WorldWideScience

Sample records for large hep detectors

  1. Detector Simulations with DD4hep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrič, M.; Frank, M.; Gaede, F.; Lu, S.; Nikiforou, N.; Sailer, A.

    2017-10-01

    Detector description is a key component of detector design studies, test beam analyses, and most of particle physics experiments that require the simulation of more and more different detector geometries and event types. This paper describes DD4hep, which is an easy-to-use yet flexible and powerful detector description framework that can be used for detector simulation and also extended to specific needs for a particular working environment. Linear collider detector concepts ILD, SiD and CLICdp as well as detector development collaborations CALICE and FCal have chosen to adopt the DD4hep geometry framework and its DDG4 pathway to Geant4 as its core simulation and reconstruction tools. The DDG4 plugins suite includes a wide variety of input formats, provides access to the Geant4 particle gun or general particles source and allows for handling of Monte Carlo truth information, eg. by linking hits and the primary particle that caused them, which is indispensable for performance and efficiency studies. An extendable array of segmentations and sensitive detectors allows the simulation of a wide variety of detector technologies. This paper shows how DD4hep allows to perform complex Geant4 detector simulations without compiling a single line of additional code by providing a palette of sub-detector components that can be combined and configured via compact XML files. Simulation is controlled either completely via the command line or via simple Python steering files interpreted by a Python executable. It also discusses how additional plugins and extensions can be created to increase the functionality.

  2. Detector simulations with DD4hep

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)668365; Frank, Markus; Gaede, Frank-Dieter; Lu, Shaojun; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Sailer, Andre

    2017-01-01

    Detector description is a key component of detector design studies, test beam analyses, and most of particle physics experiments that require the simulation of more and more different detector geometries and event types. This paper describes DD4hep, which is an easy-to-use yet flexible and powerful detector description framework that can be used for detector simulation and also extended to specific needs for a particular working environment. Linear collider detector concepts ILD, SiD and CLICdp as well as detector development collaborations CALICE and FCal have chosen to adopt the DD4hep geometry framework and its DDG4 pathway to Geant4 as its core simulation and reconstruction tools. The DDG4 plugins suite includes a wide variety of input formats, provides access to the Geant4 particle gun or general particles source and allows for handling of Monte Carlo truth information, e.g. by linking hits and the primary particle that caused them, which is indispensable for performance and efficiency studies. An extend...

  3. HEP Software Foundation Community White Paper Working Group - Detector Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolakis, J; et al.

    2018-03-12

    A working group on detector simulation was formed as part of the high-energy physics (HEP) Software Foundation's initiative to prepare a Community White Paper that describes the main software challenges and opportunities to be faced in the HEP field over the next decade. The working group met over a period of several months in order to review the current status of the Full and Fast simulation applications of HEP experiments and the improvements that will need to be made in order to meet the goals of future HEP experimental programmes. The scope of the topics covered includes the main components of a HEP simulation application, such as MC truth handling, geometry modeling, particle propagation in materials and fields, physics modeling of the interactions of particles with matter, the treatment of pileup and other backgrounds, as well as signal processing and digitisation. The resulting work programme described in this document focuses on the need to improve both the software performance and the physics of detector simulation. The goals are to increase the accuracy of the physics models and expand their applicability to future physics programmes, while achieving large factors in computing performance gains consistent with projections on available computing resources.

  4. Study the radiation damage effects in Si microstrip detectors for future HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalwani, Kavita; Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) detectors are playing a key role in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments due to their superior tracking capabilities. In future HEP experiments, like upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, the silicon tracking detectors will be operated in a very intense radiation environment. This leads to both surface and bulk damage in Si detectors, which in turn will affect the operating performance of Si detectors. It is important to complement the measurements of the irradiated Si strip detectors with device simulation, which helps in understanding of both the device behavior and optimizing the design parameters needed for the future Si tracking system. An important ingredient of the device simulation is to develop a radiation damage model incorporating both bulk and surface damage. In this work, a simplified two-trap model is incorporated in device simulation to describe the type-inversion. Further, an extensive simulation of effective doping density as well as electric field profile is carried out at different temperatures for various fluences.

  5. Study the radiation damage effects in Si microstrip detectors for future HEP experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalwani, Kavita, E-mail: kavita.phy@mnit.ac.in [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT) Jaipur, Jaipur-302017 (India); Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh [University of Delhi (DU), Delhi-110007 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Silicon (Si) detectors are playing a key role in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments due to their superior tracking capabilities. In future HEP experiments, like upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, the silicon tracking detectors will be operated in a very intense radiation environment. This leads to both surface and bulk damage in Si detectors, which in turn will affect the operating performance of Si detectors. It is important to complement the measurements of the irradiated Si strip detectors with device simulation, which helps in understanding of both the device behavior and optimizing the design parameters needed for the future Si tracking system. An important ingredient of the device simulation is to develop a radiation damage model incorporating both bulk and surface damage. In this work, a simplified two-trap model is incorporated in device simulation to describe the type-inversion. Further, an extensive simulation of effective doping density as well as electric field profile is carried out at different temperatures for various fluences.

  6. The study of methodologies of software development for the next generation of HEP detector software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yuzheng; Wang Taijie; Dai Guiliang

    1997-01-01

    The author discusses the characteristics of the next generation of HEP (High Energy Physics) detector software, and describes the basic strategy for the usage of object oriented methodologies, languages and tools in the development of the next generation of HEP detector software

  7. Design, fabrication and characterization of multi-guard-ring furnished p+n-n+ silicon strip detectors for future HEP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Kavita; Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh

    2016-07-01

    Si detectors, in various configurations (strips and pixels), have been playing a key role in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments due to their excellent vertexing and high precision tracking information. In future HEP experiments like upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN and the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), the Si tracking detectors will be operated in a very harsh radiation environment, which leads to both surface and bulk damage in Si detectors which in turn changes their electrical properties, i.e. change in the full depletion voltage, increase in the leakage current and decrease in the charge collection efficiency. In order to achieve the long term durability of Si-detectors in future HEP experiments, it is required to operate these detectors at very high reverse biases, beyond the full depletion voltage, thus requiring higher detector breakdown voltage. Delhi University (DU) is involved in the design, fabrication and characterization of multi-guard-ring furnished ac-coupled, single sided, p+n-n+ Si strip detectors for future HEP experiments. The design has been optimized using a two-dimensional numerical device simulation program (TCAD-Silvaco). The Si strip detectors are fabricated with eight-layers mask process using the planar fabrication technology by Bharat Electronic Lab (BEL), India. Further an electrical characterization set-up is established at DU to ensure the quality performance of fabricated Si strip detectors and test structures. In this work measurement results on non irradiated Si Strip detectors and test structures with multi-guard-rings using Current Voltage (IV) and Capacitance Voltage (CV) characterization set-ups are discussed. The effect of various design parameters, for example guard-ring spacing, number of guard-rings and metal overhang on breakdown voltage of test structures have been studied.

  8. HEPS-BPIX, a single photon counting pixel detector with a high frame rate for the HEPS project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Wei, E-mail: weiw@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Jie; Ning, Zhe; Lu, Yunpeng; Fan, Lei; Li, Huaishen; Jiang, Xiaoshan; Lan, Allan K.; Ouyang, Qun; Wang, Zheng; Zhu, Kejun; Chen, Yuanbo [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Peng [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-11-01

    China's next generation light source, named the High Energy Photon Source (HEPS), is currently under construction. HEPS-BPIX (HEPS-Beijing PIXel) is a dedicated pixel readout chip that operates in single photon counting mode for X-ray applications in HEPS. Designed using CMOS 0.13 µm technology, the chip contains a matrix of 104×72 pixels. Each pixel measures 150 µm×150 µm and has a counting depth of 20 bits. A bump-bonded prototyping detector module with a 300-µm thick silicon sensor was tested in the beamline of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. A fast stream of X-ray images was demonstrated, and a frame rate of 1.2 kHz was proven, with a negligible dead time. The test results showed an equivalent noise charge of 115 e{sup −} rms after bump bonding and a threshold dispersion of 55 e{sup −} rms after calibration.

  9. EMC Phenomena in HEP Detectors: Prevention and Cost Savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteche, F.; Rivetta, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) studies applied to high-energy physics (HEP) detectors. They are focused on the quantification of the front-end electronic (FEE) sensitivity to conductive noise coupled through the input/output cables. Immunity tests performed on FEE prototypes of both the CMS hadron calorimeter and the CMS silicon tracker are presented. These tests characterize the sensitivity of the FEE to common and differential mode noise coupled through the power cables and the slow control network. Immunity tests allow evaluating the weakest areas of the system to take corrective actions before the integration of the overall detector, saving time and important costs

  10. A study on methodological of software development for HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yuzheng; Dai Guiliang

    1999-01-01

    The HEP related software system is a large one. It comprises mainly detector simulation software, DAQ software and offline system. The author discusses the advantages of OO object oriented methodologies applying to such software system, and the basic strategy for the usage of OO methodologies, languages and tools in the development of the HEP related software are given

  11. DQM4HEP - A Generic Online Monitor for Particle Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Irles, Adrián; Coates, Tom; Salvatore, Fabrizio; Cussans, David; Éte, Remi; Mirabito, Laurent; Pingault, Antoine; Wing, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    There is currently a lot of activity in R&D for future collider experiments. Multiple detector prototypes are being tested, each one with slightly different requirements regarding the format of the data to be analysed. This has generated a variety of ad-hoc solutions for data acquisition and online data monitoring. We present a generic C++11 online monitoring framework called DQM4HEP, which is designed for use as a generic online monitor for particle physics experiments, ranging from small tabletop experiments to large multi-detector testbeams, such as those currently ongoing/planned at the DESY2 or CERN SPS beamlines. We present results obtained using DQM4HEP at several testbeams where the CALICE AHCAL, SDHCAL and SiWECAL detector prototypes have been tested. During these testbeams, online analysis using DQM4HEP's framework has been developed and used. We also present the currently ongoing work to integrate DQM4HEP within the EUDAQ tool. EUDAQ is a tool for common and generic data acquisition within the ...

  12. Quality control of the SiPM in the application of large HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongzheng; Cheng Yue; Wang Kaijun; Li Bocheng; Liang Kun; Yang Ru; Han Dejun

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale high-energy physics (HEP) experiments have strict requirements on the reliability, consistency and service life for the detectors, it is imperative to set up a quality control system for the involved Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The essential parameters of the SiPMs are numerous, including reversed leakage current, breakdown voltage, dark count rate, gain, photon detection efficiency, pulse high distribution, temperature coefficient and optical crosstalk etc., characterizing of SiPM should follow an optimal measurement procedures and rules to realize the rapid screening and strict quality control. This paper will introduce the new progress of 1 mm × 1 mm large dynamic range SiPM developed in the Novel Device Laboratory, Beijing Normal University, as well as the measurement guidelines and procedures from chips to packaged devices. (authors)

  13. DD4Hep based event reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)683529; Frank, Markus; Gaede, Frank-Dieter; Hynds, Daniel; Lu, Shaojun; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Petric, Marko; Simoniello, Rosa; Voutsinas, Georgios Gerasimos

    The DD4HEP detector description toolkit offers a flexible and easy-to-use solution for the consistent and complete description of particle physics detectors in a single system. The sub-component DDREC provides a dedicated interface to the detector geometry as needed for event reconstruction. With DDREC there is no need to define an additional, separate reconstruction geometry as is often done in HEP, but one can transparently extend the existing detailed simulation model to be also used for the reconstruction. Based on the extension mechanism of DD4HEP, DDREC allows one to attach user defined data structures to detector elements at all levels of the geometry hierarchy. These data structures define a high level view onto the detectors describing their physical properties, such as measurement layers, point resolutions, and cell sizes. For the purpose of charged particle track reconstruction, dedicated surface objects can be attached to every volume in the detector geometry. These surfaces provide the measuremen...

  14. The upgraded Pixel detector and the commissioning of the Inner Detector tracking of the ATLAS experiment for Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00019188; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will provide new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with the high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130~nm technology. In addition, the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during Run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. Complementing detector improvements, many improvements to Inner Detector track and vertex reconstr...

  15. Mobility and powering of large detectors. Moving large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility is considered of moving large lepton detectors at ISABELLE for readying new experiments, detector modifications, and detector repair. A large annex (approximately 25 m x 25 m) would be built adjacent to the Lepton Hall separated from the Lepton Hall by a wall of concrete 11 m high x 12 m wide (for clearance of the detector) and approximately 3 m thick (for radiation shielding). A large pad would support the detector, the door, the cryogenic support system and the counting house. In removing the detector from the beam hall, one would push the pad into the annex, add a dummy beam pipe, bake out the beam pipe, and restack and position the wall on a small pad at the door. The beam could then operate again while experimenters could work on the large detector in the annex. A consideration and rough price estimate of various questions and proposed solutions are given

  16. Polycrystalline scintillators for large area detectors in HEP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosovitskiy, G.; Fedorov, A.; Karpyuk, P.; Kuznetsova, D.; Mikhlin, A.; Kozlov, D.; Dosovitskiy, A.; Korjik, M.

    2017-06-01

    After significant increase of the accelerator luminosity throughout the High Luminosity phase of LHC, charged hadrons and neutrons with fluences higher than 1014 p/cm2 per year in the largest pseudo-rapidity regions of the detectors will cause increased radiation damage of materials. Increasing activation of the experimental equipment will make periodical maintenance and replacement of detector components difficult. Therefore, the selected materials for new detectors should be tolerant to radiation damage. Y3Al5O12:Ce (YAG:Ce) crystal was found to be one of the most radiation hard scintillation materials. However, production of YAG:Ce in a single crystalline form is costly, because crystal growth is performed at temperature near 1900°C with a very low rate of transformation of a raw material into a crystal. We propose translucent YAG:Ce ceramics as an alternative cheaper solution. Ceramic samples were sintered up to density ~98% of the theoretical value and were translucent. The samples have demonstrated light yield of 2200 phot./MeV under 662 keV γ-quanta, which gives the expected response to minimum ionizing particle around 3000 phot. for 2 mm thick plate. Scintillation light yield, registered under surface layer excitation with α-particles, was 50-70% higher than for the reference single crystal YAG:Ce.

  17. Java Analysis Studio and the hep.lcd class library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronan, M.T.

    2000-02-14

    The Java Analysis Studio and the hep.lcd class library provide a general framework for performing Java-based Linear Collider Detector (LCD) studies. The package is being developed to fully reconstruct 500 GeV to 1.5 TeV e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation events for analyzing detector options and performance. The current North American LCD reconstruction effort is aimed at comparing different detailed detector models by performing full detector simulation and reconstruction. This paper describes the JAS/hep.lcd distributed analysis framework and some aspects of the reconstruction and analysis object modeling.

  18. 3D IC for future HEP detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, J; Badman, R; Lipton, R; Johnson, M; Spiegel, L; Deptuch, G; Ye, Z; Heintz, U; Narain, M; Triphati, M; Kenney, C; Parker, S; Siddons, D P

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional integrated circuit technologies offer the possibility of fabricating large area arrays of sensors integrated with complex electronics with minimal dead area, which makes them ideally suited for applications at the LHC upgraded detectors and other future detectors. We describe ongoing R and D efforts to demonstrate functionality of components of such detectors. This includes the study of integrated 3D electronics with active edge sensors to produce ''active tiles'' which can be tested and assembled into arrays of arbitrary size with high yield

  19. Implementation of a Large Scale Control System for a High-Energy Physics Detector: The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Masetti, Lorenzo; Fischer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Control systems for modern High-Energy Physics (HEP) detectors are large distributed software systems managing a significant data volume and implementing complex operational procedures. The control software for the LHC experiments at CERN is built on top of a commercial software used in industrial automation. However, HEP specific requirements call for extended functionalities. This thesis focuses on the design and implementation of the control system for the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker but presents some general strategies that have been applied in other contexts. Specific design solutions are developed to ensure acceptable response times and to provide the operator with an effective summary of the status of the devices. Detector safety is guaranteed by proper configuration of independent hardware systems. A software protection mechanism is used to avoid the widespread intervention of the hardware safety and to inhibit dangerous commands. A wizard approach allows non expert operators to recover error situations...

  20. Development of sub-nanosecond, high gain structures for time-of-flight ring imaging in large area detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetstein, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes (MCPs) are compact, imaging detectors, capable of micron-level spatial imaging and timing measurements with resolutions below 10 ps. Conventional fabrication methods are too expensive for making MCPs in the quantities and sizes necessary for typical HEP applications, such as time-of-flight ring-imaging Cherenkov detectors (TOF-RICH) or water Cherenkov-based neutrino experiments. The Large Area Picosecond Photodetector Collaboration (LAPPD) is developing new, commercializable methods to fabricate 20 cm 2 thin planar MCPs at costs comparable to those of traditional photo-multiplier tubes. Transmission-line readout with waveform sampling on both ends of each line allows the efficient coverage of large areas while maintaining excellent time and space resolution. Rather than fabricating channel plates from active, high secondary electron emission materials, we produce plates from passive substrates, and coat them using atomic layer deposition (ALD), a well established industrial batch process. In addition to possible reductions in cost and conditioning time, this allows greater control to optimize the composition of active materials for performance. We present details of the MCP fabrication method, preliminary results from testing and characterization facilities, and possible HEP applications.

  1. Scaling HEP to Web size with RESTful protocols: The frontier example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykstra, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The World-Wide-Web has scaled to an enormous size. The largest single contributor to its scalability is the HTTP protocol, particularly when used in conformity to REST (REpresentational State Transfer) principles. High Energy Physics (HEP) computing also has to scale to an enormous size, so it makes sense to base much of it on RESTful protocols. Frontier, which reads databases with an HTTP-based RESTful protocol, has successfully scaled to deliver production detector conditions data from both the CMS and ATLAS LHC detectors to hundreds of thousands of computer cores worldwide. Frontier is also able to re-use a large amount of standard software that runs the Web: on the clients, caches, and servers. I discuss the specific ways in which HTTP and REST enable high scalability for Frontier. I also briefly discuss another protocol used in HEP computing that is HTTP-based and RESTful, and another protocol that could benefit from it. My goal is to encourage HEP protocol designers to consider HTTP and REST whenever the same information is needed in many places.

  2. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Giordani, MarioPaolo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector, in particular the IBL, will be presented, using collision data.

  3. ``High energy Electron exPeriment (HEP)'' onboard the ERG satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, T.; Takashima, T.; Kasahara, S.; Miyake, W.; Hirahara, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) satellite was successfully launched on December 20, 2016, and now explores how relativistic electrons in the radiation belts are generated during space storms. "High energy Electron exPeriment (HEP)" onboard the ERG satellite observes 70 keV - 2 MeV electrons and provides three-dimensional velocity distribution of electrons every spacecraft spin period. Electrons are observed by two types of camera designs, HEP-L and HEP-H, with regard to geometrical factor and energy range. HEP-L observes 0.1 - 1 MeV electrons and its geometrical factor (G-factor) is 10-3 cm2 str, and HEP-H observes 0.7 - 2 MeV and G-factor is 10-2 cm2 str. HEP-L and HEP-H each consist of three pin-hole type cameras, and each camera consist of mechanical collimator, stacked silicon semiconductor detectors and readout ASICs. HEP-H has larger opening angle of the collimator and more silicon detectors to observe higher energy electrons than HEP-L. The initial checkout in orbit was carried out in February 2017 and it was confirmed that there was no performance degradation by comparing the results of the initial checkout in orbit and the prelaunch function tests. Since late March, HEP has carried out normal observation. HEP observed losses and recovery of the outer radiation belt electrons several times up to now. In this presentation we introduce the HEP instrument design, prelaunch tests results and report the initial results in orbit.

  4. Development of a Large Area Advanced Fast RICH Detector for Particle Identification at the Large Hadron Collider Operated with Heavy Ions

    CERN Multimedia

    Piuz, F; Braem, A; Van beelen, J B; Lion, G; Gandi, A

    2002-01-01

    %RD26 %title\\\\ \\\\During the past two years, RD26 groups have focused their activities on the production of CsI-RICH prototypes of large area, up to a square meter, to demonstrate their application in High Energy experiments. Many large CsI-photocathodes (up to 40) were produced following the processing techniques furthermore developped in the collaboration. Taking the Quantum Efficiency (QE) measured at 180 nm as a comparative figure of merit of a CsI-PC. Figure 1 shows the increase of the performance while improvements were successively implemented in the PC processing sequence. Most efficient were the use of substrates made of nickel, the heat treatment and handling of the PCs under inert gas. Actually, three large systems based on CsI-RICH have got approval in the following HEP experiments: HADES at GSI, COMPASS/NA58 at CERN and HMPID/ALICE at LHC implying up to 14 square metres of CsI-PC. In addition, several CsI-RICH detectors have been successfully operated in the Threshold Imaging Detector at NA44 and ...

  5. High-energy electron experiments (HEP) aboard the ERG (Arase) satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Takefumi; Takashima, Takeshi; Kasahara, Satoshi; Miyake, Wataru; Hirahara, Masafumi

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the design, calibration, and operation of high-energy electron experiments (HEP) aboard the exploration of energization and radiation in geospace (ERG) satellite. HEP detects 70 keV-2 MeV electrons and generates a three-dimensional velocity distribution for these electrons in every period of the satellite's rotation. Electrons are detected by two instruments, namely HEP-L and HEP-H, which differ in their geometric factor (G-factor) and range of energies they detect. HEP-L detects 70 keV-1 MeV electrons and its G-factor is 9.3 × 10-4 cm2 sr at maximum, while HEP-H observes 0.7-2 MeV electrons and its G-factor is 9.3 × 10-3 cm2 sr at maximum. The instruments utilize silicon strip detectors and application-specific integrated circuits to readout the incident charge signal from each strip. Before the launch, we calibrated the detectors by measuring the energy spectra of all strips using γ-ray sources. To evaluate the overall performance of the HEP instruments, we measured the energy spectra and angular responses with electron beams. After HEP was first put into operation, on February 2, 2017, it was demonstrated that the instruments performed normally. HEP began its exploratory observations with regard to energization and radiation in geospace in late March 2017. The initial results of the in-orbit observations are introduced briefly in this paper.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. DQM4HEP - A Generic Online Monitor for Particle Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Coates, Tom; Salvatore, Fabrizio; Cussans, David; Ete, Remi; Irles, Adrian; Mirabito, Lauren; Pingault, Antoine; Wing, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Currently there is a lot of activity in R&D for future colliders. Multiple detector prototypes are being tested, each with different requirements for data acquisition and monitoring, which has generated different ad-hoc software solutions. We present DQM4HEP, a generic C++11 framework for online monitoring for particle physics experiments, and results obtained at several testbeams with detector prototypes using the framework as it was developed. We also present the currently ongoing work to integrate DQM4HEP and EUDAQ, which will allow these to work together as a complete and generic DAQ and monitoring system for any detector test, as part of AIDA-2020.

  7. HEP Community White Paper on Software Trigger and Event Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Johannes; et al.

    2018-02-23

    Realizing the physics programs of the planned and upgraded high-energy physics (HEP) experiments over the next 10 years will require the HEP community to address a number of challenges in the area of software and computing. For this reason, the HEP software community has engaged in a planning process over the past two years, with the objective of identifying and prioritizing the research and development required to enable the next generation of HEP detectors to fulfill their full physics potential. The aim is to produce a Community White Paper which will describe the community strategy and a roadmap for software and computing research and development in HEP for the 2020s. The topics of event reconstruction and software triggers were considered by a joint working group and are summarized together in this document.

  8. A modern approach to HEP visualization - ATLASrift

    CERN Document Server

    Vukotic, Ilija; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    At the times when HEP computing needs were mainly fulfilled by mainframes, graphics solutions for event and detector visualizations were necessarily hardware as well as experiment specific and impossible to use anywhere outside of HEP community. A big move to commodity computing did not precipitate a corresponding move of graphics solutions to industry standard hardware and software. In this paper, we list functionalities expected from contemporary tools and describe their implementation by a specific application: ATLASrift. We start with a basic premise that HEP visualization tools should be open in practice and not only in intentions. This means that a user should not be limited to specific and little used platforms, HEP-only software packages, or experiment-specific libraries. Equally important is that no special knowledge or special access rights are needed. Using industry standard frameworks brings not only sustainability, but also good support, a lot of community contributed tools, and a possibility of ...

  9. A magnet system for HEP experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the sequence of steps that lead to the design of a magnet system for modern HEP detectors. We start looking to the main types of magnets used in HEP experiments, along with some basic formulae to set the main parameters, such as ampere-turns, impedance and stored energy. A section is dedicated to the description of the iron yoke, with emphasis on magnet-detector integration and assembly, steel characteristics, stray field issues and alternative design. In the second part of the chapter we start looking at a brief history of superconducting magnets and a comparison between warm and superconducting ones. Following that, we describe the commonly used superconducting cables, the conductor design and technology and the winding techniques. A section of the chapter is dedicated to the cryogenic design, vacuum insulation and other ancillary systems. We also describe the power circuit, with the power supply unit, the current leads, the current measurement devices and other instruments and safety...

  10. Advances on micro-RWELL gaseous detector

    CERN Document Server

    Morello, Gianfranco; Benussi, L; De Simone, P; Felici, G; Gatta, M; Poli Lener, M; De Oliveira, R; Ochi, A; Borgonovi, L; Giacomelli, P; Ranieri, A; Valentino, V; Ressegotti, M; Vai, I

    2017-01-01

    The R&D; on the micro-Resistive-WELL ($\\mu$-RWELL) detector technology aims in developing a new scalable, compact, spark-protected, single amplification stage Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGD) for large area HEP applications as tracking and calorimeter device as well as for industrial and medical applications as X-ray and neutron imaging gas pixel detector. The novel micro- structure, exploiting several solutions and improvements achieved in the last years for MPGDs, in particular for GEMs and Micromegas, is an extremely simple detector allowing an easy engineering with consequent technological transfer toward the photolithography industry. Large area detectors (up $1 \\times 2 m^2$) can be realized splicing $\\mu$-RWELL_PCB tiles of smaller size (about $0.5 \\times 1 m^2$ - typical PCB industrial size). The detector, composed by few basic elements such as the readout-PCB embedded with the amplification stage (through the resistive layer) and the cathode defining the gas drift-conversion gap has been largel...

  11. A reflection on Software Engineering in HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carminati, Federico

    2012-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) has been making very extensive usage of computers to achieve its research goals. Fairly large program suites have been developed, maintained and used over the years and it is fair to say that, overall, HEP has been successful in software development. Yet, HEP software development has not used classical Software Engineering techniques, which have been invented and refined to help the production of large programmes. In this paper we will review the development of HEP code with its strengths and weaknesses. Using several well-known HEP software projects as examples, we will try to demonstrate that our community has used a form of Software Engineering, albeit in an informal manner. The software development techniques employed in these projects are indeed very close in many aspects to the modern tendencies of Software Engineering itself, in particular the so-called “agile technologies”. The paper will conclude with an outlook on the future of software development in HEP.

  12. HEP Community White Paper on Software Trigger and Event Reconstruction: Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Johannes; et al.

    2018-02-23

    Realizing the physics programs of the planned and upgraded high-energy physics (HEP) experiments over the next 10 years will require the HEP community to address a number of challenges in the area of software and computing. For this reason, the HEP software community has engaged in a planning process over the past two years, with the objective of identifying and prioritizing the research and development required to enable the next generation of HEP detectors to fulfill their full physics potential. The aim is to produce a Community White Paper which will describe the community strategy and a roadmap for software and computing research and development in HEP for the 2020s. The topics of event reconstruction and software triggers were considered by a joint working group and are summarized together in this document.

  13. Large-aperture hybrid photo-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.; Nakayama, H.; Kusaka, A.; Kakuno, H.; Abe, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Aihara, H.; Tanaka, M.; Shiozawa, M.; Kyushima, H.; Suyama, M.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed the first complete large-aperture (13-inch diameter) hybrid photo-detector (HPD). The withstanding voltage problem has been overcome and we were able to attain an HPD operating voltage of +20 kV. Adoption of our newly developed backside illumination avalanche diode (AD) was also critical in successfully countering the additional problem of an increase in AD leakage after the activation process. We observed single photon signal timing jitter of under 450 ps in FWHM, electron transit time of ∼12 ns, and clear pulse height separation up to several photoelectron peaks, all greatly superior to the performance of any conventional large-aperture photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In addition, our HPD has a much simpler structure than conventional large-aperture PMTs, which simplifies mass production and lowers manufacturing cost. We believe that these attributes position our HPD as the most suitable photo-detector for the next generation mega-ton class water-Cherenkov detector, which is expected to be more than 20x larger than the Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector

  14. Large solid angle detectors (low energy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Hote, D.

    1988-01-01

    This lecture deals with large solid angle detectors used in low energy experiments (mainly in Nuclear Physics). The reasons for using such detectors are discussed, and several basic principles of their design are presented. Finally, two examples of data analysis from such detectors are given [fr

  15. HEP@Home - A distributed computing system based on BOINC

    CERN Document Server

    Amorim, A; Andrade, P; Amorim, Antonio; Villate, Jaime; Andrade, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    Project SETI@HOME has proven to be one of the biggest successes of distributed computing during the last years. With a quite simple approach SETI manages to process large volumes of data using a vast amount of distributed computer power. To extend the generic usage of this kind of distributed computing tools, BOINC is being developed. In this paper we propose HEP@HOME, a BOINC version tailored to the specific requirements of the High Energy Physics (HEP) community. The HEP@HOME will be able to process large amounts of data using virtually unlimited computing power, as BOINC does, and it should be able to work according to HEP specifications. In HEP the amounts of data to be analyzed or reconstructed are of central importance. Therefore, one of the design principles of this tool is to avoid data transfer. This will allow scientists to run their analysis applications and taking advantage of a large number of CPUs. This tool also satisfies other important requirements in HEP, namely, security, fault-tolerance an...

  16. The social structure of ''experimental'' strings at Fermilab; a physics and detector driven model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1990-01-01

    Physicists in HEP have been forced to organize large scientific projects without a well defined organizational or sociological model to guide them. In the absence of such models, what structures do experimentalists use to develop social structures in HEP? In this paper, I claim that physicists organize around what they know best, the physics problems they study and the detectors and devices they study them with. After describing the advent of ''management'' in HEP, I use a case study of 4 Fermilab experiments as the base upon which to propose a physics and detector driven model of social structure for experiments. In addition, I show how this model can be extended to describe ''strings'' of experiments, where continuities of physics interests, spectrometer design, and a core group of physicists become a definable sociological unit that can exist for over 15 years. A dominate theme that emerges from my analysis is the conscious attempt on the part of experimenters to remove the uncertainties that are part of the practice of HEP

  17. Big Data in HEP: A comprehensive use case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsche, Oliver; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elmer, Peter; Jayatilaka, Bo; Kowalkowski, Jim; Pivarski, Jim; Sehrish, Saba; Mantilla Surez, Cristina; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tran, Nhan

    2017-10-01

    Experimental Particle Physics has been at the forefront of analyzing the worlds largest datasets for decades. The HEP community was the first to develop suitable software and computing tools for this task. In recent times, new toolkits and systems collectively called Big Data technologies have emerged to support the analysis of Petabyte and Exabyte datasets in industry. While the principles of data analysis in HEP have not changed (filtering and transforming experiment-specific data formats), these new technologies use different approaches and promise a fresh look at analysis of very large datasets and could potentially reduce the time-to-physics with increased interactivity. In this talk, we present an active LHC Run 2 analysis, searching for dark matter with the CMS detector, as a testbed for Big Data technologies. We directly compare the traditional NTuple-based analysis with an equivalent analysis using Apache Spark on the Hadoop ecosystem and beyond. In both cases, we start the analysis with the official experiment data formats and produce publication physics plots. We will discuss advantages and disadvantages of each approach and give an outlook on further studies needed.

  18. Development of Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors Technologies

    CERN Multimedia

    Richer, J; Barsuk, S; Shah, M K; Catanesi, M G; Colaleo, A; Maggi, M; Loddo, F; Berardi, V; Bagliesi, M; Menon, G; Richter, R; Lahonde-hamdoun, C; Dris, M; Chechik, R; Ochi, A; Hartjes, F; Lopes, I M; Deshpande, A; Franz, A; Fiutowski, T A; Ferreira, A; Bastos de oliveira, C A; Miller, B W; Monrabal-capilla, F; Liubarsky, I; Plazas de pinzon, M C; Tsarfati, T; Voss, B J R; Carmona martinez, J M; Stocchi, A; Dinu, N; Semeniouk, I; Giebels, B; Marton, K; De leo, R; De lucia, E; Alviggi, M; Bellerive, A; Herten, L G; Zimmermann, S U; Giomataris, I; Peyaud, A; Schune, P; Delagnes, E; Delbart, A; Charles, G; Wang, W; Markou, A; Arazi, L; Cibinetto, G; Edo, Y; Neves, F F; Solovov, V; Stoll, S; Sampsonidis, D; Dabrowski, W; Mindur, B; Sauli, F; Calapez de albuquerque veloso, J F; Kahlaoui, N; Sharma, A; Zenker, K; Cebrian guajardo, S V; Luzon marco, G M; Guillaudin, O J H; Cornebise, P; Lounis, A; Bruel, P J; Laszlo, A; Mukerjee, K; Nappi, E; Nuzzo, S V; Bencivenni, G; Tessarotto, F; Levorato, S; Dixit, M S; Riallot, M; Jeanneau, F; Nizery, F G; Maltezos, S; Kyriakis, A; Lyashenko, A; Van der graaf, H; Ferreira marques, R; Alexa, C; Liyanage, N; Dehmelt, K; Hemmick, T K; Polychronakos, V; Cisbani, E; Garibaldi, F; Koperny, S Z; Das neves dias carramate, L F; Munoz-vidal, J; Gutierrez, R; Van stenis, M; Resnati, F; Lupberger, M; Desch, K K; Chefdeville, M; Vouters, G; Ranieri, A; Lami, S; Shekhtman, L; Dolgov, A; Bamberger, A; Landgraf, U; Kortner, O; Ferrero, A; Aune, S; Attie, D M; Bakas, G; Balossino, I; Tsigaridas, S; Surrow, B; Gnanvo, K A K; Feege, N M; Woody, C L; Bhattacharya, S; Capogni, M; Veenhof, R J; Tapan, I; Dangendorf, V; Monteiro bernades, C M; Castro serrato, H F; De oliveira, R; Ropelewski, L; Behnke, T; Boudry, V; Radicioni, E; Lai, A; Shemyakina, E; Giganon, A E; Titov, M; Papakrivopoulos, I; Komai, H; Van bakel, N A; Tchepel, V; Repond, J O; Li, Y; Kourkoumelis, C; Tzamarias, S; Majumdar, N; Kowalski, T; Da rocha azevedo, C D; Serra diaz cano, L; Alvarez puerta, V; Trabelsi, A; Riegler, W; Ketzer, B F; Rosemann, C G; Herrera munoz, D C; Drancourt, C; Mayet, F; Geerebaert, Y; De robertis, G; Felici, G; Scribano memoria, A; Cecchi, R; Dalla torre, S; Gregori, M; Buzulutskov, A; Schwegler, P; Sanchez nieto, F J; Colas, P M A; Gros, M; Neyret, D; Zito, M; Ferrer ribas, E; Breskin, A; Martoiu, V S; Purschke, M L; Loomba, D; Gasik, P J; Petridou, C; Kordas, K; Mukhopadhyay, S; Bucciantonio, M; Biagi, S F; Ji, X; Kanaki, K; Zavazieva, D; Capeans garrido, M D M; Schindler, H; Kaminski, J; Krautscheid, T; Lippmann, C; Arora, R; Dafni, T; Garcia irastorza, I; Puill, V; Wicek, F B; Burmistrov, L; Singh, K P; Kroha, H; Kunne, F; Alexopoulos, T; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Bettoni, D; Heijhoff, K; Xiao, Z; Tzanakos, G; Leisos, A; Frullani, S; Sahin, O; Kalkan, Y; Giboni, K; Krieger, C; Breton, D R; Bhattacharyya, S; Abbrescia, M; Erriquez, O; Paticchio, V; Cardini, A; Aloisio, A; Turini, N; Bressan, A; Tikhonov, Y; Schumacher, M; Simon, F R; Nowak, S; Herlant, S; Chaus, A; Fanourakis, G; Bressler, S; Homma, Y; Timmermans, J; Fonte, P; Underwood, D G; Azmoun, B; Fassouliotis, D; Wiacek, P; Dos santos covita, D; Monteiro da silva, A L; Yahlali haddou, N; Marques ferreira dos santos, J; Domingues amaro, F

    The proposed R&D collaboration, RD51, aims at facilitating the development of advanced gas-avalanche detector technologies and associated electronic-readout systems, for applications in basic and applied research. Advances in particle physics have always been enabled by parallel advances in radiation-detector technology. Radiation detection and imaging with gas-avalanche detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with a low material budget, have been playing an important role in many fields. Besides their widespread use in particle-physics and nuclear-physics experiments, gaseous detectors are employed in many other fields: astro-particle research and applications such as medical imaging, material science, and security inspection. While extensively employed at the LHC, RHIC, and other advanced HEP experiments, present gaseous detectors (wire-chambers, drift-tubes, resistive-plate chambers and others) have limitations which may prevent their use in future experiments. Present tec...

  19. ORLANDO - Oak Ridge Large Neutrino Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, W.; Cohn, H.; Efremenko, Yu.; Fazely, A.; Gabriel, T.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Plasil, F.; Svoboda, R.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss a proposal for construction of an Oak Ridge LArge Neutrino DetectOr (ORLANDO) to search for neutrino oscillations at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). A 4 MW SNS is proposed to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory with the first stage to be operative around 2006. It will have two target stations, which makes it possible with a single detector to perform a neutrino oscillation search at two different distances. Initial plans for the placement of the detector and the discovery potential of such a detector are discussed

  20. GEANT4: simulation for the next generation of HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, Giani

    1996-01-01

    GEANT4 (RD44) is a world-wide collaboration of scientists aiming to create the detector simulation tool kit necessary for the next generation of HEP experiments. A large variety of requirements also come from heavy ions physics, CP violation physics, cosmic rays physics, medical applications and space science applications. In order to meet such requirements, a large degree of functionality and flexibility has to provided. GEANT4 is exploiting Object Oriented Technology to achieve these goals. The most relevant Object Oriented methodologies have been studied and a large number of tools and libraries have been investigated and evaluated. An overview of the GEANT4 analysis and design model will be given and the main components of the object models discussed. The main functionality of a first prototype will also be described. An overall view of the collaboration's structure and strategy will also be given. (author)

  1. Elastic stability and HEP detectors: a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Wertelaers, P

    2018-01-01

    Destabilizing -- or "buckling" -- phenomena can compromise the quality of a physics detector long before the point of collapse has been reached. We rehearse on the two types of buckling : snap-through versus bifurcation. Then, we discuss bifurcation problems in a detector example. This introductory text specifically targets a non-engineer audience.

  2. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, M.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P. F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R. D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Palmieri, V. G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    1999-10-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2×4 cm2 have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a β source or in a testbeam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5×10 15 cm-2 to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics.

  3. HEP Software Foundation Community White Paper Working Group - Data Analysis and Interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauerdick, Lothar; et al.

    2018-04-09

    At the heart of experimental high energy physics (HEP) is the development of facilities and instrumentation that provide sensitivity to new phenomena. Our understanding of nature at its most fundamental level is advanced through the analysis and interpretation of data from sophisticated detectors in HEP experiments. The goal of data analysis systems is to realize the maximum possible scientific potential of the data within the constraints of computing and human resources in the least time. To achieve this goal, future analysis systems should empower physicists to access the data with a high level of interactivity, reproducibility and throughput capability. As part of the HEP Software Foundation Community White Paper process, a working group on Data Analysis and Interpretation was formed to assess the challenges and opportunities in HEP data analysis and develop a roadmap for activities in this area over the next decade. In this report, the key findings and recommendations of the Data Analysis and Interpretation Working Group are presented.

  4. HEP.TrkX [Vidyo

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of charged particle tracks is a central task in the processing of physics data at the LHC and other colliders. Current state-of-the-art tracking algorithms are based on the Kalman filter and have seen great success both offline and at trigger level. However, these algorithms scale poorly with increasing detector occupancy, and it is foreseen that significant changes will be needed to achieve efficient track reconstruction in very high luminosity conditions. The HEP.TrkX pilot project aims to develop and explore machine-learning-based algorithms for particle tracking, with the goal of identifying candidate techniques for a more scalable tracking algorithm. In this talk we will discuss the techniques explored in the project so far, with emphasis on algorithms based on recurrent and convolutional neural networks. We will demonstrate the performance of these algorithms on toy detector data, and discuss plans to adapt them into complete algorithms for seed-finding and/or full track reconstructio...

  5. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braggio, C.; Boscardin, M.; Bressi, G.; Carugno, G.; Corti, D.; Galeazzi, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm 3 , cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  6. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy); Bressi, G. [INFN sez. di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Carugno, G.; Corti, D. [INFN sez. di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Galeazzi, G. [INFN lab. naz. Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm{sup 3}, cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  7. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Friedl, M; Bauer, C; Berfermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2*4 cm/sup 2/ have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a beta source or in a test beam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5*10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics. (16 refs).

  8. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, M. E-mail: markus.friedl@cern.ch; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-10-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2x4 cm{sup 2} have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a {beta} source or in a test beam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics. (author)

  9. Detector correction in large container inspection systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kang Ke Jun; Chen Zhi Qiang

    2002-01-01

    In large container inspection systems, the image is constructed by parallel scanning with a one-dimensional detector array with a linac used as the X-ray source. The linear nonuniformity and nonlinearity of multiple detectors and the nonuniform intensity distribution of the X-ray sector beam result in horizontal striations in the scan image. This greatly impairs the image quality, so the image needs to be corrected. The correction parameters are determined experimentally by scaling the detector responses at multiple points with logarithm interpolation of the results. The horizontal striations are eliminated by modifying the original image data with the correction parameters. This method has proven to be effective and applicable in large container inspection systems

  10. ASCR/HEP Exascale Requirements Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Salman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Roser, Robert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Riley, Katherine [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Williams, Tim [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Almgren, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Amundson, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bailey, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bard, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bloom, K. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Bockelman, B. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Borgland, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Borrill, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Boughezal, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brower, R. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Cowan, B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Finkel, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frontiere, N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fuess, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ge, L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gnedin, N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gottlieb, S. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gutsche, O. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Han, T. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Heitmann, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoeche, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ko, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kononenko, O. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); LeCompte, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Li, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lukic, Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mori, W. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Nugent, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ng, C. -K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Oleynik, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); O' Shea, B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, N. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Petravick, D. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA); Petriello, F. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Power, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qiang, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reina, L. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Rizzo, T. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ryne, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schram, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spentzouris, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Toussaint, D. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Vay, J. -L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Viren, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wurthwein, F. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Xiao, L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    This draft report summarizes and details the findings, results, and recommendations derived from the ASCR/HEP Exascale Requirements Review meeting held in June, 2015. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) Larger, more capable computing and data facilities are needed to support HEP science goals in all three frontiers: Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic. The expected scale of the demand at the 2025 timescale is at least two orders of magnitude -- and in some cases greater -- than that available currently. 2) The growth rate of data produced by simulations is overwhelming the current ability, of both facilities and researchers, to store and analyze it. Additional resources and new techniques for data analysis are urgently needed. 3) Data rates and volumes from HEP experimental facilities are also straining the ability to store and analyze large and complex data volumes. Appropriately configured leadership-class facilities can play a transformational role in enabling scientific discovery from these datasets. 4) A close integration of HPC simulation and data analysis will aid greatly in interpreting results from HEP experiments. Such an integration will minimize data movement and facilitate interdependent workflows. 5) Long-range planning between HEP and ASCR will be required to meet HEP's research needs. To best use ASCR HPC resources the experimental HEP program needs a) an established long-term plan for access to ASCR computational and data resources, b) an ability to map workflows onto HPC resources, c) the ability for ASCR facilities to accommodate workflows run by collaborations that can have thousands of individual members, d) to transition codes to the next-generation HPC platforms that will be available at ASCR facilities, e) to build up and train a workforce capable of developing and using simulations and analysis to support HEP scientific research on next-generation systems.

  11. ASCR/HEP Exascale Requirements Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Salman; et al.

    2016-03-30

    This draft report summarizes and details the findings, results, and recommendations derived from the ASCR/HEP Exascale Requirements Review meeting held in June, 2015. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) Larger, more capable computing and data facilities are needed to support HEP science goals in all three frontiers: Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic. The expected scale of the demand at the 2025 timescale is at least two orders of magnitude -- and in some cases greater -- than that available currently. 2) The growth rate of data produced by simulations is overwhelming the current ability, of both facilities and researchers, to store and analyze it. Additional resources and new techniques for data analysis are urgently needed. 3) Data rates and volumes from HEP experimental facilities are also straining the ability to store and analyze large and complex data volumes. Appropriately configured leadership-class facilities can play a transformational role in enabling scientific discovery from these datasets. 4) A close integration of HPC simulation and data analysis will aid greatly in interpreting results from HEP experiments. Such an integration will minimize data movement and facilitate interdependent workflows. 5) Long-range planning between HEP and ASCR will be required to meet HEP's research needs. To best use ASCR HPC resources the experimental HEP program needs a) an established long-term plan for access to ASCR computational and data resources, b) an ability to map workflows onto HPC resources, c) the ability for ASCR facilities to accommodate workflows run by collaborations that can have thousands of individual members, d) to transition codes to the next-generation HPC platforms that will be available at ASCR facilities, e) to build up and train a workforce capable of developing and using simulations and analysis to support HEP scientific research on next-generation systems.

  12. Proceedings of workshop on 'future in HEP computing'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Yukio; Amako, Katsuya; Watase, Yoshiyuki

    1993-12-01

    The workshop was held on March 11 and 12, 1993, at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK). The large flow from the conventional system centering around large versatile computers to the down-sizing taking distributed processing systems in it is formed, but its destination is not yet seen. As the concrete themes of 'future in HEP computing', problems toward down-sizing and the approach, future perspective of the networks, and adaptation of software engineering and pointing to object were taken up. At the workshop, lectures were given on requirements in HEP computing, possible solutions from Hitachi and Fujitsu, and network computing with work-stations regarding down-sizing and HEP computing; approaches in INS and KEK regarding future computing system in HEP laboratories; user requirement for future network, network service available in 1995-2005, multi-media communication and network protocols regarding future networks; object-oriented approach for software development, OOP for real time data acquisition and accelerator control; ProdiG activities and future of FORTRAN, F90 and HPF regarding OOP and physics, and trends in software development methodology. (K.I.)

  13. The International Large Detector: Letter of Intent

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Toshinori; Abramowicz, Halina; Adamus, Marek; Adeva, Bernardo; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alabau Pons, Carmen; Albrecht, Hartwig; Andricek, Ladislav; Anduze, Marc; Aplin, Steve J.; Arai, Yasuo; Asano, Masaki; Attie, David; Attree, Derek J.; Burger, Jochen; Bailey, David; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Ball, Markus; Ballin, James; Barbi, Mauricio; Barlow, Roger; Bartels, Christoph; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassignana, Daniela; Bates, Richard; Baudot, Jerome; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Jeannine; Beckmann, Moritz; Bedjidian, Marc; Behnke, Ties; Belkadhi, Khaled; Bellerive, Alain; Bentvelsen, Stan; Bergauer, Thomas; Berggren, C.Mikael U.; Bergholz, Matthias; Bernreuther, Werner; Besancon, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Bhuyan, Bipul; Biebel, Otmar; Bilki, Burak; Blair, Grahame; Blumlein, Johannes; Bo, Li; Boisvert, Veronique; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Boos, Eduard; Boudry, Vincent; Bouquet, Bernard; Bouvier, Joel; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Brient, Jean-Claude; Brock, Ian; Brogna, Andrea; Buchholz, Peter; Buesser, Karsten; Bulgheroni, Antonio; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Buzulutskov, A.F.; Caccia, Massimo; Caiazza, Stefano; Calcaterra, Alessandro; Caldwell, Allen; Callier, Stephane L.C.; Calvo Alamillo, Enrique; Campbell, Michael; Campbell, Alan J.; Cappellini, Chiara; Carloganu, Cristina; Castro, Nuno; Castro Carballo, Maria Elena; Chadeeva, Marina; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chang, Paoti; Charpy, Alexandre; Chen, Xun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Hongfang; Cheon, Byunggu; Choi, Suyong; Choudhary, B.C.; Christen, Sandra; Ciborowski, Jacek; Ciobanu, Catalin; Claus, Gilles; Clerc, Catherine; Coca, Cornelia; Colas, Paul; Colijn, Auke; Colledani, Claude; Combaret, Christophe; Cornat, Remi; Cornebise, Patrick; Corriveau, Francois; Cvach, Jaroslav; Czakon, Michal; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Da Silva, Wilfrid; Dadoun, Olivier; Dam, Mogens; Damerell, Chris; Danilov, Mikhail; Daniluk, Witold; Daubard, Guillaume; David, Dorte; David, Jacques; De Boer, Wim; De Groot, Nicolo; De Jong, Sijbrand; De Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De Masi, Rita; De Roeck, Albert; Decotigny, David; Dehmelt, Klaus; Delagnes, Eric; Deng, Zhi; Desch, Klaus; Dieguez, Angel; Diener, Ralf; Dima, Mihai-Octavian; Dissertori, Gunther; Dixit, Madhu S.; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris A.; Dollan, Ralph; Dorokhov, Andrei; Doublet, Philippe; Doyle, Tony; Doziere, Guy; Dragicevic, Marko; Drasal, Zbynek; Drugakov, Vladimir; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Dulucq, Frederic; Dumitru, Laurentiu Alexandru; Dzahini, Daniel; Eberl, Helmut; Eckerlin, Guenter; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eigen, Gerald; Eklund, Lars; Elsen, Eckhard; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Engels, Jan; Evrard, Christophe; Fabbri, Riccardo; Faber, Gerard; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Feege, Nils; Feng, Cunfeng; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Garcia, Marcos; Filthaut, Frank; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischer, Manfred; Fleta, Celeste; Fleury, Julien L.; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Foster, Brian; Fourches, Nicolas; Fouz, Mary-Cruz; Frank, Sebastian; Frey, Ariane; Frotin, Mickael; Fujii, Hirofumi; Fujii, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Junpei; Fujita, Yowichi; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gaddi, Andrea; Gaede, Frank; Galkin, Alexei; Galkin, Valery; Gallas, Abraham; Gallin-Martel, Laurent; Gamba, Diego; Gao, Yuanning; Garrido Beltran, Lluis; Garutti, Erika; Gastaldi, Franck; Gaur, Bakul; Gay, Pascal; Gellrich, Andreas; Genat, Jean-Francois; Gentile, Simonetta; Gerwig, Hubert; Gibbons, Lawrence; Ginina, Elena; Giraud, Julien; Giraudo, Giuseppe; Gladilin, Leonid; Goldstein, Joel; Gonzalez Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Gournaris, Filimon; Greenshaw, Tim; Greenwood, Z.D.; Grefe, Christian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Gris, Philippe; Grondin, Denis; Grunewald, Martin; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Gurtu, Atul; Haas, Tobias; Haensel, Stephan; Hajdu, Csaba; Hallermann, Lea; Han, Liang; Hansen, Peter H.; Hara, Takanori; Harder, Kristian; Hartin, Anthony; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harz, Martin; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hauschild, Michael; He, Qing; Hedberg, Vincent; Hedin, David; Heinze, Isa; Helebrant, Christian; Henschel, Hans; Hensel, Carsten; Hertenberger, Ralf; Herve, Alain; Higuchi, Takeo; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hironori, Kazurayama; Hlucha, Hana; Hommels, Bart; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horvath, Dezso; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Wei-Shu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Huang, Xingtao; Huppert, Jean Francois; Ide, Yasuhiro; Idzik, Marek; Iglesias Escudero, Carmen; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Igonkina, Olga; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikemoto, Yukiko; Ikuno, Toshinori; Imbault, Didier; Imhof, Andreas; Imhoff, Marc; Ingbir, Ronen; Inoue, Eiji; Ioannis, Giomataris; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Itagaki, Kennosuke; Ito, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Hideo; Iwabuchi, Masaya; Iwai, Go; Iwamoto, Toshiyuki; Jacosalem, Editha P.; Jaramillo Echeverria, Richard; Jeans, Daniel T D.; Jing, Fanfan; Jing, Ge; Jokic, Stevan; Jonsson, Leif; Jore, Matthieu; Jovin, Tatjana; Kafer, Daniela; Kajino, Fumiyoshi; Kamai, Yusuke; Kaminski, Jochen; Kamiya, Yoshio; Kaplan, Alexander; Kapusta, Frederic; Kar, Deepak; Karlen, Dean; Katayama, Nobu; Kato, Eriko; Kato, Yukihiro; Kaukher, Alexander; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawahara, Hiroki; Kawai, Masanori; Kawasaki, Takeo; Khan, Sameen Ahmed; Kieffer, Robert; Kielar, Eryk; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Kiesling, Christian M.; Killenberg, Martin; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Choong Sun; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Hong Joo; Kim, Eun-Joo; Kim, Hyunok; Kim, Shinhong; Kircher, Francois; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kleinwort, Claus; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Kluge, Hanna; Kluit, Peter Martin; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kobel, Michael; Kodama, Hideyo; Kodys, Peter; Koetz, U.; Koffeman, Els; Kohriki, Takashi; Komamiya, Sachio; Kondou, Yoshinari; Korbel, Volker; Kotera, Katsushige; Krucker, Dirk; Kraml, Sabine; Krammer, Manfred; Krastev, Kaloyan; Krause, Bernward; Krautscheid, Thorsten; Kschioneck, Kirsten; Kuang, Yu-Ping; Kuhlmann, Jan; Kuroiwa, Hirotoshi; Kusano, Tomonori; Kvasnicka, Peter; Lacasta Llacer, Carlos; Lagorio, Eric; Laktineh, Imad; Lange, Wolfgang; Lebrun, Patrice; Lee, Jik; Lehner, Frank; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Levy, Aharon; Li, Bo; Li, Ting; Li, Yulan; Li, Hengne; Liang, Zuotang; Lima, Guilherme; Linde, Frank; Linssen, Lucie; Linzmaier, Diana; List, Benno; List, Jenny; Liu, Bo; Llopart Cudie, Xavier; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Lozano, Manuel; Lu, Shaojun; Lucaci-Timoce, Angela Isabela; Lumb, Nick; Lundberg, Bjorn; Lutz, Pierre; Lutz, Benjamin; Lux, Thorsten; Luzniak, Pawel; Lyapin, Alexey; Ma, Wengan; Maczewski, Lukasz; Mader, Wolfgang F.; Maity, Manas; Majumdar, Nayana; Majumder, Gobinda; Maki, Akihiro; Makida, Yasuhiro; Mamuzic, Judita; Marc, Dhellot; Marchesini, Ivan; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marias, Carlos; Marshall, John; Martens, Cornelius; Martin, Victoria J.; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin-Chassard, Gisele; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martyn, Hans-Ulrich; Mathez, Herve; Mathieu, Antoine; Matsuda, Takeshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mcdonald, Kirk T.; Mereu, Paolo; Merk, Marcel; Merkin, Mikhail M.; Meyer, Niels; Meyners, Norbert; Mihara, Satoshi; Miller, David J.; Miller, Owen; Mitaroff, Winfried A.; Miyamoto, Akiya; Miyata, Hitoshi; Mjornmark, Ulf; Mnich, Joachim; Monig, Klaus; Moll, Andreas; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid A.; Mora De Freitas, Paulo; Morel, Frederic; Moretti, Stefano; Morgunov, Vasily; Mori, Toshinori; Mori, Takashi; Morin, Laurent; Morozov, Sergey; Moser, Hans-Gunther; Moser, Fabian; Moya, David; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Murakami, Takeshi; Musa, Luciano; Musat, Gabriel; Nagamine, Tadashi; Nakamura, Isamu; Nakano, Eiichi; Nakashima, Kenichi; Nakayoshi, Kazuo; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Nam, Shinwoo; Nam, Jiwoo; Nemecek, Stanislav; Niebuhr, Carsten; Niechciol, Marcus; Niezurawski, Piotr; Nishida, Shohei; Nishiyama, Miho; Nitoh, Osamu; Norbeck, Ed; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; O'Shea, Val; Ohlerich, Martin; Okada, Nobuchika; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivier, Bob; Oliwa, Krzysztof; Omori, Tsunehiko; Onel, Yasar; Ono, Hiroaki; Ono, Yoshimasa; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Ootani, Wataru; Orava, Risto; Orlandea, Marius Ciprian; Oskarsson, Anders; Osland, Per; Ossetski, Dmitri; Osterman, Lennart; Padilla, Cristobal; Pandurovic, Mila; Park, Il Hung; Park, Hwanbae; Parkes, Chris; Patrick, Ghislain; Patterson, J.Ritchie; Pawlik, Bogdan; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pellegrino, Antonio; Peterson, Daniel; Petrov, Alexander; Pham, Thanh Hung; Piccolo, Marcello; Poeschl, Roman; Polak, Ivo; Popova, Elena; Postranecky, Martin; Prahl, Volker; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Puerta-Pelayo, Jesus; Qian, Wenbin; Quadt, Arnulf; Rarbi, Fatah-Ellah; Raspereza, Alexei; Ratti, Lodovico; Raux, Ludovic; Raven, Gerhard; Re, Valerio; Regler, Meinhard; Reinhard, Marcel; Renz, Uwe; Repain, Philippe; Repond, Jose; Richard, Francois; Riemann, Sabine; Riemann, Tord; Riera-Babures, Jordi; Riu, Imma; Robert, Kieffer; Robson, Aidan; Roloff, Philipp; Rosca, Aura; Rosemann, Christoph; Rosiek, Janusz; Rossmanith, Robert; Roth, Stefan; Royon, Christophe; Ruan, Manqi; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Rusinov, Vladimir; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryzhikov, Dmitri; Saborido, Juan J.; Sadeh, Iftach; Sailer, Andre; Saito, Masatoshi; Sakuma, Takayuki; Sanami, Toshiya; Sanuki, Tomoyuki; Sarkar, Sandip; Sasaki, Rei; Sato, Yutaro; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, Lee; Schafer, Oliver; Schalicke, Andreas; Schuler, K.Peter; Schade, Peter; Schaffran, Joern; Scheirich, Jan; Schlatter, Dieter; Schmidt, Ringo Sebastian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneekloth, Uwe; Schreiber, Heinz Juergen; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce A.; Schuwalow, Sergej; Schwierz, Rainer; Sefkow, Felix; Sefri, Rachid; Seguin-Moreau, Nathalie; Seidel, Katja; Sekaric, Jadranka; Sendai, Hiroshi; Settles, Ronald Dean; Shao, Ming; Shechtman, L.I.; Shimazaki, Shoichi; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Sicho, Petr; Simon, Frank; Sinram, Klaus; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smiljkovic, Nebojsa; Smolik, Jan; Sobloher, Blanka; Soldner, Christian; Song, Kezhu; Sopczak, Andre; Speckmayer, Peter; Stenlund, Evert; Stockinger, Dominik; Stoeck, Holger; Strohmer, Raimund; Straessner, Arno; Stromhagen, Richard; Sudo, Yuji; Suehara, Taikan; Suekane, Fumihiko; Suetsugu, Yusuke; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Sugiyama, Akira; Sumisawa, Kazutaka; Suzuki, Shiro; Swientek, Krzysztof; Tabassam, Hajrah; Takahashi, Tohru; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Tanabe, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Ken-Ichi; Tanaka, Manobu; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarkovsky, Evgueny I.; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Tauchi, Kazuya; Telnov, Valery I.; Teodorescu, Eliza; Thomson, Mark; Tian, Junping; Timmermans, Jan; Titov, Maxim P.; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tozuka, Shunsuke; Tsuboyama, Toru; Ueno, Koji; Ullan, Miguel; Uozumi, Satoru; Urakawa, Junji; Ushakov, Andriy; Ushiroda, Yutaka; Valentan, Manfred; Valin, Isabelle; Van Der Graaf, Harry; Van Doren, Brian; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Vanel, Jean-Charles; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Verzocchi, Marco; Vescovi, Christophe; Videau, Henri L.; Vila, Ivan; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vogel, Adrian; Volkenborn, Robert; Vos, Marcel; Voutsinas, Yorgos; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Walsh, Roberval; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wang, Min-Zu; Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Qun; Wang, Meng; Ward, David R.; Warren, Matthew; Watanabe, Minori; Watanabe, Takashi; Watson, Nigel K.; Wattimena, Nanda; Wendt, Oliver; Wermes, Norbert; Weuste, Lars; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wienemann, Peter; Wierba, Wojciech; Wilson, Graham W.; Wilson, John A.; Wing, Matthew; Winter, Marc; Wobisch, Markus; Worek, Malgorzata; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Zizong; Yamaguchi, Akira; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Satoru; Yamauchi, M.; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yamouni, Mahfoud; Yan, Wenbiao; Yanagida, Koji; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Jongmann; Yang, Jin Min; Yang, Zhenwei; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yonamine, Ryo; Yoshida, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yoshioka, Tamaki; Yu, Chunxu; Yu, Intae; Yue, Qian; Zacek, Josef; Zalesak, Jaroslav; Zarnecki, Aleksander Filip; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zerwas, Dirk; Zeuner, Wolfram; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Ziping; Zhang, Renyou; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Jiawei; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zheng, Baojun; Zhong, Liang; Zhou, Yongzhao; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhu, Chengguang; Zomer, Fabian; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2010-01-01

    The International Large Detector (ILD) is a concept for a detector at the International Linear Collider, ILC. The ILC will collide electrons and positrons at energies of initially 500 GeV, upgradeable to 1 TeV. The ILC has an ambitious physics program, which will extend and complement that of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A hallmark of physics at the ILC is precision. The clean initial state and the comparatively benign environment of a lepton collider are ideally suited to high precision measurements. To take full advantage of the physics potential of ILC places great demands on the detector performance. The design of ILD is driven by these requirements. Excellent calorimetry and tracking are combined to obtain the best possible overall event reconstruction, including the capability to reconstruct individual particles within jets for particle ow calorimetry. This requires excellent spatial resolution for all detector systems. A highly granular calorimeter system is combined with a central tracker which st...

  14. The International Large Detector: Letter of Intent

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason M.; Abramowicz, Halina; Adamus, Marek; Adeva, Bernardo; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alabau Pons, Carmen; Albrecht, Hartwig; Andricek, Ladislav; Anduze, Marc; Aplin, Steve J.; Arai, Yasuo; Asano, Masaki; Attie, David

    2010-01-01

    The International Large Detector (ILD) is a concept for a detector at the International Linear Collider, ILC. The ILC will collide electrons and positrons at energies of initially 500 GeV, upgradeable to 1 TeV. The ILC has an ambitious physics program, which will extend and complement that of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A hallmark of physics at the ILC is precision. The clean initial state and the comparatively benign environment of a lepton collider are ideally suited to high precision ...

  15. Confronting new technological challenges in HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoy-Navarro, Aurore

    2000-01-01

    The new technological challenges that will have to be confronted in HEP are mainly due to the new physics issues. What is beyond the standard model? That is the question. This review will first list the physics demands in order to explore this unknown world. It will then show with appropriate examples, how the new physics will require confronting new technological challenges in: designing new accelerators, developing new detectors, designing new front-end readout systems and using the new software and hardware tools for the online readout and DAQ systems

  16. LXR agonist increases apoE secretion from HepG2 spheroid, together with an increased production of VLDL and apoE-rich large HDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koike Kazuhiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological regulation of hepatic apoE gene has not been clarified, although the expression of apoE in adipocytes and macrophages has been known to be regulated by LXR. Methods and Results We investigated the effect of TO901317, a LXR agonist, on hepatic apoE production utilizing HepG2 cells cultured in spheroid form, known to be more differentiated than HepG2 cells in monolayer culture. Spheroid HepG2 cells were prepared in alginate-beads. The secretions of albumin, apoE and apoA-I from spheroid HepG2 cells were significantly increased compared to those from monolayer HepG2 cells, and these increases were accompanied by increased mRNA levels of apoE and apoA-I. Several nuclear receptors including LXRα also became abundant in nuclear fractions in spheroid HepG2 cells. Treatment with TO901317 significantly increased apoE protein secretion from spheroid HepG2 cells, which was also associated with the increased expression of apoE mRNA. Separation of the media with FPLC revealed that the production of apoE-rich large HDL particles were enhanced even at low concentration of TO901317, and at higher concentration of TO901317, production of VLDL particles increased as well. Conclusions LXR activation enhanced the expression of hepatic apoE, together with the alteration of lipoprotein particles produced from the differentiated hepatocyte-derived cells. HepG2 spheroids might serve as a good model of well-differentiated human hepatocytes for future investigations of hepatic lipid metabolism.

  17. The interaction region of the large detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    design to study alternatives, e.g. the surface assembly of the detector. References. [1] T Behnke et al, Eds., TESLA Technical Design Report Part IV, DESY 2001-011, 2001. [2] The LDC Working Group: Detector outline document for the large detector concept, http://www.ilcldc.org/documents/dod/ (2006). Pramana – J. Phys.

  18. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeck, Holger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Falkiner High Energy Physics Group; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (AT). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  19. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeck, Holger; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  20. The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasiev, S.; Alber, T.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Baechler, J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Bieser, F.; Billmeier, A.; Blyth, C.O.; Bock, R.; Bormann, C.; Bracinik, J.; Brady, F.P.; Brockmann, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H.L.; Cebra, D.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Csato, P.; Cyprian, M.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Empl, T.; Eschke, J.; Ferguson, M.I.; Fessler, H.; Fischer, H.G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Frankenfeld, U.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Ftacnik, J.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Guenther, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Henkel, T.; Hill, L.A.; Hlinka, V.; Huang, I.; Huemmler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Ivanov, M.; Janik, R.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Levai, P.; Liebicher, K.; Lynen, U.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Marks, C.; Mayes, B.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mock, A.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, J.M.; Oldenburg, M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Pestov, Y.; Petridis, A.; Pikna, M.; Pimpl, W.; Pinsky, L.; Piper, A.; Porter, R.J.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Poziombka, S.; Prindle, D.J.; Puehlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Roehrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sammer, T.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Schaefer, E.; Schmidt, R.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schoenfelder, S.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Seyboth, J.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stelzer, H.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Stroebele, H.; Struck, C.; Susa, T.; Szarka, I.; Szentpetery, I.; Szymanski, P.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F.Q.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Yates, T.A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.-Z.; Zybert, R.

    1999-01-01

    The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large-volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via dE/dx. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions

  1. The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, S V; Appelshäuser, H; Bächler, J; Barna, D; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Bieser, F; Billmeier, A; Blyth, C O; Böck, R K; Bormann, C; Bracinik, J; Brady, F P; Brockmann, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Caines, H L; Cebra, D; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Cyprian, M; Dunn, J; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Empl, T; Eschke, J; Ferguson, M I; Fessler, H; Fischer, H G; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Frankenfeld, Ulrich; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Ftácnik, J; Fuchs, M; Gabler, F; Gál, J; Ganz, R E; Gazdzicki, M; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, J; Günther, J; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Henkel, T; Hill, L A; Hlinka, V; Huang, I; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Irmscher, D; Ivanov, M; Janik, R; Jacobs, P; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kowalski, M; Lasiuk, B; Lévai, Peter; Liebicher, K; Lynen, U; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Marks, C; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Mock, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Oldenburg, M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Pestov, Yu N; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pimpl, W; Pinsky, L; Piper, A; Porter, R J; Poskanzer, A M; Poziombka, S; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Rauch, W; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, H; Rybicki, A; Sammer, T; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Schäfer, E; Schmidt, R; Schmischke, D; Schmitz, N; Schönfelder, S; Semenov, A Yu; Seyboth, J; Seyboth, P; Seyerlein, J; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Squier, G T A; Stelzer, H; Stock, Reinhard; Strmen, P; Ströbele, H; Struck, C; Susa, T; Szarka, I; Szentpétery, I; Szymanski, P; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Whitten, C; Wieman, H H; Wienold, T; Wood, L; Yates, T A; Zimányi, J; Zhu, X Z; Zybert, R

    1999-01-01

    The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via $dE/dx$. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions.

  2. Shielding and grounding in large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.

    1998-09-01

    Prevention of electromagnetic interference (EMI), or ''noise pickup,'' is an important design aspect in large detectors in accelerator environments. Shielding effectiveness as a function of shield thickness and conductivity vs the type and frequency of the interference field is described. Noise induced in transmission lines by ground loop driven currents in the shield is evaluated and the importance of low shield resistance is emphasized. Some measures for prevention of ground loops and isolation of detector-readout systems are discussed

  3. Electronic circuit design with HEP computational tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Mario

    1996-01-01

    CPSPICE is an electronic circuit statistical simulation program developed to run in a parallel environment under UNIX operating system and TCP/IP communications protocol, using CPS - Cooperative Processes Software , SPICE program and CERNLIB software package. It is part of a set of tools being develop, intended to help electronic engineers to design, model and simulate complex systems and circuits for High Energy Physics detectors, based on statistical methods, using the same software and methodology used by HEP physicists for data analysis. CPSPICE simulates electronic circuits by Monte Carlo method, through several different processes running simultaneously SPICE in UNIX parallel computers or workstation farms. Data transfer between CPS processes for a modified version of SPICE2G6 is done by RAM memory, but can also be done through hard disk files if no source files are available for the simulator, and for bigger simulation outputs files. Simulation results are written in a HBOOK file as a NTUPLE, to be examined by HBOOK in batch model or graphics, and analyzed by statistical procedures available. The HBOOK file be stored on hard disk for small amount of data, or into Exabyte tape file for large amount of data. HEP tools also helps circuit or component modeling, like MINUT program from CERNLIB, that implements Nelder and Mead Simplex and Gradient with or without derivatives algorithms, and can be used for design optimization.This paper presents CPSPICE program implementation. The scheme adopted is suitable to make parallel other electronic circuit simulators. (author)

  4. Towards Provenance and Traceability in CRISTAL for HEP

    CERN Document Server

    Shamdasani, Jetendr; McClatchey, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the CRISTAL object lifecycle management system and its use in provenance data management and the traceability of system events. This software was initially used to capture the construction and calibration of the CMS ECAL detector at CERN for later use by physicists in their data analysis. Some further uses of CRISTAL in different projects (CMS, neuGRID and N4U) are presented as examples of its flexible data model. From these examples, applications are drawn for the High Energy Physics domain and some initial ideas for its use in data preservation HEP are outlined in detail in this paper. Currently investigations are underway to gauge the feasibility of using the N4U Analysis Service or a derivative of it to address the requirements of data and analysis logging and provenance capture within the HEP long term data analysis environment.

  5. Analysis and comparison of the breakdown performance of semi- insulator and dielectric passivated Si strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Kirti; Chatterji, S; Srivastava-Ajay, K; Shivpuri, R K

    2002-01-01

    The harsh radiation environment in future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments like LHC provides a challenging task to the performance of Si microstrip detectors. Normal operating condition for silicon detectors in HEP experiments are in most cases not as favourable as for experiments in nuclear physics. In HEP experiments the detector may be exposed to moisture and other adverse atmospheric environment. It is therefore utmost important to protect the sensitive surfaces against such poisonous effects. These instabilities can be nearly eliminated and the performance of Si detectors can be improved by implementing suitably passivated metal-overhang structures. This paper presents the influence of the relative permittivity of the passivant on the breakdown performance of the Si detectors using computer simulations. The semi-insulator and the dielectric passivated metal-overhang structures are compared under optimal conditions. The influence of various parameters such as passivation layer thickness, junction dep...

  6. HEP data analysis using jHepWork and Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.

    2009-01-01

    A role of Java in high-energy physics (HEP) and recent progress in development of a platform-independent data-analysis framework, jHepWork, is discussed. The framework produces professional graphics and has many libraries for data manipulation.

  7. Digital radiography with large-area flat-panel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotter, E.; Langer, M.

    2002-01-01

    Large-area flat-panel detectors with active readout mechanisms have been on the market for the past 2 years. This article describes different detector technologies. An important distinction is made between detectors with direct and those with indirect conversion of X-rays into electrical charges. Detectors with indirect conversion are built with unstructured or structured scintillators, the latter resulting in less lateral diffusion of emitted light. Some important qualities of flat-panel detectors are discussed. The first phantom and clinical studies published report an image quality at least comparable to that of screen-film systems and a potential for dose reduction. The available studies are summarised in this article. (orig.)

  8. Fiber Bragg Grating sensors for deformation monitoring of GEM foils in HEP detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071648; Bianco, S; Caponero, M; Muhammad, S; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Raffone, G; Russo, A; Saviano, G

    2015-01-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have been so far mainly used in high energy physics (HEP) as high precision positioning and re-positioning sensors and as low cost, easy to mount, radiation hard and low space- consuming temperature and humidity devices. FBGs are also commonly used for very precise strain measurements. In this work we present a novel use of FBGs as flatness and mechanical tensioning sensors applied to the wide Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils of the GE1/1 chambers of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN. A network of FBG sensors has been used to determine the optimal mechanical tension applied and to characterize the mechanical stress applied to the foils. The preliminary results of the test performed on a full size GE1/1 final prototype and possible future developments will be discussed.

  9. Microelectronics and nanoelectronics trends, and applications to HEP instrumentation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Lecture 1 : Microelectronics and HEP instrumentation CMOS technology has been the leading technology in microelectronics for more that 30 years thanks to its outstanding capability to miniaturization and low power consumption. A brief history of the microelectronics semiconductor industry is presented with applications for LEP and LHC experiments. Lecture 2: Future trends in microelectronics and nanoelectronics Trends in miniaturization point to the fabrication of ULSI nanoscale CMOS circuits by the end of the decade. Device issues and quantum effects in nanoscale MOS transistor will be discussed. Beyond CMOS technology, several technology avenues based on nanotechnology are under investigation. We will present some promising nanoelectronic devices and circuits based on Single Electron Tunneling (SET) transistor, nanowire, quantum dot and carbon nanotubes. Lecture 3: Monolithic pixel detectors Microvertex detectors for particle physics experiments currently uses hybrid silicon pixel detector. Novel emerging m...

  10. The HEP.TrkX Project: deep neural networks for HL-LHC online and offline tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Steven; Anderson, Dustin; Calafiura, Paolo; Cerati, Giuseppe; Gray, Lindsey; Kowalkowski, Jim; Mudigonda, Mayur; Prabhat; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Spiropoulou, Maria; Tsaris, Aristeidis; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Zheng, Stephan

    2017-08-01

    Particle track reconstruction in dense environments such as the detectors of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) is a challenging pattern recognition problem. Traditional tracking algorithms such as the combinatorial Kalman Filter have been used with great success in LHC experiments for years. However, these state-of-the-art techniques are inherently sequential and scale poorly with the expected increases in detector occupancy in the HL-LHC conditions. The HEP.TrkX project is a pilot project with the aim to identify and develop cross-experiment solutions based on machine learning algorithms for track reconstruction. Machine learning algorithms bring a lot of potential to this problem thanks to their capability to model complex non-linear data dependencies, to learn effective representations of high-dimensional data through training, and to parallelize easily on high-throughput architectures such as GPUs. This contribution will describe our initial explorations into this relatively unexplored idea space. We will discuss the use of recurrent (LSTM) and convolutional neural networks to find and fit tracks in toy detector data.

  11. The HEP.TrkX Project: deep neural networks for HL-LHC online and offline tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Steven

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle track reconstruction in dense environments such as the detectors of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC is a challenging pattern recognition problem. Traditional tracking algorithms such as the combinatorial Kalman Filter have been used with great success in LHC experiments for years. However, these state-of-the-art techniques are inherently sequential and scale poorly with the expected increases in detector occupancy in the HL-LHC conditions. The HEP.TrkX project is a pilot project with the aim to identify and develop cross-experiment solutions based on machine learning algorithms for track reconstruction. Machine learning algorithms bring a lot of potential to this problem thanks to their capability to model complex non-linear data dependencies, to learn effective representations of high-dimensional data through training, and to parallelize easily on high-throughput architectures such as GPUs. This contribution will describe our initial explorations into this relatively unexplored idea space. We will discuss the use of recurrent (LSTM and convolutional neural networks to find and fit tracks in toy detector data.

  12. The Saskatchewan-Alberta large acceptance detector for photonuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, E. B.; Cameron, J.; Choi, W. C.; Fielding, H. W.; Green, P. W.; Greeniaus, L. G.; Hackett, E. D.; Holm, L.; Kolb, N. R.; Korkmaz, E.; Langill, P. P.; McDonald, W. J.; Mack, D.; Olsen, W. C.; Peterson, B. A.; Rodning, N. L.; Soukup, J.; Zhu, J.; Hutcheon, D.; Caplan, H. S.; Pywell, R. E.; Skopik, D. M.; Vogt, J. M.; van Heerden, I. J.

    1992-09-01

    The Saskatchewan-Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD) is a 4 π detector designed and built for studies of photonuclear reactions with a tagged photon beam. The design and performance of the detector are described. Its characteristics have been studied by examining p-p elastic scattering with a proton beam at TRIUMF.

  13. Characterization and Calibration of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Losel, Philipp Jonathan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Resisitve strip Micromegas detectors behave discharge tolerant. They have been tested extensively as smaller detectors of about 10 x 10 cm$^2$ in size and they work reliably at high rates of 100\\,kHz/cm$^2$ and above. Tracking resolutions well below 100\\,$\\mu$m have been observed for 100 GeV muons and pions. Micromegas detectors are meanwhile proposed as large area muon precision trackers of 2-3\\,m$^2$ in size. To investigate possible differences between small and large detectors, a 1\\,m$^2$ detector with 2048 resistive strips at a pitch of 450 $\\mu$m was studied in the LMU Cosmic Ray Facility (CRF) using two 4 $\\times$ 2.2 m$^2$ large Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for cosmic muon reference tracking. Segmentation of the resistive strip anode plane in 57.6\\,mm x 95\\,mm large areas has been realized by the readout of 128 strips with one APV25 chip each and by 11 95\\,mm broad trigger scintillators placed along the readout strips.\\\\ This allows for mapping of homogenity in pulse height and efficiency, deter...

  14. Detectors for large e/sup +/e/sup -/ colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltay, C.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the author gives a brief review of the detectors now being built for the two new large e/sup +/e/sup -/ colliders, LEP, under construction at CERN, and the SLC, now under construction at SLAC. These colliders are intended to study the Z 0 energy region and above, with energies of around 100 to 200 GeV in the center of mass. The purpose of this paper is to list some of the physics topics of interest and given an indication of the requirements they make on the design of the detectors. It also contains a brief discussion giving some of the relevant parameters of the colliers, and gives a description of the large detectors now under construction to utilize these colliders

  15. Detector independent cellular automaton algorithm for track reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisel, Ivan; Kulakov, Igor; Zyzak, Maksym [Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Track reconstruction is one of the most challenging problems of data analysis in modern high energy physics (HEP) experiments, which have to process per second of the order of 10{sup 7} events with high track multiplicity and density, registered by detectors of different types and, in many cases, located in non-homogeneous magnetic field. Creation of reconstruction package common for all experiments is considered to be important in order to consolidate efforts. The cellular automaton (CA) track reconstruction approach has been used successfully in many HEP experiments. It is very simple, efficient, local and parallel. Meanwhile it is intrinsically independent of detector geometry and good candidate for common track reconstruction. The CA implementation for the CBM experiment has been generalized and applied to the ALICE ITS and STAR HFT detectors. Tests with simulated collisions have been performed. The track reconstruction efficiencies are at the level of 95% for majority of the signal tracks for all detectors.

  16. Impact of detector simulation in particle physics collider experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Elvira, V.

    2017-06-01

    Through the last three decades, accurate simulation of the interactions of particles with matter and modeling of detector geometries has proven to be of critical importance to the success of the international high-energy physics (HEP) experimental programs. For example, the detailed detector modeling and accurate physics of the Geant4-based simulation software of the CMS and ATLAS particle physics experiments at the European Center of Nuclear Research (CERN) Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was a determinant factor for these collaborations to deliver physics results of outstanding quality faster than any hadron collider experiment ever before. This review article highlights the impact of detector simulation on particle physics collider experiments. It presents numerous examples of the use of simulation, from detector design and optimization, through software and computing development and testing, to cases where the use of simulation samples made a difference in the precision of the physics results and publication turnaround, from data-taking to submission. It also presents estimates of the cost and economic impact of simulation in the CMS experiment. Future experiments will collect orders of magnitude more data with increasingly complex detectors, taxing heavily the performance of simulation and reconstruction software. Consequently, exploring solutions to speed up simulation and reconstruction software to satisfy the growing demand of computing resources in a time of flat budgets is a matter that deserves immediate attention. The article ends with a short discussion on the potential solutions that are being considered, based on leveraging core count growth in multicore machines, using new generation coprocessors, and re-engineering HEP code for concurrency and parallel computing.

  17. Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Hensley, R.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 v has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

  18. Characterization and Calibration of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389527; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Resistive strip Micromegas detectors are discharge tolerant. They have been tested extensively as small detectors of about 10 x 10 cm$^2$ in size and they work reliably at high rates of 100 kHz/cm$^2$ and above. Tracking resolution well below 100 $\\mu$m has been observed for 100 GeV muons and pions. Micromegas detectors are meanwhile proposed as large area muon precision trackers of 2-3 m$^2$ in size. To investigate possible differences between small and large detectors, a 1 m$^2$ detector with 2048 resistive strips at a pitch of 450 $\\mu$m was studied in the LMU Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility (CRMF) using two 4 $\\times$ 2.2 m$^2$ large Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for cosmic muon reference tracking. A segmentation of the resistive strip anode plane in 57.6 mm x 93 mm large areas has been realized by the readout of 128 strips with one APV25 chip each and by eleven 93 mm broad trigger scintillators placed along the readout strips. This allows for mapping of homogeneity in pulse height and efficiency, d...

  19. Deploying HEP applications using Xen and Globus Virtual Workspaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, A; Desmarais, R; Gable, I; Grundy, D; P-Brown, D; Seuster, R; Vanderster, D C; Sobie, R; Charbonneau, A; Enge, R

    2008-01-01

    The deployment of HEP applications in heterogeneous grid environments can be challenging because many of the applications are dependent on specific OS versions and have a large number of complex software dependencies. Virtual machine monitors such as Xen could be used to package HEP applications, complete with their execution environments, to run on resources that do not meet their operating system requirements. Our previous work has shown HEP applications running within Xen suffer little or no performance penalty as a result of virtualization. However, a practical strategy is required for remotely deploying, booting, and controlling virtual machines on a remote cluster. One tool that promises to overcome the deployment hurdles using standard grid technology is the Globus Virtual Workspaces project. We describe strategies for the deployment of Xen virtual machines using Globus Virtual Workspace middleware that simplify the deployment of HEP applications

  20. HEP technologies to address medical imaging challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Developments in detector technologies aimed at solving challenges in present and future CERN experiments, particularly at the LHC, have triggered exceptional advances in the performance of medical imaging devices, allowing for a spectacular progress in in-vivo molecular imaging procedures, which are opening the way for tailored therapies of major diseases. This talk will briefly review the recent history of this prime example of technology transfer from HEP experiments to society, will describe the technical challenges being addressed by some ongoing projects, and will present a few new ideas for further developments and their foreseeable impact.

  1. The Upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrere, Didier; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector, in particular the IBL, will be presented, using collision data.

  2. Characterization and modelling of signal dynamics in 3D-DDTC detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoboli, A.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Gabos, P.; Piemonte, C.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years we have developed 3D detector technologies within a collaboration between INFN and FBK-irst aiming at a simplification of the fabrication technology with respect to the original 3D design. These detectors are the object of an increasing interest from the HEP community because of their intrinsic radiation hardness, making them appealing for innermost layers of tracking at the foreseen upgrades of the large hadron collider. In this paper we evaluate the signal shape in response to localized and uniform charge deposition both by solving Ramo's theorem and with the aid of TCAD simulations. Signals observed in 3D diodes, stimulated by lasers at different wavelengths, are compared with simulations results.

  3. Characterization and modelling of signal dynamics in 3D-DDTC detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoboli, A., E-mail: zoboli@disi.unitn.i [INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento), and Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi, Via Sommarive, 18, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Bosisio, L. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, e Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Gabos, P. [INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento), and Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Piemonte, C.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi, Via Sommarive, 18, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    In the past few years we have developed 3D detector technologies within a collaboration between INFN and FBK-irst aiming at a simplification of the fabrication technology with respect to the original 3D design. These detectors are the object of an increasing interest from the HEP community because of their intrinsic radiation hardness, making them appealing for innermost layers of tracking at the foreseen upgrades of the large hadron collider. In this paper we evaluate the signal shape in response to localized and uniform charge deposition both by solving Ramo's theorem and with the aid of TCAD simulations. Signals observed in 3D diodes, stimulated by lasers at different wavelengths, are compared with simulations results.

  4. Photonuclear experiments using large acceptance detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecking, B.A.

    1984-08-01

    Experimental programs in photonuclear physics are discussed. In experiments concentrate on the combined use of low intensity (real and virtual) photon beams and large acceptance detectors for the detection of multiple particle final states. Count rate estimates and the consequences for the operation of a high intensity accelerator are given. (orig.)

  5. Batch calculations in CalcHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukhov, A.

    2003-01-01

    CalcHEP is a clone of the CompHEP project which is developed by the author outside of the CompHEP group. CompHEP/CalcHEP are packages for automatic calculations of elementary particle decay and collision properties in the lowest order of perturbation theory. The main idea prescribed into the packages is to make available passing on from the Lagrangian to the final distributions effectively with a high level of automation. According to this, the packages were created as a menu driven user friendly programs for calculations in the interactive mode. From the other side, long-time calculations should be done in the non-interactive regime. Thus, from the beginning CompHEP has a problem of batch calculations. In CompHEP 33.23 the batch session was realized by mean of interactive menu which allows to the user to formulate the task for batch. After that the not-interactive session was launched. This way is too restricted, not flexible, and leads to doubling in programming. In this article I discuss another approach how one can force an interactive program to work in non-interactive mode. This approach was realized in CalcHEP 2.1 disposed on http://theory.sinp.msu.ru/~pukhov/calchep.html

  6. ArCLight—A Compact Dielectric Large-Area Photon Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Auger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ArgonCube Light readout system (ArCLight is a novel device for detecting scintillation light over large areas with Photon Detection Efficiency (PDE of the order of a few percent. Its robust technological design allows for efficient use in large-volume particle detectors, such as Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs or liquid scintillator detectors. Due to its dielectric structure it can be placed inside volumes with high electric field. It could potentially replace vacuum PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMTs in applications where high PDE is not required. The photon detection efficiency for a 10 × 10 cm2 detector prototype was measured to be in the range of 0.8% to 2.2% across the active area.

  7. Integration of Detectors Into a Large Experiment: Examples From ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Froidevaux, D

    2011-01-01

    Integration of Detectors Into a Large Experiment: Examples From ATLAS andCMS, part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B2: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 2: Systems and Applications'. This document is part of Part 2 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '5 Integration of Detectors Into a Large Experiment: Examples From ATLAS and CMS' with the content: 5 Integration of Detectors Into a Large Experiment: Examples From ATLAS and CMS 5.1 Introduction 5.1.1 The context 5.1.2 The main initial physics goals of ATLAS and CMS at the LHC 5.1.3 A snapshot of the current status of the ATLAS and CMS experiments 5.2 Overall detector concept and magnet systems 5.2.1 Overall detector concept 5.2.2 Magnet systems 5.2.2.1 Rad...

  8. Radiation damage studies of detector-compatible Si JFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Boscardin, Maurizio; Candelori, Andrea; Pancheri, Lucio; Piemonte, Claudio; Ratti, Lodovico; Zorzi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    We have largely improved the performance of our detector-compatible Si JFETs by optimizing the fabrication technology. New devices feature thermal noise values close to the theoretical ones, and remarkably low 1/f noise figures. In view of adopting these JFETs for X-ray imaging and HEP applications, bulk and surface radiation damage tests have been carried out by irradiating single transistors and test structures with neutrons and X-rays. Selected results from static and noise characterization of irradiated devices are discussed in this paper, and the impact of radiation effects on the performance of JFET-based circuits is addressed

  9. Conference on physics from large {gamma}-ray detector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The conference on {open_quotes}Physics from Large {gamma}-ray Detector Arrays{close_quotes} is a continuation of the series of conferences that have been organized every two years by the North American Heavy-ion Laboratories. The aim of the conference this year was to encourage discussion of the physics that can be studied with such large arrays. This volume is the collected proceedings from this conference. It discusses properties of nuclear states which can be created in heavy-ion reactions, and which can be observed via such detector systems.

  10. Conference on physics from large γ-ray detector arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The conference on open-quotes Physics from Large γ-ray Detector Arraysclose quotes is a continuation of the series of conferences that have been organized every two years by the North American Heavy-ion Laboratories. The aim of the conference this year was to encourage discussion of the physics that can be studied with such large arrays. This volume is the collected proceedings from this conference. It discusses properties of nuclear states which can be created in heavy-ion reactions, and which can be observed via such detector systems

  11. The Anti-Coincidence Detector for the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseev, A.A.; Hartman, R.C.; Ormes, J.F.; Thompson, D.J.; Amato, M.J.; Johnson, T.E.; Segal, K.N.; Sheppard, D.A.

    2007-03-23

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and testing of the Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD) for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT). The ACD is LAT's first-level defense against the charged cosmic ray background that outnumbers the gamma rays by 3-5 orders of magnitude. The ACD covers the top and 4 sides of the LAT tracking detector, requiring a total active area of {approx}8.3 square meters. The ACD detector utilizes plastic scintillator tiles with wave-length shifting fiber readout. In order to suppress self-veto by shower particles at high gamma-ray energies, the ACD is segmented into 89 tiles of different sizes. The overall ACD efficiency for detection of singly charged relativistic particles entering the tracking detector from the top or sides of the LAT exceeds the required 0.9997.

  12. Doping the 1 kton Large Volume Detector with Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Gianmarco; Fulgione, Walter; Porta, Amanda; Machado, Ana Amelia Bergamini; Mal'gin, Alexei; Molinario, Andrea; Vigorito, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    The Large Volume Detector (LVD) in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy, is a ν observatory which has been monitoring the Galaxy since June 1992 to study neutrinos from core collapse supernovae. The experiment in the present configuration is made by 840 scintillator detectors, for a total active mass of 1000 tons. The detector sensitivity to neutrino bursts due to a core collapse supernova has been already discussed in term of maximum detectable distance. In this paper we evaluate the improvements that LVD could obtain if all its active scintillator mass was doped with a small amount (0.14% in weight) of Gadolinium. We simulated neutron captures following ν-bar e inverse beta decay reactions in one LVD counter (1.2 ton) with Gd doped liquid scintillator obtaining an efficiency for the detection of this process of η n | Gd = 80% and a mean capture time τ = 25μs, in good agreement with the results obtained by the measures. This implies a gain of a factor ∼ 20 in the signal to noise ratio for neutron capture detection with respect to the undoped liquid scintillator. We discuss how the captures of neutrons from rock radioactivity on Gd modify the background conditions of the detector and we calculate the curves expressing the sensitivity to a ν-bar e burst from core collapse supernovae depending on the distance of the collapsing star. It results that doping the 1 kton Large Volume Detector with Gd would assure a 90% detection efficiency at the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud (50 kpc), an achievement which is equivalent to that obtained by doubling the number of counters in LVD

  13. HEP in Greek Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassouliotis, Dimitris; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Vourakis, Stylianos

    2017-03-01

    The HEP Inquiry learning resources created over the last four years by the European outreach projects are reviewed. The resources are mostly addressed to high school students and the purpose is to ignite their interest on science. In addition, at the University of Athens for the last four years we have been using the HYPATIA online event analysis tool as a lab course for fourth year undergraduate physics students, majoring in HEP. Each year 40-50 students highly appreciated the course, since they get a direct involvement in the actual toplevel research. Up to now, the course was limited to visual inspection of a few tens of ATLAS events. Recently we have enriched the course with additional analysis exercises, which involve large samples of events. The students, through a user friendly interface can analyze the samples (both signal and background ones) and optimize the cut selection in order to search for the Higgs decay H □ 4 leptons. Recently ATLAS released 1/fb of data, so starting now the students analyse real data.

  14. The Upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run-2 at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00084948; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130 nm technology. In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector, in particular the IBL, will be presented using collision data.

  15. Software Development and Testing Approach and Challenges in a distributed HEP Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Burckhart-Chromek, Doris

    2007-01-01

    In developing the ATLAS [1] Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) software, the team is applying the iterative waterfall model, evolutionary process management, formal software inspection, and lightweight review techniques. The long preparation phase, with a geographically widespread development team required that the standard techniques be adapted to this HEP environment. The testing process is receiving special attention. Unit tests and check targets in nightly project builds form the basis for the subsequent software project release testing. The integrated software is then being run on computing farms that give further opportunites for gaining experience, fault finding, and acquiring ideas for improvement. Dedicated tests on a farm of up to 1000 nodes address the large-scale aspect of the project. Integration test activities on the experimental site include the special purpose-built event readout hardware. Deployment in detector commissioning starts the countdown towards running the final ATLAS experiment. T...

  16. 175th International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" : Radiation and Particle Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bottigli, U; Oliva, P

    2010-01-01

    High energy physics (HEP) has a crucial role in the context of fundamental physics. HEP experiments make use of a massive array of sophisticated detectors to analyze the particles produced in high-energy scattering events. This book contains the papers from the workshop 'Radiation and Particle Detectors', organized by the International School of Physics, and held in Varenna in July 2009. Its subject is the use of detectors for research in fundamental physics, astro-particle physics and applied physics. Subjects covered include the measurement of: the position and length of ionization trails, time of flight velocity, radius of curvature after bending the paths of charged particles with magnetic fields, coherent transition radiation, synchrotron radiation, electro-magnetic showers produced by calorimetric methods and nuclear cascades produced by hadrons in massive steel detectors using calorimetry. Detecting muons and the detection of Cherenkov radiation are also covered, as is the detection of neutrinos by ste...

  17. Technique investigation on large area neutron scintillation detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiabin

    2006-12-01

    The detailed project for developing Large Area Neutron Scintillation Detector Array (LaNSA) to be used for measuring fusion fuel area density on Shenguang III prototype is presented, including experimental principle, detector working principle, electronics system design and the needs for target chamber etc. The detailed parameters for parts are given and the main causes affecting the system function are analyzed. The realization path is introduced. (authors)

  18. Design considerations for large detector arrays on submillimeter-wave telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Antony A.

    2000-07-01

    The emerging technology of large (approximately 10,000 pixel) submillimeter-wave bolometer arrays presents a novel optical design problem -- how can such arrays be fed by diffraction- limited telescope optics where the primary mirror is less than 100,000 wavelengths in diameter? Standard Cassegrain designs for radiotelescope optics exhibit focal surface curvature so large that detectors cannot be placed more than 25 beam diameters from the central ray. The problem is worse for Ritchey-Chretien designs, because these minimize coma while increasing field curvature. Classical aberrations, including coma, are usually dominated by diffraction in submillimeter- wave single dish telescopes. The telescope designer must consider (1) diffraction, (2) aberration, (3) curvature of field, (4) cross-polarization, (5) internal reflections, (6) the effect of blockages, (7) means of beam chopping on- and off-source, (8) gravitational and thermal deformations of the primary mirror, (9) the physical mounting of large detector packages, and (10) the effect of gravity and (11) vibration on those detectors. Simultaneous optimization of these considerations in the case of large detector arrays leads to telescopes that differ considerably from standard radiotelescope designs. Offset optics provide flexibility for mounting detectors, while eliminating blockage and internal reflections. Aberrations and cross-polarization can be the same as on-axis designs having the same diameter and focal length. Trade-offs include the complication of primary mirror homology and an increase in overall cost. A dramatic increase in usable field of view can be achieved using shaped optics. Solutions having one to six mirrors will be discussed, including possible six-mirror design for the proposed South Pole 10 m telescope.

  19. Position reconstruction in large-area scintillating fibre detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahata, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail: kmahata@barc.gov.in; Johansson, H.T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Department of Fundamental Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Paschalis, S. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simon, H.; Aumann, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-09-11

    A new analysis procedure has been developed for the large-area scintillating fibre detectors with position-sensitive photomultiplier (PSPM) readout used for heavy ions in the LAND set-up at GSI. It includes gain matching of the PSPM, calibration of the PSPM fibre mask and hit reconstruction. This procedure allows for a quasi-online calibration of this tracking device. It also allows for a precise determination of the position close to the intrinsic detector resolution of 1 mm pitch together with careful treatment of individual event accuracies.

  20. Doping the 1 kton Large Volume Detector with Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Gianmarco [University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio snc, 67100 Coppito (AQ) Italy (Italy); Fulgione, Walter; Porta, Amanda [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, Corso Fiume 4, Torino (Italy); Machado, Ana Amelia Bergamini [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, s.s. 17bis Km 18-10, Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Mal' gin, Alexei [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Shestidesyatiletiya Oktyabrya 7a, Moscow, 117312 (Russian Federation); Molinario, Andrea; Vigorito, Carlo, E-mail: bruno@to.infn.it, E-mail: fulgione@to.infn.it, E-mail: ana.machado@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: malgin@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: amolinar@to.infn.it, E-mail: Amanda.Porta@subatech.in2p3.fr, E-mail: vigorito@to.infn.it [INFN, Via Pietro Giuria 1, Torino (Italy)

    2011-06-01

    The Large Volume Detector (LVD) in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy, is a ν observatory which has been monitoring the Galaxy since June 1992 to study neutrinos from core collapse supernovae. The experiment in the present configuration is made by 840 scintillator detectors, for a total active mass of 1000 tons. The detector sensitivity to neutrino bursts due to a core collapse supernova has been already discussed in term of maximum detectable distance. In this paper we evaluate the improvements that LVD could obtain if all its active scintillator mass was doped with a small amount (0.14% in weight) of Gadolinium. We simulated neutron captures following ν-bar {sub e} inverse beta decay reactions in one LVD counter (1.2 ton) with Gd doped liquid scintillator obtaining an efficiency for the detection of this process of η{sub n}|{sub Gd} = 80% and a mean capture time τ = 25μs, in good agreement with the results obtained by the measures. This implies a gain of a factor ∼ 20 in the signal to noise ratio for neutron capture detection with respect to the undoped liquid scintillator. We discuss how the captures of neutrons from rock radioactivity on Gd modify the background conditions of the detector and we calculate the curves expressing the sensitivity to a ν-bar {sub e} burst from core collapse supernovae depending on the distance of the collapsing star. It results that doping the 1 kton Large Volume Detector with Gd would assure a 90% detection efficiency at the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud (50 kpc), an achievement which is equivalent to that obtained by doubling the number of counters in LVD.

  1. Report of the large solenoid detector group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.G.; Mori, S.; Pondrom, L.G.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents a conceptual design of a large solenoid for studying physics at the SSC. The parameters and nature of the detector have been chosen based on present estimates of what is required to allow the study of heavy quarks, supersymmetry, heavy Higgs particles, WW scattering at large invariant masses, new W and Z bosons, and very large momentum transfer parton-parton scattering. Simply stated, the goal is to obtain optimum detection and identification of electrons, muons, neutrinos, jets, W's and Z's over a large rapidity region. The primary region of interest extends over +-3 units of rapidity, although the calorimetry must extend to +-5.5 units if optimal missing energy resolution is to be obtained. A magnetic field was incorporated because of the importance of identifying the signs of the charges for both electrons and muons and because of the added possibility of identifying tau leptons and secondary vertices. In addition, the existence of a magnetic field may prove useful for studying new physics processes about which we currently have no knowledge. Since hermeticity of the calorimetry is extremely important, the entire central and endcap calorimeters were located inside the solenoid. This does not at the moment seem to produce significant problems (although many issues remain to be resolved) and in fact leads to a very effective muon detector in the central region

  2. Future HEP Accelerators: The US Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha [Fermilab; Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2015-11-02

    Accelerator technology has advanced tremendously since the introduction of accelerators in the 1930s, and particle accelerators have become indispensable instruments in high energy physics (HEP) research to probe Nature at smaller and smaller distances. At present, accelerator facilities can be classified into Energy Frontier colliders that enable direct discoveries and studies of high mass scale particles and Intensity Frontier accelerators for exploration of extremely rare processes, usually at relatively low energies. The near term strategies of the global energy frontier particle physics community are centered on fully exploiting the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC), while the intensity frontier HEP research is focused on studies of neutrinos at the MW-scale beam power accelerator facilities, such as Fermilab Main Injector with the planned PIP-II SRF linac project. A number of next generation accelerator facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium- and long-term future programs of accelerator-based HEP research. In this paper, we briefly review the post-LHC energy frontier options, both for lepton and hadron colliders in various regions of the world, as well as possible future intensity frontier accelerator facilities.

  3. Large area silicon drift detectors for x-rays -- New results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanczyk, J.S.; Patt, B.E.; Tull, C.R.; Segal, J.D.; Kenney, C.J.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.

    1998-01-01

    Large area silicon drift detectors, consisting of 8 mm and 12 mm diameter hexagons, were fabricated on 0.35 mm thick high resistivity n-type silicon. An external FET and a low-noise charge sensitive preamplifier were used for testing the prototype detectors. The detector performance was measured in the range 75 to 25 C using Peltier cooling, and from 0.125 to 6 micros amplifier shaping time. Measured energy resolutions were 159 eV FWHM and 263 eV FWHM for the 0.5 cm 2 and 1 cm 2 detectors, respectively (at 5.9 keV, -75 C, 6 micros shaping time). The uniformity of the detector response over the entire active area (measured using 560 nm light) was < 0.5%

  4. Databases and bookkeeping for HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blobel, V.; Cnops, A.-M.; Fisher, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    The term database is explained as well as the requirements for data bases in High Energy physics (HEP). Also covered are the packages used in HEP, summary of user experience, database management systems, relational database management systems for HEP use and observations. (U.K.)

  5. Development of large area silicon semiconductor detectors for use in the current mode

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang Xia Opin; Li Zhen Fu; Zhang Guo Guang; Zhang Qi; Zhang Xia; Song Xian Cai; Jia Huan Yi; Lei Jian Hua; Sun Yuan Cheng

    2002-01-01

    Large area silicon semiconductor detectors for use in the current mode, with their dimensions of phi 40, phi 50 and phi 60 mm, their depletion thickness of 200-300 mu m, have been developed. Their performance measurements have been made, which indicate that the developed detectors can satisfactorily meet the needs in expectation. Compared with the detectors commercially available on the market, authors' large PIN detectors can serve both as reliable and efficient high-resolution devices for nuclear counting experiments, as well as monitors of high-intensity radiation fields in the current mode under a bias of 100-1000 V, while the detectors commercially available are only for the counting use

  6. Large-area imaging micro-well detectors for high-energy astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Deines-Jones, P; Hunter, S D; Jahoda, K; Owens, S M

    2002-01-01

    Micro-well detectors are pixelized imaging sensors that can be inexpensively fabricated in very large arrays. Owing to their intrinsic gain and operation at room temperature, they can be instrumented at very low power, per unit area, making them valuable for a variety of space-flight applications where wide-angle X-ray imaging or large-area particle tracking is required. For example, micro-well detectors have been chosen as the focal plane imager for Lobster-ISS, a proposed soft X-ray all-sky monitor. We have fabricated detectors which image X-rays with 200 mu m FWHM resolution at 3 keV. In agreement with other groups using similar geometries, we find nominal proportional counter energy resolution (20% at 6 keV in P-10), and stable operation at gas gains up to 30,000.

  7. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Lars Gimmestad

    2005-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  8. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Lars Gimmestad

    2005-06-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  9. Large-area, low-noise, high-speed, photodiode-based fluorescence detectors with fast overdrive recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickman, S.; DeMille, D.

    2005-01-01

    Two large-area, low-noise, high-speed fluorescence detectors have been built. One detector consists of a photodiode with an area of 28 mmx28 mm and a low-noise transimpedance amplifier. This detector has a input light-equivalent spectral noise density of less than 3 pW/√(Hz), can recover from a large scattered light pulse within 10 μs, and has a bandwidth of at least 900 kHz. The second detector consists of a 16-mm-diam avalanche photodiode and a low-noise transimpedance amplifier. This detector has an input light-equivalent spectral noise density of 0.08 pW/√(Hz), also can recover from a large scattered light pulse within 10 μs, and has a bandwidth of 1 MHz

  10. ATLAS@Home: Harnessing Volunteer Computing for HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam-Bourdarios, C; Cameron, D; Filipčič, A; Lancon, E; Wu, W

    2015-01-01

    A recent common theme among HEP computing is exploitation of opportunistic resources in order to provide the maximum statistics possible for Monte Carlo simulation. Volunteer computing has been used over the last few years in many other scientific fields and by CERN itself to run simulations of the LHC beams. The ATLAS@Home project was started to allow volunteers to run simulations of collisions in the ATLAS detector. So far many thousands of members of the public have signed up to contribute their spare CPU cycles for ATLAS, and there is potential for volunteer computing to provide a significant fraction of ATLAS computing resources. Here we describe the design of the project, the lessons learned so far and the future plans. (paper)

  11. ATLAS@Home: Harnessing Volunteer Computing for HEP

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdarios, Claire; Filipcic, Andrej; Lancon, Eric; Wu, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    A recent common theme among HEP computing is exploitation of opportunistic resources in order to provide the maximum statistics possible for Monte-Carlo simulation. Volunteer computing has been used over the last few years in many other scientific fields and by CERN itself to run simulations of the LHC beams. The ATLAS@Home project was started to allow volunteers to run simulations of collisions in the ATLAS detector. So far many thousands of members of the public have signed up to contribute their spare CPU cycles for ATLAS, and there is potential for volunteer computing to provide a significant fraction of ATLAS computing resources. Here we describe the design of the project, the lessons learned so far and the future plans.

  12. Development of triple GEM detector for a heavy ion physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Biswal, K.; Gupta, R.

    2015-01-01

    Building and testing of micro-pattern gas detector such as Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for several upcoming High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiment projects, is an advance area of research in the field of detector development. We have carried out the long-term stability test and the uniformity of the relative gain over a GEM detector. The method of long-term test and uniformity of the relative gain and the results are presented in this article

  13. Encefalopatía hepática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Otero

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available El término encefalopatía hepática describe un amplio espectro de alteraciones neuropsiquiátricas, generalmente reversibles, en pacientes con significativa alteración de la función hepática o cortocircuitos portosistémicos, quirúrgicos o transyugulares (TIPS:Transyugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt. Probablemente la derivación del flujo sanguíneo portal no es suficiente para causar encefalopatía, ya que esta es rara durante las trombosis extrahepáticas de la vena porta. Cada vez más, el termino encefalopatía hepática ha ido reemplazado al de encefalopatía porto sistémica, entre otras razones porque este último tiene el inconveniente de no ser fácilmente aplicable a la encefalopatía que acompaña a la falla hepática aguda o falla hepática fulminante, la cual tiene diferencias con la que se presenta en la falla hepática crónica, sin embargo, pueden ser utilizados indistintamente.

  14. A prototype of wireless power and data acquisition system for large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lurgio, P.; Djurcic, Z.; Drake, G.; Hashemian, R.; Kreps, A.; Oberling, M.; Pearson, T.; Sahoo, H.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a prototype detector and data acquisition module that incorporates wireless power and wireless data transmission techniques. The module has no electrical connections. It receives power using photovoltaic devices, and communicates control, timing, trigger, and data using the 802.11n wireless communication standard. The work is part of a study for building a large detector having many readout channels, where it is desirable to reduce the cable plant and infrastructure. The system could also be deployed in smaller detectors that require mobility or are difficult to cable due to extreme conditions. We describe the design and operation of the prototype module, including benchmark performance measurements, and discuss aspect and issues in extrapolating to a large detector system

  15. A prototype of wireless power and data acquisition system for large detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lurgio, P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Djurcic, Z., E-mail: zdjurcic@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Drake, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Hashemian, R. [Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, IL 60115 (United States); Kreps, A.; Oberling, M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Pearson, T. [Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, IL 60115 (United States); Sahoo, H. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-06-11

    We have developed a prototype detector and data acquisition module that incorporates wireless power and wireless data transmission techniques. The module has no electrical connections. It receives power using photovoltaic devices, and communicates control, timing, trigger, and data using the 802.11n wireless communication standard. The work is part of a study for building a large detector having many readout channels, where it is desirable to reduce the cable plant and infrastructure. The system could also be deployed in smaller detectors that require mobility or are difficult to cable due to extreme conditions. We describe the design and operation of the prototype module, including benchmark performance measurements, and discuss aspect and issues in extrapolating to a large detector system.

  16. Detector development for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00367854; Gößling, Claus

    To maximise the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider, it will be upgraded to the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider in 2024. New detector challenges arise from the higher instantaneous luminosity and the higher particle flux. The new ATLAS Inner Tracker will replace the current tracking detector to be able to cope with these challenges. Many pixel detector technologies exist for particle tracking, but their suitability for the ATLAS Inner Tracker needs to be studied. Active high-voltage CMOS sensors, which are produced in industrialised processes, offer a fast readout and radiation tolerance. In this thesis the HV2FEI4v2 sensor, which is capacitively coupled to the ATLAS Pixel FE-I4 readout chip, is characterised for the usage in the outer layers of the ATLAS Inner Tracker. Key quantities of this prototype module are studied, such as the hit efficiency and the subpixel encoding. The early HV2FEI4v2 prototype shows promising results as a starting point for further module developments. Active CMO...

  17. Time dispersion in large plastic scintillation neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, A.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Sen, D.

    1993-01-01

    Time dispersion (TD) has been computed for large neutron detectors using plastic scintillators. It has been shown that TD seen by the PM tube does not necessarily increase with incident neutron energy, a result not fully in agreement with the usual finding

  18. A new experiment-independent mechanism to persistify and serve the detector geometry of ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Riccardo Maria; Boudreau, Joseph; Vukotic, Ilija

    2017-10-01

    The complex geometry of the whole detector of the ATLAS experiment at LHC is currently stored only in custom online databases, from which it is built on-the-fly on request. Accessing the online geometry guarantees accessing the latest version of the detector description, but requires the setup of the full ATLAS software framework “Athena”, which provides the online services and the tools to retrieve the data from the database. This operation is cumbersome and slows down the applications that need to access the geometry. Moreover, all applications that need to access the detector geometry need to be built and run on the same platform as the ATLAS framework, preventing the usage of the actual detector geometry in stand-alone applications. Here we propose a new mechanism to persistify (in software development in general, and in HEP computing in particular, persistifying means taking an object which lives in memory only - for example because it was built on-the-fly while processing the experimental data, - serializing it and storing it on disk as a persistent object) and serve the geometry of HEP experiments. The new mechanism is composed by a new file format and the modules to make use of it. The new file format allows to store the whole detector description locally in a file, and it is especially optimized to describe large complex detectors with the minimum file size, making use of shared instances and storing compressed representations of geometry transformations. Then, the detector description can be read back in, to fully restore the in-memory geometry tree. Moreover, a dedicated REST API is being designed and developed to serve the geometry in standard exchange formats like JSON, to let users and applications download specific partial geometry information. With this new geometry persistification a new generation of applications could be developed, which can use the actual detector geometry while being platform-independent and experiment-independent.

  19. Activity of CERN and LNF groups on large area GEM detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsi, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bencivenni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Brock, I. [Physikalisches Institute der Universitat Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Cerioni, S. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Croci, G.; David, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Oliveira, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); De Robertis, G. [Sezione INFN di Bari, Bari (Italy); Domenici, D., E-mail: Danilo.Domenici@lnf.infn.i [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Duarte Pinto, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Felici, G.; Gatta, M.; Jacewicz, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Loddo, F. [Sezione INFN di Bari, Bari (Italy); Morello, G. [Dipeartimento di Fisica Universita della Calabria e INFN, Cosenza (Italy); Pistilli, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Ranieri, A. [Sezione INFN di Bari, Bari (Italy); Ropelewski, L. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Sauli, F. [TERA Foundation, Novara (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    We report on the activity of CERN and INFN-LNF groups on the development of large area GEM detectors. The two groups work together within the RD51 Collaboration, to aim at the development of Micro-pattern Gas detectors technologies. The vast request for large area foils by the GEM community has driven a change in the manufacturing procedure by the TS-DEM-PMT laboratory, needed to overcome the previous size limitation of 450x450mm{sup 2}. Now a single-mask technology is used allowing foils to be made as large as 450x2000mm{sup 2}. The limitation in the short size, due to the definite width of the raw material, can be overcome by splicing more foils together. A 10x10cm{sup 2} GEM detector with the new single-mask foil has been tested with X-rays and the results are shown. Possible future applications for large area GEM are the TOTEM experiment upgrade at CERN, and the KLOE-2 experiment at the Dafne {Phi}-factory in Frascati.

  20. Activity of CERN and LNF groups on large area GEM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonsi, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Brock, I.; Cerioni, S.; Croci, G.; David, E.; De Lucia, E.; De Oliveira, R.; De Robertis, G.; Domenici, D.; Duarte Pinto, S.; Felici, G.; Gatta, M.; Jacewicz, M.; Loddo, F.; Morello, G.; Pistilli, M.; Ranieri, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Sauli, F.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the activity of CERN and INFN-LNF groups on the development of large area GEM detectors. The two groups work together within the RD51 Collaboration, to aim at the development of Micro-pattern Gas detectors technologies. The vast request for large area foils by the GEM community has driven a change in the manufacturing procedure by the TS-DEM-PMT laboratory, needed to overcome the previous size limitation of 450x450mm 2 . Now a single-mask technology is used allowing foils to be made as large as 450x2000mm 2 . The limitation in the short size, due to the definite width of the raw material, can be overcome by splicing more foils together. A 10x10cm 2 GEM detector with the new single-mask foil has been tested with X-rays and the results are shown. Possible future applications for large area GEM are the TOTEM experiment upgrade at CERN, and the KLOE-2 experiment at the Dafne Φ-factory in Frascati.

  1. Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanvo, Kondo

    2017-09-01

    Gaseous detectors have played a pivotal role as tracking devices in the field of particle physics experiments for the last fifty years. Recent advances in photolithography and micro processing techniques have enabled the transition from Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) and Drift Chambers to a new family of gaseous detectors refer to as Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). MPGDs combine the basic gas amplification principle with micro-structure printed circuits to provide detectors with excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability, low material budget and high radiation tolerance. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEMs) is a well-established MPGD technology invented by F. Sauli at CERN in 1997 and deployed various high energy physics (HEP) and nuclear NP experiment for tracking systems of current and future NP experiments. GEM detector combines an exceptional high rate capability (1 MHz / mm2) and robustness against harsh radiation environment with excellent position and timing resolution performances. Recent breakthroughs over the past decade have allowed the possibility for large area GEMs, making them cost effective and high-performance detector candidates to play pivotal role in current and future particle physics experiments. After a brief introduction of the basic principle of GEM technology, I will give a brief overview of the GEM detectors used in particle physics experiments over the past decades and especially in the NP community at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). I will follow by a review of state of the art of the new GEM development for the next generation of colliders such as Electron Ion Collider (EIC) or High Luminosity LHC and future Nuclear Physics experiments. I will conclude with a presentation of the CERN-based RD51 collaboration established in 2008 and its major achievements regarding technological developments and applications of MPGDs.

  2. Measuring fast neutrons with large liquid scintillation detector for ultra-low background experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C. [Department of Physics, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); College of Sciences, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Mei, D.-M., E-mail: dongming.mei@usd.edu [Department of Physics, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); Davis, P.; Woltman, B. [Department of Physics, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); Gray, F. [Department of Physics and Computational Science, Regis University, Denver, CO 80221 (United States)

    2013-11-21

    We developed a 12-liter volume neutron detector filled with the liquid scintillator EJ301 that measures neutrons in an underground laboratory where dark matter and neutrino experiments are located. The detector target is a cylindrical volume coated on the inside with reflective paint (95% reflectivity) that significantly increases the detector's light collection. We demonstrate several calibration techniques using point sources and cosmic-ray muons for energies up to 20 MeV for this large liquid scintillation detector. Neutron–gamma separation using pulse shape discrimination with a few MeV neutrons to hundreds of MeV neutrons is shown for the first time using a large liquid scintillator.

  3. The Liquid Argon Calorimeter system for the SLC Large Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, G.M.; Fox, J.D.; Smith, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper the physical packaging and the logical organization of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) electronics system for the Stanford Linear Collider Large Detector (SLD) at SLAC are described. This system processes signals from approximately 44,000 calorimeter towers and is unusual in that most electronic functions are packaged within the detector itself as opposed to an external electronics support rack. The signal path from the towers in the liquid argon through the vacuum to the outside of the detector is explained. The organization of the control logic, analog electronics, power regulation, analog-to-digital conversion circuits, and fiber optic drivers mounted directly on the detector are described. Redundancy considerations for the electronics and cooling issues are discussed. 12 refs., 5 figs

  4. Optimal Design of Large Dimensional Adaptive Subspace Detectors

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Atitallah, Ismail; Kammoun, Abla; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Alnaffouri, Tareq Y.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of Adaptive Subspace Matched Filter (ASMF) detectors in the presence of a mismatch in the steering vector. These detectors are coined as adaptive in reference to the step of utilizing an estimate of the clutter covariance matrix using training data of signalfree observations. To estimate the clutter covariance matrix, we employ regularized covariance estimators that, by construction, force the eigenvalues of the covariance estimates to be greater than a positive scalar . While this feature is likely to increase the bias of the covariance estimate, it presents the advantage of improving its conditioning, thus making the regularization suitable for handling high dimensional regimes. In this paper, we consider the setting of the regularization parameter and the threshold for ASMF detectors in both Gaussian and Compound Gaussian clutters. In order to allow for a proper selection of these parameters, it is essential to analyze the false alarm and detection probabilities. For tractability, such a task is carried out under the asymptotic regime in which the number of observations and their dimensions grow simultaneously large, thereby allowing us to leverage existing results from random matrix theory. Simulation results are provided in order to illustrate the relevance of the proposed design strategy and to compare the performances of the proposed ASMF detectors versus Adaptive normalized Matched Filter (ANMF) detectors under mismatch scenarios.

  5. Macromolecular crystallography with a large format CMOS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, Jay C., E-mail: jcnix@lbl.gov [Molecular Biology Consortium 12003 S. Pulaski Rd. #166 Alsip, IL 60803 U.S.A (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Recent advances in CMOS technology have allowed the production of large surface area detectors suitable for macromolecular crystallography experiments [1]. The Molecular Biology Consortium (MBC) Beamline 4.2.2 at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, CA, has installed a 2952 x 2820 mm RDI CMOS-8M detector with funds from NIH grant S10OD012073. The detector has a 20nsec dead pixel time and performs well with shutterless data collection strategies. The sensor obtains sharp point response and minimal optical distortion by use of a thin fiber-optic plate between the phosphor and sensor module. Shutterless data collections produce high-quality redundant datasets that can be obtained in minutes. The fine-sliced data are suitable for processing in standard crystallographic software packages (XDS, HKL2000, D*TREK, MOSFLM). Faster collection times relative to the previous CCD detector have resulted in a record number of datasets collected in a calendar year and de novo phasing experiments have resulted in publications in both Science and Nature [2,3]. The faster collections are due to a combination of the decreased overhead requirements of shutterless collections combined with exposure times that have decreased by over a factor of 2 for images with comparable signal to noise of the NOIR-1 detector. The overall increased productivity has allowed the development of new beamline capabilities and data collection strategies.

  6. Optimal Design of Large Dimensional Adaptive Subspace Detectors

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Atitallah, Ismail

    2016-05-27

    This paper addresses the design of Adaptive Subspace Matched Filter (ASMF) detectors in the presence of a mismatch in the steering vector. These detectors are coined as adaptive in reference to the step of utilizing an estimate of the clutter covariance matrix using training data of signalfree observations. To estimate the clutter covariance matrix, we employ regularized covariance estimators that, by construction, force the eigenvalues of the covariance estimates to be greater than a positive scalar . While this feature is likely to increase the bias of the covariance estimate, it presents the advantage of improving its conditioning, thus making the regularization suitable for handling high dimensional regimes. In this paper, we consider the setting of the regularization parameter and the threshold for ASMF detectors in both Gaussian and Compound Gaussian clutters. In order to allow for a proper selection of these parameters, it is essential to analyze the false alarm and detection probabilities. For tractability, such a task is carried out under the asymptotic regime in which the number of observations and their dimensions grow simultaneously large, thereby allowing us to leverage existing results from random matrix theory. Simulation results are provided in order to illustrate the relevance of the proposed design strategy and to compare the performances of the proposed ASMF detectors versus Adaptive normalized Matched Filter (ANMF) detectors under mismatch scenarios.

  7. ICC Type II large-format FPA detector assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynne, Thomas H.; Powers, Thomas P.

    1997-08-01

    ICC presents a new addition to their integrated detector assembly product line with the announcement of their type II large format staring class FPA units. A result of internally funded research and development, the ICC type II detector assembly can accommodate all existing large format staring class PtSi, InSb and MCT focal planes, up to 640 by 480. Proprietary methodologies completely eliminate all FPA stresses to allow for maximum FPA survivability. Standard optical and cryocooler interfaces allow for the use of BEI, AEG, TI SADA Hughes/Magnavox and Joule Thompson coolers. This unit has been qualified to the current SADA II thermal environmental specifications and was tailored around ICC's worldwide industry standard type IV product. Assembled in a real world flexible manufacturing environment, this unit features a wide degree of adaptability and can be easily modified to a user's specifications via standard options and add-ons that include optical interfaces, electrical interfaces and window/filter material selections.

  8. A large magnetic detector for the neutrino factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervera, A.; Dydak, F.; Gomez Cadenas, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The physics opportunities of the neutrino factory have been the subject of a number of recent studies. It was shown that sensitive measurements of the angle θ 13 , of MSW effects, and of the sign of the atmospheric mass difference Δm 23 2 are possible, and even CP violation in the neutrino mixing matrix may be within reach. The focus of interest is the oscillation ν e →ν μ , which leads in the well-defined neutrino beam of the neutrino factory to 'wrong-sign' muon events. In this paper, we show that a large magnetic detector will be capable of detecting with high efficiency and small backgrounds such wrong-sign muon events. We present a conceptual design of the apparatus and its performance. Various backgrounds are analysed and we demonstrate that they can be sufficiently suppressed by appropriate cuts. We illustrate the performance of the large magnetic detector by its sensitivity to the angle θ 13

  9. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lantzsch, Kerstin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run 2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with new service quarter panels to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run 1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning, operation and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector will be presented.

  10. Real-time UNIX in HEP data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buono, S.; Gaponenko, I.; Jones, R.; Mapelli, L.; Mornacchi, G.; Prigent, D.; Sanchez-Corral, E.; Skiadelli, M.; Toppers, A.; Duval, P.Y.; Ferrato, D.; Le Van Suu, A.; Qian, Z.; Rondot, C.; Ambrosini, G.; Fumagalli, G.; Aguer, M.; Huet, M.

    1994-01-01

    Today's experimentation in high energy physics is characterized by an increasing need for sensitivity to rare phenomena and complex physics signatures, which require the use of huge and sophisticated detectors and consequently a high performance readout and data acquisition. Multi-level triggering, hierarchical data collection and an always increasing amount of processing power, distributed throughout the data acquisition layers, will impose a number of features on the software environment, especially the need for a high level of standardization. Real-time UNIX seems, today, the best solution for the platform independence, operating system interface standards and real-time features necessary for data acquisition in HEP experiments. We present the results of the evaluation, in a realistic application environment, of a Real-Time UNIX operating system: the EP/LX real-time UNIX system. ((orig.))

  11. Development of membrane cryostats for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, D; Gendotti, A; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Loew, T; Mladenov, D; Montanari, C; Murphy, S; Nessi, M; Norris, B; Noto, F; Rubbia, A; Sharma, R; Smargianaki, D; Stewart, J; Vignoli, C; Wilson, P; Wu, S

    2015-01-01

    A new collaboration is being formed to develop a multi-kiloton Long-Baseline neutrino experiment that will be located at the Surf Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. In the present design, the detector will be located inside cryostats filled with 68,400 ton of ultrapure liquid argon (less than 100 parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent contamination). To qualify the membrane technology for future very large-scale and underground implementations, a strong prototyping effort is ongoing: several smaller detectors of growing size with associated cryostats and cryogenic systems will be designed and built at Fermilab and CERN. They will take physics data and test different detector elements, filtration systems, design options and installation procedures. In addition, a 35 ton prototype is already operational at Fermilab and will take data with single-phase detector in early 2016. After the prototyping phase, the multi-kton detector will be constructed. After commissioning, it will detect and study ne...

  12. Uniformity studies in large area triple-GEM based detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akl, M. Abi [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Bouhali, O., E-mail: othmane.bouhali@qatar.tamu.edu [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Qatar Computing Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, PO Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Castaneda, A.; Maghrbi, Y.; Mohamed, T. [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar)

    2016-10-01

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based detectors have been used in many applications since their introduction in 1997. Large areas, e.g. exceeding 30×30 cm{sup 2}, of GEM detectors are foreseen in future experiments which puts stringent requirements on the uniformity of response across the detection area. We investigate the effect of small variations of several parameters that could affect the uniformity. Parameters such as the anode pitch, the gas gap, the size and the shape of the holes are investigated. Simulation results are presented and compared to previous experimental data.

  13. Low energy neutrino astronomy with the large liquid-scintillation detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Feilitzsch, F von; Goeger-Neff, M; Hochmuth, K A; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Wurm, M

    2006-01-01

    The detection of low energy neutrinos in a large liquid scintillation detector may provide further important information on astrophysical processes as supernova physics, solar physics and elementary particle physics as well as geophysics. In this contribution, a new project for Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy (LENA) consisting of a 50 kt scintillation detector is presented

  14. Development of large area si detectors based on planar technology for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanchang; Sun Liang; Huang Xiaojian; Liu Yang; Chen Guozhu

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the processing method of large area Si detectors fabricated by planar technology for charged particles. In order to decrease the detectors leakage current, the surface passivation technique was used. The paper gives the measurement results of the leakage current of 300μm thick, 20mm diameter detectors and 500μm thick, 40mm diameter detectors respectively. The spectra of the detectors for 241 Am 5.486MeV α particles are also provided at room temperature. (authors)

  15. Bulk GaN alpha-particle detector with large depletion region and improved energy resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiang; Mulligan, Padhraic [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wang, Jinghui [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, 1201 Welch Rd, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Chuirazzi, William [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cao, Lei, E-mail: cao.152@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2017-03-21

    An alpha-particle detector was fabricated using a freestanding n-type bulk GaN wafer with a Au/Ni/GaN sandwich Schottky structure. Current–voltage measurements at room temperature revealed a Schottky contact with a leakage current of 7.53±0.3 nA at a reverse bias of 200 V. The detector had a large depletion depth that can capture much of the energy from 5.486 MeV alpha particles emitted from a {sup 241}Am source. The resolution of its alpha-particle energy spectrum was improved to 2.2±0.2% at 5.486 MeV under a bias of 550 V. This superior resolution was attributed to the shortening of the carrier transit time and the large energy deposition within the large depletion depth, i.e., 27 µm at −550 V, which all resulted in a more complete charge collection. A model developed using the ATLAS simulation framework from Silvaco Inc. was employed to study the charge collection process. The simulation results were found to agree closely with the experimental results. This detector will be beneficial for research at neutron scattering facilities, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, and the Large Hadron Collider, among other institutions, where the Si-based charged particle detectors could be quickly degraded in an intense radiation field. - Highlights: • An alpha-particle detector based on a Schottky-structured GaN wafer was tested. • The detector's large depletion depth enables fuller energy spectra to be obtained. • The best resolution yet attained in GaN alpha-particle spectrometry was achieved. • The detector's short carrier transit time resulted in improved charge collection. • This detector is usable in extreme conditions, including intense radiation fields.

  16. Large area x-ray detectors for cargo radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C.; Albagli, D.; Bendahan, J.; Castleberry, D.; Gordon, C.; Hopkins, F.; Ross, W.

    2007-04-01

    Large area x-ray detectors based on phosphors coupled to flat panel amorphous silicon diode technology offer significant advances for cargo radiologic imaging. Flat panel area detectors provide large object coverage offering high throughput inspections to meet the high flow rate of container commerce. These detectors provide excellent spatial resolution when needed, and enhanced SNR through low noise electronics. If the resolution is reduced through pixel binning, further advances in SNR are achievable. Extended exposure imaging and frame averaging enables improved x-ray penetration of ultra-thick objects, or "select-your-own" contrast sensitivity at a rate many times faster than LDAs. The areal coverage of flat panel technology provides inherent volumetric imaging with the appropriate scanning methods. Flat panel area detectors have flexible designs in terms of electronic control, scintillator selection, pixel pitch, and frame rates. Their cost is becoming more competitive as production ramps up for the healthcare, nondestructive testing (NDT), and homeland protection industries. Typically used medical and industrial polycrystalline phosphor materials such as Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) can be applied to megavolt applications if the phosphor layer is sufficiently thick to enhance x-ray absorption, and if a metal radiator is used to augment the quantum detection efficiency and reduce x-ray scatter. Phosphor layers ranging from 0.2-mm to 1-mm can be "sandwiched" between amorphous silicon flat panel diode arrays and metal radiators. Metal plates consisting of W, Pb or Cu, with thicknesses ranging from 0.25-mm to well over 1-mm can be used by covering the entire area of the phosphor plate. In some combinations of high density metal and phosphor layers, the metal plate provides an intensification of 25% in signal due to electron emission from the plate and subsequent excitation within the phosphor material. This further improves the SNR of the system.

  17. Networking: the view from HEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Shawn

    2017-10-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. National and global-scale collaborations that characterize HEP would not be feasible without ubiquitous capable networks. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. This paper will briefly discuss the history of networking in HEP, the current activities and challenges we are facing, and try to provide some understanding of where networking may be going in the next 5 to 10 years.

  18. A gas proportional scintillation counter for use in large area detector systems without photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruch, J.E.F.; Brooke, G.; Kellermann, E.W.; Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.

    1978-03-01

    The properties of a prototype gas proportional scintillation detector, for use in large numbers, are examined. The detector is designed to focus a light signal, which is proportional to ionisation loss, into a fibre optic lightguide. It is shown that a single charged particle traversing the detector produces enough light out of the lightguide to be seen by a TV camera. Problems of lifetime and large scale detector production are discussed. Properties of saturation, linearity, position sensitivity, and operating limits are examined. It is shown that an array of gas proportional scintillation detectors when used with fibre optic lightguides and TV camera readout could offer significant improvements in cost per area and reliability over a scintillator plus photomultiplier or a wire proportional chamber array. (author)

  19. Physics detector simulation facility system software description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.; Chang, C.; Estep, P.; Huang, J.; Liu, J.; Marquez, M.; Mestad, S.; Pan, J.; Traversat, B.

    1991-12-01

    Large and costly detectors will be constructed during the next few years to study the interactions produced by the SSC. Efficient, cost-effective designs for these detectors will require careful thought and planning. Because it is not possible to test fully a proposed design in a scaled-down version, the adequacy of a proposed design will be determined by a detailed computer model of the detectors. Physics and detector simulations will be performed on the computer model using high-powered computing system at the Physics Detector Simulation Facility (PDSF). The SSCL has particular computing requirements for high-energy physics (HEP) Monte Carlo calculations for the simulation of SSCL physics and detectors. The numerical calculations to be performed in each simulation are lengthy and detailed; they could require many more months per run on a VAX 11/780 computer and may produce several gigabytes of data per run. Consequently, a distributed computing environment of several networked high-speed computing engines is envisioned to meet these needs. These networked computers will form the basis of a centralized facility for SSCL physics and detector simulation work. Our computer planning groups have determined that the most efficient, cost-effective way to provide these high-performance computing resources at this time is with RISC-based UNIX workstations. The modeling and simulation application software that will run on the computing system is usually written by physicists in FORTRAN language and may need thousands of hours of supercomputing time. The system software is the ''glue'' which integrates the distributed workstations and allows them to be managed as a single entity. This report will address the computing strategy for the SSC

  20. Signal formation processes in Micromegas detectors and quality control for large size detector construction for the ATLAS new small wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuger, Fabian

    2017-07-31

    The Micromegas technology is one of the most successful modern gaseous detector concepts and widely utilized in nuclear and particle physics experiments. Twenty years of R and D rendered the technology sufficiently mature to be selected as precision tracking detector for the New Small Wheel (NSW) upgrade of the ATLAS Muon spectrometer. This will be the first large scale application of Micromegas in one of the major LHC experiments. However, many of the fundamental microscopic processes in these gaseous detectors are still not fully understood and studies on several detector aspects, like the micromesh geometry, have never been addressed systematically. The studies on signal formation in Micromegas, presented in the first part of this thesis, focuses on the microscopic signal electron loss mechanisms and the amplification processes in electron gas interaction. Based on a detailed model of detector parameter dependencies, these processes are scrutinized in an iterating comparison between experimental results, theory prediction of the macroscopic observables and process simulation on the microscopic level. Utilizing the specialized detectors developed in the scope of this thesis as well as refined simulation algorithms, an unprecedented level of accuracy in the description of the microscopic processes is reached, deepening the understanding of the fundamental process in gaseous detectors. The second part is dedicated to the challenges arising with the large scale Micromegas production for the ATLAS NSW. A selection of technological choices, partially influenced or determined by the herein presented studies, are discussed alongside a final report on two production related tasks addressing the detectors' core components: For the industrial production of resistive anode PCBs a detailed quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) scheme as well as the therefore required testing tools have been developed. In parallel the study on micromesh parameter optimization

  1. Signal formation processes in Micromegas detectors and quality control for large size detector construction for the ATLAS new small wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuger, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    The Micromegas technology is one of the most successful modern gaseous detector concepts and widely utilized in nuclear and particle physics experiments. Twenty years of R and D rendered the technology sufficiently mature to be selected as precision tracking detector for the New Small Wheel (NSW) upgrade of the ATLAS Muon spectrometer. This will be the first large scale application of Micromegas in one of the major LHC experiments. However, many of the fundamental microscopic processes in these gaseous detectors are still not fully understood and studies on several detector aspects, like the micromesh geometry, have never been addressed systematically. The studies on signal formation in Micromegas, presented in the first part of this thesis, focuses on the microscopic signal electron loss mechanisms and the amplification processes in electron gas interaction. Based on a detailed model of detector parameter dependencies, these processes are scrutinized in an iterating comparison between experimental results, theory prediction of the macroscopic observables and process simulation on the microscopic level. Utilizing the specialized detectors developed in the scope of this thesis as well as refined simulation algorithms, an unprecedented level of accuracy in the description of the microscopic processes is reached, deepening the understanding of the fundamental process in gaseous detectors. The second part is dedicated to the challenges arising with the large scale Micromegas production for the ATLAS NSW. A selection of technological choices, partially influenced or determined by the herein presented studies, are discussed alongside a final report on two production related tasks addressing the detectors' core components: For the industrial production of resistive anode PCBs a detailed quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) scheme as well as the therefore required testing tools have been developed. In parallel the study on micromesh parameter optimization

  2. Characterising large area silicon drift detectors with MOS injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvicini, V.; Rashevsky, A.; Vacchi, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of the INFN DSI project, the first prototypes of a large-area Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) have been designed and produced on 5'' diameter wafers of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) silicon with a resistivity of 3000 Ω·cm. The detector is a 'butterfly' bi-directional structure with a drift length of 32 mm and the drifting charge is collected by two arrays of anodes having a pitch of 200 μm. The high-voltage divider is integrated on-board and is realised with p + implantations. For test and calibration purposes, the detector has a new type of MOS injector. The paper presents results obtained to injecting charge at the maximum drift distance (32mm) from the anodes by means of the MOS injecting structure, As front-end electronics, the authors have used a 32-channels low-noise bipolar VLSI circuit (OLA, Omni-purpose Low-noise Amplifer) specifically designed for silicon drift detectors. The uniformity of the drift time in different regions of the sensitive area and its dependence on the ambient temperature are studied

  3. Beam test of a large area silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, A.; Chinnici, S.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Palma, F.; Sampietro, M.; Rehak, P.; Ballocchi, G.; Kemmer, J.; Holl, P.; Cox, P.T.; Giacomelli, P.; Vacchi, A.

    1992-01-01

    The results from the tests of the first large area (4 x 4 cm 2 ) planar silicon drift detector prototype in a pion beam are reported. The measured position resolution in the drift direction is (σ=40 ± 10)μm

  4. GIFT: an HEP project for file transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, M.L.; Mirabelli, G.; Valente, E.

    1986-01-01

    Started in autumn 1983, GIFT (General Internetwork File Transfer) is a collaboration among several HEP centers, including CERN, Frascati, Oslo, Oxford, RAL and Rome. The collaboration was initially set up with the aim of studying the feasibility of a software system to allow direct file exchange between computers which do not share a common Virtual File Protocol. After the completion of this first phase, an implementation phase started and, since March 1985, an experimental service based on this system has been running at CERN between DECnet, CERNET and the UK Coloured Book protocols. The authors present the motivations that, together with previous gateway experiences, led to the definition of GIFT specifications and to the implementation of the GIFT Kernel system. The position of GIFT in the overall development framework of the networking facilities needed by large international collaborations within the HEP community is explained. (Auth.)

  5. Top quark production cross-section measurements with the ATLAS detector at EPS-HEP 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Christopher Samuel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential top-quark pair and single-top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV are presented. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. Differential measurements of the kinematic properties of the top-quark production are also discussed. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-quark pair production in the TeV regime.

  6. High voltage distribution scheme for large size GEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, J.; Kumar, A.; Dubey, A.K.; Negi, V.S.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors will be used for Muon tracking in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the Facility for Anti-proton Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt, Germany. The sizes of the detector modules in the Muon chambers are of the order of 1 metre x 0.5 metre. For construction of these chambers, three GEM foils are used per chamber. These foils are made by two layered 50μm thin kapton foil. Each GEM foil has millions of holes on it. In such a large scale manufacturing of the foils, even after stringent quality controls, some of the holes may still have defects or defects might develop over the time with operating conditions. These defects may result in short-circuit of the entire GEM foil. A short even in a single hole will make entire foil un-usable. To reduce such occurrences, high voltage (HV) segmentation within the foils has been introduced. These segments are powered either by individual HV supply per segment or through an active HV distribution to manage such a large number of segments across the foil. Individual supplies apart from being costly, are highly complex to implement. Additionally, CBM will have high intensity of particles bombarding on the detector causing the change of resistive chain current feeding the GEM detector with the variation in the intensity. This leads to voltage fluctuations across the foil resulting in the gain variation with the particle intensity. Hence, a low cost active HV distribution is designed to take care of the above discussed issues

  7. Large area self-powered gamma ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeVert, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a large area self-powered gamma detector (LASPGD) capable of detecting the movement of sealed radiation sources into and out of industrial radiographic units and to construct a prototype source position monitor (SPM) for these units utilizing the LASPGD. Prototype isotropic and directional LASPGDs, with solid and inert gas dielectrics, were developed and extensively tested using calibrated gamma sources (i.e., Cs-137, and Co-60). The sensitivities of the isotropic detectors, with inert gas dielectrics, were found to be approximately a factor of ten greater than those measured for the solid dielectric LASPGDs. Directionally sensitive self-powered detectors were found to exhibit a forward-to-back hemispherical sensitivity ratio of approximately 2 to 1. Industrial radiographic units containing Ir-192 sources with different activities were used to test the performance of the SPM. The SPM, which utilized a gas dielectric LASPGD, performed as designed. That is, the current generated in the LASPGD was converted to a voltage, amplified and used to control the on/off state of an incandescent lamp. The incandescent lamp, which functions as the source/out warning indicator, flashes at a rate of one flash per second when the source is in use (i.e. out of its shield)

  8. Development of thin pixel detectors on epitaxial silicon for HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscardin, Maurizio; Calvo, Daniela; Giacomini, Gabriele; Wheadon, Richard; Ronchin, Sabina; Zorzi, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The foreseen luminosity of the new experiments in High Energy Physics will require that the innermost layer of vertex detectors will be able to sustain fluencies up to 10 16 n eq /cm 2 . Moreover, in many experiments there is a demand for the minimization of the material budget of the detectors. Therefore, thin pixel devices fabricated on n-type silicon are a natural choice to fulfill these requirements due to their rad-hard performances and low active volume. We present an R and D activity aimed at developing a new thin hybrid pixel device in the framework of PANDA experiments. The detector of this new device is a p-on-n pixel sensor realized starting from epitaxial silicon wafers and back thinned up to 50–100 μm after process completion. We present the main technological steps and some electrical characterization on the fabricated devices before and after back thinning and after bump bonding to the front-end electronics

  9. Development of thin pixel detectors on epitaxial silicon for HEP experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscardin, Maurizio, E-mail: boscardi@fbk.eu [FBK, CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Calvo, Daniela [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Giacomini, Gabriele [FBK, CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Wheadon, Richard [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Ronchin, Sabina; Zorzi, Nicola [FBK, CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    The foreseen luminosity of the new experiments in High Energy Physics will require that the innermost layer of vertex detectors will be able to sustain fluencies up to 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. Moreover, in many experiments there is a demand for the minimization of the material budget of the detectors. Therefore, thin pixel devices fabricated on n-type silicon are a natural choice to fulfill these requirements due to their rad-hard performances and low active volume. We present an R and D activity aimed at developing a new thin hybrid pixel device in the framework of PANDA experiments. The detector of this new device is a p-on-n pixel sensor realized starting from epitaxial silicon wafers and back thinned up to 50–100 μm after process completion. We present the main technological steps and some electrical characterization on the fabricated devices before and after back thinning and after bump bonding to the front-end electronics.

  10. High Energy Physics (HEP) benchmark program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasu, Yoshiji; Ichii, Shingo; Yashiro, Shigeo; Hirayama, Hideo; Kokufuda, Akihiro; Suzuki, Eishin.

    1993-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) benchmark programs are indispensable tools to select suitable computer for HEP application system. Industry standard benchmark programs can not be used for this kind of particular selection. The CERN and the SSC benchmark suite are famous HEP benchmark programs for this purpose. The CERN suite includes event reconstruction and event generator programs, while the SSC one includes event generators. In this paper, we found that the results from these two suites are not consistent. And, the result from the industry benchmark does not agree with either of these two. Besides, we describe comparison of benchmark results using EGS4 Monte Carlo simulation program with ones from two HEP benchmark suites. Then, we found that the result from EGS4 in not consistent with the two ones. The industry standard of SPECmark values on various computer systems are not consistent with the EGS4 results either. Because of these inconsistencies, we point out the necessity of a standardization of HEP benchmark suites. Also, EGS4 benchmark suite should be developed for users of applications such as medical science, nuclear power plant, nuclear physics and high energy physics. (author)

  11. The use of production management techniques in the construction of large scale physics detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bazan, A; Estrella, F; Kovács, Z; Le Flour, T; Le Goff, J M; Lieunard, S; McClatchey, R; Murray, S; Varga, L Z; Vialle, J P; Zsenei, M

    1999-01-01

    The construction process of detectors for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments is large scale, heavily constrained by resource availability and evolves with time. As a consequence, changes in detector component design need to be tracked and quickly reflected in the construction process. With similar problems in industry engineers employ so-called Product Data Management (PDM) systems to control access to documented versions of designs and managers employ so- called Workflow Management software (WfMS) to coordinate production work processes. However, PDM and WfMS software are not generally integrated in industry. The scale of LHC experiments, like CMS, demands that industrial production techniques be applied in detector construction. This paper outlines the major functions and applications of the CRISTAL system (Cooperating Repositories and an information System for Tracking Assembly Lifecycles) in use in CMS which successfully integrates PDM and WfMS techniques in managing large scale physics detector ...

  12. Dilute scintillators for large-volume tracking detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeder, R.A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dieterle, B.D. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Gregory, C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Schaefer, F. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Schum, K. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Strossman, W. (University of California, Riverside, CA (United States)); Smith, D. (Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Prescott, AZ (United States)); Christofek, L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Johnston, K. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Louis, W.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Schillaci, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Volta, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); White, D.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Whitehouse, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Albert, M. (University of Pennsylvania, Phi

    1993-10-01

    Dilute scintillation mixtures emit isotropic light for both fast and slow particles, but retain the Cherenkov light cone from fast particles. Large volume detectors using photomultipliers to reconstruct relativistic tracks will also be sensitive to slow particles if they are filled with these mixtures. Our data show that 0.03 g/l of b-PBD in mineral oil has a 2.4:1 ratio (in the first 12 ns) of isotropic light to Cherenkov light for positron tracks. The light attenuation length is greater than 15 m for wavelength above 400 nm, and the scintillation decay time is about 2 ns for the fast component. There is also a slow isotropic light component that is larger (relative to the fast component) for protons than for electrons. This effect allows particle identification by a technique similar to pulse shape discrimination. These features will be utilized in LSND, a neutrino detector at LAMPF. (orig.)

  13. Characterization of segmented large volume, high purity germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyneel, B.

    2006-01-01

    γ-ray tracking in future HPGe arrays like AGATA will rely on pulse shape analysis (PSA) of multiple γ-interactions. For this purpose, a simple and fast procedure was developed which enabled the first full characterization of a segmented large volume HPGe detector. An analytical model for the hole mobility in a Ge crystal lattice was developed to describe the hole drift anisotropy with experimental velocity values along the crystal axis as parameters. The new model is based on the drifted Maxwellian hole distribution in Ge. It is verified by reproducing successfully experimental longitudinal hole anisotropy data. A comparison between electron and hole mobility shows large differences for the longitudinal and tangential velocity anisotropy as a function of the electrical field orientation. Measurements on a 12 fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by γ-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60 keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356 keV rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and the digital electronics. The results are

  14. Characterization of segmented large volume, high purity germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyneel, B. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2006-07-01

    {gamma}-ray tracking in future HPGe arrays like AGATA will rely on pulse shape analysis (PSA) of multiple {gamma}-interactions. For this purpose, a simple and fast procedure was developed which enabled the first full characterization of a segmented large volume HPGe detector. An analytical model for the hole mobility in a Ge crystal lattice was developed to describe the hole drift anisotropy with experimental velocity values along the crystal axis as parameters. The new model is based on the drifted Maxwellian hole distribution in Ge. It is verified by reproducing successfully experimental longitudinal hole anisotropy data. A comparison between electron and hole mobility shows large differences for the longitudinal and tangential velocity anisotropy as a function of the electrical field orientation. Measurements on a 12 fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by {gamma}-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60 keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356 keV rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and the digital electronics

  15. Low-Power Large-Area Radiation Detector for Space Science Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this task is to develop a low-power, large-area detectors from SiC, taking advantage of very low thermal noise characteristics and high radiation...

  16. A digital gain stabilizer for large volume organic scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunsfurth, J.; Geske, K.

    1976-01-01

    A digital gain stabilizer is described, optimized for use with photomultipliers mounted on large volume organic scintillators, or other radiation detectors, which exhibit no prominent peaks in their amplitude spectra. As applications of this kind usually involve many phototubes or detectors, circuit simplicity, production reproduceability, and the possibility of computer controlled operation were major design criteria. Two versions were built, the first one using standard TTL-SSI and MSI circuitry, the second one - to reduce power requirements - using a mixture of TTL- and CMOS-LSI circuits. (Auth.)

  17. Future IBM-BNL large-area superconducting inductive monopole detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermon, S.; Chi, C.C.; Tsuei, C.C.; Chaudhari, P.; Ketchen, M.; Tesche, C.D.; Prodell, A.

    1986-01-01

    The observation of massive moving magnetic monopoles would have extremely important implications for grand unification theories and cosmological models for the creation of the universe. Among detection methods, the superconducting induction technique is unique in that it directly and unambiguously measures the sole property of the monopole of which the authors are certain--its magnetic charge--the detector response being independent of all other characteristics such as the monopole mass, its velocity, the presence of a companion electric charge, or the detailed nature of its interaction with matter. Described herein are plans for constructing an induction detector sufficiently large to reach the Parker bound in several years of operation

  18. Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, M.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Hofmann, M.; Lewke, T.; Meindl, Q.; Moellenberg, R.; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Tippmann, M.; Todor, S.; Winter, J. [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lachenmaier, T.; Traunsteiner, C. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Undagoitia, T. Marrodan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurstr. 189, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.

  19. Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, M; von Feilitzsch, F; Göger-Neff, M; Hofmann, M; Lachenmaier, T; Lewke, T; Marrodán Undagoitia, T; Meindl, Q; Möllenberg, R; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Tippmann, M; Todor, S; Traunsteiner, C; Winter, J

    2010-05-01

    For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.

  20. Large-area self-powered neutron-detectors for neutron-flux measurements in HTRs. Status of developmental work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixy, H.; Hecker, R.; Serpekian, T.; Benninghofen, G.; Serafin, N.; Spillekothen, H.G.

    1982-06-01

    The development is described of the large-area SPN-detector as an out of core power monitoring system. Gadolinium or cobalt was used as the emitter. Response functions of the gadolinium SPN-detector were found with regard to the reactor power, the effect of the gamma field, its short-term behaviour following reactor shutdown and long-term behaviour during reactor operation. It was shown that a detector of 0.1 mm emitter thickness can withstand an integral thermal neutron flux of 2.10 20 nvt almost without efficiency loss thus indicating that the large-area gadolinium SPN-detector is a suitable means for power monitoring in large HTGR's

  1. Large-format 17μm high-end VOx μ-bolometer infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, U.; Argaman, N.; Elkind, S.; Giladi, A.; Hirsh, Y.; Labilov, M.; Pivnik, I.; Shiloah, N.; Singer, M.; Tuito, A.; Ben-Ezra, M.; Shtrichman, I.

    2013-06-01

    Long range sights and targeting systems require a combination of high spatial resolution, low temporal NETD, and wide field of view. For practical electro-optical systems it is hard to support these constraints simultaneously. Moreover, achieving these needs with the relatively low-cost Uncooled μ-Bolometer technology is a major challenge in the design and implementation of both the bolometer pixel and the Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC). In this work we present measured results from a new, large format (1024×768) detector array, with 17μm pitch. This detector meets the demands of a typical armored vehicle sight with its high resolution and large format, together with low NETD of better than 35mK (at F/1, 30Hz). We estimate a Recognition Range for a NATO target of better than 4 km at all relevant atmospheric conditions, which is better than standard 2nd generation scanning array cooled detector. A new design of the detector package enables improved stability of the Non-Uniformity Correction (NUC) to environmental temperature drifts.

  2. West Foster Creek 2007 Follow-up Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-02-01

    A follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis was conducted on the West Foster Creek (Smith acquisition) wildlife mitigation site in May 2007 to determine the number of additional habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to enhance and maintain the project site as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The West Foster Creek 2007 follow-up HEP survey generated 2,981.96 habitat units (HU) or 1.51 HUs per acre for a 34% increase (+751.34 HUs) above baseline HU credit (the 1999 baseline HEP survey generated 2,230.62 habitat units or 1.13 HUs per acre). The 2007 follow-up HEP analysis yielded 1,380.26 sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) habitat units, 879.40 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) HUs, and 722.29 western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) habitat units. Mule deer and sharp-tailed grouse habitat units increased by 346.42 HUs and 470.62 HUs respectively over baseline (1999) survey results due largely to cessation of livestock grazing and subsequent passive restoration. In contrast, the western meadowlark generated slightly fewer habitat units in 2007 (-67.31) than in 1999, because of increased shrub cover, which lowers habitat suitability for that species.

  3. High resolution micro-CT of low attenuating organic materials using large area photon-counting detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpová, I.; Jandejsek, I.; Jakůbek, J.; Vopálenský, M.; Vavřík, D.; Fíla, T.; Koudelka, P.; Kytýř, D.; Zlámal, P.; Gantar, A.

    2016-01-01

    To overcome certain limitations of contemporary materials used for bone tissue engineering, such as inflammatory response after implantation, a whole new class of materials based on polysaccharide compounds is being developed. Here, nanoparticulate bioactive glass reinforced gelan-gum (GG-BAG) has recently been proposed for the production of bone scaffolds. This material offers promising biocompatibility properties, including bioactivity and biodegradability, with the possibility of producing scaffolds with directly controlled microgeometry. However, to utilize such a scaffold with application-optimized properties, large sets of complex numerical simulations using the real microgeometry of the material have to be carried out during the development process. Because the GG-BAG is a material with intrinsically very low attenuation to X-rays, its radiographical imaging, including tomographical scanning and reconstructions, with resolution required by numerical simulations might be a very challenging task. In this paper, we present a study on X-ray imaging of GG-BAG samples. High-resolution volumetric images of investigated specimens were generated on the basis of micro-CT measurements using a large area flat-panel detector and a large area photon-counting detector. The photon-counting detector was composed of a 010× 1 matrix of Timepix edgeless silicon pixelated detectors with tiling based on overlaying rows (i.e. assembled so that no gap is present between individual rows of detectors). We compare the results from both detectors with the scanning electron microscopy on selected slices in transversal plane. It has been shown that the photon counting detector can provide approx. 3× better resolution of the details in low-attenuating materials than the integrating flat panel detectors. We demonstrate that employment of a large area photon counting detector is a good choice for imaging of low attenuating materials with the resolution sufficient for numerical

  4. High resolution micro-CT of low attenuating organic materials using large area photon-counting detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpová, I.; Vavřík, D.; Fíla, T.; Koudelka, P.; Jandejsek, I.; Jakůbek, J.; Kytýř, D.; Zlámal, P.; Vopálenský, M.; Gantar, A.

    2016-02-01

    To overcome certain limitations of contemporary materials used for bone tissue engineering, such as inflammatory response after implantation, a whole new class of materials based on polysaccharide compounds is being developed. Here, nanoparticulate bioactive glass reinforced gelan-gum (GG-BAG) has recently been proposed for the production of bone scaffolds. This material offers promising biocompatibility properties, including bioactivity and biodegradability, with the possibility of producing scaffolds with directly controlled microgeometry. However, to utilize such a scaffold with application-optimized properties, large sets of complex numerical simulations using the real microgeometry of the material have to be carried out during the development process. Because the GG-BAG is a material with intrinsically very low attenuation to X-rays, its radiographical imaging, including tomographical scanning and reconstructions, with resolution required by numerical simulations might be a very challenging task. In this paper, we present a study on X-ray imaging of GG-BAG samples. High-resolution volumetric images of investigated specimens were generated on the basis of micro-CT measurements using a large area flat-panel detector and a large area photon-counting detector. The photon-counting detector was composed of a 010× 1 matrix of Timepix edgeless silicon pixelated detectors with tiling based on overlaying rows (i.e. assembled so that no gap is present between individual rows of detectors). We compare the results from both detectors with the scanning electron microscopy on selected slices in transversal plane. It has been shown that the photon counting detector can provide approx. 3× better resolution of the details in low-attenuating materials than the integrating flat panel detectors. We demonstrate that employment of a large area photon counting detector is a good choice for imaging of low attenuating materials with the resolution sufficient for numerical simulations.

  5. The use of production management techniques in the construction of large scale physics detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan, A.; Chevenier, G.; Estrella, F.

    1999-01-01

    The construction process of detectors for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments is large scale, heavily constrained by resource availability and evolves with time. As a consequence, changes in detector component design need to be tracked and quickly reflected in the construction process. With similar problems in industry engineers employ so-called Product Data Management (PDM) systems to control access to documented versions of designs and managers employ so-called Product Data Management (PDM) systems to control access to documented versions of designs and managers employ so-called Workflow Management Software (WfMS) to coordinate production work processes. However, PDM and WfMS software are not generally integrated in industry. The scale of LHC experiments, like CMS, demands that industrial production techniques be applied in detector construction. This paper outlines the major functions and applications of the CRISTAL system (Cooperating Repositories and an Information System for Tracking Assembly Lifecycles) in use in CMS which successfully integrates PDM and WfMS techniques in managing large scale physics detector construction. This is the first time industrial production techniques have been deployed to this extent in detector construction

  6. A large area two-dimensional position sensitive multiwire proportional detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, M M D; Souza, F A; Alonso, E E; Fujii, R J; Meyknecht, A B; Added, N; Aissaoui, N; Cardenas, W H Z; Ferraretto, M D; Schnitter, U; Szanto, E M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Yamamura, M S; Carlin, N

    1999-01-01

    Large area two-dimensional position sensitive multiwire proportional detectors were developed to be used in the study of light heavy-ion nuclear reactions at the University of Sao Paulo Pelletron Laboratory. Each detector has a 20x20 cm sup 2 active area and consists of three grids (X-position, anode and Y-position) made of 25 mu m diameter gold plated tungsten wires. The position is determined through resistive divider chains. Results for position resolution, linearity and efficiency as a function of energy and position for different elements are reported.

  7. Signal generation in highly irradiated silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2003-01-01

    Silicon detectors are the most diffused tracking devices in High Energy Physics (HEP). The reason of such success can be found in the characteristics of the material together with the existing advanced technology for the fabrication of these devices. Nevertheless in many modem HEP experiments the observation of vary rare events require data taking at high luminosity with a consequent extremely intense hadron radiation field that damages the silicon and degrades the performance of these devices. In this thesis work a detailed study of the signal generation in microstrip detectors has been produced with a special care for the ATLAS semiconductor tracker geometry. This has required a development of an appropriate setup to perform measurements with Transient Current/ Charge Technique. This has allowed studying the evolution of the signal in several microstrips detector samples irradiated at fluences covering the range expected in the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker. For a better understanding of these measurements a powerful software package that simulates the signal generation in these devices has been developed. Moreover in this thesis it has been also shown that the degradation due to radiation in silicon detectors can be strongly reduced if the data taking is done with detectors operated at 130 K. This makes low temperature operation that benefits of the recovery of the charge collection efficiency in highly irradiated silicon detectors (also known as Lazarus effect) an optimal option for future high luminosity experiments. (author)

  8. Dynamic provisioning of a HEP computing infrastructure on a shared hybrid HPC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Konrad; Fleig, Georg; Hauth, Thomas; Quast, Günter; Janczyk, Michael; Von Suchodoletz, Dirk; Wiebelt, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Experiments in high-energy physics (HEP) rely on elaborate hardware, software and computing systems to sustain the high data rates necessary to study rare physics processes. The Institut fr Experimentelle Kernphysik (EKP) at KIT is a member of the CMS and Belle II experiments, located at the LHC and the Super-KEKB accelerators, respectively. These detectors share the requirement, that enormous amounts of measurement data must be processed and analyzed and a comparable amount of simulated events is required to compare experimental results with theoretical predictions. Classical HEP computing centers are dedicated sites which support multiple experiments and have the required software pre-installed. Nowadays, funding agencies encourage research groups to participate in shared HPC cluster models, where scientist from different domains use the same hardware to increase synergies. This shared usage proves to be challenging for HEP groups, due to their specialized software setup which includes a custom OS (often Scientific Linux), libraries and applications. To overcome this hurdle, the EKP and data center team of the University of Freiburg have developed a system to enable the HEP use case on a shared HPC cluster. To achieve this, an OpenStack-based virtualization layer is installed on top of a bare-metal cluster. While other user groups can run their batch jobs via the Moab workload manager directly on bare-metal, HEP users can request virtual machines with a specialized machine image which contains a dedicated operating system and software stack. In contrast to similar installations, in this hybrid setup, no static partitioning of the cluster into a physical and virtualized segment is required. As a unique feature, the placement of the virtual machine on the cluster nodes is scheduled by Moab and the job lifetime is coupled to the lifetime of the virtual machine. This allows for a seamless integration with the jobs sent by other user groups and honors the fairshare

  9. Dynamic provisioning of a HEP computing infrastructure on a shared hybrid HPC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Konrad; Fleig, Georg; Hauth, Thomas; Janczyk, Michael; Quast, Günter; von Suchodoletz, Dirk; Wiebelt, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    Experiments in high-energy physics (HEP) rely on elaborate hardware, software and computing systems to sustain the high data rates necessary to study rare physics processes. The Institut fr Experimentelle Kernphysik (EKP) at KIT is a member of the CMS and Belle II experiments, located at the LHC and the Super-KEKB accelerators, respectively. These detectors share the requirement, that enormous amounts of measurement data must be processed and analyzed and a comparable amount of simulated events is required to compare experimental results with theoretical predictions. Classical HEP computing centers are dedicated sites which support multiple experiments and have the required software pre-installed. Nowadays, funding agencies encourage research groups to participate in shared HPC cluster models, where scientist from different domains use the same hardware to increase synergies. This shared usage proves to be challenging for HEP groups, due to their specialized software setup which includes a custom OS (often Scientific Linux), libraries and applications. To overcome this hurdle, the EKP and data center team of the University of Freiburg have developed a system to enable the HEP use case on a shared HPC cluster. To achieve this, an OpenStack-based virtualization layer is installed on top of a bare-metal cluster. While other user groups can run their batch jobs via the Moab workload manager directly on bare-metal, HEP users can request virtual machines with a specialized machine image which contains a dedicated operating system and software stack. In contrast to similar installations, in this hybrid setup, no static partitioning of the cluster into a physical and virtualized segment is required. As a unique feature, the placement of the virtual machine on the cluster nodes is scheduled by Moab and the job lifetime is coupled to the lifetime of the virtual machine. This allows for a seamless integration with the jobs sent by other user groups and honors the fairshare

  10. Data management in HEP: An approach

    CERN Document Server

    Furano, F

    2011-01-01

    In this work we describe an approach to data access and data management in High Energy Physics (HEP), which privileges performance, simplicity and scalability, in storage systems that co-operate. We also show why the typical HEP workload is well positioned to access geographically distributed data repositories and then weigh the advantages and disadvantages of accessing data across the Wide Area Network. We discuss some points related to the architecture that a data access/management system should have in order to exploit these possibilities. Currently, this kind of methods were explored by using the xrootd/Scalla software suite, that is a workable example of a distributed non-transactional data repository for the HEP environment. The Scalla architecture naturally allows us to build globally federated repositories congruent with diverse HEP collaborations and their data access needs. These methodologies, however, are based on the concept of caching associated to a performant messaging system and to an efficie...

  11. The HEP Software and Computing Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenaus, T.

    2017-10-01

    HEP software today is a rich and diverse domain in itself and exists within the mushrooming world of open source software. As HEP software developers and users we can be more productive and effective if our work and our choices are informed by a good knowledge of what others in our community have created or found useful. The HEP Software and Computing Knowledge Base, hepsoftware.org, was created to facilitate this by serving as a collection point and information exchange on software projects and products, services, training, computing facilities, and relating them to the projects, experiments, organizations and science domains that offer them or use them. It was created as a contribution to the HEP Software Foundation, for which a HEP S&C knowledge base was a much requested early deliverable. This contribution will motivate and describe the system, what it offers, its content and contributions both existing and needed, and its implementation (node.js based web service and javascript client app) which has emphasized ease of use for both users and contributors.

  12. Do cosmic rays perturb the operation of a large resonant spherical detector of gravitational waves?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzella, G.

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of resonant gravitational wave detectors is reviewed. The effect of cosmic rays on a large spherical detector is considered. It is shown that the sensibility to short bursts, to monochromatic and to stochastic GW is not significantly degraded by cosmic rays. For a two-detector experiment, only one detector needs to be installed in an underground laboratory. This supports the idea to install a resonant detector at sea-level near a GW interferometer

  13. Do cosmic rays perturb the operation of a large resonant spherical detector of gravitational waves?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzella, G. [Rome Univ. Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy). Physics Dept.; Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Frascati, RM (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    The sensitivity of resonant gravitational wave detectors is reviewed. The effect of cosmic rays on a large spherical detector is considered. It is shown that the sensibility to short bursts, to monochromatic and to stochastic GW is not significantly degraded by cosmic rays. For a two-detector experiment, only one detector needs to be installed in an underground laboratory. This supports the idea to install a resonant detector at sea-level near a GW interferometer.

  14. Mapping the large area straw detectors of the COMPASS experiment with X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Platzer, Klaus; Dünnweber, Wolfgang; Faessler, Martin A; Geyer, Reiner; Ilgner, C; Peshekhonov, Vladimir D; Wellenstein, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    In the COMPASS experiment at CERN, large straw drift tube detectors are used for large-angle tracking. To minimize the total areal density, a self supporting structure of thin-walled plastic tubes was chosen and, hence, a loss in mechanical precision was accepted. A complete mapping of the anode wire coordinate grid was required. An X-ray apparatus using a charge-coupled device (CCD) as imaging detector was built to investigate the mechanical properties and to calibrate (offline) the wire positions. Deviations of typically 200-400 mu m from the nominal positions, defined by equal spacing, are found across the detector area of 8 m/sup 2/. With a calibration method based on high-resolution CCD imaging and pattern recognition algorithms, the absolute wire coordinates are determined with an accuracy better than 30 mu m across the whole detector area. Temperature effects are clearly seen. Their inhomogenity limits the achievable accuracy to about 50 mu m under realistic experimental conditions, which is sufficient...

  15. A DAQ system for pixel detectors R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, M.; Bisello, D.; Contarato, D.; Giubilato, P.; Pantano, D.; Tessaro, M.

    2009-01-01

    Pixel detector R and D for HEP and imaging applications require an easily configurable and highly versatile DAQ system able to drive and read out many different chip designs in a transparent way, with different control logics and/or clock signals. An integrated, real-time data collection and analysis environment is essential to achieve fast and reliable detector characterization. We present a DAQ system developed to fulfill these specific needs, able to handle multiple devices at the same time while providing a convenient, ROOT based data display and online analysis environment.

  16. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Djama, Fares; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered. The ATLAS tracking performance relies critically on the Pixel Detector, therefore, in view of Run-2 of LHC, the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run-1 and an additional optical link per module was added to overcome in some layers the readout bandwidth limitation when LHC will exceed the nominal peak luminosity by almost a factor of 3. The key features and challenges met during the IBL project will be presented, as well as its operational experience and Pixel Detector performance in LHC.

  17. Large Format CMOS-based Detectors for Diffraction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. C.; Nix, J. C.; Achterkirchen, T. G.; Westbrook, E. M.

    2013-03-01

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) devices are rapidly replacing CCD devices in many commercial and medical applications. Recent developments in CMOS fabrication have improved their radiation hardness, device linearity, readout noise and thermal noise, making them suitable for x-ray crystallography detectors. Large-format (e.g. 10 cm × 15 cm) CMOS devices with a pixel size of 100 μm × 100 μm are now becoming available that can be butted together on three sides so that very large area detector can be made with no dead regions. Like CCD systems our CMOS systems use a GdOS:Tb scintillator plate to convert stopping x-rays into visible light which is then transferred with a fiber-optic plate to the sensitive surface of the CMOS sensor. The amount of light per x-ray on the sensor is much higher in the CMOS system than a CCD system because the fiber optic plate is only 3 mm thick while on a CCD system it is highly tapered and much longer. A CMOS sensor is an active pixel matrix such that every pixel is controlled and readout independently of all other pixels. This allows these devices to be readout while the sensor is collecting charge in all the other pixels. For x-ray diffraction detectors this is a major advantage since image frames can be collected continuously at up 20 Hz while the crystal is rotated. A complete diffraction dataset can be collected over five times faster than with CCD systems with lower radiation exposure to the crystal. In addition, since the data is taken fine-phi slice mode the 3D angular position of diffraction peaks is improved. We have developed a cooled 6 sensor CMOS detector with an active area of 28.2 × 29.5 cm with 100 μm × 100 μm pixels and a readout rate of 20 Hz. The detective quantum efficiency exceeds 60% over the range 8-12 keV. One, two and twelve sensor systems are also being developed for a variety of scientific applications. Since the sensors are butt able on three sides, even larger systems could be built at

  18. Large Format CMOS-based Detectors for Diffraction Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A C; Westbrook, E M; Nix, J C; Achterkirchen, T G

    2013-01-01

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) devices are rapidly replacing CCD devices in many commercial and medical applications. Recent developments in CMOS fabrication have improved their radiation hardness, device linearity, readout noise and thermal noise, making them suitable for x-ray crystallography detectors. Large-format (e.g. 10 cm × 15 cm) CMOS devices with a pixel size of 100 μm × 100 μm are now becoming available that can be butted together on three sides so that very large area detector can be made with no dead regions. Like CCD systems our CMOS systems use a GdOS:Tb scintillator plate to convert stopping x-rays into visible light which is then transferred with a fiber-optic plate to the sensitive surface of the CMOS sensor. The amount of light per x-ray on the sensor is much higher in the CMOS system than a CCD system because the fiber optic plate is only 3 mm thick while on a CCD system it is highly tapered and much longer. A CMOS sensor is an active pixel matrix such that every pixel is controlled and readout independently of all other pixels. This allows these devices to be readout while the sensor is collecting charge in all the other pixels. For x-ray diffraction detectors this is a major advantage since image frames can be collected continuously at up 20 Hz while the crystal is rotated. A complete diffraction dataset can be collected over five times faster than with CCD systems with lower radiation exposure to the crystal. In addition, since the data is taken fine-phi slice mode the 3D angular position of diffraction peaks is improved. We have developed a cooled 6 sensor CMOS detector with an active area of 28.2 × 29.5 cm with 100 μm × 100 μm pixels and a readout rate of 20 Hz. The detective quantum efficiency exceeds 60% over the range 8-12 keV. One, two and twelve sensor systems are also being developed for a variety of scientific applications. Since the sensors are butt able on three sides, even larger systems could be built at

  19. West Foster Creek Expansion Project 2007 HEP Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-02-01

    During April and May 2007, the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980, 1980a) analyses on five parcels collectively designated the West Foster Creek Expansion Project (3,756.48 acres). The purpose of the HEP analyses was to document extant habitat conditions and to determine how many baseline/protection habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding maintenance and enhancement activities on project lands as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. HEP evaluation models included mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), sharp-tailed grouse, (Tympanuchus phasianellus), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), mink (Neovison vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Combined 2007 baseline HEP results show that 4,946.44 habitat units were generated on 3,756.48 acres (1.32 HUs per acre). HEP results/habitat conditions were generally similar for like cover types at all sites. Unlike crediting of habitat units (HUs) on other WDFW owned lands, Bonneville Power Administration received full credit for HUs generated on these sites.

  20. Encefalopatía Hepática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Restrepo Gutiérrez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En pacientes con enfermedad hepática aguda o crónica la encefalopatía hepática es una complicación progresiva y reversible en su mayoría de veces, que puede reducir la sobrevida y la calidad de vida de quienes la presenten. Dentro de su patogénesis existen diferentes hipótesis entre las cuales la más aceptada ha sido la de la neurotoxicidad por amonio, que incluso podría explicar las otras hipótesis planteadas, como la del edema de los astrocitos, la toxicidad por manganeso, entre otras. La clasificación actual de la encefalopatía hepática se propuso en el congreso mundial de Gastroenterología en 1998 y se basa en la naturaleza de la disfunción hepática, duración y características de las manifestaciones neurológicas. Para su diagnostico se requiere de un buen reconocimiento clínico puesto que es principalmente de exclusión; sin embargo actualmente se cuenta con los criterios de West Haven para clasificar la severidad de su presentación. En este síndrome el tratamiento comprende diferentes elementos –como la dieta proteica, disacáridos no absorbibles y terapia antibiótica, que tienen como finalidad la resolución de las manifestaciones y mejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes, aunque sin dejar de lado que tratar los factores precipitantes son la principal medida terapéutica para la encefalopatía hepática. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar los últimos conceptos de la encefalopatía hepática; con especial énfasis en su patogénesis, clasificación, diagnostico y tratamiento.

  1. Tests of innovative photon detectors and integrated electronics for the large-area CLAS12 ring-imaging Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contalbrigo, M., E-mail: contalbrigo@fe.infn.it

    2015-07-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Lab. Its aim is to study the 3D nucleon structure in the yet poorly explored valence region by deep-inelastic scattering, and to perform precision measurements in hadron spectroscopy. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on an aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and a densely packed and highly segmented photon detector. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). Extensive tests have been performed on Hamamatsu H8500 and novel flat multi-anode photomultipliers under development and on various types of silicon photomultipliers. A large scale prototype based on 28 H8500 MA-PMTs has been realized and tested with few GeV/c hadron beams at the T9 test-beam facility of CERN. In addition a small prototype was used to study the response of customized SiPM matrices within a temperature interval ranging from 25 down to −25 °C. The preliminary results of the individual photon detector tests and of the prototype performance at the test-beams are here reported.

  2. HEP - A semaphore-synchronized multiprocessor with central control. [Heterogeneous Element Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, M. C.; Smith, B. J.; Calvert, W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes the design concept of the Heterogeneous Element Processor (HEP), a system tailored to the special needs of scientific simulation. In order to achieve high-speed computation required by simulation, HEP features a hierarchy of processes executing in parallel on a number of processors, with synchronization being largely accomplished by hardware. A full-empty-reserve scheme of synchronization is realized by zero-one-valued hardware semaphores. A typical system has, besides the control computer and the scheduler, an algebraic module, a memory module, a first-in first-out (FIFO) module, an integrator module, and an I/O module. The architecture of the scheduler and the algebraic module is examined in detail.

  3. Isotropic gates in large gamma detector arrays versus angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, V.E.; Duchene, G.

    1997-01-01

    The quality of the angular distribution information extracted from high-fold gamma-gamma coincidence events is analyzed. It is shown that a correct quasi-isotropic gate setting, available at the modern large gamma-ray detector arrays, essentially preserves the quality of the angular information. (orig.)

  4. Laboratory and test beam results from a large-area silicon drift detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvicini, V; Giubellino, P; Gregorio, A; Idzik, M; Kolojvari, A A; Montaño-Zetina, L M; Nouais, D; Petta, C; Rashevsky, A; Randazzo, N; Reito, S; Tosello, F; Vacchi, A; Vinogradov, L I; Zampa, N

    2000-01-01

    A very large-area (6.75*8 cm/sup 2/) silicon drift detector with integrated high-voltage divider has been designed, produced and fully characterised in the laboratory by means of ad hoc designed MOS injection electrodes. The detector is of the "butterfly" type, the sensitive area being subdivided into two regions with a maximum drift length of 3.3 cm. The device was also tested in a pion beam (at the CERN PS) tagged by means of a microstrip detector telescope. Bipolar VLSI front-end cells featuring a noise of 250 e/sup -/ RMS at 0 pF with a slope of 40 e/sup -//pF have been used to read out the signals. The detector showed an excellent stability and featured the expected characteristics. Some preliminary results will be presented. (12 refs).

  5. Signal Formation Processes in Micromegas Detectors and Quality Control for large size Detector Construction for the ATLAS New Small Wheel

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00387450; Rembser, Christoph

    2017-08-04

    The Micromegas technology is one of the most successful modern gaseous detector concepts and widely utilized in nuclear and particle physics experiments. Twenty years of R & D rendered the technology sufficiently mature to be selected as precision tracking detector for the New Small Wheel (NSW) upgrade of the ATLAS Muon spectrometer. This will be the first large scale application of Micromegas in one of the major LHC experiments. However, many of the fundamental microscopic processes in these gaseous detectors are still not fully understood and studies on several detector aspects, like the micromesh geometry, have never been addressed systematically. The studies on signal formation in Micromegas, presented in the first part of this thesis, focuses on the microscopic signal electron loss mechanisms and the amplification processes in electron gas interaction. Based on a detailed model of detector parameter dependencies, these processes are scrutinized in an iterating comparison between exper- imental result...

  6. Development of cryogenic installations for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adamowski, M; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Montanari, D; Nessi, M; Norris, B

    2015-01-01

    A proposal for a very large liquid argon (68,000 kg) based neutrino detector is being studied. To validate the design principles and the detector technology, and to gain experience in the development of the cryostats and the cryogenic systems needed for such large experiments, several smaller scale installations will be developed and implemented, at Fermilab and CERN. The cryogenic systems for these installations will be developed, constructed, installed and commissioned by an international engineering team. These installations shall bring the required cooling power under specific conditions to the experiments for the initial cool-down and the long term operation, and shall also guarantee the correct distribution of the cooling power within the cryostats to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution within the cryostat itself. The cryogenic systems shall also include gaseous and liquid phase argon purification devices to be used to reach and maintain the very stringent purity requirements needed for these...

  7. History of the bubble chamber and related active- and internal-target nuclear tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchetti, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Donald Glaser, 1960 Nobel laureate in Physics, recently passed away (2013), as have many of his colleagues who were involved with the early development of bubble chambers at the University of Michigan. In this paper I will review those early years and the subsequent wide-spread application of active-target (AT) bubble chambers that dominated high-energy physics (HEP) research for over thirty years. Some of the related, but more modern nuclear tracking detectors being used in HEP, neutrino astrophysics and dark-matter searches also will be discussed

  8. A Silicon Strip Detector for the Phase II High Luminosity Upgrade of the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00425747; McMahon, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that detects proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV. The Semiconductor Tracker is part of the Inner Detector, implemented using silicon microstrip detectors with binary read-out, providing momentum measurement of charged particles with excellent resolution. The operation of the LHC and the ATLAS experiment started in 2010, with ten years of operation expected until major upgrades are needed in the accelerator and the experiments. The ATLAS tracker will need to be completely replaced due to the radiation damage and occupancy of some detector elements and the data links at high luminosities. These upgrades after the first ten years of operation are named the Phase-II Upgrade and involve a re-design of the LHC, resulting in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). This thesis presents the work carried out in the testing of the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade electronic systems in the future strips tracker a...

  9. Trauma hepático: análise do tratamento com balão intra-hepático em um hospital universitário de Curitiba

    OpenAIRE

    Smaniotto,Benjamin; Bahten,Luiz Carlos Von; Nogueira Filho,Dorivam Celso; Tano,Agajanian Lumi; Thomaz Junior,Laertes; Fayad,Omar

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Discutir a estratégia cirúrgica para tratamento de lesões hepáticas penetrantes graves através de tamponamento com balão intra-hepático. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com 18 pacientes com trauma hepático penetrante, tratados com balão, atendidos em um hospital de referência em trauma no sul do Brasil. Foram avaliados: idade, sexo, grau da lesão hepática, segmentos acometidos, quantidade de solução salina infundida no balão intra-hepático e seu tempo de permanência, lesões associadas...

  10. Bulk GaN alpha-particle detector with large depletion region and improved energy resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Mulligan, Padhraic; Wang, Jinghui; Chuirazzi, William; Cao, Lei

    2017-03-01

    An alpha-particle detector was fabricated using a freestanding n-type bulk GaN wafer with a Au/Ni/GaN sandwich Schottky structure. Current-voltage measurements at room temperature revealed a Schottky contact with a leakage current of 7.53±0.3 nA at a reverse bias of 200 V. The detector had a large depletion depth that can capture much of the energy from 5.486 MeV alpha particles emitted from a 241Am source. The resolution of its alpha-particle energy spectrum was improved to 2.2±0.2% at 5.486 MeV under a bias of 550 V. This superior resolution was attributed to the shortening of the carrier transit time and the large energy deposition within the large depletion depth, i.e., 27 μm at -550 V, which all resulted in a more complete charge collection. A model developed using the ATLAS simulation framework from Silvaco Inc. was employed to study the charge collection process. The simulation results were found to agree closely with the experimental results. This detector will be beneficial for research at neutron scattering facilities, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, and the Large Hadron Collider, among other institutions, where the Si-based charged particle detectors could be quickly degraded in an intense radiation field.

  11. FPGA-based fast pipeline-parameterized-sorter implementation for first level trigger systems in HEP experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a behavioral model of fast, pipeline sorter dedicated to electronic triggering applications in the experiments of high energy physics (HEP). The sorter was implemented in FPGA for the RPC Muon Detector of CMS experiment (LHC accelerator, CERN) and for Backing Calorimeter (BAC) in ZEUS experiment (HERA accelerator, DESY) . A general principle of the applied sorting algorithm was presented. The implementation results were debated in detail for chosen FPGA chips by ALTERA and XILINX manufactures. The realization costs have been calculated as function of system parameters.

  12. Shillapoo Wildlife Area 2007 Follow-up HEP Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-03-01

    In April and May 2007 the Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted a follow-up HEP analysis on the Egger (612 acres) and Herzog (210 acres) parcels located at the north end of the Shillapoo Wildlife Area. The Egger and Herzog parcels have been managed with Bonneville Power Administration funds since acquired in 1998 and 2001 respectively. Slightly more than 936 habitat units (936.47) or 1.14 HUs per acre was generated as an outcome of the 2007 follow-up HEP surveys. Results included 1.65 black-capped chickadee HUs, 280.57 great blue heron HUs, 581.45 Canada goose HUs, 40 mallard HUs, and 32.80 mink HUs. Introduction A follow-up Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980) analysis was conducted by the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) during April and May 2007 to document changes in habitat quality and to determine the number of habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing operation and maintenance (O&M) funds since WDFW acquired the parcels. The 2007 follow-up HEP evaluation was limited to Shillapoo Wildlife Area (SWA) parcels purchased with Bonneville Power Administration funds. D. Budd (pers. comm.) reported WDFW purchased the 612 acre Egger Farms parcel on November 2, 1998 for $1,737,0001 and the 210 acre Herzog acquisition on June 21, 2001 for $500,000 with Memorandum of Agreement funds (BPA and WDFW 1996) as partial fulfillment of BPA's wildlife mitigation obligation for construction of Bonneville and John Day Dams (Rasmussen and Wright 1989). Anticipating the eventual acquisition of the Egger and Herzog properties, WDFW conducted HEP surveys on these lands in 1994 to determine the potential number of habitat units to be credited to BPA. As a result, HEP surveys and habitat unit calculations were completed as much as seven years prior to acquiring the sites. The term 'Shillapoo Wildlife Area' will be used to describe only the Herzog and Egger parcels in this

  13. Testing and assessment of a large BGO detector for beach monitoring of radioactive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, E.R. van der; Rigollet, C.; Maleka, P.P.; Jones, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Beach Monitoring Steering Group (BMSG) was set up by UKAEA to explore whether improved systems for beach monitoring of radioactive particles are available. The BMSG commissioned the British Geological Survey (BGS) and the Nuclear Geophysics Division of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI/NGD), and other companies, to test their most sensitive system. This paper presents the results of trials in a specially created test facility at UKAEA Harwell with a large BGO detector. The detector's size and weight mean that it would be suitable for vehicle deployment but would be too large and heavy to carry in areas that could not be accessed by a vehicle. However, it would be possible to use the same methodology that is described here with a smaller detector capable of being carried in a backpack, albeit with reduced sensitivity for particle detection. The approach that we present is also applicable, with modifications, to the detection of offshore particles using a towed seabed detector

  14. CompHEP: developments and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, E. E.; Bunichev, V. E.; Dubinin, M. N.; Ilyin, V. A.; Savrin, V. I.; CompHEP Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    New developments of the CompHEP package and its applications to the top quark and the Higgs boson physics at the LHC collider are reviewed. These developments were motivated mainly by the needs of experimental searches of DO (Tevatron) and CMS (LHC) collaborations where identification of the top quark and the Higgs boson in the framework of the Standard Model (SM) or possible extensions of the SM played an important role. New useful features of the CompHEP Graphics User Interface (GUI) are described.

  15. Trisegmentectomia hepática direita por videolaparoscopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Autran C. Machado

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em 2007 os autores descreveram a primeira hepatectomia direita por videolaparoscopia realizada no Brasil. Hepatectomia direita ampliada, também conhecida como trisegmentectomia direita, é procedimento altamente complexo e implica em grande retirada do volume hepático. Os autores descrevem a primeira trisegmentectomia direita por videolaparoscopia realizada no Brasil. TÉCNICA: O paciente é colocado em posição supina em decúbito lateral esquerdo. O cirurgião se coloca entre as pernas da paciente. Utilizamos cinco trocartes, três de 12 mm e dois de 5 mm. Devido à embolização prévia da veia porta direita, o hilo hepático não é dissecado. O pedículo portal direito é seccionado com grampeador laparoscópico de carga vascular por meio de acesso intra-hepático, segundo técnica previamente descrita pelos autores. A seguir procede-se a mobilização do fígado direito seguido de dissecção da veia cava retro-hepática e secção da veia hepática direita. Estes passos são realizados sem manobra de Pringle. O fígado é seccionado com combinação de bisturi harmônico e grampeador endoscópico. O pedículo do segmento 4 é seccionado dentro do fígado. O espécime é retirado por meio de incisão supra-púbica e a área cruenta é revista para verificar hemostasia. O procedimento é encerrado e dreno de sistema fechado é posicionado junto à área cruenta. CONCLUSÃO: Trisegmentectomia hepática direita por videolaparoscopia é procedimento factível e seguro e deve ser considerado para pacientes selecionados. Este procedimento deve ser realizado em centros especializados e por cirurgiões com experiência tanto em cirurgia hepática como cirurgia laparoscópica avançada.

  16. Large-area atmospheric Cherenkov detectors for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the development of new ground-based gamma-ray detectors to explore the energy region between 20 and 200 GeV. This region in energy is interesting because it is currently unexplored by any experiment. The proposed detectors use the atmospheric Cherenkov technique, in which Cherenkov radiation produced in the gamma-ray air showers is detected using mirrors and light-sensitive devices. The important feature of the proposed experiments is the use of large mirror collection areas, which should allow for a significant improvement (i.e. reduction) in energy threshold over existing experiments. Large mirror areas are available for relatively low cost at central tower solar power plants, and there are two groups developing gamma-ray experiments using solar heliostat arrays. This paper summarizes the progress in the design of experiments using this novel approach

  17. The large-area hybrid-optics CLAS12 RICH detector: Tests of innovative components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contalbrigo, M.; Baltzell, N.; Benmokhtar, F.; Barion, L.; Cisbani, E.; El Alaoui, A.; Hafidi, K.; Hoek, M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lagamba, L.; Lucherini, V.; Malaguti, R.; Mirazita, M.; Montgomery, R.; Movsisyan, A.; Musico, P.; Orecchini, D.; Orlandi, A.; Pappalardo, L.L.; Pereira, S.

    2014-01-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Lab to study the 3D nucleon structure in the yet poorly explored valence region by deep-inelastic scattering, and to perform precision measurements in hadronization and hadron spectroscopy. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on an aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and densely packed and highly segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). The preliminary results of individual detector component tests and of the prototype performance at test-beams are reported here. - Highlights: • A novel hybrid-optics configuration was proven to work with a large RICH prototype. • Innovative RICH components were studied both in laboratory tests and test-beams. • Aerogel of large Rayleigh scattering length at n=1.05 was characterized. • Novel vs commercially available multi-anode photomultipliers were compared. • The response of SiPM matrices to Cherenkov light was tested at various temperatures

  18. The large-area hybrid-optics CLAS12 RICH detector: Tests of innovative components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contalbrigo, M., E-mail: contalbrigo@fe.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Baltzell, N. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Benmokhtar, F. [Christopher Newport University, VA (United States); Duquesne University, PA (United States); Barion, L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Cisbani, E. [INFN Sezione di Roma – Gruppo Collega to Sanità (Italy); Italian National Institute of Health (Italy); El Alaoui, A. [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Hafidi, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Hoek, M. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); J. Gutenberg Universität, Mainz (Germany); Kubarovsky, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, VA (United States); Lagamba, L. [INFN Sezione di Bari, University of Bari (Italy); Lucherini, V. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Malaguti, R. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Mirazita, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Montgomery, R. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Movsisyan, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Musico, P. [INFN Sezione di Genova (Italy); Orecchini, D.; Orlandi, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Pappalardo, L.L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Pereira, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); and others

    2014-12-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Lab to study the 3D nucleon structure in the yet poorly explored valence region by deep-inelastic scattering, and to perform precision measurements in hadronization and hadron spectroscopy. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on an aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and densely packed and highly segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). The preliminary results of individual detector component tests and of the prototype performance at test-beams are reported here. - Highlights: • A novel hybrid-optics configuration was proven to work with a large RICH prototype. • Innovative RICH components were studied both in laboratory tests and test-beams. • Aerogel of large Rayleigh scattering length at n=1.05 was characterized. • Novel vs commercially available multi-anode photomultipliers were compared. • The response of SiPM matrices to Cherenkov light was tested at various temperatures.

  19. Ignominy: a tool for software dependency and metric analysis with examples from large HEP packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuura, L.A.; Taylor, L.

    2001-01-01

    Ignominy is a tool developed in the CMS IGUANA project to analyse the structure of software systems. Its primary component is a dependency scanner that distills information into human-usable forms. It also includes several tools to visualise the collected data in the form of graphical views and numerical metrics. Ignominy was designed to adapt to almost any reasonable structure, and it has been used to analyse several large projects. The original purpose of Ignominy was to help us better ensure the quality of our own software, and in particular warn us about possible structural problems early on. As a part of this activity it is now used as a standard part of our release procedure. The authors also use it to evaluate and study the quality of external packages they plan to make use of. The authors describe what Ignominy can find out, and how it can be used to visualise and assess a software structure. The authors also discuss the inherent problems of the analysis as well as the different approaches to modularity the tool makes quite evident. The focus is the illustration of these issues through the analysis results for several sizable HEP software projects

  20. Isotropic gates and large gamma detector arrays versus angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, V.E.; Duchene, G.

    1997-01-01

    Angular information extracted from in-beam γ ray measurements are of great importance for γ ray multipolarity and nuclear spin assignments. In our days large Ge detector arrays became available allowing the measurements of extremely weak γ rays in almost 4π sr solid angle (e.g., EUROGAM detector array). Given the high detector efficiency it is common for the mean suppressed coincidence multiplicity to reach values as high as 4 to 6. Thus, it is possible to gate on particular γ rays in order to enhance the relative statistics of a definite reaction channel and/or a definite decaying path in the level scheme of the selected residual nucleus. As compared to angular correlations, the conditioned angular distribution spectra exhibit larger statistics because in the latter the gate-setting γ ray may be observed by all the detectors in the array, relaxing somehow the geometrical restrictions of the angular correlations. Since the in-beam γ ray emission is anisotropic one could inquire that gate setting as mentioned above, based on anisotropic γ ray which would perturb the angular distributions in the unfolded events. As our work proved, there is no reason to worry about this if the energy gate runs over the whole solid angle in an ideal 4π sr detector, i.e., if the gate is isotropic. In real quasi 4π sr detector arrays the corresponding quasi isotropic gate preserves the angular properties of the unfolded data, too. However extraction of precise angular distribution coefficient especially a 4 , requires the consideration of the deviation of the quasi isotropic gate relative to the (ideal) isotropic gate

  1. Development of large size Micromegas detectors for the upgrade of the ATLAS experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN f oresees a luminosity increase by a factor 3 compared to the LHC luminosity design value. To c ope with the corresponding rate increase, the Muon System of the ATLAS experiment at CER N needs to be upgraded. In the first station of the high rapidity region, micromegas det ectors have been chosen as the main tracking chambers but will, at the same time, also contribut e to the trigger. We describe the R&D; efforts that led to the construction of the first (1 × 2.4 m 2 ) large micromegas detectors at CERN and outline the next steps towards the construction of the 12 00 m 2 of micromegas detectors for the ATLAS upgrade. The technical solutions, adopted in the c onstruction of the chamber as well as results on the detector performance with cosmic rays are s hown.

  2. The position response of a large-volume segmented germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descovich, M.; Nolan, P.J.; Boston, A.J.; Dobson, J.; Gros, S.; Cresswell, J.R.; Simpson, J.; Lazarus, I.; Regan, P.H.; Valiente-Dobon, J.J.; Sellin, P.; Pearson, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    The position response of a large-volume segmented coaxial germanium detector is reported. The detector has 24-fold segmentation on its outer contact. The output from each contact was sampled with fast digital signal processing electronics in order to determine the position of the γ-ray interaction from the signal pulse shape. The interaction position was reconstructed in a polar coordinate system by combining the radial information, contained in the rise-time of the pulse leading edge, with the azimuthal information, obtained from the magnitude of the transient charge signals induced on the neighbouring segments. With this method, a position resolution of 3-7mm is achieved in both the radial and the azimuthal directions

  3. The position response of a large-volume segmented germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descovich, M. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mdescovich@lbl.gov; Nolan, P.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Boston, A.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Dobson, J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Gros, S. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Cresswell, J.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Regan, P.H. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Valiente-Dobon, J.J. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Sellin, P. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Pearson, C.J. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-21

    The position response of a large-volume segmented coaxial germanium detector is reported. The detector has 24-fold segmentation on its outer contact. The output from each contact was sampled with fast digital signal processing electronics in order to determine the position of the {gamma}-ray interaction from the signal pulse shape. The interaction position was reconstructed in a polar coordinate system by combining the radial information, contained in the rise-time of the pulse leading edge, with the azimuthal information, obtained from the magnitude of the transient charge signals induced on the neighbouring segments. With this method, a position resolution of 3-7mm is achieved in both the radial and the azimuthal directions.

  4. Rejecting escape events in large volume Ge detectors by a pulse shape selection procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Zoppo, A.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.

    1993-01-01

    The dependence of the response to γ-rays of a large volume Ge detector on the interval width of a selected initial rise pulse slope is investigated. The number of escape events associated with a small pulse slope is found to be greater than the corresponding number of full energy events. An escape event rejection procedure based on the observed correlation between energy deposition and pulse shape is discussed. Such a procedure seems particularly suited for the design of highly granular large volume Ge detector arrays. (orig.)

  5. Springer Autopsy of measurements with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues

    2017-01-01

    A lot of attention has been devoted to the study of discoveries in high energy physics (HEP), but less on measurements aiming at improving an existing theory like the standard model of particle physics, getting more precise values for the parameters of the theory or establishing relationships between them. This paper provides a detailed and critical study of how measurements are performed in recent HEP experiments, taking examples from differential cross section measurements with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. This study will be used to provide an elucidation of the concept of event used in HEP, in order to determine what constitutes an observation and what does not. It will highlight the essential place taken by theory-ladenness in order to produce observational facts, and will show how uncertainty and sensitivity estimates constitute an operational approach to robustness, inside the practice of science, avoiding potential circularity problem traditionally implied by theory-ladenness. This is in contrast to ...

  6. Towards an HTTP Ecosystem for HEP Data Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furano, Fabrizio; Devresse, Adrien; Keeble, Oliver; Hellmich, Martin; Ayllón, Alejandro Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we present a vision for the use of the HTTP protocol for data access and data management in the context of HEP. The evolution of the DPM/LFC software stacks towards a modern framework that can be plugged into Apache servers triggered various initiatives that successfully demonstrated the use of HTTP-based protocols for data access, federation and transfer. This includes the evolution of the FTS3 system towards being able to manage third-party transfers using HTTP. Given the flexibility of the methods, the feature set may also include a subset of the SRM functionality that is relevant to disk systems. The application domain for such an ecosystem of services goes from large scale, Gridlike computing to the data access from laptops, profiting from tools that are shared with the Web community, like browsers, clients libraries and others. Particular focus was put into emphasizing the flexibility of the frameworks, which can interface with a very broad range of components, data stores, catalogues and metadata stores, including the possibility of building high performance dynamic federations of endpoints that build on the fly the feeling of a unique, seamless very efficient system. The overall goal is to leverage standards and standard practices, and use them to provide the higher level functionalities that are needed to fulfil the complex problem of Data Access in HEP. Other points of interest are about harmonizing the possibilities given by the HTTP/WebDAV protocols with existing frameworks like ROOT and already existing Storage Federations based on the XROOTD framework. We also provide quantitative evaluations of the performance that is achievable using HTTP for remote transfer and remote I/O in the context of HEP data. The idea is to contribute the parts that can make possible an ecosystem of services and applications, where the HEP-related features are covered, and the door is open to standard solutions and tools provided by third parties, in the

  7. Reconstruction of scintillations coordinates in cylindrical large detector with radial arrangement of photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, V M; Verbitskij, V S; Verbitskij, S S; Lapik, M A; Tselebrovskij, A N; Lapik, A M; Rusakov, A V; Savopulo, M L; Smirnov, V V; Chubarov, M N

    2002-01-01

    Paper describes algorithm to calculate scintillation coordinates elaborated for a coordinate-sensitive large detector based on liquid scintillator with radial arrangement of nine FEU-174 photomultipliers. Paper contains the simulation results of coordinate resolution dependence in detector centre on energy of gamma-quanta within 0.2-8 MeV range. Using this algorithm one processed the experimental data obtained with application of sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-radiation source and the results of determination of scintillation coordinates for gamma-quanta beam. The accuracy of coordinate determination in detector centre when applying the descried algorithm constitutes approx 10 mm

  8. An autonomic approach to configure HEP (High Energy Physics) experiments, applied to LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty)

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, L; Charpentier, P

    2006-01-01

    Properly configuring an HEP (High Energy Phys ics) experiment becomes a more and more complex task as the number of electronics modules grows and technologies evolve quickly. Anticipating a fault in the software or in the hardware during the configuration or the data taking requires an adaptive and modular control system. The introduction of autonomic tools and data bases in the HEP world is quite recent and contributes to implement a more reliable system . The LHCb control system innovates as it has been built using autonomic tools. The main contribution of this PhD is the implementation of an autonomic 3-Tier architectur e to configure the LHCb experiment which is a huge network of devices of different types, and its integrat ion in the control system. This new type of autonomics architecture consists of: • A database layer. A relational Oracle databa se implemented using the Oracle technology contains the information...

  9. Large area, low capacitance Si(Li) detectors for high rate x-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossington, C.S.; Fine, P.M.; Madden, N.W.

    1992-10-01

    Large area, single-element Si(Li) detectors have been fabricated using a novel geometry which yields detectors with reduced capacitance and hence reduced noise at short amplifier pulse-processing times. A typical device employing the new geometry with a thickness of 6 mm and an active area of 175 mm 2 has a capacitance of only 0.5 pf, compared to 2.9 pf for a conventional planar device with equivalent dimensions. These new low capacitance detectors, used in conjunction with low capacitance field effect transistors, will result in x-ray spectrometers capable of operating at very high count rates while still maintaining excellent energy resolution. The spectral response of the low capacitance detectors to a wide range of x-ray energies at 80 K is comparable to typical state-of-the-art conventional Si(Li) devices. In addition to their low capacitance, the new devices offer other advantages over conventional detectors. Detector fabrication procedures, I-V and C-V characteristics, noise performance, and spectral response to 2-60 keV x-rays are described

  10. Studies on a pulse shaping system for fast coincidence with very large volume HPGe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.; Chatterjee, M.B.; Sinha, B.K.; Bhattacharya, R.

    1987-01-01

    A variant of the leading edge timing (LET) has been proposed which compensates the ''walk'' due to risetime spread in very large volume (∝100 cm 3 ) HPGe detectors. The method - shape compensated leading edge timing (SCLET) - can be used over a wide dynamic range of energies with 100% efficiency and has been compared with the LET and ARC methods. A time resolution of 10 ns fwhm and 21 ns fwtm has been obtained with 22 Na gamma rays and two HPGe detectors of 96 and 114 cm 3 volume. This circuit is easy to duplicate and use can be a low cost alternative to commercial circuits in experiments requiring a large number of detectors. (orig.)

  11. The path toward HEP High Performance Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, John; Carminati, Federico; Gheata, Andrei; Wenzel, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    High Energy Physics code has been known for making poor use of high performance computing architectures. Efforts in optimising HEP code on vector and RISC architectures have yield limited results and recent studies have shown that, on modern architectures, it achieves a performance between 10% and 50% of the peak one. Although several successful attempts have been made to port selected codes on GPUs, no major HEP code suite has a 'High Performance' implementation. With LHC undergoing a major upgrade and a number of challenging experiments on the drawing board, HEP cannot any longer neglect the less-than-optimal performance of its code and it has to try making the best usage of the hardware. This activity is one of the foci of the SFT group at CERN, which hosts, among others, the Root and Geant4 project. The activity of the experiments is shared and coordinated via a Concurrency Forum, where the experience in optimising HEP code is presented and discussed. Another activity is the Geant-V project, centred on th...

  12. A large area detector for x-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodricks, B.; Huang, Qiang; Hopf, R.; Wang, Kemei.

    1993-01-01

    A large area detector for x-ray synchrotron applications has been developed. The front end of this device consist of a scintillator coupled to a fiber-optic taper. The fiber-optic taper is comprised of 4 smaller (70 mm x 70 mm) tapers fused together in a square matrix giving an active area of 140 mm x 140 mm. Each taper has a demagnification of 5.5 resulting in four small ends that are 12 mm diagonally across. The small ends of each taper are coupled to four microchannel-plate-based image intensifiers. The output from each image intensifier is focused onto a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detector. The four CCDs are read out in parallel and are independently controlled. The image intensifiers also act as fast (20 ns) electronic shutters. The system is capable of displaying images in real time. Additionally, with independent control on the readout of each row of data from the CCD, the system is capable of performing high speed imaging through novel readout manipulation

  13. Mapping the Large Area Straw Detectors of the COMPASS Experiment With X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, K.; Dunnweber, W.; Dedek, N.; Faessler, M.; Geyer, R.; Ilgner, C.; Peshekhonov, V.; Wellenstein, H.

    2005-06-01

    In the COMPASS experiment at CERN, large straw drift tube detectors are used for large-angle tracking. To minimize the total areal density, a self supporting structure of thin-walled plastic tubes was chosen and, hence, a loss in mechanical precision was accepted. A complete mapping of the anode wire coordinate grid was required. An X-ray apparatus using a charge-coupled device (CCD) as imaging detector was built to investigate the mechanical properties and to calibrate (offline) the wire positions. Deviations of typically 200-400 /spl mu/m from the nominal positions, defined by equal spacing, are found across the detector area of 8 m/sup 2/. With a calibration method based on high-resolution CCD imaging and pattern recognition algorithms, the absolute wire coordinates are determined with an accuracy better than 30 /spl mu/m across the whole detector area. Temperature effects are clearly seen. Their inhomogenity limits the achievable accuracy to about 50 /spl mu/m under realistic experimental conditions, which is sufficient in view of the intrinsic straw resolution of 200 /spl mu/m for minimum ionizing particles. The offline calibration was checked with particle tracks in the experimental setup, running COMPASS with 160 GeV/c muons. Tracks reconstructed with other detectors that cover a central angular range were used for this comparison. Good agreement is found between these in situ measurements and the X-ray calibration.

  14. The vertex and large angle detectors of a spectrometer system for high energy muon physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.; Dobinson, R.W.; Dosselli, U.; Edwards, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Kellner, G.; Montgomery, H.E.; Mueller, H.; Osborne, A.M.; Scaramelli, A.; Watson, E.; Brasse, F.W.; Falley, G.; Flauger, W.; Gayler, J.; Goessling, C.; Koll, J.; Korbel, V.; Nassalski, J.; Singer, G.; Thiele, K.; Zank, P.; Figiel, J.; Janata, F.; Rondio, E.; Studt, M.; Torre, A. de la; Bernaudin, B.; Blum, D.; Heusse, P.; Jaffre, M.; Noppe, J.M.; Pascaud, C.; Bertsch, Y.; Bouard, X. de; Broll, C.; Coignet, G.; Favier, J.; Jansco, G.; Lebeau, M.; Maire, M.; Minssieux, H.; Montanet, F.; Moynot, M.; Nagy, E.; Payre, P.; Perrot, G.; Pessard, H.; Ribarics, P.; Schneegans, M.; Thenard, J.M.; Botterill, D.; Carr, J.; Clifft, R.; Edwards, M.; Norton, P.R.; Rousseau, M.D.; Sproston, M.; Thompson, J.C.; Albanese, J.P.; Allkofer, O.C.; Arneodo, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Becks, K.H.; Bee, C.; Benchouk, C.; Bianchi, F.; Bibby, J.; Bird, I.; Boehm, E.; Braun, H.; Brown, S.; Brueck, H.; Callebaut, D.; Cobb, J.H.; Combley, F.; Cornelssen, M.; Costa, F.; Coughlan, J.; Court, G.R.; D'Agostini, G.; Dau, W.D.; Davies, J.K.; Dengler, F.; Derado, I.; Drees, J.; Dumont, J.J.; Eckardt, V.; Ferrero, M.I.; Gamet, R.; Gebauer, H.J.; Haas, J.; Hasert, F.J.; Hayman, P.; Johnson, A.S.; Kabuss, E.M.; Kahl, T.; Krueger, J.; Landgraf, U.; Lanske, D.; Loken, J.; Manz, A.; Mermet-Guyennet, M.; Mohr, W.; Moser, K.; Mount, R.P.; Paul, L.; Peroni, C.; Pettingale, J.; Poetsch, M.; Preissner, H.; Renton, P.; Rith, K.; Roehner, F.; Schlagboehmer, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schultze, K.; Shiers, J.; Sloan, T.; Smith, R.; Stier, H.E.; Stockhausen, W.; Wahlen, H.; Wallucks, W.; Whalley, M.; Williams, D.A.; Williams, W.S.C.; Wimpenny, S.; Windmolders, R.; Winkmueller, G.; Wolf, G.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of the detector system which forms the large angle spectrometer and vertex detector of the EMC spectrometer. The apparatus is used in the NA9 experiment which studies the complete hadronic final state from the interaction of high energy muons. (orig.)

  15. Prospects for very large, sensitive water Cherenkov detectors for proton decay and neutrino oscillations search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of constructing large water Cherenkov detectors with mass 10 5 to 10 6 tons that would be sensitive to a few hundred MeV - few GeV energy release. The 10 5 ton detector would be suitable for a search for certain proton decay modes whereas the 10 6 ton detector would act as an active shield for the proton decay detector and as a nu/sub e/, nu/sub μ/ and possibly nu/sub tau/ interaction detector. The neutrino physics would include a sensitive search for neutrino oscillations using atmospheric neutrinos. The location of this detector could be in the deep ocean near Hawaii or in a deep trench between Cuba and Haiti or perhaps deep lakes like Superior or Baikal if flexible containers are used

  16. Encefalopatia hepática porto-sistémica

    OpenAIRE

    Massinha, Paulo Sérgio Arruda

    2011-01-01

    Trabalho de projecto de mestrado em Medicina (Gastroenterologia), apresentado á Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra A encefalopatia hepática é uma das principais complicações da doença hepática crónica e pode estar presente em 50 a 70% de todos os pacientes cirróticos, incluindo aqueles com alterações demonstráveis apenas por testes psicométricos, sendo uma complicação de grande relevância clínica. Na insuficiência hepática aguda, os doentes podem sucumbir a uma mo...

  17. Study of apoptotic mechanisms induced by all-trans retinoic acid and its 13-cis isomer on cellular lines of human hepato carcinoma Hep3B and HepG2; Estudio de los mecanismos apoptoticos inducidos por el acido retinoico todo-trans y su isomero 13-cis en las lineas celulares de hepatocarcinoma humano Hep3B y HepG2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce Vargas, Frederick [Costa Rica

    2006-07-01

    Two cellular lines of liver cancer (Hep3B and HepG2) were incubated during different periods of time with some concentrations of two retinoic acid isomers (ATRA and 13-cis AR) and with 5-fu chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin and paclitaxel. It was determined if these substances leaded cytotoxicity, apoptosis and if they modified the expression of different genes related to cellular death by apoptosis, in order to explain the hepatocellular carcinoma resistance to these drugs. HepG2 cells showed more resistance than Hep3B cells to 72 hours of treatment, as much ATRA as the 13-cis AR were toxic and produced apoptosis in two cellular lines. This type of cellular death seems to be mediated by a decrease in Bcl-xL concentration in Hep3B cells treated with both retinoids an increase in bax concentration in HepG2 cells treated with 13-cis AR. It were observed 3 and 8 proteolysis of procaspase in Hep3B cells, suggesting extrinsic via activation of the apoptosis, while cellular death in HepG2 cells seems to be independent of caspases. Cisplatin and paclitaxel leaded cytotoxicity to 48 hours of treatment, with significant differences between two cellular lines only in case of paclitaxel. Hep3B cells treated with cisplatin and HepG2 cells treated with paclytaxel suffered apoptosis. 5-FU produced toxicity only when it was used to high concentrations and the mechanism of cellular death induced by this agent seems to be primarily necrosis in Hep3B cells and apoptosis in HepG2. There was decrease in the Bcl-xL concentration in two cellular lines when it was treated with cisplatin and in HepG2 cells treated with 5-FU. Bax concentration there no was modified with no treatment. Activation of the 3 caspases seems to happen only in HepG2 cells with 5-FU and paclytaxel. These two agents, also, decreased the survivin concentration of HepG2 cells. Treatments of the three drugs produced an increase in the expression of this gen in Hep3B cells, which might explain partially the resistance

  18. Experiments in LEENA facility with modified wire type leak detector layout in large sodium pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, G.; Chandramouli, S.; Nashine, B.K.; Selvaraj, P.; Rajan, K.K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • FBR large horizontal secondary pipeline were simulated and five sodium leak experiments were conducted by providing modified wire type leak detector layout at 550 °C. • Early detection of sodium leak is needed for minimizing the sodium leaked out and consequent damages. • PFBR leak detector layout on large horizontal pipelines can detect a leak rate of 200 g/h within 6 h. • By reducing the distance between leak point and detector to half, detection time was reduced to 1/6th and found that a leak rate of 200 g/h can be detected in one hour. • A relationship between leak rate and detection time was established based on experimental results. - Abstract: Sodium cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (SFRs) are envisaged in the second phase of Indian nuclear power programme. Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in the SFRs due to its favourable nuclear properties and excellent heat transfer properties. Leaks in sodium systems have the potential of being exceptionally hazardous due to the reaction of liquid sodium with oxygen and water vapour in the air. When a sodium leak occurs, the sodium leak rate, the total quantity of sodium leaked and leak detector layout governs the detection time. Other factors to be considered are insulation material packing condition, distance between the leak point and detector, heater layout, pipe geometry, temperature etc. Potential regions of leakage in Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) sodium circuits are near welds, high stress areas and regions subjected to thermal striping. Early detection of leak is needed for minimizing the quantity of sodium leaked to outside and consequent damages. Three wire type leak detectors (WLDs positioned at 90°, 180° and 270°) working on conductivity principle are used for detecting sodium leak in the large horizontal secondary sodium pipelines of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). It was found from the upper boundary curve based on LEENA (LEak Experiments in NAtrium) facility experimental

  19. Summary of the Very Large Hadron Collider Physics and Detector subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, D.; Keller, S.

    1996-01-01

    We summarize the activity of the Very Large Hadron Collider Physics and Detector subgroup during Snowmass 96. Members of the group: M. Albrow, R. Diebold, S. Feher, L. Jones, R. Harris, D. Hedin, W. Kilgore, J. Lykken, F. Olness, T. Rizzo, V. Sirotenko, and J. Womersley. 9 refs

  20. A Large Neutrino Detector Facility at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremenko, Y.V.

    1999-01-01

    The ORLaND (Oak Ridge Large Neutrino Detector) collaboration proposes to construct a large neutrino detector in an underground experimental hall adjacent to the first target station of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The main mission of a large (2000 ton) Scintillation-Cherenkov detector is to measure bar ν μ -> bar ν e neutrino oscillation parameters more accurately than they can be determined in other experiments, or significantly extending the covered parameter space below (sin'20 le 10 -4 ). In addition to the neutrino oscillation measurements, ORLaND would be capable of making precise measurements of sin 2 θ W , search for the magnetic moment of the muon neutrino, and investigate the anomaly in the KARMEN time spectrum, which has been attributed to a new neutral particle. With the same facility an extensive program of measurements of neutrino nucleus cross sections is also planned to support nuclear astrophysics

  1. A large, high performance, curved 2D position-sensitive neutron detector

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, J W; Mahler, G J; Makowiecki, D S; Mead, J A; Radeka, V; Schaknowski, N A; Smith, G C; Yu, B

    2002-01-01

    A new position-sensitive neutron detector has been designed and constructed for a protein crystallography station at LANL's pulsed neutron source. This station will be one of the most advanced instruments at a major neutron user facility for protein crystallography, fiber and membrane diffraction. The detector, based on neutron absorption in sup 3 He, has a large sensitive area of 3000 cm sup 2 , angular coverage of 120 deg. , timing resolution of 1 mu s, rate capability in excess of 10 sup 6 s sup - sup 1 , position resolution of about 1.5 mm FWHM, and efficiency >50% for neutrons of interest in the range 1-10 A. Features that are key to these remarkable specifications are the utilization of eight independently operating segments within a single gas volume, fabrication of the detector vessel and internal segments with a radius of curvature of about 70 cm, optimized position readout based on charge division and signal shaping with gated baseline restoration, and engineering design with high-strength aluminum ...

  2. A gas proportional scintillation counter for use in large area detector systems without photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruch, J.E.F.; Brooke, G.; Kellerman, E.W.; Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The properties of a prototype gas proportional scintillation (GPS) detector module are described. The module (25X25X14cm 3 ) is intended to form the basic unit of large area (up to approximately 100 m 2 ) calorimetric cosmic ray burst detector. Ionisation from particle tracks in the module is collected onto a point electrode where the GPS signal is generated. A concave mirror focusses this point source onto the end of a fibre optic light guide. In the proposed large area detector these fibres are brought together onto a low light level TV camera which performs the readout. The prototype module has demonstrated an adequate light output for the detection of single muons by such a readout system and also permitted the investigation of the main operating parameters (gas mixture, EHT, pressure, etc) and operational requirements such as proportionality and long term stability. (Auth.)

  3. Lipidose hepática felina

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fábia Capeleiro Henriques Siqueira da

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Inicialmente descrita como uma doença idiopática por Barsanti et al em 1977, a lipidose hepática felina (LHF) é caracterizada actualmente como uma patologia secundária a um processo primário em mais de 95% dos casos. Esta patologia é mais comum em gatos com condição corporal elevada sujeitos a um período prolongado de privação de alimento. Os gatos apresentam alguma predisposição para a acumulação de triglicéridos a nível hepá...

  4. Radiation Hard Silicon Photonics Mach-Zehnder Modulator for HEP applications: all-Synopsys SentaurusTM Pre-Irradiation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cammarata, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Photonics may well provide the opportunity for new levels of integration between detectors and their readout electronics. This technology is thus being evaluated at CERN in order to assess its suitability for use in particle physics experiments. In order to check the agreement with measurements and the validity of previous device simulations, a pure Synopsys SentaurusTM simulation of an un-irradiated Mach-Zehnder silicon modulator has been carried out during the Summer Student project. Index Terms—Silicon Photonics, Mach-Zehnder modulator, electro-optic simulation, Synopsys SentaurusTM, electro-optic measurement, HEP.

  5. Assembly, characterization, and operation of large-scale TES detector arrays for ACTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christine Goodwin

    2016-01-01

    The Polarization-sensitive Receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACTPol) is designed to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies on small angular scales. Measurements of the CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies have produced arguably the most important cosmological data to date, establishing the LambdaCDM model and providing the best constraints on most of its parameters. To detect the very small fluctuations in the CMB signal across the sky, ACTPol uses feedhorn-coupled Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) detectors. A TES is a superconducting thin film operated in the transition region between the superconducting and normal states, where it functions as a highly sensitive resistive thermometer. In this thesis, aspects of the assembly, characterization, and in-field operation of the ACTPol TES detector arrays are discussed. First, a novel microfabrication process for producing high-density superconducting aluminum/polyimide flexible circuitry (flex) designed to connect large-scale detector arrays to the first stage of readout is presented. The flex is used in parts of the third ACTPol array and is currently being produced for use in the AdvACT detector arrays, which will begin to replace the ACTPol arrays in 2016. Next, we describe methods and results for the in-lab and on-telescope characterization of the detectors in the third ACTPol array. Finally, we describe the ACTPol TES R(T,I) transition shapes and how they affect the detector calibration and operation. Methods for measuring the exact detector calibration and re-biasing functions, taking into account the R(T,I) transition shape, are presented.

  6. LEP dominates LP-HEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Gordon

    1991-09-15

    CERN's LEP electron-positron collider was the star of this year's major physics meeting - the Joint International Lepton-Photon Symposium and Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics (LP-HEP) - held in Geneva from 25 July - 1 August.

  7. II - Multivariate Classification and Machine Learning in HEP

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    A summary of the history of deep-learning is given and the difference to traditional artificial neural networks is discussed. Advanced methods like convoluted neural networks, recurrent neural networks and unsupervised training are introduced. Interesting examples from this emerging field outside HEP are presented. Possible applications in HEP are discussed.

  8. The Retina Algorithm

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; PUNZI, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Charge particle reconstruction is one of the most demanding computational tasks found in HEP, and it becomes increasingly important to perform it in real time. We envision that HEP would greatly benefit from achieving a long-term goal of making track reconstruction happen transparently as part of the detector readout ("detector-embedded tracking"). We describe here a track-reconstruction approach based on a massively parallel pattern-recognition algorithm, inspired by studies of the processing of visual images by the brain as it happens in nature ('RETINA algorithm'). It turns out that high-quality tracking in large HEP detectors is possible with very small latencies, when this algorithm is implemented in specialized processors, based on current state-of-the-art, high-speed/high-bandwidth digital devices.

  9. A large solid angle multiparameter neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricco, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Corvisiero, P.; Durante, E.; Maggiolo, S.; Prati, P.; Rottura, A.; Taiuti, M.

    1991-01-01

    A 4π neutron detector has been realized using organic scintillators: the detector is suitable for high efficiency, low background measurements of very low neutron rates in the 0.6-5 MeV energy range. Gamma-neutron discrimination has been performed by pulse shape, energy and neutron lifetime analysis and backgrounds have been reduced by anticoincidence detectors and paraffin-lead shielding. Tests of efficiency, energy resolution and radiation identification have been made with a low intensity Am-Be neutron source. (orig.)

  10. Front-end electronics for multichannel semiconductor detector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grybos, P

    2010-01-01

    Front-end electronics for multichannel semiconductor detektor systems Volume 08, EuCARD Editorial Series on Accelerator Science and Technology The monograph is devoted to many different aspects related to front-end electronics for semiconductor detector systems, namely: − designing and testing silicon position sensitive detectors for HEP experiments and X-ray imaging applications, − designing and testing of multichannel readout electronics for semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications, especially for noise minimization, fast signal processing, crosstalk reduction and good matching performance, − optimization of semiconductor detection systems in respect to the effects of radiation damage. The monograph is the result mainly of the author's experience in the above-mentioned areas and it is an attempt of a comprehensive presentation of issues related to the position sensitive detection system working in a single photon counting mode and intended to X-ray imaging applications. The structure...

  11. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory [Adelphi Technology LLC, Purdue Technology Center, 5225 Exploration Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46241 (United States); Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J. [Rapiscan Laboratories, 520 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan [Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  12. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory; Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J.; Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  13. INSPIRE-HEP Ergys Dona Summer Student Report 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Dona, Ergys

    2015-01-01

    INSPIRE-HEP consists of millions of bibliographic records, while new records are continuously being submitted all the time. For indexing and organising reasons, it is very important that these records contain correct and accurate metadata. The maintenance of such a large number of records is error prone, time consuming and generally difficult if performed manually. This document describes the work carried out while developing parts of the Invenio-Checker module, a piece of software that tries to automate the tasks mentioned above, as well as the abilities obtained during the development.

  14. Acceptance analysis for a large area monopole experiment using nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegan, Monica; Popa, V.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the acceptance of a horizontal plane of 1000 m 2 nuclear track detector for an anisotropic flux of GUT magnetic monopoles (MM) with m MM ∼ 10 16 GeV and g = g D , 2g D , 3g D , considering the monopole energy loss in Earth. It is estimated that a large area experiment for the search of GUT monopoles that uses such detectors and would operate a reasonable number of years could reach a sensitivity of the order of few 10 -17 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 . (authors)

  15. Simulator For The Linear Collider (SLIC): A Tool For ILC Detector Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Norman; McCormick, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    The Simulator for the Linear Collider (SLIC) is a detector simulation program based on the GEANT4 toolkit. It is intended to enable end users to easily model detector concepts by providing the ability to fully describe detectors using plain text files read in by a common executable at runtime. The detector geometry, typically the most complex part of a detector simulation, is described at runtime using the Linear Collider Detector Description (LCDD). This system allows end users to create complex detector geometries in a standard XML format rather than procedural code such as C++. The LCDD system is based on the Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) from the LHC Applications Group (LCG). The geometry system facilitates the study of different full detector design and their variations. SLIC uses the StdHep format to read input created by event generators and outputs events in the Linear Collider IO (LCIO) format. The SLIC package provides a binding to GEANT4 and many additional commands and features for the end user

  16. Simulator for the Linear Collider (SLIC): a Tool for ILC Detector Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, N.; McCormick, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Simulator for the Linear Collider (SLIC) is a detector simulation program based on the GEANT4 toolkit. It is intended to enable end users to easily model detector concepts by providing the ability to fully describe detectors using plain text files read in by a common executable at runtime. The detector geometry, typically the most complex part of a detector simulation, is described at runtime using the Linear Collider Detector Description (LCDD). This system allows end users to create complex detector geometries in a standard XML format rather than procedural code such as C++. The LCDD system is based on the Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) from the LHC Applications Group (LCG). The geometry system facilitates the study of different full detector design and their variations. SLIC uses the StdHep format to read input created by event generators and outputs events in the Linear Collider IO (LCIO) format. The SLIC package provides a binding to GEANT4 and many additional commands and features for the end user

  17. Demonstration and comparison of tuned and detuned signal recycling in a large-scale gravitational wave detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hild, S; Grote, H; Hewtison, M; Lueck, H; Smith, J R; Strain, K A; Willke, B; Danzmann, K

    2007-01-01

    The British/German gravitational wave detector GEO 600 located near Hannover in Germany is the first large-scale gravitational-wave detector using the advanced technique of signal recycling. Currently the instrument operates in detuned signal recycling mode. Several problems arise due to the fact that the signal recycling cavity changes amplitude and phase of all light fields (carrier and sidebands) present at the dark-port. In addition, in the case of detuned signal recycling this leads to unbalanced sideband fields at the detector output. The large amplitude modulation caused by this asymmetry does not carry any gravitational wave information, but might be the cause of saturation and nonlinearities on the main photodiode. We developed and demonstrated a new control method to realize tuned signal recycling operation in a large-scale gravitational wave detector. A detailed comparison of tuned and detuned signal recycling operation is given. The response function of the system (optical gain) was measured and compared, as was the size of amplitude modulation on the main photodiode. Some important noise couplings were measured and partly found to be strongly reduced in the case of tuned signal recycling operation

  18. Feature Importance for Human Epithelial (HEp-2 Cell Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Gupta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Indirect Immuno-Fluorescence (IIF microscopy imaging of human epithelial (HEp-2 cells is a popular method for diagnosing autoimmune diseases. Considering large data volumes, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD systems, based on image-based classification, can help in terms of time, effort, and reliability of diagnosis. Such approaches are based on extracting some representative features from the images. This work explores the selection of the most distinctive features for HEp-2 cell images using various feature selection (FS methods. Considering that there is no single universally optimal feature selection technique, we also propose hybridization of one class of FS methods (filter methods. Furthermore, the notion of variable importance for ranking features, provided by another type of approaches (embedded methods such as Random forest, Random uniform forest is exploited to select a good subset of features from a large set, such that addition of new features does not increase classification accuracy. In this work, we have also, with great consideration, designed class-specific features to capture morphological visual traits of the cell patterns. We perform various experiments and discussions to demonstrate the effectiveness of FS methods along with proposed and a standard feature set. We achieve state-of-the-art performance even with small number of features, obtained after the feature selection.

  19. DAPHNE: A large-acceptance tracking detector for the study of photoreactions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audit, G.; Bloch, A.; Hose, N. d' ; Isbert, V.; Martin, J.; Powers, R.; Sundermann, D.; Tamas, G.; Wallace, P.A.; Bechade, J.; Carton, P.H.; Conat, S.; Foucaud, D.; Goldsticker, M. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire); Altieri, S.; Pedroni, P. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy)); Braghieri, A.; Fossati, F.; Pinelli, T. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy) Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica)

    1991-03-15

    A large-acceptance (94% of 4{pi} sr) hadron detector capable of handling multiparticle final states is described. The track reconstruction capability, energy resolution, particle identification capability and neutral-particle detection efficiency of the detector are discussed and the results of tests shown. Tests have been performed both with cosmic rays and in a realistic experimental situation using a 500 MeV photon beam impinging on hydrogen and deuteron targets. (orig.).

  20. Study of apoptotic mechanisms induced by all-trans retinoic acid and its 13-cis isomer on cellular lines of human hepato carcinoma Hep3B and HepG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce Vargas, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Two cellular lines of liver cancer (Hep3B and HepG2) were incubated during different periods of time with some concentrations of two retinoic acid isomers (ATRA and 13-cis AR) and with 5-fu chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin and paclitaxel. It was determined if these substances leaded cytotoxicity, apoptosis and if they modified the expression of different genes related to cellular death by apoptosis, in order to explain the hepatocellular carcinoma resistance to these drugs. HepG2 cells showed more resistance than Hep3B cells to 72 hours of treatment, as much ATRA as the 13-cis AR were toxic and produced apoptosis in two cellular lines. This type of cellular death seems to be mediated by a decrease in Bcl-xL concentration in Hep3B cells treated with both retinoids an increase in bax concentration in HepG2 cells treated with 13-cis AR. It were observed 3 and 8 proteolysis of procaspase in Hep3B cells, suggesting extrinsic via activation of the apoptosis, while cellular death in HepG2 cells seems to be independent of caspases. Cisplatin and paclitaxel leaded cytotoxicity to 48 hours of treatment, with significant differences between two cellular lines only in case of paclitaxel. Hep3B cells treated with cisplatin and HepG2 cells treated with paclytaxel suffered apoptosis. 5-FU produced toxicity only when it was used to high concentrations and the mechanism of cellular death induced by this agent seems to be primarily necrosis in Hep3B cells and apoptosis in HepG2. There was decrease in the Bcl-xL concentration in two cellular lines when it was treated with cisplatin and in HepG2 cells treated with 5-FU. Bax concentration there no was modified with no treatment. Activation of the 3 caspases seems to happen only in HepG2 cells with 5-FU and paclytaxel. These two agents, also, decreased the survivin concentration of HepG2 cells. Treatments of the three drugs produced an increase in the expression of this gen in Hep3B cells, which might explain partially the resistance

  1. LEP dominates LP-HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    1991-01-01

    CERN's LEP electron-positron collider was the star of this year's major physics meeting - the Joint International Lepton-Photon Symposium and Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics (LP-HEP) - held in Geneva from 25 July - 1 August

  2. Assessment of present and future large-scale semiconductor detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spieler, H.G.; Haller, E.E.

    1984-11-01

    The performance of large-scale semiconductor detector systems is assessed with respect to their theoretical potential and to the practical limitations imposed by processing techniques, readout electronics and radiation damage. In addition to devices which detect reaction products directly, the analysis includes photodetectors for scintillator arrays. Beyond present technology we also examine currently evolving structures and techniques which show potential for producing practical devices in the foreseeable future

  3. Novel results on fluence dependence and annealing behavior of oxygenated and non-oxygenated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, C; Lozano, M; Campabadal, F; Santander, J; Fonseca, L; Ullán, M; Moreno, A J D

    2002-01-01

    This work presents the latest results on electrical properties degradation of silicon radiation detectors manufactured at the Institut de Microelectronica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM) subjected to proton irradiation at CERN, Switzerland, for high-energy physics (HEP) applications. The evolution of full depletion voltage and leakage current with fluence as well as their annealing behavior with time were studied. The results obtained extend the previous understanding of the role played by technology and oxygenated material in hardening silicon radiation detectors. (15 refs).

  4. High irradiation and ageing properties of resistive Micromegas detectors at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Andreou, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Resistive Micromegas have been developed in recent years with the aim of making this technology usable in HEP experiments where the high sparking rate of classical Micromegas is not tolerable. A resistive Micromegas with four layers and an active surface of 0.5 m2 each, has been designed and built at CERN as prototype of the detectors to be used for the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment. The detector has been exposed to an intense gamma source of 16 TBq in order to study the effects of ageing and evaluate the detector behavior under high irradiation.

  5. Evaluation of silicon micro strip detectors with large read-out pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyo, K.; Yamamura, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Avrillon, S.; Asano, Y.; Bozek, A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Palka, H.; Rozanska, M.; Rybicki, K.

    1996-01-01

    For the development of the silicon micro-strip detector with the pitch of the readout strips as large as 250 μm on the ohmic side, we made samples with different structures. Charge collection was evaluated to optimize the width of implant strips, aluminum read-out strips, and/or the read-out scheme among strips. (orig.)

  6. Large-Area Neutron Detector based on Li-6 Pulse Mode Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.; Ianakiev, K.D.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Makela, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    Prototypes of a Li-6 Pulse Mode Ionization Chamber (LiPMIC) have been in development for the past two years for the purpose of providing large-area neutron detector. this system would be suitable for remote deployment for homeland security and counterterrorism needs at borders, ports, and nuclear facilities. A prototype of LiPMIC is expected to provide a similar level of performance to the current industry-standard, He-3 proportional counters, while keeping the initial cost of procurement down by an order of magnitude, especially where large numbers of detectors are required. The overall design aspect and the efficiency optimization process is discussed. Specifically, the MCNP simulations of a single-cell prototype were performed and benchmarked with the experimental results. MCNP simulations of a three dimensional array design show intrinsic efficiency comparable to that of an array of He-3 proportional counters. LiPMIC has shown steady progress toward fulfilling the design expectations and future design modification and optimization are discussed.

  7. Does the Intel Xeon Phi processor fit HEP workloads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, A.; Bitzes, G.; Dotti, A.; Lazzaro, A.; Jarp, S.; Szostek, P.; Valsan, L.; Botezatu, M.; Leduc, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper summarizes the five years of CERN openlab's efforts focused on the Intel Xeon Phi co-processor, from the time of its inception to public release. We consider the architecture of the device vis a vis the characteristics of HEP software and identify key opportunities for HEP processing, as well as scaling limitations. We report on improvements and speedups linked to parallelization and vectorization on benchmarks involving software frameworks such as Geant4 and ROOT. Finally, we extrapolate current software and hardware trends and project them onto accelerators of the future, with the specifics of offline and online HEP processing in mind.

  8. The GLAST Large Area Telescope Detector Performance Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgland, A.W.; Charles, E.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) is one of two instruments on board the Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST), the next generation high energy gamma-ray space telescope. The LAT contains sixteen identical towers in a four-by-four grid. Each tower contains a silicon-strip tracker and a CsI calorimeter that together will give the incident direction and energy of the pair-converting photon in the energy range 20 MeV - 300 GeV. In addition, the instrument is covered by a finely segmented Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD) to reject charged particle background. Altogether, the LAT contains more than 864k channels in the trackers, 1536 CsI crystals and 97 ACD plastic scintillator tiles and ribbons. Here we detail some of the strategies and methods for how we are planning to monitor the instrument performance on orbit. It builds on the extensive experience gained from Integration and Test and Commissioning of the instrument on ground

  9. A study of B(s)0 to J/psi phi in the D0 experiment and an example of HEP technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Daniela Ursula; Imperial Coll., London

    2002-01-01

    After years of preparation, data taking with the upgraded D0 detector at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider has begun. The large amount of data produced in a p(bar p)-collider requires sophisticated triggers to filter out the interesting events. Described in this thesis is the development of trigger software for the newly implemented Silicon Microstrip Tracker. D0 is a multi-purpose detector with a broad physics program. One area being studied at D0 is B mesons. An algorithm for reconstructing the B s 0 and B d 0 mesons and for measuring their lifetimes has been developed and is described in this thesis. The results suggest that an improvement of the current lifetime measurements can be achieved within the next two years. The reconstruction of a J/ψ meson forms the basis for a wide range of b-physics. Data taken with the muon system during the commissioning period of the detector has been analyzed and a signal for the J/ψ meson has been found. Systematic transfer of HEP technologies into other areas and their commercial exploitation will play an important role in the future of particle physics. An area of particular interest is DNA sequencing as shown by the recent completion of the sequencing of the human genome. The final part of this thesis details the development of a simulation for a high throughput sequencing device which is currently being developed at Imperial College

  10. Characterization of a large-format, fine-pitch CdZnTe pixel detector for the HEFT balloon-Borne experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C. M. Hubert; Cook, Walter R.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Lin, Jiao Y. Y.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a large-format CdZnTe pixel detector with custom, low-noise ASIC readout, for astrophysical applications. In particular, this detector is targeted for use in the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT), a balloon-borne experiment with focusing optics for 20-70 keV. The detector is a 24 X 44 pixel array of 498-µm pitch. As a focal plane detector, uniformity from pixel to pixel is very desirable. In this paper, we present the characterization of some detector properties for the ...

  11. Development of data logger for atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity for gas-filled detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.; Sahu, P.K.; Bhuyan, M.R.; Biswas, S.; Mohanty, B.

    2014-01-01

    At IoP-NISER an initiative has been taken to build and test micro-pattern gas detector such as Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for several upcoming High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiment projects. Temperature (t), atmospheric pressure (p) and relative humidity (RH) monitor and recording is very important for gas filled detector development. A data logger to monitor and record the ambient parameters such as temperature, relative humidity and pressure has been developed. With this data logger continuous recording of t, p, RH and time stamp can be done with a programmable sampling interval. This data is necessary to correct the gain of a gas filled detector

  12. High Energy Performance Tests of Large Volume LaBr{sub 3}:Ce Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A.; Gondal, M.A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Dastageer, M.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M.M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-01

    High energy prompt gamma ray tests of a large volume cylindrical 100 mm x 100 mm (height x diameter) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector were carried out using a portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. In this study prompt gamma-rays yield were measured from water samples contaminated with toxic elements such nickel, chromium and mercury compounds with gamma ray energies up to 10 MeV. The experimental yield of prompt gamma-rays from toxic elements were compared with the results of Monte Carlo calculations. In spite of its higher intrinsic background due to its larger volume, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of high energy gamma-rays from Ni, Cr and Hg samples has been achieved for the large volume LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector. (authors)

  13. Low energy neutrino astrophysics with the large liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, M.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodan; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Winter, J.

    2007-01-01

    The large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) will cover a broad field of physics. Apart from the detection of terrestrial and artificial neutrinos, and the search for proton decay, important contributions can be made to the astrophysics of stars by high-precision spectroscopy of low-energetic solar neutrinos and by the observation of neutrinos emitted by a galactic supernova. Moreover, the detection of the diffuse supernova neutrino background in LENA will offer the opportunity of studying both supernova core-collapse models and the supernova rate on cosmological timescales (z e events in an almost background-free energy window from ∼10 to 25 MeV. The search for such rare low-energetic events takes advantage of the high energy resolution and excellent background rejection possible in the LENA detector

  14. Does the Intel Xeon Phi processor fit HEP workloads?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, A; Bitzes, G; Dotti, A; Lazzaro, A; Jarp, S; Szostek, P; Valsan, L; Botezatu, M; Leduc, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the five years of CERN openlab's efforts focused on the Intel Xeon Phi co-processor, from the time of its inception to public release. We consider the architecture of the device vis a vis the characteristics of HEP software and identify key opportunities for HEP processing, as well as scaling limitations. We report on improvements and speedups linked to parallelization and vectorization on benchmarks involving software frameworks such as Geant4 and ROOT. Finally, we extrapolate current software and hardware trends and project them onto accelerators of the future, with the specifics of offline and online HEP processing in mind.

  15. A new acoustic lens material for large area detectors in photoacoustic breast tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, W.; Piras, D.; van Hespen, Johannes C.G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We introduce a new acoustic lens material for photoacoustic tomography (PAT) to improve lateral resolution while possessing excellent acoustic acoustic impedance matching with tissue to minimize lens induced image artifacts. Background A large surface area detector due to its high

  16. Characteristic Performance Evaluation of a new SAGe Well Detector for Small and Large Sample Geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adekola, A.S.; Colaresi, J.; Douwen, J.; Jaederstroem, H.; Mueller, W.F.; Yocum, K.M.; Carmichael, K.

    2015-01-01

    concentrations compared to Traditional Well detectors. The SAGe Well detectors are compatible with Marinelli beakers and compete very well with semi-planar and coaxial detectors for large samples in many applications. (authors)

  17. Characteristic Performance Evaluation of a new SAGe Well Detector for Small and Large Sample Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adekola, A.S.; Colaresi, J.; Douwen, J.; Jaederstroem, H.; Mueller, W.F.; Yocum, K.M.; Carmichael, K. [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    concentrations compared to Traditional Well detectors. The SAGe Well detectors are compatible with Marinelli beakers and compete very well with semi-planar and coaxial detectors for large samples in many applications. (authors)

  18. Large-Area Silicon Detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Pree, Elias

    2017-01-01

    During the so-called Phase-2 Upgrade, the CMS experiment at CERN will undergo significant improvements to cope with the 10-fold luminosity increase of the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) era. Especially the forward calorimetry will suffer from very high radiation levels and intensified pileup in the detectors. For this reason, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (CE-E) and hadronic (CE-H) compartments. The CE-E and a large fraction of CE-H will consist of a sandwich structure with silicon as active detector material. This paper presents an overview of the ongoing sensor development for the HGCAL and highlights important design features and measurement techniques. The design and layout of an 8-inch silicon sensor prototype is shown. The hexagonal sensors consist of 235 pads, each with an area of about \\mbox{1~cm$^{2}$}. Furthermore, Synopsys...

  19. The future of commodity computing and many-core versus the interests of HEP software

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    As the mainstream computing world has shifted from multi-core to many-core platforms, the situation for software developers has changed as well. With the numerous hardware and software options available, choices balancing programmability and performance are becoming a significant challenge. The expanding multiplicative dimensions of performance offer a growing number of possibilities that need to be assessed and addressed on several levels of abstraction. This paper reviews the major tradeoffs forced upon the software domain by the changing landscape of parallel technologies – hardware and software alike. Recent developments, paradigms and techniques are considered with respect to their impact on the rather traditional HEP programming models. Other considerations addressed include aspects of efficiency and reasonably achievable targets for the parallelization of large scale HEP workloads.

  20. NR/HEP: roadmap for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Sperhake, Ulrich; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Ferrari, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    Physic in curved spacetime describes a multitude of phenomena, ranging from astrophysics to high-energy physics (HEP). The last few years have witnessed further progress on several fronts, including the accurate numerical evolution of the gravitational field equations, which now allows highly nonlinear phenomena to be tamed. Numerical relativity simulations, originally developed to understand strong-field astrophysical processes, could prove extremely useful to understand HEP processes such as trans-Planckian scattering and gauge–gravity dualities. We present a concise and comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art and important open problems in the field(s), along with a roadmap for the next years. (paper)

  1. HEP specific benchmarks of virtual machines on multi-core CPU architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alef, M; Gable, I

    2010-01-01

    Virtualization technologies such as Xen can be used in order to satisfy the disparate and often incompatible system requirements of different user groups in shared-use computing facilities. This capability is particularly important for HEP applications, which often have restrictive requirements. The use of virtualization adds flexibility, however, it is essential that the virtualization technology place little overhead on the HEP application. We present an evaluation of the practicality of running HEP applications in multiple Virtual Machines (VMs) on a single multi-core Linux system. We use the benchmark suite used by the HEPiX CPU Benchmarking Working Group to give a quantitative evaluation relevant to the HEP community. Benchmarks are packaged inside VMs and then the VMs are booted onto a single multi-core system. Benchmarks are then simultaneously executed on each VM to simulate highly loaded VMs running HEP applications. These techniques are applied to a variety of multi-core CPU architectures and VM configurations.

  2. Development of Interconnect Technologies for Particle Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Mani [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-01-29

    This final report covers the three years of this grant, for the funding period 9/1/2010 - 8/31/2013. The project consisted of generic detector R&D work at UC Davis, with an emphasis on developing interconnect technologies for applications in HEP. Much of the work is done at our Facility for Interconnect Technologies (FIT) at UC Davis. FIT was established using ARRA funds, with further studies supported by this grant. Besides generic R&D work at UC Davis, FIT is engaged in providing bump bonding help to several DOE supported detector R&D efforts. Some of the developmental work was also supported by funding from other sources: continuing CMS project funds and the Linear Collider R&D funds. The latter program is now terminated. The three year program saw a good deal of progress on several fronts, which are reported here.

  3. Trends in the development of large area photon detectors for Cherenkov light imaging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nappi, E

    2003-01-01

    Since the successful operations of hi-tech devices at OMEGA, DELPHI and SLD, the technique of Cherenkov light imaging has gone through an impressive and fruitful evolution driven by the conception of novel large area photon detectors. The well-assessed potentialities of thin CsI films, employed as reflective photoconverters in gas counters operated at atmospheric pressure, will be compared with the promising features of hybrid and multianode vacuum photomultipliers. Recently proposed single-photon gaseous detectors based on GEMs will also be reviewed.

  4. Self-Powered Neutron Detector Calibration Using a Large Vertical Irradiation Hole of HANARO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Myong-Seop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A calibration technology of the self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs using a large vertical irradiation hole of HANARO is developed. The 40 Rh-SPNDs are installed on the polycarbonate plastic support, and the gold wires with the same length as the effective length of the rhodium emitter of the SPND are also installed to measure the neutron flux on the SPND. They are irradiated at a low reactor power, and the SPND current is measured using the pico-ammeter. The external gamma-rays which affect the SPND current response are analyzed using the Monte Carlo simulation for various irradiation conditions in HANARO. It is confirmed that the effect of the external gamma-rays to the SPND current is dependent on the reactor characteristics, and that it is affected by materials around the detector. The current signals due to the external gamma-rays can be either positive or negative, in that the net flow of the current may be either in the same or the opposite direction as the neutron-induced current by the rhodium emitter. From the above procedure, the effective calibration methodology of multiple SPNDs using the large hole of HANARO is developed. It could be useful for the calibration experiment of the neutron detectors in the research reactors.

  5. Self-Powered Neutron Detector Calibration Using a Large Vertical Irradiation Hole of HANARO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myong-Seop; Park, Byung-Gun; Kang, Gi-Doo

    2018-01-01

    A calibration technology of the self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) using a large vertical irradiation hole of HANARO is developed. The 40 Rh-SPNDs are installed on the polycarbonate plastic support, and the gold wires with the same length as the effective length of the rhodium emitter of the SPND are also installed to measure the neutron flux on the SPND. They are irradiated at a low reactor power, and the SPND current is measured using the pico-ammeter. The external gamma-rays which affect the SPND current response are analyzed using the Monte Carlo simulation for various irradiation conditions in HANARO. It is confirmed that the effect of the external gamma-rays to the SPND current is dependent on the reactor characteristics, and that it is affected by materials around the detector. The current signals due to the external gamma-rays can be either positive or negative, in that the net flow of the current may be either in the same or the opposite direction as the neutron-induced current by the rhodium emitter. From the above procedure, the effective calibration methodology of multiple SPNDs using the large hole of HANARO is developed. It could be useful for the calibration experiment of the neutron detectors in the research reactors.

  6. Measurement of the W{yields}{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}} cross section in proton-proton collisions at ATLAS and development of the HepMCAnalysis tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnert, Sebastian

    2012-04-15

    The goal of modern particle physics experiments is the most precise measurement of known phenomena and the discovery of new physics. The complexity of these experiments requires dedicated tools to ensure the correct functionality of every part of the experiment and the analyses. One of these tools is the HepMCAnalysis Tool, a software framework for Monte Carlo (MC) generator validation and comparisons, using the generator independent HepMC event record. In this thesis, the development of the HepMCAnalysis Tool is presented. Its wide range of applications extends from validation and regression tests at the ATLAS experiment, over generator level studies and preparations of analyses, up to histogram based validation in the Generator Services Project. Examples of its applications are given. In November 2009, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started operation and the ATLAS detector, the largest of the four LHC experiments, began taking data. Many Standard Model (SM) processes can already be rediscovered and are used to optimise the detector performance. Amongst those SM processes, processes involving particles from the third generation, like {tau} leptons, play an important role e.g. in the decay of the Higgs boson. Also in models of new physics like supersymmetry (SUSY), third generation particles, especially {tau} leptons, can be found in the final state. An accurate understanding of underlying SM processes with {tau} leptons is therefore one of the keys for the search of new physics. Among these, one of the most important processes is the W{yields}{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}} decay. In the second part of this thesis, the cross section measurement of W{yields}{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}} decays in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=7 TeV with the ATLAS experiment is presented. This was measured to be {sigma}{sup tot}{sub W{yields}{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}}}=(11.1{+-}0.3 (stat.){+-}1.7 (syst.){+-}0.4 (lumi.)) nb. This result is in agreement with the NNLO

  7. Use of large sodium iodine detectors in precision π0 decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltham, C.E.; Hasinoff, M.; Virtue, C.J.; Robertson, B.C.; Shor, A.; Chew, S.H.; Lowe, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three large sodium iodide detectors have been used to measure the π 0 electomagnetic form factor. The manner in which they were operated is described here with particular emphasis on optimizing energy resolution, measuring response functions and acceptance, and precise energy calibration. Neutron rejection by pulse shape discrimination was also investigated. (orig.)

  8. HEP Science Network Requirements--Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Jon; Barczyk, Artur; Blatecky, Alan; Boehnlein, Amber; Carlson, Rich; Chekanov, Sergei; Cotter, Steve; Cottrell, Les; Crawford, Glen; Crawford, Matt; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Ernst, Michael; Fisk, Ian; Gardner, Rob; Johnston, Bill; Kent, Steve; Lammel, Stephan; Loken, Stewart; Metzger, Joe; Mount, Richard; Ndousse-Fetter, Thomas; Newman, Harvey; Schopf, Jennifer; Sekine, Yukiko; Stone, Alan; Tierney, Brian; Tull, Craig; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-04-27

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2009 ESnet and the Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by HEP. The International HEP community has been a leader in data intensive science from the beginning. HEP data sets have historically been the largest of all scientific data sets, and the communty of interest the most distributed. The HEP community was also the first to embrace Grid technologies. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized below, and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section: (1) There will be more LHC Tier-3 sites than orginally thought, and likely more Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic than was envisioned. It it not yet known what the impact of this will be on ESnet, but we will need to keep an eye on this traffic. (2) The LHC Tier-1 sites (BNL and FNAL) predict the need for 40-50 Gbps of data movement capacity in 2-5 years, and 100-200 Gbps in 5-10 years for HEP program related traffic. Other key HEP sites include LHC Tier-2 and Tier-3 sites, many of which are located at universities. To support the LHC, ESnet must continue its collaborations with university and international networks. (3) While in all cases the deployed 'raw' network bandwidth must exceed the user requirements in order to meet the data transfer and reliability requirements, network engineering for trans

  9. HEP Science Network Requirements. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2009 ESnet and the Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by HEP. The International HEP community has been a leader in data intensive science from the beginning. HEP data sets have historically been the largest of all scientific data sets, and the communty of interest the most distributed. The HEP community was also the first to embrace Grid technologies. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized below, and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section: (1) There will be more LHC Tier-3 sites than orginally thought, and likely more Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic than was envisioned. It it not yet known what the impact of this will be on ESnet, but we will need to keep an eye on this traffic. (2) The LHC Tier-1 sites (BNL and FNAL) predict the need for 40-50 Gbps of data movement capacity in 2-5 years, and 100-200 Gbps in 5-10 years for HEP program related traffic. Other key HEP sites include LHC Tier-2 and Tier-3 sites, many of which are located at universities. To support the LHC, ESnet must continue its collaborations with university and international networks. (3) While in all cases the deployed 'raw' network bandwidth must exceed the user requirements in order to meet the data transfer and reliability requirements, network engineering for trans-Atlantic connectivity

  10. A study of B$0\\atop{s}$ → J/ΨΦ in the D0 experiment and an example of HEP technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Daniela Ursula [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-08-01

    After years of preparation, data taking with the upgraded D0 detector at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider has begun. The large amount of data produced in a p$\\bar{p}$-collider requires sophisticated triggers to filter out the interesting events. Described in this thesis is the development of trigger software for the newly implemented Silicon Microstrip Tracker. D0 is a multi-purpose detector with a broad physics program. one area being studied at D0 is B mesons. An algorithm for reconstructing the B$0\\atop{s}$ and B$0\\atop{d}$ mesons and for measuring their lifetimes has been developed and is described in this thesis. The results suggest that an improvement of the current lifetime measurements can be achieved within the next two years. The reconstruction of a J/Ψ meson forms the basis for a wide range of b-physics. Data taken with the muon system during the commissioning period of the detector has been analyzed and a signal for the J/Ψ meson has been found. Systematic transfer of HEP technologies into other areas and their commercial exploitation plays an important role in the future of particle physics. An area of particular interest is DNA sequencing as shown by the recent completion of the sequencing of the human genome. The final part of this thesis details the development of a simulation for a high throughput sequencing device which is currently being developed at Imperial College.

  11. Cryogenic and radiation-hard asic for interfacing large format NIR/SWIR detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Dupont, Benoit; Dierickx, Bart; Müller, Eric; Verbruggen, Geert; Gielis, Stijn; Valvekens, Ramses

    2017-11-01

    For scientific and earth observation space missions, weight and power consumption is usually a critical factor. In order to obtain better vehicle integration, efficiency and controllability for large format NIR/SWIR detector arrays, a prototype ASIC is designed. It performs multiple detector array interfacing, power regulation and data acquisition operations inside the cryogenic chambers. Both operation commands and imaging data are communicated via the SpaceWire interface which will significantly reduce the number of wire goes in and out the cryogenic chamber. This "ASIC" prototype is realized in 0.18um CMOS technology and is designed for radiation hardness.

  12. GEANT 4: an Object-Oriented toolkit for simulation in HEP

    CERN Multimedia

    Kent, P; Sirotenko, V; Komogorov, M; Pavliouk, A; Greeniaus, G L; Kayal, P I; Routenburg, P; Tanaka, S; Duellmann, D; Innocente, V; Paoli, S; Ranjard, F; Riccardi, F; Ruggier, M; Shiers, J; Egli, S; Kimura, A; Urban, P; Prior, S; Walkden, A; Forti, A; Magni, S; Strahl, K; Kokoulin, R; Braune, K; Volcker, C; Ullrich, T; Takahata, M; Nieminen, P; Ballocchi, G; Mora De Freitas, P; Verderi, M; Rybine, A; Langeveld, W; Nagamatsu, M; Hamatsu, R; Katayama, N; Chuma, J; Felawka, L; Gumplinger, P; Axen, D

    2002-01-01

    %RD44 %title\\\\ \\\\The GEANT4 software has been developed by a world-wide collaboration of about 100 scientists from over 40 institutions and laboratories participating in more than 10 experiments in Europe, Russia, Japan, Canada, and the United States. The GEANT4 detector simulation toolkit has been designed for the next generation of High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments, with primary requirements from the LHC, the CP violation, and the heavy ions experiments. In addition, GEANT4 also meets the requirements from the space and medical communities, thanks to very low energy extensions developed in a joint project with the European Space Agency (ESA). GEANT4 has exploited advanced software engineering techniques (for example PSS-05) and Object-Oriented technology to improve the validation process of the physics results, and in the same time to make possible the distributed software design and development in the world-wide collaboration. Fifteen specialised working groups have been responsible for fields as diver...

  13. Evaluating the scalability of HEP software and multi-core hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, S; Leduc, J; Nowak, A

    2011-01-01

    As researchers have reached the practical limits of processor performance improvements by frequency scaling, it is clear that the future of computing lies in the effective utilization of parallel and multi-core architectures. Since this significant change in computing is well underway, it is vital for HEP programmers to understand the scalability of their software on modern hardware and the opportunities for potential improvements. This work aims to quantify the benefit of new mainstream architectures to the HEP community through practical benchmarking on recent hardware solutions, including the usage of parallelized HEP applications.

  14. Radiation damage in silicon. Defect analysis and detector properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenniger, F.

    2008-01-15

    Silicon microstrip and pixel detectors are vital sensor-components as particle tracking detectors for present as well as future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. All experiments at the large Hadron Collider (LHC) are equipped with such detectors. Also for experiments after the upgrade of the LHC (the so-called Super-LHC), with its ten times higher luminosity, or the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) silicon tracking detectors are forseen. Close to the interaction region these detectors have to face harsh radiation fields with intensities above the presently tolerable level. defect engineering of the used material, e. g. oxygen enrichment of high resistivity float zone silicon and growing of thin low resistivityepitaxial layers on Czochralski silicon substrates has been established to improve the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. This thesis focuses mainly on the investigation of radiation induced defects and their differences observed in various kinds of epitaxial silicon material. Comparisons with other materials like float zone or Czochralski silicon are added. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements have been performed after {gamma}-, electron-, proton- and neutron-irradiation. The differenced in the formation of vacancy and interstitial related defects as well as so-called clustered regions were investigated for various types of irradiation. In addition to the well known defects VO{sub i}, C{sub i}O{sub i}, C{sub i}C{sub s}, VP or V{sub 2} several other defect complexes have been found and investigated. Also the material dependence of the defect introduction rates and the defect annealing behavior has been studied by isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments. Especially the IO{sub 2} defect which is an indicator for the oxygen-dimer content of the material has been investigated in detail. On the basis of radiation induced defects like the bistable donor (BD) defect and a deep

  15. Radiation damage in silicon. Defect analysis and detector properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenniger, F.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon microstrip and pixel detectors are vital sensor-components as particle tracking detectors for present as well as future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. All experiments at the large Hadron Collider (LHC) are equipped with such detectors. Also for experiments after the upgrade of the LHC (the so-called Super-LHC), with its ten times higher luminosity, or the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) silicon tracking detectors are forseen. Close to the interaction region these detectors have to face harsh radiation fields with intensities above the presently tolerable level. defect engineering of the used material, e. g. oxygen enrichment of high resistivity float zone silicon and growing of thin low resistivityepitaxial layers on Czochralski silicon substrates has been established to improve the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. This thesis focuses mainly on the investigation of radiation induced defects and their differences observed in various kinds of epitaxial silicon material. Comparisons with other materials like float zone or Czochralski silicon are added. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements have been performed after γ-, electron-, proton- and neutron-irradiation. The differenced in the formation of vacancy and interstitial related defects as well as so-called clustered regions were investigated for various types of irradiation. In addition to the well known defects VO i , C i O i , C i C s , VP or V 2 several other defect complexes have been found and investigated. Also the material dependence of the defect introduction rates and the defect annealing behavior has been studied by isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments. Especially the IO 2 defect which is an indicator for the oxygen-dimer content of the material has been investigated in detail. On the basis of radiation induced defects like the bistable donor (BD) defect and a deep acceptor, a model has been introduced to

  16. Veias do sistema porta-hepático em gansos domésticos Veins from hepatic portal vein system in domestic geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana C. Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição intraparenquimal das veias porta-hepáticas foi estudada em 30 gansos domésticos. Latex Neoprene corado foi injetado pela veia isquiática e os animais forma fixados por imersão e injeção intramuscular com formol a 10% e dissecados. O fígado esteve composto por um grande lobo hepático direito e por um lobo hepático esquerdo menor, os quais estiveram conectados por uma ponte de parênquima. O lobo direito do fígado teve exclusivamente vasos do sistema porta-hepático formados pela distribuição intraparenquimal da veia porta-hepática direita, enquanto que no lobo esquerdo estes originaram-se da veia porta-hepática direita e de pequenas veias porta-hepáticas esquerdas. A veia porta-hepática direita emitiu o ramo caudal direito, que emitiu um pequeno ramo caudolateral direito e um grande ramo caudomedial direito. Cranialmente esta veia emitiu os ramos craniais direito e ramos lateral direito. A porção transversa da veia porta-hepática direita cruzou para o lobo hepático esquerdo, emitindo de 1 a 6 pequenos ramos craniais e caudais para a região média do fígado. No lobo esquerdo, o ramo esquerdo da veia porta-hepática direita emitiu o ramo cranial esquerdo, o ramo lateral esquerdo e o ramo medial. De 1 a 6 veias porta-hepáticas esquerdas foram identificadas desembocando ou no ramo esquerdo da veia porta-hepática direita ou em sua porção transversa, oriundos do ventrículo gástrico e do pró-ventrículo. Em 40% dos gansos uma veia porta-hepática própria oriunda da confluência de vasos venosos da face esquerda do ventrículo distribuiu-se na extremidade caudal do lobo esquerdo isoladamente.The intraparenchymal distribution of the hepatic portal veins in 30 domestic geese were studied. Stained Neoprene latex was injected into the isquiatic vessels, and the animals were fixed in 10% formaldehyde by immersion and intramuscular injection. The liver of geese was composed of a large right and a smaller left

  17. Two large-area anode-pad MICROMEGAS chambers as the basic elements of a pre-shower detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aphecetche, L; D'Enterria, D G; Le Guay, M; Li, X; Martínez, G; Mora, M J; Pichot, P; Roy, D; Schutz, Y

    2001-01-01

    The design of a detector based on MICROMEGAS (MICRO MEsh GAseous Structure) technology is presented. Our detector is characterized by a large active area of 398(\\times)281 mm(^{2}), a pad read-out with 20(\\times)22 mm(^{2}) segmentation, and an uniform amplification gap obtained by insulating spacers (100 (\\mu)m high and 200 (\\mu)m in diameter). The performances of several prototypes have been evaluated under irradiation with secondary beams of 2 GeV/c momentum charged pions and electrons. We consider such a detector as the basic element for a pre-shower detector to equip the PHOton Spectrometer (PHOS) of the ALICE experiment. Its assets are modularity, small amount of material, robustness and low cost.

  18. Characterizing the Role of Hep27 in Liver and Colorectal Cancer Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0402 TITLE: Characterizing the Role of Hep27 in Liver and Colorectal Cancer Stress Tolerance PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Sep 2016 – 14 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Characterizing the Role of Hep27 in Liver and Colorectal Cancer Stress Tolerance...project has not demonstrated that Hep27 plays a role in ROS tolerance in liver cancer cells. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hep27, ROS, stress , cancer 16. SECURITY

  19. Psicopatologia e encefalopatia hepática

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, J; Telles-Correia, D; Canhoto, M

    2010-01-01

    Desde Hipócrates que as alterações psiquiátricas causadas por doença hepática têm fascinado os médicos, mas só em finais do século XIX é que Marcel Nencki e Ivan Pavlov sugeriram a relação entre o aumento de concentração de amónia e a Encefalopatia Hepática (EH). O fruto da reacção entre a amónia e o glutamato (a glutamina, verdadeiro “Cavalo de Tróia da neurotoxidade da amónia”) continua sendo considerado o principal responsável pelas lesões neurológicas, confirmadas rec...

  20. Large-Area Liquid Scintillation Detector Slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, M. F.; Gurr, H. S.; Hruschka, A. A.; Jenkins, T. L.; Kropp, W.; Reines, F.; Sobel, H.; Hruschka, A. A.

    1966-01-01

    A low-cost detector 18' x 2' x 5' has been developed for an underground cosmic ray neutrino experiment. The liquid employed is a high-clarity mineral oil-based mixture, and light is guided to the ends of the detector by total internal reflection at the surface of the Lucite container. Signals from 2 five-inch photomultipliers at each end give energy and event location for single penetrating particles, with relatively good discrimination against natural radioactivity by virtue of the substantial thickness. Data are presented on the response function of the tank, energy resolution, rates and thresholds. A number of modifications that have been tried are also described

  1. Alteraciones hepáticas inducidas por la nutrición parenteral

    OpenAIRE

    J Salas Salvado; A Recaséns Garica

    1993-01-01

    Liver disorders induced by parenteral nutrition Alteraciones hepáticas inducidas por la nutrición parenteral Liver disorders induced by parenteral nutrition Alteraciones hepáticas inducidas por la nutrición parenteral

  2. Impacto biopsicossocial da encefalopatia hepática

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Mariana Rebordão, 1992-

    2016-01-01

    Trabalho Final do Curso de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, 2016 A encefalopatia hepática (EH) é uma síndrome neuropsiquiátrica potencialmente reversível que ocorre na doença hepática, sendo caracterizada por um grande espectro de alterações: desde a EH mínima até ao coma. A EH mínima afecta cerca de 34% dos doentes cirróticos portugueses e é caracterizada por ausência de alterações neurológicas grosseiras, com défices cognitivos que podem ser ...

  3. Software R&D for Next Generation of HEP Experiments, Inspired by Theano

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    In the next decade, the frontiers of High Energy Physics (HEP) will be explored by three machines: the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) in Europe, the Long Base Neutrino Facility (LBNF) in the US, and the International Linear Collider (ILC) in Japan. These next generation experiments must address two fundamental problems in the current generation of HEP experimental software: the inability to take advantage and adapt to the rapidly evolving processor landscape, and the difficulty in developing and maintaining increasingly complex software systems by physicists. I will propose a strategy, inspired by the automatic optimization and code generation in Theano, to simultaneously address both problems. I will describe three R&D projects with short-term physics deliverables aimed at developing this strategy. The first project is to develop maximally sensitive General Search for New Physics at the LHC by applying the Matrix Element Method running GPUs of HPCs. The second is to classify and reconstru...

  4. CERN celebrating the Lowering of the final detector element for large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of the morning the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector began the descent into its underground experimental cavern in preparation for the start-up of CERNs Large Hadron Collider (LHC) this summer. This is a pivotal moment for the CMS collaboration.

  5. Characterization of large volume HPGe detectors. Part II: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyneel, Bart; Reiter, Peter; Pascovici, Gheorghe

    2006-01-01

    Measurements on a 12-fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by γ-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356keV γ-rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and digital signal processing electronics

  6. Detector and System Developments for LHC Detector Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, Beatrice; Guida, Roberto; Rohne, Ole; Stapnes, Steinar

    2015-05-12

    The future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Physics program and the consequent improvement of the LHC accelerator performance set important challenges to all detector systems. This PhD thesis delineates the studies and strategies adopted to improve two different types of detectors: the replacement of precision trackers with ever increasingly performing silicon detectors, and the improvement of large gaseous detector systems by optimizing their gas mixtures and operation modes. Within the LHC tracker upgrade programs, the ATLAS Insertable B-layer (IBL) is the first major upgrade of a silicon-pixel detector. Indeed the overall ATLAS Pixel Detector performance is expected to degrade with the increase of luminosity and the IBL will recover the performance by adding a fourth innermost layer. The IBL Detector makes use of new pixel and front-end electronics technologies as well as a novel thermal management approach and light support and service structures. These innovations required complex developments and Quality Ass...

  7. Construction of two large-size four-plane micromegas detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, Michele; Degrange, Jordan; De Oliveira, Rui; Düdder, Andreas; Farina, Edoardo; Kuger, Fabian; Iengo, Paolo; Gomez, Francisco Perez; Lin, Tai-Hua; Schott, Matthias; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sforza, Federico; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Vergain, Maurice; Wotschack, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    We report on the construction and initial performance studies of two micromegas detector quadruplets with an area of 0.5 m$^2$. They serve as prototypes for the planned upgrade project of the ATLAS muon system. Their design is based on the resistive-strip technology and thus renders the detectors spark tolerant. Each quadruplet comprises four detection layers with 1024 readout strips and a strip pitch of 415 $\\mu$m. In two out of the four layers the strips are inclined by $\\pm$1.5$^{\\circ}$ to allow for the measurement of a second coordinate. We present the detector concept and report on the experience gained during the detector construction. In addition an evaluation of the detector performance with cosmic rays and test-beam data is given.

  8. INSPIRE: A new scientific information system for HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, R; Raae, L

    2010-01-01

    The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project - a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will introduce the 'Web 2.0' paradigm of user-enriched content in the domain of sciences, with community-based approaches to scientific publishing. INSPIRE represents a natural evolution of scholarly communication built on successful community-based information systems, and it provides a vision for information management in other fields of science. Inspired by the needs of HEP, we hope that the INSPIRE project will be inspiring for other communities.

  9. Time dispersion in large plastic scintillation neutron detector [Paper No.:B3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, A.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Sen, D.

    1993-01-01

    Time dispersion seen by photomultiplier (PM) tube in large plastic scintillation neutron detector and the light collection mechanism by the same have been computed showing that this time dispersion (TD) seen by the PM tube does not necessarily increase with increasing incident neutron energy in contrast to the usual finding that TD increases with increasing energy. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs

  10. Reconstruction algorithms in the Super-Kamiokande large water Cherenkov detector

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, M

    1999-01-01

    The Super-Kamiokande experiment, using a large underground water Cherenkov detector, has started its operation since first April, 1996. One of the main physics goals of this experiment is to measure the atmospheric neutrinos. Proton decay search is also an important topic. For these analyses, all measurement of physical quantities of an event such as vertex position, the number of Cherenkov rings, momentum, particle type and the number of decay electrons, is automatically performed by reconstruction algorithms. We attain enough quality of the analyses using these algorithms and several impressive results have been addressed.

  11. Reconstruction algorithms in the Super-Kamiokande large water Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Super-Kamiokande experiment, using a large underground water Cherenkov detector, has started its operation since first April, 1996. One of the main physics goals of this experiment is to measure the atmospheric neutrinos. Proton decay search is also an important topic. For these analyses, all measurement of physical quantities of an event such as vertex position, the number of Cherenkov rings, momentum, particle type and the number of decay electrons, is automatically performed by reconstruction algorithms. We attain enough quality of the analyses using these algorithms and several impressive results have been addressed

  12. Efeito da secção hepática parcial e omentoplastia na regeneração hepática de cão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Petroianu

    Full Text Available O tratamento e a morbimortalidade dos pacientes com traumatismo hepático dependem do mecanismo da lesão e da conduta terapêutica, que inclui acompanhamento clínico, hepatorrafia, omentoplastia e próteses. O presente trabalho avaliou a recuperação hepática em presença de omentoplastia após lesão cortante do fígado de cão. Foram utilizados 15 cães machos, mestiços, com peso variando entre 7kg e 12kg, anestesiados com pentabarbitúrico endovenoso e submetidos a corte longitudinal no lobo esquerdo, medindo 2,5cm de profundidade e 8cm de comprimento. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos (n=5: I- sem sutura (controle; II- sutura hepática apenas; III- sutura hepática com omentoplastia. O fio utilizado foi o categute cromado 4-0. Todos os animais do grupo I morreram no pós-operatório imediato, enquanto os cães dos grupos II e III suportaram bem os 28 dias de acompanhamento. À relaparotomia dos grupos II e III, encontraram-se múltiplas aderências ao fígado, que apresentou aspecto normal. No grupo III, o omento introduzido no ferimento hepático havia sido expulso e estava apenas aderido à cápsula do fígado macroscopicamente normal. À microscopia houve descontinuidade vascular e biliar entre os segmentos proximal e distal à hepatotomia. Os fenômenos cicatriciais foram mais exuberantes no grupo III, no qual se encontraram pequenas áreas do parênquima contendo fragmentos de omento. Concluindo, a omentoplastia facilitou o procedimento de reparo hepático, que, entretanto, não restabeleceu a contigüidade de vasos e ductos biliares.

  13. Development activities on NIR large format MCT detectors for astrophysics and space science at CEA and SOFRADIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulade, Olivier; Moreau, Vincent; Mulet, Patrick; Gravrand, Olivier; Cervera, Cyril; Zanatta, Jean-Paul; Castelein, Pierre; Guellec, Fabrice; Fièque, Bruno; Chorier, Philippe; Roumegoux, Julien

    2016-07-01

    CEA and SOFRADIR have been manufacturing and characterizing near infrared detectors in the frame of ESA's near infrared large format sensor array roadmap to develop a 2Kx2K large format low flux low noise device for space applications such as astrophysics. These detectors use HgCdTe as the absorbing material and p/n diode technology. The technological developments (photovoltaic technology, readout circuit, ...) are shared between CEA/LETI and SOFRADIR, both in Grenoble, while most of the performances are evaluated at CEA/IRFU in Saclay where a dedicated test facility has been developed, in particular to measure very low dark currents. The paper will present the current status of these developments at the end of ESA's NIRLFSA phase 2. The performances of the latest batch of devices meet or are very close to all the requirements (quantum efficiency, dark current, cross talk, readout noise, ...) even though a glow induced by the ROIC prevents the accurate measurement of the dark current. The current devices are fairly small, 640x512 15μm pixels, and the next phase of activity will target the development of a full size 2Kx2K detector. From the design and development, to the manufacturing and finally the testing, that type of detector requests a high level of mastering. An appropriate manufacturing and process chain compatible with such a size is needed at industrial level and results obtained with CEA technology coupled with Sofradir industrial experience and work on large dimension detector allow French actors to be confident to address this type of future missions.

  14. HepML, an XML-based format for describing simulated data in high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, S.; Dudko, L.; Kekelidze, D.; Sherstnev, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we describe a HepML format and a corresponding C++ library developed for keeping complete description of parton level events in a unified and flexible form. HepML tags contain enough information to understand what kind of physics the simulated events describe and how the events have been prepared. A HepML block can be included into event files in the LHEF format. The structure of the HepML block is described by means of several XML Schemas. The Schemas define necessary information for the HepML block and how this information should be located within the block. The library libhepml is a C++ library intended for parsing and serialization of HepML tags, and representing the HepML block in computer memory. The library is an API for external software. For example, Matrix Element Monte Carlo event generators can use the library for preparing and writing a header of an LHEF file in the form of HepML tags. In turn, Showering and Hadronization event generators can parse the HepML header and get the information in the form of C++ classes. libhepml can be used in C++, C, and Fortran programs. All necessary parts of HepML have been prepared and we present the project to the HEP community. Program summaryProgram title: libhepml Catalogue identifier: AEGL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138 866 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 613 122 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, C Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: Scientific Linux CERN 4/5, Ubuntu 9.10 RAM: 1 073 741 824 bytes (1 Gb) Classification: 6.2, 11.1, 11.2 External routines: Xerces XML library ( http://xerces.apache.org/xerces-c/), Expat XML Parser ( http://expat.sourceforge.net/) Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation in high

  15. HEP Outreach, Inreach, and Web 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, Steven

    2011-01-01

    I report on current usage of multimedia and social networking 'Web 2.0' tools for Education and Outreach in high-energy physics, and discuss their potential for internal communication within large worldwide collaborations, such as those of the LHC. Following a brief description of the history of Web 2.0 development, I present a survey of the most popular sites and describe their usage in HEP to disseminate information to students and the general public. I then discuss the potential of certain specific tools, such as document and multimedia sharing sites, for boosting the speed and effectiveness of information exchange within the collaborations. I conclude with a brief discussion of the successes and failures of these tools, and make suggestions for improved usage in the future.

  16. HEP Outreach, Inreach, and Web 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Steven

    2011-12-01

    I report on current usage of multimedia and social networking "Web 2.0" tools for Education and Outreach in high-energy physics, and discuss their potential for internal communication within large worldwide collaborations, such as those of the LHC. Following a brief description of the history of Web 2.0 development, I present a survey of the most popular sites and describe their usage in HEP to disseminate information to students and the general public. I then discuss the potential of certain specific tools, such as document and multimedia sharing sites, for boosting the speed and effectiveness of information exchange within the collaborations. I conclude with a brief discussion of the successes and failures of these tools, and make suggestions for improved usage in the future.

  17. Properties of a barium fluoride-TMAE-multiwire proportional chamber detector using a large single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woody, C.L.; Petridou, C.I.; Smith, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of a detector consisting of a large barium fluoride crystal and a multiwire proportional chamber operating at low pressure with TMAE have been studied. Measurements of the time resolution, pulse width, energy resolution, photoelectron yield and the effective energy threshold were carried out in a test beam using minimum ionizing particles. Although the detector is sensitive to signals originating from an adsorbed layer of TMAE from the crystal surface, no indication of such a signal was observed. 7 refs., 6 figs

  18. Operational Experience with and Performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Grummer, Aidan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency with the 4-layer ATLAS Pixel Detector are discussed. The detector has undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the fact that the Large Hadron Collider is exceeding expectations for instantaneous luminosity by more than a factor of two (more than $2 \\times 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$). Emphasizing radiation damage effects, the key status and performance metrics are described.

  19. INSPIRE: a new scientific information system for HEP

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, R; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project – a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will ...

  20. INSPIRE: a new scientific information system for HEP

    CERN Multimedia

    Ivanov, R

    2009-01-01

    The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project – a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate present acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full-text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will ...

  1. Low energy response calibration of the BATSE large area detectors onboard the Compton Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, C.E. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Eastern Kentucky University, Moore 351, 521 Lancaster Avenue, Richmond, KY 40475-3124 (United States)]. E-mail: Chris.Laird@eku.edu; Harmon, B.A. [XD12 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Wilson, Colleen A. [XD12 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Hunter, David [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Eastern Kentucky University, Moore 351, 521 Lancaster Avenue, Richmond, KY 40475-3124 (United States); Isaacs, Jason [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Eastern Kentucky University, Moore 351, 521 Lancaster Avenue, Richmond, KY 40475-3124 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The low-energy attenuation of the covering material of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) large area detectors (LADs) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory as well as the small-angle response of the LADs have been studied. These effects are shown to be more significant than previously assumed. The LAD entrance window included layers of an aluminum-epoxy composite (hexel) that acted as a collimator for the lowest energy photons entering the detector just above threshold (20-50 keV). Simplifying assumptions made concerning the entrance window materials and the angular response at incident angles near normal to the detector face in the original BATSE response matrix formalism had little effect on {gamma}-ray burst measurements; however, these assumptions created serious errors in measured fluxes of galactic sources, whose emission is strongest near the LAD energy threshold. Careful measurements of the angular and low-energy dependence of the attenuation due to the hexel plates only partially improved the response. A systematic study of Crab Nebula spectra showed the need for additional corrections: an angular-dependent correction for all detectors and an angular-independent correction for each detector. These corrections have been applied as part of an overall energy and angular-dependent correction to the BATSE response matrices.

  2. Undepleted silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancoita, P.G.; Seidman, A.

    1985-01-01

    Large-size silicon detectors employing relatively low resistivity material can be used in electromagnetic calorimetry. They can operate in strong magnetic fields, under geometric constraints and with microstrip detectors a high resolution can be achieved. Low noise large capacitance oriented electronics was developed to enable good signal-to-noise ratio for single relativistic particles traversing large area detectors. In undepleted silicon detectors, the charge migration from the field-free region has been investigated by comparing the expected peak position (from the depleted layer only) of the energy-loss of relativistic electrons with the measured one. Furthermore, the undepleted detectors have been employed in a prototype of Si/W electromagnetic colorimeter. The sensitive layer was found to be systematically larger than the depleted one

  3. Large Water Cherenkov Detectors - Technical Issues -

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, H

    2010-01-01

    We address technical issues and challenges to construct a one-megaton scale water Cherenkov detector for neutrino detection. Studies presented here are mostly based on preliminary work for Hyper Kamiokande project.

  4. Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications: Applications of Detectors in Technology, Medicine and Other Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hillemanns, H

    2011-01-01

    Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications in 'Applications of Detectors in Technology, Medicine and Other Fields', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B2: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 2: Systems and Applications'. This document is part of Part 2 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '7.3 Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications' of Chapter '7 Applications of Detectors in Technology; Medicine and Other Fields' with the content: 7.3 Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications 7.3.1 Applications of HEP Detectors 7.3.2 Fast Micro- and Nanoelectronics for Particle Detector Readout 7.3.2.1 Fast Counting Mode Front End Electronics 7.3.2.2 NINO,...

  5. Large arrays of dual-polarized multichroic TES detectors for CMB measurements with the SPT-3G receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Chrystian M.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Anderson, Adam J.; Avva, Jessica; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Arnold, Kam S.; Austermann, Jason; Bender, Amy N.; Benson, Bradford A.; Bleem, Lindsey; Byrum, Karen; Carlstrom, John E.; Carter, Faustin W.; Chang, Clarence; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Cukierman, Ari; Czaplewski, David A.; Ding, Junjia; Divan, Ralu N. S.; de Haan, Tijmen; Dobbs, Matt; Dutcher, Daniel; Everett, Wenderline; Gannon, Renae N.; Guyser, Robert J.; Halverson, Nils W.; Harrington, Nicholas L.; Hattori, Kaori; Henning, Jason W.; Hilton, Gene C.; Holzapfel, William L.; Huang, Nicholas; Irwin, Kent D.; Jeong, Oliver; Khaire, Trupti; Korman, Milo; Kubik, Donna L.; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Lee, Adrian T.; Leitch, Erik M.; Lendinez Escudero, Sergi; Meyer, Stephan S.; Miller, Christina S.; Montgomery, Joshua; Nadolski, Andrew; Natoli, Tyler J.; Nguyen, Hogan; Novosad, Valentyn; Padin, Stephen; Pan, Zhaodi; Pearson, John E.; Rahlin, Alexandra; Reichardt, Christian L.; Ruhl, John E.; Saliwanchik, Benjamin; Shirley, Ian; Sayre, James T.; Shariff, Jamil A.; Shirokoff, Erik D.; Stan, Liliana; Stark, Antony A.; Sobrin, Joshua; Story, Kyle; Suzuki, Aritoki; Tang, Qing Yang; Thakur, Ritoban B.; Thompson, Keith L.; Tucker, Carole E.; Vanderlinde, Keith; Vieira, Joaquin D.; Wang, Gensheng; Whitehorn, Nathan; Yefremenko, Volodymyr; Yoon, Ki Won

    2016-07-01

    Detectors for cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments are now essentially background limited, so a straightforward alternative to improve sensitivity is to increase the number of detectors. Large arrays of multichroic pixels constitute an economical approach to increasing the number of detectors within a given focal plane area. Here, we present the fabrication of large arrays of dual-polarized multichroic transition-edge-sensor (TES) bolometers for the South Pole Telescope third-generation CMB receiver (SPT-3G). The complete SPT-3G receiver will have 2690 pixels, each with six detectors, allowing for individual measurement of three spectral bands (centered at 95 GHz, 150 GHz and 220 GHz) in two orthogonal polarizations. In total, the SPT-3G focal plane will have 16140 detectors. Each pixel is comprised of a broad-band sinuous antenna coupled to a niobium microstrip transmission line. In-line filters are used to define the different band-passes before the millimeter-wavelength signal is fed to the respective Ti/Au TES sensors. Detectors are read out using a 64x frequency domain multiplexing (fMux) scheme. The microfabrication of the SPT-3G detector arrays involves a total of 18 processes, including 13 lithography steps. Together with the fabrication process, the effect of processing on the Ti/Au TES's Tc is discussed. In addition, detectors fabricated with Ti/Au TES films with Tc between 400 mK 560 mK are presented and their thermal characteristics are evaluated. Optical characterization of the arrays is presented as well, indicating that the response of the detectors is in good agreement with the design values for all three spectral bands (95 GHz, 150 GHz, and 220 GHz). The measured optical efficiency of the detectors is between 0.3 and 0.8. Results discussed here are extracted from a batch of research of development wafers used to develop the baseline process for the fabrication of the arrays of detectors to be deployed with the SPT-3G receiver. Results from

  6. Development of a large area thermal neutron detector based on a scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the development and construction of a detector prototype based on wavelength shifting fiber in combination with a scintillator has been investigated and optimized. This development aims at an alternative for large area neutron detectors based on "3He detectors, which was the main construction in the past. After the study of the components and assemblies, such as: the scintillator, the wavelength-shifting-fibers and available photomultiplier tubes, the construction of the first prototype module begun. The neutron converter was selected as a "6LiF/ZnS scintillator, which produces a big light yield per absorbed neutron. The prototype itself is square and has an edge length of 30 cm in combination with two orthogonal layers of crossed wavelength-shifting-fibers. The top fiber layer, which is closer to the "6LiF/ZnS top scintillator produces the x-coordinates and the lower layer produces the y-coordinates for each event. In the prototype, MSJ-fibers from the company Kuraray were used with 1 mm diameter and spacing in the top layer of 1.5 mm and 1 mm in the lower layer. Due to the orthogonal arrangement of the wires in the two layers, one may identify where the neutron was absorbed in the scintillator and produced the light yield. In order to reduce the light loss of the absorbed photons inside the fibers, a bending radius of greater than 20 mm was used and achieved by warming up the fibers to 80 C during the bending process. The increased temperature reduces the crack formation in the fibers which increases the light loss. At this time it is expected that a photomultiplier from Hamamatsu with 256 individual pixels for readout will be used. This H9500 flat panel photomultiplier has the advantage of readout of all fibers of the prototype in one photomultiplier housing. In combination with integrated readout electronics one can minimize the homogeneity/gain differences of the photocathode pixels, the different light loss in each fiber, and the gain

  7. Digital readouts for large microwave low-temperature detector arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazin, Benjamin A.; Day, Peter K.; Irwin, Kent D.; Reintsema, Carl D.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2006-01-01

    Over the last several years many different types of low-temperature detectors (LTDs) have been developed that use a microwave resonant circuit as part of their readout. These devices include microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID), microwave SQUID readouts for transition edge sensors (TES), and NIS bolometers. Current readout techniques for these devices use analog frequency synthesizers and IQ mixers. While these components are available as microwave integrated circuits, one set is required for each resonator. We are exploring a new readout technique for this class of detectors based on a commercial-off-the-shelf technology called software defined radio (SDR). In this method a fast digital to analog (D/A) converter creates as many tones as desired in the available bandwidth. Our prototype system employs a 100MS/s 16-bit D/A to generate an arbitrary number of tones in 50MHz of bandwidth. This signal is then mixed up to the desired detector resonant frequency (∼10GHz), sent through the detector, then mixed back down to baseband. The baseband signal is then digitized with a series of fast analog to digital converters (80MS/s, 14-bit). Next, a numerical mixer in a dedicated integrated circuit or FPGA mixes the resonant frequency of a specified detector to 0Hz, and sends the complex detector output over a computer bus for processing and storage. In this paper we will report on our results in using a prototype system to readout a MKID array, including system noise performance, X-ray pulse response, and cross-talk measurements. We will also discuss how this technique can be scaled to read out many thousands of detectors

  8. Large underground, liquid based detectors for astro-particle physics in Europe scientific case and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Autiero, D; Badertscher, A; Bezrukov, L; Bouchez, J; Bueno, A; Busto, J; Campagne, J -E; Cavata, C; De Bellefon, A; Dumarchez, J; Ebert, J; Enqvist, T; Ereditato, A; Von Feilitzsch, F; Perez, P Fileviez; Goger-Neff, M; Gninenko, S; Gruber, W; Hagner, C; Hess, M; Hochmuth, K A; Kisiel, J; Knecht, L; Kreslo, I; Kudryavtsev, V A; Kuusiniemi, P; Lachenmaier, T; Laffranchi, M; Lefièvre, B; Lightfoot, P K; Lindner, M; Maalampi, J; Maltoni, M; Marchionni, A; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Meregaglia, A; Messina, M; Mezzetto, M; Mirizzi, A; Mosca, L; Moser, U; Müller, A; Natterer, G; Oberauer, L; Otiougova, P; Patzak, T; Peltoniemi, J; Potzel, W; Pistillo, C; Raffelt, G G; Rondio, E; Roos, M; Rossi, B; Rubbia, André; Savvinov, N; Schwetz, T; Sobczyk, J; Spooner, N J C; Stefan, D; Tonazzo, A; Trzaska, W; Ulbricht, J; Volpe, C; Winter, J; Wurm, M; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zimmermann, R

    2007-01-01

    This document reports on a series of experimental and theoretical studies conducted to assess the astro-particle physics potential of three future large-scale particle detectors proposed in Europe as next generation underground observatories. The proposed apparatus employ three different and, to some extent, complementary detection techniques: GLACIER (liquid Argon TPC), LENA (liquid scintillator) and MEMPHYS (\\WC), based on the use of large mass of liquids as active detection media. The results of these studies are presented along with a critical discussion of the performance attainable by the three proposed approaches coupled to existing or planned underground laboratories, in relation to open and outstanding physics issues such as the search for matter instability, the detection of astrophysical- and geo-neutrinos and to the possible use of these detectors in future high-intensity neutrino beams.

  9. Apoptosis in HEp-2 cells infected with Ureaplasma diversum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Aline Teixeira; Marques, Lucas Miranda; Santos, Angelita Maria Oliveira Gusmão; Martins, Hellen Braga; Barbosa, Maysa Santos; Rezende, Izadora Souza; Andrade, Ewerton Ferraz; Campos, Guilherme Barreto; Lobão, Tássia Neves; Cortez, Beatriz Araujo; Monezi, Telma Alvez; Machado-Santelli, Glaucia Maria; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2014-09-04

    Bacterial pathogens have many strategies for infecting and persisting in host cells. Adhesion, invasion and intracellular life are important features in the biology of mollicutes. The intracellular location of Ureaplasma diversum may trigger disturbances in the host cell. This includes activation or inhibition of pro and anti-apoptotic factors, which facilitate the development of host damage. The aim of the present study was to associate U. diversum infection in HEp-2 cells and apoptosis induction. Cells were infected for 72hs with four U. diversum clinical isolates and an ATCC strain. The U. diversum invasion was analyzed by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and gentamicin invasion assay. The apoptosis was evaluated using pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic gene expression, and FITC Annexin V/Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit. The number of internalized ureaplasma in HEp-2 cells increased significantly throughout the infection. The flow cytometry analysis with fluorochromes to detect membrane depolarization and gene expression for caspase 2, 3 and 9 increased in infected cells after 24 hours. However, after 72 hours a considerable decrease of apoptotic cells was observed. The data suggests that apoptosis may be initially induced by some isolates in association with HEp-2 cells, but over time, there was no evidence of apoptosis in the presence of ureaplasma and HEp-2 cells. The initial increase and then decrease in apoptosis could be related to bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPS). Moreover, the isolates of U. diversum presented differences in the studied parameters for apoptosis. It was also observed that the amount of microorganisms was not proportional to the induction of apoptosis in HEp-2 cells.

  10. Encefalopatia hepática: estudo de 50 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio de Lima Resende

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam estudo retrospectivo de 50 pacientes com encefalopatia hepática atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto a partir de 1959 e discutem os aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais e anátomo-patológicos. Expõem os diagnósticos das hepatopatias, os fatores precipitantes dos episódios de coma e pré-coma hepático e enfatizam o papel da gasometria arterial no estabelecimento do diagnóstico.

  11. Selective Filtration of Gadolinium Trichloride for Use in Neutron Detection in Large Water Cherenkov Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagins, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Super-??Kamiokande Water Cherenkov detectors have been used for many years as inexpensive, effective detectors for neutrino interactions and nucleon decay searches. While many important measurements have been made with these detectors a major drawback has been their inability to detect the absorption of thermal neutrons. We believe an inexpensive, effective technique could be developed to overcome this situation via the addition to water of a solute with a large neutron cross section and energetic gamma daughters which would make neutrons detectable. Gadolinium seems an excellent candidate especially since in recent years it has become very inexpensive, now less than $8 per kilogram in the form of commercially-available gadolinium trichloride, GdCl 3 . This non-toxic, non-reactive substance is highly soluble in water. Neutron capture on gadolinium yields a gamma cascade which would be easily seen in detectors like Super-Kamiokande. We have been investigating the use of GdCl 3 as a possible upgrade for the Super-Kamiokande detector with a view toward improving its performance as a detector for atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, wrong-sign solar neutrinos, reactor neutrinos, proton decay, and also as a target for the coming T2K long-baseline neutrino experiment. This focused study of selective water filtration and GdCl 3 extraction techniques, conducted at UC Irvine, followed up on highly promising benchtop-scale and kiloton-scale work previously carried out with the assistance of 2003 and 2005 Advanced Detector Research Program grants

  12. VCC-1 over-expression inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhitao; Lu, Xiao; Zhu, Ping; Zhu, Wei; Mu, Xia; Qu, Rongmei; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► VCC-1 is hypothesized to be associated with carcinogenesis. ► Levels of VCC-1 are increased significantly in HCC. ► Over-expression of VCC-1 could promotes cellular proliferation rate. ► Over-expression of VCC-1 inhibit the cisplatin-provoked apoptosis in HepG2 cells. ► VCC-1 plays an important role in control the tumor growth and apoptosis. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor-correlated chemokine 1 (VCC-1), a recently described chemokine, is hypothesized to be associated with carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which aberrant VCC-1 expression determines poor outcomes of cancers are unknown. In this study, we found that VCC-1 was highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue. It was also associated with proliferation of HepG2 cells, and inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Conversely, down-regulation of VCC-1 in HepG2 cells increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. In summary, these results suggest that VCC-1 is involved in cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells, and also provides some evidence for VCC-1 as a potential cellular target for chemotherapy.

  13. Big Data in HEP: A comprehensive use case study

    OpenAIRE

    Gutsche, Oliver; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elmer, Peter; Jayatilaka, Bo; Kowalkowski, Jim; Pivarski, Jim; Sehrish, Saba; Surez, Cristina Mantilla; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tran, Nhan

    2017-01-01

    Experimental Particle Physics has been at the forefront of analyzing the worlds largest datasets for decades. The HEP community was the first to develop suitable software and computing tools for this task. In recent times, new toolkits and systems collectively called Big Data technologies have emerged to support the analysis of Petabyte and Exabyte datasets in industry. While the principles of data analysis in HEP have not changed (filtering and transforming experiment-specific data formats),...

  14. Background problem for a large solid angle, high sensitivity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.

    1977-01-01

    With extremely good vacuum (10 -11 to 10 -13 torr) and well controlled beams, the ISR has a good reputation for clean beam conditions and low background for most types of experiments. However, for a detector covering a large solid angle, measuring processes with small cross sections (approximately 10 -38 cm 2 ) there are serious background problems which took almost a year to solve. Since ISABELLE may have similar problems, a summary is given of experience at the ISR with the hope that some of the solutions can be installed in ISABELLE at an early stage

  15. Development of Large Area CsI Photocathodes for the ALICE/HMPID RICH Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hoedlmoser, H; Schyns, E

    2005-01-01

    The work carried out within the framework of this PhD deals with the measurement of the photoelectric properties of large area thin film Cesium Iodide (CsI) photocathodes (PCs) which are to be used as a photon converter in a proximity focusing RICH detector for High Momentum Particle Identification (HMPID) in the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The objective was to commission a VUV-scanner setup for in-situ measurements of the photoelectric response of the CsI PCs immediately after the thin film coating process and the use of this system to investigate the properties of these photon detectors. Prior to this work and prior to the finalization of the ALICE/HMPID detector design, R&D work investigating the properties of CsI PCs had been performed at CERN and at other laboratories in order to determine possible substrates and optimized thin film coating procedures. These R&D studies were usually carried out with small samples on different substrates and with various procedures with sometimes ambiguous result...

  16. TORCH: A Large-Area Detector for Precision Time-of-Flight Measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Harnew, N

    2012-01-01

    The TORCH (Time Of internally Reflected CHerenkov light) is an innovative high-precision time-of-flight detector which is suitable for large areas, up to tens of square metres, and is being developed for the upgraded LHCb experiment. The TORCH provides a time-of-flight measurement from the imaging of photons emitted in a 1 cm thick quartz radiator, based on the Cherenkov principle. The photons propagate by total internal reflection to the edge of the quartz plane and are then focused onto an array of Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) photon detectors at the periphery of the detector. The goal is to achieve a timing resolution of 15 ps per particle over a flight distance of 10 m. This will allow particle identification in the challenging momentum region up to 20 GeV/c. Commercial MCPs have been tested in the laboratory and demonstrate the required timing precision. An electronics readout system based on the NINO and HPTDC chipset is being developed to evaluate an 8×8 channel TORCH prototype. The simulated performance...

  17. Design and evaluation of a SiPM-based large-area detector module for positron emission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva-Sánchez, H.; Murrieta-Rodríguez, T.; Calva-Coraza, E.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.

    2018-03-01

    The design and evaluation of a large-area detector module for positron emission imaging applications, is presented. The module features a SensL ArrayC-60035-64P-PCB solid state detector (8×8 array of tileable silicon photomultipliers by SensL, 7.2 mm pitch) covering a total area of 57.4×57.4 mm2. The detector module was formed using a pixelated array of 40×40 lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) scintillator crystal elements with 1.43 mm pitch. A 7 mm thick coupling light guide was used to allow light sharing between adjacent SiPM. A 16-channel symmetric charge division (SCD) readout board was designed to multiplex the number of signals from 64 to 16 (8 columns and 8 rows) and a center-of-gravity algorithm to identify the position. Data acquisition and digitization was accomplished using a custom-made system based on FPGAs boards. Crystal maps were obtained using 18F-positron sources and Voronoi diagrams were used to correct for geometric distortions and to generate a non-uniformity correction matrix. All measurements were taken at a controlled room temperature of 22oC. The crystal maps showed minor distortion, 90% of the 1600 total crystal elements could be identified, a mean peak-to-valley ratio of 4.3 was obtained and a 10.8% mean energy resolution for 511 keV annihilation photons was determined. The performance of the detector using our own readout board was compared to that using two different commercially readout boards using the same detector module arrangement. We show that these large-area SiPM arrays, combined with a 16-channel SCD readout board, can offer high spatial resolution, excellent energy resolution and detector uniformity and thus, can be used for positron emission imaging applications.

  18. Total Ionizing Dose effects in 130-nm commercial CMOS technologies for HEP experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gonella, L; Silvestri, M; Gerardin, S; Pantano, D; Re, V; Manghisoni, M; Ratti, L; Ranieri, A

    2007-01-01

    The impact of foundry-to-foundry variability and bias conditions during irradiation on the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) response of commercial 130-nm CMOS technologies have been investigated for applications in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. n- and p-channel MOSFETs from three different manufacturers have been irradiated with X-rays up to more than 100 Mrad (SiO2). Even though the effects of TID are qualitatively similar, the amount of degradation is shown to vary considerably from foundry to foundry, probably depending on the processing of the STI oxide and/or doping profile in the substrate. The bias during irradiation showed to have a strong impact as well on the TID response, proving that exposure at worst case bias conditions largely overestimates the degradation a device may experience during its lifetime. Overall, our results increase the confidence that 130-nm CMOS technologies can be used in future HEP experiments even without Hardness-By-Design solutions, provided that constant monitoring of th...

  19. Tumores hepáticos incomuns: ensaio iconográfico - Parte 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cheregati Pedrassa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A maioria dos tumores hepáticos primários malignos é representada pelo carcinoma hepatocelular e pelo colangiocarcinoma, entretanto, uma variedade de outras lesões hepáticas incomuns pode ser encontrada. Lesões comuns como o hemangioma, a hiperplasia nodular focal e as metástases são bem conhecidas e já foram extensamente documentadas na literatura. O diagnóstico das lesões hepáticas típicas pode ser feito com alguma segurança utilizando-se os diversos métodos de imagem; por outro lado, as lesões incomuns são geralmente um desafio diagnóstico para o radiologista. Nesta primeira parte do estudo abordaremos cinco tumores hepáticos incomuns - o angiossarcoma, o angiomiolipoma, o cistoadenoma/carcinoma biliar, o hemangioendotelioma epitelioide e o carcinoma hepatocelular fibrolamelar -, suas principais características e achados de imagem, com foco na tomografia computadorizada e na ressonância magnética.

  20. A Monte-Carlo code for neutron efficiency calculations for large volume Gd-loaded liquid scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzcinski, A.; Zwieglinski, B. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Lynen, U. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Pochodzalla, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports on a Monte-Carlo program, MSX, developed to evaluate the performance of large-volume, Gd-loaded liquid scintillation detectors used in neutron multiplicity measurements. The results of simulations are presented for the detector intended to count neutrons emitted by the excited target residue in coincidence with the charged products of the projectile fragmentation following relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The latter products could be detected with the ALADIN magnetic spectrometer at GSI-Darmstadt. (orig.) 61 refs.

  1. Development of large area CsI photocathodes for the Alice/Humped Rich detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedlmoser, H.

    2005-03-01

    The work carried out within the framework of this PhD deals with the measurement of the photoelectric properties of large area thin film cesium iodide photocathodes (PCs) which are to be used as a photon converter in a proximity focusing RICH detector for High Momentum Particle Identification (HMPID) in the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The objective was to commission a VUV-scanner setup for in-situ measurements of the photoelectric response of the CsI PCs and the use of this system to investigate the properties of these photon detectors. Among the investigated phenomena the most important ones were: - Post deposition treatment: from R and D studies it was known, that the PC response can be increased by heating the PC after the coating process. Within this thesis it was shown that the enhancement effect is mandatory to achieve the photon conversion efficiency required by the detector design and that any difference in PC quality is due to differences in this enhancement effect. - Ageing effects: CsI PCs age under exposure to humidity due to the hygroscopicity of CsI and under high photon flux and ion bombardment inside the Multi Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) of the detector. All three effects have been investigated with the VUV scanner. The first effect requires a careful treatment of the CsI PCs to avoid exposure to humid air. Furthermore this effect was found to be reversible if the PC is heated. High photon fluxes are irrelevant in a Cherenkov detector dealing with single photons, however, the problem needed to be investigated to verify that the measurement process itself does not damage the PCs. The third mechanism is very important as it occurs during normal detector operation and depends only on the radiation environment of the experiment. For a dose corresponding to 20 years of operation inside ALICE an accelerated test showed a clear degradation of up to 40 % of the PC response. With the results of these studies the first 17 PCs (of 42) for the detector

  2. Study of SUSY particles properties at the future International Linear Collider with the International Large Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, K.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Letters of Intent (LoI) for experiments at the International Linear Collider (ILC) have been submitted. Among the three proposals is the International Large Detector (ILD) concept which is at the focus of these studies. From various subjects addressed in the LoI, a wide spectrum of studies of SUSY particle properties is presented here. Most of them are benchmark reactions for the ILC and can be used both in physics studies and in work on detector design and optimization, respectively. All studies were performed with a full detector simulation using GEANT4, which is a great improvement compared to the previous results with much less detailed, so called f ast , simulation (SIMDET). The importance of this improved simulation is reflected in the results. The presented analyzes have been chosen to be the most challenging for the detector to study its performance and guide the detector development. Additionally an important problem of unavoidable beam induced backgrounds at linear colliders is addressed and ways of reducing its impact on physics studies are shown for an example SUSY analysis. (author)

  3. Characterization of large volume CdZnTe detectors with a quad-grid structure for the COBRA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatsch, Katja [TU Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: COBRA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The COBRA experiment uses room temperature semiconductor detectors made of Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride, which contains several double beta isotopes, to search for neutrinoless double beta-decay. To compensate for poor hole transport in CdZnTe the detectors are equipped with a coplanar grid (CPG) instead of a planar anode. Currently, a demonstrator setup consisting of 64 1 cm{sup 3} CPG-detectors is in operation at the LNGS in Italy to prove the concept and to determine the long-term stability of the detectors and the instrumentation. For a future large scale experiment it is planned to use larger CdZnTe detectors with a volume of 6 cm{sup 3}, because of the better surface-to-volume ratio and the higher full energy detection efficiency. This will also reduce the background contribution of surface contaminations. Before the installation at the LNGS the new detector design is validated and studied in detail. This talk presents a laboratory experiment for the characterization with γ-radiation of 6 cm{sup 3} CdZnTe quad-grid detectors. The anode of such a detector is divided into four sub-CPGs. The characterization routine consists of the determination of the optimal working point and two-dimensional spatially resolved scans with a highly collimated γ-source.

  4. High rate resistive plate chambers: An inexpensive, fast, large area detector of energetic charged particles for accelerator and non-accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, C.R.; Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.; Clamp, O.; Haro, M.; Mauger, G.J.; Miller, K.; Olson, H.; Ramsey, P.

    1993-05-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers, or RPCs, have been used until recently as large detectors of cosmic ray muons. They are now finding use as fast large-area trigger and muon detection systems for different high energy physics detectors such the L3 Detector at LEP and future detectors to be built at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. RPC systems at these accelerators must operate with high efficiency, providing nanosecond timing resolution in particle fluences up to a few tens of kHz/cm 2 -- with thousands of square meters of active area. RPCs are simple and cheap to construct. The authors report here recent work on RPCs using new materials that exhibit a combination of desirable RPC features such as low bulk resistivity, high dielectric strength, low mass, and low cost. These new materials were originally developed for use in electronics assembly areas and other applications, where static electric charge buildup can damage sensitive electrical systems

  5. Diamond detector time resolution for large angle tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodini, G., E-mail: chiodini@le.infn.it [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Fiore, G.; Perrino, R. [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Pinto, C.; Spagnolo, S. [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Dip. di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Uni. del Salento (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The applications which have stimulated greater interest in diamond sensors are related to detectors close to particle beams, therefore in an environment with high radiation level (beam monitor, luminosity measurement, detection of primary and secondary-interaction vertices). Our aims is to extend the studies performed so far by developing the technical advances needed to prove the competitiveness of this technology in terms of time resolution, with respect to more usual ones, which does not guarantee the required tolerance to a high level of radiation doses. In virtue of these goals, measurements of diamond detector time resolution with tracks incident at different angles are discussed. In particular, preliminary testbeam results obtained with 5 GeV electrons and polycrystalline diamond strip detectors are shown.

  6. Operational Experience and Performance with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Grummer, Aidan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector relies critically on its 4-layer Pixel Detector, that has undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered by the Large Hadron Collider, with record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 2 x 10^34 cm-2 s-1 recently surpassed. The key status and performance metrics of the ATLAS Pixel Detector are summarised, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency will be described, with special emphasis to radiation damage experience. In particular, radiation damage effects will be showed and signs of degradation which are visible but which are not impacting yet the tracking performance (but will): dE/dX, occupancy reduction with integrated luminosity, under-depletion effects with IBL in 2016, effects of annealing that is not insignificant for the inner-most layers. Therefore the offline software strat...

  7. Detector simulation needs for detector designers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.G.

    1987-11-01

    Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers

  8. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run 2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, M., E-mail: malte.backhaus@cern.ch

    2016-09-21

    During Run 1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the ATLAS Pixel Detector has shown excellent performance. The ATLAS collaboration took advantage of the first long shutdown of the LHC during 2013 and 2014 and extracted the ATLAS Pixel Detector from the experiment, brought it to surface and maintained the services. This included the installation of new service quarter panels, the repair of cables, and the installation of the new Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). Additionally, a completely new innermost pixel detector layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), was constructed and installed in May 2014 between a new smaller beam pipe and the existing Pixel Detector. With a radius of 3.3 cm the IBL is located extremely close to the interaction point. Therefore, a new readout chip and two new sensor technologies (planar and 3D) are used in the IBL. In order to achieve best possible physics performance the material budget was improved with respect to the existing Pixel Detector. This is realized using lightweight staves for mechanical support and a CO{sub 2} based cooling system. This paper describes the improvements achieved during the maintenance of the existing Pixel Detector as well as the performance of the IBL during the construction and commissioning phase. Additionally, first results obtained during the LHC Run 2 demonstrating the distinguished tracking performance of the new Four Layer ATLAS Pixel Detector are presented.

  9. Development of Muon Drift-Tube Detectors for High-Luminosity Upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bittner, B; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Legger, F.; Richter, R.; Biebel, O.; Engl, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Rauscher, F.

    2016-01-01

    The muon detectors of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have to cope with unprecedentedly high neutron and gamma ray background rates. In the forward regions of the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector, for instance, counting rates of 1.7 kHz/square cm are reached at the LHC design luminosity. For high-luminosity upgrades of the LHC, up to 10 times higher background rates are expected which require replacement of the muon chambers in the critical detector regions. Tests at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility showed that drift-tube detectors with 15 mm diameter aluminum tubes operated with Ar:CO2 (93:7) gas at 3 bar and a maximum drift time of about 200 ns provide e?cient and high-resolution muon tracking up to the highest expected rates. For 15 mm tube diameter, space charge e?ects deteriorating the spatial resolution at high rates are strongly suppressed. The sense wires have to be positioned in the chamber with an accuracy of better than 50 ?micons in order to achieve the desired spatial...

  10. arXiv HEP Software Foundation Community White Paper Working Group - Software Development, Deployment and Validation

    CERN Document Server

    Couturier, Benjamin; Grasland, Hadrien; Hegner, Benedikt; Jouvin, Michel; Kane, Meghan; Katz, Daniel S.; Kuhr, Thomas; Lange, David; Mendez Lorenzo, Patricia; Ritter, Martin; Stewart, Graeme Andrew; Valassi, Andrea

    The High Energy Phyiscs community has developed and needs to maintain many tens of millions of lines of code and to integrate effectively the work of thousands of developers across large collaborations. Software needs to be built, validated, and deployed across hundreds of sites. Software also has a lifetime of many years, frequently beyond that of the original developer, it must be developed with sustainability in mind. Adequate recognition of software development as a critical task in the HEP community needs to be fostered and an appropriate publication and citation strategy needs to be developed. As part of the HEP Softare Foundation's Community White Paper process a working group on Software Development, Deployment and Validation was formed to examine all of these issues, identify best practice and to formulare recommendations for the next decade. Its report is presented here.

  11. NiMax system for hadronic event generators in HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelin, N.S.; Komogorov, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    We have suggested a new approach to the development and use of Monte Carlo event generators in high-energy physics (HEP). It is a component approach, when a complex numerical model is composed of standard components. Our approach opens a way to organize a library of HEP model components and provides a great flexibility for the construction of very powerful and realistic numerical models. To support this approach we have designed the NiMax software system (framework) written in C++

  12. Calibration of a plastic detector PVT of large dimensions for the detection gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenteros Carmona, J. C.; Suarez navarro, M. J.; Gonzalez-gonzalez, J. A.; Pujol, L.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development work on the porch Rad Sentry Canberra brand that uses 2 plastic scintillation detectors PVT large (172 x 32 x 4 cm). In this paper we present the different calibration necessary for the proper functioning of equipment: channel-energy calibration, energy resolution, and efficiency-energy.

  13. Automatic computation of cross sections in HEP. Status of GRACE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuasa, F.; Fujimoto, J.; Ishikawa, T.

    2000-01-01

    For the study of reactions in High Energy Physics (HEP) automatic computation systems have been developed are widely used nowadays. GRACE is one of such systems and it has achieved much success in analyzing experimental data. Since we deal with the cross section whose value can be given by calculating hundreds of Feynman diagrams, we manage the large scale calculation, so that effective symbolic manipulation, the treat of singularity in the numerical integration are required. The talk will describe the software design of GRACE system and computational techniques in the GRACE. (author)

  14. Towards a large scale high energy cosmic neutrino undersea detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, R.; Berthier, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere; Arpesella, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique] [and others

    1997-06-01

    ANTARES collaboration proposes to study high energy cosmic neutrinos by using a deep sea Cherenkov detector. The potential interest of such a study for astrophysicists and particle physicists is developed. The different origins of cosmic neutrinos are reviewed. In order to observe with relevant statistic the flux of neutrinos from extra-galactic sources, a km-scale detector is necessary. The feasibility of such a detector is studied. A variety of technical problems have been solved. Some of them are standard for particle physicists: choice of photo-multipliers, monitoring, trigger, electronics, data acquisition, detector optimization. Others are more specific of sea science engineering particularly: detector deployment in deep sea, data transmission through optical cables, bio-fouling, effect of sea current. The solutions are presented and the sea engineering part involving detector installation will be tested near French coasts. It is scheduled to build a reduced-scale demonstrator within the next 2 years. (A.C.) 50 refs.

  15. Towards a large scale high energy cosmic neutrino undersea detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoulay, R.; Berthier, R.; Arpesella, C.

    1997-06-01

    ANTARES collaboration proposes to study high energy cosmic neutrinos by using a deep sea Cherenkov detector. The potential interest of such a study for astrophysicists and particle physicists is developed. The different origins of cosmic neutrinos are reviewed. In order to observe with relevant statistic the flux of neutrinos from extra-galactic sources, a km-scale detector is necessary. The feasibility of such a detector is studied. A variety of technical problems have been solved. Some of them are standard for particle physicists: choice of photo-multipliers, monitoring, trigger, electronics, data acquisition, detector optimization. Others are more specific of sea science engineering particularly: detector deployment in deep sea, data transmission through optical cables, bio-fouling, effect of sea current. The solutions are presented and the sea engineering part involving detector installation will be tested near French coasts. It is scheduled to build a reduced-scale demonstrator within the next 2 years. (A.C.)

  16. A new experiment-agnostic mechanism to persistify and serve the detector geometry of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00211497; The ATLAS collaboration; Boudreau, Joseph; Vukotic, Ilija

    2017-01-01

    The complex geometry of the whole detector of the ATLAS experiment at LHC is currently stored only in custom online databases, from which it is built on-the-fly on request. Accessing the online geometry guarantees accessing the latest version of the detector description, but requires the setup of the full ATLAS software framework "Athena", which provides the online services and the tools to retrieve the data from the database. This operation is cumbersome and slows down the applications that need to access the geometry. Moreover, all applications that need to access the detector geometry need to be built and run on the same platform as the ATLAS framework, preventing the usage of the actual detector geometry in stand-alone applications. Here we propose a new mechanism to persistify and serve the geometry of HEP experiments. The new mechanism is composed by a new file format and the modules to make use of it. The new file format allows to store the whole detector description locally in a flat file, and it is e...

  17. Future particle detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Allan G.

    2000-01-01

    Starting with a short summary of the major new experimental physics programs, we attempt to motivate the reasons why existing general-purpose detectors at Hadron Colliders are what they are, why they are being upgraded, and why new facilities are being constructed. The CDF and ATLAS detectors are used to illustrate these motivations. Selected physics results from the CDF experiment provide evidence for limitations on the detector performance, and new physics opportunities motivate both machine and detector upgrades. This is discussed with emphasis on the improved physics reach of the CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron (√(s)=2 TeV). From 2005, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will become operational at a collision energy of √(s)=14 TeV, seven times larger than at the Tevatron Collider. To exploit the physics capability of the LHC, several large detectors are being constructed. The detectors are significantly more complex than those at the Tevatron Collider because of physics and operational constraints. The detector design and technology of the aspects of the large general-purpose detector ATLAS is described

  18. Technical Design Report for large-scale neutrino detectors prototyping and phased performance assessment in view of a long-baseline oscillation experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Bonis, I.; Duchesneau, D.; Pessard, H.; Bordoni, S.; Ieva, M.; Lux, T.; Sanchez, F.; Jipa, A.; Lazanu, I.; Calin, M.; Esanu, T.; Ristea, O.; Ristea, C.; Nita, L.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Nessi, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Bravar, A.; Cadoux, F.; Haesler, A.; Karadzhov, Y.; Korzenev, A.; Martin, C.; Noah, E.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Scantamburlo, E.; Bayes, R.; Soler, F.J.P.; Nuijten, G.A.; Loo, K.; Maalampi, J.; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W.H.; Campanelli, M.; Blebea-Apostu, A.M.; Chesneanu, D.; Gomoiu, M.C; Mitrica, B.; Margineanu, R.M.; Stanca, D.L.; Colino, N.; Gil-Botella, I.; Novella, P.; Palomares, C.; Santorelli, R.; Verdugo, A.; Karpikov, I.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kudenko, Y.; Mefodiev, A.; Mineev, O.; Ovsiannikova, T.; Yershov, N.; Enqvist, T.; Kuusiniemi, P.; De La Taille, C.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Andrieu, B.; Dumarchez, J.; Giganti, C.; Levy, J.-M.; Popov, B.; Robert, A.; Agostino, L.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Dawson, J.; Franco, D.; Gorodetzky, P.; Kryn, D.; Patzak, T.; Tonazzo, A.; Vannucci, F.; Bésida, O.; Bolognesi, S.; Delbart, A.; Emery, S.; Galymov, V.; Mazzucato, E.; Vasseur, G.; Zito, M.; Bogomilov, M.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Friend, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Sakashita, K.; Zambelli, L.; Autiero, D.; Caiulo, D.; Chaussard, L.; Déclais, Y.; Franco, D.; Marteau, J.; Pennacchio, E.; Bay, F.; Cantini, C.; Crivelli, P.; Epprecht, L.; Gendotti, A.; Di Luise, S.; Horikawa, S.; Murphy, S.; Nikolics, K.; Periale, L.; Regenfus, C.; Rubbia, A.; Sgalaberna, D.; Viant, T.; Wu, S.; Sergiampietri, F.; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2014-01-01

    In June 2012, an Expression of Interest for a long-baseline experiment (LBNO, CERN-SPSC-EOI-007) has been submitted to the CERN SPSC and is presently under review. LBNO considers three types of neutrino detector technologies: a double-phase liquid argon (LAr) TPC and a magnetised iron detector as far detectors. For the near detector, a high-pressure gas TPC embedded in a calorimeter and a magnet is the baseline design. A mandatory milestone in view of any future long baseline experiment is a concrete prototyping effort towards the envisioned large-scale detectors, and an accompanying campaign of measurements aimed at assessing the systematic errors that will be affecting their intended physics programme. Following an encouraging feedback from 108th SPSC on the technology choices, we have defined as priority the construction and operation of a $6\\times 6\\times 6$m$^3$ (active volume) double-phase liquid argon (DLAr) demonstrator, and a parallel development of the technologies necessary for large magnetised MIN...

  19. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Gaseous detectors have been pushed to the limits when required to operate in the ferocious and aggressive rate environment of the new generation of HEP experiments. A great effort has resulted in the optimization and construction of large systems of gas detectors, some operational and some due for installation.

  20. Study of a 5-Tesla large aperture coil for the CLIC detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cure, B

    2011-01-01

    The present design of a CLIC detector foresees a large solenoid magnet with a 6 m aperture and a magnetic induction of 5 T at the interaction point. This can be achieved by a thin superconducting coil. This report gives the typical main parameters of such a coil and presents the feasibility based on and compared with the CMS and Atlas solenoid coil designs, indicating the limits on the conductor and the identified R&D prospects.

  1. A Prototype Large Area Detector Module for Muon Scattering Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, C.A.; Boakes, J.; Burns, J.; Snow, S.; Stapleton, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Quillin, S. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Abstract-Shielded special nuclear materials (SNM) are of concern as some fissile isotopes have low gamma and neutron emission rates. These materials are also easily shielded to the point where their passive emissions are comparable to background. Consequently, shielded SNM is very challenging for passive radiation detection portals which scan cargo containers. One potential solution for this is to utilise the natural cosmic ray muon background and examine how these muons scatter from materials inside the container volume, terms; the muon scattering tomography (MST) technique measures the three-dimensional localised scattering at all points within a cargo container, providing a degree of material discrimination. There is the additional benefit that the MST signal increases with the presence of more high density shielding materials, in contrast to passive radiation detection. Simulations and calculations suggest that the effectiveness of the technique is sensitive to the tracking accuracy amongst other parameters, motivating the need to develop practical detector systems that are capable of tracking cosmic ray muons. To this end, we have constructed and tested a 2 m by 2 m demonstration module based on gaseous drift chambers and triggered by a large area scintillator-based detector, which is readout by wavelength shifting fibres. We discuss its design, construction, characterisation and operational challenges. (authors)

  2. Minimum Bias Measurements with the ATLAS Detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Leyton, M

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will collide bunches of protons (p) at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 14 TeV and a rate of 40 MHz. The unprecedented collision energy and interaction rate at the LHC will allow us to explore the TeV mass scale and take a major step forward in our understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The initial physics run of the LHC is expected to start in November 2009 and continue until the end of 2010, with collisions at sqrt(s) = 900 GeV, 7 TeV and 10 TeV. ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is a 4pi general-purpose detector designed for studying LHC collisions at the particle level. The design and layout of ATLAS are intended to cover the wide spectrum of physics signatures that are possible at the TeV mass scale. Construction and installation of the ATLAS detector at CERN are now complete. This dissertation focuses on measuring the properties of inelastic pp interactions at the LHC with the ATLAS detector. A method for measuring the central pseudorapidity den...

  3. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Gamblin Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On August 12, 2003, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Gamblin Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2002. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Gamblin Lake Project provides a total of 273.28 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 127.92 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetland habitat provides 21.06 HUs for bald eagle, black-caped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow provides 78.05 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Emergent wetland habitat provides 46.25 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. The objective of using HEP at the Gamblin Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  4. A Tale of Two Searches, with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00360686

    Two searches carried out with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hardron Collider at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV. Primarily, a search for the associated production of a Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with a top quark pair. Additionally, a search for the existence of R-Parity violating Supersymmetry.

  5. A Tale of Two Searches, with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    OpenAIRE

    Bouffard, Julian Michael; Jain, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Two searches carried out with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hardron Collider at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV. Primarily, a search for the associated production of a Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with a top quark pair. Additionally, a search for the existence of R-Parity violating Supersymmetry.

  6. The path toward HEP High Performance Computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, John; Brun, René; Gheata, Andrei; Wenzel, Sandro; Carminati, Federico

    2014-01-01

    High Energy Physics code has been known for making poor use of high performance computing architectures. Efforts in optimising HEP code on vector and RISC architectures have yield limited results and recent studies have shown that, on modern architectures, it achieves a performance between 10% and 50% of the peak one. Although several successful attempts have been made to port selected codes on GPUs, no major HEP code suite has a 'High Performance' implementation. With LHC undergoing a major upgrade and a number of challenging experiments on the drawing board, HEP cannot any longer neglect the less-than-optimal performance of its code and it has to try making the best usage of the hardware. This activity is one of the foci of the SFT group at CERN, which hosts, among others, the Root and Geant4 project. The activity of the experiments is shared and coordinated via a Concurrency Forum, where the experience in optimising HEP code is presented and discussed. Another activity is the Geant-V project, centred on the development of a highperformance prototype for particle transport. Achieving a good concurrency level on the emerging parallel architectures without a complete redesign of the framework can only be done by parallelizing at event level, or with a much larger effort at track level. Apart the shareable data structures, this typically implies a multiplication factor in terms of memory consumption compared to the single threaded version, together with sub-optimal handling of event processing tails. Besides this, the low level instruction pipelining of modern processors cannot be used efficiently to speedup the program. We have implemented a framework that allows scheduling vectors of particles to an arbitrary number of computing resources in a fine grain parallel approach. The talk will review the current optimisation activities within the SFT group with a particular emphasis on the development perspectives towards a simulation framework able to profit

  7. Mechanical and thermal behavior of a prototype support structure for a large silicon vertex detector (BCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulderink, H.; Michels, N.; Joestlein, H.

    1989-01-01

    The Bottom Collider Detector (BCD) has been proposed as a device to study large numbers of events containing B mesons. To identify secondary vertices in hadronic events it will employ the most ambitious silicon strip tracking detector proposed to-date. This report will discuss results from measurements on a first mechanical/thermal model of the vertex detector support structure. The model that was built and used for the studies described here is made of brass. Brass was used because it is readily available and easily assembled by soft soldering, and, for appropriate thicknesses, it will behave similarly to the beryllium that will be used in the actual detector. The trough was built to full scale with the reinforcement webbing and the cooling channels in place. There were no detector modules in place. We plan, however, to install modules in the trough in the future. The purpose of the model was to address two concerns that have arisen about the proposed structure of the detector. The first is whether or not the trough will be stable enough. The trough must be very light in weight yet have a high degree of rigidity. Because of the 3m length of the detector there is question as to the stiffness of the proposed trough. The main concern is that there will sagging or movement of the trough in the middle region. The second problem is the heat load. There will be a great deal of heat generated by the electronics attached to the detector modules. So the question arises as to whether or not the silicon detectors can be kept cool enough so that when the actual experiment is run the readings will be valid. The heat may also induce motion by differential expansion of support components. 26 figs

  8. ArgonCube: a novel, fully-modular approach for the realization of large-mass liquid argon TPC neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Amsler, C; Asaadi, J; Auger, M; Barbato, F; Bay, F; Bishai, M; Bleiner, D; Borgschulte, A; Bremer, J; Cavus, E; Chen, H; De Geronimo, G; Ereditato, A; Fleming, B; Goldi, D; Hanni, R; Kose, U; Kreslo, I; La Mattina, F; Lanni, F; Lissauer, D; Luthi, M; Lutz, P; Marchionni, A; Mladenov, D; Nessi, M; Noto, F; Palamara, O; Raaf, J L; Radeka, V; Rudolph Von Rohr, Ch; Smargianaki, D; Soderberg, M; Strauss, Th; Weber, M; Yu, B; Zeller, G P; Zeyrek, M; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2015-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber is a prime candidate detector for future neutrino oscillation physics experiments, underground neutrino observatories and proton decay searches. A large international project based on this technology is currently being considered at the future LBNF facility in the United States on the very large mass scale of 40 kton. In this document, following the long standing R&D work conducted over the last years in several laboratories in Europe and in the United States, we intend to propose a novel Liquid Argon TPC approach based on a fully-modular, innovative design, the ArgonCube. The related R&D work will proceed along two main directions; one aimed at on the assessment of the proposed modular detector design, the other on the exploitation of new signal readout methods. Such a strategy will provide high performance while being cost-effective and robust at the same time. According to our plans, we will firstly realize a detector prototype hosted in a cryostat that is a...

  9. A large area cosmic muon detector located at Ohya stone mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, N.; Mizutani, K.; Aoki, T.; Kitamura, T.; Mitsui, K.; Matsuno, S.; Muraki, Y.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Kamiya, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The chemical composition of the primary cosmic rays between 10 to the 15th power eV and 10 to the 18th power eV were determined by a Large Area Cosmic Muon Detector located at Ohya stone mine. The experimental aims of Ohya project are; (1) search for the ultra high-energy gamma-rays; (2) search for the GUT monopole created by Big Bang; and (3) search for the muon bundle. A large number of muon chambers were installed at the shallow underground near Nikko (approx. 100 Km north of Tokyo, situated at Ohya-town, Utsunomiya-city). At the surface of the mine, very fast 100 channel scintillation counters were equipped in order to measure the direction of air showers. These air shower arrays were operated at the same time, together with the underground muon chamber.

  10. Material inhomogeneities in Cd1-xZnxTe and their effects on large volume gamma-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scyoc, J.M. Van; Lund, J.C.; Morse, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (Cd 1-x Zn x Te or CZT) has shown great promise as a material for room-temperature x-ray and gamma-ray detectors. In particular, polycrystalline material grown by the High Pressure Bridgman method with nominal Zn fraction (x) from 0.1 to 0.2 has been used to fabricate high resolution gamma-ray spectrometers with resolution approaching that of cooled high-purity Ge. For increased sensitivity, large areas (> 1 cm 2 ) are required, and for good sensitivity to high energy gamma photons, thick detectors (on the order of 1 cm) are required. Thus there has been a push for the development of CZT detectors with a volume greater than 1 cm 3 . However, nonuniformities in the material over this scale degrade the performance of the detectors. Variations in the zinc fraction, and thus the bandgap, and changes in the impurity distributions, both of which arise from the selective segregation of elements during crystal growth, result in spectral distortions. In this work several materials characterization techniques were combined with detector evaluations to determine the materials properties limiting detector performance. Materials measurements were performed on detectors found to have differing performance. Measurements conducted include infrared transmission (IR), particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE), photoluminescence (PL), and triaxial x-ray diffraction (TAXRD). To varying degrees, these measurements reveal that poor-performance detectors exhibit higher nonuniformities than spectrometer-grade detectors. This is reasonable, as regions of CZT material with different properties will give different localized spectral responses, which combine to result in a degraded spectrum for the total device

  11. System for high-voltage control detectors with large number photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donskov, S.V.; Kachanov, V.A.; Mikhajlov, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive on-line system for hihg-voltage control which is designed for detectors with a large number of photomultipliers is developed and manufactured. It has been developed for the GAMC type hodoscopic electromagnetic calorimeters, comprising up to 4 thousand photomultipliers. High voltage variation is performed by a high-speed potentiometer which is rotated by a microengine. Block-diagrams of computer control electronics are presented. The high-voltage control system has been used for five years in the IHEP and CERN accelerator experiments. The operation experience has shown that it is quite simple and convenient in operation. In case of about 6 thousand controlled channels in both experiments no potentiometer and microengines failures were observed

  12. Large, real time detectors for solar neutrinos and magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the present status of superheated superconducting granules (SSG) development for the real time detection of magnetic monopoles of any speed and of low energy solar neutrinos down to the pp region (indium project). Basic properties of SSG and progress made in the recent years are briefly reviewed. Possible ways for further improvement are discussed. The performances reached in ultrasonic grain production at ∼ 100 μm size, as well as in conventional read-out electronics, look particularly promising for a large scale monopole experiment. Alternative approaches are briefly dealt with: induction loops for magnetic monopoles; scintillators, semiconductors or superconducting tunnel junctions for a solar neutrino detector based on an indium target

  13. Xanthorrhizol induced DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells involving Bcl-2 family proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tee, Thiam-Tsui; Cheah, Yew-Hoong; Meenakshii, Nallappan; Mohd Sharom, Mohd Yusof; Azimahtol Hawariah, Lope Pihie

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We isolated xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpenoid compound from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. ► Xanthorrhizol induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells as observed using SEM. ► Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells involved Bcl-2 family proteins. ► DNA fragmentation was observed in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells. ► DNA fragmentation maybe due to cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins. -- Abstract: Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X L expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.

  14. Xanthorrhizol induced DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells involving Bcl-2 family proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tee, Thiam-Tsui, E-mail: thiamtsu@yahoo.com [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Cheah, Yew-Hoong [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Center, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Meenakshii, Nallappan [Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Sharom, Mohd Yusof; Azimahtol Hawariah, Lope Pihie [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpenoid compound from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Xanthorrhizol induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells as observed using SEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells involved Bcl-2 family proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation was observed in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation maybe due to cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins. -- Abstract: Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X{sub L} expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.

  15. Radiation induced bystander effect on hepatoma HepG2 cells under hypoxia condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianghong; Jin Yizun; Shao Chunlin; Prise KM

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate radiation induced bystander effect and its mechanism on hepatoma HepG2 cells under hypoxia condition. Methods: Non-irradiated bystander hepatoma cells were co-cultured with irradiated cells or treated with the conditioned medium (CM) from irradiated cells, then micronuclei (MN) were measured for both irradiated cells and bystander cells. Results: The MN yield of irradiated HepG2 cells under hypoxic condition was significantly lower than that under normoxia, the oxygen enhancement ratio of HepG2 cells of MN was 1.6. For both hypoxic and normoxic condition, the MN yield of bystander cells were obviously enhanced to a similar high level after co-culturing with irradiated cells or with CM treatment, and it also correlated with the irradiation dose. When the hypoxic HepG2 cells were treated with either DMSO, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), or aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor, the yield of bystander MN was partly diminished, and the reducing rate of DMSO was 42.2%-46.7%, the reducing rate of aminoguanidine was 42% . Conclusion: ROS, NO and their downstream signal factors are involved in the radiation induced bystander effect of hypoxic HepG2 cells. (authors)

  16. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Beaver Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On August 14, 2003, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in November 2002. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 232.26 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 136.58 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetland habitat provides 20.02 HUs for bald eagle, black-caped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetland habitat provides 7.67 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow provides 22.69 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Emergent wetlands provide 35.04 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Open water provided 10.26 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  17. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Carey Creek, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    In August 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Carey Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Carey Creek Project provides a total of 172.95 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 4.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetlands provide 52.68 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 2.82 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow and grassland meadow provide 98.13 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Emergent wetlands provide 11.53 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Open water provides 2.88 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Carey Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  18. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Electronics for Large Superconducting Tunnel Junction Detector Arrays for Synchrotron Soft X-ray Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, William K

    2009-03-06

    Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors offer a an approach to detecting soft x-rays with energy resolutions 4-5 times better and at rates 10 faster than traditions semiconductor detectors. To make such detectors feasible, however, then need to be deployed in large arrays of order 1000 detectors, which in turn implies that their processing electronics must be compact, fully computer controlled, and low cost per channel while still delivering ultra-low noise performance so as to not degrade the STJ's performance. We report on our progress in designing a compact, low cost preamplifier intended for this application. In particular, we were able to produce a prototype preamplifier of 2 sq-cm area and a parts cost of less than $30 that matched the energy resolution of the best conventional system to date and demonstrated its ability to acquire an STJ I-V curve under computer control, the critical step for determining and setting the detectors' operating points under software control.

  19. HEp-2 Cell Classification Using Shape Index Histograms With Donut-Shaped Spatial Pooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method for automatic classification of indirect immunoflourescence images of HEp-2 cells into different staining pattern classes. Our method is based on a new texture measure called shape index histograms that captures second-order image structure at multiple scales. Moreover, we...... datasets. Our results show that shape index histograms are superior to other popular texture descriptors for HEp-2 cell classification. Moreover, when comparing to other automated systems for HEp-2 cell classification we show that shape index histograms are very competitive; especially considering...

  20. Large-area hexagonal silicon detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pree, E.

    2018-02-01

    During the so-called Phase-2 Upgrade, the CMS experiment at CERN will undergo significant improvements to cope with the 10-fold luminosity increase of the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) era. Especially the forward calorimetry will suffer from very high radiation levels and intensified pileup in the detectors. For this reason, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (CE-E) and hadronic (CE-H) compartments. The CE-E and a large fraction of CE-H will consist of a sandwich structure with silicon as active detector material. This paper presents an overview of the ongoing sensor development for the HGCAL and highlights important design features and measurement techniques. The design and layout of an 8-inch silicon sensor prototype is shown. The hexagonal sensors consist of 235 pads, each with an area of about 1 cm2. Furthermore, Synopsys TCAD simulations regarding the high voltage stability of the sensors for different geometric parameters are performed. Finally, two different IV characterisation methods are compared on the same sensor.

  1. HEPS4Power - Extended-range Hydrometeorological Ensemble Predictions for Improved Hydropower Operations and Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Konrad; Monhart, Samuel; Liniger, Mark; Spririg, Christoph; Jordan, Fred; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    In recent years large progresses have been achieved in the operational prediction of floods and hydrological drought with up to ten days lead time. Both the public and the private sectors are currently using probabilistic runoff forecast in order to monitoring water resources and take actions when critical conditions are to be expected. The use of extended-range predictions with lead times exceeding 10 days is not yet established. The hydropower sector in particular might have large benefits from using hydro meteorological forecasts for the next 15 to 60 days in order to optimize the operations and the revenues from their watersheds, dams, captions, turbines and pumps. The new Swiss Competence Centers in Energy Research (SCCER) targets at boosting research related to energy issues in Switzerland. The objective of HEPS4POWER is to demonstrate that operational extended-range hydro meteorological forecasts have the potential to become very valuable tools for fine tuning the production of energy from hydropower systems. The project team covers a specific system-oriented value chain starting from the collection and forecast of meteorological data (MeteoSwiss), leading to the operational application of state-of-the-art hydrological models (WSL) and terminating with the experience in data presentation and power production forecasts for end-users (e-dric.ch). The first task of the HEPS4POWER will be the downscaling and post-processing of ensemble extended-range meteorological forecasts (EPS). The goal is to provide well-tailored forecasts of probabilistic nature that should be reliable in statistical and localized at catchment or even station level. The hydrology related task will consist in feeding the post-processed meteorological forecasts into a HEPS using a multi-model approach by implementing models with different complexity. Also in the case of the hydrological ensemble predictions, post-processing techniques need to be tested in order to improve the quality of the

  2. Hemangioendotelioma hepático del lactante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Jara Santamaría

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El hemangioendotelioma hepático infantil es una afectación poco común que se caracteriza por el desarrollo de una o varias neoplasias de origen vascular en el hígado. Dichas neoplasias generalmente son benignas, aunque tienen un potencial intermedio de transformarse en tumores malignos.  Objetivo: Dar a conocer el caso de una patología de presentación inusual, enfatizar su importancia dentro de los diagnósticos diferenciales en estudios radiológicos con tomografía computarizada y ecografía abdominal. Descripción del caso: En el siguiente caso se presenta a un paciente lactante de dos meses de edad, nacido a las 38 semanas de gestación sin ninguna complicación aparente. Tras presentarse a la consulta debido al desarrollo de síntomas propios de la enfermedad, y tras realizar estudios de imagen, tomografía computarizada multicorte corporal y ecografía abdominal, se determinó que el paciente padece de múltiples hemangioendoteliomas hepáticos, sometido a terapia farmacológica y respiratoria además tratamiento intervencionista como embolización, sin tener mejoría, complicándose su cuadro clínico con insuficiencia cardiaca rara en esta patología y progresa hasta su fallecimiento. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de Hemangioendotelioma Hepático del lactante se puede hacer sin la exigencia de una confirmación histológica cuando los hallazgos clínicos, analíticos y de imagen son muy sugestivos. Es raro el curso de esta enfermedad con Insuficiencia cardiaca y fallecimiento del lactante.

  3. ICARUS: An Innovative Large LAR Detector for Neutrino Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, C.; Barni, D.; Disdier, J. M.; Rampoldi, D.; Icarus Collaboration

    2006-04-01

    ICARUS is an international project that foresees the installation of very large LAr detectors inside the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in order to be sensitive to rare phenomena of particle physics. The detection technique is based on the collection of electrons produced by particle interactions in LAr by a matrix of thousands of thin wires. At the moment the project foresees the installation of a 600,000-kg vessel (T600). The total amount of LAr can be expanded in a modular way to masses of the order of 106 kg. The T600 houses two identical 300,000-kg Ar sub-cryostats that are aluminum boxes about 20-m long, 4-m high and 4-m wide. Safety requirements for the underground installation have led to a unique design for the vessels to prevent LAr spillages even in the case of inner cryostat failure. Electrons must drift over meters requiring the development of special gas and liquid Ar purification units to provide an extremely high LAr purity (better then 0.1 ppb). The cooling system has been designed to assure a high thermal uniformity in the detector volume (less than 1-K differential). The cryogenic system associated with the final ICARUS configuration is based on three N2 refrigerators, three 30-m3 tanks and pump driven two-phase N2 forced-flow cooling of the various sub-systems. The T600 was successfully tested in Pavia in 2001 and it is now under installation in Gran Sasso for final operation. The future mass expansion strategy is under investigation.

  4. Data acquisition system for the Large Scintillating Neutrino Detector at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.; Cohen, I.; Homann, B.; Smith, D.; Strossman, W.; VanDalen, G.J.; Weaver, L.S.; Evans, D.; Vernon, W.; Band, A.; Burman, R.; Chang, T.; Federspiel, F.; Foreman, W.; Gomulka, S.; Hart, G.; Kozlowski, T.; Louis, W.C.; Margulies, J.; Nuanes, A.; Sandberg, V.; Thompson, T.N.; White, D.H.; Whitehouse, D.

    1992-01-01

    The data acquisition system for the Large Scintillating Neutrino Detector (LSND) is described. The system collects time and charge information in real time from 1600 photomultiplier tubes and passes the data in intelligent-trigger selected time windows to analysis computers, where events are reconstructed and analyzed as candidates for a variety of neutrino-related physics processes. The system is composed of fourteen VME crates linked to a Silicon Graphics, Inc. ''4D/480'' multiprocessor computer through multiple, parallel Ethernets, and a collection of contemporary high-performance workstations

  5. HEP visualization and video technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, P.; Swoboda, D.

    1994-01-01

    The use of scientific visualization for HEP analysis is briefly reviewed. The applications are highly interactive and very dynamical in nature. At Fermilab, E687, in collaboration with Visual Media Services, has produced a 1/2 hour video tape demonstrating the capability of SGI-EXPLORER applied to a Dalitz Analysis of Charm decay. This short contribution describes the authors experience with visualization and video technologies

  6. Design and theoretical investigation of a digital x-ray detector with large area and high spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Jianbao; Guo, Jinchuan; Yang, Qinlao; Liu, Xin; Niu, Hanben

    2007-05-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging is a promising new technology today, but the requirements of a digital detector with large area, high spatial resolution and high sensitivity bring forward a large challenge to researchers. This paper is related to the design and theoretical investigation of an x-ray direct conversion digital detector based on mercuric iodide photoconductive layer with the latent charge image readout by photoinduced discharge (PID). Mercuric iodide has been verified having a good imaging performance (high sensitivity, low dark current, low voltage operation and good lag characteristics) compared with the other competitive materials (α-Se,PbI II,CdTe,CdZnTe) and can be easily deposited on large substrates in the manner of polycrystalline. By use of line scanning laser beam and parallel multi-electrode readout make the system have high spatial resolution and fast readout speed suitable for instant general radiography and even rapid sequence radiography.

  7. SDN-NGenIA, a software defined next generation integrated architecture for HEP and data intensive science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcas, J.; Hendricks, T. W.; Kcira, D.; Mughal, A.; Newman, H.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.

    2017-10-01

    The SDN Next Generation Integrated Architecture (SDN-NGeNIA) project addresses some of the key challenges facing the present and next generations of science programs in HEP, astrophysics, and other fields, whose potential discoveries depend on their ability to distribute, process and analyze globally distributed Petascale to Exascale datasets. The SDN-NGenIA system under development by Caltech and partner HEP and network teams is focused on the coordinated use of network, computing and storage infrastructures, through a set of developments that build on the experience gained in recently completed and previous projects that use dynamic circuits with bandwidth guarantees to support major network flows, as demonstrated across LHC Open Network Environment [1] and in large scale demonstrations over the last three years, and recently integrated with PhEDEx and Asynchronous Stage Out data management applications of the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. In addition to the general program goals of supporting the network needs of the LHC and other science programs with similar needs, a recent focus is the use of the Leadership HPC facility at Argonne National Lab (ALCF) for data intensive applications.

  8. A large area transition radiation detector for the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassompierre, G.; Bermond, M.; Berthet, M.; Bertozzi, T.; Détraz, C.; Dubois, J.-M.; Dumps, L.; Engster, C.; Fazio, T.; Gaillard, G.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gouanère, M.; Manola-Poggioli, E.; Mossuz, L.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Nédélec, P.; Palazzini, E.; Pessard, H.; Petit, P.; Petitpas, P.; Placci, A.; Sillou, D.; Sottile, R.; Valuev, V.; Verkindt, D.; Vey, H.; Wachnik, M.

    1998-02-01

    A transition radiation detector to identify electrons at 90% efficiency with a rejection factor against pions of 10 3 on an area of 2.85 × 2.85 m 2 has been constructed for the NOMAD experiment. Each of its 9 modules includes a 315 plastic foil radiator and a detector plane of 176 vertical straw tubes filled with a xenon-methane gas mixture. Details of the design, construction and operation of the detector are given.

  9. A large area transition radiation detector for the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bassompierre, Gabriel; Berthet, M; Bertozzi, T; Détraz, C; Dubois, J M; Dumps, Ludwig; Engster, Claude; Fazio, T; Gaillard, G; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Gouanère, M; Manola-Poggioli, E; Mossuz, L; Mendiburu, J P; Nédélec, P; Palazzini, E; Pessard, H; Petit, P; Petitpas, P; Placci, Alfredo; Sillou, D; Sottile, R; Valuev, V Yu; Verkindt, D; Vey, H; Wachnik, M

    1997-01-01

    A transition radiation detector to identify electrons at 90% efficiency with a rejection factor against pions of 10 3 on an area of 2.85 × 2.85 m 2 has been constructed for the NOMAD experiment. Each of its 9 modules includes a 315 plastic foil radiator and a detector plane of 176 vertical straw tubes filled with a xenon-methane gas mixture. Details of the design, construction and operation of the detector are given.

  10. Development of Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors for 4D tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G. F.; Cartiglia, N.; Cenna, F.; Ferrero, M.; Ficorella, F.; Mandurrino, M.; Obertino, M.; Pancheri, L.; Paternoster, G.; Sola, V.

    2017-12-01

    In this contribution we review the progress towards the development of a novel type of silicon detectors suited for tracking with a picosecond timing resolution, the so called Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors. The goal is to create a new family of particle detectors merging excellent position and timing resolution with GHz counting capabilities, very low material budget, radiation resistance, fine granularity, low power, insensitivity to magnetic field, and affordability. We aim to achieve concurrent precisions of ~ 10 ps and ~ 10 μm with a 50 μm thick sensor. Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors are based on the concept of Low-Gain Avalanche Detectors, which are silicon detectors with an internal multiplication mechanism so that they generate a signal which is factor ~10 larger than standard silicon detectors. The basic design of UFSD consists of a thin silicon sensor with moderate internal gain and pixelated electrodes coupled to full custom VLSI chip. An overview of test beam data on time resolution and the impact on this measurement of radiation doses at the level of those expected at HL-LHC is presented. First I-V and C-V measurements on a new FBK sensor production of UFSD, 50 μm thick, with B and Ga, activated at two diffusion temperatures, with and without C co-implantation (in Low and High concentrations), and with different effective doping concentrations in the Gain layer, are shown. Perspectives on current use of UFSD in HEP experiments (UFSD detectors have been installed in the CMS-TOTEM Precision Protons Spectrometer for the forward physics tracking, and are currently taking data) and proposed applications for a MIP timing layer in the HL-LHC upgrade are briefly discussed.

  11. Participants to the 3rd HEP Information Resources Summit, 6-7 May 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    Fermilab, Photo Service

    2009-01-01

    The broad theme of the 3rd HEP Information Resources Summit was "Collaboration between Information Services." As HEP increasingly borders fields such as instrumentation and astrophysics, it was discussed what potential interrelationships and communication this group have to serve this broader research community seamlessly.

  12. Time-resolved triton burnup measurement using the scintillating fiber detector in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K.; Isobe, M.; Nishitani, T.; Murakami, S.; Seki, R.; Nakata, M.; Takada, E.; Kawase, H.; Pu, N.; LHD Experiment Group

    2018-03-01

    Time-resolved measurement of triton burnup is performed with a scintillating fiber detector system in the deuterium operation of the large helical device. The scintillating fiber detector system is composed of the detector head consisting of 109 scintillating fibers having a diameter of 1 mm and a length of 100 mm embedded in the aluminum substrate, the magnetic registrant photomultiplier tube, and the data acquisition system equipped with 1 GHz sampling rate analogies to digital converter and the field programmable gate array. The discrimination level of 150 mV was set to extract the pulse signal induced by 14 MeV neutrons according to the pulse height spectra obtained in the experiment. The decay time of 14 MeV neutron emission rate after neutral beam is turned off measured by the scintillating fiber detector. The decay time is consistent with the decay time of total neutron emission rate corresponding to the 14 MeV neutrons measured by the neutron flux monitor as expected. Evaluation of the diffusion coefficient is conducted using a simple classical slowing-down model FBURN code. It is found that the diffusion coefficient of triton is evaluated to be less than 0.2 m2 s-1.

  13. Substâncias vasoativas e a modulação do sistema microvascular hepático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loureiro-Silva M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Revisão da filogênese e ontogênese hepáticas, do sistema microvascular hepático e da modulação do tônus deste sistema vascular por diferentes substâncias vasoativas. MÉTODO. Levantamento de artigos por meio do sistema MEDLINE e consulta a livros-texto. RESULTADO. Foram selecionados 52 trabalhos publicados entre 1949 e 1997, dos quais retiramos as informações a respeito de filogênese e ontogênese hepáticas, sistema microvascular hepático e mecanismos de controle do tônus vascular hepático. CONCLUSÃO. O fígado possui sistema vascular altamente especializado na promoção de mecanismos de troca entre hepatócitos e sangue. Diferentes fatores atuam continuamente sobre estruturas contrácteis deste sistema vascular adequando a perfusão do tecido hepático às necessidades homeostáticas de cada momento. O fígado é órgão eminentemente mantenedor do meio interno.

  14. Helium ion distributions in a 4 kJ plasma focus device by 1 mm-thick large-size polycarbonate detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohrabi, M., E-mail: dr_msohrabi@yahoo.com; Habibi, M.; Ramezani, V.

    2014-11-14

    Helium ion beam profile, angular and iso-ion beam distributions in 4 kJ Amirkabir plasma focus (APF) device were effectively observed by the unaided eyes and studied in single 1 mm-thick large-diameter (20 cm) polycarbonate track detectors (PCTD). The PCTDs were processed by 50 Hz–HV electrochemical etching using a large-size ECE chamber. The results show that helium ions produced in the APF device have a ring-shaped angular distribution peaked at an angle of ∼±60° with respect to the top of the anode. Some information on the helium ion energy and distributions is also provided. The method is highly effective for ion beam studies. - Highlights: • Helium iso-ion beam profile and angular distributions were studied in the 4 kJ APF device. • Large-area 1 mm-thick polycarbonate detectors were processed by 50 Hz-HV ECE. • Helium ion beam profile and distributions were observed by unaided eyes in a single detector. • Helium ion profile has ring-shaped distributions with energies lower at the ring location. • Helium iso-ion track density, diameter and energy distributions are estimated.

  15. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Priest River Project, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Priest River property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Priest River Project provides a total of 140.73 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 60.05 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow habitat provides 7.39 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 71.13 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Open water habitat provides 2.16 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. The objective of using HEP at the Priest River Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  16. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; North Eaton Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-11-01

    On July 6, 2005, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the North Eaton Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in November 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The North Eaton Lake Project provides a total of 235.05 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Open water habitat provides 9.38 HUs for Canada goose, mallard and muskrat. Emergent wetland habitat provides 11.36 HUs for Canada goose, mallard and muskrat. Forested wetland provides 10.97 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest habitat provides 203.34 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the North Eaton Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  17. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Calispell Creek Project, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 13, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Calispell Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in February 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Calispell Creek Project provides a total of 138.17 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 5.16 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Grassland provides 132.02 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 0.99 HUs for yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Calispell Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  18. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : West Beaver Lake, 2004-2005 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 103.08 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 7.17 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Conifer forest habitat provides 95.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  19. Nickel oxide nanoparticles exert cytotoxicity via oxidative stress and induce apoptotic response in human liver cells (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Ali, Daoud; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Akhtar, Mohd Javed

    2013-11-01

    Increasing use of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs) necessitates an improved understanding of their potential impact on human health. Previously, toxic effects of NiO NPs have been investigated, mainly on airway cells. However, information on effect of NiO NPs on human liver cells is largely lacking. In this study, we investigated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated cytotoxicity and induction of apoptotic response in human liver cells (HepG2) due to NiO NPs exposure. Prepared NiO NPs were crystalline and spherical shaped with an average diameter of 44 nm. NiO NPs induced cytotoxicity (cell death) and ROS generation in HepG2 cells in dose-dependent manner. Further, ROS scavenger vitamin C reduced cell death drastically caused by NiO NPs exposure indicating that oxidative stress plays an important role in NiO NPs toxicity. Micronuclei induction, chromatin condensation and DNA damage in HepG2 cells treated with NiO NPs suggest that NiO NPs induced cell death via apoptotic pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that following the exposure of HepG2 cells to NiO NPs, the expression level of mRNA of apoptotic genes (bax and caspase-3) were up-regulated whereas the expression level of anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated. Moreover, activity of caspase-3 enzyme was also higher in NiO NPs treated cells. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating that NiO NPs caused cytotoxicity via ROS and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, which is likely to be mediated through bax/bcl-2 pathway. This work warrants careful assessment of Ni NPs before their commercial and industrial applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ATM phosphorylation in HepG2 cells following continuous low dose-rate irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Quelin; Du Duanming; Chen Zaizhong; Liu Pengcheng; Yang Jianyong; Li Yanhao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of ATM phosphorylation in HepG2 cells following a continuous low dose-rate irradiation. Methods: Cells were persistently exposed to low dose-rate (8.28 cGy/h) irradiation. Indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot were used to detect the expression of ATM phosphorylated proteins. Colony forming assay was used to observe the effect of a low dose-rate irradiation on HepG2 cell survival. Results: After 30 min of low dose-rate irradiation, the phosphorylation of ATM occurred. After 6 h persistent irradiation, the expression of ATM phosphorylated protein reached the peak value, then gradually decreased. After ATM phosphorylation was inhibited with Wortmannin, the surviving fraction of HepG2 cells was lower than that of the irradiation alone group at each time point (P<0.05). Conclusions: Continuous low dose-rate irradiation attenuated ATM phosphorylation, suggesting that continuous low dose-rate irradiation has a potential effect for increasing the radiosensitivity of HepG2 cells. (authors)

  1. Background simulations for the Large Area Detector onboard LOFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campana, Riccardo; Feroci, Marco; Ettore, Del Monte

    2013-01-01

    and magnetic fields around compact objects and in supranuclear density conditions. Having an effective area of similar to 10 m(2) at 8 keV, LOFT will be able to measure with high sensitivity very fast variability in the X-ray fluxes and spectra. A good knowledge of the in-orbit background environment...... is essential to assess the scientific performance of the mission and optimize the design of its main instrument, the Large Area Detector (LAD). In this paper the results of an extensive Geant-4 simulation of the instrumentwillbe discussed, showing the main contributions to the background and the design...... an anticipated modulation of the background rate as small as 10 % over the orbital timescale. The intrinsic photonic origin of the largest background component also allows for an efficient modelling, supported by an in-flight active monitoring, allowing to predict systematic residuals significantly better than...

  2. A potent approach for the development of FPGA based DAQ system for HEP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Mitra, Jubin; David, Erno; Kiss, Tivadar; Nayak, Tapan Kumar

    2017-10-01

    With ever increasing particle beam energies and interaction rates in modern High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments in the present and future accelerator facilities, there has always been the demand for robust Data Acquisition (DAQ) schemes which perform in the harsh radiation environment and handle high data volume. The scheme is required to be flexible enough to adapt to the demands of future detector and electronics upgrades, and at the same time keeping the cost factor in mind. To address these challenges, in the present work, we discuss an efficient DAQ scheme for error resilient, high speed data communication on commercially available state-of-the-art FPGA with optical links. The scheme utilises GigaBit Transceiver (GBT) protocol to establish radiation tolerant communication link between on-detector front-end electronics situated in harsh radiation environment to the back-end Data Processing Unit (DPU) placed in a low radiation zone. The acquired data are reconstructed in DPU which reduces the data volume significantly, and then transmitted to the computing farms through high speed optical links using 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE). In this study, we focus on implementation and testing of GBT protocol and 10GbE links on an Intel FPGA. Results of the measurements of resource utilisation, critical path delays, signal integrity, eye diagram and Bit Error Rate (BER) are presented, which are the indicators for efficient system performance.

  3. A potent approach for the development of FPGA based DAQ system for HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Mitra, Jubin; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; David, Erno; Kiss, Tivadar

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing particle beam energies and interaction rates in modern High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments in the present and future accelerator facilities, there has always been the demand for robust Data Acquisition (DAQ) schemes which perform in the harsh radiation environment and handle high data volume. The scheme is required to be flexible enough to adapt to the demands of future detector and electronics upgrades, and at the same time keeping the cost factor in mind. To address these challenges, in the present work, we discuss an efficient DAQ scheme for error resilient, high speed data communication on commercially available state-of-the-art FPGA with optical links. The scheme utilises GigaBit Transceiver (GBT) protocol to establish radiation tolerant communication link between on-detector front-end electronics situated in harsh radiation environment to the back-end Data Processing Unit (DPU) placed in a low radiation zone. The acquired data are reconstructed in DPU which reduces the data volume significantly, and then transmitted to the computing farms through high speed optical links using 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE). In this study, we focus on implementation and testing of GBT protocol and 10GbE links on an Intel FPGA. Results of the measurements of resource utilisation, critical path delays, signal integrity, eye diagram and Bit Error Rate (BER) are presented, which are the indicators for efficient system performance.

  4. Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials, phase 2. Final report, 9 May 1988-9 May 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrigley, C.Y.; Storti, G.M.; Walter, L.; Mathews, S.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents work done under a Phase 2 SBIR contract for demonstrating large area detector planes utilizing Quantex electron trapping materials as a film medium for storing high-energy nuclide impingement information. The detector planes utilize energy dissipated by passage of the high-energy nuclides to produce localized populations of electrons stored in traps. Readout of the localized trapped electron populations is effected by scanning the ET plane with near-infrared, which frees the trapped electrons and results in optical emission at visible wavelengths. The effort involved both optimizing fabrication technology for the detector planes and developing a readout system capable of high spatial resolution for displaying the recorded nuclide passage tracks

  5. A scalable new mechanism to store and serve the ATLAS detector description through a REST web API

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Until now, geometry information for the detector description of HEP experiments was only stored in online relational databases integrated in the experiments’ frameworks or described in files with text-based markup languages. In all cases, to build and store the detector description, a full software stack was needed. In this paper we present a new and scalable mechanism to store the geometry data and to serve the detector description data through a REST web-based API. This new approach decouples the geometry information from the experiment’s framework. Moreover, it provides new functionalities to users, who can now search for specific volumes and get partial detector description, or filter geometry data based on custom criteria. We present two approaches to build a REST API to serve geometry data, based on two different technologies used in other fields and communities: the search engine ElasticSearch and the graph database Neo4j. We describe their characteristics and we compare them using real-world usage...

  6. A scalable new mechanism to store and serve the ATLAS detector description through a REST web API

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Until now, geometry information for the detector description of HEP experiments was only stored in online relational databases integrated into the experiments’ frameworks or described in files with text-based markup languages. In all cases, to build and store the detector description, a full software stack was needed. In this paper, we present a new and scalable mechanism to store the geometry data and to serve the detector description data through a web interface and a REST API. This new approach decouples the geometry information from the experiment’s framework. Moreover, it provides new functionalities to users, who can now search for specific volumes and get partial detector description, or filter geometry data based on custom criteria. We present two approaches to build a REST API to serve geometry data, based on two different technologies used in other fields and communities: the search engine ElasticSearch and the graph database Neo4j. We describe their characteristics and we compare them using rea...

  7. The HepHIV 2017 Conference in Malta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, D; Hoekstra, M; Sperle, I

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the article is to provide an overview of the results of the HepHIV 2017 Conference organized by the HIV in Europe initiative under the Maltese EU Presidency in January 2017. METHODS: A thourough review of all conference presentations (oral and poster presentations......) was performed to retrieve the key outcomes of the conference. RESULTS: The key result from the conference was a call to action summarising key priorities in HIV and viral hepatitis testing and linkage to care. This included improving monitoring of viral hepatitis and HIV, mixing testing strategies and ensuring...... policy support. The important contribution and outcomes of EU funded projects OptTEST and EuroHIVEdat was highlighted. CONCLUSION: An integrated approach to earlier testing and linkage to care across diseases is needed in Europe and the HepHIV conferences create an important forum to reach this aim....

  8. Optimization of a large-area detector-block based on SiPM and pixelated LYSO crystal arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calva-Coraza, E; Alva-Sánchez, H; Murrieta-Rodríguez, T; Martínez-Dávalos, A; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M

    2017-10-01

    We present the performance evaluation of a large-area detector module based on the ArrayC-60035-64P, an 8×8 array of tileable, 7.2mm pitch, silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) by SensL, covering a total area of 57.4mm×57.4mm. We characterized the ArrayC-60035-64P, operating at room temperature, using LYSO pixelated crystal arrays of different pitch sizes (1.075, 1.430, 1.683, 2.080 and 2.280mm) to determine the resolvable crystal size. After an optimization process, a 7mm thick coupling light guide was used for all crystal pitches. To identify the interaction position a 16-channel (8 columns, 8 rows) symmetric charge division (SCD) readout board together with a center-of-gravity algorithm was used. Based on this, we assembled the detector modules using a 40×40 LYSO, 1.43mm pitch array, covering the total detector area. Calibration was performed using a 137 Cs source resulting in excellent crystal maps with minor geometric distortion, a mean 4.1 peak-to-valley ratio and 9.6% mean energy resolution for 662keV photons in the central region. The resolvability index was calculated in the x and y directions with values under 0.42 in all cases. We show that these large area SiPM arrays, combined with a 16-channel SCD readout board, can offer high spatial resolution, without processing a big number of signals, attaining excellent energy resolution and detector uniformity. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. One Year of FOS Measurements in CMS Experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szillási, Zoltán; Buontempo, Salvatore; Béni, Noémi; Breglio, Giovanni; Cusano, Andrea; Laudati, Armando; Giordano, Michele; Saccomanno, Andrea; Druzhkin, Dmitry; Tsirou, Andromachi

    Results are presented on the activity carried out by our research group, in collaboration with the SME Optosmart s.r.l. (an Italian spin-off company), on the application of Fiber Optic Sensor (FOS) techniques to monitor high-energy physics (HEP) detectors. Assuming that Fiber Bragg Grating sensors (FBGs) radiation hardness has been deeply studied for other field of application, we have applied the FBG technology to the HEP research domain. We present here the experimental evidences of the solid possibility to use such a class of sensors also in HEP detector very complex environmental side conditions. In particular we present more than one year data results of FBG measurements in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment set up at the CERN, where we have monitored temperatures (within CMS core) and strains in different locations by using FBG sensors during the detector operation with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collisions and high magnetic field. FOS data and FOS readout system stability and reliability is demonstrated, with continuous 24/24 h 7/7d data taking under severe and complex side conditions.

  10. A rifaximina no tratamento da encefalopatia hepática

    OpenAIRE

    Aleixo, Sérgio David Soares

    2010-01-01

    A encefalopatia hepática é uma síndrome neuropsiquiátrica associada à falência hepática aguda ou crónica, que tem apresentações clínicas muito variáveis, mas que afecta de uma forma limitativa e grave o dia-a-dia dos doentes, a sua vida relacional e a família globalmente. A sua patogénese é multifactorial e não completamente esclarecida, mas a amónia desempenhará um papel fulcral na sua etiopatogenia. Ao longo dos anos têm sido testadas várias opções terapêuticas, mas com resul...

  11. Hep par-1: a novel immunohistochemical marker for differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, R.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic utility of Hep par-1 in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma taking histopathology as a gold standard. Study Design: Comparative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Pathology Department, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, from April 2007 to February 2008. Methodology: Hep par-1 immunohistochemical stain was performed on 60 cases of liver carcinoma, 30 cases each of metastatic and hepatocellular carcinoma. Information regarding patient age, gender, sign and symptoms, radiographic findings, histological grade of tumour, and expression of Hep par-1 on hepatocellular and metastatic carcinoma were recorded on proforma sheet. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of Hep par-1 were calculated using the formulas. Results: Hep par-1 expression was noted in 25 out of 30 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (83%). Out of 30 cases of metastatic carcinoma, only one case expressed staining in < 5% tumour cells and remaining 29 cases showed no reactivity. The age of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma ranged from 40 to 76 years with a median age of 60.5 years and 40 - 75 years for metastatic carcinomas with a median age of 57.5 years. Conclusion: Hep par-1 is a reliable immunohistochemical marker for cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It can be used along with other markers in morphologically difficult cases when differential diagnosis lies between poorly differentiated HCC and metastatic carcinoma of liver. (author)

  12. The HepMC C++ Monte Carlo Event Record for High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, M

    2000-01-01

    HepMC is an Object Oriented event record written in C++ for High Energy Physics Monte Carlo Event Generators. Many extensions from HEPEVT, the Fortran HEP standard, are supported: the number of entries is unlimited, spin density matrices can be stored with each vertex, flow patterns (such as colour) can be stored and traced, random number generator states can be stored, and an arbitrary number of event weights can be included. Particles and vertices are stored separately in a graph structure, reflecting the evolution of a physics event. The added information supports the modularisation of event generators. The event record has been kept as simple as possible with minimal internal/external dependencies. Event information is accessed by means of iterators supplied with HepMC.

  13. A large area silicon UCN detector with the analysis of UCN polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasakov, M.S.; Serebrov, A.P.; Khusainov, A.Kh.; Pustovoit, A.; Borisov, Yu.V.; Fomin, A.K.; Geltenbort, P.; Kon'kov, O.I.; Kotina, I.M.; Shablii, A.I.; Solovei, V.A.; Vasiliev, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    A silicon UCN detector with an area of 45cm 2 and with a 6 LiF converter was developed at PNPI. The spectral efficiency of the silicon UCN detector was measured by means of a gravitational spectrometer at ILL. The sandwich-type detector from two silicon plates with a 6 LiF converter placed between them was also studied. Using this type of technology the UCN detector with analysis of polarization was developed and tested. The analyzing power of this detector assembly reaches up to 75% for the main part of UCN spectrum. This UCN detector with analysis of UCN polarization can be used in the new EDM spectrometer

  14. [Pseudolaric acid B induces G2/M arrest and inhibits invasion and migration in HepG2 hepatoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Guo, Lianyi

    2018-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanisms of pseudolaric acid B (PAB) blocks cell cycle and inhibits invasion and migration in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Methods The proliferation effect of PAB on HepG2 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. The effect of PAB on the cell cycle of HepG2 cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Immunofluorescence cytochemical staining was applied to observe the effect of PAB on the α-tubulin polymerization and expression in HepG2 cells. Transwell TM chamber invasion assay and wound healing assay were performed to detect the influence of PAB on the migration and invasion ability of HepG2 cells. Western blotting was used to determine the expressions of α-tubulin, E-cadherin and MMP-9 in HepG2 cells after treated with PAB. Results PAB inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and blocked the cell cycle in G2/M phase. PAB significantly changed the polymerization and decreased the expression of α-tubulin. The capacities of invasion and migration of HepG2 cells treated by PAB were significantly depressed. The protein levels of α-tubulin and MMP-9 decreased while the E-cadherin protein level increased. Conclusion PAB can inhibits the proliferation of HepG2 cells by down-regulating the expression of α-tubulin and influencing its polymerization, arresting HepG2 cells in G2/M phase. Meanwhile, PAB also can inhibit the invasion and migration of HepG2 cells by lowering cytoskeleton α-tubulin and MMP-9, and increasing E-cadherin.

  15. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; West Beaver Lake Project, Technical Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 82.69 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 8.80 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Conifer forest habitat provides 70.33 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Open water provides 3.30 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  16. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Upper Trimble Project, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 13, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Upper Trimble property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in March 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Upper Trimble Project provides a total of 250.67 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Wet meadow provides 136.92 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Mixed forest habitat provides 111.88 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 1.87 HUs for yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Upper Trimble Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  17. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In preparation of the experimental program at the international linear collider (ILC), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design ...

  18. Uncooled Radiation Hard Large Area SiC X-ray and EUV Detectors and 2D Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to design, fabricate, characterize and commercialize large area, uncooled and radiative hard 4H-SiC EUV ? soft X-ray detectors capable of ultra...

  19. Plasmodium falciparum Hep1 Is Required to Prevent the Self Aggregation of PfHsp70-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O Nyakundi

    Full Text Available The majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus and need to be imported from the cytosol into the mitochondria, and molecular chaperones play a key role in the efficient translocation and proper folding of these proteins in the matrix. One such molecular chaperone is the eukaryotic mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70; however, it is prone to self-aggregation and requires the presence of an essential zinc-finger protein, Hsp70-escort protein 1 (Hep1, to maintain its structure and function. PfHsp70-3, the only Hsp70 predicted to localize in the mitochondria of P. falciparum, may also rely on a Hep1 orthologue to prevent self-aggregation. In this study, we identified a putative Hep1 orthologue in P. falciparum and co-expression of PfHsp70-3 and PfHep1 enhanced the solubility of PfHsp70-3. PfHep1 suppressed the thermally induced aggregation of PfHsp70-3 but not the aggregation of malate dehydrogenase or citrate synthase, thus showing specificity for PfHsp70-3. Zinc ions were indeed essential for maintaining the function of PfHep1, as EDTA chelation abrogated its abilities to suppress the aggregation of PfHsp70-3. Soluble and functional PfHsp70-3, acquired by co-expression with PfHep-1, will facilitate the biochemical characterisation of this particular Hsp70 protein and its evaluation as a drug target for the treatment of malaria.

  20. Support vector machines and generalisation in HEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Adrian; Gamboa Goñi, Rodrigo; Hays, Jon; Stevenson, Tom

    2017-10-01

    We review the concept of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and discuss examples of their use in a number of scenarios. Several SVM implementations have been used in HEP and we exemplify this algorithm using the Toolkit for Multivariate Analysis (TMVA) implementation. We discuss examples relevant to HEP including background suppression for H → τ + τ - at the LHC with several different kernel functions. Performance benchmarking leads to the issue of generalisation of hyper-parameter selection. The avoidance of fine tuning (over training or over fitting) in MVA hyper-parameter optimisation, i.e. the ability to ensure generalised performance of an MVA that is independent of the training, validation and test samples, is of utmost importance. We discuss this issue and compare and contrast performance of hold-out and k-fold cross-validation. We have extended the SVM functionality and introduced tools to facilitate cross validation in TMVA and present results based on these improvements.

  1. A large acceptance, high-resolution detector for rare K+-decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, R.; Atoyan, G.S.; Bassalleck, B.; Battiste, E.; Bergman, D.R.; Boesiger, K.; Brown, D.N.; Castillo, V.; Cheung, N.; Dhawan, S.; Do, H.; Egger, J.; Eilerts, S.W.; Felder, C.; Fischer, H.; Gach, H.M.; Giles, R.; Gninenko, S.N.; Herold, W.D.; Hotmer, J.E.; Issakov, V.V.; Karavichev, O.V.; Kaspar, H.; Kraus, D.E.; Lazarus, D.M.; Lebedev, V.A.; Leipuner, L.; Lichard, P.; Lowe, J.; Lozano, J.; Lu, T.; Ma, H.; Magurno, B.; Majid, W.; Menzel, W.; Miller, C.S.; Nickelson, M.; Ober, I.; Pile, P.H.; Pislak, S.; Poblaguev, A.A.; Pomianowski, P.; Postoev, V.E.; Proskurjakov, A.L.; Rehak, P.; Robmann, P.; Schmid, B.; Sher, A.; Sher, Aleksey; Shunko, E.; Steiner, S.; Stever, T.L.; Stotzer, R.W.; Suhov, V.V.; Thompson, J.A.; Truoel, P.; Valine, C.; Weyer, H.; Wolfe, D.M.; Zeller, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    The detector of the E865-collaboration at the Brookhaven-AGS described here combines a magnetic spectrometer for the charged decay products of 6 GeV/c K + with excellent electromagnetic calorimetry and efficient particle identification for electrons and muons. Its high-resolution, large acceptance and high rate capability made it well suited for the study of extremely rare or forbidden decays with multi-leptonic final states such as K + →π + μ + e - , K + →π + l + l - , K + →l + ν l e - e + and K + →π + π - e + ν e down to branching ratios below 10 -11 in an intense K + beam (∼10 8 per AGS spill)

  2. Aerodynamics of the Large-Volume, Flow-Through Detector System. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, H.; Saric, W.; Laananen, D.; Martinez, C.; Carrillo, R.; Myers, J.; Clevenger, D.

    1996-03-01

    The Large-Volume Flow-Through Detector System (LVFTDS) was designed to monitor alpha radiation from Pu, U, and Am in mixed-waste incinerator offgases; however, it can be adapted to other important monitoring uses that span a number of potential markets, including site remediation, indoor air quality, radon testing, and mine shaft monitoring. Goal of this effort was to provide mechanical design information for installation of LVFTDS in an incinerator, with emphasis on ability to withstand the high temperatures and high flow rates expected. The work was successfully carried out in three stages: calculation of pressure drop through the system, materials testing to determine surrogate materials for wind-tunnel testing, and wind-tunnel testing of an actual configuration

  3. Cryogenic and radiation hard ASIC design for large format NIR/SWIR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Dupont, Benoit; Dierickx, Bart; Müller, Eric; Verbruggen, Geert; Gielis, Stijn; Valvekens, Ramses

    2014-10-01

    An ASIC is developed to control and data quantization for large format NIR/SWIR detector arrays. Both cryogenic and space radiation environment issue are considered during the design. Therefore it can be integrated in the cryogenic chamber, which reduces significantly the vast amount of long wires going in and out the cryogenic chamber, i.e. benefits EMI and noise concerns, as well as the power consumption of cooling system and interfacing circuits. In this paper, we will describe the development of this prototype ASIC for image sensor driving and signal processing as well as the testing in both room and cryogenic temperature.

  4. Application of indirect immunofluorescent test with an improved HEp-2 substrate tranfected with human Ro60/SSA autoantigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Liangjing; Chen Shunle; Gu Yueying; Shen Nan; Bao Chunde; Wang Yuan; Xue Feng; Ye Peng; Yu Chongzhao

    2006-01-01

    To develop an improved substrate for indirect immunofluorescent test (IIF) to detect anti-Ro/SSA autoantibodies, the human 60-kDa Ro/SSA autoantigens (Ro60) cDNAs were obtained from placental cDNA library using PCR and were cloned into the mammalian expression vectorpEGFP-C1. Then the recombinant plasmids were transfected into HEp-2 cells. We con- firmed the overexpression, localization and antigenicity of fusion proteins in transfected cells by means of fluorescence microscopy, immunoblotting and IIF. HEp-2 and HEp-Ro60 was analyzed by IIF using a panel of 10 precipitinpositive anti-Ro human sera simultaneously. Stable expression of Ro60-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion proteins maintained ten more generations. And Ro60-GFP kept the antigenicity of Ro and had its own characteristic immunofluorescent pattern in HEp-Ro60 cells. The transfectants dramatically increased the sensitivity of IIF testing (a mean increase of 6.7-fold in endpoint titer, P<0.01). Eight (8/10) positive an- ti-Ro sera showed characteristic immunofluorescent pattern on HEp-Ro60, including two sera which were antinuclear antibodies (ANA) negative on untransfected HEp-2. IIF-ANA in all healthy sera were negative on HEp-Ro60. As a kind of new substrate of IIF, the Ro60 transfectants can be used to detect anti-Ro antibodies. In addition, transfected HEp-2 cells kept the immunofluorescent property of HEp-2 cells in IIF-ANA tests and could be employed as substrate for the routine IIF-ANA detection. The method improved the sensitivity of IIF-ANA. (authors)

  5. Performance of the front-end signal processing electronics for the drift chambers of the Stanford Large Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, A.; Haller, G.M.; Usher, T.; Shypit, R.

    1990-10-01

    This paper reports on the performance of the front-end analog and digital signal processing electronics for the drift chambers of the Stanford Large Detector (SLD) detector at the Stanford Linear Collider. The electronics mounted on printed circuit boards include up to 64 channels of transimpedance amplification, analog sampling, A/D conversion, and associated control circuitry. Measurements of the time resolution, gain, noise, linearity, crosstalk, and stability of the readout electronics are described and presented. The expected contribution of the electronics to the relevant drift chamber measurement resolutions (i.e., timing and charge division) is given

  6. Use of water-Cherenkov detectors to detect Gamma Ray Bursts at the Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Alvarez, C.; Asorey, H.; Barros, H.; Bertou, X.; Burgoa, O.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Martinez, O.; Miranda Loza, P.; Murrieta, T.; Perez, G.; Rivera, H.; Rovero, A.; Saavedra, O.; Salazar, H.; Tello, J.C.; Ticona Peralda, R.; Velarde, A.; Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) project aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique in ground-based water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on detector calibration and operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 4 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst

  7. Use of water-Cherenkov detectors to detect Gamma Ray Bursts at the Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, D. [APC, CNRS et Universite Paris 7 (France); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Alvarez, C. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Asorey, H. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Barros, H. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bertou, X. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina)], E-mail: bertou@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Burgoa, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Gomez Berisso, M. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Martinez, O. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Miranda Loza, P. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Murrieta, T.; Perez, G. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Rivera, H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Rovero, A. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (Argentina); Saavedra, O. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale and INFN, Torino (Italy); Salazar, H. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Tello, J.C. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Ticona Peralda, R.; Velarde, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Villasenor, L. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad de Michoacan (Mexico)

    2008-09-21

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) project aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique in ground-based water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on detector calibration and operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 4 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  8. HEP meets ML award talk : XGBoost

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; CHEN, Tianqi

    2015-01-01

    Tianqi Chen and Tong He (team crowwork) have provided very early in the challenge to all participants XGBoost (for eXtreme Gradient Boosted). It is a parallelised software to train boost decision trees, which has been effectively used by many participants to the challenge. For this, they have won the "HEP meets ML" award which is the invitation to CERN happening today.

  9. Toxicidad hepática por medicamentos antituberculosos Hepatotoxicity induced by antituberculosis drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Eugenia Escobar Toledo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available

    El fenómeno de la toxicidad hepática inducida por medicamentos cobró relevancia hace algunos años con el estudio de las reacciones adversas a medicamentos. El daño producido en el hígado por un xenobiótico que altera su función es lo que se conoce como toxicidad hepática. La importancia de reconocer y diagnosticar la toxicidad hepática por medicamentos estriba en su gravedad potencial; no en vano es la causa más frecuente por la que la industria farmacéutica retira medicamentos. La tuberculosis es una pandemia que afecta a gran parte de la población mundial y junto con el VIH es una enfermedad cada vez más frecuente en Colombia. Esta enfermedad se puede considerar como una situación especial porque para su tratamiento es preciso suministrar, por largos períodos, medicamentos con potencial tóxico para el hígado.

     

    El objetivo de este artículo es revisar algunos aspectos relacionados con la toxicidad hepática secundaria a medicamentos antituberculosos, tales como: epidemiología, factores de riesgo, mecanismos de toxicidad, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento.

    Hepatotoxicity is the alteration of liver structure and function induced by either drugs or other substances. The importance of its proper diagnosis rests on its potential severity. It is the most frequent reason by which the pharmaceutical industry withdraws its products. Tuberculosis is a pandemic infection affecting a large proportion of the world population. Together with HIV infection it is becoming ever more frequent in Colombia. Tuberculosis poses

  10. Characterisation of the high dynamic range Large Pixel Detector (LPD) and its use at X-ray free electron laser sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, M. C.; Adkin, P.; Booker, P.; Coughlan, J.; French, M. J.; Hart, M.; Nicholls, T.; Schneider, A.; Seller, P.; Pape, I.; Sawhney, K.; Carini, G. A.; Hart, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory have delivered the Large Pixel Detector (LPD) for MHz frame rate imaging at the European XFEL. The detector system has an active area of 0.5 m × 0.5 m and consists of a million pixels on a 500 μm pitch. Sensors have been produced from 500 μm thick Hammamatsu silicon tiles that have been bump bonded to the readout ASIC using a silver epoxy and gold stud technique. Each pixel of the detector system is capable of measuring 105 12 keV photons per image readout at 4.5 MHz. In this paper results from the testing of these detectors at the Diamond Light Source and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are presented. The performance of the detector in terms of linearity, spatial uniformity and the performance of the different ASIC gain stages is characterised.

  11. Aggregative adherent strains of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum enter and survive within HEp-2 epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cristina de Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is a well-known human pathogen that mainly causes respiratory disease and is associated with high mortality in compromised hosts. Little is known about the virulence factors and pathogenesis of C. pseudodiphtheriticum. In this study, cultured human epithelial (HEp-2 cells were used to analyse the adherence pattern, internalisation and intracellular survival of the ATCC 10700 type strain and two additional clinical isolates. These microorganisms exhibited an aggregative adherence-like pattern to HEp-2 cells characterised by clumps of bacteria with a "stacked-brick" appearance. The differences in the ability of these microorganisms to invade and survive within HEp-2 cells and replicate in the extracellular environment up to 24 h post infection were evaluated. The fluorescent actin staining test demonstrated that actin polymerisation is involved in the internalisation of the C. pseudodiphtheriticum strains. The depolymerisation of microfilaments by cytochalasin E significantly reduced the internalisation of C. pseudodiphtheriticum by HEp-2 cells. Bacterial internalisation and cytoskeletal rearrangement seemed to be partially triggered by the activation of tyrosine kinase activity. Although C. pseudodiphtheriticum strains did not demonstrate an ability to replicate intracellularly, HEp-2 cells were unable to fully clear the pathogen within 24 h. These characteristics may explain how some C. pseudodiphtheriticum strains cause severe infection in human patients.

  12. A silicon nanomembrane detector for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of large proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jonghoo; Blick, Robert H

    2013-10-11

    We describe a MALDI-TOF ion detector based on freestanding silicon nanomembrane technology. The detector is tested in a commercial MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer with equimolar mixtures of proteins. The operating principle of the nanomembrane detector is based on phonon-assisted field emission from these silicon nanomembranes, in which impinging ion packets excite electrons in the nanomembrane to higher energy states. Thereby the electrons can overcome the vacuum barrier and escape from the surface of the nanomembrane via field emission. Ion detection is demonstrated of apomyoglobin (16,952 Da), aldolase (39,212 Da), bovine serum albumin (66,430 Da), and their equimolar mixtures. In addition to the three intact ions, a large number of fragment ions are also revealed by the silicon nanomembrane detector, which are not observable with conventional detectors.

  13. A Silicon Nanomembrane Detector for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS of Large Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghoo Park

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a MALDI-TOF ion detector based on freestanding silicon nanomembrane technology. The detector is tested in a commercial MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer with equimolar mixtures of proteins. The operating principle of the nanomembrane detector is based on phonon-assisted field emission from these silicon nanomembranes, in which impinging ion packets excite electrons in the nanomembrane to higher energy states. Thereby the electrons can overcome the vacuum barrier and escape from the surface of the nanomembrane via field emission. Ion detection is demonstrated of apomyoglobin (16,952 Da, aldolase (39,212 Da, bovine serum albumin (66,430 Da, and their equimolar mixtures. In addition to the three intact ions, a large number of fragment ions are also revealed by the silicon nanomembrane detector, which are not observable with conventional detectors.

  14. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  15. First Dark Matter Limits from a Large-Mass, Low-Background Superheated Droplet Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Collar, J.I.; Girard, T.A.; Limagne, D.; Miley, H.S.; Waysand, G.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the fabrication aspects and calibration of the first large active mass ($\\sim15$ g) modules of SIMPLE, a search for particle dark matter using Superheated Droplet Detectors (SDDs). While still limited by the statistical uncertainty of the small data sample on hand, the first weeks of operation in the new underground laboratory of Rustrel-Pays d'Apt already provide a sensitivity to axially-coupled Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) competitive with leading experiments, confirming SDDs as a convenient, low-cost alternative for WIMP detection.

  16. Self-Powered Neutron Detector Calibration Using a Large Vertical Irradiation Hole of HANARO

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Myong-Seop; Park Byung-Gun; Kang Gi-Doo

    2018-01-01

    A calibration technology of the self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) using a large vertical irradiation hole of HANARO is developed. The 40 Rh-SPNDs are installed on the polycarbonate plastic support, and the gold wires with the same length as the effective length of the rhodium emitter of the SPND are also installed to measure the neutron flux on the SPND. They are irradiated at a low reactor power, and the SPND current is measured using the pico-ammeter. The external gamma-rays which affe...

  17. Selective killing of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by three-dimensional nanographene nanoparticles based on triptycene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoqin; Gan, Lu; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chun; Yong, Tuying; Wang, Ziyi; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2015-03-01

    Carbon-based materials have been widely used in the biomedical fields including drug delivery and cancer therapies. In this paper, a recently synthesized three-dimensional nanographene (NG) based on triptycene self-assembles into nanoparticles which selectively kill human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared to human normal liver HL7702 cells. Obvious differences in cellular accumulation, the endocytic pathway and intracellular trafficking of NG nanoparticles are observed in HepG2 cells and HL7702 cells. Further studies reveal that NG nanoparticles significantly increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, but not in HL7702 cells. NG nanoparticle-induced ROS result in apoptosis induction and the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells. Moreover, IKK/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling is found to be activated by NG nanoparticle-induced ROS and serves to antagonize NG nanoparticle-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our studies show that the distinct behaviors of cellular uptake and ROS-mediated cytotoxicity are responsible for the selective killing of HepG2 cells. This study provides a foundation for understanding the mechanism of selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by NG nanoparticles and designing more effective chemotherapeutical agents.Carbon-based materials have been widely used in the biomedical fields including drug delivery and cancer therapies. In this paper, a recently synthesized three-dimensional nanographene (NG) based on triptycene self-assembles into nanoparticles which selectively kill human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared to human normal liver HL7702 cells. Obvious differences in cellular accumulation, the endocytic pathway and intracellular trafficking of NG nanoparticles are observed in HepG2 cells and HL7702 cells. Further studies reveal that NG nanoparticles significantly increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, but not in HL7702

  18. Activation of apoptosis by ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Dianthus superbus in HepG2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Qing; Yin, Yan; Lei, Jia-Chuan; Zhang, Xiu-Qiao; Chen, Wei; Ding, Cheng-Li; Wu, Shan; He, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Yan-Wen; Zou, Guo-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Dianthus superbus L. is commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine. We recently showed that ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from ethanol extract of D. superbus exhibited the strongest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. In this study, we examined apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by EE-DS, and the mechanism underlying apoptosis was also investigated. Treatment of HepG2 cells with EE-DS (20-80 μg/ml) for 48 h led to a significant dose-dependent increase in the percentage of cells in sub-G1 phase by analysis of the content of DNA in cells, and a large number of apoptotic bodies containing nuclear fragments were observed in cells treated with 80 μg/ml of EE-DS for 24 h by using Hoechst 33258 staining. These data show that EE-DS can induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that EE-DS significantly suppressed the expressions of Bcl-2 and NF-κB. Treatment of cells with EE-DS (80 μg/ml) for 48 h resulted in significant increase of cytochrome c in the cytosol, which indicated cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Activation of caspase-9 and -3 were also determined when the cells treated with EE-DS. The results suggest that apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by EE-DS could be through the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data showed that the composition of EE-DS is complicated. Further studies are needed to find the effective constituents of EE-DS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Clover detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, F A; Byrski, Th; Durien, D; Duchene, G; France, G de; Kharraja, B; Wei, L [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Butler, P; Jones, G; Jones, P [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Hannachi, F [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom)

    1992-08-01

    The EUROGAM Phase I device is almost running for experiments and new technical developments are in progress for its second phase. For example, a composite Ge detector should enable: a very large photopeak efficiency with good energy and timing resolutions; and, the covering, with Ge, of a large portion of 4{pi}-Str. The Clover detector, proposed by the CRN, Strasbourg, is one of this new generation of Ge detectors. It is currently developed in France by the EUROGAM collaboration. The design, the technical characteristics of the counter and the first results of the prototype tests are discussed in this contribution. (author). 1 ref., 2 tabs., 2 refs.

  20. High-pitch metal-on-glass technology for pad pitch adaptation between detectors and readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ullán, Miguel; Campabadal, Francesca; Fleta, Celeste; Garcia, Carmen; Gonzalez, Francisco; Bernabeu, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Modern high-energy physics and astrophysics strip detectors have increased channel density to levels at which their connection with readout electronics has become very complex due to high pad pitch. Also, direct wire bonding is prevented by the fact that typically detector's pad pitch and electronics' pad pitch do not match. A high- pitch metal-on-glass technology is presented, that allows pad pitch adaptation between detectors and readout electronics. It consists of high-density metal lines on top of an insulating glass substrate. A photoresist layer is deposited covering the metal tracks for passivation and protection The technology is tested for conductivity, bondability, bonding pull force, peel off, and radiation hardness, and it is an established technology in the clean room of the CNM Institute in Barcelona. This technology has been chosen by the ATLAS Collaboration for the pad pitch adapters (PPA) of the SCT Endcap Modules, by a Compton camera project, and by other HEP groups for interconnection betwe...

  1. The use of production management techniques in the construction of a large high energy physics detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, St.

    2000-01-01

    The lifetime of a particle detector can be divided into 4 periods: designing, engineering drawing, manufacturing and operation-maintenance. Some computer systems and software deal with the management of the designing and engineering drawing, others deal with data acquisition and processing, but no systems exist for the manufacturing phase where particular solutions are proposed every time a problem arises. New-generation detectors that are to be set for the experiments at the future LHC (large hadron collider) will be 10 times more complex than the today detectors and be expected to operate for around 15 years. This complexity associated with a longer operating life implies an efficient and evolutive information system to handle the manufacturing phase. In this work the author has applied the techniques of production management to the manufacturing phase of the compact muon solenoid (CMS), he assigned 3 purposes: 1) to propose a modelling of the description of each component and of its manufacturing process, 2) to develop a graphic software allowing to view the assembling of the different components of the detector, and 3) to evaluate the resource of production of such a device, it means to balance demand with capacity and to optimize the use of production means. (A.C.)

  2. HEP-FCE Working Group on Libraries and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgland, Anders [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Elmer, Peter [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kirby, Michael [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Patton, Simon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Potekhin, Maxim [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Viren, Brett [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-12-19

    The High-Energy Physics Forum for Computational Excellence (HEP-FCE) was formed by the Department of Energy as a follow-up to a recent report from the Topical Panel on Computing[1] and the associated P5 recommendation[2]. It is a pilot project distributed across the DOE Labs. During this initial incubation period the Forum is to develop a plan for a robust, long-term organization structure and a functioning web presence for forum activities and outreach, and a study of hardware and software needs across the HEP program. In the following sections we give this working group’s “vision” for aspects and qualities we wish to see in a future HEP-FCE. We then give a prioritized list of technical activities with suggested scoping and deliverables that can be expected to provide cross-experiment benefits. The remaining bulk of the report gives a technical survey of some specific “areas of opportunity” for cross-experiment benefit in the realm of software libs/tools. This survey serves as support for the vision and prioritized list. For each area we describe the ways that cross-experiment benefit is achieved today, as well as describe known failings or pitfalls where such benefit has failed to be achieved and which should be avoided in the future. For both cases, we try to give concrete examples. Each area then ends with an examination of what opportunities exist for improvements in that particular area.

  3. Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, Z.

    2003-01-01

    photodiode array allows building the LSO-APD detector for tests in the PET arrangement for hadron therapy in medicine. The Department undersigned two important scientific contracts. The first one with the IKF Juelich is aimed to assemble and characterize a large quirl microstrip detector for COSY accelerator. The other one with Photonis, France is addressed to contribute in developing of new fast photomultipliers. During 2002 preparation for new HEP LHCb experiment in CERN was continued. Contribution of our department to LHCb is designing, fabricating and testing of three kinds of hardware modules - TFC Switch (THOR), Throttle Switch (MUNIN) and Readout Supervisor (ODIN). These modules are basic elements of Data Acquisition System of the experiment. In 2002 the final version of THOR module was designed, the second prototype of MUNIN was prepared and full simulation model of the most complicated module (ODIN) was provided. Also the works for LHCb Outertracker detector were conducted. The work concerning semiconductor detectors concentrated on improvements of silicon devices parameters - in particular of those cooled by liquid nitrogen. The investigations of method for surface stabilization of roentgen radiation detectors were started. The technical support for the Institute covers a lot of different types of activities, as supervising the institute computer network, maintaining internal data base and so on. (author)

  4. High resolution X-ray imaging of bone-implant interface by large area flat-panel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kytyr, D; Jirousek, O; Dammer, J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the cemented bone-implant interface behavior (cement layer degradation and bone-cement interface debonding) with emphasis on imaging techniques suitable to detect the early defects in the cement layer. To simulate in vivo conditions a human pelvic bone was implanted with polyurethane acetabular cup using commercial acrylic bone cement. The implanted cup was then loaded in a custom hip simulator to initiate fatigue crack propagation in the bone cement. The pelvic bone was then repetitively scanned in a micro-tomography device. Reconstructed tomography images showed failure processes that occurred in the cement layer during the first 250,000 cycles. A failure in cemented acetabular implant - debonding, crumbling and smeared cracks - has been found to be at the bone-cement interface. Use of micro-focus source and high resolution flat panel detector of large physical dimensions allowed to reconstruct the micro-structural models suitable for investigation of migration, micro-motions and consecutive loosening of the implant. The large area flat panel detector with physical dimensions 120 x 120mm with 50μm pixel size provided a superior image quality compared to clinical CT systems with 300-150μm pixel size.

  5. The resistive plate WELL detector as a single stage thick gaseous multiplier detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressler, Shikma; Breskin, Amos; Moleri, Luca; Kumar, Ashwini; Pitt, Michael [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS) (Israel); Kudella, Simon [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), KIT (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector use high electric fields inside the h ole of a foil to achieve a high charge multiplication. As a thicker version of G EMs based on printed circuit board (PCB) structures, Thick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) detectors combine the high gain of a GEM foil with the robustness, stability and low production costs of a PCB and allow a large quantity of applications that require the coverage of a large area at low cost and moderate spatial resolution. One application the Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS) develops as a member of the RD51 framework is the Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector. This single stage detector allows a very stable, discharge free operation at high gain (10{sup 5}). The single stage operation allows a low total height and make s the RPWELL a candidate for the Digital Hadronic Calorimeter (DHCAL) of the International Large Detector (ILD) at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The talk gives an insight into the way the RPWELL works and shows results from the last test beam.

  6. Extracting HEPs from Event Reports of Domestic Nuclear Power Plants-Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    it is very important to soundly estimate the human error probability (HEP) of required tasks that could degrade the operational safety of systems. To this end, it is necessary to provide the HRA practitioners with the reliable catalog of HEPs. Unfortunately, one of the common issues raised by HRA practitioners is a lack of HRA data including HEPs. Therefore, many researchers are trying to provide reliable HRA data from diverse sources, such as (1) event reports reflecting the operational experience of domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs), and (2) human performance data observed from full- and/or partial-scope simulator exercises. It is evident that the contribution of human errors to the safety of socio-technical systems is very critical. For this reason, it is important for HRA practitioners to provide reliable HRA data including HEPs. Although a full-scope simulator can be used to collect valuable HRA data, it is still necessary to extract HRA data from the review of operational experience data. If so, it is possible to expect several benefits, such as the use of HRA data gathered from the operational experience of domestic NPPs as reference information to clarify the appropriateness of those collected from full-scope simulators.

  7. Anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of resveratrol nanoethosomes against human HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Tong-sheng; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping

    2017-02-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Resveratrol (Res) has been widely investigated with its strong anti-tumor activity. However, its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this study, we prepared resveratrol nanoethosomes (ResN) via ethanol injection method. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of ResN relative to efficacy of bulk Res were evaluated on proliferation and apoptosis of human HepG2 cells. ResN were spherical vesicles and its particle diameter, zeta potential were (115.8 +/- 1.3) nm and (-12.8 +/- 1.9) mV, respectively. ResN exhibited significant inhibitory effects against human HepG2 cells by MTT assay, and the IC50 value was 49.2 μg/ml (105.4 μg/ml of Res bulk solution). By flow cytometry assay, there was an increase in G2/M phase cells treated with ResN. The results demonstrated ResN could effectively block the G2/M phase of HepG2 cells, which can also enhance the inhibitory effect of Res against HepG2 cells.

  8. ISABELLE. Volume 3. Experimental areas, large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This section presents the papers which resulted from work in the Experimental Areas portion of the Workshop. The immediate task of the group was to address three topics. The topics were dictated by the present state of ISABELLE experimental areas construction, the possibility of a phased ISABELLE and trends in physics and detectors

  9. Silicon Telescope Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurov, Yu B; Sandukovsky, V G; Yurkovski, J

    2005-01-01

    The results of research and development of special silicon detectors with a large active area ($> 8 cm^{2}$) for multilayer telescope spectrometers (fulfilled in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR) are reviewed. The detector parameters are listed. The production of totally depleted surface barrier detectors (identifiers) operating under bias voltage two to three times higher than depletion voltage is described. The possibility of fabrication of lithium drifted counters with a very thin entrance window on the diffusion side of the detector (about 10--20 $\\mu$m) is shown. The detector fabrication technique has allowed minimizing detector dead regions without degradation of their spectroscopic characteristics and reliability during long time operation in charge particle beams.

  10. Determination of the Molecular Weight of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparins by Using High-Pressure Size Exclusion Chromatography on Line with a Triple Detector Array and Conventional Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Bisio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of weight average molecular weight (Mw and molecular weight distribution represents one of the most controversial aspects concerning the characterization of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs. As the most commonly used method for the measurement of such parameters is high performance size exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC, the soundness of results mainly depends on the appropriate calibration of the chromatographic columns used. With the aim of meeting the requirement of proper Mw standards for LMWHs, in the present work the determination of molecular weight parameters (Mw and Mn by HP-SEC combined with a triple detector array (TDA was performed. The HP-SEC/TDA technique permits the evaluation of polymeric samples by exploiting the combined and simultaneous action of three on-line detectors: light scattering detectors (LALLS/RALLS; refractometer and viscometer. Three commercial LMWH samples, enoxaparin, tinzaparin and dalteparin, a γ-ray depolymerized heparin (γ-Hep and its chromatographic fractions, and a synthetic pentasaccharide were analysed by HP-SEC/TDA. The same samples were analysed also with a conventional HP-SEC method employing refractive index (RI and UV detectors and two different chromatographic column set, silica gel and polymeric gel columns. In both chromatographic systems, two different calibration curves were built up by using (i γ-Hep chromatographic fractions and the corresponding Mw parameters obtained via HP-SEC/TDA; (ii the whole γ-Hep preparation with broad Mw dispersion and the corresponding cumulative distribution function calculated via HP-SEC/TDA. In addition, also a chromatographic column calibration according to European Pharmacopoeia indication was built up. By comparing all the obtained results, some important differences among Mw and size distribution values of the three LMWHs were found with the five different calibration methods and with HP-SEC/TDA method. In particular, the detection of

  11. A large area transition radiation detector to measure the energy of muons in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarito, E.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Castellano, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Giglietto, N.; Guarnaccia, P.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Perchiazzi, M.; Raino, A.; Sacchetti, A.; Spinelli, P.

    1995-01-01

    We have designed and built a transition radiation detector of 36 m 2 area in order to measure the residual energy of muons penetrating in the Gran Sasso cosmic ray underground laboratory up to the TeV region. It consists of three adjacent modules, each of 2x6 m 2 area. Polystyrene square tubes, filled with a argon-carbon dioxide gas mixture, and polyethylene foam layers are used as proportional detectors and radiators respectively. We cover such a large surface with only 960 channels that provide adequate energy resolution and particle tracking for the astroparticle physics items to investigate. The detector has been calibrated using a reduced size prototype in a test beam. Results from one module exposed to cosmic rays at sea level are shown. (orig.)

  12. The front-end analog and digital signal processing electronics for the drift chambers of the Stanford Large Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, G.M.; Freytag, D.R.; Fox, J.; Olsen, J.; Paffrath, L.; Yim, A.; Honma, A.

    1990-10-01

    The front-end signal processing electronics for the drift-chambers of the Stanford Large Detector (SLD) at the Stanford Linear Collider is described. The system is implemented with printed-circuit boards which are shaped for direct mounting on the detector. Typically, a motherboard comprises 64 channels of transimpedance amplification and analog waveform sampling, A/D conversion, and associated control and readout circuitry. The loaded motherboard thus forms a processor which records low-level wave forms from 64 detector channels and transforms the information into a 64 k-byte serial data stream. In addition, the package performs calibration functions, measures leakage currents on the wires, and generates wire hit patterns for triggering purposes. The construction and operation of the electronic circuits utilizing monolithic, hybridized, and programmable components are discussed

  13. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J

    2008-01-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  14. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J [E15 Chair for Astroparticle Physics, Technische Universitat Miinchen, Physik Department, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-11-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  15. The atlas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrodo, P.

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS detector, one of the two multi-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, is currently being built in order to meet the first proton-proton collisions in time. A description of the detector components will be given, corresponding to the most up to date design and status of construction, completed with test beam results and performances of the first serial modules. (author)

  16. Alteraciones del ritmo del sueño en modelos animales de encefalopatia hepática

    OpenAIRE

    Peñaranda Sarmiento, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: La encefalopatía hepática (EH) es un síndrome neuropsiquiátrico presente en pacientes con enfermedades hepáticas que conduce a diferentes alteraciones neurológicas que pueden llevar al coma y la muerte. Dentro de las manifestaciones neurológicas precoces de la enfermedad, están las alteraciones del sueño con una prevalencia casi del 50% en pacientes con cirrosis hepática sin evidencia clínica. En la actualidad, varios grupos de investigación han demostrado que el ...

  17. Label-free Proteomic Analysis of Exosomes Derived from Inducible Hepatitis B Virus-Replicating HepAD38 Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaofang; Chen, Jieliang; Megger, Dominik A; Zhang, Xiaonan; Kozlowski, Maya; Zhang, Lijun; Fang, Zhong; Li, Jin; Chu, Qiaofang; Wu, Min; Li, Yaming; Sitek, Barbara; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2017-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that some viruses can manipulate the infection process by packing specific viral and cellular components into exosomes, small nanometer-sized (30-150 nm) vesicles secreted from various cells. However, the impact of HBV replication on the content of exosomes produced by hepatocytes has not been fully delineated. In this work, an HBV-inducible cell line HepAD38 was used to directly compare changes in the protein content of exosomes secreted from HepAD38 cells with or without HBV replication. Exosomes were isolated from supernantants of HepAD38 cells cultured with or without doxycycline (dox) and their purity was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western immunoblotting assays. Ion-intensity based label-free LC-MS/MS quantitation technologies were applied to analyze protein content of exosomes from HBV replicating cells [referred as HepAD38 (dox - )-exo] and from HBV nonreplicating cells [referred as HepAD38 (dox + )-exo]. A total of 1412 exosomal protein groups were identified, among which the abundance of 35 proteins was significantly changed following HBV replication. Strikingly, 5 subunit proteins from the 26S proteasome complex, including PSMC1, PSMC2, PSMD1, PSMD7 and PSMD14 were consistently enhanced in HepAD38 (dox - )-exo. Bioinformatic analysis of differential exosomal proteins confirmed the significant enrichment of components involved in the proteasomal catabolic process. Proteasome activity assays further suggested that HepAD38 (dox - )-exo had enhanced proteolytic activity compared with HepAD38 (dox + )-exo. Furthermore, human peripheral monocytes incubated with HepAD38 (dox - )-exo induced a significantly lower level of IL-6 secretion compared with IL-6 levels from HepAD38 (dox + )-exo. Irreversible inhibition of proteasomal activity within exosomes restored higher production of IL-6 by monocytes, suggesting that transmission of

  18. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 38 GHz Detector Array of Bolometric Polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, John W.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  19. The cosmology large angular scale surveyor (CLASS): 38-GHz detector array of bolometric polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, John W.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennet, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Huang, Caroline; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Glenn; Karakula, John; Kogut, Alan J.; Larson, David; Limon, Michele; Lowry, Lindsay; Marriage, Tobias; Mehrle, Nicholas; Miller, Amber D.; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H.; Novak, Giles; Reintsema, Carl; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wagner, Emily; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2014-07-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  20. Benefits of diverse and interdisciplinary co-creation for HEP - a showcase

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Cristina Bahamonde; Dopke, Jens; Kagan, Michael; Kaufmann, Sylvain; Knaepper, Ines; Kurikka, Joona; Milano, Leonardo; Muranaka, Tomoko; Pascu, Iulia; Potamianos, Karolos; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Utriainen, Tuuli; Perez Codina, Estel; Dobos, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    THE Port association organises interdisciplinary co-creational humanitarian hackathons at CERN. Combining physicists and engineers working on HEP related topics in their day job with entrepreneurs, artists, researchers, designers, humanitarian workers and other creative minds helps identifying similar material and engineering solutions for humanitarian challenges. It allow cross collaboration between many different disciplines. Concentrating on humanitarian and social benefitting topics the technology opportunities identify new methods, materials and processes, that can be feed back into HEP. The methodology of humanitarian hackathons is described and some examples of challenge outcomes are showcased.

  1. Ballistic deficit correction methods for large Ge detectors-high counting rate study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, G.; Moszynski, M.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents different ballistic correction methods versus input count rate (from 3 to 50 kcounts/s) using four large Ge detectors of about 70 % relative efficiency. It turns out that the Tennelec TC245 linear amplifier in the BDC mode (Hinshaw method) is the best compromise for energy resolution throughout. All correction methods lead to narrow sum-peaks indistinguishable from single Γ lines. The full energy peak throughput is found representative of the pile-up inspection dead time of the corrector circuits. This work also presents a new and simple representation, plotting simultaneously energy resolution and throughput versus input count rate. (TEC). 12 refs., 11 figs

  2. Characterization and reproducibility of HepG2 hanging drop spheroids toxicology in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Tracey; Ellero, Andrea Antonio; Masso, Zelie Flavienne; Cromarty, Allan Duncan

    2018-02-21

    Hepatotoxicity remains a major challenge in drug development despite preclinical toxicity screening using hepatocytes of human origin. To overcome some limitations of reproducing the hepatic phenotype, more structurally and functionally authentic cultures in vitro can be introduced by growing cells in 3D spheroid cultures. Characterisation and reproducibility of HepG2 spheroid cultures using a high-throughput hanging drop technique was performed and features contributing to potential phenotypic variation highlighted. Cultured HepG2 cells were seeded into Perfecta 3D® 96-well hanging drop plates and assessed over time for morphology, viability, cell cycle distribution, protein content and protein-mass profiles. Divergent aspects which were assessed included cell stocks, seeding density, volume of culture medium and use of extracellular matrix additives. Hanging drops are advantageous due to no complex culture matrix being present, enabling background free extractions for downstream experimentation. Varying characteristics were observed across cell stocks and batches, seeding density, culture medium volume and extracellular matrix when using immortalized HepG2 cells. These factors contribute to wide-ranging cellular responses and highlights concerns with respect to generating a reproducible phenotype in HepG2 hanging drop spheroids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biopsia hepática por aspiración con la aguja de Menghini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Albornoz Plata

    1959-09-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una descripción de la técnica para obtener la biopsia hepática por aspiración utilizando la aguja de menghini y se explica qué es la aguja de menghini. Se presentan 10 casos en que se hizo la biopsia, casos comprendidos entre 4 y 63 años; 4 M. y 6 F.; se encontró en esos casos: hígado normal, 2 casos; cirrosis portal, 1 caso; cirrosis biliar, 2 casos; Tb. hepática, 1 caso; Hepatitis, 2 casos; Sífilis hepática, 1 caso; Ictericia extrahepática, 1 caso. Consideremos la punción biopsia hepática por aspiración por medio de la aguja menghini como el método más sencillo, inofensivo y práctico; en nuestra opinión la aguja de meghini es muy superior a la de Vim-Silverman, y en el futuro el método de menghini desplazará el método de Vim-Silverman, como ha ocurrido en el Hospital Mount Sinai de New York.

  4. Production of coagulation factor VII in human cell lines Sk-Hep-1 and HKB-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa de Freitas, Marcela Cristina; Bomfim, Aline de Sousa; Mizukami, Amanda; Picanço-Castro, Virgínia; Swiech, Kamilla; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2017-09-01

    Recombinant factor VII (rFVII) is the main therapeutic choice for hemophilia patients who have developed inhibitory antibodies against conventional treatments (FVIII and FIX). Because of the post-translational modifications, rFVII needs to be produced in mammalian cell lines. In this study, for the first time, we have shown efficient rFVII production in HepG2, Sk-Hep-1, and HKB-11 cell lines. Experiments in static conditions for a period of 96 h showed that HepG2-FVII produced the highest amounts of rhFVII, with an average of 1843 ng/mL. Sk-hep-1-FVII cells reached a maximum protein production of 1432 ng/mL and HKB-11-FVII cells reached 1468 ng/mL. Sk-Hep-1-rFVII and HKB-11-rFVII were selected for the first step of scale-up. Over 10 days of spinner flask culture, HKB-11 and SK-Hep-1 cells showed a cumulative production of rFVII of 152 μg and 202.6 μg in 50 mL, respectively. Thus, these human cell lines can be used for an efficient production of recombinant FVII. With more investment in basic research, human cell lines can be optimized for the commercial production of different bio therapeutic proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Galactomannan from Schizolobium amazonicum seed and its sulfated derivatives impair metabolism in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha de Padua, Monique Meyenberg; Suter Correia Cadena, Silvia Maria; de Oliveira Petkowicz, Carmen Lucia; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Rodrigues Noleto, Guilhermina

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of native galactomannan from Schizolobium amazonicum seeds and its sulfated forms on certain metabolic parameters of HepG2 cells. Aqueous extraction from S. amazonicum seeds furnished galactomannan with 3.2:1 Man:Gal ratio (SAGM) and molar mass of 4.34×10 5 g/mol. The SAGM fraction was subjected to sulfation using chlorosulfonic acid to obtain SAGMS1 and SAGMS2 with DS of 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. Cytotoxicity of SAGM, SAGMS1, and SAGMS2 was evaluated in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). After 72h, SAGM decreased the viability of HepG2 cells by 50% at 250μg/mL, while SAGMS1 reduced it by 30% at the same concentration. SAGM, SAGMS1, and SAGMS2 promoted a reduction in oxygen consumption and an increase in lactate production in non-permeabilized HepG2 cells after 72h of treatment. These results suggest that SAGM, SAGMS1, and SAGMS2 could be recognized by HepG2 cells and might trigger alterations that impair its survival. These effects could be implicated in the modification of the oxidative phosphorylation process in HepG2 cells and activation of the glycolytic pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Large area thinned planar sensors for future high-luminosity-LHC upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, T.; Lawerenz, A.; Röder, R.

    2016-01-01

    Planar hybrid silicon sensors are a well proven technology for past and current particle tracking detectors in HEP experiments. However, the future high-luminosity upgrades of the inner trackers at the LHC experiments pose big challenges to the detectors. A first challenge is an expected radiation damage level of up to 2⋅ 10 16 n eq /cm 2 . For planar sensors, one way to counteract the charge loss and thus increase the radiation hardness is to decrease the thickness of their active area. A second challenge is the large detector area which has to be built as cost-efficient as possible. The CiS research institute has accomplished a proof-of-principle run with n-in-p ATLAS-Pixel sensors in which a cavity is etched to the sensor's back side to reduce its thickness. One advantage of this technology is the fact that thick frames remain at the sensor edges and guarantee mechanical stability on wafer level while the sensor is left on the resulting thin membrane. For this cavity etching technique, no handling wafers are required which represents a benefit in terms of process effort and cost savings. The membranes with areas of up to ∼ 4 × 4 cm 2 and thicknesses of 100 and 150 μm feature a sufficiently good homogeneity across the whole wafer area. The processed pixel sensors show good electrical behaviour with an excellent yield for a suchlike prototype run. First sensors with electroless Ni- and Pt-UBM are already successfully assembled with read-out chips.

  7. Large area thinned planar sensors for future high-luminosity-LHC upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, T.; Lawerenz, A.; Röder, R.

    2016-12-01

    Planar hybrid silicon sensors are a well proven technology for past and current particle tracking detectors in HEP experiments. However, the future high-luminosity upgrades of the inner trackers at the LHC experiments pose big challenges to the detectors. A first challenge is an expected radiation damage level of up to 2ṡ 1016 neq/cm2. For planar sensors, one way to counteract the charge loss and thus increase the radiation hardness is to decrease the thickness of their active area. A second challenge is the large detector area which has to be built as cost-efficient as possible. The CiS research institute has accomplished a proof-of-principle run with n-in-p ATLAS-Pixel sensors in which a cavity is etched to the sensor's back side to reduce its thickness. One advantage of this technology is the fact that thick frames remain at the sensor edges and guarantee mechanical stability on wafer level while the sensor is left on the resulting thin membrane. For this cavity etching technique, no handling wafers are required which represents a benefit in terms of process effort and cost savings. The membranes with areas of up to ~ 4 × 4 cm2 and thicknesses of 100 and 150 μm feature a sufficiently good homogeneity across the whole wafer area. The processed pixel sensors show good electrical behaviour with an excellent yield for a suchlike prototype run. First sensors with electroless Ni- and Pt-UBM are already successfully assembled with read-out chips.

  8. Evaluation of Origin Ensemble algorithm for image reconstruction for pixelated solid-state detectors with large number of channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Mikhaylova, E.; Chmeissani, M.; Ariño, G.; Calderón, Y.; Ozsahin, I.; Uzun, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project intends to show the advantages of using pixelated solid-state technology for nuclear medicine applications. It proposes designs for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and Compton gamma camera detectors with a large number of signal channels (of the order of 106). For PET scanners, conventional algorithms like Filtered Back-Projection (FBP) and Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) are straightforward to use and give good results. However, FBP presents difficulties for detectors with limited angular coverage like PEM and Compton gamma cameras, whereas OSEM has an impractically large time and memory consumption for a Compton gamma camera with a large number of channels. In this article, the Origin Ensemble (OE) algorithm is evaluated as an alternative algorithm for image reconstruction. Monte Carlo simulations of the PET design are used to compare the performance of OE, FBP and OSEM in terms of the bias, variance and average mean squared error (MSE) image quality metrics. For the PEM and Compton camera designs, results obtained with OE are presented.

  9. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Ladd Marsh Wildlife Area, 2004-2006 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul; Wagoner, Sara

    2006-05-01

    The Regional HEP Team (RHT) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) staff conducted a follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis on the Ladd Marsh Wildlife Management Area (LMWA) in May 2005. The 2005 HEP assessment resulted in a total of 647.44 HUs, or 0.76 HUs/acre. This is an increase of 420.34 HUs (0.49 HUs/acre) over 2001 HEP survey results. The most significant increase in HUs occurred on the Wallender and Simonis parcels which increased by 214.30 HUs and 177.49 HUs respectively. Transects were established at or near 2001 HEP analysis transect locations whenever possible. ODFW staff biologists assisted the RHT re-establish transect locations and/or suggested areas for new surveys. Since 2001, significant changes in cover type acreage and/or structural conditions have occurred due to conversion of agriculture cover types to emergent wetland and grassland cover types. Agricultural lands were seeded to reestablish grasslands and wetlands were restored through active management and manipulation of extant water sources including natural stream hydrology/flood regimes and available irrigation. Grasslands increased on the Wallender parcel by 21% (65 acres), 23% (71 acres) at the Simonis site, and 39% (62 acres) at Conley Lake. The emergent wetland cover type also changed significantly increasing 60% (184 acres) at Wallender and 59% (184 acres) on the Simonis tract. Today, agriculture lands (crop and grazed pasture) have been nearly eliminated from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) mitigation project lands located on the LMWA.

  10. Detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.

    1977-10-01

    Semiconductor detectors are now applied to a very wide range of problems. The combination of relatively low cost, excellent energy resolution, and simultaneous broad energy-spectrum analysis is uniquely suited to many applications in both basic and applied physics. Alternative techniques, such as magnetic spectrometers for charged-particle spectroscopy, while offering better energy resolution, are bulky, expensive, and usually far more difficult to use. Furthermore, they do not directly provide the broad energy-spectrum measurements easily accomplished using semiconductor detectors. Scintillation detectors, which are approximately equivalent to semiconductor detectors in convenience and cost, exhibit 10 to 100 times worse energy resolution. However, their high efficiency and large potential size recommend their use in some measurements

  11. Status and problems of semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Goulding, F.S.; Haller, E.E.; Pehl, R.H.

    1981-03-01

    A brief review is given of the types of silicon and germanium detectors used or presently being developed for nuclear experiments. Large-area silicon and germanium detector telescopes for use in long-range particle detection and identification are emphasized. Large area position-sensitive detectors are also described. Some results are presented regarding radiation damage and damage repair by annealing. Evidence is also presented for the importance of producing large area silicon crystals of adequate quality to reduce trapping problems to negligible proportions

  12. Status and problems of semiconductor detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, J.T.; Goulding, F.S.; Haller, E.E.; Pehl, R.H.

    1981-03-01

    A brief review is given of the types of silicon and germanium detectors used or presently being developed for nuclear experiments. Large-area silicon and germanium detector telescopes for use in long-range particle detection and identification are emphasized. Large area position-sensitive detectors are also described. Some results are presented regarding radiation damage and damage repair by annealing. Evidence is also presented for the importance of producing large area silicon crystals of adequate quality to reduce trapping problems to negligible proportions.

  13. First measurement of pp neutrinos in real time in the Borexino detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosteiro, Pablo

    2014-09-01

    The Sun is fueled by a series of nuclear reactions that produce the energy that makes it shine. Neutrinos (nu) produced by these nuclear reactions exit the Sun and reach Earth within minutes, providing us with key information about what goes on at the core of our star. For over twenty years since the first detection of solar neutrinos in the late 1960's, an apparent deficit in their detection rate was known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Today, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect is the accepted mechanism by which neutrinos oscillate inside the Sun, arriving at Earth as a mixture of nue, numu and nutau, the latter two of which were invisible to early detectors. Several experiments have now confirmed the observation of neutrino oscillations. These experiments, when their results are combined together, have demonstrated that neutrino oscillations are well described by the Large Mixing Angle (LMA) solution of the MSW effect. This thesis presents the first measurement of pp neutrinos in the Borexino detector, which is another validation of the LMA-MSW model of neutrino oscillations. In addition, it is one more step towards the completion of the spectroscopy of pp chain neutrinos in Borexino, leaving only the extremely faint hep neutrinos undetected. This advance validates the experiment itself and its previous results. This is, furthermore, the first direct real-time measurement of pp neutrinos. We find a pp neutrino detection rate of 143+/-16 (stat)+/-10 (syst) cpd/100 t in the Borexino experiment, which translates, according to the LMA-MSW model, to (6.42+/-0.85)x1010 cm -2 s-1. We also report on a measurement of neutrons in a dedicated system within the Borexino detector, which resulted in an improved understanding of neutron rates in liquid scintillator detectors at Gran Sasso depths. This result is crucial to the development of novel direct dark matter detection experiments.

  14. The Fermi Large Area Telescope as a cosmic-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgrò, Carmelo

    2013-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope is an international observatory conceived to study high energy gamma-rays from the universe. It is designed to identify and reconstruct electromagnetic showers and it can collect cosmic-ray electrons and positrons thanks to its triggering and filtering capabilities. The Fermi LAT collaboration has published several results on charged cosmic rays. We measured the inclusive spectrum of electrons and positrons from 7 GeV to 1 TeV and searched for anisotropies in the electron incoming direction. We have recently published a measurement of cosmic-ray positron-only and electron-only spectra for energies between 20 GeV and 200 GeV exploiting the Earth's magnetic field as a charge separator. In this work we describe the techniques and capabilities of the LAT as a cosmic-ray detector and review the recent results and their interpretations. Prospects for future studies and observations will also be discussed

  15. Detecting Boosted Dark Matter from the Sun with Large Volume Neutrino Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Joshua; /SLAC; Cui, Yanou; /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Zhao, Yue; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2015-04-02

    We study novel scenarios where thermal dark matter (DM) can be efficiently captured in the Sun and annihilate into boosted dark matter. In models with semi-annihilating DM, where DM has a non-minimal stabilization symmetry, or in models with a multi-component DM sector, annihilations of DM can give rise to stable dark sector particles with moderate Lorentz boosts. We investigate both of these possibilities, presenting concrete models as proofs of concept. Both scenarios can yield viable thermal relic DM with masses O(1)-O(100) GeV. Taking advantage of the energetic proton recoils that arise when the boosted DM scatters off matter, we propose a detection strategy which uses large volume terrestrial detectors, such as those designed to detect neutrinos or proton decays. In particular, we propose a search for proton tracks pointing towards the Sun. We focus on signals at Cherenkov-radiation-based detectors such as Super-Kamiokande (SK) and its upgrade Hyper-Kamiokande (HK). We find that with spin-dependent scattering as the dominant DM-nucleus interaction at low energies, boosted DM can leave detectable signals at SK or HK, with sensitivity comparable to DM direct detection experiments while being consistent with current constraints. Our study provides a new search path for DM sectors with non-minimal structure.

  16. Large area two dimensional position sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sann, H.; Olmi, A.; Lynen, U.; Stelzer, H.; Gobbi, A.; Bock, R.

    1979-02-01

    After an introduction, a position-sensitive ionization chamber, a parallel-plate detector, and a multiwire position-sensitive chamber are described. Then the data acquisition and analysis methods are considered. Furthermore, the experimental methods for a multi-parameter experiment are described. Finally, the measurement of gamma-ray and neutron multiplicities and sequential fission is considered, and the results are presented. (HSI) [de

  17. Determination of Greenhouse Gases Base Year for Hrvatska elektroprivreda (HEP) in Accordance with Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelavic, V.; Sestic, M.; Juric, Z.; Stanic, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol obliges the Republic of Croatia to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 5 percent till the year 2010, taking a base year from the period between 1985 and 1990. Thermal power plants of Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP) represent significant source of the most important greenhouse gas - CO 2 - and consequently HEP is expected to make a significant contribution to the national activities aiming to meet the Kyoto Protocol requirements. This issue is of particular importance, as Croatia has not submitted its base year to the Conference of the Parties in form of The National Communication on Climate Change, which is one of the requirements of UN Climate Change Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. Related to this, it is interesting to include emissions from the thermal power plants located in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia (650 MWe) that had supplied electricity to the Croatian power supply system in the base year period and on which HEP claims legal ownership. This article presents HEP greenhouse gas emissions from the period of 1985 to 1990, as well as its contribution in total greenhouse gas emissions of Croatia. Furthermore, future HEP greenhouse gas emissions, according to its business development scenario till the year 2010, will be estimated. (author)

  18. Borax-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells involves p53, Bcl-2, and Bax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y; Yuan, F J; Zhou, W B; Wu, L; Chen, L; Wang, J J; Zhang, Y S

    2016-06-21

    Borax, a boron compound and a salt of boric acid, is known to inhibit the growth of tumor cells. HepG2 cells have been shown to be clearly susceptible to the anti-proliferative effects of borax. However, the specific mechanisms regulating this effect are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the pathways underlying the growth inhibition induced by borax in HepG2 cells. The effects of borax on HepG2 cell viability were characterized using MTT. Apoptosis was also verified by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. JC-1 dye and western blotting techniques were used to measure mitochondrial membrane potential and p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein expression, respectively. Relevant mRNA levels were measured by qRT-PCR. Borax inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner in vitro. The apoptotic process triggered by borax involved the upregulation of p53 and Bax and the downregulation of Bcl-2, which was confirmed by a change in the mitochondrial membrane potential. These results elucidate a borax-induced apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells that involves the upregulation of p53 and Bax and the downregulation of Bcl-2.

  19. Oxidative stress induced lipid accumulation via SREBP1c activation in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, Mika; Hiraishi, Ako; Touyama, Maiko; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2008-01-01

    SREBP1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c) is a metabolic-syndrome-associated transcription factor that controls fatty acid biosynthesis under glucose/insulin stimulation. Oxidative stress increases lipid accumulation, which promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, we know little about the role of oxidative stress in fatty acid biosynthesis. To clarify the action of oxidative stress in lipid accumulation via SREBP1c, we examined SREBP1c activity in H 2 O 2 -treated mammalian cells. We introduced a luciferase reporter plasmid carrying the SREBP1c-binding site into HepG2 or COS-7 cells. With increasing H 2 O 2 dose, SREBP1c transcriptional activity increased in HepG2 cells but declined in COS-7 cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression of SREBP1c gene or of SREBP1c-regulated genes rose H 2 O 2 dose-dependently in HepG2 cells but dropped in COS-7 cells. Lipid accumulation and levels of the nuclear form of SREBP1c increased in H 2 O 2 -stimulated HepG2 cells. ROS may stimulate lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells via SREBP1c activation

  20. Lipidosis hepática asociada con malnutrición y preñez en dos perras

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano, Andrea; Arias, Daniel Osvaldo; Araus, S.; Cohen, M.; Gobello, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    En algunos países latinoamericanos se observó que la ascites ocurre en diferentes momentos post parto en perras alimentadas con dietas hipoproteicas. El objetivo de este articulo fue describir 2 casos de perras con ascitis asociada a lipidosis hepática desarrollada después del parto. Las muestras de sangre evidenciaron anormarmalidades compatibles con enfermedad hepática. La paracentesis abdominal reveló un trasudado aséptico y la ultrasonografía hiperecogenicidad hepática. Se arribó al diagn...

  1. Evaluation of the KEMRI Hep-cell II test kit for detection of hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the Hep-cell II test, blood samples were collected from blood donors and processed for detection of HBsAg using Hep-cell II based on the test principle and procedure outlined by the manufacturer. ELISA Axsym HBsAg test was used as golden standard. Of the 400 samples tested, 287 (71.8%) were positive by ...

  2. Large area high quality silicon detectors for scientific research and radioactivity monitoring in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, D.; Perevertailo, V.; Frolov, O.; Kononenko, Yu.; Pugatch, V.; Rozenfeld, A.

    1995-01-01

    breakdown of the junction were detected and examined. Examination of gate-controlled junctions allows one to obtain a useful information on generation currents, breakdown effects, protective rings operation in detectors. Results of this research were in design of a series of the following Si detectors: detectors with active areas 0.1 to 20 cm 2 and a wide range of depletion depth; photodetectors capable of working together with scintillator; large area strip detector with 16 and 128 strips as well as an annular strip detector with 40 strips and a max strip diameter of 13 cm. (author)

  3. Incidencia de la distomatosis hepática en los conejos de la ciudad de Lima y alrededores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Meneses

    1955-12-01

    Full Text Available En el lapso comprendido entre el 22 de enero y 22 de agosto de 1954, se llevó a cabo una encuesta en 538 conejos criados en Lima y alrededores tratando de determinar la incidencia de infestación por la Fasciola hepática. Se utilizó la técnica de sedimentación para el examen coprológico de las heces. Al mismo tiempo, paralelamente con la encuesta, se realizaron autopsias en conejos muertos por diversas causas con el fin de buscar F. hepática en el hígado. También se determinó la viabilidad de los huevos de F. hepática obtenidos de las heces de los conejos parasitados. De los estudios realizados se puede sacar las siguientes conclusiones: 1. Se ha verificado la presencia de Fasciola hepática en los conejos de Lima y alrededores. 2. La incidencia a F. hepática en los conejos estudiados varía entre 2.6 % y 19.7 % de acuerdo con la alimentación. 3. Son viables los huevos de F. hepática que el conejo arroja con las heces, lo que indica la posibilidad de que este animal podría actuar como reservorio de distomatosis hepática en la ciudad de Lima. 4. La técnica de sedimentación para el diagnóstico de la distomatosis en conejos ha demostrado ser superior a otras técnicas.

  4. Metabolic basis of ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in recombinant HepG2 cells: Role of nonoxidative metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hai; Cai Ping; Clemens, Dahn L.; Jerrells, Thomas R.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse, a major health problem, causes liver and pancreatic diseases and is known to impair hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Hepatic ADH-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol is a major pathway for the ethanol disposition in the body. Hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1), induced in chronic alcohol abuse, is also reported to oxidize ethanol. However, impaired hepatic ADH activity in a rat model is known to facilitate a nonoxidative metabolism resulting in formation of nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol such as fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) via a nonoxidative pathway catalyzed by FAEE synthase. Therefore, the metabolic basis of ethanol-induced cytotoxicity was determined in HepG2 cells and recombinant HepG2 cells transfected with ADH (VA-13), CYP2E1 (E47) or ADH + CYP2E1 (VL-17A). Western blot analysis shows ADH deficiency in HepG2 and E47 cells, compared to ADH-overexpressed VA-13 and VL-17A cells. Attached HepG2 cells and the recombinant cells were incubated with ethanol, and nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol was determined by measuring the formation of FAEEs. Significantly higher levels of FAEEs were synthesized in HepG2 and E47 cells than in VA-13 and VL-17A cells at all concentrations of ethanol (100-800 mg%) incubated for 6 h (optimal time for the synthesis of FAEEs) in cell culture. These results suggest that ADH-catalyzed oxidative metabolism of ethanol is the major mechanism of its disposition, regardless of CYP2E1 overexpression. On the other hand, diminished ADH activity facilitates nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol to FAEEs as found in E47 cells, regardless of CYP2E1 overexpression. Therefore, CYP2E1-mediated oxidation of ethanol could be a minor mechanism of ethanol disposition. Further studies conducted only in HepG2 and VA-13 cells showed lower ethanol disposition and ATP concentration and higher accumulation of neutral lipids and cytotoxicity (apoptosis) in HepG2 cells than in VA-13 cells. The apoptosis observed in HepG2 vs

  5. [Arginase inhibitor nor-NOHA induces apoptosis and inhibits invasion and migration of HepG2 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangnan; Zhu, Fangyu; He, Yongsong; Luo, Fang

    2017-04-01

    Objective To investigate the cell inhibitory effect of arginase inhibitor nor-NOHA on HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and related mechanism. Methods CCK-8 assay was used to detect the cell proliferation and flow cytometry to detect the apoptosis of HepG2 cells treated with (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0) ng/μL nor-NOHA. The protein levels of arginase 1 (Arg1), P53, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), E-cadherin (ECD) were determined by Western blotting. Real time quantitative PCR was employed to examine the changes in the mRNA level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Griess assay was used to measure the concentration of nitric oxide (NO) in HepG2 cells. Transwell TM assay and wound-healing assay were performed to evaluate the changes of the cell invasion and migration ability, respectively. Results nor-NOHA inhibited the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. It also decreased the expression levels of Arg1 and MMP-2, increased the expression levels of P53 and ECD as well as the production of NO; in addition, nor-NOHA inhibited the invasion and migration of HepG2 cells. Conclusion Nor-NOHA can induce cell apoptosis and inhibit the ability of invasion and migration of HepG2 cells by inhibiting Arg1, which is related with the increase of iNOS expression and the high concentration of NO.

  6. The human escort protein Hep binds to the ATPase domain of mitochondrial hsp70 and regulates ATP hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Peng; Stanworth, Crystal; Liu, Shirley; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2008-09-19

    Hsp70 escort proteins (Hep) have been implicated as essential for maintaining the function of yeast mitochondrial hsp70 molecular chaperones (mtHsp70), but the role that escort proteins play in regulating mammalian chaperone folding and function has not been established. We present evidence that human mtHsp70 exhibits limited solubility due to aggregation mediated by its ATPase domain and show that human Hep directly enhances chaperone solubility through interactions with this domain. In the absence of Hep, mtHsp70 was insoluble when expressed in Escherichia coli, as was its isolated ATPase domain and a chimera having this domain fused to the peptide-binding domain of HscA, a soluble monomeric chaperone. In contrast, these proteins all exhibited increased solubility when expressed in the presence of Hep. In vitro studies further revealed that purified Hep regulates the interaction of mtHsp70 with nucleotides. Full-length mtHsp70 exhibited slow intrinsic ATP hydrolysis activity (6.8+/-0.2 x 10(-4) s(-1)) at 25 degrees C, which was stimulated up to 49-fold by Hep. Hep also stimulated the activity of the isolated ATPase domain, albeit to a lower maximal extent (11.5-fold). In addition, gel-filtration studies showed that formation of chaperone-escort protein complexes inhibited mtHsp70 self-association, and they revealed that Hep binding to full-length mtHsp70 and its isolated ATPase domain is strongest in the absence of nucleotides. These findings provide evidence that metazoan escort proteins regulate the catalytic activity and solubility of their cognate chaperones, and they indicate that both forms of regulation arise from interactions with the mtHsp70 ATPase domain.

  7. HepSim: A repository with predictions for high-energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A file repository for calculations of cross sections and kinematic distributions using Monte Carlo generators for high-energy collisions is discussed. The repository is used to facilitate effective preservation and archiving of data from theoretical calculations and for comparisons with experimental data. The HepSim data library is publicly accessible and includes a number of Monte Carlo event samples with Standard Model predictions for current and future experiments. The HepSim project includes a software package to automate the process of downloading and viewing online Monte Carlo event samples. Data streaming over a network for end-user analysis is discussed

  8. ATLAS experience with HEP software at the Argonne leadership computing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uram, Thomas D; LeCompte, Thomas J; Benjamin, D

    2014-01-01

    A number of HEP software packages used by the ATLAS experiment, including GEANT4, ROOT and ALPGEN, have been adapted to run on the IBM Blue Gene supercomputers at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. These computers use a non-x86 architecture and have a considerably less rich operating environment than in common use in HEP, but also represent a computing capacity an order of magnitude beyond what ATLAS is presently using via the LCG. The status and potential for making use of leadership-class computing, including the status of integration with the ATLAS production system, is discussed.

  9. ATLAS Experience with HEP Software at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    CERN Document Server

    LeCompte, T; The ATLAS collaboration; Benjamin, D

    2014-01-01

    A number of HEP software packages used by the ATLAS experiment, including GEANT4, ROOT and ALPGEN, have been adapted to run on the IBM Blue Gene supercomputers at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. These computers use a non-x86 architecture and have a considerably less rich operating environment than in common use in HEP, but also represent a computing capacity an order of magnitude beyond what ATLAS is presently using via the LCG. The status and potential for making use of leadership-class computing, including the status of integration with the ATLAS production system, is discussed.

  10. Sources of machine-induced background in the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, R.; et al.,

    2013-11-21

    One source of experimental background in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particles entering the detectors from the machine. These particles are created in cascades, caused by upstream interactions of beam protons with residual gas molecules or collimators. We estimate the losses on the collimators with SixTrack and simulate the showers with FLUKA and MARS to obtain the flux and distribution of particles entering the ATLAS and CMS detectors. We consider some machine configurations used in the first LHC run, with focus on 3.5 TeV operation as in 2011. Results from FLUKA and MARS are compared and a very good agreement is found. An analysis of logged LHC data provides, for different processes, absolute beam loss rates, which are used together with further simulations of vacuum conditions to normalize the results to rates of particles entering the detectors. We assess the relative importance of background from elastic and inelastic beam-gas interactions, and the leakage out of the LHC collimation system, and show that beam-gas interactions are the dominating source of machine-induced background for the studied machine scenarios. Our results serve as a starting point for the experiments to perform further simulations in order to estimate the resulting signals in the detectors.

  11. LHCb detector performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinol, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are

  12. Applying deep neural networks to HEP job classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Shi, J; Yan, X

    2015-01-01

    The cluster of IHEP computing center is a middle-sized computing system which provides 10 thousands CPU cores, 5 PB disk storage, and 40 GB/s IO throughput. Its 1000+ users come from a variety of HEP experiments. In such a system, job classification is an indispensable task. Although experienced administrator can classify a HEP job by its IO pattern, it is unpractical to classify millions of jobs manually. We present how to solve this problem with deep neural networks in a supervised learning way. Firstly, we built a training data set of 320K samples by an IO pattern collection agent and a semi-automatic process of sample labelling. Then we implemented and trained DNNs models with Torch. During the process of model training, several meta-parameters was tuned with cross-validations. Test results show that a 5- hidden-layer DNNs model achieves 96% precision on the classification task. By comparison, it outperforms a linear model by 8% precision. (paper)

  13. MicroRNA expression in the vildagliptin-treated two- and three-dimensional HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yasunari; Asakura, Mitsutoshi; Mitsugi, Ryo; Fujii, Hideaki; Nagai, Kenichiro; Atsuda, Koichiro; Itoh, Tomoo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2016-06-01

    Vildagliptin is an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 that is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While vildagliptin can induce hepatic dysfunction in humans, the molecular mechanism has not been determined yet. Recent studies indicated that certain types of microRNA (miRNA) were linking to the development of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. In the present study, therefore, we identified hepatic miRNAs that were highly induced or reduced by the vildagliptin treatment in mice. MiR-222 and miR-877, toxicity-associated miRNAs, were induced 31- and 53-fold, respectively, by vildagliptin in the liver. While a number of miRNAs were significantly regulated by the orally treated vildagliptin in vivo, such regulation was not observed in the vildagliptin-treated HepG2 cells. In addition to the regular two-dimensional (2D) culture, we carried out the three-dimensional (3D) culturing of HepG2 cells. In the 3D-HepG2 cells, a significant reduction of miR-222 was observed compared to the expression level in 2D-HepG2 cells. A slight induction of miR-222 by vildagliptin was observed in the 3D-HepG2 cells, although miR-877 was not induced by vildagliptin even in the 3D-HepG2 cells. Further investigations are needed to overcome the discrepancy in the responsiveness of the miRNA expressions to vildagliptin between in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prospects for SIMPLE 2000: a large-mass, low-background superheated droplet detector for WIMP searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collar, J.I.; Girard, T.A.; Miley, H.S.; Waysand, G.

    2000-01-01

    The Superheated Instrument for Massive Particle searches (SIMPLE 2000) will consist of an array of 8-16 large active mass (approx. 15 g) superheated droplet detectors (SDDs) to be installed in the new underground laboratory of Rustrel-Pays d'Apt. Several factors make the use of SDDs an attractive approach for the detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), namely their intrinsic insensitivity to minimally ionizing particles, high fluorine content, low cost and operation at near ambient pressure and temperature. We comment here on the fabrication, calibration and already-competitive first limits from prototype SDDs for SIMPLE, as well as on the expected immediate increase in sensitivity of the programme, which aims at an exposure of > 25 kg day during 2000. The ability of modest-mass fluorine-rich detectors to investigate regions of neutralino parameter space beyond the reach of the most ambitious cryogenic projects is pointed out. (author)

  15. Prospects for SIMPLE 2000: a large-mass, low-background superheated droplet detector for WIMP searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collar, J I; Puibasset, J; Girard, T A; Limagne, D; Miley, H S; Waysand, G

    2000-01-01

    The Superheated Instrument for Massive Particle searches (SIMPLE 2000) will consist of an array of 8-16 large active mass (≅15 g) superheated droplet detectors (SDDs) to be installed in the new underground laboratory of Rustrel-Pays d'Apt. Several factors make the use of SDDs an attractive approach for the detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), namely their intrinsic insensitivity to minimally ionizing particles, high fluorine content, low cost and operation at near ambient pressure and temperature. We comment here on the fabrication, calibration and already-competitive first limits from prototype SDDs for SIMPLE, as well as on the expected immediate increase in sensitivity of the programme, which aims at an exposure of > 25 kg day during 2000. The ability of modest-mass fluorine-rich detectors to investigate regions of neutralino parameter space beyond the reach of the most ambitious cryogenic projects is pointed out

  16. The cosmic ray muon tomography facility based on large scale MRPC detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewu; Zeng, Ming; Zeng, Zhi; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Ziran; Yue, Xiaoguang; Luo, Zhifei; Yi, Hengguan; Yu, Baihui; Cheng, Jianping

    2015-06-01

    Cosmic ray muon tomography is a novel technology to detect high-Z material. A prototype of TUMUTY with 73.6 cm×73.6 cm large scale position sensitive MRPC detectors has been developed and is introduced in this paper. Three test kits have been tested and image is reconstructed using MAP algorithm. The reconstruction results show that the prototype is working well and the objects with complex structure and small size (20 mm) can be imaged on it, while the high-Z material is distinguishable from the low-Z one. This prototype provides a good platform for our further studies of the physical characteristics and the performances of cosmic ray muon tomography.

  17. Electronics and readout of a large area silicon detector for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, K.; Munday, D.J.; Parker, M.A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Aspell, P.; Campbell, M.; Chilingarov, A.; Jarron, P.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Santiard, J.C.; Scampoli, P.; Verweij, H.; Goessling, C.; Lisowski, B.; Reichold, A.; Spiwoks, R.; Tsesmelis, E.; Benslama, K.; Bonino, R.; Clark, A.G.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Kambara, H.; Wu, X.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.; Schultz, T.; Bardos, R.A.; Gorfine, G.W.; Moorhead, G.F.; Taylor, G.N.; Tovey, S.N.; Bibby, J.H.; Hawkings, R.J.; Kundu, N.; Weidberg, A.; Campbell, D.; Murray, P.; Seller, P.; Teiger, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the RD2 project is to evaluate the feasibility of a silicon tracker and/or preshower detector for LHC. Irradiation studies with doses equivalent to those expected at LHC have been performed to determine the behavior of operational parameters such as leakage current, depletion voltage and charge collection during the life of the detector. The development of fast, dense, low power and low cost signal processing electronics is one of the major activities of the collaboration. We describe the first fully functional integrated analog memory chip with asynchronous read and write operations and level 1 trigger capture capabilities. A complete test beam system using this analog memory chip at 66 MHz has been successfully operated with RD2 prototype silicon detectors during various test runs. The flexibility of the electronics and readout have allowed us to easily interface our set-up to other data acquisition systems. Mechanical studies are in progress to design a silicon tracking detector with several million channels that may be operated at low (0-10 C) temperature, while maintaining the required geometrical precision. Prototype readout boards for such a detector are being developed and simulation studies are being performed to optimize the readout architecture. (orig.)

  18. A new self-powered flux detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.

    1979-11-01

    It has been found that an Inconel-Inconel coaxial cable can be used as a fast-responding, neutron, self-powered flux detector if the core wire is sufficiently large. Test results obtained with such a detector, having a core wire approximately 1.5 mm in diameter, are presented. Other materials suitable for use as an emitter material, in such a relatively large diameter detector, also are included. (auth)

  19. PanDA: A New Paradigm for Distributed Computing in HEP Through the Lens of ATLAS and other Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    De, K; The ATLAS collaboration; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Wenaus, T

    2014-01-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) face unprecedented computing challenges. Heterogeneous resources are distributed worldwide, thousands of physicists analyzing the data need remote access to hundreds of computing sites, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, and data processing requires more than a billion hours of computing usage per year. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. In the process, the old batch job paradigm of computing in HEP was discarded in favor of a far more flexible and scalable model. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is leading to widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. PanDA is the first exascale workload management system in HEP, already operating at a million computing jobs per day, and processing over an exabyte of data in 2013. We will describe the design and implementation of PanDA, present data on the performance of PanDA a...

  20. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Hellsgate Project, 1999-2000 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Matthew

    2000-05-01

    A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was conducted on lands acquired and/or managed (4,568 acres total) by the Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Hellsgate project) to mitigate some of the losses associated with the original construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam and inundation of habitats behind the dams. Three separate properties, totaling 2,224 acres were purchased in 1998. One property composed of two separate parcels, mostly grassland lies southeast of the town of Nespelem in Okanogan County (770 acres) and was formerly called the Hinman property. The former Hinman property lies within an area the Tribes have set aside for the protection and preservation of the sharp-tailed grouse (Agency Butte unit). This special management area minus the Hinman acquisition contains 2,388 acres in a long-term lease with the Tribes. The second property lies just south of the Silver Creek turnoff (Ferry County) and is bisected by the Hellsgate Road (part of the Friedlander unit). This parcel contains 60 acres of riparian and conifer forest cover. The third property (now named the Sand Hills unit) acquired for mitigation (1,394 acres) lies within the Hellsgate Reserve in Ferry County. This new acquisition links two existing mitigation parcels (the old Sand Hills parcels and the Lundstrum Flat parcel, all former Kuehne purchases) together forming one large unit. HEP team members included individuals from the Colville Confederated Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department (CTCR), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The HEP team conducted a baseline habitat survey using the following HEP species models: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), mink (Mustela vison), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), bobcat (Lynx rufus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus). HEP analysis and results are discussed within the body of the text. The cover types

  1. BAYES-HEP: Bayesian belief networks for estimation of human error probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthick, M.; Senthil Kumar, C.; Paul, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    Human errors contribute a significant portion of risk in safety critical applications and methods for estimation of human error probability have been a topic of research for over a decade. The scarce data available on human errors and large uncertainty involved in the prediction of human error probabilities make the task difficult. This paper presents a Bayesian belief network (BBN) model for human error probability estimation in safety critical functions of a nuclear power plant. The developed model using BBN would help to estimate HEP with limited human intervention. A step-by-step illustration of the application of the method and subsequent evaluation is provided with a relevant case study and the model is expected to provide useful insights into risk assessment studies

  2. I - Multivariate Classification and Machine Learning in HEP

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Traditional multivariate methods for classification (Stochastic Gradient Boosted Decision Trees and Multi-Layer Perceptrons) are explained in theory and practise using examples from HEP. General aspects of multivariate classification are discussed, in particular different regularisation techniques. Afterwards, data-driven techniques are introduced and compared to MC-based methods.

  3. Detectors for CBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, N.; Gordon, H.A.; Palmer, R.B.; Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    We discuss some current approaches to a large solid angle detector. An alternative approach for utilizing the high rate of events at CBA is to design special purpose detectors for specific physics goals which can be pursued within a limited solid angle. In many cases this will be the only way to proceed, and then high luminosity has a different significance. The total rate in the restricted acceptance is less likely to be a problem, while the need for high luminosity to obtain sufficient data is obvious. Eight such experiments from studies carried out in the community are surveyed. Such experiments could be run on their own or in combination with others at the same intersection, or even with a large solid angle detector, if a window can be provided in the larger facility. The small solid angle detector would provide the trigger and special information, while the facility would provide back-up information on the rest of the event. We consider some possibilities of refurbishing existing detectors for use at CBA. This discussion is motivated by the fact that there is a growing number of powerful detectors at colliding beam machines around the world. Their builders have invested considerable amounts of time, money and ingenuity in them, and may wish to extend the useful lives of their creations, as new opportunities arise

  4. The Human Escort Protein Hep Binds to the ATPase Domain of Mitochondrial Hsp70 and Regulates ATP Hydrolysis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Peng; Stanworth, Crystal; Liu, Shirley; Silberg, Jonathan J.

    2008-01-01

    Hsp70 escort proteins (Hep) have been implicated as essential for maintaining the function of yeast mitochondrial hsp70 molecular chaperones (mtHsp70), but the role that escort proteins play in regulating mammalian chaperone folding and function has not been established. We present evidence that human mtHsp70 exhibits limited solubility due to aggregation mediated by its ATPase domain and show that human Hep directly enhances chaperone solubility through interactions with this domain. In the absence of Hep, mtHsp70 was insoluble when expressed in Escherichia coli, as was its isolated ATPase domain and a chimera having this domain fused to the peptide-binding domain of HscA, a soluble monomeric chaperone. In contrast, these proteins all exhibited increased solubility when expressed in the presence of Hep. In vitro studies further revealed that purified Hep regulates the interaction of mtHsp70 with nucleotides. Full-length mtHsp70 exhibited slow intrinsic ATP hydrolysis activity (6.8 ± 0.2 × 10-4 s-1) at 25 °C, which was stimulated up to 49-fold by Hep. Hep also stimulated the activity of the isolated ATPase domain, albeit to a lower maximal extent (11.5-fold). In addition, gel-filtration studies showed that formation of chaperone-escort protein complexes inhibited mtHsp70 self-association, and they revealed that Hep binding to full-length mtHsp70 and its isolated ATPase domain is strongest in the absence of nucleotides. These findings provide evidence that metazoan escort proteins regulate the catalytic activity and solubility of their cognate chaperones, and they indicate that both forms of regulation arise from interactions with the mtHsp70 ATPase domain. PMID:18632665

  5. The He+H-bar → Hep-bar +e+ rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Allan C.; Armour, Edward A.G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a summary of our work in progress on calculating cross sections for the He+H-bar ->Hep-bar +e + rearrangement process in HeH-bar scattering. This has involved a study of the system Hep-bar within the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation using the Rayleigh-Ritz variational method. This work has been reported in [A.C. Todd, E.A.G. Armour, J. Phys. B 38 (2005) 3367] and is summarised here. Similar calculations are in progress for the He+H-bar entrance channel. We intend to use the entrance channel and rearrangement channel wave functions to obtain the cross sections for the rearrangement using the distorted wave Born approximation T-matrix method described elsewhere in these proceedings [E.A.G. Armour, S. Jonsell, Y. Liu, A.C. Todd, these Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2006.01.049

  6. Linoleic acid-menthyl ester reduces the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Nao; Yamano, Naomi; Sakata, Kotaro; Arao, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Nagao, Toshihiro; Shimada, Yuji; Nagao, Koji; Yanagita, Teruyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The effect of linoleic acid-menthyl ester (LAME) on lipid metabolism were assessed in HepG2 cells. It is well known that high level of apolipoprotein (apo) B100 in the serum is risk for atherosclerosis. Although linoleic acid (LA) treatment and LA plus L-mentol treatment increased apo B100 secretion, LAME treatment significantly decreased apo B100 secretion in HepG2 cells compared with control medium. The hypolipidemic effect of LAME was attributable to the suppression of triglyceride synthesis in HepG2 cells. It is also known that the risk of coronary heart disease is negatively related to the concentration of serum apo A-1. In the present study, LAME treatment increased apo A-1 secretion as compared with LA treatment in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that mentyl-esterification of fatty acids may be beneficial in anti-atherogenic dietary therapy.

  7. Protecting detectors in ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechman, M.; Augustinus, A.; Chochula, P.; Di Mauro, A.; Stig Jirden, L.; Rosinsky, P.; Schindler, H.; Cataldo, G. de; Pinazza, O.; Kurepin, A.; Moreno, A.

    2012-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the big LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments at CERN in Geneva. It is composed of many sophisticated and complex detectors mounted very compactly around the beam pipe. Each detector is a unique masterpiece of design, engineering and construction and any damage to it could stop the experiment for months or even for years. It is therefore essential that the detectors are protected from any danger and this is one very important role of the Detector Control System (DCS). One of the main dangers for the detectors is the particle beam itself. Since the detectors are designed to be extremely sensitive to particles they are also vulnerable to any excess of beam conditions provided by the LHC accelerator. The beam protection consists of a combination of hardware interlocks and control software and this paper will describe how this is implemented and handled in ALICE. Tools have also been developed to support operators and shift leaders in the decision making related to beam safety. The gained experiences and conclusions from the individual safety projects are also presented. (authors)

  8. Large-format platinum silicide microwave kinetic inductance detectors for optical to near-IR astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szypryt, P; Meeker, S R; Coiffard, G; Fruitwala, N; Bumble, B; Ulbricht, G; Walter, A B; Daal, M; Bockstiegel, C; Collura, G; Zobrist, N; Lipartito, I; Mazin, B A

    2017-10-16

    We have fabricated and characterized 10,000 and 20,440 pixel Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) arrays for the Dark-speckle Near-IR Energy-resolved Superconducting Spectrophotometer (DARKNESS) and the MKID Exoplanet Camera (MEC). These instruments are designed to sit behind adaptive optics systems with the goal of directly imaging exoplanets in a 800-1400 nm band. Previous large optical and near-IR MKID arrays were fabricated using substoichiometric titanium nitride (TiN) on a silicon substrate. These arrays, however, suffered from severe non-uniformities in the TiN critical temperature, causing resonances to shift away from their designed values and lowering usable detector yield. We have begun fabricating DARKNESS and MEC arrays using platinum silicide (PtSi) on sapphire instead of TiN. Not only do these arrays have much higher uniformity than the TiN arrays, resulting in higher pixel yields, they have demonstrated better spectral resolution than TiN MKIDs of similar design. PtSi MKIDs also do not display the hot pixel effects seen when illuminating TiN on silicon MKIDs with photons with wavelengths shorter than 1 µm.

  9. {sup 10}B multi-grid proportional gas counters for large area thermal neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, K. [ESS, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bigault, T. [ILL, BP 156, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Birch, J. [Linköping University, SE-581, 83 Linköping (Sweden); Buffet, J. C.; Correa, J. [ILL, BP 156, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Hall-Wilton, R. [ESS, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Hultman, L. [Linköping University, SE-581, 83 Linköping (Sweden); Höglund, C. [ESS, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Linköping University, SE-581, 83 Linköping (Sweden); Guérard, B., E-mail: guerard@ill.fr [ILL, BP 156, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Jensen, J. [Linköping University, SE-581, 83 Linköping (Sweden); Khaplanov, A. [ILL, BP 156, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); ESS, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Kirstein, O. [Linköping University, SE-581, 83 Linköping (Sweden); Piscitelli, F.; Van Esch, P. [ILL, BP 156, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Vettier, C. [ESS, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2013-08-21

    {sup 3}He was a popular material in neutrons detectors until its availability dropped drastically in 2008. The development of techniques based on alternative convertors is now of high priority for neutron research institutes. Thin films of {sup 10}B or {sup 10}B{sub 4}C have been used in gas proportional counters to detect neutrons, but until now, only for small or medium sensitive area. We present here the multi-grid design, introduced at the ILL and developed in collaboration with ESS for LAN (large area neutron) detectors. Typically thirty {sup 10}B{sub 4}C films of 1 μm thickness are used to convert neutrons into ionizing particles which are subsequently detected in a proportional gas counter. The principle and the fabrication of the multi-grid are described and some preliminary results obtained with a prototype of 200 cm×8 cm are reported; a detection efficiency of 48% has been measured at 2.5 Å with a monochromatic neutron beam line, showing the good potential of this new technique.

  10. The GBT-SCA, a radiation tolerant ASIC for detector control and monitoring applications in HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caratelli, A.; Bonacini, S.; Kloukinas, K.; Marchioro, A.; Moreira, P.; Oliveira, R. De; Paillard, C.

    2015-01-01

    The future upgrades of the LHC experiments will increase the beam luminosity leading to a corresponding growth of the amounts of data to be treated by the data acquisition systems. To address these needs, the GBT (Giga-Bit Transceiver optical link [1,2]) architecture was developed to provide the simultaneous transfer of readout data, timing and trigger signals as well as slow control and monitoring data. The GBT-SCA ASIC, part of the GBT chip-set, has the purpose to distribute control and monitoring signals to the on-detector front-end electronics and perform monitoring operations of detector environmental parameters. In order to meet the requirements of different front-end ASICs used in the experiments, it provides various user-configurable interfaces capable to perform simultaneous operations. It is designed employing radiation tolerant design techniques to ensure robustness against SEUs and TID radiation effects and is implemented in a commercial 130 nm CMOS technology. This work presents the GBT-SCA architecture, the ASIC interfaces, the data transfer protocol, and its integration with the GBT optical link

  11. LHCb Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2015-03-05

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are described, using data taken from 2010 to 2012. It is shown that the design criteria of the experiment have been met. The excellent performance of the detector has allowed the LHCb collaboration to publish a wide range of physics results, demonstrating LHCb's unique role, both as a heavy flavour experiment and as a general purpose detector in the forward region.

  12. Detector Control System for the AFP detector in ATLAS experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaś, E.; Caforio, D.; Czekierda, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Olszowska, J.; Seabra, L.; Šícho, P.

    2017-10-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector consists of two forward detectors located at 205 m and 217 m on either side of the ATLAS experiment. The aim is to measure the momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. In 2016, two detector stations on one side of the ATLAS interaction point were installed and commissioned. The detector infrastructure and necessary services were installed and are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS), which is responsible for the coherent and safe operation of the detector. A large variety of used equipment represents a considerable challenge for the AFP DCS design. Industrial Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) product Siemens WinCCOA, together with the CERN Joint Control Project (JCOP) framework and standard industrial and custom developed server applications and protocols are used for reading, processing, monitoring and archiving of the detector parameters. Graphical user interfaces allow for overall detector operation and visualization of the detector status. Parameters, important for the detector safety, are used for alert generation and interlock mechanisms.

  13. Recent development of the Multi-Grid detector for large area neutron scattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Most of the Neutron Scattering facilities are committed in a continuous program of modernization of their instruments, requiring large area and high performance thermal neutron detectors. Beside scintillators detectors, 3 He detectors, like linear PSDs (Position Sensitive Detectors) and MWPCs (Multi-Wires Proportional Chambers), are the most current techniques nowadays. Time Of Flight instruments are using 3 He PSDs mounted side by side to cover tens of m 2 . As a result of the so-called ' 3 He shortage crisis , the volume of 3He which is needed to build one of these instruments is not accessible anymore. The development of alternative techniques requiring no 3He, has been given high priority to secure the future of neutron scattering instrumentation. This is particularly important in the context where the future ESS (European Spallation Source) will start its operation in 2019-2020. Improved scintillators represent one of the alternative techniques. Another one is the Multi-Grid introduced at the ILL in 2009. A Multi-Grid detector is composed of several independent modules of typically 0.8 m x 3 m sensitive area, mounted side by side in air or in a vacuum TOF chamber. One module is composed of segmented boron-lined proportional counters mounted in a gas vessel; the counters, of square section, are assembled with Aluminium grids electrically insulated and stacked together. This design provides two advantages: First, magnetron sputtering techniques can be used to coat B 4 C films on planar substrates, and second, the neutron position along the anode wires can be measured by reading out individually the grid signals with fast shaping amplifiers followed by comparators. Unlike charge division localisation in linear PSDs, the individual readout of the grids allows operating the Multi-Grid at a low amplification gain, hence this detector is tolerant to mechanical defects and its production accessible to laboratories equipped with standard equipment. Prototypes of

  14. Recent development of the Multi-Grid detector for large area neutron scattering instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerard, Bruno [ILL-ESS-LiU collaboration, CRISP project, Institut Laue Langevin - ILL, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    Most of the Neutron Scattering facilities are committed in a continuous program of modernization of their instruments, requiring large area and high performance thermal neutron detectors. Beside scintillators detectors, {sup 3}He detectors, like linear PSDs (Position Sensitive Detectors) and MWPCs (Multi-Wires Proportional Chambers), are the most current techniques nowadays. Time Of Flight instruments are using {sup 3}He PSDs mounted side by side to cover tens of m{sup 2}. As a result of the so-called '{sup 3}He shortage crisis{sup ,} the volume of 3He which is needed to build one of these instruments is not accessible anymore. The development of alternative techniques requiring no 3He, has been given high priority to secure the future of neutron scattering instrumentation. This is particularly important in the context where the future ESS (European Spallation Source) will start its operation in 2019-2020. Improved scintillators represent one of the alternative techniques. Another one is the Multi-Grid introduced at the ILL in 2009. A Multi-Grid detector is composed of several independent modules of typically 0.8 m x 3 m sensitive area, mounted side by side in air or in a vacuum TOF chamber. One module is composed of segmented boron-lined proportional counters mounted in a gas vessel; the counters, of square section, are assembled with Aluminium grids electrically insulated and stacked together. This design provides two advantages: First, magnetron sputtering techniques can be used to coat B{sub 4}C films on planar substrates, and second, the neutron position along the anode wires can be measured by reading out individually the grid signals with fast shaping amplifiers followed by comparators. Unlike charge division localisation in linear PSDs, the individual readout of the grids allows operating the Multi-Grid at a low amplification gain, hence this detector is tolerant to mechanical defects and its production accessible to laboratories equipped with standard

  15. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Tacoma Creek South Project, Technical Report 2003-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Tacoma Creek South property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in June 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Tacoma Creek South Project provides a total of 190.79 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetlands provide 20.51 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Grassland provides 1.65 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 11.76 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest habitat provides 139.92 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forest also provides 19.15 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Tacoma Creek South Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  16. Prospects for SIMPLE 2000 A large-mass, low-background Superheated Droplet Detector for WIMP searches

    CERN Document Server

    Collar, J I; Girard, T A; Limagne, D; Miley, H S; Waysand, G

    2000-01-01

    SIMPLE 2000 ({\\underline S}uperheated {\\underline I}nstrument for {\\underline M}assive {\\underline P}artic{\\underline {LE}} searches) will consist of an array of eight to sixteen large active mass ($\\sim15$ g) Superheated Droplet Detectors(SDDs) to be installed in the new underground laboratory of Rustrel-Pays d'Apt. Several factors make of SDDs an attractive approach for the detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), namely their intrinsic insensitivity to minimum ionizing particles, high fluorine content, low cost and operation near ambient pressure and temperature. We comment here on the fabrication, calibration and already-competitive first limits from SIMPLE prototype SDDs, as well as on the expected immediate increase in sensitivity of the program, which aims at an exposure of $>$25 kg-day during the year 2000. The ability of modest-mass fluorine-rich detectors to explore regions of neutralino parameter space beyond the reach of the most ambitious cryogenic projects is pointed out.

  17. ICARUS An Innovative Large LAR Detector for Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Vignoli, C; Disdier, J.M.; Rampoldi, D.; Passardi, G.

    2006-01-01

    ICARUS is an international project that foresees the installation of very large LAr detectors inside the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in order to be sensitive to rare phenomena of particle physics. The detection technique is based on the collection of electrons produced by particle interactions in LAr by a matrix of thousands of thin wires. At the moment the project foresees the installation of a 600,000‐kg vessel (T600). The total amount of LAr can be expanded in a modular way to masses of the order of 106 kg. The T600 houses two identical 300,000‐kg Ar sub‐cryostats that are aluminum boxes about 20‐m long, 4‐m high and 4‐m wide. Safety requirements for the underground installation have led to a unique design for the vessels to prevent LAr spillages even in the case of inner cryostat failure. Electrons must drift over meters requiring the development of special gas and liquid Ar purification units to provide an extremely high LAr purity (better then 0.1 ppb). The cooling system has been desi...

  18. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

  19. The Borexino Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, David

    2010-04-01

    The Borexino detector is a large volume liquid scintillator detector for low energy neutrino spetroscopy currently running underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. Main goal of the experiment is the real-time measurement of sub-MeV solar neutrinos, and particularly of the mono-energetic (862KeV) 7Be electron capture neutrinos, via neutrino-electron scattering in ultra-pure liquid scintillator. We report the description of the detector itself from its construction to the final current configuration. The initial requirements are first presented, then the strategy developed to achieve them: choice of materials and components, purification of the scintillator, cleaning, leak tightness, fluid handling. Every single point is analyzed, particularly the purification plants, that allowed reaching an ultra high pure scintillator and the fluid handling system, a large modular system connecting fluid receiving, purification and fluid delivery processes for every fluid involved. The different phases of the filling follow: from air to water to the final liquid scintillator, mainly focusing on the scintillator filling. The performances of the detector and the results are then presented.

  20. A high speed, low power consumption LVDS interface for CMOS pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhan, E-mail: sz1134@163.com [Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Tang, Zhenan, E-mail: tangza@dlut.edu.cn [Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Tian, Yong [Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Pham, Hung; Valin, Isabelle; Jaaskelainen, Kimmo [IPHC, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2015-01-01

    The use of CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPSs) offers a promising approach to the design of vertex detectors in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. As the CPS equipping the upgraded Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) pixel detector, ULTIMATE perfectly illustrates the potential of CPSs for HEP applications. However, further development of CPSs with respect to readout speed is required to fulfill the readout time requirement of the next generation HEP detectors, such as the upgrade of A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) Inner Tracking System (ITS), the International Linear Collider (ILC), and the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) vertex detectors. One actual limitation of CPSs is related to the speed of the Low-Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) circuitry implementing the interface between the sensor and the Data Acquisition (DAQ) system. To improve the transmission rate while keeping the power consumption at a low level, a source termination technique and a special current comparator were adopted for the LVDS driver and receiver, respectively. Moreover, hardening techniques are used. The circuitry was designed and submitted for fabrication in a 0.18-µm CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process at the end of 2011. The test results indicated that the LVDS driver and receiver can operate properly at the data rate of 1.2 Gb/s with power consumption of 19.6 mW.