for super-large one-body rotors were established. In steel making, vacuum degassing was applied twice to decrease hydrogen content, and VV restriction forging and pre-stage treatment were carried out. The properties of large rotors are reported. (Kako, I.)

  20. Distributed simulation of large computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzolla, M.

    2001-01-01

    Sequential simulation of large complex physical systems is often regarded as a computationally expensive task. In order to speed-up complex discrete-event simulations, the paradigm of Parallel and Distributed Discrete Event Simulation (PDES) has been introduced since the late 70s. The authors analyze the applicability of PDES to the modeling and analysis of large computer system; such systems are increasingly common in the area of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, because many modern experiments make use of large 'compute farms'. Some feasibility tests have been performed on a prototype distributed simulator

  1. Large scale network-centric distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sarbazi-Azad, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    A highly accessible reference offering a broad range of topics and insights on large scale network-centric distributed systems Evolving from the fields of high-performance computing and networking, large scale network-centric distributed systems continues to grow as one of the most important topics in computing and communication and many interdisciplinary areas. Dealing with both wired and wireless networks, this book focuses on the design and performance issues of such systems. Large Scale Network-Centric Distributed Systems provides in-depth coverage ranging from ground-level hardware issu

  2. The Amateurs' Love Affair with Large Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron; Jacoby, S. H.; Henden, A.

    2006-12-01

    Amateur astronomers are professionals in other areas. They bring expertise from such varied and technical careers as computer science, mathematics, engineering, and marketing. These skills, coupled with an enthusiasm for astronomy, can be used to help manage the large data sets coming online in the next decade. We will show specific examples where teams of amateurs have been involved in mining large, online data sets and have authored and published their own papers in peer-reviewed astronomical journals. Using the proposed LSST database as an example, we will outline a framework for involving amateurs in data analysis and education with large astronomical surveys.

  3. Electronic and atomic impacts on large clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gspann, J.

    1982-01-01

    Describing first the generation and properties of molecular beams of large Van der Waals clusters such as speed distribution, cluster size distribution, and internal temperature of the clusters, the review then features the results of electronic impacts on large clusters: metastable electronic cluster excitations, ejection of positive cluster ions of less than 100 atoms from much larger parent clusters, and ionization of the large clusters. Atomic impacts at thermal energies are treated with respect to the scattering cross section of the clusters, their drag coefficient in free molecular flow, and the peculiarities of impacts on helium clusters of either isotope. (Auth.)

  4. Large polarons in lead halide perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, Kiyoshi; Meggiolaro, Daniele; Trinh, M. Tuan; Joshi, Prakriti P.; Mosconi, Edoardo; Jones, Skyler C.; De Angelis, Filippo; Zhu, X.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Lead halide perovskites show marked defect tolerance responsible for their excellent optoelectronic properties. These properties might be explained by the formation of large polarons, but how they are formed and whether organic cations are essential remain open questions. We provide a direct time domain view of large polaron formation in single-crystal lead bromide perovskites CH3NH3PbBr3 and CsPbBr3. We found that large polaron forms predominantly from the deformation of the PbBr3 ? framewor...

  5. Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for large ureteric stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Sayyad

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a safe and effective approach for selected patients with large proximal ureteric stones with reduced postoperative pain and short hospital stay, and should be considered as a treatment option for such stones.

  6. Large-scale numerical simulations of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    The recent trend of large scales simulations of fusion plasma and processing plasmas is briefly summarized. Many advanced simulation techniques have been developed for fusion plasmas and some of these techniques are now applied to analyses of processing plasmas. (author)

  7. Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Large Truck* Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) is based on a three-year data collection project conducted by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)...

  8. A large-scale study of misophonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, R.; Erfanian, M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aim to elucidate misophonia, a condition in which particular sounds elicit disproportionally strong aversive reactions. Method A large online study extensively surveyed personal, developmental, and clinical characteristics of over 300 misophonics. Results Most participants indicated

  9. The Expanded Very Large Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Rick

    2012-10-01

    The Expanded Very Large Array Project, begun in 2001, is now completed -- on time, on budget, and ``on spec.'' The major goal of the project was to multiply the key observational capabilities of the Very Large Array -- the world's most powerful, versatile, and productive radio telescope -- by a factor of at least an order of magnitude by implementation of modern technologies. The result of the project is an operationally new telescope -- renamed the Jansky Very Large Array -- which is capable of new science unimagined in 1980, when the original VLA was completed. In this talk, I will review the goals of the project, and describe the new capabilities of the Jansky Very Large Array. Already, the array is providing fabulous new insights into the physics of the universe,and I will spend the majority of the time describing examples of new results.

  10. Nonlinear continuum mechanics and large inelastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yuriy I

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous axiomatic approach to continuum mechanics under large deformation. In addition to the classical nonlinear continuum mechanics - kinematics, fundamental laws, the theory of functions having jump discontinuities across singular surfaces, etc. - the book presents the theory of co-rotational derivatives, dynamic deformation compatibility equations, and the principles of material indifference and symmetry, all in systematized form. The focus of the book is a new approach to the formulation of the constitutive equations for elastic and inelastic continua under large deformation. This new approach is based on using energetic and quasi-energetic couples of stress and deformation tensors. This approach leads to a unified treatment of large, anisotropic elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformations. The author analyses classical problems, including some involving nonlinear wave propagation, using different models for continua under large deformation, and shows how different models lead t...

  11. Large-scale computing with Quantum Espresso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannozzi, P.; Cavazzoni, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a short introduction to Quantum Espresso: a distribution of software for atomistic simulations in condensed-matter physics, chemical physics, materials science, and to its usage in large-scale parallel computing.

  12. Swarm Manipulation of Large Surface Vessels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Erik T

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this Trident project was to develop an independent control scheme to allow a team of autonomous tugboats to move a large disabled vessel, such as a barge, to a desired position and orientation...

  13. South African red data book - large mammals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Skinner, JD

    1977-11-01

    Full Text Available Data sheets are provided for 22 threatened South African large mammals, one exterminated (Liechtenstein1s hartebeest), eight endangered (cheetah, hunting dog, dugong, Cape mountain zebra, black rhinoceros, tsessebe, roan antelope, suni), one...

  14. Computational Modeling of Large Wildfires: A Roadmap

    KAUST Repository

    Coen, Janice L.; Douglas, Craig C.

    2010-01-01

    Wildland fire behavior, particularly that of large, uncontrolled wildfires, has not been well understood or predicted. Our methodology to simulate this phenomenon uses high-resolution dynamic models made of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models

  15. Remotely controlled large container disposal methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, S.J.

    1994-09-01

    Remotely Handled Large Containers (RHLC), also called drag-off boxes, have been used at the Hanford Site since the 1940s to dispose of large pieces of radioactively contaminated equipment. These containers are typically large steel-reinforced concrete boxes, which weigh as much as 40 tons. Because large quantities of high-dose waste can produce radiation levels as high as 200 mrem/hour at 200 ft, the containers are remotely handled (either lifted off the railcar by crane or dragged off with a cable). Many of the existing containers do not meet existing structural and safety design criteria and some of the transportation requirements. The drag-off method of pulling the box off the railcar using a cable and a tractor is also not considered a safe operation, especially in view of past mishaps

  16. Large-bandwidth planar photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    A general design principle is presented for making finite-height photonic crystal waveguides that support leakage-free guidance of light over large frequency intervals. The large bandwidth waveguides are designed by introducing line defects in photonic crystal slabs, where the material in the line...... defect has appropriate dispersion properties relative to the photonic crystal slab material surrounding the line defect. A three-dimensional theoretical analysis is given for large-bandwidth waveguide designs based on a silicon-air photonic crystal slab suspended in air. In one example, the leakage......-free single-mode guidance is found for a large frequency interval covering 60% of the photonic band-gap....

  17. Large Area Sputter Coating on Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Yoshihito

    Large glass has been used for commercial buildings, housings and vehicles for many years. Glass size for flat displays is getting larger and larger. The glass for the 8th generation is more than 5 m2 in area. Demand of the large glass is increasing not only in these markets but also in a solar cell market growing drastically. Therefore, large area coating is demanded to plus something else on glass more than ever. Sputtering and pyrolysis are the major coating methods on large glass today. Sputtering process is particularly popular because it can deposit a wide variety of materials in good coating uniformity on the glass. This paper describes typical industrial sputtering system and recent progress in sputtering technology. It also shows typical coated glass products in architectural, automotive and display fields and comments on their functions, film stacks and so on.

  18. Large-scale regions of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobov, A. V.; Rubin, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Amodified mechanism of the formation of large-scale antimatter regions is proposed. Antimatter appears owing to fluctuations of a complex scalar field that carries a baryon charge in the inflation era

  19. Large-scale regions of antimatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grobov, A. V., E-mail: alexey.grobov@gmail.com; Rubin, S. G., E-mail: sgrubin@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Amodified mechanism of the formation of large-scale antimatter regions is proposed. Antimatter appears owing to fluctuations of a complex scalar field that carries a baryon charge in the inflation era.

  20. Innovation Initiatives in Large Software Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edison, Henry; Wang, Xiaofeng; Jabangwe, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    empirical studies on innovation initiative in the context of large software companies. A total of 7 studies are conducted in the context of large software companies, which reported 5 types of initiatives: intrapreneurship, bootlegging, internal venture, spin-off and crowdsourcing. Our study offers three......Context: To keep the competitive advantage and adapt to changes in the market and technology, companies need to innovate in an organised, purposeful and systematic manner. However, due to their size and complexity, large companies tend to focus on the structure in maintaining their business, which...... can potentially lower their agility to innovate. Objective:The aims of this study are to provide an overview of the current research on innovation initiatives and to identify the challenges of implementing those initiatives in the context of large software companies. Method: The investigation...