WorldWideScience

Sample records for large hadron-electron collider

  1. A Large Hadron Electron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Abelleira Fernandez, J L; Adzic, P; Akay, A N; Aksakal, H; Albacete, J L; Allanach, B; Alekhin, S; Allport, P; Andreev, V; Appleby, R B; Arikan, E; Armesto, N; Azuelos, G; Bai, M; Barber, D; Bartels, J; Behnke, O; Behr, J; Belyaev, A S; Ben-Zvi, I; Bernard, N; Bertolucci, S; Bettoni, S; Biswal, S; Blumlein, J; Bottcher, H; Bogacz, A; Bracco, C; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Braun, H; Brodsky, S; Bruning, O; Bulyak, E; Buniatyan, A; Burkhardt, H; Cakir, I T; Cakir, O; Calaga, R; Caldwell, A; Cetinkaya, V; Chekelian, V; Ciapala, E; Ciftci, R; Ciftci, A K; Cole, B A; Collins, J C; Dadoun, O; Dainton, J; Roeck, A.De; d'Enterria, D; DiNezza, P; Dudarev, A; Eide, A; Enberg, R; Eroglu, E; Eskola, K J; Favart, L; Fitterer, M; Forte, S; Gaddi, A; Gambino, P; Garcia Morales, H; Gehrmann, T; Gladkikh, P; Glasman, C; Glazov, A; Godbole, R; Goddard, B; Greenshaw, T; Guffanti, A; Guzey, V; Gwenlan, C; Han, T; Hao, Y; Haug, F; Herr, W; Herve, A; Holzer, B J; Ishitsuka, M; Jacquet, M; Jeanneret, B; Jensen, E; Jimenez, J M; Jowett, J M; Jung, H; Karadeniz, H; Kayran, D; Kilic, A; Kimura, K; Klees, R; Klein, M; Klein, U; Kluge, T; Kocak, F; Korostelev, M; Kosmicki, A; Kostka, P; Kowalski, H; Kraemer, M; Kramer, G; Kuchler, D; Kuze, M; Lappi, T; Laycock, P; Levichev, E; Levonian, S; Litvinenko, V N; Lombardi, A; Maeda, J; Marquet, C; Mellado, B; Mess, K H; Milanese, A; Milhano, J G; Moch, S; Morozov, I I; Muttoni, Y; Myers, S; Nandi, S; Nergiz, Z; Newman, P R; Omori, T; Osborne, J; Paoloni, E; Papaphilippou, Y; Pascaud, C; Paukkunen, H; Perez, E; Pieloni, T; Pilicer, E; Pire, B; Placakyte, R; Polini, A; Ptitsyn, V; Pupkov, Y; Radescu, V; Raychaudhuri, S; Rinolfi, L; Rizvi, E; Rohini, R; Rojo, J; Russenschuck, S; Sahin, M; Salgado, C A; Sampei, K; Sassot, R; Sauvan, E; Schaefer, M; Schneekloth, U; Schorner-Sadenius, T; Schulte, D; Senol, A; Seryi, A; Sievers, P; Skrinsky, A N; Smith, W; South, D; Spiesberger, H; Stasto, A M; Strikman, M; Sullivan, M; Sultansoy, S; Sun, Y P; Surrow, B; Szymanowski, L; Taels, P; Tapan, I; Tasci, T; Tassi, E; Kate, H.Ten; Terron, J; Thiesen, H; Thompson, L; Thompson, P; Tokushuku, K; Tomas Garcia, R; Tommasini, D; Trbojevic, D; Tsoupas, N; Tuckmantel, J; Turkoz, S; Trinh, T N; Tywoniuk, K; Unel, G; Ullrich, T; Urakawa, J; VanMechelen, P; Variola, A; Veness, R; Vivoli, A; Vobly, P; Wagner, J; Wallny, R; Wallon, S; Watt, G; Weiss, C; Wiedemann, U A; Wienands, U; Willeke, F; Xiao, B W; Yakimenko, V; Zarnecki, A F; Zhang, Z; Zimmermann, F; Zlebcik, R; Zomer, F; CERN. Geneva. LHeC Department

    2012-01-01

    This document provides a brief overview of the recently published report on the design of the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), which comprises its physics programme, accelerator physics, technology and main detector concepts. The LHeC exploits and develops challenging, though principally existing, accelerator and detector technologies. This summary is complemented by brief illustrations of some of the highlights of the physics programme, which relies on a vastly extended kinematic range, luminosity and unprecedented precision in deep inelastic scattering. Illustrations are provided regarding high precision QCD, new physics (Higgs, SUSY) and electron-ion physics. The LHeC is designed to run synchronously with the LHC in the twenties and to achieve an integrated luminosity of O(100) fb$^{-1}$. It will become the cleanest high resolution microscope of mankind and will substantially extend as well as complement the investigation of the physics of the TeV energy scale, which has been enabled by the LHC.

  2. A Large Hadron Electron Collider at CERN, Physics, Machine, Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adolphson, C

    2011-01-01

    The physics programme and the design are described of a new electron-hadron collider, the LHeC, in which electrons of $60$ to possibly $140$\\,GeV collide with LHC protons of $7000$\\,GeV. With an $ep$ design luminosity of about $10^{33}$\\,cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, the Large Hadron Electron Collider exceeds the integrated luminosity collected at HERA by two orders of magnitude and the kinematic range by a factor of twenty in the four-momentum squared, $Q^2$, and in the inverse Bjorken $x$. The physics programme is devoted to an exploration of the energy frontier, complementing the LHC and its discovery potential for physics beyond the Standard Model with high precision deep inelastic scattering (DIS) measurements. These are projected to solve a variety of fundamental questions in strong and electroweak interactions. The LHeC thus becomes the world's cleanest high resolution microscope, designed to continue the path of deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering into unknown areas of physics and kinematics. The physics ...

  3. A polarized window for left-right symmetry at the Large Hadron-Electron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, Subhadeep

    2015-01-01

    The breaking of parity, a fundamental symmetry between left and right is best understood in the framework of left-right symmetric extension of the standard model. We show that the production of a heavy right-handed neutrino at the proposed Large Hadron-Electron Collider (LHeC) could give us the most simple and direct hint of the scale of this breaking in left-right symmetric theories. This production mode gives a lepton number violating signal with $\\Delta L=2$ which is very clean and has practically no standard model background. We highlight that the right-handed nature of $W_R$ exchange which defines the left-right symmetric theories can be confirmed by using a polarized electron beam and also enhance the production rates with relatively lower beam energy.

  4. Cryogenic Studies for the Proposed CERN Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC)

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, F

    2011-01-01

    The LHeC (Large Hadron electron Collider) is a proposed future colliding beam facility for lepton-nucleon scattering particle physics at CERN. A new 60 GeV electron accelerator will be added to the existing 27 km circumference 7 TeV LHC for collisions of electrons with protons and heavy ions. Two basic design options are being pursued. The first is a circular accelerator housed in the existing LHC tunnel which is referred to as the "Ring-Ring" version. Low field normal conducting magnets guide the particle beam while superconducting (SC) RF cavities cooled to 2 K are installed at two opposite locations at the LHC tunnel to accelerate the beams. For this version in addition a 10 GeV re-circulating SC injector will be installed. In total four refrigerators with cooling capacities between 1.2 kW and 3 kW @ 4.5 K are needed. The second option, referred to as the "Linac-Ring" version consists of a race-track re-circulating energy-recovery type machine with two 1 km long straight acceleration sections. The 944 hi...

  5. Left-Right Symmetry and Lepton Number Violation at the Large Hadron Electron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, Manfred; Rodejohann, Werner; Yaguna, Carlos E

    2016-01-01

    We show that the proposed Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) will provide a great opportunity to search for left-right symmetry and establish lepton number violation, complementing current and planned searches based on LHC data and neutrinoless double beta decay. We consider several plausible configurations for the LHeC -- including different electron energies and polarizations, as well as distinct values for the charge misidentification rate. Within left-right symmetric theories we determine the values of right-handed neutrino and gauge boson masses that could be tested at the LHeC after one, five and ten years of operation. Our results indicate that this collider might probe, via the $\\Delta L =2$ signal $e^-p\\to e^+jjj$, Majorana neutrino masses up to $1$ TeV and $W_R$ masses up to $\\sim 6.5$ TeV. Interestingly, part of this parameter space is beyond the expected reach of the LHC and of future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments.

  6. Left-right symmetry and lepton number violation at the Large Hadron electron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Manfred; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Rodejohann, Werner; Yaguna, Carlos E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik,Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-06-23

    We show that the proposed Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) will provide an opportunity to search for left-right symmetry and establish lepton number violation, complementing current and planned searches based on LHC data and neutrinoless double beta decay. We consider several plausible configurations for the LHeC — including different electron energies and polarizations, as well as distinct values for the charge misidentification rate. Within left-right symmetric theories we determine the values of right-handed neutrino and gauge boson masses that could be tested at the LHeC after one, five and ten years of operation. Our results indicate that this collider might probe, via the ΔL=2 signal e{sup −}p→e{sup +}jjj, Majorana neutrino masses up to 1 TeV and W{sub R} masses up to ∼6.5 TeV. Interestingly, part of this parameter space is beyond the expected reach of the LHC and of future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments.

  7. A Large Hadron Electron Collider at CERN: Report on the Physics and Design Concepts for Machine and Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abelleira Fernandez, J L; Akay, A N; Aksakal, H; Albacete, J L; Alekhin, S; Allport, P; Andreev, V; Appleby, R B; Arikan, E; Armesto, N; Azuelos, G; Bai, M; Barber, D; Bartels, J; Behnke, O; Behr, J; Belyaev, A S; Ben-Zvi, I; Bernard, N; Bertolucci, S; Bettoni, S; Biswal, S; Blumlein, J; Bottcher, H; Bogacz, A; Bracco, C; Brandt, G; Braun, H; Brodsky, S; Brüning, O; Bulyak, E; Buniatyan, A; Burkhardt, H; Cakir, I T; Cakir, O; Calaga, R; Cetinkaya, V; Ciapala, E; Ciftci, R; Ciftci, A K; Cole, B A; Collins, J C; Dadoun, O; Dainton, J; De Roeck, A; d'Enterria, D; Dudarev, A; Eide, A; Enberg, R; Eroglu, E; Eskola, K J; Favart, L; Fitterer, M; Forte, S; Gaddi, A; Gambino, P; Garcia Morales, H; Gehrmann, T; Gladkikh, P; Glasman, C; Godbole, R; Goddard, B; Greenshaw, T; Guffanti, A; Guzey, V; Gwenlan, C; Han, T; Hao, Y; Haug, F; Herr, W; Herve, A; Holzer, B J; Ishitsuka, M; Jacquet, M; Jeanneret, B; Jimenez, J M; Jowett, J M; Jung, H; Karadeniz, H; Kayran, D; Kilic, A; Kimura, K; Klein, M; Klein, U; Kluge, T; Kocak, F; Korostelev, M; Kosmicki, A; Kostka, P; Kowalski, H; Kramer, G; Kuchler, D; Kuze, M; Lappi, T; Laycock, P; Levichev, E; Levonian, S; Litvinenko, V N; Lombardi, A; Maeda, J; Marquet, C; Mellado, B; Mess, K H; Milanese, A; Moch, S; Morozov, I I; Muttoni, Y; Myers, S; Nandi, S; Nergiz, Z; Newman, P R; Omori, T; Osborne, J; Paoloni, E; Papaphilippou, Y; Pascaud, C; Paukkunen, H; Perez, E; Pieloni, T; Pilicer, E; Pire, B; Placakyte, R; Polini, A; Ptitsyn, V; Pupkov, Y; Radescu, V; Raychaudhuri, S; Rinol, L; Rohini, R; Rojo, J; Russenschuck, S; Sahin, M; Salgado, C A; Sampei, K; Sassot, R; Sauvan, E; Schneekloth, U; Schorner-Sadenius, T; Schulte, D; Senol, A; Seryi, A; Sievers, P; Skrinsky, A N; Smith, W; Spiesberger, H; Stasto, A M; Strikman, M; Sullivan, M; Sultansoy, S; Sun, Y P; Surrow, B; Szymanowski, L; Taels, P; Tapan, I; Tasci, T; Tassi, E; Ten Kate, H; Terron, J; Thiesen, H; Thompson, L; Tokushuku, K; Tomas Garcia, R; Tommasini, D; Trbojevic, D; Tsoupas, N; Tuckmantel, J; Turkoz, S; Trinh, T N; Tywoniuk, K; Unel, G; Urakawa, J; VanMechelen, P; Variola, A; Veness, R; Vivoli, A; Vobly, P; Wagner, J; Wallny, R; Wallon, S; Watt, G; Weiss, C; Wiedemann, U A; Wienands, U; Willeke, F; Xiao, B W; Yakimenko, V; Zarnecki, A F; Zhang, Z; Zimmermann, F; Zlebcik, R; Zomer, F

    2012-01-01

    The physics programme and the design are described of a new collider for particle and nuclear physics, the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), in which a newly built electron beam of 60 GeV, up to possibly 140 GeV, energy collides with the intense hadron beams of the LHC. Compared to HERA, the kinematic range covered is extended by a factor of twenty in the negative four-momentum squared, $Q^2$, and in the inverse Bjorken $x$, while with the design luminosity of $10^{33}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ the LHeC is projected to exceed the integrated HERA luminosity by two orders of magnitude. The physics programme is devoted to an exploration of the energy frontier, complementing the LHC and its discovery potential for physics beyond the Standard Model with high precision deep inelastic scattering measurements. These are designed to investigate a variety of fundamental questions in strong and electroweak interactions. The physics programme also includes electron-deuteron and electron-ion scattering in a $(Q^2, 1/x)$ ran...

  8. Design study of the large hadron electron collider and a rapid cycling synchrotron as alternative to the PS booster upgrade at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitterer, Miriam

    2013-02-22

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the exploration of particle physics at center of mass energies at the TeV scale has begun. To extend the discovery potential of the LHC, a major upgrade is foreseen around 2020 of the LHC itself and the LHC injectors - the chain of accelerators preparing the beam for the LHC. One of the injectors - the second one in the chain - is the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Booster. Its performance is currently limited by the space-charge effect, which is the effect of the electromagnetic field of the particle beam on itself. This effect becomes weaker with higher energy, and therefore an energy upgrade of the PS Booster to 2 GeV maximum beam energy is foreseen. As the PS Booster is with its 40 years already an old machine, the construction of a new accelerator, a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), to replace the PS Booster has been proposed. In this thesis different options for the beam guidance in the RCS - referred to as lattice and optics - are studied, followed by a more general comparison of different lattices and optics and their performance under consideration of the space-charge effect. To further complement the LHC physics program, also the possibility of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering at the LHC has been suggested, referred to as Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC). In this case the proton beam of the LHC collides with the electron beam, which is accelerated in a separate newly built machine. Two options are considered as electron accelerator: a new energy recovery linac - the Linac-Ring option - and the installation of an electron ring in the existing LHC tunnel - the Ring-Ring option. One of the main challenges of the Ring-Ring option is the integration of the electron ring in the current LHC tunnel. A layout, lattice and optics of the electron accelerator is developed in this thesis, which meets the requirements with regard to integration and reaches the beam parameters demanded by the particle physics experiments.

  9. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Wright, Alison

    2007-01-01

    "We are on the threshold of a new era in particle-physics research. In 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) - the hightest-energy accelerator ever built - will come into operation at CERN, the European labortory that straddles the French-Swiss border near Geneva." (1/2 page)

  10. Beyond the Large Hadron Collider: a first look at cryogenics for CERN future circular colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, Ph

    2015-01-01

    Following the first experimental discoveries at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the recent update of the European strategy in particle physics, CERN has undertaken an international study of possible future circular colliders beyond the LHC. The study, conducted with the collaborative participation of interested institutes world-wide, considers several options for very high energy hadron-hadron, electron-positron and hadron-electron colliders to be installed in a quasi-circular underground tunnel in the Geneva basin, with a circumference of 80 km to 100 km. All these machines would make intensive use of advanced superconducting devices, i.e. high-field bending and focusing magnets and/or accelerating RF cavities, thus requiring large helium cryogenic systems operating at 4.5 K or below. Based on preliminary sets of parameters and layouts for the particle colliders under study, we discuss the main challenges of their cryogenic systems and present first estimates of the cryogenic refrigeration capacities req...

  11. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Juettner Fernandes, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    What really happened during the Big Bang? Why did matter form? Why do particles have mass? To answer these questions, scientists and engineers have worked together to build the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world: the Large Hadron Collider. Includes glossary, websites, and bibliography for further reading. Perfect for STEM connections. Aligns to the Common Core State Standards for Language Arts. Teachers' Notes available online.

  12. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    't Hooft, Gerardus; Llewellyn Smith, Christopher Hubert; Brüning, Oliver Sim; Collier, Paul; Stapnes, Steinar; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Stachel, Johanna; Lederman, Leon Max

    2007-01-01

    Several articles about the LHC: The Making of the standard model; high-energy colliders and the rise of the standard model; How the LHC came to be; Building a behemoth; Detector challenges at the LHC; Beyond the standard model with the LHC; The quest for the quark-gluon plasma; The God particle et al. (42 pages

  13. Why Large Hadron Collider?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D P Roy

    2011-05-01

    I discuss LHC physics in the historical perspective of the progress in particle physics. After a recap of the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, I discuss the high energy colliders leading up to LHC and their role in the discovery of these SM particles. Then I discuss the two main physics issues of LHC, i.e. Higgs mechanism and supersymmetry. I briefly touch upon Higgs and SUSY searches at LHC along with their cosmological implications.

  14. Large Hadron Collider nears completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Installation of the final component of the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator is under way along the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. When completed this summer, the LHC will be the world's largest and most complex scientific instrument.

  15. Whither colliders after the Large Hadron Collider?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rolf-Dieter Heuer

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents options for high-energy colliders at the energy frontier for the years to come. The immediate plans include the exploitation of the LHC at its design luminosity and energy as well as upgrades to the LHC (luminosity and energy) and to its injectors. This may be complemented by a linear electron–positron collider, based on the technology being developed by the Compact Linear Collider and by the International Linear Collider, by a high-energy electron– proton machine, the LHeC, and/or by a muon collider. This contribution describes the various future directions, all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics, and concludes by outlining the key messages for the way forward.

  16. Very large hadron collider (VLHC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A VLHC informal study group started to come together at Fermilab in the fall of 1995 and at the 1996 Snowmass Study the parameters of this machine took form. The VLHC as now conceived would be a 100 TeV hadron collider. It would use the Fermilab Main Injector (now nearing completion) to inject protons at 150 GeV into a new 3 TeV Booster and then into a superconducting pp collider ring producing 100 TeV c.m. interactions. A luminosity of {approximately}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} is planned. Our plans were presented to the Subpanel on the Planning for the Future of US High- Energy Physics (the successor to the Drell committee) and in February 1998 their report stated ``The Subpanel recommends an expanded program of R&D on cost reduction strategies, enabling technologies, and accelerator physics issues for a VLHC. These efforts should be coordinated across laboratory and university groups with the aim of identifying design concepts for an economically and technically viable facility`` The coordination has been started with the inclusion of physicists from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and Cornell University. Clearly, this collaboration must expanded internationally as well as nationally. The phrase ``economically and technically viable facility`` presents the real challenge.

  17. ALICE A Large Ion Collider Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Hristov, P Z; Caffarri, D; Mager, M; Rohr, D M; Kucera, V; Miskowiec, D C; Selyuzhenkov, I; Mercado-perez, J; Lohner, D; Bertelsen, H; Kox, S; Cheynis, B; Hamar, G; Choudhury, S; Sambyal, S S; Agnello, M; Miake, Y; Inaba, M; Maldonado cervantes, I A; Fernandez tellez, A; Kulibaba, V; Zinovjev, G; Martynov, Y; Usenko, E; Pshenichnov, I; Nikolaev, S; Vasiliev, A; Vinogradov, A; Moukhanova, T; Vasilyev, A; Kozlov, Y; Voloshin, K; Kiselev, S; Kirilko, Y; Lyublev, E; Kondratyeva, N; Gameiro munhoz, M; Alarcon do passo suaide, A; Lagana fernandes, C; Carlin filho, N; Yin, Z; Zhu, J; Luo, J; Pikna, M; Bombara, M; Pastircak, B; Donigus, B; Rascanu, B T; Scott, H; Hanratty, L D; Marangio, G; Gianotti, P; Muccifora, V; Morando, M; Bartke, J G; Sputowska, I A; Ilkiv, I; Christiansen, P; Dodokhov, V; Yurevich, V; Fedunov, A; Malakhov, A; Efremov, A; Feofilov, G; Vinogradov, L; Asryan, A; Kovalenko, V; Piyarathna, D; Myers, C J; Martashvili, I; Scott, R M; Oh, H; Cherney, M G; Malagalage, K J; D'erasmo, G; Wagner, V; Smakal, R; Lopez, X B; Sartorelli, G; Mlynarz, J; Garishvili, I; Murray, C J; Oh, S; Srivastava, B K; Becker, B; Usai, G; Razazi, V; Zbroszczyk, H P; Feldkamp, L; Pappalardo, G; Khlebnikov, A; Basmanov, V; Punin, V; Demanov, V; Gotovac, S; Irfan, M; Felea, D; Zgura, S I; Yang, H; Vernet, R; Son, C; Shtejer diaz, K; Hwang, S; Alfaro molina, J R; Jahnke, C; Richter, M R; Garcia-solis, E J; Hitchcock, T M; Utrobicic, A; Brun, R; Divia, R; Schukraft, J; Riedler, P; Floris, M; Eulisse, G; Von haller, B; Haake, R; Kushpil, V; Ivanov, M; Malzacher, P; Schweda, K O; Reygers, K J; Pachmayer, Y C; Gaardhoeje, J J; Bearden, I G; Borel, H; Pereira da costa, H D A; Faivre, J; Germain, M; Schutz, Y R; Delagrange, H; Batigne, G; Stocco, D; Estienne, M D; Bergognon, A A E; Zoccarato, Y D; Levai, P; Bencedi, G; Mahapatra, D P; Ghosh, P; Das, T K; Mazzoni, A M; Alessandro, B; Cerello, P; De marco, N; Paic, G; Ovchynnyk, V; Karavicheva, T; Kucheryaeva, M; Skuratovskiy, O; Mal kevich, D; Bogdanov, A; Pereira, L G; Cai, X; Zhu, X; Wang, M; Zhou, F; Fan, F; Sitar, B; Cerny, V; Renfordt, R A E; Gonzalez zamora, P; Loo, K K; Jones, P G; Bianchi, N; Dainese, A; Giubilato, P; Festanti, A; Torii, H; Hori, Y; Tsuji, T; Herrera corral, G A; Kowalski, M; Rybicki, A; Kielbowicz, M M; Deloff, A; Petrovici, A; Nomokonov, P; Parfenov, A; Koshurnikov, E; Shahaliyev, E; Rogochaya, E; Kondratev, V; Oreshkina, N; Tarasov, A; Norenberg, M; Bodnya, E; Bogolyubskiy, M; Symons, T; Blanco, F; Madagodahettige don, D M; Umaka, E N; Rana, D B; Schaefer, B; De pasquale, S; Fusco girard, M; Song, M; Kim, T; Jeon, H; Porteboeuf, S J; Nandi, B K; Sarkar - sinha, T; Aggarwal, M M; Arcelli, S; Scapparone, E; Shevel, A; Nikulin, V; Komkov, B; Voloshin, S; Hille, P T; Kannan, S; Cicalo, C; De falco, A; Graczykowski, L K; Matynia, R M; Zimmermann, M B; Vinogradov, Y; Vikhlyantsev, O; Telnov, A; Tumkin, A; Khan, M M; Erdal, H A; Keidel, R; Rui, R; Yeo, I; Vilakazi, Z; Klay, J L; Boswell, B D; Lindenstruth, V; Tveter, T S; Batzing, P C; Goel, A; Breitner, T G; Sahoo, R; Roy, A; Musa, L; Perini, D; Vande vyvre, P; Fuchs, U; Aglieri rinella, G; Salgueiro domingues da silva, R M; Kalweit, A P; Greco, V; Francescon, A; Bond, P M; Marin, A M; Glassel, P; Schicker, R M; Staley, F M; Castillo castellanos, J E; Furget, C; Real, J; Martino, J F; Cheshkov, C V; Sahu, P K; Sahu, S K; Baral, R C; Singaraju, R N; Ahammed, Z; Saini, J; Basu, S; Bala, R; Gupta, R; Di bari, D; Bruno, G E; Biasotto, M; Esumi, S; Sano, M; Roehrich, D; Lonne, P; Drakin, Y; Manko, V; Nikulin, S; Yushmanov, I; Kozlov, K; Kerbikov, B; Stavinskiy, A; Sultanov, R; Raniwala, R; Zhu, H; Meres, M; Kralik, I; Evans, D; Tudor jones, G; Kinson, J; Rizzi, V; Orlandi, A; Fabris, D; Viesti, G; Lea, R; Kuijer, P G; Figiel, J; Gorlich, L M; Shabratova, G; Lobanov, V; Zaporozhets, S; Pocheptsov, T; Ivanov, A; Iglovikov, V; Ochirov, A; Petrov, V; Garner, R M; Jacobs, P M; De gruttola, D; Corsi, F; Varma, R; Koyithatta meethaleveedu, G; Kumar, J; Parmar, S; Nania, R; Zalite, A; Samsonov, V; Pruneau, C A; Caines, H L; Aronsson, T; Adare, A M; Zwick, S M; Fearick, R W; Ostrowski, P K; Kulasinski, K; Heine, N; Wilk, A; Ilkaev, R; Ilkaeva, L; Pavlov, V; Mikhaylyukov, K; Rybin, A; Naumov, N; Mudnic, E; Cortese, P; Listratenko, O; Stan, I; Nooren, G; Song, J; Krawutschke, T; Kim, S Y; Hwang, D S; Lee, S H; Leon monzon, I; Vorobyev, I; Wikne, J; Dordic, O; Yan, Y; Mazumder, R; Palmeri, A; La rocca, P; Pajares vales, C; Shahoyan, R; Kluge, A; Safarik, K; Tauro, A; Lakomov, I; Van hoorne, J W; Foka, P; Frankenfeld, U M; Masciocchi, S; Schwarz, K E; Anguelov, V; Hansen, A; Baldisseri, A; Aphecetche, L B; Berenyi, D; Sahoo, S; Nayak, T K; Muhuri, S; Patra, R N; Adhya, S P; Potukuchi, B; Saavedra san martin, O; Arnaldi, R; Scomparin, E; Beole, S; Mizuno, S; Enyo, H; Cuautle flores, E; Djuvsland, O; Altinpinar, S; Wagner, B; Fehlker, D; Velure, A; Potin, S; Zynovyev, M; Kurepin, A; Belyaev, S; Ryabinkin, E; Kiselev, I; Pestov, Y; Hayrapetyan, A; Manukyan, N; Lutz, J; Belikov, I; Roy, C S; Takahashi, J; Araujo silva figueredo, M; Tang, S; Szarka, I; Kapusta, S; Hasko, J; Putis, M; Sandor, L; Vrlakova, J; Antonczyk, D W; Bailhache, R M; Ladron de guevara, P; Acero fernandez, A; Diaz corchero, M A; Platt, R J; Kour, R; Scott, P A; Das, S; Turrisi, R; Hayashi, S; Van rijn, A J; Siemiarczuk, T; Petrovici, M; Petris, M; Stenlund, E A; Malinina, L; Fateev, O; Kolozhvari, A; Altsybeev, I; Sadovskiy, S; Soloviev, A; Markert, C; Ploskon, M A; Mayes, B W; Sorensen, S P; Awes, T; Virgili, T; Pagano, P; Kim, B; Krus, M; Vulpescu, B; Sett, P; Bhatt, H; Sinha, B; Khan, P; Antonioli, P; Scioli, G; Sakaguchi, H; Volkov, S; Ivanov, V; Khanzadeev, A; Malaev, M; Lisa, M A; Salzwedel, J S N; Loggins, V R; Schuster, T R; Hicks, B R; Scharenberg, R P; Masoni, A; Incani, E; Debski, P R; Oleniacz, J; Westerhoff, U; Wilde, M R; Yanovskiy, V; Domrachev, S; Smirnova, Y; Zimmermann, S; Ahmad, N; Shestakov, V; Veldhoen, M; Van der maarel, J; Kileng, B; Seo, J; Lopez torres, E; Ceballos sanchez, C; Camerini, P; Jang, H J; Buthelezi, E Z; Steyn, G F; Suleymanov, M K O; Belmont moreno, E; Skaali, B; Milosevic, J; Zhao, C; Perales, M; Kobdaj, C; Mishra, A N; Roukoutakis, F; Gonzalez ferreiro, E; Keil, M; Morsch, A; Rademakers, A; Soos, C; Zampolli, C; Grigoras, C; Chibante barroso, V M; Schuchmann, S; Grigoras, A G; Berzano, D; Lafuente mazuecos, A; Wegrzynek, A T; Bielcikova, J; Kushpil, S; Braun-munzinger, P; Andronic, A; Zimmermann, A; Wilkinson, J J; Arbor, N; Erazmus, B E; Pichot, P; Pillot, P; Grossiord, J; Boldizsar, L; Costanza, S; Gallio, M; Masera, M; Simonetti, L; Prino, F; Oppedisano, C; Toscano, L; Nappi, G; Botta, E; Vargas trevino, A D; Nystrand, J I; Ullaland, K; Haaland, O S; Huang, M; Naumov, S; Trubnikov, V; Alkin, A; Ivanytskyi, O; Guber, F; Karavichev, O; Nyanin, A; Sibiryak, Y; Peresunko, D Y; Patarakin, O; Aleksandrov, D; Blau, D; Yasnopolskiy, S; Chumakov, M; Vetlitskiy, I; Nedosekin, A; Selivanov, A; Okorokov, V; Grigoryan, A; Papikyan, V; Kuhn, C C; Wan, R; Zhou, D; Cajko, F; Siska, M; Mares, J; Zavada, P; Pitz, N; Rubio montero, A J; Reolon, A R; Antinori, F; Gunji, T; Snellings, R; Mayer, C; Matyja, A T; Klusek-gawenda, M J; Schiaua, C C; Andrei, C; Herghelegiu, A I; Soegaard, C; Panebrattsev, Y; Penev, V; Efimov, L; Zanevskiy, Y; Vechernin, V; Zarochentsev, A; Kolevatov, R; Agapov, A; Polishchuk, B; Loizides, C; Anwar, R; Anticic, T; Kwon, Y; Kim, M; Moon, T; Petran, M; Rosnet, P; Ramillien barret, V; Sahoo, B; Das bose, L; Hushnud, H; Hatzifotiadou, D; Shigaki, K; Jha, D M; Soltz, R A; Murray, S; Mastroserio, A; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Siddi, E; Siddhanta, S; Badala, A; Putevskoy, S; Shapovalova, E; Ahmad, A; Haiduc, M; Mitu, C M; Mischke, A; Grelli, A; Hetland, K F; Rachevski, A; Menchaca-rocha, A A; De cuveland, J; Hutter, D; Langhammer, M; Dahms, T; Watkins, E P; Kumar, L; Petta, C; Gago medina, A M; Planinic, M; Riegler, W; Telesca, A; Lazaridis, L; Ferencei, J; Martin, N A; Windelband, B S; Nielsen, B S; Chojnacki, M; Espagnon, B; Uras, A; Lemmon, R C; Agocs, A G; Viyogi, Y; Pal, S K; Singhal, V; Khan, S A; Alam, S N; Bagnasco, S; Rodriguez cahuantzi, M; Maslov, M; Kurepin, A; Ippolitov, M; Lebedev, V; Tsvetkov, A; Klimov, A; Agafonov, G; Martemiyanov, A; Loginov, V; Kononov, S; Grigoryan, S; Jangal, S G; Hnatic, M; Kalinak, P; Appelshaeuser, H; Ulery, J G; Luettig, P J; Heckel, S T; Trzaska, W H; Kral, J; Lietava, R; Matthews, Z L; Palaha, A S; Raha, S; Calero diaz, L; Segato, G; Canoa roman, V; Cruz albino, R; Botje, M; Gladysz-dziadus, E; Marszal, T; Dobrowolski, T A; Oskarsson, A N E; Otterlund, I; Tydesjo, H; Ljunggren, H M; Vodopyanov, A; Akichine, P; Kuznetsov, A; Vedeneyev, V; Naumenko, P; Bilov, N; Rogalev, R; Evdokimov, S; Braidot, E; Bellwied, R; De caro, A; Kang, J H; Gorbunov, Y; Lee, J; Pachr, M; Baldit, A; Manso, F; Crochet, P; Batista camejo, A; Dash, S; Roy, P K; Cifarelli, L; Laurenti, G; Margotti, A; Bellini, F; Sugitate, T; Zhalov, M; Pavlinov, A; Harris, J W; Caballero orduna, D; Pluta, J M; Kisiel, A R; Wrobel, D; Klein-boesing, C; Zhitnik, A; Nazarenko, S; Zavyalov, N; Miroshnikov, D; Kuryakin, A; Vyushin, A; Mamonov, A; Vickovic, L; Niculescu, M; De rooij, R S; Fragiacomo, E; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S; Foertsch, S V; Brown, C R; Munzer, R H; Lovhoiden, G; Harton, A V; Khosonthongkee, K; Schmidt, H R; Barbera, R; Giudice, N; Grimaldi, A; Betev, L; Buncic, P; Carena, F; Di mauro, A; Martinengo, P; Gargiulo, C; Grosse-oetringhaus, J F; Costa, F; Baltasar dos santos pedrosa, F; Laudi, E; Adamova, D; Lippmann, C; Schmidt, C J; Grajcarek, R; Volkl, M A; Christensen, C H; Rakotozafindrabe, A M; Conesa balbastre, G; Martinez-garcia, G; Suire, C P; Ducroux, L; Tieulent, R N; Barnafoldi, G G; Pochybova, S; Dubey, A K; Acharya, S; Gupta, A; Ricci, R A; Meddi, F; Vercellin, E; Chujo, T; Watanabe, K; Onishi, H; Akiba, Y; Vergara limon, S; Tejeda munoz, G; Skjerdal, K; Svistunov, S; Reshetin, A; Maevskaya, A; Antonenko, V; Mishustin, N; Meleshko, E; Korsheninnikov, A; Balygin, K; Zagreev, B; Akindinov, A; Mikhaylov, K; Gushchin, O; Grigoryev, V; Gulkanyan, H; Sanchez castro, X; Peretti pezzi, R; Oliveira da silva, A C; Harmanova, Z; Vokal, S; Beitlerova, A; Kramer, F; Book, J H; Montes prado, E; Rak, J; Jusko, A; Ghosh, S K; Spiriti, E; Ronchetti, F; Casanova diaz, A O; Lunardon, M; Aiftimiei, C; Kuzmin, N; Melkumov, G; Zinchenko, A; Shklovskaya, A; Bunzarov, Z I; Chernenko, S; Toulina, T; Kompaniets, M; Titov, A; Kharlov, Y; Dantsevich, G; Stolpovskiy, M; Porter, R J; Datskova, O V; Nattrass, C; Mazer, J A; Seger, J E; Kim, J; Kim, D S; Jung, W W; Kim, H; Bielcik, J; Pospisil, V; Cepila, J; Dupieux, P; Bastid, N; Das, D; Bhati, A K; Williams, C; Pesci, A; Roshchin, E; Humanic, T; Steinpreis, M D; Yaldo, C G; Abelev, B B; Smirnov, N; Heinz, M T; Connors, M E; Barile, F; Fiore, E M; Orzan, G; Wielanek, D H; Servais, E L J; Patecki, M; Passfeld, A; Zhelezov, S; Morkin, A; Zabelin, O; Hussain, T; Ramello, L; Rogachevskiy, O; Van leeuwen, M; Van den brink, A; Bertens, R A; Lodato, D F; Haque, M R; Kim, E J; Coccetti, F; Margagliotti, G V; Rauf, A W; Sandoval, A; Berger, M E; Qvigstad, H; Lindal, S; Cervantes jr, M; Kebschull, U W; Engel, H; Karasu uysal, A; Hess, B A; Calvo villar, E; Augustinus, A; Carena, W; Chochula, P; Chapeland, S; Dobrin, A F; Reidt, F; Bock, F; Galdames perez, A; Sumbera, M; Averbeck, R P; Garabatos cuadrado, J; Stachel, J; Wang, Y; Boggild, H; Gulbrandsen, K H; Hansen, J C; Charvet, J F; Shabetai, A; Hadjidakis, C M; Vertesi, R; Mitra, J; Altini, V; Riccati, L; Ferretti, A; Gagliardi, M; Bufalino, S; Sakata, D; Niida, T; Martinez hernandez, M I; Yang, S; Langoy, R; Karpechev, E; Veselovskiy, A; Konevskikh, A; Finogeev, D; Fokin, S; Karadzhev, K; Kucheryaev, Y; Plotnikov, V; Ryabinin, M; Golubev, A; Kaplin, V; Ter-minasyan, A; Abramyan, A; Raniwala, S; Hippolyte, B; Zhang, H; Strmen, P; Krivan, F; Reichelt, P S; Marquard, M; Broker, T A; Zyzak, M; Kulakov, I; Sahlmuller, B; Kalliokoski, T E A; Chang, B; Krivda, M; De cataldo, G; Paticchio, V; Fantoni, A; Soramel, F; Scarlassara, F; Bombonati, C; Gomez jimenez, R; Christakoglou, P; Cyz, A; Wilk, G A; Kurashvili, P; Pop, A; Arefiev, V; Batyunya, B; Kadyshevskiy, V; Lioubochits, V; Zryuev, V; Sokolov, M; Patalakha, D; Xaplanteris karampatsos, L; Grounds, A; Pinsky, L; Timmins, A R; Petracek, V; Krelina, M; Chattopadhyay, S; Basile, M; Falchieri, D; Miftakhov, N; Konyushikhin, M; Joseph, N; Cleymans, J W A; Dietel, T; Pawlak, T J; Kucinski, M; Janik, M A; Surma, K D; Niedziela, J; Wessels, J P; Riggi, F; Ivanov, A; Selin, I; Budnikov, D; Filchagin, S; Sitta, M; Gheata, M; Danu, A; Diomkin, V; Peitzmann, T; Reicher, M; Helstrup, H; Subasi, M; Mathis, A M; Nilsson, M S; Banerjee, S S; Goyal, D; Rist, J A S; Jena, C; Lara martinez, C E; Vasileiou, M; Spyropoulou-stassinaki, M; Simatovic, G

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\ALICE is a general-purpose heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC. It currently includes more than 750~physicists and $\\sim$70 institutions in 27 countries.\\\\ \\\\The detector is designed to cope with the highest particle multiplicities anticipated for Pb-Pb reactions (dN/dy~$\\approx$~8000) and it will be operational at the start-up of the LHC. In addition to heavy systems, the ALICE Collaboration will study collisions of lower-mass ions, which are a means of varying the energy density, and protons (both pp and p-nucleus), which provide reference data for the nucleus-nucleus collisions.\\\\ \\\\ALICE consists of a central part, which measures event-by-event hadrons, electrons and photons, and a forward spectrometer to measure muons. The central part, which covers polar angles from 45$^{0} $ to 135$^{0} $ ($\\mid \\eta \\mid $ < 0.9) over the full azimuth, is embedded in the large L3 solenoidal mag...

  18. Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunava

    2011-01-01

    The European Center for Nuclear Research or CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has caught our attention partly due to the film "Angels and Demons." In the movie, an antimatter bomb attack on the Vatican is foiled by the protagonist. Perhaps just as controversial is the formation of mini black holes (BHs). Recently, the American Physical Society…

  19. Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunava

    2011-01-01

    The European Center for Nuclear Research or CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has caught our attention partly due to the film "Angels and Demons." In the movie, an antimatter bomb attack on the Vatican is foiled by the protagonist. Perhaps just as controversial is the formation of mini black holes (BHs). Recently, the American Physical Society…

  20. The Large Hadron Collider Pop Up Book

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Discover the ATLAS experiment in full 3D pop-up in this promotional video for the Large Hadron Collider pop-up book. The book contains 16 pop-ups telling the story of how the experiment works and its quest to understand what the universe is made of. It is now available in English, French and German. Paper engineer Anton Radevsky, texts Emma Sanders.

  1. Large Hadron Collider commissioning and first operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, S

    2012-02-28

    A history of the commissioning and the very successful early operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described. The accident that interrupted the first commissioning, its repair and the enhanced protection system put in place are fully described. The LHC beam commissioning and operational performance are reviewed for the period from 2010 to mid-2011. Preliminary plans for operation and future upgrades for the LHC are given for the short and medium term.

  2. 1st Large Hadron Collider Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Juste, A; Martínez, M; Riu, I; Sorin, V

    2013-01-01

    The conference is the result of merging two series of international conferences, "Physics at Large Hadron Collider" (PLHC2012) and "Hadron Collider Physics Symposium" (HCP2012). With a program devoted to topics such as the Standard Model and Beyond, the Higgs Boson, Supersymmetry, Beauty and Heavy Ion Physics, the conference aims at providing a lively forum for discussion between experimenters and theorists of the latest results and of new ideas. LHCP 2013 will be hosted by IFAE (Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies) in Barcelona (Spain), and will take place from May 13 to 18, 2013. The venue will be the Hotel Catalonia Plaza, Plaza España (Barcelona). More information will be posted soon. For questions, please contact lhcp2013@ifae.es.

  3. Measuring supersymmetry at the large hadron collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B C Allanach

    2003-02-01

    The large hadron collider (LHC) should have the ability to detect supersymmetric particles if low-energy supersymmetry solves the hierarchy problem. Studies of the LHC detection reach, and the ability to measure properties of supersymmetric particles are currently underway. We highlight some of these, such as the reach in minimal supergravity space and correlation with a fine-tuning parameter, precision measurements of edge variables, anomaly- or gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Supersymmetry with baryon-number violation seems at first glance more difficult to detect, but proves to be possible by using leptons from cascade decays.

  4. Higgs physics at the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rohini M Godbole

    2011-05-01

    In this talk I shall begin by summarizing the importance of the Higgs physics studies at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). I shall then give a short description of the pre-LHC constraints on the Higgs mass and the theoretical predictions for the LHC along with a discussion of the current experimental results, ending with prospects in the near future at the LHC. I have added to the writeup, recent experimental results from the LHC which have become available since the time of the workshop.

  5. LHC - Large Hadon Collider Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will accelerate two proton beams to an energy corresponding to about 7,000 times their mass (7000 GeV). The collision of the two beams reproduces the conditions in the Universe when it was about 10 -1 2 sec old. Many innovative techniques - such as cooling with superfluid helium, the extensive use of high temperature superconducting cables, the two-in-one design for super-conducting dipole magnets, and new ultra-high vacuum technologies - had to be developed to make its construc-tion possible.

  6. The Large Hadron Collider, a personal recollection

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, L

    2014-01-01

    The construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been a massive endeavor spanning almost 30 years from conception to commissioning. Building the machine with the highest possible energy (7 TeV) in the existing LEP tunnel of 27 km circumference and with a tunnel diameter of only 3.8m has required considerable innovation. The first was the development of an idea first proposed by Bob Palmer at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1978, where the two rings are integrated into a single magnetic structure. This compact 2-in-1 structure was essential for the LHC due to both the limited space available in the existing Large Electron-Positron collider tunnel and the cost. The second innovation was the bold move to use superfluid helium cooling on a massive scale, which was imposed by the need to achieve a high (8.3 T) magnetic field using an affordable Nb-Ti superconductor. In this article, no attempt is made to give a comprehensive review of the machine design. This can be found in the LHC Design Report {[}1], w...

  7. Genesis of the Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris Llewellyn

    2015-01-13

    This paper describes the scientific, technical and political genesis of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It begins with an outline of the early history of the LHC, from first thoughts and accelerator and detector developments that underwrote the project, through the first studies of the LHC and its scientific potential and the genesis of the experimental programme, to the presentation of the proposal to build the LHC to the CERN Council in December 1993. The events that led to the proposal to build the LHC in two stages, which was approved in December 1994, are then described. Next, the role of non-Member State contributions and of the agreement that CERN could take loans, which allowed single stage construction to be approved in December 1996, despite a cut in the Members' contributions, are explained. The paper concludes by identifying points of potential relevance for the approval of possible future large particle physics projects.

  8. Physics at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Raychaudhari, Amitava

    2009-01-01

    In an epoch when particle physics is awaiting a major step forward, the Large Hydron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva will soon be operational. It will collide a beam of high energy protons with another similar beam circulation in the same 27 km tunnel but in the opposite direction, resulting in the production of many elementary particles some never created in the laboratory before. It is widely expected that the LHC will discover the Higgs boson, the particle which supposedly lends masses to all other fundamental particles. In addition, the question as to whether there is some new law of physics at such high energy is likely to be answered through this experiment. The present volume contains a collection of articles written by international experts, both theoreticians and experimentalists, from India and abroad, which aims to acquaint a non-specialist with some basic issues related to the LHC. At the same time, it is expected to be a useful, rudimentary companion of introductory exposition and technical expert...

  9. Meeting of the Large Hadron Collider Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Provisional Agenda for the 111th meeting of the Large Hadron Collider Committee to be held on Wednesday and Thursday, 26-27 September 2012. Open Session: Wednesday, 26 September at 9 a.m. in the Main Auditorium (Bldg. 500-1-001)  09.00 - 09.20    LHC Machine Status Report  09.30 - 10.00    ATLAS Status Report  10.10 - 10.40    CMS Status Report  10.50 - 11.10    COFFEE BREAK 11.10 - 11.40    LHCb Status Report 11.50 - 12.20   ALICE Status Report 12.30 - 12.50   TOTEM Status Report 13.00 - 13.20   LHCf Status Report

  10. Large Hadron Collider momentum calibration and accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2051266; Todesco, Ezio

    2017-01-01

    As a result of the excellent quality of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experimental detectors and the accurate calibration of the luminosity at the LHC, uncertainties on the LHC beam energy may contribute significantly to the measurement errors on certain observables unless the relative uncertainty is well below 1%. Direct measurements of the beam energy using the revolution frequency difference of proton and lead beams combined with the magnetic model errors are used to provide the energy uncertainty of the LHC beams. Above injection energy the relative uncertainty on the beam energy is determined to be ±0.1%. The energy values as reconstructed and distributed online to the LHC experiments do not require any correction above injection energy. At injection a correction of +0.31 GeV/c must be applied to the online energy values.

  11. Large Hadron Collider momentum calibration and accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, E.; Wenninger, J.

    2017-08-01

    As a result of the excellent quality of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experimental detectors and the accurate calibration of the luminosity at the LHC, uncertainties on the LHC beam energy may contribute significantly to the measurement errors on certain observables unless the relative uncertainty is well below 1%. Direct measurements of the beam energy using the revolution frequency difference of proton and lead beams combined with the magnetic model errors are used to provide the energy uncertainty of the LHC beams. Above injection energy the relative uncertainty on the beam energy is determined to be ±0.1 %. The energy values as reconstructed and distributed online to the LHC experiments do not require any correction above injection energy. At injection a correction of +0.31 GeV /c must be applied to the online energy values.

  12. Tune variations in the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquilina, N. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Giovannozzi, M.; Lamont, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Sammut, N. [University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Steinhagen, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Todesco, E., E-mail: ezio.todesco@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Wenninger, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-04-01

    The horizontal and vertical betatron tunes of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) mainly depend on the strength of the quadrupole magnets, but are also affected by the quadrupole component in the main dipoles. In case of systematic misalignments, the sextupole component from the main dipoles and sextupole corrector magnets also affect the tunes due to the feed down effect. During the first years of operation of the LHC, the tunes have been routinely measured and corrected through either a feedback or a feed forward system. In this paper, the evolution of the tunes during injection, ramp and flat top are reconstructed from the beam measurements and the settings of the tune feedback loop and of the feed forward corrections. This gives the obtained precision of the magnetic model of the machine with respect to quadrupole and sextupole components. Measurements at the injection plateau show an unexpected large decay whose origin is not understood. This data is discussed together with the time constants and the dependence on previous cycles. We present results of dedicated experiments that show that this effect does not originate from the decay of the main dipole component. During the ramp, the tunes drift by about 0.022. It is shown that this is related to the precision of tracking the quadrupole field in the machine and this effect is reduced to about 0.01 tune units during flat top.

  13. Cryogenics for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P

    1999-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a 26.7 km circumference superconducting accelerator equipped with high-field magnets operating in superfluid helium below 1.9 K, has now fully entered construction at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. The heart of the LHC cryogenic system is the quasi-isothermal magnet cooling scheme, in which flowing two-phase saturated superfluid helium removes the heat load from the 36'000 ton cold mass, immersed in some 400 m3 static pressurised superfluid helium. The LHC also makes use of supercritical helium for non-isothermal cooling of the beam screens which intercept most of the dynamic heat loads at higher temperature. Although not used in normal operation, liquid nitrogen will provide the source of refrigeration for precooling the machine. Refrigeration for the LHC is produced in eight large refrigerators, each with an equivalent capacity of about 18 kW at 4.5 K, completed by 1.8 K refrigeration units making use of several stages of hydrodynamic cold compressors. T...

  14. Cryogenics for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P

    2000-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a 26.7 km circumference superconducting accelerator equipped with high-field magnets operating in superfluid helium below 1.9 K, has now fully entered construction at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. The heart of the LHC cryogenic system is the quasi-isothermal magnet cooling scheme, in which flowing two-phase saturated superfluid helium removes the heat load from the 36000 ton cold mass, immersed in some 400 m/sup 3/ static pressurised superfluid helium. The LHC also makes use of supercritical helium for nonisothermal cooling of the beam screens which intercept most of the dynamic heat loads at higher temperature. Although not used in normal operation, liquid nitrogen will provide the source of refrigeration for precooling the machine. Refrigeration for the LHC is produced in eight large refrigerators, each with an equivalent capacity of about 18 kW at 4.5 K, completed by 1.8 K refrigeration units making use of several stages of hydrodynamic cold compressor...

  15. Il Collisore LHC (Large Hadron Collider)

    CERN Multimedia

    Brianti, Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    In 2007, in a new Collider in the tunnel of 27km, collisions will be made between very powerful beams of protons and ions. The energies will be very high to try to catch the most tiny particle (1 page)

  16. Luminosity Measurement at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Caron, B L; Pinfold, J L

    2006-01-01

    Two novel methods of measuring the luminosity delivered to the ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider experiments are presented. The production of $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ pair via two photon interactions and single $W^{\\pm}/Z^{0}$ boson production are evaluated as methods for the measurement and monitoring of the proton-proton luminosity at the LHC. The characteristics of the $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ pairs from coherent $\\gamma \\gamma$ interactions are examined for both matrix element and equivalent photon based monte carlo generators with subsequent simulation of the ATLAS detector effects. The application of specific kinematic and vertex fit requirements is shown to offer a strong method of isolating signal from background and in turn yield an accurate offline measurement of the delivered luminosity via the pure QED process. The choice of kinematic cuts is shown to reduce the overall uncertainty in the method by limiting the size of corrections to the two photon interaction cross section to the level of 1\\%. B...

  17. Luminosity Measurement at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Caron, B L; Pinfold, J L

    2006-01-01

    Two novel methods of measuring the luminosity delivered to the ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider experiments are presented. The production of $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ pair via two photon interactions and single $W^{\\pm}/Z^{0}$ boson production are evaluated as methods for the measurement and monitoring of the proton-proton luminosity at the LHC. The characteristics of the $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ pairs from coherent $\\gamma \\gamma$ interactions are examined for both matrix element and equivalent photon based monte carlo generators with subsequent simulation of the ATLAS detector effects. The application of specific kinematic and vertex fit requirements is shown to offer a strong method of isolating signal from background and in turn yield an accurate offline measurement of the delivered luminosity via the pure QED process. The choice of kinematic cuts is shown to reduce the overall uncertainty in the method by limiting the size of corrections to the two photon interaction cross section to the level of 1\\%. B...

  18. Supersymmetry status and phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alexander Belyaev

    2009-01-01

    Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has a great chance to finally reveal supersymmetry which remains a compelling theory for over 30 years in spite of lack of its discovery. It might be around the corner the present LHC era with sensitive dark matter search experiments and international linear collider hopefully coming up in the near future.

  19. Large Hadron Collider The Discovery Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The mammoth machine, after a nine-year construction period, is scheduled (touch wood) to begin producing its beams of particles later this year. The commissioning process is planned to proceed from one beam to two beams to colliding beams; from lower energies to the terascale; from weaker test intensities to stronger ones suitable for producing data at useful rates but more difficult to control.

  20. Large Hadron Collider slideshow shows future of physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Kramer, S E

    2007-01-01

    "The European organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has been building the Large Hadron Collider for many years, but it's finally taking shape and prepping to operate at full power in 2008." (1/2 page)

  1. The ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Aad, G.; Abat, E.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B. A.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Achenbach, R.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D. L.; Adamyan, F.; Addy, T. N.; Aderholz, M.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, P. F.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alam, S. M.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alimonti, G.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, J.; Alves, R.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amaral, S. P.; Ambrosini, G.; Ambrosio, G.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Anderson, B.; Anderson, K. J.; Anderssen, E. C.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andricek, L.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Apsimon, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Arms, K. E.; Armstrong, S. R.; Arnaud, M.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Asai, S.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Athar, B.; Atkinson, T.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, A.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bailey, D. C.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Ballester, F.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S. P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbier, G.; Barclay, P.; Bardin, D. Y.; Bargassa, P.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, M.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Barriuso Poy, A.; Barros, N.; Bartheld, V.; Bartko, H.; Bartoldus, R.; Basiladze, S.; Bastos, J.; Batchelor, L. E.; Bates, R. L.; Batley, J. R.; Batraneanu, S.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Batusov, V.; Bauer, F.; Bauss, B.; Baynham, D. E.; Bazalova, M.; Bazan, A.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beaugiraud, B.; Beccherle, R. B.; Beck, G. A.; Beck, H. P.; Becks, K. H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Belanger, G. A. N.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellachia, F.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, G.; Bellomo, M.; Beltramello, O.; Belymam, A.; Ben Ami, S.; Ben Moshe, M.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B. H.; Benekos, N.; Benes, J.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G. P.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, S.; Bergsma, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernabéu, J.; Bernardet, K.; Berriaud, C.; Berry, T.; Bertelsen, H.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, S.; Besson, N.; Beteille, A.; Bethke, S.; Bialas, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieri, M.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Binder, M.; Binet, S.; Bingefors, N.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bischof, R.; Bischofberger, M.; Bitadze, A.; Bizzell, J. P.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blaising, J. J.; Blanch, O.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Boaretto, C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bocci, A.; Bocian, D.; Bock, R.; Boehm, M.; Boek, J.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bonino, R.; Bonis, J.; Bonivento, W.; Bonneau, P.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Boosten, M.; Booth, C. N.; Booth, P. S. L.; Booth, P.; Booth, J. R. A.; Borer, K.; Borisov, A.; Borjanovic, I.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosi, F.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Botchev, B.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutemeur, M.; Bouzakis, K.; Boyd, G. R.; Boyd, J.; Boyer, B. H.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Braccini, S.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Braun, H. M.; Bravo, S.; Brawn, I. P.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N. D.; Breugnon, P.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Broklova, Z.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brouwer, G.; Broz, J.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Budagov, I. A.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Buis, E. J.; Bujor, F.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burckhart-Chromek, D.; Burdin, S.; Burns, R.; Busato, E.; Buskop, J. J. F.; Buszello, K. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Cabruja Casas, E.; Caccia, M.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calderón Terol, D.; Callahan, J.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camard, A.; Camarena, F.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Cammin, J.; Campabadal Segura, F.; Campana, S.; Canale, V.; Cantero, J.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Caprio, M.; Caracinha, D.; Caramarcu, C.; Carcagno, Y.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardeira, C.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Cardini, A.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carpentieri, C.; Carr, F. S.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castelo, J.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.; Castrovillari, F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavallari, A.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerna, C.; Cernoch, C.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerutti, F.; Cervetto, M.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chalifour, M.; Chamizo llatas, M.; Chan, A.; Chapman, J. W.; Charlton, D. G.; Charron, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chen, H.; Chen, L.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheng, T. L.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chevalley, J. L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chouridou, S.; Chren, D.; Christiansen, T.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chuguev, A. G.; Ciapetti, G.; Cicalini, E.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Civera, J. V.; Clark, A.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B. C.; Clément, C.; Clements, D.; Clifft, R. W.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coco, R.; Coe, P.; Coelli, S.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Coluccia, R.; Comune, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F. A.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Correard, S.; Corso-Radu, A.; Coss, J.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cox, J.; Cragg, D. A.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuneo, S.; Cunha, A.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, A.; Da Silva, P. V. M.; Da Silva, R.; Dabrowski, W.; Dael, A.; Dahlhoff, A.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S. J.; Dalmau, J.; Daly, C. H.; Dam, M.; Damazio, D.; Dameri, M.; Danielsen, K. M.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dankers, R.; Dannheim, D.; Darbo, G.; Dargent, P.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J. P.; David, M.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J. W.; Daya, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Boer, R.; DeCastro, S.; DeGroot, N.; de Jong, P.; de La Broise, X.; DeLa Cruz-Burelo, E.; DeLa Taille, C.; DeLotto, B.; DeOliveira Branco, M.; DePedis, D.; de Saintignon, P.; DeSalvo, A.; DeSanctis, U.; DeSanto, A.; DeVivie DeRegie, J. B.; DeZorzi, G.; Dean, S.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D. V.; Defay, P. O.; Degele, R.; Dehchar, M.; Deile, M.; DelPapa, C.; DelPeso, J.; DelPrete, T.; Delagnes, E.; Delebecque, P.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delpierre, P.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca Silberberg, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demierre, P.; Demirköz, B.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S. P.; Dennis, C.; Densham, C. J.; Dentan, M.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K. K.; Dewhurst, A.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Simone, A.; Diaz Gomez, M. M.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietl, H.; Dietrich, J.; Dietsche, W.; Diglio, S.; Dima, M.; Dindar, K.; Dinkespiler, B.; Dionisi, C.; Dipanjan, R.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, S. D.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Dogan, O. B.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Domingo, E.; Donega, M.; Dopke, J.; Dorfan, D. E.; Dorholt, O.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Dowell, J. D.; Doyle, A. T.; Drake, G.; Drakoulakos, D.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Drohan, J. G.; Dubbert, J.; Dubbs, T.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dührssen, M.; Dür, H.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duffin, S.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Dumont Dayot, N.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Durand, D.; Dushkin, A.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Dzahini, D.; Díez Cornell, S.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Eerola, P.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egede, U.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; Eklund, L. M.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engström, M.; Ennes, P.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Epshteyn, V. S.; Ereditato, A.; Eremin, V.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Esteves, F.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Eyring, A.; Fabbri, L.; Fabjan, C. W.; Fabre, C.; Faccioli, P.; Facius, K.; Fadeyev, V.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falleau, I.; Falou, A. C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farrell, J.; Farthouat, P.; Fasching, D.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fawzi, F.; Fayard, L.; Fayette, F.; Febbraro, R.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, I.; Feld, L.; Feldman, G.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Fent, J.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferguson, D.; Ferland, J.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferro, F.; Fiascaris, M.; Fichet, S.; Fiedler, F.; Filimonov, V.; Filipčič, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, P.; Fisher, M. J.; Fisher, S. M.; Flaminio, V.; Flammer, J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Flegel, W.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fleta Corral, C. M.; Fleuret, F.; Flick, T.; Flix, J.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Föhlisch, F.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T. M.; Fopma, J.; Forbush, D. A.; Formica, A.; Foster, J. M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A. J.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Francis, D.; Franz, S.; Fraser, J. T.; Fraternali, M.; Fratianni, S.; Freestone, J.; French, R. S.; Fritsch, K.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fulachier, J.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallas, M. V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gan, K. K.; Gannaway, F. C.; Gao, Y. S.; Gapienko, V. A.; Gaponenko, A.; Garciá, C.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Garcìa Navarro, J. E.; Garde, V.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V. G.; Garvey, J.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; Gautard, V.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gayde, J.-C.; Gazis, E. N.; Gazo, E.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M. A.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gernizky, Y.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghete, V. M.; Ghez, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, M. D.; Gibson, S. M.; Gieraltowski, G. F.; Gil Botella, I.; Gilbert, L. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gildemeister, O.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillman, A. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Girard, C. G.; Giraud, P. F.; Girtler, P.; Giugni, D.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K. W.; Glonti, G. L.; Gnanvo, K. G.; Godlewski, J.; Göpfert, T.; Gössling, C.; Göttfert, T.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N. P.; Golonka, P. J.; Golovnia, S. N.; Gomes, A.; Gomes, J.; Gonçalo, R.; Gongadze, A.; Gonidec, A.; Gonzalez, S.; González de la Hoz, S.; González Millán, V.; Gonzalez Silva, M. L.; Gonzalez-Pineiro, B.; González-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M. J.; Goodson, J. J.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordeev, A.; Gordon, H.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Gorokhov, S. A.; Gorski, B. T.; Goryachev, S. V.; Goryachev, V. N.; Gosselink, M.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouanère, M.; Gough Eschrich, I.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M.; Gousakov, I.; Gouveia, J.; Gowdy, S.; Goy, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grabski, V.; Grafström, P.; Grah, C.; Grahn, K.-J.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassmann, H.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Green, B.; Greenall, A.; Greenfield, D.; Greenwood, D.; Gregor, I. M.; Grewal, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grigson, C.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimaldi, F.; Grimm, K.; Gris, P. L. Y.; Grishkevich, Y.; Groenstege, H.; Groer, L. S.; Grognuz, J.; Groh, M.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grothe, M. E. M.; Grudzinski, J.; Gruse, C.; Gruwe, M.; Grybel, K.; Grybos, P.; Gschwendtner, E. M.; Guarino, V. J.; Guicheney, C. J.; Guilhem, G.; Guillemin, T.; Gunther, J.; Guo, B.; Gupta, A.; Gurriana, L.; Gushchin, V. N.; Gutierrez, P.; Guy, L.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haas, S.; Haber, C.; Haboubi, G.; Hackenburg, R.; Hadash, E.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haeberli, C.; Härtel, R.; Haggerty, R.; Hahn, F.; Haider, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakimi, M.; Hakobyan, H.; Hakobyan, H.; Haller, J.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hallgren, B.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, A.; Han, H.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, C. J.; Hansen, F. H.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Hanson, G.; Hansson, P.; Hara, K.; Harder, S.; Harel, A.; Harenberg, T.; Harper, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hart, R. G. G.; Hartjes, F.; Hartman, N.; Haruyama, T.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hashemi, K.; Hassani, S.; Hatch, M.; Hatley, R. W.; Haubold, T. G.; Hauff, D.; Haug, F.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Hauviller, C.; Havranek, M.; Hawes, B. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, D.; Hayler, T.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Hazen, E.; He, M.; He, Y. P.; Head, S. J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heinemann, F. E. W.; Heldmann, M.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hendriks, P. J.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Henß, T.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hess, M.; Hessey, N. P.; Hicheur, A.; Hidvegi, A.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, D.; Hill, J.; Hill, J. C.; Hill, N.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hindson, D.; Hinkelbein, C.; Hodges, T. A.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, A. E.; Hoffmann, D.; Hoffmann, H. F.; Holder, M.; Hollins, T. I.; Hollyman, G.; Holmes, A.; Holmgren, S. O.; Holt, R.; Holtom, E.; Holy, T.; Homer, R. J.; Homma, Y.; Homola, P.; Honerbach, W.; Honma, A.; Hooton, I.; Horazdovsky, T.; Horn, C.; Horvat, S.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hott, T.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M. A.; Hoummada, A.; Hover, J.; Howell, D. F.; Hrivnac, J.; Hruska, I.; Hryn'ova, T.; Huang, G. S.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, B. T.; Hughes, E.; Hughes, G.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hurst, P.; Hurwitz, M.; Huse, T.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibbotson, M.; Ibragimov, I.; Ichimiya, R.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Idzik, M.; Iengo, P.; Iglesias Escudero, M. C.; Igonkina, O.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Ilyushenka, Y.; Imbault, D.; Imbert, P.; Imhaeuser, M.; Imori, M.; Ince, T.; Inigo-Golfin, J.; Inoue, K.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Ionescu, G.; Ishii, K.; Ishino, M.; Ishizawa, Y.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Ito, H.; Ivashin, A. V.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, J.; Jackson, J. N.; Jaekel, M.; Jagielski, S.; Jahoda, M.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakubek, J.; Jansen, E.; Jansweijer, P. P. M.; Jared, R. C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarp, S.; Jarron, P.; Jelen, K.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jenni, P.; Jeremie, A.; Jez, P.; Jézéquel, S.; Jiang, Y.; Jin, G.; Jin, S.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joffe, D.; Johansen, L. G.; Johansen, M.; Johansson, K. E.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, M.; Jones, R.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. W.; Jones, T. J.; Jones, A.; Jonsson, O.; Joo, K. K.; Joos, D.; Joos, M.; Joram, C.; Jorgensen, S.; Joseph, J.; Jovanovic, P.; Junnarkar, S. S.; Juranek, V.; Jussel, P.; Kabachenko, V. V.; Kabana, S.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagawa, S.; Kaiser, S.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kakurin, S.; Kalinovskaya, L. V.; Kama, S.; Kambara, H.; Kanaya, N.; Kandasamy, A.; Kandasamy, S.; Kaneda, M.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kaplon, J.; Karagounis, M.; Karagoz Unel, M.; Karr, K.; Karst, P.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kashif, L.; Kasmi, A.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, M.; Kataoka, Y.; Katsoufis, E.; Katunin, S.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawai, M.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayumov, F.; Kazanin, V. A.; Kazarinov, M. Y.; Kazarov, A.; Kazi, S. I.; Keates, J. R.; Keeler, R.; Keener, P. T.; Kehoe, R.; Keil, M.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Kelly, M.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, M.; Kepka, O.; Kerschen, N.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Ketterer, C.; Khakzad, M.; Khalilzade, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharchenko, D.; Khodinov, A.; Kholodenko, A. G.; Khomich, A.; Khomutnikov, V. P.; Khoriauli, G.; Khovanskiy, N.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kieft, G.; Kierstead, J. A.; Kilvington, G.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.; Kim, S. H.; Kind, P.; King, B. T.; Kirk, J.; Kirsch, G. P.; Kirsch, L. E.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kisielewska, D.; Kisielewski, B.; Kittelmann, T.; Kiver, A. M.; Kiyamura, H.; Kladiva, E.; Klaiber-Lodewigs, J.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klier, A.; Klimentov, A.; Kline, C. R.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinkby, E. B.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Klok, P. F.; Klous, S.; Kluge, E.-E.; Kluit, P.; Klute, M.; Kluth, S.; Knecht, N. K.; Kneringer, E.; Knezo, E.; Knobloch, J.; Ko, B. R.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kodys, P.; König, A. C.; König, S.; Köpke, L.; Koetsveld, F.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Kokott, T.; Kolachev, G. M.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolesnikov, V.; Koletsou, I.; Kollefrath, M.; Kolos, S.; Kolya, S. D.; Komar, A. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Kondo, T.; Kondo, Y.; Kondratyeva, N. V.; Kono, T.; Kononov, A. I.; Konoplich, R.; Konovalov, S. P.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kootz, A.; Koperny, S.; Kopikov, S. V.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Koreshev, V.; Korn, A.; Korolkov, I.; Korotkov, V. A.; Korsmo, H.; Kortner, O.; Kostrikov, M. E.; Kostyukhin, V. V.; Kotamäki, M. J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, S.; Kotov, V. M.; Kotov, K. Y.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Koutsman, A.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalewski, R.; Kowalski, H.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kozanecki, W.; Kozhin, A. S.; Kral, V.; Kramarenko, V.; Kramberger, G.; Kramer, A.; Krasel, O.; Krasny, M. W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Krepouri, A.; Krieger, P.; Krivkova, P.; Krobath, G.; Kroha, H.; Krstic, J.; Kruchonak, U.; Krüger, H.; Kruger, K.; Krumshteyn, Z. V.; Kubik, P.; Kubischta, W.; Kubota, T.; Kudin, L. G.; Kudlaty, J.; Kugel, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kuhn, D.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kundu, N.; Kupco, A.; Kupper, M.; Kurashige, H.; Kurchaninov, L. L.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Kus, V.; Kuykendall, W.; Kuzhir, P.; Kuznetsova, E. K.; Kvasnicka, O.; Kwee, R.; La Marra, D.; La Rosa, M.; La Rotonda, L.; Labarga, L.; Labbe, J. A.; Lacasta, C.; Lacava, F.; Lacker, H.; Lacour, D.; Lacuesta, V. R.; Ladygin, E.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lagouri, T.; Lai, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lambacher, M.; Lambert, F.; Lampl, W.; Lancon, E.; Landgraf, U.; Landon, M. P. J.; Landsman, H.; Langstaff, R. R.; Lankford, A. J.; Lanni, F.; Lantzsch, K.; Lanza, A.; Lapin, V. V.; Laplace, S.; Laporte, J. F.; Lara, V.; Lari, T.; Larionov, A. V.; Lasseur, C.; Lau, W.; Laurelli, P.; Lavorato, A.; Lavrijsen, W.; Lazarev, A. B.; LeBihan, A.-C.; LeDortz, O.; LeManer, C.; LeVine, M.; Leahu, L.; Leahu, M.; Lebel, C.; Lechowski, M.; LeCompte, T.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lee, H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Lee, S. C.; Lefebvre, M.; Lefevre, R. P.; Legendre, M.; Leger, A.; LeGeyt, B. C.; Leggett, C.; Lehmacher, M.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Lehto, M.; Leitner, R.; Lelas, D.; Lellouch, D.; Leltchouk, M.; Lendermann, V.; Leney, K. J. C.; Lenz, T.; Lenzen, G.; Lepidis, J.; Leroy, C.; Lessard, J.-R.; Lesser, J.; Lester, C. G.; Letheren, M.; Fook Cheong, A. Leung; Levêque, J.; Levin, D.; Levinson, L. J.; Levitski, M. S.; Lewandowska, M.; Leyton, M.; Li, J.; Li, W.; Liabline, M.; Liang, Z.; Liang, Z.; Liberti, B.; Lichard, P.; Liebig, W.; Lifshitz, R.; Liko, D.; Lim, H.; Limper, M.; Lin, S. C.; Lindahl, A.; Linde, F.; Lindquist, L.; Lindsay, S. W.; Linhart, V.; Lintern, A. J.; Liolios, A.; Lipniacka, A.; Liss, T. M.; Lissauer, A.; List, J.; Litke, A. M.; Liu, S.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y.; Livan, M.; Lleres, A.; Llosá Llácer, G.; Lloyd, S. L.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loch, P.; Lockman, W. S.; Loddenkoetter, T.; Loebinger, F. K.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C. W.; Lohse, T.; Lohwasser, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Loken, J.; Lokwitz, S.; Long, M. C.; Lopes, L.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Losty, M. J.; Lou, X.; Loureiro, K. F.; Lovas, L.; Love, J.; Lowe, A.; Lozano Fantoba, M.; Lu, F.; Lu, J.; Lu, L.; Lubatti, H. J.; Lucas, S.; Luci, C.; Lucotte, A.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, I.; Ludwig, J.; Luehring, F.; Lüke, D.; Luijckx, G.; Luisa, L.; Lumb, D.; Luminari, L.; Lund, E.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundberg, B.; Lundquist, J.; Lupi, A.; Lupu, N.; Lutz, G.; Lynn, D.; Lynn, J.; Lys, J.; Lysan, V.; Lytken, E.; López-Amengual, J. M.; Ma, H.; Ma, L. L.; Maaß en, M.; Maccarrone, G.; Mace, G. G. R.; Macina, D.; Mackeprang, R.; Macpherson, A.; MacQueen, D.; Macwaters, C.; Madaras, R. J.; Mader, W. F.; Maenner, R.; Maeno, T.; Mättig, P.; Mättig, S.; Magrath, C. A.; Mahalalel, Y.; Mahboubi, K.; Mahout, G.; Maidantchik, C.; Maio, A.; Mair, G. M.; Mair, K.; Makida, Y.; Makowiecki, D.; Malecki, P.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Malon, D.; Maltezos, S.; Malychev, V.; Malyukov, S.; Mambelli, M.; Mameghani, R.; Mamuzic, J.; Manabe, A.; Manara, A.; Manca, G.; Mandelli, L.; Mandić, I.; Mandl, M.; Maneira, J.; Maneira, M.; Mangeard, P. S.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Manjavidze, I. D.; Mann, W. A.; Manolopoulos, S.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansoulie, B.; Manz, A.; Mapelli, A.; Mapelli, L.; March, L.; Marchand, J. F.; Marchesotti, M.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marin, A.; Marques, C. N.; Marroquim, F.; Marshall, R.; Marshall, Z.; Martens, F. K.; Garcia, S. Marti i.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, B.; Martin, B.; Martin, F. F.; Martin, J. P.; Martin, Ph; Martinez, G.; Martínez Lacambra, C.; Martinez Outschoorn, V.; Martini, A.; Martins, J.; Maruyama, T.; Marzano, F.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Maß, M.; Massa, I.; Massaro, G.; Massol, N.; Mathes, M.; Matheson, J.; Matricon, P.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsunaga, H.; Maugain, J. M.; Maxfield, S. J.; May, E. N.; Mayer, J. K.; Mayri, C.; Mazini, R.; Mazzanti, M.; Mazzanti, P.; Mazzoni, E.; Mazzucato, F.; McKee, S. P.; McCarthy, R. L.; McCormick, C.; McCubbin, N. A.; McDonald, J.; McFarlane, K. W.; McGarvie, S.; McGlone, H.; McLaren, R. A.; McMahon, S. J.; McMahon, T. R.; McMahon, T. J.; McPherson, R. A.; Mechtel, M.; Meder-Marouelli, D.; Medinnis, M.; Meera-Lebbai, R.; Meessen, C.; Mehdiyev, R.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meinhard, H.; Meinhardt, J.; Meirosu, C.; Meisel, F.; Melamed-Katz, A.; Mellado Garcia, B. R.; Mendes Jorge, P.; Mendez, P.; Menke, S.; Menot, C.; Meoni, E.; Merkl, D.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F. S.; Messmer, I.; Metcalfe, J.; Meuser, S.; Meyer, J.-P.; Meyer, T. C.; Meyer, W. T.; Mialkovski, V.; Michelotto, M.; Micu, L.; Middleton, R.; Miele, P.; Migliaccio, A.; Mijović, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikestikova, M.; Mikestikova, M.; Mikulec, B.; Mikuž, M.; Miller, D. W.; Miller, R. J.; Miller, W.; Milosavljevic, M.; Milstead, D. A.; Mima, S.; Minaenko, A. A.; Minano, M.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mincer, A. I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Mir, L. M.; Mirabelli, G.; Miralles Verge, L.; Misawa, S.; Miscetti, S.; Misiejuk, A.; Mitra, A.; Mitrofanov, G. Y.; Mitsou, V. A.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Mkrtchyan, S.; Mladenov, D.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Mochizuki, A.; Mockett, P.; Modesto, P.; Moed, S.; Mönig, K.; Möser, N.; Mohn, B.; Mohr, W.; Mohrdieck-Möck, S.; Moisseev, A. M.; Moles Valls, R. M.; Molina-Perez, J.; Moll, A.; Moloney, G.; Mommsen, R.; Moneta, L.; Monnier, E.; Montarou, G.; Montesano, S.; Monticelli, F.; Moore, R. W.; Moore, T. B.; Moorhead, G. F.; Moraes, A.; Morel, J.; Moreno, A.; Moreno, D.; Morettini, P.; Morgan, D.; Morii, M.; Morin, J.; Morley, A. K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morone, M.-C.; Morozov, S. V.; Morris, E. J.; Morris, J.; Morrissey, M. C.; Moser, H. G.; Mosidze, M.; Moszczynski, A.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Mouthuy, T.; Moye, T. H.; Moyse, E. J. W.; Mueller, J.; Müller, M.; Muijs, A.; Muller, T. R.; Munar, A.; Munday, D. J.; Murakami, K.; Murillo Garcia, R.; Murray, W. J.; Myagkov, A. G.; Myska, M.; Nagai, K.; Nagai, Y.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nairz, A. M.; Naito, D.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Nakano, I.; Nanava, G.; Napier, A.; Nassiakou, M.; Nasteva, I.; Nation, N. R.; Naumann, T.; Nauyock, F.; Nderitu, S. K.; Neal, H. A.; Nebot, E.; Nechaeva, P.; Neganov, A.; Negri, A.; Negroni, S.; Nelson, C.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nessi, M.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Neukermans, L.; Nevski, P.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, C.; Nicholson, R.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicoletti, G.; Nicquevert, B.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, J.; Niinikoski, T.; Niinimaki, M. J.; Nikitin, N.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Nilsson, P.; Nisati, A.; Nisius, R.; Nodulman, L. J.; Nomachi, M.; Nomoto, H.; Noppe, J.-M.; Nordberg, M.; Norniella Francisco, O.; Norton, P. R.; Novakova, J.; Nowak, M.; Nozaki, M.; Nunes, R.; Nunes Hanninger, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Nyman, T.; O'Connor, P.; O'Neale, S. W.; O'Neil, D. C.; O'Neill, M.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Obermaier, M.; Oberson, P.; Ochi, A.; Ockenfels, W.; Odaka, S.; Odenthal, I.; Odino, G. A.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Ohshima, T.; Ohshita, H.; Okawa, H.; Olcese, M.; Olchevski, A. G.; Oliver, C.; Oliver, J.; Olivo Gomez, M.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Omachi, C.; Onea, A.; Onofre, A.; Oram, C. J.; Ordonez, G.; Oreglia, M. J.; Orellana, F.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlov, I. O.; Orr, R. S.; Orsini, F.; Osborne, L. S.; Osculati, B.; Osuna, C.; Otec, R.; Othegraven, R.; Ottewell, B.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Ouyang, Q.; Øye, O. K.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozone, K.; Ozturk, N.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padhi, S.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, E.; Paige, F.; Pailler, P. M.; Pajchel, K.; Palestini, S.; Palla, J.; Pallin, D.; Palmer, M. J.; Pan, Y. B.; Panikashvili, N.; Panin, V. N.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Panuskova, M.; Paolone, V.; Paoloni, A.; Papadopoulos, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Park, I.; Park, W.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, S.; Parkman, C.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passardi, G.; Passeri, A.; Passmore, M. S.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr; Pataraia, S.; Pate, D.; Pater, J. R.; Patricelli, S.; Pauly, T.; Pauna, E.; Peak, L. S.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Peez, M.; Pei, E.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pellegrini, G.; Pengo, R.; Pequenao, J.; Perantoni, M.; Perazzo, A.; Pereira, A.; Perepelkin, E.; Perera, V. J. O.; Perez Codina, E.; Perez Reale, V.; Peric, I.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrin, E.; Perrino, R.; Perrodo, P.; Perrot, G.; Perus, P.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petereit, E.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, P. J. F.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petti, R.; Pezzetti, M.; Pfeifer, B.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A. W.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccinini, M.; Pickford, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pier, S.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pimenta Dos Santos, M. A.; Pina, J.; Pinfold, J. L.; Ping, J.; Pinhão, J.; Pinto, B.; Pirotte, O.; Placakyte, R.; Placci, A.; Plamondon, M.; Plano, W. G.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskach, A. V.; Podkladkin, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poffenberger, P.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, M.; Polak, I.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomarede, D. M.; Pommès, K.; Ponsot, P.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popescu, R.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Popule, J.; Portell Bueso, X.; Posch, C.; Pospelov, G. E.; Pospichal, P.; Pospisil, S.; Postranecky, M.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Poulard, G.; Pousada, A.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Prast, J.; Prat, S.; Prata, M.; Pravahan, R.; Preda, T.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Price, M. J.; Prichard, P. M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Primor, D.; Prokofiev, K.; Prosso, E.; Proudfoot, J.; Przysiezniak, H.; Puigdengoles, C.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylaev, A. N.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qian, Z.; Qing, D.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Rabbers, J. J.; Radeka, V.; Rafi, J. M.; Ragusa, F.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rahm, D.; Raine, C.; Raith, B.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rajek, S.; Rammer, H.; Ramstedt, M.; Rangod, S.; Ratoff, P. N.; Raufer, T.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Reads, A. L.; Rebuzzi, D.; Redlinger, G. R.; Reeves, K.; Rehak, M.; Reichold, A.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z.; Renaudin-Crepe, S. R. C.; Renkel, P.; Rensch, B.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Rewiersma, P.; Rey, J.; Rey-Campagnolle, M.; Rezaie, E.; Reznicek, P.; Richards, R. A.; Richer, J.-P.; Richter, R. H.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Riegler, W.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rios, R. R.; Riu Dachs, I.; Rivline, M.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robins, S.; Robinson, D.; Robson, A.; Rochford, J. H.; Roda, C.; Rodier, S.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rohrbach, F.; Roldán, J.; Rolli, S.; Romance, J. B.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V. M.; Romeo, G.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, F.; Rosenbaum, G. A.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rosselet, L.; Rossi, L. P.; Rossi, L.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rottländer, I.; Rousseau, D.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruber, R.; Ruckert, B.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruggiero, G.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Rumiantsev, V.; Rumyantsev, L.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Rust, D. R.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybkine, G.; da Costa, J. Sá; Saavedra, A. F.; Saboumazrag, S.; F-W Sadrozinski, H.; Sadykov, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Sala, P.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salt, J.; Saltó Bauza, O.; Salvachúa Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B. H.; Sánchez Sánchez, C. A.; Sanchis Lozano, M. A.; Sanchis Peris, E.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sanny, B.; Sansone, S.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santander, J.; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, J.; Sapinski, M.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, D.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A. Y.; Savinov, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Savva, P.; Saxon, D. H.; Says, L. P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrissa, E.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schaller, M.; Schamov, A. G.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schick, H.; Schieck, J.; Schieferdecker, P.; Schioppa, M.; Schlager, G.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J. L.; Schmid, P.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, K.; Schmitz, M.; Schmücker, H.; Schoerner, T.; Scholte, R. C.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schram, M.; Schricker, A.; Schroff, D.; Schuh, S.; Schuijlenburg, H. W.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schumacher, J.; Schumacher, M.; Schune, Ph; Schwartzman, A.; Schweiger, D.; Schwemling, Ph; Schwick, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W. G.; Secker, H.; Sedykh, E.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Selldén, B.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sexton, K. A.; Sfyrla, A.; Shah, T. P.; Shan, L.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shears, T. G.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shield, P.; Shilov, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoa, M.; Shochet, M. J.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siebel, M.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, D.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S.; Sjölin, J.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slattery, P.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloan, T. J.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Small, A.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D. S.; Smith, J.; Smith, K. M.; Smith, B.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Soares, S.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Söderberg, M.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Sole, D.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solov'yanov, O. V.; Soloviev, I.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Soret Medel, J.; Sosebee, M.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Sospedra Suay, L.; Soukharev, A.; Soukup, J.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spegel, M.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spogli, L.; Spousta, M.; Sprachmann, G.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahl, T.; Staley, R. J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S. N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Staroba, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavrianakou, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Stefanidis, E.; Steffens, J. L.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G.; Stewart, T. D.; Stiller, W.; Stockmanns, T.; Stodulski, M.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strickland, V.; Striegel, D.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Su, D.; Subramania, S.; Suchkov, S. I.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultanov, S.; Sun, Z.; Sundal, B.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutcliffe, P.; Sutton, M. R.; Sviridov, Yu M.; Sykora, I.; Szczygiel, R. R.; Szeless, B.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Taboada Gameiro, S.; Tadel, M.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tarrant, J.; Tartarelli, G.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, R. P.; Tcherniatine, V.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Terada, S.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Tevlin, C. M.; Thadome, J.; Thion, J.; Thioye, M.; Thomas, A.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas, T. L.; Thomas, E.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thun, R. P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timm, S.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Titov, M.; Tobias, J.; Tocut, V. M.; Toczek, B.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasz, F.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres Pais, J. G.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tovey, S. N.; Towndrow, E. F.; Trefzger, T.; Treichel, M.; Treis, J.; Tremblet, L.; Tribanek, W.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trilling, G.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trka, Z.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; C-L Tseng, J.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Turala, M.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P. M.; Twomey, M. S.; Tyndel, M.; Typaldos, D.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzamarioudaki, E.; Tzanakos, G.; Ueda, I.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Ullán Comes, M.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urkovsky, E.; Usai, G.; Usov, Y.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valderanis, C.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van der Bij, H.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; Van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Van Berg, R.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Varanda, M.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vassilieva, L.; Vataga, E.; Vaz, L.; Vazeille, F.; Vedrine, P.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, S.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vertogardov, L.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Vigeolas, E.; Villa, M.; Villani, E. G.; Villate, J.; Villella, I.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincent, P.; Vincke, H.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives, R.; Vives Vaques, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vogt, H.; Vokac, P.; Vollmer, C. F.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von Boehn-Buchholz, R.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorozhtsov, A. S.; Vorozhtsov, S. B.; Vos, M.; Voss, K. C.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vovenko, A. S.; Vranjes, N.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Anh, T. Vu; Vuaridel, B.; Vudragovic, M.; Vuillemin, V.; Vuillermet, R.; Wänanen, A.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wallny, R. S.; Walsh, S.; Wang, C.; Wang, J. C.; Wappler, F.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warner, G. P.; Warren, M.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watts, G.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weaverdyck, C.; Webel, M.; Weber, G.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weilhammer, P. M.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wellisch, H. P.; Wells, P. S.; Wemans, A.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werneke, P.; Werner, P.; Werthenbach, U.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiesmann, M.; Wiesmann, M.; Wijnen, T.; Wildauer, A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilmut, I.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winton, L.; Witzeling, W.; Wlodek, T.; Woehrling, E.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wright, C.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Wunstorf, R.; Xella-Hansen, S.; Xiang, A.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, G.; Xu, N.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, J. C.; Yang, S.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yarradoddi, K.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, H.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S. P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajac, J.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, A. Yu; Zalite, Yo K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zdrazil, M.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P. F.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A. V.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zheng, W.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Z.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhichao, L.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, S.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H. Z.; Zhuang, X. A.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimin, N. I.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zoeller, M. M.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zychacek, V.

    2008-08-01

    The ATLAS detector as installed in its experimental cavern at point 1 at CERN is described in this paper. A brief overview of the expected performance of the detector when the Large Hadron Collider begins operation is also presented.

  2. The future of the Large Hadron Collider and CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Rolf-Dieter

    2012-02-28

    This paper presents the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its current scientific programme and outlines options for high-energy colliders at the energy frontier for the years to come. The immediate plans include the exploitation of the LHC at its design luminosity and energy, as well as upgrades to the LHC and its injectors. This may be followed by a linear electron-positron collider, based on the technology being developed by the Compact Linear Collider and the International Linear Collider collaborations, or by a high-energy electron-proton machine. This contribution describes the past, present and future directions, all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics, and concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward.

  3. The future of the Large Hadron Collider and CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Heuer, Rolf-Dieter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its current scientific programme and outlines options for high-energy colliders at the energy frontier for the years to come. The immediate plans include the exploitation of the LHC at its design luminosity and energy, as well as upgrades to the LHC and its injectors. This may be followed by a linear electron–positron collider, based on the technology being developed by the Compact Linear Collider and the International Linear Collider collaborations, or by a high-energy electron–proton machine. This contribution describes the past, present and future directions, all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics, and concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward.

  4. Electron Lenses for the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio [Fermilab; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab; Bruce, Roderik [CERN; Redaelli, Stefano [CERN; Rossi, Adriana [CERN; Salvachua, Belen [CERN

    2014-07-01

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in RHIC at BNL. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program and the European HiLumi LHC Design Study, hollow electron beam collimation was studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the LHC upgrades. This project is moving towards a technical design in 2014, with the goal to build the devices in 2015-2017, after resuming LHC operations and re-assessing needs and requirements at 6.5 TeV. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compensation in LHC luminosity upgrade scenarios with small crossing angles.

  5. Electron lenses for the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari†, G; Bruce, R; Redaelli, S; Rossi, A; Salvachua Ferrando, B

    2014-01-01

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beamswhose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-bybunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beamcompensation, and for the demonstration of halo scrapingwith hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in RHIC at BNL. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program and the European HiLumi LHC Design Study, hollow electron beam collimation was studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the LHC upgrades. A conceptual design was recently completed, and the project is moving towards a technical design in 2014–2015 for construction in 2015–2017, if needed, after resuming LHC operations and re-assessing collimation needs and requirements at 6.5 TeV. Because of the...

  6. Transverse beams stability studies at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, Xavier; Pieloni, Tatiana

    2015-01-30

    A charged particle beam travelling at the speed of light produces large electromagnetic wake fields which, through interactions with its surroundings, act back on the particles in the beam. This coupled system may become unstable, resulting in a deterioration of the beam quality. Such effects play a major role in most existing storage rings, as they limit the maximum performance achievable. In a collider, the presence of a second beam significantly changes the dynamics, as the electromagnetic interactions of the two beams on each other are usually very strong and may, also, limit the collider performances. This thesis treats the coherent stability of the two beams in a circular collider, including the effects of the electromagnetic wake fields and of the beam-beam interactions, with particular emphasis on CERN's Large Hadron Collider. As opposed to other colliders, this machine features a large number of bunches per beam each experiencing multiple long-range and head-on beam-beam interactions. Existing models...

  7. COLLIDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    Howie Day, Collide, Based on the original parody "Collide" by USLHC, inspired by the original song "Collide" written by Howie Day and Kevin Griffin. Re-record Produced by Mike Denneen Engineered by Patrick DiCenso -Vocals, Guitars, Keyboards- Howie Day -Guitar Patrick DiCenso -Bass- Ed Valuskas -Drums- Dave Brophy

  8. The Higgs boson discovery at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the field of Higgs boson physics. It offers the first in-depth review of the complete results in connection with the discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider and based on the full dataset for the years 2011 to 2012. The fundamental concepts and principles of Higgs physics are introduced and the important searches prior to the advent of the Large Hadron Collider are briefly summarized. Lastly, the discovery and first mensuration of the observed particle in the course of the CMS experiment are discussed in detail and compared to the results obtained in the ATLAS experiment.

  9. The standard model Higgs search at the large hadron collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satyaki Bhattacharya; on behalf of the CMS and the ATLAS Collaborations

    2007-11-01

    The experiments at the large hadron collider (LHC) will probe for Higgs boson in the mass range between the lower bound on the Higgs mass set by the experiments at the large electron positron collider (LEP) and the unitarity bound (∼ 1 TeV). Strategies are being developed to look for signatures of Higgs boson and measure its properties. In this paper results from full detector simulation-based studies on Higgs discovery from both ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC will be presented. Results of simulation studies on Higgs coupling measurement at LHC will be discussed.

  10. Working group report: Physics at the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D K Ghosh; A Nyffeler; V Ravindran

    2011-05-01

    This is a summary of the activities of the Physics at the LHC working group in the XIth Workshop on High Energy Physics Phenomenology (WHEPP-XI) held at the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India in January 2010. We discuss the activities of each sub-working group on physics issues at colliders such as Tevatron and Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The main issues discussed involve (1) results on W mass measurement and associated QCD uncertainties, (2) an attempt to understand the asymmetry measured at Tevatron in the top quark production, and (3) phenomenology of warped space dimension model.

  11. CERN completes magnet set for Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "CERN, the European Oganization for Nuclear Research, took delivery of the last superconducting main magnet for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) on Monday, completint the full set of 1624 main magnets required to build the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator."

  12. CERN to start Large Hadron Collider november 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is expected to provide its first collisions in November 2007, CERN has announced. A two-month run at 0.9 TeV is planned for 2007 to test the accelerating and detecting equipment, and a full power run at 14 TeV is expected in the spring of 2008."

  13. Large Hadron Collider project to study the origins of matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "The Scientific Information Port (PIC), a technological centre located on the campus of the UAB, recently started work on the first stage of the European project Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the largest particle accelerator in the world, which has the aim of reproducing conditions similar to those produced during the Big Bang in order to study the origins of matter." (1/2 page)

  14. Dark Matter Searches at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Siew Yan; Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin Bin Wan

    2015-01-01

    Dark Matter is a hypothetical particle proposed to explain the missing matter expected from the cosmological observation. The motivation of Dark Matter is overwhelming however as it is mainly deduced from its gravitational interaction, for it does little to pinpoint what Dark Matter really is. In WIMPs Miracle, weakly interactive massive particle being the Dark Matter candidate is correctly producing the current thermal relic density at weak scale, implying the possibility of producing and detecting it in Large Hadron Collider. Assuming WIMPs being the maverick particle within collider, it is expected to be pair produced in association with a Standard Model particle. The presence of the WIMPs pair is inferred from the Missing Transverse Energy (MET) which is the vector sum of the imbalance in the transverse momentum plane recoils a Standard Model Particle. The collider is able to produce light mass Dark Matter which the traditional detection fail to detect due to the small momentum transfer involved in the in...

  15. A Novel Collimation Method for Large Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Ye; Tang, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel collimation method for large hadron colliders by arranging betatron and momentum collimation systems in the same insertion to improve the overall cleaning efficiency. The method has the potential of avoiding beam losses at the downstream dispersion suppression section following the conventional betatron collimation section, which is caused by those particles with single diffractive scattering at the collimators. Evident beam loss in arc sections should be avoided to protect the superconducting magnets from quenching, especially when the stored beam energy is up to hundreds of MJ level or even higher in modern proton-proton collider. Our studies show that it is beneficial to arrange the momentum collimation system just after the betatron collimation system so that it can clean the particles with lower momentum due to the single diffractive scattering in the betatron collimators. This method is being applied to the future proton-proton collider SPPC. Preliminary multi-particle simula...

  16. LEP : the Large Electron Positron Collider Conference MT17

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    LEP was CERN's flagship research facility from 1989 until 2000 when it stepped aside to make way for installation of the Laboratory's next major accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider, LHC. With a circumference of 27 kilometres, LEP was the largest circular particle collider in the world. Inside its beam pipe, about 100 metres underground, bunches of electrons and positrons raced around in opposite directions as they were accelerated to almost the speed of light. In its first phase of operation, LEP was designed to collide electrons and positrons at an energy of around 100 GeV. After some seven years of accumulating data at this energy to study the Z particle - electrically neutral carrier of the weak interaction - everything was done to boost the energy of LEP's beams as high as possible.

  17. Comparing Tsallis and Boltzmann temperatures from relativistic heavy ion collider and large hadron collider heavy-ion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.-Q.; Liu, F.-H.

    2016-03-01

    The transverse momentum spectra of charged particles produced in Au + Au collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider and in Pb + Pb collisions at the large hadron collider with different centrality intervals are described by the multisource thermal model which is based on different statistic distributions for a singular source. Each source in the present work is described by the Tsallis distribution and the Boltzmann distribution, respectively. Then, the interacting system is described by the (two-component) Tsallis distribution and the (two-component) Boltzmann distribution, respectively. The results calculated by the two distributions are in agreement with the experimental data of the Solenoidal Tracker At Relativistic heavy ion collider, Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment, and A Large Ion Collider Experiment Collaborations. The effective temperature parameters extracted from the two distributions on the descriptions of heavy-ion data at the relativistic heavy ion collider and large hadron collider are obtained to show a linear correlation.

  18. The Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider The Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Delepine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider will study protonproton collisions at unprecedented energies and luminosities. In this article we providefi rst a brief general introduction to particle physics. We then explain what CERN is. Thenwe describe the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the most powerful particle acceleratorever built. Finally we describe the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment, its physics goals,construction details, and current status.El experimento Compact Muon Solenoid en el Large Hadron Collider del CERN estudiarácolisiones protón protón a energías y luminosidades sin precedente. En este artículo presentamos primero una breve introducción general a la física de partículas. Despuésexplicamos lo que es el CERN. Luego describimos el Large Hadron Collider, el más potente acelerador de partículas construido por el hombre, en el CERN. Finalmente describimos el experimento Compact Muon Solenoid, sus objetivos en física, los detalles de su construcción,y su situación presente.

  19. Learning to See at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The staged commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider presents an opportunity to map gross features of particle production over a significant energy range. I suggest a visual tool - event displays in (pseudo)rapidity-transverse-momentum space - as a scenic route that may help sharpen intuition, identify interesting classes of events for further investigation, and test expectations about the underlying event that accompanies large-transverse-momentum phenomena.

  20. Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2014-01-01

    The idea of colliding two particle beams to fully exploit the energy of accelerated particles was first proposed by Rolf Wideröe, who in 1943 applied for a patent on the collider concept and was awarded the patent in 1953. The first three colliders — AdA in Italy, CBX in the US, and VEP-1 in the then Soviet Union — came to operation about 50 years ago in the mid-1960s. A number of other colliders followed. Over the past decades, colliders defined the energy frontier in particle physics. Different types of colliers — proton–proton, proton–antiproton, electron–positron, electron–proton, electron-ion and ion-ion colliders — have played complementary roles in fully mapping out the constituents and forces in the Standard Model (SM). We are now at a point where all predicted SM constituents of matter and forces have been found, and all the latest ones were found at colliders. Colliders also play a critical role in advancing beam physics, accelerator research and technology development. It is timel...

  1. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology, operational challenges and theoretical predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Gilles, Abelin R

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the highest-energy particle collider ever constructed and is considered "one of the great engineering milestones of mankind." It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) from 1998 to 2008, with the aim of allowing physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics and high-energy physics, and particularly prove or disprove the existence of the theorized Higgs boson and of the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories. In this book, the authors study the phenomenology, operational challenges and theoretical predictions of LHC. Topics discussed include neutral and charged black hole remnants at the LHC; the modified statistics approach for the thermodynamical model of multiparticle production; and astroparticle physics and cosmology in the LHC era.

  2. The ALICE experiment at the large hadron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munhoz, Marcelo Gameiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the only experiment form the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) dedicated mainly to study relativistic heavy ion collisions. The experiment was optimized to measure a great variety of observables that allow us to study the properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma, a new state of nuclear matter where quarks and gluons are deconfined from hadrons. The enlightenment of such properties will provide great insight in the understanding of the strong interaction described by QCD. In this talk, I will present the ALICE experiment, the latest results obtained by the collaboration in the last 2 years and discuss the Brazilian participation in this very interesting and important international project. (author)

  3. Champagne moments[Expections of the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-10-15

    The Large Hadron Collider could bring CERN huge rewards - but there are risks too. Anyone who is not a particle physicist is likely to look on in envy at the massive sums being spent on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It has cost -1.8bn to build the machine's accelerator, which will whip protons in opposite directions around a 27 km-long underground ring before smashing them together at energies up to 14 TeV some billion times a second. The four giant detectors - including the two general-purpose experiments CMS and ATLAS - have swallowed up several more billion Euros. Then there is the new Grid computer system, which is meant to analyse the vast streams of data spewing out from thee detectors every second. The total bill? A cool - Euro6.3bn, give or take the odd bottle of champagne. (U.K.)

  4. Discriminating Supersymmetry and Black Holes at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Arunava

    2008-01-01

    We show how to differentiate the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model from black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider. Black holes are simulated with the CATFISH generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET. Our study, based on event shape variables, visible and missing momenta, and analysis of dilepton events, demonstrates that supersymmetry and black hole events at the LHC can be easily discriminated.

  5. Discriminating Supersymmetry and Black Holes at the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunava; Cavaglia, Marco

    2008-04-01

    We assess the distinguishability between supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET. Our study, based on event shape variables, visible and missing momenta, and analysis of dilepton events, shows that supersymmetry and black hole events at the LHC can be easily discriminated.

  6. Design Study for a Staged Very Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex W.

    2002-02-27

    Particle physics makes its greatest advances with experiments at the highest energy. The only sure way to advance to a higher-energy regime is through hadron colliders--the Tevatron, the LHC, and then, beyond that, a Very Large Hadron Collider. At Snowmass-1996 [1], investigators explored the best way to build a VLHC, which they defined as a 100 TeV collider. The goals in this study are different. The current study seeks to identify the best and cheapest way to arrive at frontier-energy physics, while simultaneously starting down a path that will eventually lead to the highest-energy collisions technologically possible in any accelerator using presently conceivable technology. This study takes the first steps toward understanding the accelerator physics issues, the technological possibilities and the approximate cost of a particular model of the VLHC. It describes a staged approach that offers exciting physics at each stage for the least cost, and finally reaches an energy one-hundred times the highest energy currently achievable.

  7. ERL-BASED LEPTON-HADRON COLLIDERS: eRHIC AND LHeC

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    Two hadron-ERL colliders are being proposed. The Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) plans to collide the high-energy protons and heavy ions in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN with 60-GeV polarized electrons or positrons. The baseline scheme for this facility adds to the LHC a separate recirculating superconducting (SC) lepton linac with energy recovery, delivering a lepton current of 6.4mA. The electron-hadron collider project eRHIC aims to collide polarized (and unpolarized) electrons with a current of 50 (220) mA and energies in the range 5–30 GeV with a variety of hadron beams— heavy ions as well as polarized light ions— stored in the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL. The eRHIC electron beam will be generated in an energy recovery linac (ERL) installed inside the RHIC tunnel.

  8. W±πt干 Associated Production at Large Hadron Collider

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGJin-Shu; PANQun-Na

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the production of a charged top pion in association with a W boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the context of the topcolor assisted technicolor model. We find that the cross section of pp → bb- → W±πt干 is roughly corresponding to the result of the process pp → bb- → W±πt干= in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and for reasonable ranges of the parameters, the cross section can reach a few hundred fb. The W±πt干 signal should be clearly visible at LHC unless π t± is very heavy.

  9. Lepton Flavor Violation at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Kamon, Teruki; Krislock, Abram

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a potential of discovering lepton flavor violation (LFV) at the Large Hadron Collider. A sizeable LFV in low energy supersymmetry can be induced by massive right handed neutrinos, which can explain neutrino oscillations via the seesaw mechanism. We investigate a scenario where the distribution of an invariant mass of two hadronically decaying taus ($\\tauh\\tauh$) from $\\schizero{2}$ decays is the same in events with or without LFV. We first develop a transfer function using this ditau massdistribution to model the shape of the non-LFV $\\tauh\\mu$ invariant mass. We then show the feasibility of extracting the LFV $\\tauh\\mu$ signal.

  10. Forward-central jet correlations at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deak, M. [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC; Hautmann, F. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Dept.; Jung, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Antwerpen Univ. (Belgium). Elementaire Deeltjes Fysics; Kutak, K. [Antwerpen Univ. (Belgium). Elementaire Deeltjes Fysics

    2010-12-15

    For high-p{sub T} forward processes at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), QCD logarithmic corrections in the hard transverse momentum and in the large rapidity interval may both be quantitatively significant. The theoretical framework to resum consistently both kinds of logarithmic corrections to higher orders in perturbation theory is based on QCD high-energy factorization. We present numerical Monte Carlo applications of this method to final-state observables associated with production of one forward and one central jet. By computing jet correlations in rapidity and azimuth, we analyze the role of corrections to the parton-showering chain from large-angle gluon radiation, and discuss this in relationship with Monte Carlo results modeling interactions due to multiple parton chains. (orig.)

  11. Advances in Cryogenics at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P

    1998-01-01

    After a decade of intensive R&D in the key technologies of high-field superconducting accelerator magnets and superfluid helium cryogenics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has now fully entered its co nstruction phase, with the adjudication of major procurement contracts to industry. As concerns cryogenic engineering, this R&D program has resulted in significant developments in several fields, amon g which thermo-hydraulics of two-phase saturated superfluid helium, efficient cycles and machinery for large-capacity refrigeration at 1.8 K, insulation techniques for series-produced cryostats and mu lti-kilometre long distribution lines, large-current leads using high-temperature superconductors, industrial precision thermometry below 4 K, and novel control techniques applied to strongly non-line ar processes. We review the most salient advances in these domains.

  12. The higgsino-singlino world at the large hadron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Soo [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Ray, Tirtha Sankar [University of Melbourne, ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2015-02-01

    We consider light higgsinos and singlinos in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model at the large hadron collider. We assume that the singlino is the lightest supersymmetric particle and that the higgsino is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle with the remaining supersymmetric particles in the multi-TeV range. This scenario, which is motivated by the flavor and CP issues, provides a phenomenologically viable dark matter candidate and improved electroweak fit consistent with the measured Higgs mass. Here, the higgsinos decay into on (off)-shell gauge boson and the singlino. We consider the leptonic decay modes and the resulting signature is three isolated leptons and missing transverse energy which is known as the trilepton signal. We simulate the signal and the Standard Model backgrounds and present the exclusion region in the higgsino-singlino mass plane at the large hadron collider at √(s) = 14 TeV for an integrated luminosity of 300 fb{sup -1}. (orig.)

  13. Detector Development for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00367854; Gößling, Claus

    To maximise the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider, it will be upgraded to the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider in 2024. New detector challenges arise from the higher instantaneous luminosity and the higher particle flux. The new ATLAS Inner Tracker will replace the current tracking detector to be able to cope with these challenges. Many pixel detector technologies exist for particle tracking, but their suitability for the ATLAS Inner Tracker needs to be studied. Active high-voltage CMOS sensors, which are produced in industrialised processes, offer a fast readout and radiation tolerance. In this thesis the HV2FEI4v2 sensor, which is capacitively coupled to the ATLAS Pixel FE-I4 readout chip, is characterised for the usage in the outer layers of the ATLAS Inner Tracker. Key quantities of this prototype module are studied, such as the hit efficiency and the subpixel encoding. The early HV2FEI4v2 prototype shows promising results as a starting point for further module developments. Active CMO...

  14. Jet Physics with A Large Ion Collider Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Jochen

    In the presence of the strongly-interacting medium created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, highly energetic partons from hard interactions lose energy through scattering and radiating. This effect, referred to as jet quenching, is observed as a suppression of particles with large momenta transverse to the beam axis (high-$p_\\perp$). To study the impact of the medium evolution on the energy loss modelling in the Monte Carlo event generator JEWEL, we compare results obtained for different scenarios of Au-Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 200~\\mathrm{GeV}$. For this purpose, JEWEL was extended to use the output of relativistic hydrodynamic calculations in the OSCAR2008H format. We find the modelling of common observables, e.g. the nuclear modification factor, to be rather insensitive to the details of the medium evolution, for which the analytically accessible Bjorken expansion can thus be considered adequate. The OSCAR interface now allows further studies also at LHC energies. Jets of large transve...

  15. $H^{+}H^{-}$ Pair Production at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Barrientos-Bendezu, A A

    2000-01-01

    We study the pair production of charged Higgs bosons at the CERN Large Hadron Collider in the context of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model. We compare the contributions due to qq-bar annihilation at the tree level and gg fusion, which proceeds at one loop. At small or large values of tan(beta), H^+H^- production proceeds dominantly via bb-bar annihilation, due to Feynman diagrams involving neutral CP-even Higgs bosons and top quarks, which come in addition to the usually considered Drell-Yan diagrams. In the case of gg fusion, the squark loop contributions may considerably enhance the well-known quark loop contributions.

  16. Heavy ions: Results from the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tapan K Nayak

    2012-10-01

    On November 8, 2010 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN collided the first stable beams of heavy ions (Pb on Pb) at the centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV/nucleon. The LHC worked exceedingly well during its one month of operation with heavy ions, delivering about 10 −1 of data, with peak luminosity reaching to $L_{O} = 2 × 10^{25}$ cm-2 s-1 towards the end of the run. Three experiments, ALICE, ATLAS and CMS, recorded their first heavy-ion data, which were analysed in a record time. The results of the multiplicity, flow, fluctuations and Bose–Einstein correlations indicate that the fireball formed in nuclear collisions at the LHC is hotter, lives longer, and expands to a larger size at freeze-out as compared to lower energies. We give an overview of these as well as new results on quarkonia and heavy flavour suppression, and jet energy loss.

  17. High temperature superconducting current leads for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    1999-01-01

    The large hadron collider (LHC) will be equipped with about 8000 superconducting magnets. Some 3380 leads will feed the currents ranging from 60 to 13000 A. To reduce the heat inleak into the liquid helium, CERN aims to use high temperature superconducting material for leads having current ratings between 600 and 13000 A. Specifications have been written for 13000 A current leads, incorporating a high temperature superconducting section, for the main of the LHC, and contracts have been placed with several firms for the supply of prototypes for comparative testing. The leads used for feeding locally the 60 and 120 A dipole orbit correctors will be conventional conduction cooledmagnets resistive leads. An optimized lead of variable cross section has been tested, and an integral design has been initiated. This report describes the design status of the current leads for the LHC, emphasizing, for the different solutions, the principle of optimization and the choice of cooling methods. (8 refs).

  18. Black Holes and other exotica at the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunava; Cavaglia, Marco

    2009-05-01

    If the fundamental scale of gravity is of the order of 1 TeV, black holes might be produced at the Large Hadron Collider. We present simulations of black holes and other exotic predictions of physics beyond the Standard Model - supersymmetry and string theory. Black hole events are simulated using the CATFISH Monte Carlo generator, simulations of string resonances use PYTHIA and supersymmetric simulations use a combination of ISAJET and PYTHIA. Our analysis shows that black holes can be discriminated from supersymmetry and string resonances. Isolated leptons with high transverse momentum can be used to distinguish black holes and supersymmetry. Z bosons and photons with high transverse momentum allow the discrimination of black holes and string resonances. The analysis of visible and missing energy /momenta, event-shape variables and multilepton events complement these techniques.

  19. In the loop Large Hadron Collider project - UK engineering firms

    CERN Document Server

    Wilks, N

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the latest measures being taken to boost the level of UK engineering firms' involvement in research at CERN (Centre for Nuclear Research), including its 27 km circular Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. Virtually all of the components on this complex project have had to be custom-made, usually in the form of collaboration. It is part of these collaborations that some UK firms have proved they can shine. However, despite the proven capabilities, the financial return continues to be less than the government's funding. Each of the 20 CERN member states provides funds in proportion to its GDP and the UK is the second largest financial contributor. UK firms become price-competitive where a contract calls for a degree of customisation or product development, project management and tight quality control. Development of the Particle Physics Grid, for dissemination and analysis of data from the LHC, continues to provide major supply opportunities for UK manufacturers.

  20. Flavour physics and the Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Valerie

    2012-02-28

    An exciting new era in flavour physics has just begun with the start of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHCb (where b stands for beauty) experiment, designed specifically to search for new phenomena in quantum loop processes and to provide a deeper understanding of matter-antimatter asymmetries at the most fundamental level, is producing many new and exciting results. It gives me great pleasure to describe a selected few of the results here-in particular, the search for rare B(0)(s)-->μ+ μ- decays and the measurement of the B(0)(s) charge-conjugation parity-violating phase, both of which offer high potential for the discovery of new physics at and beyond the LHC energy frontier in the very near future.

  1. Search for invisibly decaying Higgs boson at Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Bansal; K Mazumdar; J B Singh

    2010-02-01

    In several scenarios of Beyond Standard Model physics, the invisible decay mode of the Higgs boson is an interesting possibility. The search strategy for an invisible Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), using weak boson fusion process, has been studied in detail, by taking into account all possible backgrounds. Realistic simulations have been used in the context of CMS experiment to devise a set of event selection criteria which eventually enhances the signal contribution compared to the background processes in characteristic distributions. In cut-based analysis, multi-jet background is found to overwhelm the signal in the finally selected sample. With an integrated luminosity of 10 fb-1, an upper limit of 36% on the branching ratio can be obtained for Higgs boson with a mass of 120 GeV/c2 for LHC energy of 14 TeV. Since the analysis essentially depends on the background estimation, detailed studies have been done to determine the background rates from real data.

  2. Anisotropic flow and flow fluctuations at the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, You

    One of the fundamental questions in the phenomenology of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is what the properties of matter are at the extreme densities and temperatures where quarks and gluons are in a new state of matter, the so-called Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). Collisions of high-energy heavy-ions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), allow us to create and study the properties of such a system in the laboratory. Anisotropic flow (vn) is strong evidence for the existence of QGP, and has been described as one of the most important observations measured in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In this thesis, the anisotropic flow of not only charged particles but also identified particles are presented. In addition, the investigations of correlations and fluctuations of both flow angle (symmetry plane) and magnitude were discussed. The main goal of this thesis is to understand the nature of anisotropic flow and its response to the initial geometry of the created system as well as its fluctuations.

  3. Commissioning and First Operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, Ph

    2010-01-01

    After some fifteen years of construction, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was commissioned at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research in 2008. This high-energy particle accelerator of 26.7 km circumference – the largest scientific instrument ever built – brings into collision intense beams of protons and ions to probe the structure of matter and study the forces acting on its elementary components at the TeV scale, an order of magnitude higher than the previous stateof-the-art. To guide and focus its particle beams, the LHC uses several thousands high-field superconducting magnets operating in superfluid helium at 1.9 K. The project therefore constitutes a technological feat: all its components were developed, industrialized and series produced by industrial companies according to demanding specifications. Started as a CERN undertaking – by decision of the CERN Council and its twenty European member states – the project soon became global with special contributions from Canada, India, Jap...

  4. Superconducting Cable and Magnets for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a high energy, high luminosity particle accelerator under construction at CERN and it will be the largest application of superconductivity. Most of the existing 27 km underground tunnel will be filled with superconducting magnets, mainly 15 m long dipoles and 3 m long quadrupoles. These 1232 dipole and 400 quadrupole magnets as well as many other magnets, are wound with copper stabilized NbTi Rutherford cables and will be operated at 1.9 K by means of pressurized superfluid helium. The operating dipole field is 8.33 T; however the whole system is designed for possible operation up to 9 T. The coils are powered at about 12 kA and about 12 GJ of magnetic energy will be stored in superconducting devices. After a brief review of the main characteristics of the superconductors and of the magnets, the special measures taken to fulfill the mass production with the necessary accuracy are presented. The results on one third of the superconducting cable production and on the first f...

  5. Using Data from the Large Hadron Collider in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Now is an exciting time for physics students, because they have access to technology and experiments all over the world that were unthinkable a generation ago. Therefore, now is also the ideal time to bring these experiments into the classroom, so students can see what cutting edge science looks like, both in terms of the underlying physics and in terms of the technology used to gather data. With the continued running of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and the lab's continued dedication to providing open, worldwide access to their data, there is a unique opportunity for students to use these data in a manner very similar to how it's done in the particle physics community. In this session, we will explore ways for students to analyze real data from the CMS experiment at the LHC, plot these data to discover patterns and signals, and use these plots to determine quantities such as the invariant masses of the W, Z and Higgs bosons. Furthermore, we will show how such activities already fit well into standard introductory physics classes, and can in fact enhance already-existing lessons in the topics of momentum, kinematics, energy and electromagnetism.

  6. Large hadron collider (LHC) project quality assurance plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullo, Lisa; Karpenko, Victor; Robinson, Kem; Turner, William; Wong, Otis

    2002-09-30

    The LHC Quality Assurance Plan is a set of operating principles, requirements, and practices used to support Berkeley Lab's participation in the Large Hadron Collider Project. The LHC/QAP is intended to achieve reliable, safe, and quality performance in the LHC project activities. The LHC/QAP is also designed to fulfill the following objectives: (1) The LHC/QAP is Berkeley Lab's QA program document that describes the elements necessary to integrate quality assurance, safety management, and conduct of operations into the Berkeley Lab's portion of the LHC operations. (2) The LHC/QAP provides the framework for Berkeley Lab LHC Project administrators, managers, supervisors, and staff to plan, manage, perform, and assess their Laboratory work. (3) The LHC/QAP is the compliance document that conforms to the requirements of the Laboratory's Work Smart Standards for quality assurance (DOE O 414.1, 10 CFR 830.120), facility operations (DOE O 5480.19), and safety management (DOE P 450.4).

  7. Maps for electron cloud density in Large Hadron Collider dipoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Demma

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The generation of a quasistationary electron cloud inside the beam pipe through beam-induced multipacting processes has become an area of intensive study. The analyses performed so far have been based on heavy computer simulations taking into account photoelectron production, secondary emission, electron dynamics, and space charge effects, providing a detailed description of the electron-cloud evolution. Iriso and Peggs [U. Iriso and S. Peggs, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8, 024403 (2005PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.8.024403] have shown that, for the typical parameters of RHIC, the bunch-to-bunch evolution of the average electron-cloud density at a point can be represented by a cubic map. Simulations based on this map formalism are orders of magnitude faster compared to those based on standard particle tracking codes. In this communication we show that the map formalism is also applicable to the case of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC, and that, in particular, it reproduces the average electron-cloud densities computed using a reference code to within ∼15% for general LHC bunch filling patterns. We also illustrate the dependence of the polynomial map coefficients on the physical parameters affecting the electron cloud (secondary emission yield, bunch charge, bunch spacing, etc..

  8. The Hunt for New Physics at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Pran; Davoudiasl, Hooman; Dutta, Bhaskar; Feldman, Daniel; Liu, Zuowei; Han, Tao; Langacker, Paul; Mohapatra, Rabi; Valle, Jose; Pilaftsis, Apostolos; Zerwas, Dirk; AbdusSalam, Shehu; Adam-Bourdarios, Claire; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Allanach, Benjamin; Altunkaynak, B; Anchordoqui, Luis A; Baer, Howard; Bajc, Borut; Buchmueller, O; Carena, M; Cavanaugh, R; Chang, S; Choi, Kiwoon; Csaki, C; Dawson, S; de Campos, F; De Roeck, A; Duhrssen, M; Eboli, O J.P; Ellis, J R; Flacher, H; Goldberg, H; Grimus, W; Haisch, U; Heinemeyer, S; Hirsch, M; Holmes, M; Ibrahim, Tarek; Isidori, G; Kane, Gordon; Kong, K; Lafaye, Remi; Landsberg, G; Lavoura, L; Lee, Jae Sik; Lee, Seung J; Lisanti, M; Lust, Dieter; Magro, M B; Mahbubani, R; Malinsky, M; Maltoni, Fabio; Morisi, S; Muhlleitner, M M; Mukhopadhyaya, B; Neubert, M; Olive, K A; Perez, Gilad; Perez, Pavel Fileviez; Plehn, T; Ponton, E; Porod, Werner; Quevedo, F; Rauch, M; Restrepo, D; Rizzo, T G; Romao, J C; Ronga, F J; Santiago, Jose; Schechter, J; Senjanovic, G; Shao, J; Spira, M; Stieberger, S; Sullivan, Zack; Tait, Tim M P; Tata, Xerxes; Taylor, T R; Toharia, M; Wacker, J; Wagner, C E.M; Wang, Lian-Tao; Weiglein, G; Zeppenfeld, D; Zurek, K

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider presents an unprecedented opportunity to probe the realm of new physics in the TeV region and shed light on some of the core unresolved issues of particle physics. These include the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass, the possible constituent of cold dark matter, new sources of CP violation needed to explain the baryon excess in the universe, the possible existence of extra gauge groups and extra matter, and importantly the path Nature chooses to resolve the hierarchy problem - is it supersymmetry or extra dimensions. Many models of new physics beyond the standard model contain a hidden sector which can be probed at the LHC. Additionally, the LHC will be a top factory and accurate measurements of the properties of the top and its rare decays will provide a window to new physics. Further, the LHC could shed light on the origin of neutralino masses if the new physics associated with their generation lies in the TeV region. Finally, the LHC is also a laboratory ...

  9. Superconductive technologies for the Large Hadron collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2000-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project is the largest plant based on superconductivity and cryogenics: 27 km of tunnel filled with superconducting magnets and other equipment that will be kept at 1.9 K. The dipole magnets have to generate a minimum magnetic field of 8.3 T to allow collisions of proton beams at an energy of 14 TeV in the centre of mass. The construction of LHC started in 1997 at CERN in Geneva and required 10 years of research and development on fine- filament NbTi superconducting wires and cables, on magnet technology and on He-II refrigerators. In particular the project needs the production of about 1000 tons of high-homogeneity NbTi with current densities of more than 2000 A mm/sup -2/ at 9 T and 1.9 K, with tight control also of all other cable properties such as magnetization, interstrand resistance and copper resistivity. The paper describes the main dipole magnets and reviews the most significant steps in the research and development, focusing on the issues related to the conductor, to...

  10. Longitudinal emittance blowup in the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, P

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) relies on Landau damping for longitudinal stability. To avoid decreasing the stability margin at high energy, the longitudinal emittance must be continuously increased during the acceleration ramp. Longitudinal blowup provides the required emittance growth. The method was implemented through the summer of 2010. Band-limited RF phase-noise is injected in the main accelerating cavities during the whole ramp of about 11min. Synchrotron frequencies change along the energy ramp, but the digitally created noise tracks the frequency change. The position of the noise-band, relative to the nominal synchrotron frequency, and the bandwidth of the spectrum are set by pre-defined constants, making the diffusion stop at the edges of the demanded distribution. The noise amplitude is controlled by feedback using the measurement of the average bunch length. This algorithm reproducibly achieves the programmed bunch length of about 1.2ns, at flat top with low bunch-to-bunch scatter and provides a...

  11. Integration of Mathematica in the Large Hadron Collider Database

    CERN Document Server

    Beauquis, J

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the major project in particle physics in the world. The particle accelerator is a 27 km ring where many thousands of superconducting magnets keep protons on track. Results from complex measurements of, for example, the magnetic field and the geometry of the main bending and focusing magnets are stored in databases for analysis and quality control. The geometry of the 15 m long main bending magnet weighing almost 30 tons has to be controlled within tenths of mm. All measurements are stored in ORACLE data bases. They are organized in two types: raw and derived data. Raw data come from the measurement devices and derived data describe quality measures calculated from the raw measurements. For example, the transverse position of the beam tube center relative to the theoretical axis of the accelerator is measured along the magnet. This data is used to simulate improvements or to calculate quality criteria, used in the daily quality checks of all produced magnets. The positio...

  12. Development of superconducting links for the Large Hadron Collider machine

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine, new superconducting lines are being developed for the feeding of the LHC magnets. The proposed electrical layout envisages the location of the power converters in surface buildings, and the transfer of the current from the surface to the LHC tunnel, where the magnets are located, via superconducting links containing tens of cables feeding different circuits and transferring altogether more than 150 kA. Depending on the location, the links will have a length ranging from 300 m to 500 m, and they will span a vertical distance of about 80 m. An overview of the R&D program that has been launched by CERN is presented, with special attention to the development of novel types of cables made from MgB 2 and high temperature superconductors (Bi-2223 and REBCO) and to the results of the tests performed on prototype links. Plans for future activities are presented, together with a timeline for potential future integration in the LHC machine.

  13. W production at large transverse momentum at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Richard J; Kidonakis, Nikolaos; Sabio Vera, Agustín

    2005-11-25

    We study the production of W bosons at large transverse momentum in pp collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We calculate the complete next-to-leading order (NLO) corrections to the differential cross section. We find that the NLO corrections provide a large increase to the cross section but, surprisingly, do not reduce the scale dependence relative to leading order (LO). We also calculate next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO) soft-gluon corrections and find that, although they are small, they significantly reduce the scale dependence thus providing a more stable result.

  14. Destination Universe: The Incredible Journey of a Proton in the Large Hadron Collider (English version)

    CERN Document Server

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    This brochure illustrates the incredible journey of a proton as he winds his way through the CERN accelerator chain and ends up inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC is CERN's flagship particle accelerator which can collide protons together at close to the speed of light, creating circumstances like those just seconds after the Big Bang.

  15. Destination Universe: The Incredible Journey of a Proton in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    This brochure illustrates the incredible journey of a proton as he winds his way through the CERN accelerator chain and ends up inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC is CERN's flagship particle accelerator which can collide protons together at close to the speed of light, creating circumstances like those just seconds after the Big Bang.

  16. Could Large CP Violation Be Detected at Colliders?

    CERN Document Server

    Im, C J C; Malde, P

    1993-01-01

    We argue that CP--violation effects below a few tenths of a percent are probably undetectable at hadron and electron colliders. Thus only operators whose contributions interfere with tree--level Standard Model amplitudes are detectable. We list these operators for Standard Model external particles and some two and three body final state reactions that could show detectable effects. These could test electroweak baryogenesis scenarios.

  17. CERN Library | Mario Campanelli presents "Inside CERN's Large Hadron Collider" | 16 March

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2016-01-01

    "Inside CERN's Large Hadron Collider" by Mario Campanelli. Presentation on Wednesday, 16 March at 4 p.m. in the Library (bldg 52-1-052) The book aims to explain the historical development of particle physics, with special emphasis on CERN and collider physics. It describes in detail the LHC accelerator and its detectors, describing the science involved as well as the sociology of big collaborations, culminating with the discovery of the Higgs boson.  Inside CERN's Large Hadron Collider  Mario Campanelli World Scientific Publishing, 2015  ISBN 9789814656641​

  18. The Large Hadron Collider harvest of run 1

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive volume summarizes and structures the multitude of results obtained at the LHC in its first running period and draws the grand picture of today’s physics at a hadron collider. Topics covered are Standard Model measurements, Higgs and top-quark physics, flavour physics, heavy-ion physics and searches for super symmetry and other extensions of the Standard Model. Emphasis is placed on overview and presentation of the lessons learned. Chapters on detectors and the LHC machine and a thorough outlook into the future complement the book. The individual chapters are written by teams of expert authors working at the forefront of LHC research, typically one from each of the two multi-purpose experiments ATLAS and CMS and one from theory.

  19. Mirror mesons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Triantaphyllou, George

    2016-01-01

    The existence of mirror partners of Standard-Model fermions offers a viable alternative to a fundamental BEH mechanism, with the coupling corresponding to the gauged mirror generation symmetry becoming naturally strong at energies around 1 TeV. The resulting non-perturbative processes produce dynamical katoptron masses which might range from 0.1 to 1.15 TeV in a way circumventing usual problems with the S parameter. Moreover, they create mirror mesons belonging in two main groups, with masses differing from each other approximately by a factor of six and which might range approximately from 0.1 to 2.8 TeV. Since the corresponding phenomenology expected at hadron colliders is particularly rich, some interesting mirror-meson cross-sections are presented, something that might also lead to a deeper understanding of the underlying mirror fermion structure. Among other findings, results in principle compatible with indications from LHC concerning decays of new particles to two photons are analyzed.

  20. Study of highly-excited string states at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Gingrich, Douglas M

    2008-01-01

    In TeV-scale gravity scenarios with large extra dimensions, black holes may be produced at future colliders. Good arguments have been made for why general relativistic black holes may be just out of reach of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). However, in weakly-coupled string theory, highly excited string states - string balls - could be produced at the LHC with high rates and decay thermally, not unlike general relativistic black holes. In this paper, we simulate and study string ball production and decay at the LHC. We specifically emphasize the experimentally-detectable similarities and differences between string balls and general relativistic black holes at a TeV scale.

  1. Hangout With CERN: The Large Hadron Collider (S01E02)

    CERN Multimedia

    Kahle, Kate

    2012-01-01

    In this second Hangout with CERN "The Large Hadron Collider" ATLAS physicist Steven Goldfarb is joined by Giulia Papotti and Laurette Ponce from the CERN Control Centre, Despina Hatzifotiadou and Ken Read from the ALICE experiment, Achintya Rao and Roberto Rossin from the CMS experiment and Patrick Koppenburg from the LHCb experiment, as well as Jaana Nystrom from Finland and Liz Krane from the USA. This hangout answers questions about the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) received via #askCERN on Twitter and Google+ and via YouTube and Facebook comments. Recorded live on 8th November 2012.

  2. Electroweak Precision Measurements and Collider Probes of the Standard Model with Large Extra Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    1999-06-03

    The elementary particles of the Standard Model may live in more than 3+1 dimensions. We study the consequences of large compactified dimensions on scattering and decay observables at high-energy colliders. Our analysis includes global fits to electroweak precision data, indirect tests at high-energy electron-positron colliders (LEP2 and NLC), and direct probes of the Kaluza-Klein resonances at hadron colliders (Tevatron and LHC). The present limits depend sensitively on the Higgs sector, both the mass of the Higgs boson and how many dimensions it feels. If the Higgs boson is trapped on a 3+1 dimensional wall with the fermions, large Higgs masses (up to 500 GeV) and relatively light Kaluza-Klein mass scales (less than 4 TeV) can provide a good fit to precision data. That is, a light Higgs boson is not necessary to fit the electroweak precision data, as it is in the Standard Model. If the Higgs boson propagates in higher dimensions, precision data prefer a light Higgs boson (less than 260 GeV), and a higher compactification scale (greater than 3.8 TeV). Future colliders can probe much larger scales. For example, a 1.5 TeV electron-positron linear collider can indirectly discover Kaluza-Klein excitations up to 31 TeV if 500 fb{sup {minus}1} integrated luminosity is obtained.

  3. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC): The Energy Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brianti, Giorgio; Jenni, Peter

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Superconducting Magnets: Powerful, Precise, Plentiful * LHC Cryogenics: Quantum Fluids at Work * Current Leads: High Temperature Superconductors to the Fore * A Pumping Vacuum Chamber: Ultimate Simplicity * Vertex Detectors at LHC: In Search of Beauty * Large Silicon Trackers: Fast, Precise, Efficient * Two Approaches to High Resolution Electromagnetic Calorimetry * Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber: Chronometry of Particles * The LHCb RICH: The Lord of the Cherenkov Rings * Signal Processing: Taming the LHC Data Avalanche * Giant Magnets for Giant Detectors

  4. Particle Physics after the Higgs-Boson Discovery: Opportunities for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Quigg, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The first run of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN brought the discovery of the Higgs boson, an apparently elementary scalar particle with a mass of 125 GeV, the avatar of the mechanism that hides the electroweak symmetry. A new round of experimentation is beginning, with the energy of the proton--proton colliding beams raised to 6.5 TeV per beam, from 4 TeV at the end of the first run. This article summarizes what we have learned about the Higgs boson, and calls attention to some issues that will be among our central concerns in the near future.

  5. Inside CERN's Large Hadron Collider from the proton to the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    Campanelli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The book aims to explain the historical development of particle physics, with special emphasis on CERN and collider physics. It describes in detail the LHC accelerator and its detectors, describing the science involved as well as the sociology of big collaborations, culminating with the discovery of the Higgs boson. Readers are led step-by-step to understanding why we do particle physics, as well as the tools and problems involved in the field. It provides an insider's view on the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider.

  6. Higgs bosons, electroweak symmetry breaking, and the physics of the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

    2007-02-01

    The Large Hadron Collider, a 7 {circle_plus} 7 TeV proton-proton collider under construction at CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva), will take experiments squarely into a new energy domain where mysteries of the electroweak interaction will be unveiled. What marks the 1-TeV scale as an important target? Why is understanding how the electroweak symmetry is hidden important to our conception of the world around us? What expectations do we have for the agent that hides the electroweak symmetry? Why do particle physicists anticipate a great harvest of discoveries within reach of the LHC?

  7. Improving the discovery potential of charged Higgs bosons at the Tevatron and large hadron collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stefano Moretti

    2003-02-01

    We outline several improvements to the experimental analyses carried out at Tevatron (Run 2) or simulated in view of the large hadron collider (LHC) that could increase the scope of CDF/D0 and ATLAS/CMS in detecting charged Higgs bosons.

  8. CERN celebrating the Lowering of the final detector element for large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of the morning the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector began the descent into its underground experimental cavern in preparation for the start-up of CERNs Large Hadron Collider (LHC) this summer. This is a pivotal moment for the CMS collaboration.

  9. The Large Hadron Collider project: organizational and financial matters (of physics at the terascale)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Engelen

    2012-01-01

    n this paper, I present a view of organizational and financial matters relevant for the successful construction and operation of the experimental set-ups at the Large Hadron Collider of CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva. Construction of these experiments was particularly c

  10. NCG gluon fusion for the Higgs production at large hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadou, I.; Mebarki, N.; Bekli, M. R. [Laboratoire de Physique Mathematique et Subatomique, University of Constantine (Algeria)

    2012-06-27

    A pure NCG gluon fusion contribution to the Higgs production at large hadron colliders is discussed. It is shown that the NCG results become relevant at very high energies. This can be a good signal for the space-time non commutativity events.

  11. Discovering a Light Scalar or Pseudoscalar at The Large Hadron Collider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The allowed standard model Higgs mass range has been reduced to a region between 114 and 130 GeV or above 500 GeV, at the 99% confidence level, since the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program started. Furthermore some of the experiments at Tevatron and LHC observe excesses that could arise from...

  12. Taking Energy to the Physics Classroom from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Xabier; Cid, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the greatest experiment in history began. When in full operation, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will generate the greatest amount of information that has ever been produced in an experiment before. It will also reveal some of the most fundamental secrets of nature. Despite the enormous amount of information available on this…

  13. Smash! exploring the mysteries of the Universe with the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Latta, Sara

    2017-01-01

    What is the universe made of? At CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, scientists have searched for answers to this question using the largest machine in the world: the Large Hadron Collider. It speeds up tiny particles, then smashes them togetherand the collision gives researchers a look at the building blocks of the universe.

  14. A Tale of Two Searches, with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bouffard, Julian Michael

    Two searches carried out with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hardron Collider at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV. Primarily, a search for the associated production of a Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with a top quark pair. Additionally, a search for the existence of R-Parity violating Supersymmetry.

  15. Large Hadron particle collider may not have its run this November

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), based at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, will not run in November this year as scheduled. The LHC was supposed to have a test run this yera, before switching on the scientific search for the Higgs boson in 2008."(1 page)

  16. Quantitative Calculations for Black Hole Production at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    The framework of Large Extra Dimensions provides a way to explain why gravity is weaker compared to the other forces in nature. A consequence of this model is the possible production of D-dimensional Black Holes in high energy p-p collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. The present work uses the CATFISH Black Hole generator to study quantitatively how these events could be observed in the hadronic channel at mid-rapidity using a particle tracking detector.

  17. Quantitative Calculations for Black Hole Production at the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Nicolas; Humanic, Thomas J.

    The framework of large extra dimensions provides a way to explain why gravity is weaker than the other forces in nature. A consequence of this model is the possible production of D-dimensional black holes in high energy p-p collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. The present work uses the CATFISH black hole generator to study quantitatively how these events could be observed in the hadronic channel at midrapidity using a particle-tracking detector.

  18. Diffractive Higgs boson production at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enberg, R; Ingelman, G; Kissavos, A; Tîmneanu, N

    2002-08-19

    Improved possibilities to find the Higgs boson in diffractive events, having less hadronic activity, depend on whether the cross section is large enough. Based on the soft color interaction models that successfully describe diffractive hard scattering at DESY HERA and the Fermilab Tevatron, we find that only a few diffractive Higgs events may be produced at the Tevatron, but we predict a substantial rate at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  19. Beam dynamics aspects of crab cavities in the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Y P; Barranco, J; Tomás, R; Weiler, T; Zimmermann, F; Calaga, R; Morita, A

    2009-01-01

    Modern colliders bring into collision a large number of bunches to achieve a high luminosity. The long-range beam-beam effects arising from parasitic encounters at such colliders are mitigated by introducing a crossing angle. Under these conditions, crab cavities (CC) can be used to restore effective head-on collisions and thereby to increase the geometric luminosity. Such crab cavities have been proposed for both linear and circular colliders. The crab cavities are rf cavities operated in a transverse dipole mode, which imparts on the beam particles a transverse kick that varies with the longitudinal position along the bunch. The use of crab cavities in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may not only raise the luminosity, but it could also complicate the beam dynamics, e.g., crab cavities might not only cancel synchrobetatron resonances excited by the crossing angle but they could also excite new ones, they could reduce the dynamic aperture for off-momentum particles, they could influence the aperture and orbit...

  20. Investigation of induced radioactivity in the CERN Large Electron Positron collider for its decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, Marco

    2004-01-01

    The future installation of the Large Hadron Collider in the tunnel formerly housing the Large Electron Positron collider (LEP) required the dismantling of the latter after 11-year operation. As required by the French legislation, an extensive theoretical study was conducted before decommissioning to establish the possible activation paths both in the accelerator and in the four experiments (L3, ALEPH, OPAL and DELPHI) installed around the ring. The aim was to define which areas may contain activated material and which ones would be completely free of activation. The four major sources of activation in LEP, i.e., distributed and localized beam losses, synchrotron radiation and the super-conducting RF cavities, were investigated. Conversion coefficients from unit lost beam power to induced specific activity were established for a number of materials. A similar study was conducted for the four experiments, evaluating the four potential sources of induced radioactivity, namely e**+e **- annihilation events, two-p...

  1. Heavy-Ion Collimation at the Large Hadron Collider Simulations and Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083002; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Bruce, Roderik; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Bruce, Roderik

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) stores and collides proton and $^{208}$Pb$^{82+}$ beams of unprecedented energy and intensity. Thousands of superconducting magnets, operated at 1.9 K, guide the very intense and energetic particle beams, which have a large potential for destruction. This implies the demand for a multi-stage collimation system to provide protection from beam-induced quenches or even hardware damage. In heavy-ion operation, ion fragments with significant rigidity offsets can still scatter out of the collimation system. When they irradiate the superconducting LHC magnets, the latter risk to quench (lose their superconducting property). These secondary collimation losses can potentially impose a limitation for the stored heavy-ion beam energy. Therefore, their distribution in the LHC needs to be understood by sophisticated simulations. Such simulation tools must accurately simulate the particle motion of many different nuclides in the magnetic LHC lattice and simulate their interaction with t...

  2. Toward particle-level filtering of individual collision events at the Large Hadron Collider and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Colecchia, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Low-energy strong interactions are a major source of background at hadron colliders, and methods of subtracting the associated energy flow are well established in the field. Traditional approaches treat the contamination as diffuse, and estimate background energy levels either by averaging over large data sets or by restricting to given kinematic regions inside individual collision events. On the other hand, more recent techniques take into account the discrete nature of background, most notably by exploiting the presence of substructure inside hard jets, i.e. inside collections of particles originating from scattered hard quarks and gluons. However, none of the existing methods subtract background at the level of individual particles inside events. We illustrate the use of an algorithm that will allow particle-by-particle background discrimination at the Large Hadron Collider, and we envisage this as the basis for a novel event filtering procedure upstream of the official reconstruction chains. Our hope is t...

  3. Discriminating supersymmetry and black holes at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunava; Cavaglià, Marco

    2008-03-01

    We show how to differentiate the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model from black hole events at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Black holes are simulated with the CATFISH generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of pythia and isajet. Our study, based on event-shape variables, visible and missing momenta, and analysis of dilepton events, demonstrates that supersymmetry and black hole events at the LHC can be easily discriminated.

  4. Probing Neutrino Oscillations in Supersymmetric Models at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    De Campos, F; Hirsch, M; Magro, M B; Porod, W; Restrepo, D; Valle, J W F

    2010-01-01

    The lightest supersymmetric particle may decay with branching ratios that correlate with neutrino oscillation parameters. In this case the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has the potential to probe the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle with sensitivity competitive to its low-energy determination by underground experiments. Under realistic detection assumptions, we identify the necessary conditions for the experiments at CERN's LHC to probe the simplest scenario for neutrino masses induced by minimal supergravity with bilinear R parity violation.

  5. Determining the structure of Higgs couplings at the CERN LargeHadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plehn, Tilman; Rainwater, David; Zeppenfeld, Dieter

    2002-02-01

    Higgs boson production via weak boson fusion at the CERN Large Hadron Collider has the capability to determine the dominant CP nature of a Higgs boson, via the tensor structure of its coupling to weak bosons. This information is contained in the azimuthal angle distribution of the two outgoing forward tagging jets. The technique is independent of both the Higgs boson mass and the observed decay channel.

  6. Particle collider magnet failure blamed on faulty engineering Experts are still weighing whether the hitch will delay the start-up of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Researchers have identified the cause of a hiccup in the construction of the world's next top particle smasher, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). During stress tests last week at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), a support structure tore loose from the housing of a keay ultracold magnet."(1 page)

  7. Literature in focus - The Large Hadron Collider: A Marvel of Technology

    CERN Multimedia

    Cecile Noels

    Inside an insulating vacuum chamber in a tunnel about 100 metres below the surface of the Franco-Swiss plain near Geneva, packets of protons whirl around the 27-km circumference of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a speed close to that of light, colliding every 25 nanoseconds at four beam crossing points. The products of these collisions, of which hundreds of billions will be produced each second, are observed and measured with the most advanced particle-detection technology, capable of tracking individual particles as they generate a signature track during their passage through the detectors. All this information is captured, filtered and piped to huge networks of microprocessors for analysis and study by an international team of physicists. When the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) comes on line in 2009, it will be the largest scientific experiment ever constructed, and the data it produces will lead to a new understanding of our Universe. Many thousands of scientists and engineers were behind the planning...

  8. Literature in focus - The Large Hadron Collider: A Marvel of Technology

    CERN Multimedia

    Cecile Noels

    2009-01-01

    Inside an insulating vacuum chamber in a tunnel about 100 metres below the surface of the Franco-Swiss plain near Geneva, packets of protons whirl around the 27-km circumference of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a speed close to that of light, colliding every 25 nanoseconds at four beam crossing points. The products of these collisions, of which hundreds of billions will be produced each second, are observed and measured with the most advanced particle-detection technology, capable of tracking individual particles as they generate a signature track during their passage through the detectors. All this information is captured, filtered and piped to huge networks of microprocessors for analysis and study by an international team of physicists. When the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) comes on line in 2009, it will be the largest scientific experiment ever constructed, and the data it produces will lead to a new understanding of our Universe. Many thousands of scientists and engineers were behind the planning...

  9. Accuracy of the Transverse Emittance Measurements of the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Roncarolo, Federico; Dehning, Bernd Dehning

    High energy accelerators and storage rings are designed to collide charged particle beams and study their collision products. The production rate of the collision products has to be maximized in order to reduce the statistical uncertainty of the produced events. Monitoring the transverse distribution of the accelerated species allows to measure and optimize the beam transverse emittance, which directly affects the secondary particles production rate. The beam transverse emittance is measured by a class of diagnostics, the transverse profile monitors, designed to observe the particles transverse distributions. This thesis work aims at determining the accuracy of two classes of profile monitors presently installed in the CERN accelerators and foreseen for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): wire scanners and residual gas monitors. The explanation of the linear dynamics that characterize the particles transverse motion in an accelerator is followed by the description of the principles of operation of the studied mo...

  10. Large Hadron Collider Physics (LHCP2017) conference | 15-20 May 2017 | Shanghai

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    The fifth Annual Large Hadron Collider Physics will be held in Shanghai and hosted by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in the period of May 15-20, 2017. The main goal of the conference is to provide intense and lively discussions between experimenters and theorists in such research areas as the Standard Model Physics and Beyond, the Higgs Boson, Supersymmetry, Heavy Quark Physics and Heavy Ion Physics as well as to share a recent progress in the high luminosity upgrades and future colliders developments.     The LHCP2017 website: http://lhcp2017.physics.sjtu.edu.cn/ Event date: 15 - 20 May 2017 Location: Shanghai, China

  11. Thermal photon radiation in high multiplicity p+Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, C; Denicol, G S; Jeon, S; Gale, C

    2015-01-01

    The collective behaviour of hadronic particles has been observed in high multiplicity proton-lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), as well as in deuteron-gold collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). In this work we present the first calculation, in the hydrodynamic framework, of thermal photon radiation from such small collision systems. Owing to their compact size, these systems can reach temperatures comparable to those in central nucleus-nucleus collisions. The thermal photons can thus shine over the prompt background, and increase the low $p_T$ direct photon spectrum by a factor of 2-3 in 0-1% p+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV. This thermal photon enhancement can therefore serve as a clean signature of the existence of a hot quark-gluon plasma during the evolution of these small collision systems, as well as validate hydrodynamic behavior in small systems.

  12. Test of Relativistic Gravity for Propulsion at the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    A design is presented of a laboratory experiment that could test the suitability of relativistic gravity for propulsion of spacecraft to relativistic speeds. An exact time-dependent solution of Einstein's gravitational field equation confirms that even the weak field of a mass moving at relativistic speeds could serve as a driver to accelerate a much lighter payload from rest to a good fraction of the speed of light. The time-dependent field of ultrarelativistic particles in a collider ring is calculated. An experiment is proposed as the first test of the predictions of general relativity in the ultrarelativistic limit by measuring the repulsive gravitational field of bunches of protons in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The estimated `antigravity beam' signal strength at a resonant detector of each proton bunch is 3 nm/s2 for 2 ns during each revolution of the LHC. This experiment can be performed off-line, without interfering with the normal operations of the LHC.

  13. Energy Extraction in the CERN Large Hadron Collider a Project Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Kazmine, B; Medvedko, A S; Sytchev, V V; Vasilev, L B

    2001-01-01

    In case of a resistive transition (quench), fast and reliable extraction of the magnetic energy, stored in the superconducting coils of the electromagnets of a particle collider, represents an important part of its magnet protection system. In general, the quench detectors, the quench heaters and the cold by-pass diodes across each magnet, together with the energy extraction facilities provide the required protection of the quenching superconductors against damage due to local energy dissipation. In CERN's LHC machine the energy stored in each of its eight superconducting dipole chains exceeds 1300 MJ. Following an opening of the extraction switches this energy will be absorbed in large extraction resistors located in the underground collider tunnel or adjacent galleries, during the exponential current decay. Also the sixteen, 13 kA quadrupole chains (QF, QD) and more than one hundred and fifty, 600 A circuits of the corrector magnets will be equipped with extraction systems. The extraction switch-gear is bas...

  14. Possible application of an EBIS in preinjectors for large heavy ion colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseroth, H. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Prelec, K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-08-01

    High energy, heavy ion nuclear physics has so far been limited to experiments with a fixed target. Presently there are two projects that would greatly extend the available collision energy: the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) planned at CERN. While RHIC was from the very beginning designed for collisions of all heavy ions up to gold, LHC was initially considered as a p-p and, perhaps eventually, an e-p collider, with the heavy ion option added at a later stage; this option is now included in the planning right from the beginning. The present RHIC scenario for acceleration of gold ions starts with the BNL Tandem injecting Au{sup 14+} ions into the Booster; after acceleration ions are stripped to a charge state of 77+, injected into the AGS, stripped again to 79+ and injected into RHIC, with three bunches per cycle. The LHC scenario for acceleration of lead ions will use as the injector the CERN Heavy Ion Facility: production of ions in a charge state around 27+ in an ECR ion source, followed by an RFQ/linac combination, stripping to Pb{sup 53+} at 4.2 MeV/u, acceleration in the PSB and PS, stripping to the state 82+, and acceleration in the SPS. There would be 144 bunches injected into the LHC per SPS cycle. However, the resulting luminosity would be rather low and several accumulating schemes are being considered as well. In this paper we are considering a next-generation EBIS device as a possible substitution for ion sources in the preinjector stages of the two colliders with the objective of achieving an improved performance.

  15. University of Tennessee deploys force10 C-series to analyze data from CERN's Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Force20 networks, the pioneer in building and securing reliable networks, today announced that the University of Tennessee physics department has deployed the C300 resilient switch to analyze data form CERN's Large Hadron Collider." (1 page)

  16. Large Area Silicon Tracking Detectors with Fast Signal Readout for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Köstner, S

    2005-01-01

    The Standard Model of elementary particles, which is summarized briefly in the second chapter, incorporates a number of successful theories to explain the nature and consistency of matter. However not all building blocks of this model could yet be tested by experiment. To confirm existing theories and to improve nowadays understanding of matter a new machine is currently being built at CERN, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), described in the third chapter. LHC is a proton-proton collider which will reach unprecedented luminosities and center of mass energies. Five experiments are attached to it to give answers to questions like the existence of the Higgs meson, which allows to explain the mass content of matter, and the origin of CP-violation, which plays an important role in the baryogenesis of the universe. Supersymmetric theories, proposing a bosonic superpartner for each fermion and vice versa, will be tested. By colliding heavy ions, high energy and particle densities can be achieved and probed. This stat...

  17. Standard Model Higgs boson searches with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aleandro Nisati; on behalf of the ATLAS Collaboration

    2012-10-01

    The investigation of the mechanism responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking is one of the most important tasks of the scientific program of the Large Hadron Collider. The experimental results on the search of the Standard Model Higgs boson with 1 to 2 fb-1 of proton–proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector are presented and discussed. No significant excess of events is found with respect to the expectations from Standard Model processes, and the production of a Higgs boson is excluded at 95% Confidence Level for the mass regions 144–232, 256–282 and 296–466 GeV.

  18. Boosting Higgs CP properties via VH production at the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Rohini; Miller, David J.; Mohan, Kirtimaan; White, Chris D.

    2014-03-01

    We consider ZH and WH production at the Large Hadron Collider, where the Higgs decays to a bbbar pair. We use jet substructure techniques to reconstruct the Higgs boson and construct angular observables involving leptonic decay products of the vector bosons. These efficiently discriminate between the tensor structure of the HVV vertex expected in the Standard Model and that arising from possible new physics, as quantified by higher dimensional operators. This can then be used to examine the CP nature of the Higgs as well as CP mixing effects in the HZZ and HWW vertices separately.

  19. Boosting Higgs CP properties via VH Production at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Godbole, Rohini; Mohan, Kirtimaan; White, Chris D

    2013-01-01

    We consider ZH and WH production at the Large Hadron Collider, where the Higgs decays to a bb pair. We use jet substructure techniques to reconstruct the Higgs boson and construct angular observables involving leptonic decay products of the vector bosons. These efficiently discriminate between the tensor structure of the HVV vertex expected in the Standard Model and that arising from possible new physics, as quantified by higher dimensional operators. This can then be used to examine the CP nature of the Higgs as well as CP mixing effects in the HZZ and HWW vertices separately.

  20. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: Measuring Matter Antimatter Asymmetries at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Parkes, Chris; Gutierrez, J

    2015-01-01

    This document is the student manual for a third year undergraduate laboratory experiment at the University of Manchester. This project aims to measure a fundamental difference between the behaviour of matter and antimatter through the analysis of data collected by the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The three-body dmecays $B^\\pm \\rightarrow h^\\pm h^+ h^-$, where $h^\\pm$ is a $\\pi^\\pm$ or $K^\\pm$ are studied. The inclusive matter antimatter asymmetry is calculated, and larger asymmetries are searched for in localized regions of the phase-space.

  1. Story of a journey: Rutherford to the Large Hadron Collider and onwards

    CERN Document Server

    Godbole, Rohini M

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I set out arguments why the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) : the machine and the experiments with it, are a watershed for particle physics. I give a historical perspective of the essential link between development of particle accelerators and that in our knowledge of the laws governing interactions among the fundamental particles, showing how this journey has reached destination LHC. I explain how the decisions for the LHC design; the energy and number of particles in the beam, were arrived at. I will end by discussing the LHC physics agenda and the time line in which the particle physicists hope to achieve it.

  2. Experience with High-Intensity Beam Scraping and Tail Population at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Burkart, F; Bruce, R; Mirarchi, D; Salvachua, B; Valentino, G; Wollmann, D

    2013-01-01

    The population of beam tails at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a source of concern for the operation at higher beam energies and intensities when even small fractions of the beam could represent a potential danger is case of slow or fast losses, e.g. caused by orbit transients or by collimator movements. Different studies have been performed using the technique of collimator scans to probe the beam tail population in different conditions. The experience accumulated during the operation at 3.5 TeV and 4 TeV is reviewed.

  3. Searches for the technicolor signatures via gg→W±π_t~(-+) at the Large Hadron Collider

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jin-Shu; SONG Tai-Ping; WANG Shuai-Wei; LU Gong-Ru

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we calculate the production of a charged top pion in association with a W boson via gg fusion at CERN's Large Hadron Collider in the context of the topcolor assisted technicolor model. We find that the total cross section of pp→gg→W±π_t~(-+) is several dozen femtobarns with reasonable values of the parameters, and the total cross section of pp→W±π_t~(-+) can reach a few hundred femtobarns when we consider the sum of the contributions of these two parton subprocesses, gg→W±π_t~(-+) and bb~-→W±π_t~(-+).

  4. Probing new physics in diphoton production with proton tagging at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Fichet, S; Kepka, O.; Lenzi, B.; Royon, C.; Saimpert, M.

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivities to anomalous quartic photon couplings at the Large Hadron Collider are estimated using diphoton production via photon fusion. The tagging of the protons proves to be a very powerful tool to suppress the background and unprecedented sensitivities down to $6 \\cdot 10^{-15}$\\gev$^{-4}$ are obtained, providing a new window on extra dimensions and strongly-interacting composite states in the multi-TeV range. Generic contributions to quartic photon couplings from charged and neutral particles with arbitrary spin are also presented.

  5. Identification and Classification of Beam Loss Patterns in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Panagiotis, Theodoropoulos; Valentino, Gianluca; Redaelli, Stefano; Herbster, Mark

    The Large Hadron Collider, is the largest particle accelerator ever built, achieving record beam energy and beam intensity. Beam losses are unavoidable and can risk the safety of accelerator’s components. Beam loss maps are used to validate the collimation system, designed to protect the accelerator against beam losses. The complexity of this system requires well defined inspection methods and well defined case studies that ensure normal operation and efficient performance evaluation. In this work, enhancements are proposed to the existing validation methods with extensions towards automating the inspection mechanisms, introducing pattern recognition and statistical learning methods.

  6. Pair production of neutral Higgs bosons at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Barrientos-Bendezu, A A

    2001-01-01

    We study the hadroproduction of two neutral Higgs bosons in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model, which provides a handle on the trilinear Higgs couplings. We include the contributions from quark-antiquark annihilation at the tree level and those from gluon-gluon fusion, which proceeds via quark and squark loops. We list compact results for the tree-level partonic cross sections and the squark loop amplitudes, and we confirm previous results for the quark loop amplitudes. We quantitatively analyze the hadronic cross sections at the CERN Large Hadron Collider assuming a favorable supergravity-inspired scenario.

  7. Associated production of Z and neutral Higgs bosons at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Palisoc, Caesar P. [Univ. of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines). National Inst. of Physics

    2011-12-15

    We study the hadroproduction of a CP-even or CP-odd neutral Higgs boson in association with a Z boson in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model (MSSM) We include the contributions from quark-antiquark annihilation at the tree level and those from gluon-gluon fusion, which proceeds via quark and squark loops, and list compact analytic results. We quantitatively analyze the hadronic cross sections at the CERN Large Hadron Collider assuming a favorable supergravity-inspired MSSM scenario. (orig.)

  8. Observable T_7 Lepton Flavor Symmetry at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Qing-Hong; Ma, Ernest; Okada, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    More often than not, models of flavor symmetry rely on the use of nonrenormalizable operators (in the guise of flavons) to accomplish the phenomenologically successful tribimaximal mixing of neutrinos. We show instead how a simple renormalizable two-parameter neutrino mass model of tribimaximal mixing can be constructed with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry T_7 and the gauging of B-L. This is also achieved without the addition of auxiliary symmetries and particles present in almost all other proposals. Most importantly, it is verifiable at the Large Hadron Collider.

  9. Observable T7 lepton flavor symmetry at the Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing-Hong; Khalil, Shaaban; Ma, Ernest; Okada, Hiroshi

    2011-04-01

    More often than not, models of flavor symmetry rely on the use of nonrenormalizable operators (in the guise of flavons) to accomplish the phenomenologically successful tribimaximal mixing of neutrinos. We show instead how a simple renormalizable two-parameter neutrino mass model of tribimaximal mixing can be constructed with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry T(7) and the gauging of B-L. This is also achieved without the addition of auxiliary symmetries and particles present in almost all other proposals. Most importantly, it is verifiable at the Large Hadron Collider.

  10. Associated production of Z and neutral Higgs bosons at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Palisoc, Caesar P. [Univ. of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines). National Inst. of Physics

    2011-12-15

    We study the hadroproduction of a CP-even or CP-odd neutral Higgs boson in association with a Z boson in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model (MSSM) We include the contributions from quark-antiquark annihilation at the tree level and those from gluon-gluon fusion, which proceeds via quark and squark loops, and list compact analytic results. We quantitatively analyze the hadronic cross sections at the CERN Large Hadron Collider assuming a favorable supergravity-inspired MSSM scenario. (orig.)

  11. ORAL ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL "USPEKHI FIZICHESKIKH NAUK": Physics at the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, Igor M.

    2009-06-01

    The goals of the physics to be studied at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are very impressive. Four major experimental installations are ready to compete in obtaining and analyzing the data from high-energy hadron collisions. The main hope is to answer the most intricate questions ever asked concerning the most fundamental problems of matter and its fundamental forces and space structure. The design of the LHC and its four detectors is briefly described. We then review the main facts revealed previously by experimentalists at other accelerators. The most pertinent topics and the stage-by-stage plans for LHC investigations are discussed. Further prospects for high-energy physics are outlined.

  12. Lower limit on dark matter production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jonathan L; Su, Shufang; Takayama, Fumihiro

    2006-04-21

    We evaluate the prospects for finding evidence of dark matter production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We consider weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) and superWIMPs and characterize their properties through model-independent parametrizations. The observed relic density then implies lower bounds on dark matter production rates as functions of a few parameters. For WIMPs, the resulting signal is indistinguishable from background. For superWIMPs, however, this analysis implies significant production of metastable charged particles. For natural parameters, these rates may far exceed Drell-Yan cross sections and yield spectacular signals.

  13. Physics perspectives of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Riccati, L

    2003-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN will deliver ion beams up to centre of mass energies of the order of 5.5 TeV per nucleon, in case of lead. If compared to the available facilities for the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions (SPS and RHIC) , this represents a huge step forward in terms of both volume and energy density that can be attained in nuclear interactions. ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the only detector specifically designed for the physics of nuclear collisions at LHC, even though it can also study high cross section processes occurring in proton- proton collisions. The main goal of the experiment is to observe and study the phase transition from hadronic matter to deconfined partonic matter (quark gluon plasma - QGP). ALICE is conceived as a general purpose detector and will address most of the phenomena related to the QGP formation at LHC energies: to this purpose, a large fraction of the hadrons, leptons and photons produced in each interaction will be measure...

  14. Physics perspectives of the ALICE experiment at the large hadron collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Massimo Masera

    2003-04-01

    The large hadron collider (LHC) under construction at CERN will deliver ion beams up to centre of mass energies of the order of 5.5 TeV per nucleon, in case of lead. If compared to the available facilities for the study of nucleus–nucleus collisions (SpS and RHIC), this represents a huge step forward in terms of both volume and energy density that can be attained in nuclear interactions. ALICE (a large ion collider experiment) is the only detector specifically designed for the physics of nuclear collisions at LHC, even though it can also study high cross-section processes occurring in proton–proton collisions. The main goal of the experiment is to observe and study the phase transition from hadronic matter to deconfined partonic matter (quark gluon plasma – QGP). ALICE is conceived as a general-purpose detector and will address most of the phenomena related to the QGP formation at LHC energies: for this purpose, a large fraction of the hadrons, leptons and photons produced in each interaction will be measured and identified.

  15. Role-Based Access Control for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Yastrebov, I

    2010-01-01

    Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest scientific instrument ever created. It was built with the intention of testing the most extreme conditions of the matter. Taking into account the significant dangers of LHC operations, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has developed multi-pronged approach for machine safety, including access control system. This system is based on role-based access control (RBAC) concept. It was designed to protect from accidental and unauthorized access to the LHC and injector equipment. This paper introduces the new model of the role-based access control developed at CERN and gives detailed mathematical description of it. We propose a new technique called dynamic authorization that allows deploying RBAC gradually in the large systems. Moreover, we show how the protection for the very large distributed equipment control system may be implemented in efficient way. This paper also describes motivation of the project, requirements and overview of the main components: au...

  16. Supersymmetry phenomenology in the context of neutrino physics and the large hadron collider LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanussek, Marja

    2012-05-15

    Experimentally, it is well established that the Standard Model of particle physics requires an extension to accommodate the neutrino oscillation data, which indicates that at least two neutrinos are massive and that two of the neutrino mixing angles are large. Massive neutrinos are naturally present in a supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model which includes lepton-number violating terms (the B3 MSSM). Furthermore, supersymmetry stabilizes the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and the scale of unified theories or the Planck scale. In this thesis, we study in detail how neutrino masses are generated in the B3 MSSM. We present a mechanism how the experimental neutrino oscillation data can be realized in this framework. Then we discuss how recently published data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be used to constrain the parameter space of this model. Furthermore, we present work on supersymmetric models where R-parity is conserved, considering scenarios with light stops in the light of collider physics and scenarios with near-massless neutralinos in connection with cosmological restrictions.

  17. Heavy-ion physics with the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukraft, J

    2012-02-28

    After close to 20 years of preparation, the dedicated heavy-ion experiment A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) took first data at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator with proton collisions at the end of 2009 and with lead nuclei at the end of 2010. After a short introduction into the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, this article recalls the main design choices made for the detector and summarizes the initial operation and performance of ALICE. Physics results from this first year of operation concentrate on characterizing the global properties of typical, average collisions, both in proton-proton (pp) and nucleus-nucleus reactions, in the new energy regime of the LHC. The pp results differ, to a varying degree, from most quantum chromodynamics-inspired phenomenological models and provide the input needed to fine tune their parameters. First results from Pb-Pb are broadly consistent with expectations based on lower energy data, indicating that high-density matter created at the LHC, while much hotter and larger, still behaves like a very strongly interacting, almost perfect liquid.

  18. Supersymmetry, naturalness and the "fine-tuning price" of the Very Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Fowlie, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The absence of supersymmetry or other new physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has lead many to question naturalness arguments. With Bayesian statistics, we argue that natural models are most probable and that naturalness is not merely an aesthetic principle. We calculate a probabilistic measure of naturalness, the Bayesian evidence, for the Standard Model (SM) with and without quadratic divergences, confirming that the SM with quadratic divergences is improbable. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) with naturalness priors in three cases: with only the $M_Z$ measurement; with the $M_Z$ measurement and LHC measurements; and with the $M_Z$ measurement, $m_h$ measurement and a hypothetical null result from a $\\sqrt{s}=100\\,\\text{TeV}$ Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) with $3000/\\text{fb}$. The "fine-tuning price" of the VLHC given LHC results would be $\\sim400$, which is slightly less than that of the LHC results given the electroweak scale ...

  19. submitter Training Behavior of the Main Dipoles in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Todesco, Ezio; Bajko, Marta; Bottura, Luca; Bruning, Oliver; De Rijk, Gijs; Fessia, Paolo; Hagen, Per; Naour, Sandrine Le; Modena, Michele; Perez, Juan Carlos; Rossi, Lucio; Schmidt, Rudiger; Siemko, Andrzej; Tock, Jean-Philippe; Tommasini, Davide; Verweij, Arjan; Willering, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, the 1232 Nb-Ti dipole magnets in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have been commissioned to 7.8 T operational field, with 172 quenches. More than 80% of these quenches occurred in the magnets of one of the three cold mass assemblers (3000 series), confirming what was already observed in 2008. In this paper, the recent analysis carried out on the quench performance of the Large Hadron Collider dipole magnets is reported, including the individual reception tests and the 2008 and 2015 commissioning campaigns, to better understand the above-mentioned anomaly and give an outlook for future operation and possible increase of the operational field. The lower part of the quench probability spectrum is compatible with Gaussian distributions; therefore, the training curve can be fit through error functions. An essential ingredient in this analysis is the estimate of the error to be associated with the training data due to sampling of rare events, allowing to test different hypothesis. Using this approach, an es...

  20. Studies of Machine Protections for Fast Crab Cavity Failures in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Yee Rendon, Bruce; Lopez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Crab Cavities (CCs) play a main role in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) project for increasing the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Their successful installation at KEKB accelerator allowed reaching a peak luminosity of 2.1x10^34/cm^2/s. However, CCs have exhibited abrupt changes of phase and voltage during a time period of the order of a few LHC turns. If similar scenarios take place in the HL-LHC, considering the significant stored energy in the beam, CC failures represent a serious threat in regard to LHC machine protection. This thesis presents and discusses the effect of CC voltage or phase changes on a time interval similar to, or longer than, the one needed to dump the beam. The simulations assume a quasi-stationary state (QSS) distribution, before the failure is produced, in order to assess the particles losses for the HL-LHC. These distributions produce beam losses below the safe operation threshold for Gaussian tails, while, for non-Gaussian tails, they are on the sa...

  1. Chiral electric field in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yang; Yang, Chun-Bin; Cai, Xu; Feng, Sheng-Qin

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed that electric fields may lead to chiral separation in quark-gluon plasma (QGP). This is called the chiral electric separation effect. The strong electromagnetic field and the QCD vacuum can both be completely produced in off-central nuclear-nuclear collision. We use the Woods-Saxon nucleon distribution to calculate the electric field distributions of off-central collisions. The chiral electric field spatial distribution at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energy regions are systematically studied in this paper. The dependence of the electric field produced by the thermal quark in the central position with different impact parameters on the proper time with different collision energies in the RHIC and LHC energy regions are studied in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375069, 11435054, 11075061, 11221504) and Key Laboratory Foundation of Quark and Lepton Physics (Hua-Zhong Normal University)(QLPL2014P01)

  2. High baryon densities in heavy ion collisions at energies attainable at the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Kapusta, Joseph I.

    2017-01-01

    In very high-energy collisions nuclei are practically transparent to each other but produce very hot nearly baryon-free matter in the so-called central rapidity region. The energy in the central rapidity region comes from the kinetic energy of the colliding nuclei. We calculate the energy and rapidity loss of the nuclei using the color glass condensate model. This model also predicts the excitation energy of the nuclear fragments. Using a space-time picture of the collision we calculate the baryon and energy densities of the receding baryonic fireballs. For central collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energy attainable at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, for example, we find baryon densities more than ten times that of atomic nuclei over a large volume.

  3. Magnetic-field-induced squeezing effect at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Long-Gang; Endrődi, Gergely; Petersen, Hannah

    2016-04-01

    In off-central heavy-ion collisions, quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is exposed to the strongest magnetic fields ever created in the universe. Because of the paramagnetic nature of the QGP at high temperatures, the spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field configuration exerts an anisotropic force density that competes with the pressure gradients resulting from purely geometric effects. In this paper, we simulate (3+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamics with external magnetic fields to estimate the effect of this force density on the anisotropic expansion of the QGP in collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). While negligible for quickly decaying magnetic fields, we find that long-lived fields generate a substantial force density that suppresses the momentum anisotropy of the plasma by up to 20 % at the LHC energy and also leaves its imprint on the elliptic flow v2 of charged pions.

  4. High Baryon Densities in Heavy Ion Collisions at Energies Attainable at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In very high energy collisions nuclei are practically tranparent to each other but produce very hot, nearly baryon-free, matter in the so-called central rapidity region. The energy in the central rapidity region comes from the kinetic energy of the colliding nuclei. We calculate the energy and rapidity loss of the nuclei using the color glass condensate model. This model also predicts the excitation energy of the nuclear fragments. Using a space-time picture of the collision we calculate the baryon and energy densities of the receding baryonic fireballs. For central collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energy attainable at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, for example, we find baryon densities more than ten times that of atomic nuclei over a large volume.

  5. Willingness to pay for basic research: a contingent valuation experiment on the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Catalano, Gelsomina; Giffoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of countries and institutions are investing in large-scale research infrastructures (RIs) and in basic research. Scientific discoveries, which are expected thanks to RIs, may have a non-use value, in analogy with environmental and cultural public goods. This paper provides, for the first time, an empirical estimation of the willingness to pay (WTP) for discoveries in basic research by the general public. We focus on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the largest particle accelerator worldwide, where in 2012 the Higgs boson was discovered. Nobody knows the practical value of such discovery, beyond knowledge per se. The findings of our study are based on a dichotomous choice contingent valuation (CV) survey carried out in line with the NOAA guidelines. The survey involved 1,022 undergraduate students enrolled in more than 30 different degrees (including the humanities) at five universities located in four countries (Italy, France, Spain, UK). We ask two main research questions: Which are the ...

  6. Black holes in many dimensions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider: testing critical string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, JoAnne L; Lillie, Ben; Rizzo, Thomas G

    2005-12-31

    We consider black hole production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in a generic scenario with many extra dimensions where the standard model fields are confined to a brane. With approximately 20 dimensions the hierarchy problem is shown to be naturally solved without the need for large compactification radii. We find that in such a scenario the properties of black holes can be used to determine the number of extra dimensions, . In particular, we demonstrate that measurements of the decay distributions of such black holes at the LHC can determine if is significantly larger than 6 or 7 with high confidence and thus can probe one of the critical properties of string theory compactifications.

  7. Commercial associative memory performance for applications in track-based triggers at the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jordan

    2017-01-01

    Dense track environments in pp collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) motivate the use of triggers with dedicated hardware for fast track reconstruction. The ATLAS Collaboration is in the process of implementing a Fast Tracker (FTK) trigger upgrade, in which Content Addressable Memories (CAMs) will be used to rapidly match hit patterns with large banks of simulated tracks. The FTK CAMs are produced primarily at the University of Pisa. However, commercial CAM technology is rapidly developing due to applications in computer networking devices. This poster presents new studies comparing FTK CAMs to cutting-edge ternary CAMs developed by Cavium. The comparison is intended to guide the design of future track-based trigger systems for the next Phase at the LHC.

  8. Black holes in many dimensions at the CERN large Hadron collider testing critical string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, J L; Rizzo, T G; Hewett, JoAnne L.; Lillie, Ben; Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2005-01-01

    We consider black hole production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in a generic scenario with many extra dimensions where the standard model fields are confined to a brane. With ~20 dimensions the hierarchy problem is shown to be naturally solved without the need for large compactification radii. We find that in such a scenario the properties of black holes can be used to determine the number of extra dimensions, n. In particular, we demonstrate that measurements of the decay distributions of such black holes at the LHC can determine if n is significantly larger than 6 or 7 with high confidence and thus can probe one of the critical properties of string theory compactifications.

  9. Landscape of supersymmetric particle mass hierarchies and their signature space at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Daniel; Liu, Zuowei; Nath, Pran

    2007-12-21

    The minimal supersymmetric standard model with soft breaking has a large landscape of supersymmetric particle mass hierarchies. This number is reduced significantly in well-motivated scenarios such as minimal supergravity and alternatives. We carry out an analysis of the landscape for the first four lightest particles and identify at least 16 mass patterns, and provide benchmarks for each. We study the signature space for the patterns at the CERN Large Hadron Collider by analyzing the lepton+ (jet> or =2) + missing P{T} signals with 0, 1, 2, and 3 leptons. Correlations in missing P{T} are also analyzed. It is found that even with 10 fb{-1} of data a significant discrimination among patterns emerges.

  10. Fluctuations as a test of chemical nonequilibrium at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begun, Viktor

    2016-11-01

    It is shown that large chemical potential leads to the significant increase of multiplicity fluctuations for bosons, and makes the fluctuations infinite in the case of Bose-Einstein condensation. It allows us to distinguish between the models that explain the anomalous proton to pion ratio and the low transverse momentum enhancement of pion spectra in Pb+Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider within chemical equilibrium or nonequilibrium models. The effects of resonance decays, finite size of the system, requirements to the event statistics, different momentum cuts, and limited detector acceptance are considered. The obtained results show the possibility to observe a substantial increase of the normalized kurtosis for positively or negatively charged pions in the case of nonequilibrium or partial pion condensation using currently measured data.

  11. Cryogenic safety aspect of the low -$\\beta$ magnest systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darve, C.; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    The low-{beta} magnet systems are located in the LHC insertion regions around the four interaction points. They are the key elements in the beams focusing/defocusing process and will allow proton collisions at a luminosity of up to 10{sup 34}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. Large radiation dose deposited at the proximity of the beam collisions dictate stringent requirements for the design and operation of the systems. The hardware commissioning phase of the LHC was completed in the winter of 2010 and permitted to validate this system safe operation. This paper presents the analysis used to qualify and quantify the safe operation of the low-{beta} magnet systems in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the first years of operation.

  12. Search for Supersymmetry using Heavy Flavour Jets with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Tua, Alan

    The Standard Model of particle physics, despite being extremely successful, is not the ultimate description of physics. The nature of dark matter is not well described, unification of the forces is not achieved and the theory is plagued by a hierarchy problem. One of the proposed solutions to these issues is supersymmetry. This thesis describes numerous searches for supersymmetry carried out using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. In scenarios where R-parity is conserved, supersymmetric final states contain large amounts of missing transverse energy. Furthermore, should supersymmetry correctly describe Nature, the scalar partners of the third generation quarks might be the lightest scalar quarks. The searches reported here exploit these possibilities and make use of signatures which are rich in missing transverse energy and jets coming from heavy flavour quarks. Searches are carried out for direct pair production of third generation scalar quarks as well as gluino-mediated production of these p...

  13. Conceptual design of hollow electron lenses for beam halo control in the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Previtali, Valentina [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Valishev, Alexander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bruce, Roderik [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Redaelli, Stefano [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Rossi, Adriana [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Salvachua Ferrando, Belen [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-06-26

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is a technique for halo control in high-power hadron beams. It is based on an electron beam (possibly pulsed or modulated in intensity) guided by strong axial magnetic fields which overlaps with the circulating beam in a short section of the ring. The concept was tested experimentally at the Fermilab Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses. We are proposing a conceptual design for applying this technique to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A prototype hollow electron gun for the LHC was built and tested. The expected performance of the hollow electron beam collimator was based on Tevatron experiments and on numerical tracking simulations. Halo removal rates and enhancements of halo diffusivity were estimated as a function of beam and lattice parameters. Proton beam core lifetimes and emittance growth rates were checked to ensure that undesired effects were suppressed. Hardware specifications were based on the Tevatron devices and on preliminary engineering integration studies in the LHC machine. Required resources and a possible timeline were also outlined, together with a brief discussion of alternative halo-removal schemes and of other possible uses of electron lenses to improve the performance of the LHC.

  14. Commissioning and First Operation of Superconducting Links at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    van Weelderen, R; Perin, A; Darve, C; Doohan, R S; Gilankar, S G

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) now under commissioning at CERN is a 26.7 km collider based on several thousand high-field superconducting magnets, the majority of which operating in superfluid helium below 2 K and some isolated magnets operating in normal helium at 4.5 K. Four superconducting links (DSLs) of about 76 m in length and one of about 517 m in length, were designed, constructed and installed over a three year period. Their purpose is to transport current over long distances whenever underground LHC space constraints prevents to put power converters, current feed boxes and magnets in each others’ proximity. The four 76 m long DSLs transport current between current feed boxes and several of the isolated magnets, whereas the 517 m long DSL transports current between two current feed boxes. The links are comprised of cryogenic, vacuum-insulated, transfer lines housing one or more superconducting cables. The operating temperatures are about 5 K for the DSL part that houses the cable and about 60 K fo...

  15. The Large Hadron Collider of CERN and the roadmap toward higher performance

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is exploring the new frontier of particle physics. It is the largest and most ambitious scientific instrument ever built and 100 years after the Rutherford experiment it continues that tradition of “smashing atoms” to unveil the secret of the infinitely small. LHC makes use of all what we learnt in 40 years of hadron colliders, in particular of ISR and Sp-pbarS at CERN and Tevatron at Fermilab, and it is based on Superconductivity, discovered also 100 years ago. Designing, developing the technology, building and finally commissioning the LHC took more than twenty years. While LHC is now successfully running, we are already preparing the future for the next step. First, by increasing of a factor five the LHC luminosity in ten years from now, and then by increasing its energy by a factor two or more, on the horizon of the next twenty years. These LHC upgrades, in luminosity and energy, will be the super-exploitation of the CERN infrastructure and is the best investment that the HEP...

  16. Science and the Large Hadron Collider: a probe into instrumentation, periodization and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Arpita

    2012-01-01

    On September 19, 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Switzerland, began the world’s highest energy experiments as a probe into the structure of matter and forces of nature. Just nine days after the gala start-up, an explosion occurred in the LHC tunnel that brought the epic collider to a complete standstill. In light of the catastrophic incident that disrupted the operation of the LHC, the paper investigates the relation of temporality to the cycle of work in science, and raises the question: What kind of methodological value should we ascribe to events such as crises or breakdowns? Drawing upon and integrating classical anthropological themes with two and a half years of fieldwork at the LHC particle accelerator complex, the paper explores how the incident in September, which affected the instrument, acquaints us with the distribution of work in the laboratory. The incident discloses that the organization of science is not a homogenous ensemble, but marked by an enormous diversity of tasks and p...

  17. Collectivity of strange hadrons in small and large colliding systems with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Stephans, George Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Observation of a long-range, near-side, two-particle correlation (known as the ``Ridge") in high-multiplicity pp and pPb collisions opened up new opportunities of exploring novel QCD dynamics in small collision systems. CMS has excellent capabilities of reconstructing weakly decay strange hadrons such as $K^0_s$, $\\Lambda$ and $\\Xi^-$. Studies of strange hadron production and correlations in small colliding systems provide crucial insights to the physical origin of novel collective phenomena. New results of pT spectra and long-range two-particle correlations for charged particles and identified strange hadrons in high-multiplicity pp and pPb collisions are presented. The data at various collision energies for pp and pPb collisions are compared to those obtained in large PbPb colliding systems. A measurement of multi-paricle cumulant in pp and pPb is also presented to explore the collective nature of the long-range correlations.

  18. Test of relativistic gravity for propulsion at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Felber, Franklin

    2009-01-01

    A design is presented of a laboratory experiment that could test the suitability of relativistic gravity for propulsion of spacecraft to relativistic speeds. The first exact time-dependent solutions of Einstein's gravitational field equation confirm that even the weak field of a mass moving at relativistic speeds could serve as a driver to accelerate a much lighter payload from rest to a good fraction of the speed of light. The time-dependent field of ultrarelativistic particles in a collider ring is calculated. An experiment is proposed as the first test of the predictions of general relativity in the ultrarelativistic limit by measuring the repulsive gravitational field of bunches of protons in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The estimated 'antigravity beam' signal strength at a resonant detector of each proton bunch is 3 nm/s^2 for 2 ns during each revolution of the LHC. This experiment can be performed off-line, without interfering with the normal operations of the LHC.

  19. Development of a CVD diamond Beam Condition Monitor for CMS at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Hernando, L; Gray, R; Ilgner, C; MacPherson, A; Oh, A; Pritchard, T; Stone, R; Worm, S

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will store 2808 bunches per colliding beam, with each bunch consisting of 1011 protons at an energy of 7 TeV. If there is a failure in an element of the accelerator, the resulting beam losses could cause damage not only to the machine but also to the experiments. A Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) is foreseen to monitor fast increments of particle fluxes near the interaction point and, if necessary, to generate an abort signal to the LHC accelerator control to dump the beams. The system is being developed initially for the CMS experiment but it is sufficiently general to find potential applications elsewhere. Due to its high radiation hardness, CVD diamond was chosen for investigation as the BCM sensor. Various samples of CVD diamond have been characterized extensively with both a 90Sr source and in high-intensity test beams in order to assess the capabilities of such sensors and to study whether this detector technology is suitable for a BCM system. A selection of results fro...

  20. Minimum Bias Measurements with the ATLAS Detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Leyton, M

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will collide bunches of protons (p) at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 14 TeV and a rate of 40 MHz. The unprecedented collision energy and interaction rate at the LHC will allow us to explore the TeV mass scale and take a major step forward in our understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The initial physics run of the LHC is expected to start in November 2009 and continue until the end of 2010, with collisions at sqrt(s) = 900 GeV, 7 TeV and 10 TeV. ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is a 4pi general-purpose detector designed for studying LHC collisions at the particle level. The design and layout of ATLAS are intended to cover the wide spectrum of physics signatures that are possible at the TeV mass scale. Construction and installation of the ATLAS detector at CERN are now complete. This dissertation focuses on measuring the properties of inelastic pp interactions at the LHC with the ATLAS detector. A method for measuring the central pseudorapidity den...

  1. Conceptual design of hollow electron lenses for beam halo control in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, Giulio; Valishev, Alexander; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Adriana; Ferrando, Belen Salvachua; Salvachua Ferrando, B

    2014-01-01

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is a technique for halo control in high-power hadron beams. It is based on an electron beam (possibly pulsed or modulated in intensity) guided by strong axial magnetic fields which overlaps with the circulating beam in a short section of the ring. The concept was tested experimentally at the Fermilab Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and the European FP7 HiLumi LHC Design Study, we are proposing a conceptual design for applying this technique to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A prototype hollow electron gun for the LHC was built and tested. The expected performance of the hollow electron beam collimator was based on Tevatron experiments and on numerical tracking simulations. Halo removal rates and enhancements of halo diffusivity were estimated as a function of beam and lattice parameters. Proton beam core lifetimes and emittance growth rates were check...

  2. Simulations and measurements of beam loss patterns at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R; Boccone, V; Bracco, C; Brugger, M; Cauchi, M; Cerutti, F; Deboy, D; Ferrari, A; Lari, L; Marsili, A; Mereghetti, A; Mirarchi, D; Quaranta, E; Redaelli, S; Robert-Demolaize, G; Rossi, A; Salvachua, B; Skordis, E; Tambasco, C; Valentino, G; Weiler, T; Vlachoudis, V; Wollmann, D

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide proton beams of unprecedented energy, in order to extend the frontiers of high-energy particle physics. During the first very successful running period in 2010--2013, the LHC was routinely storing protons at 3.5--4 TeV with a total beam energy of up to 146 MJ, and even higher stored energies are foreseen in the future. This puts extraordinary demands on the control of beam losses. An un-controlled loss of even a tiny fraction of the beam could cause a superconducting magnet to undergo a transition into a normal-conducting state, or in the worst case cause material damage. Hence a multi-stage collimation system has been installed in order to safely intercept high-amplitude beam protons before they are lost elsewhere. To guarantee adequate protection from the collimators, a detailed theoretical understanding is needed. This article presents results of numerical simulations of the distribution of beam losses around the LHC that have leaked out of the co...

  3. Searching for Supersymmetry with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    French, Sky Trillium

    2011-01-01

    On Monday 23rd November 2009, the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider began taking data at $\\sqrt{s}=900$ GeV. On the penultimate day of March the following year, after a brief shutdown, ATLAS resumed data taking but at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV. These $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV collisions continued until the end of October 2010. This thesis presents the very first low-$p_T$ electron candidates from the complete 9$\\mu b^{-1} \\sqrt{s}=900$ GeV dataset, and higher-$p_T$ candidates from the first 1 nb$^{-1}$ of the $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV dataset. These candidates are presented in the context of electron reconstruction and identification and illustrate how various properties of these electrons compare with expectations based on Monte Carlo simulations. An observation is made of the $Z$ candidates present in the first ~220 nb$^{-1}$ of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV collision data, these being amongst the first $Z$ bosons ever produced by a proton-proton collider. A detailed study is then presented of the full ~35pb$^{-1}$ 2010 $\\sqrt{s}=7$ T...

  4. Probing Electroweak Gauge Boson Scattering with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Anger, Philipp; Lammers, Sabine

    Electroweak gauge bosons as central components of the Standard Model of particle physics are well understood theoretically and have been studied with high precision at past and present collider experiments. The electroweak theory predicts the existence of a scattering process of these particles consisting of contributions from triple and quartic bosonic couplings as well as Higgs boson mediated interactions. These contributions are not separable in a gauge invariant way and are only unitarized in the case of a Higgs boson as it is described by the Standard Model. The process is tied to the electroweak symmetry breaking which introduces the longitudinal modes for the massive electroweak gauge bosons. A study of this interaction is also a direct verification of the local gauge symmetry as one of the fundamental axioms of the Standard Model. With the start of the Large Hadron Collider and after collecting proton-proton collision data with an integrated luminosity of $20.3\\;\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ at a center-of-mass e...

  5. Fault Tracking of the Superconducting Magnet System at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Griesemer, Tobias

    2016-03-25

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is one of the most complex machines ever built. It is used to explore the mysteries of the universe by reproducing conditions of the big bang. High energy particles are collide in particle detectors and as a result of the collision process secondary particles are created. New particles could be discovered during this process. The operation of such a machine is not straightforward and is subject to many different types of failures. A model of LHC operation needs to be defined in order to understand the impact of the various failures on availability. As an example a typical operational cycle is described: the beams are first injected, then accelerated, and finally brought into collisions. Under nominal conditions, beams should be in collision (so-called ‘stable beams’ period) for about 10 hours and then extracted onto a beam dump block. In case of a failure, the Machine Protection Systems ensure safe extraction of the beams. From the experience in LHC Run 1 (2009 - 20...

  6. Long term dynamics of the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider with crab cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco García, J.; De Maria, R.; Grudiev, A.; Tomás García, R.; Appleby, R. B.; Brett, D. R.

    2016-10-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) aims to achieve an integrated luminosity of 200 - 300 fb-1 per year, including the contribution from the upgrade of the injector chain. For the HL-LHC the larger crossing angle together with a smaller beta function at the collision point would result in more than 70% luminosity loss due to the incomplete geometric overlap of colliding bunches. To recover head-on collisions at the high-luminosity particle-physics detectors ATLAS and CMS and benefit from the very low β* provided by the Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing (ATS) optics, a local crab cavity scheme provides transverse kicks to the proton bunches. The tight space constraints at the location of these cavities leads to designs which are axially non-symmetric, giving rise to high order multipoles components of the main deflecting mode and, since these kicks are harmonic in time, we expand them in a series of multipoles in a similar fashion as is done for static field magnets. In this work we calculate, for the first time, the higher order multipoles and their impact on beam dynamics for three different crab cavity prototypes. Different approaches to calculate the multipoles are presented. Furthermore, we perform the first calculation of their impact on the long term stability of the machine using the concept of dynamic aperture.

  7. Development of large-capacity refrigeration at 1.8 K for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P; Claudet, G

    1996-01-01

    CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, is working towards the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a high-energy, high-luminosity particle accelerator and collider [1] of 26.7 km circumference, due to start producing frontier physics, by bringing into collision intense proton and ion beams with centre-of-mass energies in the TeV-per-constituent range, at the beginning of the next century. The key technology for achieving this ambitious scientific goal at economically acceptable cost is the use of high-field superconducting magnets using Nb-Ti conductor operating in superfluid helium [2]. To maintain the some 25 km of bending and focusing magnets at their operating temperature of 1.9 K, the LHC cryogenic system will have to produce an unprecedented total refrigeration capacity of about 20 kW at 1.8 K, in eight cryogenic plants distributed around the machine circumference [3]. This has requested the undertaking of an industrial development programme, in the form of a collaboration betwe...

  8. TRANSPORT AND INSTALLATION OF CRYO-MAGNETS IN CERN'S LARGE HADRON COLLIDER TUNNEL

    CERN Document Server

    Artoos, K; Coin, A; Gielen, M; Hauviller, Claude; Kershaw, K

    2004-01-01

    The arcs of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will contain around 1700 main superconducting dipoles and quadrupoles. The long and heavy magnets are supported on fragile composite support posts inside a cryostat to reduce the heat in-leak to the magnets' super fluid helium bath. The presence of fragile components and the need to avoid geometry changes make the cryo-magnets very difficult to handle and transport. The transport and installation of the LHC cryo-magnets in the LEP tunnels originally designed for smaller, lighter LEP magnets has required development of completely new handling solutions. The paper explains the constraints imposed by the cryo-magnet characteristics, the existing tunnel infrastructure and schedule considerations. The development and realisation of transport and handling solutions are described, starting from conceptual design, through manufacture and testing to the installation of the first cryo-magnet. Integration studies to verify and reserve space needed for manoeuvre and the prepara...

  9. Performance Assessment of 239 Series Sub-cooling Heat Exchangers for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Riddone, G; Roussel, P; Moracchioli, R; Tavian, L

    2006-01-01

    Helium sub-cooling heat exchangers of the counter-flow type are used to minimize the vapor fraction produced in the final expansion of the 1.9 K distributed cooling loops used for cooling the superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These components are of compact design, featuring low-pressure drop and handling very low pressure vapor at low temperature. Following a qualification phase of prototypes, a contract has been placed in European industry for the supply of 239 heat exchanger units. Different levels of extracted heat load require three different variants of heat exchangers. This paper will describe the manufacturing phase with emphasis on the main difficulties encountered to keep the production quality after a brief recall of the prototype phase. Finally, the acceptance tests performed at room temperature and at the nominal cryogenic condition at the factory and at CEA-Grenoble will be presented.

  10. Massively Parallel Computing at the Large Hadron Collider up to the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080997; Halyo, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    As the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) continues its upward progression in energy and luminosity towards the planned High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) in 2025, the challenges of the experiments in processing increasingly complex events will also continue to increase. Improvements in computing technologies and algorithms will be a key part of the advances necessary to meet this challenge. Parallel computing techniques, especially those using massively parallel computing (MPC), promise to be a significant part of this effort. In these proceedings, we discuss these algorithms in the specific context of a particularly important problem: the reconstruction of charged particle tracks in the trigger algorithms in an experiment, in which high computing performance is critical for executing the track reconstruction in the available time. We discuss some areas where parallel computing has already shown benefits to the LHC experiments, and also demonstrate how a MPC-based trigger at the CMS experiment could not only improve perf...

  11. Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Large Hadron Collider to 2025 and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Florio, Massimo; Sirtori, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Social cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of projects has been successfully applied in different fields such as transport, energy, health, education, and environment, including climate change. It is often argued that it is impossible to extend the CBA approach to the evaluation of the social impact of research infrastructures, because the final benefit to society of scientific discovery is generally unpredictable. Here, we propose a quantitative approach to this problem, we use it to design an empirically testable CBA model, and we apply it to the the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the highest-energy accelerator in the world, currently operating at CERN. We show that the evaluation of benefits can be made quantitative by determining their value to users (scientists, early-stage researchers, firms, visitors) and non-users (the general public). Four classes of contributions to users are identified: knowledge output, human capital development, technological spillovers, and cultural effects. Benefits for non-users can be ...

  12. Incompatibility of FRC `Self--Colliding Beams' with Classical Large Orbit Theory and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglich, Bogdan

    2012-03-01

    Rosenbluth^1: ``One key physics issue is the behavior of very large gyro radius systems, for which the usual thermal physics is inadequate.''- Rostoker^2 posited (1) 0.42 KeV d^+ FRC can achieve confinement^ τ =30 s observed^3 in self-colliding orbits (SCO) of 725 KeV d^+,^ stabilized by magnet focusing^4 and electrons^5 ; (2) FRC result ^6τ=2 x10-3 s is ``record long lived plasma state for advanced, aneutronic fuels ''; (3) non-intersecting collision-less orbits produce nuclear reactions. (i) Bz(r) of FRC is defocusing, field index n>0. From single particle orbit theory^7,8 destructive instability must occur with τ^ AIP CP 311, 292 (93); 9. J.App.Phys.46, 2915 (75); 10. NIM A346 322 (93); 11.NIM 144, 65 (77)

  13. Exergy Analysis of the Cryogenic Helium Distribution System for the Large Hadron Collider (lhc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, S.; Lebrun, Ph.; Tavian, L.; Wagner, U.

    2010-04-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN features the world's largest helium cryogenic system, spreading over the 26.7 km circumference of the superconducting accelerator. With a total equivalent capacity of 145 kW at 4.5 K including 18 kW at 1.8 K, the LHC refrigerators produce an unprecedented exergetic load, which must be distributed efficiently to the magnets in the tunnel over the 3.3 km length of each of the eight independent sectors of the machine. We recall the main features of the LHC cryogenic helium distribution system at different temperature levels and present its exergy analysis, thus enabling to qualify second-principle efficiency and identify main remaining sources of irreversibility.

  14. Calibration of the CMS Pixel Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Vami, Tamas Almos

    2014-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is one of two general-purpose detectors that reconstruct the products of high energy particle interactions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system. It determines the trajectories of charged particles originating from the interaction region in three points with high resolution enabling precise momentum and impact parameter measurements in the tracker. The pixel detector is exposed to intense ionizing radiation generated by particle collisions in the LHC. This irradiation could result in temporary or permanent malfunctions of the sensors and could decrease the efficiency of the detector. We have developed procedures in order to correct for these effects. In this paper, we present the types of malfunctions and the offline calibration procedures. We will also show the efficiency and the resolution of the detector in 2012.

  15. Calibration of the CMS Pixel Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Vami, Tamas Almos

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is one of two general-purpose detectors that reconstruct the products of high energy particle interactions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system. It determines the trajectories of charged particles originating from the interaction region in three points with high resolution enabling precise momentum and impact parameter measurements in the tracker. The pixel detector is exposed to intense ionizing radiation generated by particle collisions in the LHC. This irradiation could result in temporary or permanent malfunctions of the sensors and could decrease the efficiency of the detector. We have developed procedures in order to correct for these effects. In this paper, we present the types of malfunctions and the offline calibration procedures. We will also show the efficiency and the resolution of the detector in 2012.

  16. Transverse-momentum resummation for slepton-pair production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzi, G.; Fuks, B.; Klasen, M.

    2006-07-01

    We perform a first precision calculation of the transverse-momentum (qT) distribution of slepton pair and slepton-sneutrino associated production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We implement soft-gluon resummation at the next-to-leading logarithmic level and consistently match the obtained result to the pure fixed-order perturbative result at leading order in the QCD coupling constant, i.e. O(αs). We give numerical predictions for τ˜1τ˜1* and τ˜1ν˜τ*+τ˜1*ν˜τ production, also implementing recent parametrizations of nonperturbative effects. The results show a relevant contribution of resummation both in the small and intermediate qT-regions and little dependence on unphysical scales and nonperturbative contributions.

  17. Transverse-momentum resummation for slepton-pair production at the CERN large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzi, G; Klasen, M

    2006-01-01

    We perform a first precision calculation of the transverse-momentum (q_T) distribution of slepton pair and slepton-sneutrino associated production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We implement soft-gluon resummation at the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) level and consistently match the obtained result to the pure fixed-order perturbative result at leading order (LO) in the QCD coupling constant, i.e. O(alpha_s). We give numerical predictions for stau_1 stau_1^* and stau_1 sneutrino_tau^* + stau_1^* sneutrino_tau production, also implementing recent parameterizations of non-perturbative effects. The results show a relevant contribution of resummation both in the small and intermediate q_T-regions and little dependence on unphysical scales and non-perturbative contributions.

  18. A clean signal for a top-like isosinglet fermion at the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aarti Girdhar

    2013-12-01

    We predict a clean signal at the Large Hadron Collider ($\\sqrt{s} = 14$ TeV) for a scenario where there is a top-like, charge +2/3 vector-like isosinglet fermion. Such a quark, via mixing with the standard model top, can undergo decays via both flavour-changing Z-boson coupling and flavour-changing Yukawa interactions. We concentrate on the latter channel, and study the situation where, following its pair production, the heavy quark pair gives rise to two tops and two Higgs bosons. We show that when each Higgs decays in the $b\\bar{b}$ channel, there can be a rather distinct and background-free signal that can unveil the existence of the vector-like isosinglet quark of this kind.

  19. The Radiological Situation in the Beam-Cleaning Sections of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Brugger, Markus; Stevenson, Graham

    2003-01-01

    This thesis contributes to radiological assessments of the design and operation of the Large Hadron Collider currently under construction at CERN. In particular, the scope of this thesis is to examine the beam cleaning insertions - two of the main loss regions of the LHC where beam particles which would otherwise cause unwanted losses at different places of the machine are purposely intercepted. Two critical issues with regard to the protection of personnel and environment are studied: remanent dose rates due to induced radioactivity and airborne radioactivity. Although a detailed estimate of remanent dose rates is important for an optimization of later maintenance interventions only very limited information on remanent dose rates to be expected around the collimators was available so far. This thesis is an attempt to extend the knowledge considerably, especially by applying a new calculational method. Since this new approach is used for the first time in the design of the LHC a careful benchmarking with expe...

  20. Crab dispersion and its impact on the CERN Large Hadron Collider collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, P; Tomàs, R; Zimmermann, F

    2010-01-01

    Crab cavities are proposed to be used for a luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Crab cavities are rf cavities operated in a transverse dipole mode, which imparts on the beam particles a transverse kick that varies with the longitudinal position along the bunch. The crab cavity introduces another kind of dispersion to the particles which is z dependent, and thus could complicate the beam dynamics and have an impact on the LHC collimation system. As for LHC, the off-momentum beta-beat and dispersion-beat already compromise the performance of the collimation system; the crab dispersion introduced by global crab cavities might do the same, and should be carefully evaluated. In this paper, we present a definition for the crab dispersion, and study its impact on the LHC collimation system.

  1. Fast supersymmetry phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider using machine learning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, A; White, M J

    2011-01-01

    A pressing problem for supersymmetry (SUSY) phenomenologists is how to incorporate Large Hadron Collider search results into parameter fits designed to measure or constrain the SUSY parameters. Owing to the computational expense of fully simulating lots of points in a generic SUSY space to aid the calculation of the likelihoods, the limits published by experimental collaborations are frequently interpreted in slices of reduced parameter spaces. For example, both ATLAS and CMS have presented results in the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Model (CMSSM) by fixing two of four parameters, and generating a coarse grid in the remaining two. We demonstrate that by generating a grid in the full space of the CMSSM, one can interpolate between the output of an LHC detector simulation using machine learning techniques, thus obtaining a superfast likelihood calculator for LHC-based SUSY parameter fits. We further investigate how much training data is required to obtain usable results, finding that approximately 2000 po...

  2. Simulation of electron-cloud heat load for the cold arcs of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, Humberto; Rumolo, Giovanni; Zimmermann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The heat load due to the electron cloud in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) cold arcs is a concern for its performance near and beyond nominal beam current. We report the results of simulation studies, which examine the electron-cloud induced heat load for different values of low-energy electron reflectivity and secondary emission yield at injection energy, as well as at beam energies of 4 TeV and 7 TeV, for two different bunch spacing: 25 ns and 50 ns. Benchmarking the simulations against heat-load observations at different beam energies and bunch spacings allows an estimate of the secondary emission yield in the cold arcs of the LHC and of its evolution as a function of time.

  3. Effects of the anomalous Higgs couplings on the Higgs boson production at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Kanemura, Shinya

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of dimension-six operators on single- and double-Higgs production via gluon fusion at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). If the top-Yukawa coupling is modified by some new physics whose scale is of the TeV scale, its effect changes the cross sections of single-Higgs production $gg\\to H$ and double-Higgs production $gg\\to HH$ through the top-loop diagram. In particular, double-Higgs production can receive significant enhancement from the effective top-Yukawa coupling and the new dimension-five coupling $t{\\bar t}HH$ which are induced by the dimension-six operator. Comparing these results to the forthcoming data at the LHC, one can extract information of the dimension-six operators relevant to the top quark and the Higgs boson.

  4. Selection of the dipoles for the installation in the second sector of the Large Hadron Collider.

    CERN Document Server

    Todesco, Ezio; Fartoukh, Stéphane David

    2004-01-01

    The criteria for selecting the main dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider for the next sectors to be installed, characterized by a type L diode, is presented. The selection aims at minimizing the spread of the b3 in the next sector, by choosing dipoles featuring the largest b3 among the existing pool of available magnets. The constraints of having the same inner cable in the same sector, and enough magnets with a good geometry shape are also included in the selection. A list of 154 plus a reserve of 20 to be installed in the second sector is defined according to these criteria. The beneficial effect of this selection on the homogeneity of the sector is presented.

  5. Manufacturing and Installation of the Compound Cryogenic Distribution Line for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Riddone,, G; Bouillot, A; Brodzinski, K; Dupont, M; Fathallah, M; Fournel, JL; Gitton, E; Junker, S; Moussavi, H; Parente, C; Riddone, G

    2007-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) [1] currently under construction at CERN will make use of superconducting magnets operating in superfluid helium below 2 K. A compound cryogenic distribution line (QRL) will feed with helium at different temperatures and pressures the local elementary cooling loops in the cryomagnet strings. Low heat inleak to all temperature levels is essential for the overall LHC cryogenic performance. Following a competitive tendering, CERN adjudicated in 2001 the contract for the series line to Air Liquide (France). This paper recalls the main features of the technical specification and shows the project status. The basic choices and achievements for the industrialization phase of the series production are also presented, as well as the installation issues and status.

  6. Industrial Technology for Unprecented Energy and Luminosity The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P

    2004-01-01

    With over 3 billion Swiss francs procurement contracts under execution in industry and the installation of major technical systems in its first 3.3 km sector, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) construction is now in full swing at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The LHC is not only the most challenging particle accelerator, it is also the largest global project ever for a scientific instrument based on advanced technology. Starting from accelerator performance requirements, we recall how these can be met by an appropriate combination of technologies, such as high-field superconducting magnets, superfluid helium cryogenics, power electronics, with particular emphasis on developments required to meet demanding specifications, and industrialization issues which had to be solved for achieving series production of precision components under tight quality assurance and within limited resources. This provides the opportunity for reviewing the production status of the main systems and the progress ...

  7. Beam-induced energy deposition issues in the Very Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N V; Foster, G W

    2001-01-01

    Energy deposition issues are extremely important in the Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) with huge energy stored in its 20 TeV (Stage-1) and 87.5 TeV (Stage-2) beams. The status of the VLHC design on these topics, and possible solutions of the problems are discussed. Protective measures are determined based on the operational and accidental beam loss limits for the prompt radiation dose at the surface, residual radiation dose, ground water activation, accelerator components radiation damage and quench stability. The beam abort and beam collimation systems are designed to protect accelerator from accidental and operational beam losses, IP region quadrupoles from irradiation by the products of beam-beam collisions, and to reduce the accelerator-induced backgrounds in the detectors. (7 refs).

  8. Thermomechanical properties of the coil of the superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Couturier, K; Scandale, Walter; Todesco, Ezio; Tommasini, D

    2002-01-01

    The correct definition and measurement of the thermomechanical properties of the superconducting cable used in high-field magnets is crucial to study and model the behavior of the magnet coil from assembly to the operational conditions. In this paper, the authors analyze the superconducting coil of the main dipoles for the Large Hadron Collider. They describe an experimental setup for measuring the elastic modulus at room and at liquid nitrogen temperature and for evaluating the thermal contraction coefficient. The coils exhibit strong nonlinear stress-strain behavior characterized by hysteresis phenomena, which decreases from warm to cold temperature, and a thermal contraction coefficient, which depends on the stress applied to the cable during cooldown. (35 refs).

  9. Exergy Analysis of the Cryogenic Helium Distribution System for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Claudet, S; Tavian, L; Wagner, U

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN features the world’s largest helium cryogenic system, spreading over the 26.7 km circumference of the superconducting accelerator. With a total equivalent capacity of 145 kW at 4.5 K including 18 kW at 1.8 K, the LHC refrigerators produce an unprecedented exergetic load, which must be distributed efficiently to the magnets in the tunnel over the 3.3 km length of each of the eight independent sectors of the machine. We recall the main features of the LHC cryogenic helium distribution system at different temperature levels and present its exergy analysis, thus enabling to qualify second-principle efficiency and identify main remaining sources of irreversibility..

  10. $W^{pm}H^{mp}$ Associated Production at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Barrientos-Bendezu, A A

    1999-01-01

    We study the production of a charged Higgs boson in association with a W boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider in the context of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model. This production mechanism is particularly promising if the charged Higgs boson is too heavy to be generated by top-quark decay. We compare the contributions due to b b-bar annihilation at the tree level and gg fusion, which proceeds at one loop. Apart from the total cross section, we also consider distributions in transverse momentum and rapidity. We also assess the viability of W^+- H^-+ associated production at the Fermilab Tevatron after the installation of the Main Injector and the Recycler.

  11. Parton distribution functions probed in ultraperipheral collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J; Brady, N; Clark, D B; Godat, E; Olness, F

    2016-01-01

    Vector meson production in ultra-peripheral pA and AA collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are very sensitive to Parton Distribution Functions (PDF) as well as to their leading-order, next-to-leading-order, and medium corrections. This process is a complimentary tool to explore the effects of different PDFs in particle production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus central collisions. Existing and forthcoming data available, e.g., from ALICE and CMS, may be used in conjunction with our theoretical predictions to constrain the PDFs. We make predictions for rapidity distributions and for cross sections of J/$\\psi$ , $\\psi(2S)$ and $\\Upsilon$ production at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV and $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5$ TeV. We use the second energy as representative for the Run 2 of PbPb collisions at the LHC.

  12. W±π(干)t Associated Production at Large Hadron Collider

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jin-Shu; PAN Qun-Na

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the production of a charged top pion in association with a W boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the context of the topcolor assisted technicolor model. We find that the cross section of pp → b(-b) → W±π(干)t is roughly corresponding to the result of the process pp → b(-b) → W±H(干) in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and for reasonable ranges of the parameters, the cross section can reach a few hundred fo. The W±π(干)t signal should be clearly visible at LHC unless π±t is very heavy.

  13. The data acquisition and reduction challenge at the Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cittolin, Sergio

    2012-02-28

    The Large Hadron Collider detectors are technological marvels-which resemble, in functionality, three-dimensional digital cameras with 100 Mpixels-capable of observing proton-proton (pp) collisions at the crossing rate of 40 MHz. Data handling limitations at the recording end imply the selection of only one pp event out of each 10(5). The readout and processing of this huge amount of information, along with the selection of the best approximately 200 events every second, is carried out by a trigger and data acquisition system, supplemented by a sophisticated control and monitor system. This paper presents an overview of the challenges that the development of these systems has presented over the past 15 years. It concludes with a short historical perspective, some lessons learnt and a few thoughts on the future.

  14. Simulations and measurements of beam loss patterns at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, R.; Assmann, R. W.; Boccone, V.; Bracco, C.; Brugger, M.; Cauchi, M.; Cerutti, F.; Deboy, D.; Ferrari, A.; Lari, L.; Marsili, A.; Mereghetti, A.; Mirarchi, D.; Quaranta, E.; Redaelli, S.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Rossi, A.; Salvachua, B.; Skordis, E.; Tambasco, C.; Valentino, G.; Weiler, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Wollmann, D.

    2014-08-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide proton beams of unprecedented energy, in order to extend the frontiers of high-energy particle physics. During the first very successful running period in 2010-2013, the LHC was routinely storing protons at 3.5-4 TeV with a total beam energy of up to 146 MJ, and even higher stored energies are foreseen in the future. This puts extraordinary demands on the control of beam losses. An uncontrolled loss of even a tiny fraction of the beam could cause a superconducting magnet to undergo a transition into a normal-conducting state, or in the worst case cause material damage. Hence a multistage collimation system has been installed in order to safely intercept high-amplitude beam protons before they are lost elsewhere. To guarantee adequate protection from the collimators, a detailed theoretical understanding is needed. This article presents results of numerical simulations of the distribution of beam losses around the LHC that have leaked out of the collimation system. The studies include tracking of protons through the fields of more than 5000 magnets in the 27 km LHC ring over hundreds of revolutions, and Monte Carlo simulations of particle-matter interactions both in collimators and machine elements being hit by escaping particles. The simulation results agree typically within a factor 2 with measurements of beam loss distributions from the previous LHC run. Considering the complex simulation, which must account for a very large number of unknown imperfections, and in view of the total losses around the ring spanning over 7 orders of magnitude, we consider this an excellent agreement. Our results give confidence in the simulation tools, which are used also for the design of future accelerators.

  15. Non-Standard ZZ Production with Leptonic Decays at the Large Hadron Collider

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hao

    2012-01-01

    The prospects of anomalous ZZγ and ZZZ triple gauge boson couplings are investigated at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through an excess of events in ZZ diboson production. Two such channels are selected and the tree level results including leptonic final states are discussed: ZZ → e1 e1+ e2- e2+ and ZZ → e- e+v(v)(e, e1,2 = e, μ). The results in the full finite width method are compared with the narrow width approximation (NWA) method in detail. Besides the Z boson transverse momentum distributions, the azimuthal angle between the Z boson decay to fermions, △Φ, and their separations in the pseudo-rapidity-azimuthal angle plane, AR, as well as the sensitivity on anomalous couplings are displayed at the 14 TeV LHC.%The prospects of anomalous ZZγ and ZZZ triple gauge boson couplings are investigated at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through an excess of events in ZZ diboson production.Two such channels are selected and the tree level results including leptonic final states are discussed:Z Z → e-1e+1 e-2 e+2 and Z Z → e-e+v-(v)( e,e1,2 =e,μ).The results in the full finite width method are compared with the narrow width approximation (NWA) method in detail.Besides the Z boson transverse momentum distributions,the azimuthal angle between the Z boson decay to fermions,△ Φ,and their separations in the pseudo-rapidity-azimuthal angle plane,△R,as well as the sensitivity on anomalous couplings are displayed at the 14 TeV LHC.

  16. Calculations of safe collimator settings and β^{*} at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN was very successful and resulted in important physics discoveries. One way of increasing the luminosity in a collider, which gave a very significant contribution to the LHC performance in the first run and can be used even if the beam intensity cannot be increased, is to decrease the transverse beam size at the interaction points by reducing the optical function β^{*}. However, when doing so, the beam becomes larger in the final focusing system, which could expose its aperture to beam losses. For the LHC, which is designed to store beams with a total energy of 362 MJ, this is critical, since the loss of even a small fraction of the beam could cause a magnet quench or even damage. Therefore, the machine aperture has to be protected by the collimation system. The settings of the collimators constrain the maximum beam size that can be tolerated and therefore impose a lower limit on β^{*}. In this paper, we present calculations to determine safe collimator settings and the resulting limit on β^{*}, based on available aperture and operational stability of the machine. Our model was used to determine the LHC configurations in 2011 and 2012 and it was found that β^{*} could be decreased significantly compared to the conservative model used in 2010. The gain in luminosity resulting from the decreased margins between collimators was more than a factor 2, and a further contribution from the use of realistic aperture estimates based on measurements was almost as large. This has played an essential role in the rapid and successful accumulation of experimental data in the LHC.

  17. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitzmann, T.; Grelli, A.; Mischke, A.; Snellings, R.J.M.; van Leeuwen, M.; Nooren, G.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic

  18. Search for Large Extra Dimensions in the Diphoton Final State at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Adler, Volker; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes e Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Awad, Adel; Khalil, Shaaban; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Tonutti, Manfred; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Rosin, Michele; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Karafasoulis, Konstantinos; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Radics, Balint; Sikler, Ferenc; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jeong, Min-Soo; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Bona, Marcella; Breuker, Horst; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Maurisset, Aurelie; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguiló, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; MacEvoy, Barry C; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Chandra, Avdhesh; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Shen, Benjamin C; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Shin, Kyoungha; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Cassel, David; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Limon, Peter; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Mesa, Dalgis; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Quertenmont, Loic; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Flood, Kevin; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Palmonari, Francesco; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    A search for large extra spatial dimensions via virtual-graviton exchange in the diphoton channel has been carried out with the CMS detector at the LHC. No excess of events above the standard model expectations is found using a data sample collected in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. New lower limits on the effective Planck scale in the range of 1.6-2.3 TeV at the 95% confidence level are set, providing the most restrictive bounds to date on models with more than two large extra dimensions.

  19. Search for Large Extra Dimensions in the Diphoton Final State at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia)

    2011-05-01

    A search for large extra spatial dimensions via virtual-graviton exchange in the diphoton channel has been carried out with the CMS detector at the LHC. No excess of events above the standard model expectations is found using a data sample collected in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. New lower limits on the effective Planck scale in the range of 1.6-2.3 TeV at the 95% confidence level are set, providing the most restrictive bounds to date on models with more than two large extra dimensions.

  20. Ion Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, W

    2014-01-01

    High-energy ion colliders are large research tools in nuclear physics to study the Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP). The range of collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operational considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species. Ion species range from protons, including polarized protons in RHIC, to heavy nuclei like gold, lead and uranium. Asymmetric collision combinations (e.g. protons against heavy ions) are also essential. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams, limits are set by space charge, charge change, and intrabeam scattering effects, as well as beam losses due to a variety of other phenomena. Currently, there are two operating ion colliders, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  1. Fundamental cavity impedance and longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudrenghien, P.; Mastoridis, T.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between beam dynamics and the radio frequency (rf) station in circular colliders is complex and can lead to longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities at high beam currents. The excitation of the cavity higher order modes is traditionally damped using passive devices. But the wakefield developed at the cavity fundamental frequency falls in the frequency range of the rf power system and can, in theory, be compensated by modulating the generator drive. Such a regulation is the responsibility of the low-level rf (llrf) system that measures the cavity field (or beam current) and generates the rf power drive. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) rf was designed for the nominal LHC parameter of 0.55 A DC beam current. At 7 TeV the synchrotron radiation damping time is 13 hours. Damping of the instability growth rates due to the cavity fundamental (400.789 MHz) can only come from the synchrotron tune spread (Landau damping) and will be very small (time constant in the order of 0.1 s). In this work, the ability of the present llrf compensation to prevent coupled-bunch instabilities with the planned high luminosity LHC (HiLumi LHC) doubling of the beam current to 1.1 A DC is investigated. The paper conclusions are based on the measured performances of the present llrf system. Models of the rf and llrf systems were developed at the LHC start-up. Following comparisons with measurements, the system was parametrized using these models. The parametric model then provides a more realistic estimation of the instability growth rates than an ideal model of the rf blocks. With this modeling approach, the key rf settings can be varied around their set value allowing for a sensitivity analysis (growth rate sensitivity to rf and llrf parameters). Finally, preliminary measurements from the LHC at 0.44 A DC are presented to support the conclusions of this work.

  2. Studies of purification of the Resistive Plate Chamber gas mixture for the Large Hadron Collider experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Capeans, M; Guida, R; Hahn, F; Haider, S

    2009-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) installed as part of the large muon detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments use a gas mixture of 94.7% C2H2F4, 5% iC(4)H(10) and 0.3% SF6. Based on economical grounds, the design philosophy of the gas systems for the ATLAS and CMS RPC's foresees to recirculate the gas mixture in 90-95% closed loop circulation. At the LHC, RPC chambers are operated in a high radiation environment, conditions for which large amount of impurities in the return gas have been observed in earlier studies. They are potentially dangerous for the stable operation of the detectors, the materials in the detector and the gas system. While several purification stages have been foreseen in the present gas systems, chemical reactions between the absorber and the impurities are yet not well understood. Furthermore, the effects on the gas mixture of the foreseen factor 10 increase of luminosity for the LHC upgraded phase should be studied. We present the results of systematic studies of the...

  3. Measurement of nonlinear observables in the Large Hadron Collider using kicked beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, E. H.; Tomás, R.; Schmidt, F.; Persson, T. H. B.

    2014-08-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a circular accelerator such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may significantly impact its performance. As the LHC progresses to more challenging regimes of operation it is to be expected that the nonlinear single particle dynamics in the transverse planes will play an increasing role in limiting the reach of the accelerator. As such it is vital that the nonlinear sources are well understood. The nonlinear fields of a circular accelerator may be probed through measurement of the amplitude detuning: the variation of tune with single particle emittance. This quantity may be assessed experimentally by exciting the beam to large amplitudes with kicks, and obtaining the tunes and actions from turn-by-turn data at Beam Position Monitors. The large amplitude excitations inherent to such a measurement also facilitate measurement of the dynamic aperture from an analysis of beam losses following the kicks. In 2012 these measurements were performed on the LHC Beam 2 at injection energy (450 GeV) with the nominal magnetic configuration. Nonlinear coupling was also observed. A second set of measurements were performed following the application of corrections for b4 and b5 errors. Analysis of the experimental results, and a comparison to simulation are presented herein.

  4. Searches for the technicolor signatures via gg ) W±+πtT at the Large Hadron Collider%Searches for the technicolor signatures via gg ) W±+πtT at the Large Hadron Collider

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金书; 宋太平; 王帅伟; 鲁公儒

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we calculate the production of a charged top pion in association with a W boson via gg fusion at CERN's Large Hadron Collider in the context of the topcolor assisted technicolor model. We find that the total cross section of pp → gg → W±+πt

  5. Summary of the very large hadron collider physics and detector workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, G.; Berger, M.; Brandt, A.; Eno, S. [and others

    1997-10-01

    One of the options for an accelerator beyond the LHC is a hadron collider with higher energy. Work is going on to explore accelerator technologies that would make such a machine feasible. This workshop concentrated on the physics and detector issues associated with a hadron collider with an energy in the center of mass of the order of 100 to 200 TeV.

  6. The Local Helium Compound Transfer Lines for the Large Hadron Collider Cryogenic System

    CERN Document Server

    Parente, C; Munday, A; Wiggins, P

    2006-01-01

    The cryogenic system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN will include twelve new local helium transfer lines distributed among five LHC points in underground caverns. These lines, being manufactured and installed by industry, will connect the cold boxes of the 4.5-K refrigerators and the 1.8-K refrigeration units to the cryogenic interconnection boxes. The lines have a maximum of 30-m length and may possess either small or large re-distribution units to allow connection to the interface ports. Due to space restrictions the lines may have complex routings and require several elbowed sections. The lines consist of a vacuum jacket, a thermal shield and either three or four helium process pipes. Specific internal and external supporting and compensation systems were designed for each line to allow for thermal contraction of the process pipes (or vacuum jacket, in case of a break in the insulation vacuum) and to minimise the forces applied to the interface equipment. Whenever possible, f...

  7. Correlation between magnetic field quality and mechanical components of the Large Hadron Collider main dipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellesia, B

    2006-12-15

    The 1234 superconducting dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider, working at a cryogenic temperature of 1.9 K, must guarantee a high quality magnetic field to steer the particles inside the beam pipe. Magnetic field measurements are a powerful way to detect assembly faults that could limit magnet performances. The aim of the thesis is the analysis of these measurements performed at room temperature during the production of the dipoles. In a large scale production the ideal situation is that all the magnets produced were identical. However all the components constituting a magnet are produced with certain tolerance and the assembly procedures are optimized during the production; due to these the reality drifts away from the ideal situation. We recollected geometrical data of the main components (superconducting cables, coil copper wedges and austenitic steel coil collars) and coupling them with adequate electro-magnetic models we reconstructed a multipolar field representation of the LHC dipoles defining their critical components and assembling procedures. This thesis is composed of 3 main parts: 1) influence of the geometry and of the assembling procedures of the dipoles on the quality of the magnetic field, 2) the use of measurement performed on the dipoles in the assembling step in order to solve production issues and to understand the behaviour of coils during the assembling step, and 3) a theoretical study of the uncertain harmonic components of the magnetic field in order to assess the dipole production.

  8. Phenomenology of Large Extra Dimensions Models at Hadrons Colliders using Monte Carlo Techniques (Spin-2 Graviton)

    CERN Document Server

    Bakhet, Nady; Hussein, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Large Extra Dimensions Models have been proposed to remove the hierarchy problem and give an explanation why the gravity is so much weaker than the other three forces. In this work, we present an analysis of Monte Carlo data events for new physics signatures of spin-2 Graviton in context of ADD model with total dimensions $D=4+\\delta,$ $\\delta = 1,2,3,4,5,6 $ where $ \\delta $ is the extra special dimension, this model involves missing momentum $P_{T}^{miss}$ in association with jet in the final state via the process $pp(\\bar{p}) \\rightarrow G+jet$, Also, we present an analysis in context of the RS model with 5-dimensions via the process $pp(\\bar{p}) \\rightarrow G+jet$, $G \\rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}$ with final state $e^{+}e^{-}+jet$. We used Monte Carlo event generator Pythia8 to produce efficient signal selection rules at the Large Hadron Collider with $\\sqrt{s}$=14TeV and at the Tevatron $\\sqrt{s}$=1.96TeV .

  9. A Possible 1.8 K Refrigeration Cycle for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Millet, F; Tavian, L; Wagner, U

    1998-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CERN, will make use of superconducting magnets operating below 2.0 K. This requires, for each of the eight future cryogenic installations, an isothermal cooling capacity of up to 2.4 kW obtained by vaporisation of helium II at 1.6 kPa and 1.8 K. The process design for this cooling duty has to satisfy several demands. It has to be adapted to four already existing as well as to four new refrigerators. It must cover a dynamic range of one to three, and it must to allow continuous pump-down from 4.5 K to 1.8 K. A possible solution, as presented in this paper, includes a combination of cold centrifugal and warm volumetric compressors. It is characterised by a low thermal load on the refrigerator, and a large range of adaptability to different operation modes. The expected power factor for 1.8 K cooling is given, and the proposed control strategy is explained.

  10. Development of a beam condition monitor for use in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider using synthetic diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Hernando, L; Ilgner, C; MacPherson, A; Oh, A; Pernegger, H; Pritchard, T; Stone, R; Worm, S

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will collide two counter rotating proton beams, each with a store energy about 350MJ; enough to melt 550kg of copper. If there is failure in an element of the accelerator, the resulting beam losses could cause damage not only to the machine but also to the experiments. A Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) is foreseen to monitor last increments of particle flux near the interaction point and if necessary, to generate an abort signal to the LHC accelerator control, to dump the beams. Due to its radiation hardness and minimal services requirements, synthetic CVD diamond is being considered as BCM sensor option. (12 refs).

  11. On the Deviation of the Standard Model Predictions in the Large Hadron Collider Experiments (Letters to Progress in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyakov A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The newest Large Hadron Collider experiments targeting the search for New Physics manifested the possibility of new heavy particles. Such particles are not predicted in the framework of Standard Model, however their existence is lawful in the framework of another model based on J. A.Wheeler’s geometrodynamcs.

  12. The B  ‑  L supersymmetric standard model with inverse seesaw at the large hadron collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, S.; Moretti, S.

    2017-03-01

    We review the TeV scale B  ‑  L extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (BLSSM) where an inverse seesaw mechanism of light neutrino mass generation is naturally implemented and concentrate on its hallmark manifestations at the large hadron collider (LHC).

  13. The Design of a Large Booster Ring for the Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Nissen, Todd Satogata, Yuhong Zhang

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we present the current design of the large booster ring for the Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jefferson Lab. The booster ring takes 3 GeV protons or ions of equivalent rigidity from a pre-booster ring, and accelerates them to 20 GeV for protons or equivalent energy for light to heavy ions before sending them to the ion collider ring. The present design calls for a figure-8 shape of the ring for superior preservation of ion polarization. The ring is made of warm magnets and shares a tunnel with the two collider rings. Acceleration is achieved by warm RF systems. The linear optics has been designed with the transition energy above the highest beam energy in the ring so crossing of transition energy will be avoided. Preliminary beam dynamics studies including chromaticity compensation are presented in this paper.

  14. Beam losses from ultra-peripheral nuclear collisions between Pb ions in the Large Hadron Collider and their alleviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, R.; /CERN; Bocian, D.; /Fermilab /CERN; Gilardoni, S.; Jowett, J.M.; /CERN

    2009-08-01

    Electromagnetic interactions between colliding heavy ions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will give rise to localized beam losses that may quench superconducting magnets, apart from contributing significantly to the luminosity decay. To quantify their impact on the operation of the collider, we have used a three-step simulation approach, which consists of optical tracking, a Monte-Carlo shower simulation and a thermal network model of the heat flow inside a magnet. We present simulation results for the case of {sup 208}Pb{sup 82+} ion operation in the LHC, with focus on the alice interaction region, and show that the expected heat load during nominal {sup 208}Pb{sup 82+} operation is 40% above the quench level. This limits the maximum achievable luminosity. Furthermore, we discuss methods of monitoring the losses and possible ways to alleviate their effect.

  15. Large-charge quasimonoenergetic electron beams produced by off-axis colliding laser pulses in underdense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z. G.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhang, B.; He, S. K.; Teng, J.; Hong, W.; Dong, K. G.; Wu, Y. C.; Zhu, B.; Gu, Y. Q.

    2017-02-01

    Electrons can be efficiently injected into a plasma wave by colliding two counterpropagating laser pulses in a laser wakefield acceleration. However, the generation of a high-quality electron beam with a large charge is difficult in the traditional on-axis colliding scheme due to the growth of the electron beam duration coming from the increase of the beam charge. To solve this problem, we propose an off-axis colliding scheme, in which the collision point is away from the axis of the driver pulse. We show that the electrons injected from the off-axis region are highly concentered on the tail of the bubble even for a large trapped charge, thus feeling almost the same accelerating field. As a result, quasimonoenergetic electron beams with a large charge can be produced. The validity of this scheme is confirmed by both the particle-in-cell simulations and the Hamiltonian model. Furthermore, it is shown that a Laguerre-Gauss (LG) laser can be adopted as the injection pulse to realize the off-axis colliding injection in three dimensions symmetrically, which may be useful in simplifying the technical layout of the real experiment setup.

  16. Podcast The Large Hadron Collider and the Search for the Higgs-Boson

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    When it was first developed, the standard model predicted a collection of particles, and thanks to more and more powerful colliders, physicsists have been able to find them all except one: the Higgs-Boson.

  17. Chromaticity decay due to superconducting dipoles on the injection plateau of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Aquilina, N; Sammut, N; Strzeclzyk, M; Todesco, E

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that in a superconducting accelerator a significant chromaticity drift can be induced by the decay of the sextupolar component of the main dipoles. In this paper we give a brief overview of what was expected for the Large Hadron Collider on the grounds of magnetic measurements of individual dipoles carried out during the production. According to this analysis, the decay time constants were of the order of 200 s: since the injection in the LHC starts at least 30 minutes after the magnets are at constant current, the dynamic correction of this effect was not considered to be necessary. The first beam measurements of chromaticity showed significant decay even after few hours. For this reason, a dynamic correction of decay on the injection plateau was implemented based on beam measurements. This means that during the injection plateau the sextupole correctors are powered with a varying current to cancel out the decay of the dipoles. This strategy has been implemented successfully. A similar pheno...

  18. Busca por dimensões extras no detector CMS do large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R

    We present the results of a search for experimental evidence of extra space dimensions in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, furnished by the Large Hadron Collider accelerator. We analyzed the data taken by the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment during 2011, which total an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb−1. The Randall-Sundrum warped extra dimensions model was used as a standard benchmark for the experimental signatures which could be observed in the data, in the presence of extra dimensions. The studied reaction is pp → G∗→ ZZ→ qqνν, where G∗ is the first Randall-Sundrum graviton resonance. The observations agree witht he Standard Model predictions. In the absence of experimental signals of extra dimensions, we put limits on the parameters of the Randall-Sundrum model. Upper limits, with 95% confidence, for the cross-section of processes which would raise the event yield in the channel considered are in the [0.047 – 0.021] pb range, for resonance masses in the [1000...

  19. T-odd Gluon-Top-Quark Effective Couplings at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, S Y; Lee, J; Lee, Jake

    1997-01-01

    The T-odd top-quark chromoelectric dipole moment (tCEDM) is probed through top-quark-pair production via gluon fusion at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by considering the possibility of having polarized protons. The complete analytic expressions for the tree-level helicity amplitudes of gg-> ttbar is also presented. For the derived analytic results we determine the 1-sigma statistical sensitivities to the tCEDM form factor for (i) typical CP-odd observables composed of lepton and anti-lepton momenta from t and tbar semileptonic decays for unpolarized protons, and (ii) a CP-odd event asymmetry for polarized protons by using the so-called Berger-Qiu (BQ) parametrization of polarized gluon distribution functions. We find that at the CERN LHC, the CP-odd energy and angular correlations can put a limit of 10^{-18} to 10^{-17} g_scm on the real and imaginary parts of the tCEDM, while the simple CP-odd event asymmetry with polarized protons could put a very strong limit of 10^{-20} g_scm on the imaginary part ...

  20. Final implementation, commissioning, and performance of embedded collimator beam position monitors in the Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Valentino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During Long Shutdown 1, 18 Large Hadron Collider (LHC collimators were replaced with a new design, in which beam position monitor (BPM pick-up buttons are embedded in the collimator jaws. The BPMs provide a direct measurement of the beam orbit at the collimators, and therefore can be used to align the collimators more quickly than using the standard technique which relies on feedback from beam losses. Online orbit measurements also allow for reducing operational margins in the collimation hierarchy placed specifically to cater for unknown orbit drifts, therefore decreasing the β^{*} and increasing the luminosity reach of the LHC. In this paper, the results from the commissioning of the embedded BPMs in the LHC are presented. The data acquisition and control software architectures are reviewed. A comparison with the standard alignment technique is provided, together with a fill-to-fill analysis of the measured orbit in different machine modes, which will also be used to determine suitable beam interlocks for a tighter collimation hierarchy.

  1. Final implementation, commissioning, and performance of embedded collimator beam position monitors in the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Gianluca; Baud, Guillaume; Bruce, Roderik; Gasior, Marek; Mereghetti, Alessio; Mirarchi, Daniele; Olexa, Jakub; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua, Belen; Valloni, Alessandra; Wenninger, Jorg

    2017-08-01

    During Long Shutdown 1, 18 Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collimators were replaced with a new design, in which beam position monitor (BPM) pick-up buttons are embedded in the collimator jaws. The BPMs provide a direct measurement of the beam orbit at the collimators, and therefore can be used to align the collimators more quickly than using the standard technique which relies on feedback from beam losses. Online orbit measurements also allow for reducing operational margins in the collimation hierarchy placed specifically to cater for unknown orbit drifts, therefore decreasing the β* and increasing the luminosity reach of the LHC. In this paper, the results from the commissioning of the embedded BPMs in the LHC are presented. The data acquisition and control software architectures are reviewed. A comparison with the standard alignment technique is provided, together with a fill-to-fill analysis of the measured orbit in different machine modes, which will also be used to determine suitable beam interlocks for a tighter collimation hierarchy.

  2. Investigation of collimator materials for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Quaranta, Elena; Bertarelli, Alessandro; Redaelli, Stefano

    This PhD thesis work has been carried out at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland), in the framework of the High Luminosity (HL) upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The HL-LHC upgrade will bring the accelerator beyond the nominal performance: it is planning to reach higher stored beam energy up to 700 MJ, through more intense proton beams. The present multi-stage LHC collimation system was designed to handle 360 MJ stored beam energy and withstand realistic losses only for this nominal beam. Therefore, the challenging HL-LHC beam parameters pose strong concerns for beam collimation, which call for important upgrades of the present system. The objective of this thesis is to provide solid basis for optimum choices of materials for the different collimators that will be upgraded for the baseline layout of the HL-LHC collimation system. To achieve this goal, material-related limitations of the present system are identified and novel advanced composite materials are se...

  3. High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) Technical Design Report V. 0.1

    CERN Document Server

    Béjar Alonso I.; Brüning O.; Fessia P.; Lamont M.; Rossi L.; Tavian L.

    2017-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the largest scientific instruments ever built. Since opening up a newenergy frontier for exploration in 2010, it has gathered a global user community of about 7,000 scientists work-ing in fundamental particle physics and the physics of hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density. Tosustain and extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s. This will increase itsinstantaneous luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond the original design value and the integratedluminosity (total collisions created) by a factor ten. The LHC is already a highly complex and exquisitely opti-mised machine so this upgrade must be carefully conceived and will require about ten years to implement. Thenew configuration, known as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), relies on a number of key innovations that pushaccelerator technology beyond its present limits. Among these are cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting mag-nets, compact superco...

  4. Instrumentation Status of the Low-β Magnet Systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Darve, C; Casas-Cubillos, J; Perin, A; Vauthier, N

    2011-01-01

    The low-β magnet systems are located in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) insertion regions around the four interaction points. They are the key elements in the beams focusing/defocusing process allowing proton collisions at luminosity up to 1034cm-2s-1. Those systems are a contribution of the US-LHC Accelerator project. The systems are mainly composed of the quadrupole magnets (triplets), the separation dipoles and their respective electrical feed-boxes (DFBX). The low-β magnet systems operate in an environment of extreme radiation, high gradient magnetic field and high heat load to the cryogenic system due to the beam dynamic effect. Due to the severe environment, the robustness of the diagnostics is primordial for the operation of the triplets. The hardware commissioning phase of the LHC was completed in February 2010. In the sake of a safer and more user-friendly operation, several consolidations and instrumentation modifications were implemented during this commissioning phase. This paper presents the in...

  5. Instrumentation status of the low-b magnet systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Darve, C.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Perin, A.; Vauthier, N.

    2011-01-01

    The low-beta magnet systems are located in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) insertion regions around the four interaction points. They are the key elements in the beams focusing/defocusing process allowing proton collisions at luminosity up to 10**34/cm**2s. Those systems are a contribution of the US-LHC Accelerator project. The systems are mainly composed of the quadrupole magnets (triplets), the separation dipoles and their respective electrical feed-boxes (DFBX). The low-beta magnet systems operate in an environment of extreme radiation, high gradient magnetic field and high heat load to the cryogenic system due to the beam dynamic effect. Due to the severe environment, the robustness of the diagnostics is primordial for the operation of the triplets. The hardware commissioning phase of the LHC was completed in February 2010. In the sake of a safer and more user-friendly operation, several consolidations and instrumentation modifications were implemented during this commissioning phase. This paper presents ...

  6. The CERN Large Hadron Collider as a tool to study high-energy density matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Gryaznov, V; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Kain, V; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Temporal, M

    2005-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will generate two extremely powerful 7 TeV proton beams. Each beam will consist of 2808 bunches with an intensity per bunch of 1.15*10/sup 11/ protons so that the total number of protons in one beam will be about 3*10/sup 14/ and the total energy will be 362 MJ. Each bunch will have a duration of 0.5 ns and two successive bunches will be separated by 25 ns, while the power distribution in the radial direction will be Gaussian with a standard deviation, sigma =0.2 mm. The total duration of the beam will be about 89 mu s. Using a 2D hydrodynamic code, we have carried out numerical simulations of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper target that is irradiated with one of the LHC beams. These calculations show that only the first few hundred proton bunches will deposit a high specific energy of 400 kJ/g that will induce exotic states of high energy density in matter.

  7. High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Apollinari, G; Béjar Alonso, I; Brüning, O; Lamont, M; Rossi, L

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the largest scientific instruments ever built. Since opening up a new energy frontier for exploration in 2010, it has gathered a global user community of about 7,000 scientists working in fundamental particle physics and the physics of hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density. To sustain and extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s. This will increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond the original design value and the integrated luminosity (total collisions created) by a factor ten. The LHC is already a highly complex and exquisitely optimised machine so this upgrade must be carefully conceived and will require about ten years to implement. The new configuration, known as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovations that push accelerator technology beyond its present limits. Among these are cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting magnets, compact superconducting cav...

  8. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider the new machine for illuminating the mysteries of Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Brüning, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to the physics and technology of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). This new configuration of the LHC is one of the major accelerator projects for the next 15 years and will give new life to the LHC after its first 15-year operation. Not only will it allow more precise measurements of the Higgs boson and of any new particles that might be discovered in the next LHC run, but also extend the mass limit reach for detecting new particles. The HL-LHC is based on the innovative accelerator magnet technologies capable of generating 11–13 Tesla fields, with effectiveness enhanced by use of the new Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing scheme, and other state-of-the-art accelerator technologies, such as superconducting compact RF crab cavities, advanced collimation concepts, and novel power technology based on high temperature superconducting links. The book consists of a series of chapters touching on all issues of technology and design, and each chapter can be re...

  9. The new Level-1 Topological Trigger for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00047907; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    At the CERN Large Hadron Collider, the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, the ATLAS experiment records high-energy proton collision to investigate the properties of fundamental particles. These collisions take place at a 40 MHz, and the ATLAS trigger system selects the interesting ones, reducing the rate to 1 kHz, allowing for their storage and subsequent offline analysis. The ATLAS trigger system is organized in two levels, with increasing degree of details and of accuracy. The first level trigger reduces the event rate to 100 kHz with a decision latency of less than 2.5 micro seconds. It is composed of the calorimeter trigger, muon trigger and central trigger processor. A new component of the first-level trigger was introduced in 2015: the Topological Processor (L1Topo). It allows to use detailed real-time information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon systems, to compute advanced kinematic quantities using state of the art FPGA processors, and to select interesting events based on several com...

  10. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run 2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, M., E-mail: malte.backhaus@cern.ch

    2016-09-21

    During Run 1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the ATLAS Pixel Detector has shown excellent performance. The ATLAS collaboration took advantage of the first long shutdown of the LHC during 2013 and 2014 and extracted the ATLAS Pixel Detector from the experiment, brought it to surface and maintained the services. This included the installation of new service quarter panels, the repair of cables, and the installation of the new Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). Additionally, a completely new innermost pixel detector layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), was constructed and installed in May 2014 between a new smaller beam pipe and the existing Pixel Detector. With a radius of 3.3 cm the IBL is located extremely close to the interaction point. Therefore, a new readout chip and two new sensor technologies (planar and 3D) are used in the IBL. In order to achieve best possible physics performance the material budget was improved with respect to the existing Pixel Detector. This is realized using lightweight staves for mechanical support and a CO{sub 2} based cooling system. This paper describes the improvements achieved during the maintenance of the existing Pixel Detector as well as the performance of the IBL during the construction and commissioning phase. Additionally, first results obtained during the LHC Run 2 demonstrating the distinguished tracking performance of the new Four Layer ATLAS Pixel Detector are presented.

  11. Study of Drell-Yan process in CMS experiment at Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Jindal, Monika

    The proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the begining of a new era in the high energy physics. It enables the possibility of the discoveries at high-energy frontier and also allows the study of Standard Model physics with high precision. The new physics discoveries and the precision measurements can be achieved with highly efficient and accurate detectors like Compact Muon Solenoid. In this thesis, we report the measurement of the differential production cross-section of the Drell-Yan process, $q ar{q} ightarrow Z/gamma^{*} ightarrowmu^{+}mu^{-}$ in proton-proton collisions at the center-of-mass energy $sqrt{s}=$ 7 TeV using CMS experiment at the LHC. This measurement is based on the analysis of data which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $intmath{L}dt$ = 36.0 $pm$ 1.4 pb$^{-1}$. The measurement of the production cross-section of the Drell-Yan process provides a first test of the Standard Model in a new energy domain and may reveal exotic physics processes. The Drell...

  12. Mathematical formulation to predict the harmonics of the superconducting Large Hadron Collider magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Sammut

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available CERN is currently assembling the LHC (Large Hadron Collider that will accelerate and bring in collision 7 TeV protons for high energy physics. Such a superconducting magnet-based accelerator can be controlled only when the field errors of production and installation of all magnetic elements are known to the required accuracy. The ideal way to compensate the field errors obviously is to have direct diagnostics on the beam. For the LHC, however, a system solely based on beam feedback may be too demanding. The present baseline for the LHC control system hence requires an accurate forecast of the magnetic field and the multipole field errors to reduce the burden on the beam-based feedback. The field model is the core of this magnetic prediction system, that we call the field description for the LHC (FIDEL. The model will provide the forecast of the magnetic field at a given time, magnet operating current, magnet ramp rate, magnet temperature, and magnet powering history. The model is based on the identification and physical decomposition of the effects that contribute to the total field in the magnet aperture of the LHC dipoles. Each effect is quantified using data obtained from series measurements, and modeled theoretically or empirically depending on the complexity of the physical phenomena involved. This paper presents the developments of the new finely tuned magnetic field model and, using the data accumulated through series tests to date, evaluates its accuracy and predictive capabilities over a sector of the machine.

  13. A central rapidity straw tracker and measurements on cryogenic components for the large hadron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsson, Hans

    1997-04-01

    The thesis is divided into two parts in which two different aspects of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project are discussed. The first part describes the design of a transition radiation tracker (TRT) for the inner detector in ATLAS. In particular, the barrel part was studied in detail. The barrel TRT consists of 52544 1.5 m long proportional tubes (straws), parallel to the beam axis and each with a diameter of 4 mm. The detector is divided into three module layers with 32 modules in each layer. The preparatory study comprises: module size optimization, mechanical and thermal calculations, tracking performance and material budget studies. The second part deals with the cryogenic system for the LHC superconducting magnets. They will work at a temperature below 2 K and it is essential to understand the thermal behaviour of the individual cryogenic components in order to assess the insulating properties of the magnet cryostat. The work involves the design of two dedicated heat-inlet measuring benches for cryogenic components, and the results from heat-inlet measurements on two different types of cryogenic components are reported. 54 refs., 79 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Novel Concepts for Optimization of the CERN Large Hadron Collider Injection Lines.

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchsberger, Kajetan; Wenninger, J

    2011-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is presently the particle accelerator with the highest center of mass energy in the world and is for that reason the most promising instrument for particle physics discoveries in the near future. The transfer lines TI2 and TI8 which transfer the beam from the last pre-accelerator, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), to the LHC are with a total length of about 6 km the longest ones in the world, which makes it necessary to do optics matching with high precision. Tests between 2004 and 2008 revealed several, previousely unpredicted, effects in these lines: An assymetry in betatron phase between the two transverse planes, a dispersion mismatch at the injection point from the transfer lines to the LHC and unexpectedly strong transverse coupling at the same location. In this thesis, we introduce the methods and tools that we developed to investigate these discrepancies. We describe the analysis of the available data, measurements of the transfer line optics and the calculation of op...

  15. Beam-induced radiation in the compact muon solenoid tracker at the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A P Singh; P C Bhat; N V Mokhov; S Beri

    2010-05-01

    The intense radiation environment at the Large Hadron Collider, CERN at a design energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 14$ TeV and a luminosity of 1034 cm−2S−1 poses unprecedented challenges for safe operation and performance quality of the silicon tracker detectors in the CMS and ATLAS experiments. The silicon trackers are crucial for the physics at the LHC experiments, and the inner layers, being situated only a few centimeters from the interaction point, are most vulnerable to beam-induced radiation. We have recently carried out extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies using MARS program to estimate particle fluxes and radiation dose in the CMS silicon pixel and strip trackers from proton–proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 14$ TeV and from machine-induced background such as beam–gas interactions and beam halo. We will present results on radiation dose, particle fluxes and spectra from these studies and discuss implications for radiation damage and performance of the CMS silicon tracker detectors.

  16. The CERN Large Hadron Collider as a tool to study high-energy density matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N A; Kain, V; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Gryaznov, V; Piriz, A R; Temporal, M; Hoffmann, D H H; Fortov, V E

    2005-04-08

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will generate two extremely powerful 7 TeV proton beams. Each beam will consist of 2808 bunches with an intensity per bunch of 1.15x10(11) protons so that the total number of protons in one beam will be about 3x10(14) and the total energy will be 362 MJ. Each bunch will have a duration of 0.5 ns and two successive bunches will be separated by 25 ns, while the power distribution in the radial direction will be Gaussian with a standard deviation, sigma=0.2 mm. The total duration of the beam will be about 89 mus. Using a 2D hydrodynamic code, we have carried out numerical simulations of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper target that is irradiated with one of the LHC beams. These calculations show that only the first few hundred proton bunches will deposit a high specific energy of 400 kJ/g that will induce exotic states of high energy density in matter.

  17. Search for Microscopic Black Hole Signatures at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Ka Vang [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

    2011-05-01

    A search for microscopic black hole production and decay in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV has been conducted using Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. A total integrated luminosity of 35 pb-1 data sample, taken by CMS Collaboration in year 2010, has been analyzed. A novel background estimation for multi-jet events beyond TeV scale has been developed. A good agreement with standard model backgrounds, dominated by multi-jet production, is observed for various final-state multiplicities. Using semi-classical approximation, upper limits on minimum black hole mass at 95% confidence level are set in the range of 3.5 - 4.5 TeV for values of the Planck scale up to 3 TeV. Model-independent limits are provided to further constrain microscopic black hole models with additional regions of parameter space, as well as new physics models with multiple energetic final states. These are the first limits on microscopic black hole production at a particle accelerator.

  18. Associated Productions of HZZ and HHZ at Linear Colliders in Large Extra Dimension Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effects of the large extra dimensions on the two processes e+ e → H0 Z0 Z0 and e+e- → H0H0Z0 at linear colliders in both unpolarized and polarized collision modes. We find that the virtual Kaluza-Klein graviton exchange can significantly enhance the cross section from their standard model expectations for these two processes. The results show that the LED effect on the process e+ e- → H0 Z0 Z0 allows the observation limits on the effective scale Ms to be probed up to 9.75 TeVand 10.1 TeV in the unpolarized and +-(λe+ = 1/2, λe- = -1/2) polarized beam collision modes (with Pe+ = 0.6, Pe- = 0.8), respectively. For the process e+ e- → H0 H0 Z0, these limits on Ms can be probed up to 6.06 TeV and 6.38 TeV in the unpolarized and polarized collision modes separately. We find that the λe+ = 1/2, λe- = -1/2 polarization collision mode in both process e+e- → H0Z0Z0 and e+e- → H0H0Z0 may provide a possibility to improve the sensitivity in probing the LED effects.

  19. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Backhaus, Malte; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    During Run-1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the ATLAS Pixel Detector has shown excellent performance. The ATLAS collaboration took advantage of the first long shutdown of the LHC during 2013 and 2014 and extracted the ATLAS Pixel Detector from the experiment, brought it to surface and maintained the services. This includes the installation of new service quarter panels, the repair of cables, and the installation of the new Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). Additionally a completely new innermost pixel detector layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), was constructed and installed in May 2014 between a new smaller beam pipe and the existing Pixel Detector. With a radius of 3.3 cm the IBL is located extremely close to the interaction point. Therefore a new readout chip and two new sensor technologies (planar and 3D) are used in IBL. In order to achieve best possible physics performance the material budget was improved with respect to the existing Pixel Detector. This is realized using lightweight staves for mechanic...

  20. Reliability of the Beam Loss Monitors System for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Guaglio, G; Santoni, C

    2005-01-01

    The energy stored in the Large Hadron Collider is unprecedented. The impact of the beam particles can cause severe damage on the superconductive magnets, resulting in significant downtime for repairing. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) detects the secondary particles shower of the lost beam particles and initiates the extraction of the beam before any serious damage to the equipment can occur. This thesis defines the BLMS specifications in term of reliability. The main goal is the design of a system minimizing both the probability to not detect a dangerous loss and the number of false alarms generated. The reliability theory and techniques utilized are described. The prediction of the hazard rates, the testing procedures, the Failure Modes Effects and Criticalities Analysis and the Fault Tree Analysis have been used to provide an estimation of the probability to damage a magnet, of the number of false alarms and of the number of generated warnings. The weakest components in the BLMS have been pointed out....

  1. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run 2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Backhaus, M

    2016-01-01

    During Run 1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the ATLAS Pixel Detector has shown excellent performance. The ATLAS collaboration took advantage of the first long shutdown of the LHC during 2013 and 2014 and extracted the ATLAS Pixel Detector from the experiment, brought it to surface and maintained the services. This included the installation of new service quarter panels, the repair of cables, and the installation of the new Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). Additionally, a completely new innermost pixel detector layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), was constructed and installed in May 2014 between a new smaller beam pipe and the existing Pixel Detector. With a radius of 3.3 cm the IBL is located extremely close to the interaction point. Therefore, a new readout chip and two new sensor technologies (planar and 3D) are used in the IBL. In order to achieve best possible physics performance the material budget was improved with respect to the existing Pixel Detector. This is realized using lightweight staves for me...

  2. Large Hadron Collider at CERN: Beams Generating High-Energy-Density Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, IV; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations that have been carried out to study the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper cylindrical target that is facially irradiated along the axis by one of the two Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 7 TeV/c proton beams. The energy deposition by protons in solid copper has been calculated using an established particle interaction and Monte Carlo code, FLUKA, which is capable of simulating all components of the particle cascades in matter, up to multi-TeV energies. This data has been used as input to a sophisticated two--dimensional hydrodynamic computer code, BIG2 that has been employed to study this problem. The prime purpose of these investigations was to assess the damage caused to the equipment if the entire LHC beam is lost at a single place. The FLUKA calculations show that the energy of protons will be deposited in solid copper within about 1~m assuming constant material parameters. Nevertheless, our hydrodynamic simulations have shown that the energy de...

  3. High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) : Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollinari, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Béjar Alonso, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Brüning, O. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Lamont, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Rossi, L. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-12-17

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the largest scientific instruments ever built. Since opening up a new energy frontier for exploration in 2010, it has gathered a global user community of about 7,000 scientists working in fundamental particle physics and the physics of hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density. To sustain and extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s. This will increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond the original design value and the integrated luminosity (total collisions created) by a factor ten. The LHC is already a highly complex and exquisitely optimised machine so this upgrade must be carefully conceived and will require about ten years to implement. The new configuration, known as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovations that push accelerator technology beyond its present limits. Among these are cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting magnets, compact superconducting cavities for beam rotation with ultra-precise phase control, new technology and physical processes for beam collimation and 300 metre-long high-power superconducting links with negligible energy dissipation. The present document describes the technologies and components that will be used to realise the project and is intended to serve as the basis for the detailed engineering design of HL-LHC.

  4. The Thermosiphon Cooling System of the ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Battistin, M; Bitadze, A; Bonneau, P; Botelho-Direito, J; Boyd, G; Corbaz, F; Crespo-Lopez, O; Da Riva, E; Degeorge, C; Deterre, C; DiGirolamo, B; Doubek, M; Favre, G; Godlewski, J; Hallewell, G; Katunin, S; Lefils, D; Lombard, D; McMahon, S; Nagai, K; Robinson, D; Rossi, C; Rozanov, A; Vacek, V; Zwalinski, L

    2015-01-01

    The silicon tracker of the ATLAS experiment at CERN Large Hadron Collider will operate around –15°C to minimize the effects of radiation damage. The present cooling system is based on a conventional evaporative circuit, removing around 60 kW of heat dissipated by the silicon sensors and their local electronics. The compressors in the present circuit have proved less reliable than originally hoped, and will be replaced with a thermosiphon. The working principle of the thermosiphon uses gravity to circulate the coolant without any mechanical components (compressors or pumps) in the primary coolant circuit. The fluorocarbon coolant will be condensed at a temperature and pressure lower than those in the on-detector evaporators, but at a higher altitude, taking advantage of the 92 m height difference between the underground experiment and the services located on the surface. An extensive campaign of tests, detailed in this paper, was performed using two small-scale thermosiphon systems. These tests confirmed th...

  5. Associated Higgs boson production with top quarks at the CERN Large Hadron Collider NLO QCD corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, S; Orr, L H; Reina, L; Wackeroth, D; 10.1103/PhysRevD.68.034022

    2003-01-01

    We present in detail the calculation of the O( alpha /sub s//sup 3/) inclusive total cross section for the process pp to tth, in the standard model, at the CERN Large Hadron Collider with a center-of- mass energy square root s/sub H/=14 TeV. The calculation is based on the complete set of virtual and real O( alpha /sub s/) corrections to the parton level processes qq to tth and gg to tth, as well as the tree level processes (q, q)g to tth+(q, q). The virtual corrections involve the computation of pentagon diagrams with several internal and external massive particles, first encountered in this process. The real corrections are computed using both the single and the two cutoff phase space slicing method. The next-to-leading order QCD corrections significantly reduce the renormalization and factorization scale dependence of the Born cross section and moderately increase the Born cross section for values of the renormalization and factorization scales above m/sub t/. (46 refs).

  6. Performance Analysis of the Ironless Inductive Position Sensor in the Large Hadron Collider Collimators Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Danisi, Alessandro; Losito, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The Ironless Inductive Position Sensor (I2PS) has been introduced as a valid alternative to Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) when external magnetic fields are present. Potential applications of this linear position sensor can be found in critical systems such as nuclear plants, tokamaks, satellites and particle accelerators. This paper analyzes the performance of the I2PS in the harsh environment of the collimators of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where position uncertainties of less than 20 μm are demanded in the presence of nuclear radiation and external magnetic fields. The I2PS has been targeted for installation for LHC Run 2, in order to solve the magnetic interference problem which standard LVDTs are experiencing. The paper describes in detail the chain of systems which belong to the new I2PS measurement task, their impact on the sensor performance and their possible further optimization. The I2PS performance is analyzed evaluating the position uncertainty (on 30 s), the magnetic im...

  7. Operational Experience and Consolidations for the Current Lead Control Valves of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Perin, A; Pirotte, O; Krieger, B; Widmer, A

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider superconducting magnets are powered by more than 1400 gas cooled current leads ranging from 120 A to 13000 A. The gas flow required by the leads is controlled by solenoid proportional valves with dimensions from DN 1.8 mm to DN 10 mm. During the first months of operation, signs of premature wear were found in the active parts of the valves. This created major problems for the functioning of the current leads threatening the availability of the LHC. Following the detection of the problems, a series of measures were implemented to keep the LHC running, to launch a development program to solve the premature wear problem and to prepare for a global consolidation of the gas flow control system. This article describes first the difficulties encountered and the measures taken to ensure a continuous operation of the LHC during the first year of operation. The development of new friction free valves is then presented along with the consolidation program and the test equipment developed to val...

  8. Prompt D*+ production in proton-proton and lead-lead collisions, measured with the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, R. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the results are presented of the first measurements of the D*+ meson nuclear modification factor RAA in heavy ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) detector at CERN. These open charmed mesons are a useful tool to investigat

  9. Future colliders at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsesmelis, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-07-15

    Following an outline of the Large Hadron Collider, this paper will analyze CERN's scientific plans for high-energy colliders for the years to come. The immediate plans include the upgrades to the Large Hadron Collider and its injectors. This may be followed by a linear electron-positron collider, the Compact Linear Collider. This paper describes the design of these future colliders at CERN, all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Probing small parton densities in ultraperipheral A A and pA collisions at the CERN large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strikman, Mark; Vogt, Ramona; White, Sebastian

    2006-03-01

    We calculate photoproduction rates for several hard processes in ultraperipheral proton-lead and lead-lead collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with square root of sNN = 8.8 and 5.5 TeV, respectively, which could be triggered in the large LHC detectors. We use ATLAS as an example. The lead ion is treated as a source of (coherently produced) photons with energies and intensities greater than those of equivalent ep collisions at the DESY collider HERA. We find very large rates for both inclusive and diffractive production that will extend the HERA x range by nearly an order of magnitude for similar virtualities. We demonstrate that it is possible to reach the kinematic regime where nonlinear effects are larger than at HERA.

  11. Linear polarization of gluons and photons in unpolarized collider experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisano, Cristian; Boer, Daniël; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Buffing, Maarten G. A.; Mulders, Piet J.

    2013-10-01

    We study azimuthal asymmetries in heavy quark pair production in unpolarized electron-proton and proton-proton collisions, where the asymmetries originate from the linear polarization of gluons inside unpolarized hadrons. We provide cross section expressions and study the maximal asymmetries allowed by positivity, for both charm and bottom quark pair production. The upper bounds on the asymmetries are shown to be very large depending on the transverse momentum of the heavy quarks, which is promising especially for their measurements at a possible future Electron-Ion Collider or a Large Hadron electron Collider. We also study the analogous processes and asymmetries in muon pair production as a means to probe linearly polarized photons inside unpolarized protons. For increasing invariant mass of the muon pair the asymmetries become very similar to the heavy quark pair ones. Finally, we discuss the process dependence of the results that arises due to differences in color flow and address the problem with factorization in case of proton-proton collisions.

  12. Chromaticity decay due to superconducting dipoles on the injection plateau of the Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aquilina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that in a superconducting accelerator a significant chromaticity drift can be induced by the decay of the sextupolar component of the main dipoles. In this paper we give a brief overview of what was expected for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC on the grounds of magnetic measurements of individual dipoles carried out during the production. According to this analysis, the decay time constants were of the order of 200 s: since the injection in the LHC starts at least 30 minutes after the magnets are at constant current, the dynamic correction of this effect was not considered to be necessary. The first beam measurements of chromaticity showed significant decay even after a few hours. For this reason, a dynamic correction of decay on the injection plateau was implemented based on beam measurements. This means that during the injection plateau the sextupole correctors are powered with a varying current to cancel out the decay of the dipoles. This strategy has been implemented successfully. A similar phenomenon has been observed for the dependence of the decay amplitude on the powering history of the dipoles: according to magnetic measurements, also in this case time constants are of the order of 200 s and therefore no difference is expected between a one hour or a ten hours flattop. On the other hand, the beam measurements show a significant change of decay for these two conditions. For the moment there is no clue of the origin of these discrepancies. We give a complete overview of the two effects, and the modifications that have been done to the field model parameters to be able to obtain a final chromaticity correction within a few units.

  13. Design optimization of 600 A-13 kA current leads for the Large Hadron Collider project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Spiller, D M; Al-Mosawl, M K; Friend, C M; Thacker, P; Ballarino, A

    2001-01-01

    The requirements of the Large Hadron Collider project at CERN for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads have been widely publicized. CERN require hybrid current leads of resistive and HTS materials with current ratings of 600 A, 6 kA and 13 kA. BICC General Superconductors, in collaboration with the University of Southampton, have developed and manufactured prototype current leads for the Large Hadron Collider project. The resistive section consists of a phosphorus de-oxidized copper conductor and heat exchanger and the HTS section is constructed from BICC General's (Pb, Bi)2223 tapes with a reduced thermal conductivity Ag alloy sheath. We present the results of the materials optimization studies for the resistive and the HTS sections. Some results of the acceptance tests at CERN are discussed. (9 refs).

  14. Forward-backward asymmetries of lepton pairs in events with a large transverse momentum jet at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    del Águila, F; Talavera, P; Ametller, Ll.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss forward-backward charge asymmetries for lepton pair production in association with a large transverse momentum jet at hadron colliders. The measurement of the lepton charge asymmetry relative to the jet direction A_{FB}^j gives a new determination of the effective weak mixing angle sin^2{\\theta_{eff}^{lept}(M_Z^2)} with in principle a statistical precision after cuts of \\sim 4 x 10^{-5} (10^{-3}) at LHC (Tevatron), due to the large cross section of the process with initial gluons. The identification of b jets also allows for the measurement of the bottom quark Z asymmetry A_{FB}^b at hadron colliders with a precision at LHC in principle higher than at LEP, the resulting statistical precision for sin^2{\\theta_{eff}^{lept}(M_Z^2)} being \\sim 4 x 10^{-5} (3 x 10^{-3} at Tevatron).

  15. For information - Université de Genève : Accelerator Physics Challenges for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2005-01-01

    UNIVERSITE DE GENEVE Faculte des sciences Section de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet - 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél : (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Mercredi 16 March SEMINAIRE DE PHYSIQUE CORPUSCULAIRE à 17h00 - Auditoire Stückelberg Accelerator Physics Challenges for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN Prof. Olivier Bruning / CERN The Large Hadron Collider project at CERN will bring the energy frontier of high energy particle physics back to Europe and with it push the accelerator technology into uncharted teritory. The talk presents the LHC project in the context of the past CERN accelerator developments and addresses the main challenges in terms of technology and accelerator physics. Information: http://dpnc.unige.ch/seminaire/annonce.html Organizer: A. Cervera Villanueva

  16. Probing electroweak gauge boson scattering with the ATLAS detector at the large hadron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, Philipp

    2014-09-01

    Electroweak gauge bosons as central components of the Standard Model of particle physics are well understood theoretically and have been studied with high precision at past and present collider experiments. The electroweak theory predicts the existence of a scattering process of these particles consisting of contributions from triple and quartic bosonic couplings as well as Higgs boson mediated interactions. These contributions are not separable in a gauge invariant way and are only unitarized in the case of a Higgs boson as it is described by the Standard Model. The process is tied to the electroweak symmetry breaking which introduces the longitudinal modes for the massive electroweak gauge bosons. A study of this interaction is also a direct verification of the local gauge symmetry as one of the fundamental axioms of the Standard Model. With the start of the Large Hadron Collider and after collecting proton-proton collision data with an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb{sup -1} at a center-of-mass energy of √(s)=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector, first-ever evidence for this process could be achieved in the context of this work. A study of leptonically decaying W{sup ±}W{sup ±}jj, same-electric-charge diboson production in association with two jets resulted in an observation of the electroweak W{sup ±}W{sup ±}jj production with same electric charge of the W bosons, inseparably comprising W{sup ±}W{sup ±}→W{sup ±}W{sup ±} electroweak gauge boson scattering contributions, with a significance of 3.6 standard deviations. The measured production cross section is in agreement with the Standard Model prediction. In the course of a study for leptonically decaying WZ productions, methods for background estimation, the extraction of systematic uncertainties and cross section measurements were developed. They were extended and applied to the WZjj final state whereof the purely electroweakly mediated contribution is intrinsically tied to the scattering of all Standard

  17. grille de calcul pour le Large hadron collider: un nouveau défi est relevé

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The worldwide collaboration WLCG(1), in which the Computing Center of IN2P3-CNRS in Villeurbanne participates, has just announced a new record in the implementation of a worldwide computing grid for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): a continuous flow of scientific data has been transferred on a worldwide computers grid, with a flow going until the equivalent of a DVD of scientific data every 5 secondes (1 page)

  18. Large hadron collider will get us closer to the Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Khadilkar, Dhananjay

    2006-01-01

    The LHC consists of a 27 km tunnel located 100 meters under the ground near Geneva in Switzerland, lined with hundreds of superconducting magnets which will accelerate protons and subsequently collide them at mind-boggling energies of 14 terra electorn Volts. The result will be conditions prevalent just microseconds after the Big Band 15 billion years ago (1/2 page)

  19. Large Hadron Collider at CERN: Beams generating high-energy-density matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N A; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations that have been carried out to study the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic responses of a solid copper cylindrical target that is facially irradiated along the axis by one of the two Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 7 TeV/ c proton beams. The energy deposition by protons in solid copper has been calculated using an established particle interaction and Monte Carlo code, FLUKA, which is capable of simulating all components of the particle cascades in matter, up to multi-TeV energies. These data have been used as input to a sophisticated two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code BIG2 that has been employed to study this problem. The prime purpose of these investigations was to assess the damage caused to the equipment if the entire LHC beam is lost at a single place. The FLUKA calculations show that the energy of protons will be deposited in solid copper within about 1 m assuming constant material parameters. Nevertheless, our hydrodynamic simulations have shown that the energy deposition region will extend to a length of about 35 m over the beam duration. This is due to the fact that first few tens of bunches deposit sufficient energy that leads to high pressure that generates an outgoing radial shock wave. Shock propagation leads to continuous reduction in the density at the target center that allows the protons delivered in subsequent bunches to penetrate deeper and deeper into the target. This phenomenon has also been seen in case of heavy-ion heated targets [N. A. Tahir, A. Kozyreva, P. Spiller, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and A. Shutov, Phys. Rev. E 63, 036407 (2001)]. This effect needs to be considered in the design of a sacrificial beam stopper. These simulations have also shown that the target is severely damaged and is converted into a huge sample of high-energy density (HED) matter. In fact, the inner part of the target is transformed into a strongly coupled plasma with fairly uniform physical conditions. This work, therefore, has

  20. Phenomenology of W plus or minus H plus or minus production at the CERN Large Handron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Moretti, S

    1999-01-01

    Barrientos Bendezu' and Kniehl [hep-ph/9807480] recently suggested that $W^\\pm H^\\mp$ associated production may be a useful channel in the search for the elusive heavy charged Higgs bosons of the 2 Higgs Doublet Model at the Large Hadron Collider. We investigate the phenomenology of this mechanism in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, with special attention paid to the most likely heavy Higgs decay, $H^\\mp\\to tb\\to b\\bar b W^\\mp$, and to the irreducible background from top pair production. We find that the semi-leptonic signature `$b\\bar b W^+W^-\\to b\\bar b jj \\ell$ + missing momentum' is dominated by top-antitop events, which overwhelm the charged Higgs signal over the heavy mass range that can be probed at the CERN collider

  1. $W^+W^-$ + 3 Jet Production at the Large Hadron Collider in NLO QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cordero, F Febres; Ita, H

    2015-01-01

    We present next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD predictions to $W^+W^-$ production in association with up to three jets at hadron colliders. We include contributions from couplings of the $W$ bosons to light quarks as well as trilinear vector couplings. These processes are used in vector-boson coupling measurements, are background to Higgs signals and are needed to constrain many new physics scenarios. For the first time NLO QCD predictions are shown for electroweak di-vector boson production with three jets at a hadron collider. We show total and differential cross sections for the LHC with proton center-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV. To perform the calculation we employ on-shell and unitarity methods implemented in the BlackHat library along with the SHERPA package. We have produced event files that can be accessed for future dedicated studies.

  2. Right-handed charged currents in the era of the Large Hadron Collider arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Alioli, S.; Dekens, W.; de Vries, J.; Mereghetti, E.

    We discuss the phenomenology of right-handed charged currents in the framework of the Standard Model Effective Field Theory, in which they arise due to a single gauge-invariant dimension-six operator. We study the manifestations of the nine complex couplings of the $W$ to right-handed quarks in collider physics, flavor physics, and low-energy precision measurements. We first obtain constraints on the couplings under the assumption that the right-handed operator is the dominant correction to the Standard Model at observable energies. We subsequently study the impact of degeneracies with other Beyond-the-Standard-Model effective interactions and identify observables, both at colliders and low-energy experiments, that would uniquely point to right-handed charged currents.

  3. Resistive-plate-chamber background particles simulation studies for the endcap region of a compact muon solenoid/large hadron collider using the geometry and tracking code

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jamil, M; Rhee, J T

    2005-01-01

    We present a method to simulate the double-gap resistive plate chambers (RPC) background particles for the endcap region of a compact muon solenoid/large hadron collider using the geometry and tracking (GEANT) code...

  4. American superconductor technology to help CERN to explore the mysteries of matter company's high temperature superconductor wire to be used in CERN's Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    American Superconductor Corporation has been selected by CERN, to provide 14,000 meters of high temperature superconductor (HTS) wire for current lead devices that will be used in CERN's Large Hadron Collider (1 page).

  5. Searches for and identification of effects of extra spatial dimensions in dilepton and diphoton production at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankov, A. A., E-mail: pankov@ictp.it; Serenkova, I. A., E-mail: inna.serenkova@cern.ch; Tsytrinov, A. V., E-mail: tsytrin@gstu.by; Bednyakov, V. A., E-mail: Vadim.Bednyakov@cern.ch [Pavel Sukhoi Gomel State Technical University, ICTP (Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) Affiliated Centre (Belarus)

    2015-06-15

    Prospects of discovering and identifying effects of extra spatial dimensions in dilepton and diphoton production at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are studied. Such effects may be revealed by the characteristic behavior of the invariant-mass distributions of dileptons and diphotons, and their identification can be performed on the basis of an analysis of their angular distributions. The discovery and identification reaches are estimated for the scale parameter M{sub S} of the Kaluza-Klein gravitational towers, which can be determined in experiments devoted to measuring the dilepton and diphoton channels at the LHC.

  6. Four-Jet Production at the Large Hadron Collider at Next-to-Leading Order in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bern, Z; Dixon, L J; Cordero, F Febres; Hoeche, S; Kosower, D A; Ita, H; Maitre, D; Ozeren, K

    2012-01-01

    We present the cross sections for production of up to four jets at the Large Hadron Collider, at next-to-leading order in the QCD coupling. We use the BlackHat library in conjunction with SHERPA and a recently developed algorithm for assembling primitive amplitudes into color-dressed amplitudes. We adopt the cuts used by ATLAS in their study of multi-jet events in pp collisions at \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV. We include estimates of nonperturbative corrections and compare to ATLAS data. We store intermediate results in a framework that allows the inexpensive computation of additional results for different choices of scale or parton distributions.

  7. Design and Tests on the 30 to 600 A HTS Current Leads for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    1997-01-01

    Some 800 correction magnets of the Large Hadron Collider will be individually powered. Each of them needs a pair of current leads. To reduce the heat leak through these leads, the current has been chosen as low as reasonably possible, 30 to 600 A. For the same reason CERN started in-house a development of current leads using commercial bulk BSCCO-2212 material.This paper discusses the design and the test results of this lead. We tested several prototypes, measured the heat leak through the lead, studied and tested what happens if the lead is brought to critical temperature causing it to quench.

  8. Electromagnetic Design and Optimization of Directivity of Stripline Beam Position Monitors for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Draskovic, Drasko; Jones, Owain Rhodri; Lefèvre, Thibaut; Wendt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary electromagnetic design of a stripline Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the High Luminosity program of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN. The design is fitted into a new octagonal shielded Beam Screen for the low-beta triplets and is optimized for high directivity. It also includes internal Tungsten absorbers, required to reduce the energy deposition in the superconducting magnets. The achieved broadband directivity in wakefield solver simulations presents significant improvement over the directivity of the current stripline BPMs installed in the LHC.

  9. Development of a High-Level Trigger for the Dimuon Spectrometer of the ALICE Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Bruce

    The ALICE experiment at CERN's Large Hadronic Collider will mark the beginning of a new phase in the study of ultra-relativistic heavy ion-collisions. It will be possible to explore in great detail phenomena discovered or hinted at in the course of experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, in particular the signals of the quark-gluon plasma. One of the most promising signals of the creation of this new state of matter is the anomalous suppression of the Υ (bb) and J/v(cc) families. One of the main decay channels of these mesons is into dimuons and ALICE has a dedicated dimuon spectrometer in order to study the spectra of these interesting particles. The signal is, however, swamped by a large background from several other muonic sources. Due to the large data rate expected for ALICE and the limited bandwidth, a highly efficient and selective trigger is required for the experiment - the dimuon high-level trigger (dHLT). This thesis concerns the context, development and implementation of the ALICE dim...

  10. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Zhang, Chunhui; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hilden, Timo Eero; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobayashi, Taiyo; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Legrand, Iosif; Lehas, Fatiha; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Masui, Hiroshi; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Minervini, Lazzaro Manlio; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pant, Divyash; Papcun, Peter; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rivetti, Angelo; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Symons, Timothy; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasar, Cigdem; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-01-19

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. In this paper, we present the multiplicity distribution of these atmospheric muons and its comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. This analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density $\\rho_{\\mu} > 5.9~$m$^{-2}$. Similar events have been studied in previous underground experiments such as ALEPH and DELPHI at LEP. While these experiments were able to reproduce the measured muon multiplicity distribution with Monte Carlo simulations at low and intermediate multiplic...

  11. Precise Predictions for W + 4 Jet Production at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, C F; Dixon, Lance J; Cordero, F Febres; Forde, D; Gleisberg, T; Ita, H; Kosower, D A; Maitre, D

    2011-01-01

    We present the first next-to-leading order QCD results for W + 4-jet production at hadron colliders. Total cross sections, as well as distributions in the jet transverse momenta and in the total transverse energy H_T are provided for the initial LHC energy of \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV. We use a leading-color approximation, known to be accurate to 3% for W production with fewer jets. The virtual matrix elements and the most complicated real-emission matrix elements are handled by the BlackHat library, based on on-shell methods. The remaining parts of the calculation, including the integration over phase space, are performed by the SHERPA package.

  12. Bulk matter physics and its future at the large hadron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippolyte, B. [Departement de Recherches Subatomiques, Universite Louis Pasteur, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg (France)

    2009-07-15

    Measurements at low transverse momentum will be performed at the LHC for studying particle production mechanisms in pp and heavy-ion collisions. Some of the experimental capabilities for bulk matter physics are presented, focusing on tracking elements and particle identification. In order to anticipate the study of baryon production for both colliding systems at multi-TeV energies, measurements for identified species and recent model extrapolations are discussed. Several mechanisms are expected to compete for hadro-production in the low momentum region. For this reason, experimental observables that could be used for investigating multi-parton interactions and help understanding the ''underlying event'' content in the first pp collisions at the LHC are also mentioned. (orig.)

  13. Reliability of Beam Loss Monitors System for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Guaglio, Gianluca; Santoni, C

    2004-01-01

    The employment of superconducting magnets, in the high energies colliders, opens challenging failure scenarios and brings new criticalities for the whole system protection. For the LHC beam loss protection system, the failure rate and the availability requirements have been evaluated using the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) approach. A downtime cost evaluation is used as input for the SIL approach. The most critical systems, which contribute to the final SIL value, are the dump system, the interlock system, the beam loss monitors system and the energy monitor system. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) is critical for short and intense particles losses, while at medium and higher loss time it is assisted by other systems, such as the quench protection system and the cryogenic system. For BLMS, hardware and software have been evaluated in detail. The reliability input figures have been collected using historical data from the SPS, using temperature and radiation damage experimental data as well as using standar...

  14. Precise Predictions for W 4 Jet Production at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C.F.; /MIT, LNS; Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Dixon, Lance J.; /CERN /SLAC; Cordero, F.Febres; /Simon Bolivar U.; Forde, D.; /CERN /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Gleisberg, T.; /SLAC; Ita, H.; /UCLA; Kosower, D.A.; /Saclay, SPhT; Maitre, D.; /Durham U.

    2010-09-14

    We present the first next-to-leading order QCD results for W + 4-jet production at hadron colliders. Total cross sections, as well as distributions in the jet transverse momenta and in the total transverse energy HT, are provided for the initial LHC energy of {radical}s = 7 TeV. We use a leading-color approximation, known to be accurate to 3% for W production with fewer jets. The virtual matrix elements and the most complicated real-emission matrix elements are handled by the BlackHat library, based on on-shell methods. The remaining parts of the calculation, including the integration over phase space, are performed by the SHERPA package.

  15. A Silicon Strip Detector for the Phase II High Luminosity Upgrade of the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00425747; McMahon, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that detects proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV. The Semiconductor Tracker is part of the Inner Detector, implemented using silicon microstrip detectors with binary read-out, providing momentum measurement of charged particles with excellent resolution. The operation of the LHC and the ATLAS experiment started in 2010, with ten years of operation expected until major upgrades are needed in the accelerator and the experiments. The ATLAS tracker will need to be completely replaced due to the radiation damage and occupancy of some detector elements and the data links at high luminosities. These upgrades after the first ten years of operation are named the Phase-II Upgrade and involve a re-design of the LHC, resulting in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). This thesis presents the work carried out in the testing of the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade electronic systems in the future strips tracker a...

  16. Dynamic aperture computation for the as-built CERN Large Hadron Collider and impact of main dipoles sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartoukh, S.; Giovannozzi, M.

    2012-04-01

    During the design phase of the CERN Large Hadron Collider the dynamic aperture, i.e. the amplitude of the domain in phase space where the particle motion is stable, was used as one of the most important figures-of-merit to specify the field quality of the various types of superconducting magnets and to quantify the machine performance. The programme of magnetic measurements performed during the production and acceptance testing of the magnets generated a large amount of information, which was used to obtain a best estimate of the dynamic aperture of the actual machine. In this paper the results of massive numerical simulations based on the measured field quality of several optical configurations and beam energies, are presented and discussed. The effect of the sorting of the main dipoles on the final value of the dynamic aperture has also been studied and the results are reviewed in detail.

  17. Dynamic aperture computation for the AS-built CERN Large Hadron Collider and impact of main dipoles sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Fartoukh, S

    2012-01-01

    During the design phase of the CERN Large Hadron Collider the dynamic aperture, i.e., the amplitude of the domain in phase space where the particle motion is stable, was used as one of the most important figures-of-merit to specify the field quality of the various types of superconducting magnets and to quantify the machine performance. The programme of magnetic measurements performed during the production and acceptance testing of the magnets generated a large amount of information, which was used to obtain a best estimate of the dynamic aperture of the actual machine. In this paper the results of massive numerical simulations based on the measured field quality of several optical configurations and beam energies, are presented and discussed. The effect of the sorting of the main dipoles on the final value of the dynamic aperture has also been studied and the results are reviewed in detail.

  18. The effect of neutron skin on inclusive prompt photon production in Pb + Pb collisions at Large Hadron Collider energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Somnath

    2017-04-01

    Recent experiments on lead ({{{Pb}}}82208) nuclei have observed the celebrated phenomenon of the neutron skin thickness of low energy nuclear physics. Skin thickness provides a measure of the extension of the spatial distribution of neutrons inside the atomic nucleus than protons. We have studied the effect of neutron skin thickness on inclusive prompt photon production in Pb + Pb collisions at Large Hadron Collider energies. We have calculated the ‘central-to-peripheral ratio’ ({R}{cp}) of prompt photon production with and without accounting for the neutron skin effect. The neutron skin causes a characteristic enhancement of the ratio, in particular at forward rapidity, which is distinguishable in our calculation. However, a very precise direct photon measurement up to large transverse momenta would be necessary to constrain the feature in experiment.

  19. Radial and elliptic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider from viscous hydrodynamic

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chun; Huovinen, Pasi; Song, Huichao

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive viscous hydrodynamic fit of spectra and elliptic flow for charged hadrons and identified pions and protons from Au+Au collisions of all centralities measured at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider is performed and used as the basis for predicting the analogous observables for Pb+Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at sqrt(s)=2.76 and 5.5 A TeV. Comparison with recent measurements of the elliptic flow of charged hadrons by the ALICE experiment shows that the model slightly over-predicts the data if the same (constant) specific shear viscosity eta/s is assumed at both collision energies. In spite of differences in our assumptions for the equation of state, the freeze-out temperature, the chemical composition at freeze-out, and the starting time for the hydrodynamic evolution, our results agree remarkably well with those of Luzum [M. Luzum, Phys. Rev. C 83, 044911 (2011)], indicating robustness of the hydrodynamic model extrapolations. Future measurements of the centrality and transverse m...

  20. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Schmidt, R; Piriz, A R

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding...

  1. Lattice design and beam optics calculations for the new large-scale electron-positron collider FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Haerer, Bastian; Prof. Dr. Schmidt, Ruediger; Dr. Holzer, Bernhard

    Following the recommendations of the European Strategy Group for High Energy Physics, CERN launched the Future Circular Collider Study (FCC) to investigate the feasibility of large-scale circular colliders for future high energy physics research. This thesis presents the considerations taken into account during the design process of the magnetic lattice in the arc sections of the electron-positron version FCC-ee. The machine is foreseen to operate at four different centre-of-mass energies in the range of 90 to 350 GeV. Different beam parameters need to be achieved for every energy, which requires a flexible lattice design in the arc sections. Therefore methods to tune the horizontal beam emittance without re-positioning machine components are implemented. In combination with damping and excitation wigglers a precise adjustment of the emittance can be achieved. A very first estimation of the vertical emittance arising from lattice imperfections is performed. Special emphasis is put on the optimisation of the ...

  2. CP violation in supersymmetry, Higgs sector and the large hadron collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rohini M Godbole

    2006-11-01

    In this talk I discuss some aspects of CP violation (CPV) in supersymmetry (SUSY) as well as in the Higgs sector. Further, I discuss ways in which these may be probed at hadronic colliders. In particular I will point out the ways in which studies in the $\\tilde{}^{±}$, $\\tilde{}_{2}^{0}$ sector at the Tevatron may be used to provide information on this and how the search can be extended to the LHC. I will then follow this by a discussion of the CP mixing induced in the Higgs sector due to the above-mentioned CPV in the soft SUSY breaking parameters and its effects on the Higgs phenomenology at the LHC. I would then point out some interesting aspects of the phenomenology of a moderately light charged Higgs boson, consistent with the LEP constraints, in this scenario. Decay of such a charged Higgs boson would also allow a probe of a light (≲ 50 GeV), CP-violating (CPV) Higgs boson. Such a light neutral Higgs boson might have escaped detection at LEP and could also be missed at the LHC in the usual search channels.

  3. Thermal Performance of the Supporting System for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Castoldi, M; Parma, Vittorio; Vandoni, Giovanna

    1999-01-01

    The LHC collider will be composed of approximately 1700 main ring superconducting magnets cooled to 1.9 K in pressurised superfluid helium and supported within their cryostats on low heat in-leak column-type supports. The precise positioning of the heavy magnets and the stringent thermal budgets imposed by the machine cryogenic system, require a sound thermo-mechanical design of the support system. Each support is composed of a main tubular thin-walled structure in glass-fibre reinforced epoxy resin, with its top part interfaced to the magnet at 1.9 K and its bottom part mounted onto the cryostat vacuum vessel at 293 K. In order to reduce the conduction heat in-leak at 1.9 K, each support mounts two heat intercepts at intermediate locations on the column, both actively cooled by cryogenic lines carrying helium gas at 4.5-10 K and 50-65 K. The need to assess the thermal performance of the supports has lead to setting up a dedicated test set-up for precision heat load measurements on prototype supports. This pa...

  4. Dual branch high voltage pulse generator for the beam extraction of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bonthond, J; Ducimetière, L; Jansson, U; Vossenberg, Eugène B

    2002-01-01

    The LHC beam extraction kicker system, MKD, is composed of 15 fast kicker magnets per beam to extract the particles in one turn from the collider and to dispose them, after dilution, on an external absorber. Each magnet is powered by a separate pulse generator. The original single branch generator consisted of a discharge capacitor in series with a solid state closing switch left bracket 1 right bracket operating at 30 kV. In combination with a parallel freewheel diode stack this generator produced a current pulse of 2.7 mus rise time, 18.5 kA amplitude and about 1.8 ms fall time, of which only about 90 mus are needed to dump the beam. The freewheel diode circuit is equipped with a flat top current droop compensation network, consisting of a low voltage, low stray inductance, high current discharge capacitor. Extensive reliability studies have meanwhile suggested to further increase the operational safety of this crucial system by equipping each generator with two parallel branches. This paper presents the re...

  5. A Particle Consistent with the Higgs Boson Observed with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, theoretical physicists proposed that a field permeates the universe and gives energy to the vacuum. This field was required to explain why some, but not all, fundamental particles have mass. Numerous precision measurements during recent decades have provided indirect support for the existence of this field, but one crucial prediction of this theory has remained unconfirmed despite 30 years of experimental searches: the existence of a massive particle, the standard model Higgs boson. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has now observed the production of a new particle with a mass of 126 giga–electron volts and decay signatures consistent with those expected for the Higgs particle. This result is strong support for the standard model of particle physics, including the presence of this vacuum field. The existence and properties of the newly discovered particle may also have consequences beyond the standard model itself.

  6. Constraining the Higgs couplings to up and down quarks using production kinematics at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bonner, Gage

    2016-01-01

    We study the prospects for constraining the Higgs boson's couplings to up and down quarks using kinematic distributions in Higgs production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We find that the Higgs $p_T$ distribution can be used to constrain these couplings with precision competitive to other proposed techniques. With 3000 fb$^{-1}$ of data at 13 TeV in the four-lepton decay channel, we find $-0.73 \\lesssim \\bar{\\kappa}_u \\lesssim 0.33$ and $-0.88 \\lesssim \\bar{\\kappa}_d \\lesssim 0.32$, where $\\bar{\\kappa}_q = (m_q/m_b) \\kappa_q$ is a scaling factor that modifies the $q$ quark Yukawa coupling relative to the Standard Model bottom quark Yukawa coupling. The sensitivity may be improved by including additional Higgs decay channels.

  7. Optimising charged Higgs boson searches at the Large Hadron Collider across bb¯W± final states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Moretti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the most recent data from Higgs boson searches and analyses, we re-assess the scope of the Large Hadron Collider in accessing heavy charged Higgs boson signals in bb¯W± final states, wherein the contributing channels can be H+→tb¯, hW±, HW± and AW±. We consider a 2-Higgs Doublet Model Type-II and we assume as production mode bg→tH−+c.c., the dominant one over the range MH±≥480 GeV, as dictated by b→sγ constraints. Prospects of detection are found to be significant for various Run 2 energy and luminosity options.

  8. Improving the Compact Muon Solenoid Electromagnetic Calorimeter control and safety systems for the Large Hadron Collider Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Da Silva Di Calafiori, Diogo Raphael; Djambazov, L; Holme, O; Lustermann, W; Adzic, P; Cirkovic, P; Jovanovic, D; Zelepoukine, S

    2015-01-01

    The first long shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider (LS1, 2013-2015) provided an opportunity for significant upgrades of the detector control and safety systems of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter. A thorough evaluation was undertaken, building upon experience acquired during several years of detector operations. Substantial improvements were made to the monitoring systems in order to extend readout ranges and provide improved monitoring precision and data reliability. Additional remotely controlled hardware devices and automatic software routines were implemented to optimize the detector recovery time in the case of failures. The safety system was prepared in order to guarantee full support for both commercial off-the-shelf and custom hardware components throughout the next accelerator running period. The software applications were modified to operate on redundant host servers, to fulfil new requirements of the experiment. User interface extensions were also added to provide a more complete overview of t...

  9. Commissioning and First Operation of the Low-Beta Triplets and Their Electrical Feed Boxes at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Darve, C; Casas-Cubillos, J; Claudet, S; Feher, S; Ferlin, G; Kerby, J; Metral, L; Perin, A; Peterson, T; Prin, H; Rabehl, R; Vauthier, N; Wagner, U; van Weelderen, R

    2010-01-01

    The insertion regions located around the four interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are mainly composed of the low-b triplets, the separation dipoles and their respective electrical feed-boxes (DFBX). The low-b triplets are Nb-Ti superconductor quadrupole magnets, which operate at 215 T/m in superfluid helium at a temperature of 1.9 K. The commissioning and the first operation of these components have been performed. The thermo-mechanical behavior of the low-b triplets and DFBX were studied. Cooling and control systems were tuned to optimize the cryogenic operation of the insertion regions. Hardware commissioning also permitted to test the system response. This paper summarizes the performance results and the lessons learned.

  10. Cryogenic testing of by-pass diode stacks for the superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Della Corte, A; Hagedorn, Dietrich; Turtu, S; Basile, G L; Catitti, A; Chiarelli, S; Di Ferdinando, E; Taddia, G; Talli, M; Verdini, L; Viola, R

    2002-01-01

    A dedicated facility prepared by ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy and Environment) for the cryogenic testing of by-pass diodes for the protection of the CERN Large Hadron Collider main magnets will be described. This experimental activity is in the frame of a contract awarded to OCEM, an Italian firm active in the field of electronic devices and power supplies, in collaboration with ENEA, for the manufacture and testing of all the diode stacks. In particular, CERN requests the measurement of the reverse and forward voltage diode characteristics at 300 K and 77 K, and endurance test cycles at liquid helium temperature. The experimental set-up at ENEA and data acquisition system developed for the scope will be described and the test results reported. (3 refs).

  11. CERN-RD39 collaboration activities aimed at cryogenic silicon detector application in high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zheng; Verbitskaya, Elena; Dehning, Bernd; Sapinski, Mariusz; Bartosik, Marcin R; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Kurfürst, Christoph; Härkönen, Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    Beam Loss Monitors (BLM) made of silicon are new devices for monitoring of radiation environment in the vicinity of superconductive magnets of the Large Hadron Collider. The challenge of BLMs is extreme radiation hardness, up to 10 16 protons/cm 2 while placed in superfluid helium (temperature of 1.9 K). CERN BE-BI-BL group, together with CERN-RD39 collaboration, has developed prototypes of BLMs and investigated their device physics. An overview of this development—results of the in situ radiation tests of planar silicon detectors at 1.9 K, performed in 2012 and 2014—is presented. Our main finding is that silicon detectors survive under irradiation to 1×10 16 p/cm 2 at 1.9 K. In order to improve charge collection, current injection into the detector sensitive region (Current Injection Detector (CID)) was tested. The results indicate that the detector signal increases while operated in CID mode.

  12. Construction and testing of a large scale prototype of a silicon tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter for a future lepton collider

    CERN Document Server

    Rouëné,J

    2013-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration is preparing large scale prototypes of highly granular calorimeters for detectors to be operated at a future linear electron positron collider. After several beam campaigns at DESY, CERN and FNAL, the CALICE collaboration has demonstrated the principle of highly granular electromagnetic calorimeters with a first prototype called physics prototype. The next prototype, called technological prototype, addresses the engineering challenges which come along with the realisation of highly granular calorimeters. This prototype will comprise 30 layers where each layer is composed of four 9_9 cm2 silicon wafers. The front end electronics is integrated into the detector layers. The size of each pixel is 5_5 mm2. This prototype enter sits construction phase. We present results of the first layers of the technological prototype obtained during beam test campaigns in spring and summer 2012. According to these results the signal over noise ratio of the detector exceeds the R&D goal of10:1.

  13. CERN-RD39 collaboration activities aimed at cryogenic silicon detector application in high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Eremin, Vladimir; Verbitskaya, Elena; Dehning, Bernd; Sapinski, Mariusz; Bartosik, Marcin R.; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Kurfürst, Christoph; Härkönen, Jaakko

    2016-07-01

    Beam Loss Monitors (BLM) made of silicon are new devices for monitoring of radiation environment in the vicinity of superconductive magnets of the Large Hadron Collider. The challenge of BLMs is extreme radiation hardness, up to 1016 protons/cm2 while placed in superfluid helium (temperature of 1.9 K). CERN BE-BI-BL group, together with CERN-RD39 collaboration, has developed prototypes of BLMs and investigated their device physics. An overview of this development-results of the in situ radiation tests of planar silicon detectors at 1.9 K, performed in 2012 and 2014-is presented. Our main finding is that silicon detectors survive under irradiation to 1×1016 p/cm2 at 1.9 K. In order to improve charge collection, current injection into the detector sensitive region (Current Injection Detector (CID)) was tested. The results indicate that the detector signal increases while operated in CID mode.

  14. Optimising charged Higgs boson searches at the Large Hadron Collider across b b bar W± final states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Stefano; Santos, Rui; Sharma, Pankaj

    2016-09-01

    In the light of the most recent data from Higgs boson searches and analyses, we re-assess the scope of the Large Hadron Collider in accessing heavy charged Higgs boson signals in b b bar W± final states, wherein the contributing channels can be H+ → t b bar , hW±, HW± and AW±. We consider a 2-Higgs Doublet Model Type-II and we assume as production mode bg → tH- +c.c., the dominant one over the range MH± ≥ 480 GeV, as dictated by b → sγ constraints. Prospects of detection are found to be significant for various Run 2 energy and luminosity options.

  15. Determination of AC Characteristics of Superconducting Dipole Magnets in the Large Hadron Collider Based on Experimental Results and Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ambjørndalen, Sara; Verweij, Arjan

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) utilizes high-field superconducting Main Dipole Magnets that bend the trajectory of the beam. The LHC ring is electrically divided into eight octants, each allocating a 7 km chain of 154 Main Dipole Magnets. Dedicated de- tection and protection systems prevent irreversible magnet damage caused by quenches. Quench is a local transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state. Triggering of such systems, along with other failure scenarios, result in fast transient phenomena. In order to analyze the consequence of such electrical transients and failures in the dipole chain, one needs a circuit model that is validated against measurements. Currently, there exists an equivalent circuit of the Main Dipole Magnet resolved at an aperture level. Each aperture model takes into account the dynamic effects occurring in the magnets, trough a lossy-inductance model and parasitic capacitances to ground. At low frequencies the Main Dipole Magnet behaves as a linear inductor. Ca...

  16. Study of some optical glues for the Compact Muon Solenoid at the Large Hadron Collider of CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Montecchi, Marco

    2001-01-01

    Two Avalanche Photodiodes will measure the light produced in each of the 61,200 PbWO4 crystals composing the barrel part of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider of CERN. To improve the collection of the photons, these detectors will be glued to the crystal. To be used in CMS, the optical glue must fulfil several requirements. The paper describes those requirements and reports the results of the investigation of several commercial optical glues. In particular, refractive index, absorption length, radiation hardness and forecast ageing after 15 years are reported. The most promising glue for CMS was more deeply investigated, in particular its chemical composition, chemical compatibility with the other parts of the calorimeter and curing time in realistic conditions.

  17. Flavour Tagging in Hadronic $B_s^0$ Decays for the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Jussel, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The determination of the initial b quark content of neutral B mesons using various tech- niques of flavour tagging has been studied for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN near Geneva. This work mainly focuses on opposite side soft muon flavour tagging on the hadronic decay channels Bs0 → Ds−π+ and Bs0 → Ds−a+1 with Ds− → φ(K+,K−)π− and a+1 → ρ0(π+,π−)π+. These hadronic decay channels will be used for the measurement of the Bs0 oscillation frequency ∆ms. This study has been performed on fully simulated and reconstructed Monte Carlo data sets.

  18. Optimising Charged Higgs Boson Searches at the Large Hadron Collider Across $b\\bar b W^\\pm$ Final States

    CERN Document Server

    Moretti, Stefano; Sharma, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    In the light of the most recent data from Higgs boson searches and analyses, we re-assess the scope of the Large Hadron Collider in accessing heavy charged Higgs boson signals in $b\\bar b W^\\pm$ final states, wherein the contributing channels can be $H^+\\to t\\bar b$, $hW^\\pm, HW^\\pm$ and $AW^\\pm$. We consider a 2-Higgs Doublet Model Type-II and we assume as production mode $bg\\to tH^-$ + c.c., the dominant one over the range $M_{H^\\pm}\\ge 480$ GeV, as dictated by $b\\to s\\gamma$ constraints. Prospects of detection are found to be significant for various Run 2 energy and luminosity options.

  19. Search for Heavy Higgs bosons in lepton + jets final state with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Paulo Irvin Ang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A search for the Heavy Higgs in lepton + jets final state is presented. The heavy Higgs bosons are produced in an associated production to take into account the interference with the SM tt events, and are analyzed in lepton + jets final state. The analysis uses 36.47/fb of pp collision data collected by the ATLAS detector in the Large Hadron Collider at 13 TeV center of mass energy. The analysis takes advantage of the high jet multiplicity of the signal events, and the different kinematics of the Higgs’ final states to distinguish signal from background events. The Boosted Decision Tree(BDT) was used as a classifier to further increase the discriminating power between the signal and background events. The discriminating power of the BDT is observed to be directly proportional to the Higgs mass.

  20. Model-Independent Description and Large Hadron Collider Implications of Suppressed Two-Photon Decay of a Light Higgs Boson

    CERN Document Server

    Phalen, D; Wells, J D; Phalen, Daniel; Thomas, Brooks; Wells, James D.

    2006-01-01

    For a Standard Model Higgs boson with mass between 115 GeV and 150 GeV, the two-photon decay mode is important for discovery at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We describe the interactions of a light Higgs boson in a more model-independent fashion, and consider the parameter space where there is no two-photon decay mode. We argue from generalities that analysis of the $t\\bar t h$ discovery mode outside its normally thought of range of applicability is especially needed under these circumstances. We demonstrate the general conclusion with a specific example of parameters of a type I two-Higgs doublet theory, motivated by ideas in strongly coupled model building. We then specify a complete set of branching fractions and discuss the implications for the LHC.

  1. Calculation of abort thresholds for the Beam Loss Monitoring System of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Nemcic, Martin; Dehning, Bernd

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is one of the most critical machine protection systems for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Switzerland. Its main purpose is to protect the superconducting magnets from quenches and other equipment from damage by requesting a beam abort when the measured losses exceed any of the predefined threshold levels. The system consist of circa 4000 ionization chambers which are installed around the 27 kilometres ring (LHC). This study aims to choose a technical platform and produce a system that addresses all of the limitations with the current system that is used for the calculation of the LHC BLM abort threshold values. To achieve this, a comparison and benchmarking of the Java and .NET technical platforms is performed in order to establish the most suitable solution. To establish which technical platform is a successful replacement of the current abort threshold calculator, comparable prototype systems in Java and .NET we...

  2. Measuring anomalous Wtb couplings at e{sup -}p collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Sukanta [University of Delhi, SGTB Khalsa College, Delhi (India); Goyal, Ashok [University of Delhi, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Delhi (India); Kumar, Mukesh [University of the Witwatersrand, National Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics, School of Physics and Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johannesburg (South Africa); Mellado, Bruce [University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2015-12-15

    We study the accuracy with which the lowest order CP conserving anomalous Wtb couplings in the single top-quark production at the proposed large hadron electron collider can be probed. The one-dimensional distribution of various kinematic observables at the parton level MC and their asymmetries arising due to the presence of anomalous couplings both in the hadronic and leptonic W decay is examined. We find that at 95 % CL the anomalous coupling associated with the left-handed vector current can be measured at an accuracy of the order of ∝ 10{sup -2}-10{sup -3}, while those associated with the right-handed vector and left- as well as right-handed tensor currents have a sensitivity at the order of ∝ 10{sup -1}-10{sup -2} for the systematic uncertainty varying between 10-1 % at an integrated luminosity of 100 fb{sup -1}. A comprehensive analysis of the combined covariance matrix derived from all one-dimensional distributions of kinematical observables is used to compute the errors in the anomalous couplings. (orig.)

  3. Measuring anomalous Wtb couplings at e{sup -}p collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Sukanta, E-mail: sukanta.dutta@gmail.com [SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, 110007, Delhi (India); Goyal, Ashok, E-mail: agoyal45@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, 110007, Delhi (India); Kumar, Mukesh, E-mail: mukesh.kumar@cern.ch [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics, School of Physics and Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Mellado, Bruce, E-mail: bmellado@mail.cern.ch [University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2015-12-07

    We study the accuracy with which the lowest order CP conserving anomalous Wtb couplings in the single top-quark production at the proposed large hadron electron collider can be probed. The one-dimensional distribution of various kinematic observables at the parton level MC and their asymmetries arising due to the presence of anomalous couplings both in the hadronic and leptonic W decay is examined. We find that at 95 % CL the anomalous coupling associated with the left-handed vector current can be measured at an accuracy of the order of ∼10{sup -2}–10{sup -3}, while those associated with the right-handed vector and left- as well as right-handed tensor currents have a sensitivity at the order of ∼10{sup -1}–10{sup -2} for the systematic uncertainty varying between 10–1 % at an integrated luminosity of 100 fb{sup -1}. A comprehensive analysis of the combined covariance matrix derived from all one-dimensional distributions of kinematical observables is used to compute the errors in the anomalous couplings.

  4. Reaching record-low β* at the CERN Large Hadron Collider using a novel scheme of collimator settings and optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, R.; Bracco, C.; De Maria, R.; Giovannozzi, M.; Mereghetti, A.; Mirarchi, D.; Redaelli, S.; Quaranta, E.; Salvachua, B.

    2017-03-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is built to collide intense proton beams with an unprecedented energy of 7 TeV. The design stored energy per beam of 362 MJ makes the LHC beams highly destructive, so that any beam losses risk to cause quenches of superconducting magnets or damage to accelerator components. Collimators are installed to protect the machine and they define a minimum normalized aperture, below which no other element is allowed. This imposes a limit on the achievable luminosity, since when squeezing β* (the β-function at the collision point) to smaller values for increased luminosity, the β-function in the final focusing system increases. This leads to a smaller normalized aperture that risks to go below the allowed collimation aperture. In the first run of the LHC, this was the main limitation on β*, which was constrained to values above the design specification. In this article, we show through theoretical and experimental studies how tighter collimator openings and a new optics with specific phase-advance constraints allows a β* as small as 40 cm, a factor 2 smaller than β*=80 cm used in 2015 and significantly below the design value β*=55 cm, in spite of a lower beam energy. The proposed configuration with β*=40 cm has been successfully put into operation and has been used throughout 2016 as the LHC baseline. The decrease in β* compared to 2015 has been an essential contribution to reaching and surpassing, in 2016, the LHC design luminosity for the first time, and to accumulating a record-high integrated luminosity of around 40 fb-1 in one year, in spite of using less bunches than in the design.

  5. Search for Microscopic Black Hole Signatures at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hartl, Christian; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; Cerny, Karel; De Wolf, Eddi A.; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Adler, Volker; Beauceron, Stephanie; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Ferreira Dias, Marco Andre; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dyulendarova, Milena; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Marinova, Evelina; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Ming; Yang, Min; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A.; Rykaczewski, Hans; Assran, Yasser; Awad, Adel; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Xiao, Hong; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Masetti, Gianni; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Srivastava, Ajay Kumar; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Wolf, Roger; Barth, Christian; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Renz, Manuel; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Dimitrov, Anton; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Marcellini, Stefano; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cimmino, Anna; De Cosa, Annapaola; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Conti, Enrico; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gresele, Ambra; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A.; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H.; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Sá Martins, Pedro; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Bondar, Nikolai; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Breuker, Horst; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Duarte Ramos, Fernando; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Henderson, Conor; Hesketh, Gavin; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Stoye, Markus; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Tsyganov, Andrey; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguiló, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Wilke, Lotte; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Dutta, Suchandra; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Demir, Zahide; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Clough, Andrew; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Fields, Laura Johanna; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M.; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Kaadze, Ketino; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Lomidze, David; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2013-07-16

    A search for microscopic black hole production and decay in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV has been conducted by the CMS Collaboration at the LHC, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35 inverse picobarns. Events with large total transverse energy are analyzed for the presence of multiple high-energy jets, leptons, and photons, typical of a signal expected from a microscopic black hole. Good agreement with the expected standard model backgrounds, dominated by QCD multijet production, is observed for various final-state multiplicities. Limits on the minimum black hole mass are set, in the range 3.5 -- 4.5 TeV, for a variety of parameters in a model with large extra dimensions, along with model-independent limits on new physics in these final states. These are the first direct limits on black hole production at a particle accelerator.

  6. Observable Properties of Quark-Hadron Phase Transition at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Hwa, Rudolph C

    2016-01-01

    Quark-hadron phase transition is simulated by an event generator that incorporates the dynamical properties of contraction due to QCD confinement forces and randomization due to the thermal behavior of a large quark system on the edge of hadronization. Fluctuations of emitted pions in the $(\\eta,\\phi)$ space are analyzed using normalized factorial moments in a wide range of bin sizes. The scaling index $\

  7. Mono-jet, -photon and -Z Signals of a Supersymmetric (B-L) model at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, W; Khalil, S; Moretti, S

    2015-01-01

    Search for invisible final states produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by new physics scenarios are normally carried out resorting to a variety of probes emerging from the initial state, in the form of single-jet, -photon and -$Z$ boson signatures. These are particularly effective for models of Supersymmetry (SUSY) in presence of $R$-parity conservation, owing to the presence in their spectra of a stable neutralino as dark matter candidate. We assume here as theoretical framework Supersymmetric ($B-L$) extension of the Standard Model (BLSSM), wherein a mediator for invisible decays can be $Z'$ boson. The peculiarity of the signal is thus that the final state objects carry a very large (transverse) missing energy, since the $Z'$ is naturally massive and constrained by direct searches and electro-weak precision tests to be at least in TeV scale region. Under these circumstances the efficiency in accessing the invisible final state and rejecting the standard model background is very high. This somehow com...

  8. Qualification of Sub-Atmospheric Pressure Sensors for the Cryomagnet Bayonet Heat Exchangers of the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bager, T.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Jeanmonod, N.

    2006-04-01

    The superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be cooled at 1.9 K by distributed cooling loops working with saturated two-phase superfluid helium flowing in 107 m long bayonet heat exchangers located in each magnet cold-mass cell. The temperature of the magnets could be difficult to control because of the large dynamic heat load variations. Therefore, it is foreseen to measure the heat exchangers pressure to feed the regulation loops with the corresponding saturation temperature. The required uncertainty of the sub-atmospheric saturation pressure measurement shall be of the same order of the one associated to the magnet thermometers, in pressure it translates as ±5 Pa at 1.6 kPa. The transducers shall be radiation hard as they will endure, in the worst case, doses up to 10 kGy and 1015 neutronsṡcm-2 over 10 years. The sensors under evaluation were installed underground in the dump section of the SPS accelerator with a radiation environment close to the one expected for the LHC. The monitoring equipment was installed in a remote radiation protected area. This paper presents the results of the radiation qualification campaign with emphasis on the reliability and accuracy of the pressure sensors under the test conditions.

  9. Qualification of Sub-atmospheric Pressure Sensors for the Cryomagnet Bayonet Heat Exchangers of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanmonod, N; Casas-Cubillos, J

    2006-01-01

    The superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be cooled at 1.9 K by distributed cooling loops working with saturated two-phase superfluid helium flowing in 107 m long bayonet heat exchangers [1] located in each magnet cold-mass cell. The temperature of the magnets could be difficult to control because of the large dynamic heat load variations. Therefore, it is foreseen to measure the heat exchangers pressure to feed the regulation loops with the corresponding saturation temperature. The required uncertainty of the sub-atmospheric saturation pressure measurement shall be of the same order of the one associated to the magnet thermometers, in pressure it translates as ±5 Pa at 1.6 kPa. The transducers shall be radiation hard as they will endure, in the worst case, doses up to 10 kGy and 10**15 neutrons·cm**-2 over 10 years. The sensors under evaluation were installed underground in the dump section of the SPS accelerator with a radiation environment close to the one expected for the L...

  10. Search for Supersymmetry using a Higgs boson in the decay cascade with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00342591; Lefebvre, Michel

    The Standard Model of particle physics is a successful theory, yet it is incomplete. Supersymmetry is one of the favored extensions of the Standard Model, elegantly addressing several unresolved issues. This thesis presents a search for the pair production of supersymmetric particles $pp \\rightarrow \\widetilde{\\chi}_1^\\pm$ $\\widetilde{\\chi}_2^0$, where the neutralino two $\\widetilde{\\chi}_2^0$ decays to the lightest neutralino and the 125 GeV Higgs boson. The final states considered for the search have large missing transverse momentum, an isolated lepton and two jets identified as originating from bottom quarks ($h \\to b\\bar{b}$ channel). The analysis is based on 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of $\\sqrt{s}$~=~8~TeV proton--proton collision data delivered by the Large Hadron Collider and recorded with the ATLAS detector. No excess over Standard Model predictions is observed. The analysis has been combined with three independent searches that probe other decay modes of the Standard Model Higgs boson. Limits are set at 95\\% co...

  11. Quench tests at the Large Hadron Collider with collimation losses at 3.5 Z TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Bellodi, G; Brodzinski, K; Bruce, R; Burkart, F; Cauchi, M; Deboy, D; Dehning, B; Holzer, E B; Jowett, J M; Lari, L; Nebot del Busto, E; Pojer, M; Priebe, A; Rossi, A; Schmidt, R; Sapinski, M; Schaumann, M; Solfaroli Camollocci, M; Valentino, G; Versteegen, R; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been operating since 2010 at 3.5 TeV and 4.0 TeV without experiencing quenches induced by losses from circulating beams. This situation might change at 7 TeV where the quench margins in the super-conducting magnets are reduced. The critical locations are the dispersion suppressors (DSs) at either side of the cleaning and experimental insertions, where dispersive losses are maximum. It is therefore crucial to understand the quench limits with beam loss distributions alike those occurring in standard operation. In order to address this aspect, quench tests were performed by inducing large beam losses on the primary collimators of the betatron cleaning insertion, for proton and lead ion beams of 3.5 Z TeV, to probe the quench limits of the DS magnets. Losses up to 500 kW were achieved without quenches. The measurement technique and the results obtained are presented, with observations of heat loads in the cryogenics system.

  12. Magnet trouble likely to complicate start of large hadron collider Repairs may preclude a test run before the particle smasher starts tackling the Higgs boson

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Researchers building the world's next top particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that straddles the Franco-Swiss border, may not get a chance to work out the bugs before they fire up the machine in earnest." (1/2 page)

  13. TeV Strings and Collider Probes of Large Extra Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali have proposed that the fundamental gravitational scale is close to 1 TeV, and that the observed weakness of gravity at long distances is explained by the presence of large extra compact dimensions. If this scenario is realized in a string theory of quantum gravity, the string excited states of Standard Model particles will also have TeV masses. These states will be visible to experiment and in fact provide the first signatures of the presence of a low quant...

  14. Beam losses from ultra-peripheral nuclear collisions between $^{208}$Pb$^{82+}$ ions in the Large Hadron Collider and their alleviation

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R; Jowett, J; Bocian, D; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic interactions between colliding heavy ions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will give rise to localized beam losses that may quench superconducting magnets, apart from contributing significantly to the luminosity decay. To quantify their impact on the operation of the collider, we have used a three-step simulation approach, which consists of optical tracking, a Monte-Carlo shower simulation and a thermal network model of the heat flow inside a magnet. We present simulation results for the case of Pb ion operation in the LHC, with focus on the ALICE interaction region, and show that the expected heat load during nominal Pb operation is 40% above the quench level. This limits the maximum achievable luminosity. Furthermore, we discuss methods of monitoring the losses and possible ways to alleviate their effect.

  15. Mapping color fluctuations in the photon in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvioli, M.; Frankfurt, L.; Guzey, V.; Strikman, M.; Zhalov, M.

    2017-04-01

    We model effects of color fluctuations (CFs) in the light-cone photon wave function and for the first time make predictions for the distribution over the number of wounded nucleons ν in the inelastic photon-nucleus scattering. We show that CFs lead to a dramatic enhancement of this distribution at ν = 1 and large ν > 10. We also study the implications of different scales and CFs in the photon wave function on the total transverse energy ΣET and other observables in inelastic γA scattering with different triggers. Our predictions can be tested in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus ultraperipheral collisions at the LHC and will help to map CFs, whose first indications have already been observed at the LHC.

  16. The Large Hadron Collider and the Role of Superconductivity in One of the Largest Scientific Enterprises

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Lucio

    2007-01-01

    After ten years of R&D and industrialization and seven years of construction, the LHC is near completion. The manufacture of the 1750 main superconducting magnets and of the 8000 superconducting correctors for the accelerator, as well as their cold test at CERN, is approaching the end, while their commissioning in the 27 km-long tunnel has started. The very large superconducting magnets for the main detectors, ATLAS and CMS, are installed and their commissioning is under way. Superconductivity is the key technology for the largest scientific enterprise of this decade: it accounts for half of the total cost and has proved to be affordable and reliable. Thanks to superconductivity we can probe new states of matters and reproduce conditions of 1 ps after the big bang. The paper will give the link between the Physics requirements and the answers that applied superconductivity has offered in this project.

  17. TeV Strings and Collider Probes of Large Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, S; Peskin, Michael E; Cullen, Schuyler; Perelstein, Maxim; Peskin, Michael E.

    2000-01-01

    Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali have proposed that the fundamental gravitational scale is close to 1 TeV, and that the observed weakness of gravity at long distances is explained by the presence of large extra compact dimensions. If this scenario is realized in a string theory of quantum gravity, the string excited states of Standard Model particles will also have TeV masses. These states will be visible to experiment and in fact provide the first signatures of the presence of a low quantum gravity scale. Their presence also affects the more familiar signatures due to real and virtual graviton emission. We study the effects of these states in a simple string model.

  18. Hadronic "flow" in p--Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider?

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, You; Li, Pengfei; Song, Huichao

    2015-01-01

    Using the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model, we investigate azimuthal correlations in p--Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}}=5.02$ TeV. Comparison with the experimental data shows that UrQMD can not reproduce the multiplicity dependence of 2- and 4-particle cumulants, especially the transition from positive to negative values of $c_{2}\\{4\\}$ in high multiplicity events, which has been taken as experimental evidence of collectivity in p--Pb collisions. Meanwhile, UrQMD can not qualitatively describe the differential elliptic flow, $v_{2}(p_{\\rm T})$, of all charged hadrons at various multiplicity classes. These discrepancies show that the simulated hadronic p--Pb systems can not generate enough collective flow as observed in experiment, the associated hadron emissions are largely influenced by non-flow effects. However, the characteristic $v_{2}(p_{\\rm T})$ mass-ordering of pions, kaons and protons is observed in UrQMD, which is the consequence of hadronic interactions and not nece...

  19. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Backhaus, Malte; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC will provide new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed as well as a new read-out chip within CMOS 130nm technology and with larger area, smaller pixel size and faster readout capability. The new detector is the first large scale application of of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. An overview of the lessons learned during the IBL project will be presented, focusing on the challenges and highlighting the issues met during the productio...

  20. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Giordani, MarioPaolo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector, in particular the IBL, will be presented, using collision data.

  1. Search for signatures of extra dimensions in the diphoton mass spectrum at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knapitsch, Arno; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Rohringer, Christine; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Benucci, Leonardo; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Siguang; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Lingemann, Joschka; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Davids, Martina; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Röcker, Steffen; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Sikler, Ferenc; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Rizzi, Andrea; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Jo, Hyun Yong; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Seo, Eunsung; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Polujanskas, Mindaugas; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Brona, Grzegorz; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Pela, Joao; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Guiducci, Luigi; Gundacker, Stefan; Hansen, Magnus; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Milenovic, Predrag; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Özbek, Melih; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Henderson, Conor; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sfiligoi, Igor; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pivarski, James; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Schwarz, Thomas; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Silvestre, Catherine; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Peterman, Alison; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Jindal, Pratima; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Wan, Zongru; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Sakumoto, Willis; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Gurrola, Alfredo; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Johnston, Cody; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goadhouse, Stephen; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Belknap, Donald; Bellinger, James Nugent; Bernardini, Jacopo; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2012-01-01

    A search for signatures of extra dimensions in the diphoton invariant-mass spectrum has been performed with the CMS detector at the LHC. No excess of events above the standard model expectation is observed using a data sample collected in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 inverse femtobarns. In the context of the large-extra-dimensions model, lower limits are set on the effective Planck scale in the range of 2.3-3.8 TeV at the 95% confidence level. These limits are the most restrictive bounds on virtual-graviton exchange to date. The most restrictive lower limits to date are also set on the mass of the first graviton excitation in the Randall-Sundrum model in the range of 0.86-1.84 TeV, for values of the associated coupling parameter between 0.01 and 0.10.

  2. Track distortion in the Large prototype of a Time Projection Chamber for the International Linear Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar Bhattacharya, Deb; Bhattacharya, Purba; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Majumdar, Nayana; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Sarkar, Sandip; Colas, Paul; Attie, David; Ganjour, Serguei; Bhattacharya, Aparajita

    2016-10-01

    A Micromegas (MM) based Time Projection Chamber (TPC) can meet the ILC requirements of continuous 3-D tracking, excellent spatial resolution and efficient pattern recognition. Seven MM modules which are commissioned on the end-plate of a Large Prototype TPC (LPTPC) at DESY, have been tested with a 5 GeV electron beam, under a 1 T magnetic field. Due to the grounded peripheral frame of the MM modules, at short drift, the electric field near the detector edge remain no longer parallel to the TPC axis. This causes signal loss along the boundaries of the MM modules as well as distortion in the reconstructed track. In presence of magnetic field, the distorted electric field introduces E×B effect. A detailed numerical study has been accomplished to understand the features of this distortion. Four Micromegas modules have been simulated resembling the experimental setup. The field lines, drift line of electrons considering diffusion in gas, nature of track distortion, residuals are numerically calculated in presence and in absence of magnetic field. The E×B effect has been simulated as well. Simulated results follow the experimental observations.

  3. Search for signatures of extra dimensions in the diphoton mass spectrum at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Khachatryan, Vardan; Sirunyan, Albert M.; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; /Yerevan Phys. Inst. /Vienna, OAW /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /Antwerp U., WISINF /Vrije U., Brussels /Brussels U. /Gent U. /Louvain U. /UMH, Mons /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U.

    2011-12-01

    A search for signatures of extra dimensions in the diphoton invariant-mass spectrum has been performed with the CMS detector at the LHC. No excess of events above the standard model expectation is observed using a data sample collected in proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb{sup -1}. In the context of the large-extra-dimensions model, lower limits are set on the effective Planck scale in the range of 2.3-3.8 TeV at the 95% confidence level. These limits are the most restrictive bounds on virtual-graviton exchange to date. The most restrictive lower limits to date are also set on the mass of the first graviton excitation in the Randall-Sundrum model in the range of 0.86-1.84 TeV, for values of the associated coupling parameter between 0.01 and 0.10.

  4. A Novel Method and Error Analysis for Beam Optics Measurements and Corrections at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Langner, Andy Sven; Rossbach, Jörg; Tomás, Rogelio

    2017-02-17

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently the world's largest particle accelerator with the highest center of mass energy in particle collision experiments. The control of the particle beam focusing is essential for the performance reach of such an accelerator. For the characterization of the focusing properties at the LHC, turn-by-turn beam position data is simultaneously recorded at numerous measurement devices (BPMs) along the accelerator, while an oscillation is excited on the beam. A novel analysis method for these measurements ($N$-BPM method) is developed here, which is based on a detailed analysis of systematic and statistical error sources and their correlations. It has been applied during the commissioning of the LHC for operation at an unprecedented energy of 6.5 TeV. In this process a stronger focusing than its design specifications has been achieved. This results in smaller transverse beam sizes at the collision points and allows for a higher rate of particle collisions. For the derivation of ...

  5. Forecasting the Socio-Economic Impact of the Large Hadron Collider: a Cost-Benefit Analysis to 2025 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Florio, Massimo; Sirtori, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we develop a cost-benefit analysis of a major research infrastructure, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the highest-energy accelerator in the world, currently operating at CERN. We show that the evaluation of benefits can be made quantitative by estimating their welfare effects on different types of agents. Four classes of direct benefits are identified, according to the main social groups involved: (a) scientists; (b) students and young researchers; (c) firms in the procurement chain and other organizations; (d) the general public, including onsite and website visitors and other media users. These benefits are respectively related to the knowledge output of scientists; human capital formation; technological spillovers; and direct cultural effects for the general public. Welfare effects for taxpayers can also be estimated by the contingent valuation of the willingness to pay for a pure public good for which there is no specific direct use (i.e., as non-use value). Using a Monte Carlo approach, w...

  6. Sources of machine-induced background in the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R; Boccone, V; Bregliozzi, G; Burkhardt, H; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Huhtinen, M; Lechner, A; Levinsen, Y; Mereghetti, A; Mokhov, N V; Tropin, I S; Vlachoudis, V

    2013-01-01

    One source of experimental background in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particles entering the detectors from the machine. These particles are created in cascades, caused by upstream interactions of beam protons with residual gas molecules or collimators. We estimate the losses on the collimators with SixTrack and simulate the showers with FLUKA and MARS to obtain the flux and distribution of particles entering the ATLAS and CMS detectors. We consider some machine configurations used in the first LHC run, with focus on 3.5 TeV operation as in 2011. Results from FLUKA and MARS are compared and a very good agreement is found. An analysis of logged LHC data provides, for different processes, absolute beam loss rates, which are used together with further simulations of vacuum conditions to normalize the results to rates of particles entering the detectors. We assess the relative importance of background from elastic and inelastic beam-gas interactions, and the leakage out of the LHC collimation system, a...

  7. Sources of machine-induced background in the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, R.; et al.,

    2013-11-21

    One source of experimental background in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particles entering the detectors from the machine. These particles are created in cascades, caused by upstream interactions of beam protons with residual gas molecules or collimators. We estimate the losses on the collimators with SixTrack and simulate the showers with FLUKA and MARS to obtain the flux and distribution of particles entering the ATLAS and CMS detectors. We consider some machine configurations used in the first LHC run, with focus on 3.5 TeV operation as in 2011. Results from FLUKA and MARS are compared and a very good agreement is found. An analysis of logged LHC data provides, for different processes, absolute beam loss rates, which are used together with further simulations of vacuum conditions to normalize the results to rates of particles entering the detectors. We assess the relative importance of background from elastic and inelastic beam-gas interactions, and the leakage out of the LHC collimation system, and show that beam-gas interactions are the dominating source of machine-induced background for the studied machine scenarios. Our results serve as a starting point for the experiments to perform further simulations in order to estimate the resulting signals in the detectors.

  8. Who cares about particle physics? making sense of the Higgs boson, the Large Hadron Collider and CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2051327

    2016-01-01

    CERN, the European Laboratory for particle physics, regularly makes the news. What kind of research happens at this international laboratory and how does it impact people's daily lives? Why is the discovery of the Higgs boson so important? Particle physics describes all matter found on Earth, in stars and all galaxies but it also tries to go beyond what is known to describe dark matter, a form of matter five times more prevalent than the known, regular matter. How do we know this mysterious dark matter exists and is there a chance it will be discovered soon? About sixty countries contributed to the construction of the gigantic Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its immense detectors. Dive in to discover how international teams of researchers work together to push scientific knowledge forward. Here is a book written for every person who wishes to learn a little more about particle physics, without requiring prior scientific knowledge. It starts from the basics to build a solid understanding of current res...

  9. The hunting of the squark Experimental strategies in the search for supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Khoo, Teng Jian

    In its first three years of operation, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has already proved its worth as a discovery machine and reinvigorated the prospects for discovering new dynamics beyond the Standard Model. This thesis presents a range of experimental methods devised for discovery of supersymmetry, one of the most important extensions of the Standard Model being tested at the LHC. The first chapter discusses the concepts behind a set of transverse mass-bound variables, and explores connections between these variables and others in the literature. Not only are these variables important tools for mass measurement, should sparticles be seen at the LHC, they are also critical components of experimental searches. Accordingly, their performance has been compared in both mass measurement and search contexts, and the results are reported here. This is followed by the details of a search for hadronically-decaying squarks and gluinos, carried out on 4.7 fb−1 of data collected at 7 TeV in 2011 by the ATLAS detec...

  10. Simulation study of electron cloud induced instabilities and emittance growth for the CERN Large Hadron Collider proton beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Benedetto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The electron cloud may cause transverse single-bunch instabilities of proton beams such as those in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC and the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS. We simulate these instabilities and the consequent emittance growth with the code HEADTAIL, which models the turn-by-turn interaction between the cloud and the beam. Recently some new features were added to the code, in particular, electric conducting boundary conditions at the chamber wall, transverse feedback, and variable beta functions. The sensitivity to several numerical parameters has been studied by varying the number of interaction points between the bunch and the cloud, the phase advance between them, and the number of macroparticles used to represent the protons and the electrons. We present simulation results for both LHC at injection and SPS with LHC-type beam, for different electron-cloud density levels, chromaticities, and bunch intensities. Two regimes with qualitatively different emittance growth are observed: above the threshold of the transverse mode-coupling (TMC type of instability there is a rapid blowup of the beam, while below this threshold a slow, long-term, emittance growth remains. The rise time of the TMC instability caused by the electron cloud is compared with results obtained using an equivalent broadband resonator impedance model, demonstrating reasonable agreement.

  11. Thermomechanical assessment of the effects of a jaw-beam angle during beam impact on Large Hadron Collider collimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchi, Marija; Assmann, R. W.; Bertarelli, A.; Carra, F.; Lari, L.; Rossi, A.; Mollicone, P.; Sammut, N.

    2015-02-01

    The correct functioning of a collimation system is crucial to safely and successfully operate high-energy particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). However, the requirements to handle high-intensity beams can be demanding, and accident scenarios must be well studied in order to assess if the collimator design is robust against possible error scenarios. One of the catastrophic, though not very probable, accident scenarios identified within the LHC is an asynchronous beam dump. In this case, one (or more) of the 15 precharged kicker circuits fires out of time with the abort gap, spraying beam pulses onto LHC machine elements before the machine protection system can fire the remaining kicker circuits and bring the beam to the dump. If a proton bunch directly hits a collimator during such an event, severe beam-induced damage such as magnet quenches and other equipment damage might result, with consequent downtime for the machine. This study investigates a number of newly defined jaw error cases, which include angular misalignment errors of the collimator jaw. A numerical finite element method approach is presented in order to precisely evaluate the thermomechanical response of tertiary collimators to beam impact. We identify the most critical and interesting cases, and show that a tilt of the jaw can actually mitigate the effect of an asynchronous dump on the collimators. Relevant collimator damage limits are taken into account, with the aim to identify optimal operational conditions for the LHC.

  12. Messung der Produktion von aus leichten Quarks zusammengesetzten Hadronen und Anti-Kernen am Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Kalweit, Alexander; Wambach, Jochen

    With the recording of the first collisions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in November 2009, a new era in the domain of high energy and relativistic heavy-ion physics has started. As one of the early observables which can be addressed, the measurement of light quark flavor production is presented in this thesis. Hadrons that consist only of u, d, and s quarks constitute the majority of the produced particles in pp and Pb–Pb collisions. Their measurement forms the basis for a detailed understanding of the collision and for the answer of the question if hadronic matter undergoes a phase transition to the deconfined quark-gluon plasma at high temperatures. The basics of ultra-relativistic heavyion physics are briefly introduced in the first chapter followed by a short description of the ALICE experiment. A particular focus is put on the unique particle identification (PID) capabilities as they provide the basis of the measurements which are presented in the following chapters. The particle identification vi...

  13. Monitoring of damage on water–cooled cables installed in the Large Hadron Collider (CERN) and research on possible alternatives.

    CERN Document Server

    Wollmann, Alexander; Guillaume, J C; Ricci, D

    To supply the superconducting magnets in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, several thousand metres of water–cooled cables were installed. These cables consist of a flexible copper core surrounded by a reinforced rubber hose. Although the hose material has been selected carefully, on many cables the rubber hose has suffered from damage. After giving a general overview on common rubber materials and known reasons for their ageing, the technology of water–cooled cables and their special requirements will be introduced. Then, the aim of this thesis is to present the monitoring of the damage on the rubber hoses. This includes an introduction to the monitoring technique used, followed by an analysis and discussion of the results obtained. As a different way of investigating the damage, a pressure test for the rubber hose will be proposed and specified; and the possibility of using alternative conductors for the current supply of the LHC main magnets will be examined. Finally, a series of radiation tests on pot...

  14. Mathematical formulation to predict the harmonics of the superconducting Large Hadron Collider magnets. II. Dynamic field changes and scaling laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Sammut

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A superconducting particle accelerator like the LHC (Large Hadron Collider at CERN, can only be controlled well if the effects of the magnetic field multipoles on the beam are compensated. The demands on a control system solely based on beam feedback may be too high for the requirements to be reached at the specified bandwidth and accuracy. Therefore, we designed a suitable field description for the LHC (FIDEL as part of the machine control baseline to act as a feed-forward magnetic field prediction system. FIDEL consists of a physical and empirical parametric field model based on magnetic measurements at warm and in cryogenic conditions. The performance of FIDEL is particularly critical at injection when the field decays, and in the initial part of the acceleration when the field snaps back. These dynamic components are both current and time dependent and are not reproducible from cycle to cycle since they also depend on the magnet powering history. In this paper a qualitative and quantitative description of the dynamic field behavior substantiated by a set of scaling laws is presented.

  15. CERN-RD39 collaboration activities aimed at cryogenic silicon detector application in high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng [National-Provincial Laboratory of Special Function Thin Film Materials, School of Material Sciences and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Eremin, Vladimir [Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Verbitskaya, Elena, E-mail: elena.verbitskaya@cern.ch [Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Dehning, Bernd; Sapinski, Mariusz; Bartosik, Marcin R.; Alexopoulos, Andreas [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kurfürst, Christoph [Technische Universität, Universitätsring 1, 1010 Wien (Austria); Härkönen, Jaakko [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Gustaf Hällströminkatu, 200014 Helsingin yliopisto (Finland)

    2016-07-11

    Beam Loss Monitors (BLM) made of silicon are new devices for monitoring of radiation environment in the vicinity of superconductive magnets of the Large Hadron Collider. The challenge of BLMs is extreme radiation hardness, up to 10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2} while placed in superfluid helium (temperature of 1.9 K). CERN BE-BI-BL group, together with CERN-RD39 collaboration, has developed prototypes of BLMs and investigated their device physics. An overview of this development—results of the in situ radiation tests of planar silicon detectors at 1.9 K, performed in 2012 and 2014—is presented. Our main finding is that silicon detectors survive under irradiation to 1×10{sup 16} p/cm{sup 2} at 1.9 K. In order to improve charge collection, current injection into the detector sensitive region (Current Injection Detector (CID)) was tested. The results indicate that the detector signal increases while operated in CID mode. - Highlights: • Activities aimed at upgrading of Beam Loss Monitors (BLM) at HL-LHC are described. • Overview of in situ radiation tests of silicon BLMs immersed in LHe is presented. • Silicon detectors with 300 and 100 μm thickness survived radiation at 1.9 K. • Current injection is still effective at 1.9 K for radiation hardness improvement. • Si detectors are currently installed on the magnets for their operation as BLMs.

  16. On-Line Radiation Test Facility for Industrial Equipment needed for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rausch, R

    1999-01-01

    The future Large Hadron Collider to be built at CERN will use superconducting magnets cooled down to 1.2 K. To preserve the superconductivity, the energy deposition dose levels in equipment located outside the cryostat, in the LHC tunnel, are calculated to be of the order of 1 to 10 Gy per year. At such dose levels, no major radiation-damage problems are to be expected, and the possibility of installing Commercial Of The Shelf (COTS) electronic equipment in the LHC tunnel along the accelerator is considered. To this purpose, industrial electronic equipment and circuits have to be qualified and tested against radiation to insure their long term stability and reliability. An on-line radiation test facility has been setup at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and a program of on-line tests for electronic equipment is ongoing. Equipment tested includes Industrial Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) from several manufacturers, standard VME modules, Fieldbuses like Profibus, WorldFIP and CAN, various electro...

  17. Light-by-light scattering in ultraperipheral Pb-Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłusek-Gawenda, Mariola; Lebiedowicz, Piotr; Szczurek, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    We calculate cross sections for diphoton production in (semi)exclusive PbPb collisions, relevant for the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The calculation is based on the equivalent photon approximation in the impact parameter space. The cross sections for the elementary γ γ →γ γ subprocess are calculated including two different mechanisms. We take into account box diagrams with leptons and quarks in the loops. In addition, we consider a vector-meson dominance (VDM-Regge) contribution with virtual intermediate hadronic (vector-like) excitations of the photons. We get measurable cross sections in PbPb collisions. This opens a possibility to study the γ γ →γ γ (quasi)elastic scattering at the LHC. We present many interesting differential distributions which could be measured by the ALICE, CMS, or ATLAS Collaborations at the LHC. We study whether a separation or identification of different components (boxes, VDM-Regge) is possible. We find that the cross section for elastic γ γ scattering could be measured in the heavy-ion collisions for subprocess energies smaller than Wγ γ≈15 -20 GeV.

  18. Muon colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R. B.; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.; Tollestrup, A.; Baltz, A. J.; Chen, P.; Cheng, W.-H.; Cho, Y.; Courant, E.; Fernow, R. C.; Gallardo, J. C.; Garren, A.; Green, M.; Kahn, S.; Kirk, H.; Lee, Y. Y.; Mills, F.; Mokhov, N.; Morgan, G.; Neuffer, D.; Noble, R.; Norem, J.; Popovic, M.; Schachinger, L.; Silvestrov, G.; Summers, D.; Stumer, I.; Syphers, M.; Torun, Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Turner, W.; Van Ginneken, A.; Vsevolozhskaya, T.; Weggel, R.; Willen, E.; Winn, D.; Wurtele, J.

    1996-05-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity μ+μ- colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Problems of detector background are also discussed.

  19. Muon colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, R.B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Sessler, A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Skrinsky, A. [BINP, RU-630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity {micro}{sup +}{micro}{sup {minus}}colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Problems of detector background are also discussed.

  20. Ti-Zr-V non-evaporable getter films from development to large scale production for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Chiggiato, P

    2005-01-01

    Non-evaporable getter (NEG) alloys after dissolution of their native oxide layer into the bulk are able to pump most of the gases present in ultra-high vacuum systems. The dissolution process, commonly called activation, is obtained by heating in vacuum. NEG materials can be sputter-deposited as a thin film on the inner wall of a vacuum chamber, transforming it from a source of gas into an effective pump. The most significant advance in the development of NEG films was the discovery of a very low activation temperature (180°C for 24 h heating) in a large range of compositions of the Ti-Zr-V system. This favourable property was correlated with nanometric grain size of the film (about 3 to 5 nm). In addition to pumping, NEG films lead to reduced induced gas desorption and secondary electron yields. As a consequence, Ti-Zr-V films provide the optimum solution to most of the problems encountered in vacuum systems of modern particle accelerators for high energy physics and for synchrotron radiation facilities. ...

  1. Shape and flow fluctuations in ultracentral Pb + Pb collisions at the energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun; Qiu, Zhi; Heinz, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    In ultracentral heavy-ion collisions, anisotropic hydrodynamic flow is generated by density fluctuations in the initial state rather than by geometric overlap effects. For a given centrality class, the initial fluctuation spectrum is sensitive to the method chosen for binning the events into centrality classes. We show that sorting events by total initial entropy or by total final multiplicity yields event classes with equivalent statistical fluctuation properties, in spite of viscous entropy production during the fireball evolution. With this initial entropy-based centrality definition we generate several classes of ultracentral Pb + Pb collisions at Cern Large Hadron Collider energies and evolve the events using viscous hydrodynamics with nonzero shear but vanishing bulk viscosity. Comparing the predicted anisotropic flow coefficients for charged hadrons with CMS data we find that both the Monte Carlo Glauber (MC-Glb) and Monte Carlo Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi (MC-KLN) models produce initial fluctuation spectra that are incompatible with the measured final anisotropic flow power spectrum, for any choice of the specific shear viscosity. In spite of this failure, we show that the hydrodynamic model can qualitatively explain, in terms of event-by-event fluctuations of the anisotropic flow coefficients and flow angles, the breaking of flow factorization for elliptic, triangular, and quadrangular flow measured by the CMS experiment. For elliptic flow, this factorization breaking is large in ultracentral collisions. We conclude that the bulk of the experimentally observed flow factorization breaking effects are qualitatively explained by hydrodynamic evolution of initial-state fluctuations, but that their quantitative description requires a better understanding of the initial fluctuation spectrum.

  2. Reliability of the beam loss monitors system for the large hadron collider at CERN; Fiabilite du systeme des moniteurs de pertes du faisceau pour le Large Hadron Collider au CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guaglio, G

    2005-12-15

    The energy stored in the Large Hadron Collider is unprecedented. The impact of the beam particles can cause severe damage on the superconductive magnets, resulting in significant downtime for repairing. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) detects the secondary particles shower of the lost beam particles and initiates the extraction of the beam before any serious damage to the equipment can occur. This thesis defines the BLMS specifications in term of reliability. The main goal is the design of a system minimizing both the probability to not detect a dangerous loss and the number of false alarms generated. The reliability theory and techniques utilized are described. The prediction of the hazard rates, the testing procedures, the Failure Modes Effects and Criticalities Analysis and the Fault Tree Analysis have been used to provide an estimation of the probability to damage a magnet, of the number of false alarms and of the number of generated warnings. The weakest components in the BLMS have been pointed out. The reliability figures of the BLMS have been calculated using a commercial software package (Isograph.). The effect of the variation of the parameters on the obtained results has been evaluated with a sensitivity analysis. The reliability model has been extended by the results of radiation tests. Design improvements, like redundant optical transmission, have been implemented in an iterative process. The proposed system is compliant with the reliability requirements. The model uncertainties are given by the limited knowledge of the thresholds levels of the superconductive magnets and of the locations of the losses along the ring. The implemented model allows modifications of the system, following the measuring of the hazard rates during the LHC life. It can also provide reference numbers to other accelerators which will implement similar technologies. (author)

  3. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Unit

    2005-01-01

    With Mike Struik (LHC Magnets Interconnection), Pascal Ponsot (LHC Magnet Transport), André Jacquemod (LHC Magnets Interconnection), Jean-Marc Balaguer (Ultrasound Welding), Davide Bozzini (Testing) and Lyn Evans (LHC Project Leader)

  4. Measurement of Electroweak Gauge Boson Scattering in the Channel $pp \\rightarrow W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}jj$ with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Gumpert, Christian; Heinemann, Beate; Klein, Uta

    Particle physics deals with the elementary constituents of our universe and their interactions. The electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism in the Standard Model of Particle Physics is of paramount importance and it plays a central role in the physics programmes of current high-energy physics experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. The study of scattering processes of massive electroweak gauge bosons provides an approach complementary to the precise measurement of the properties of the recently discovered Higgs boson. Owing to the unprecedented energies achieved in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider and the large amount of data collected, experimental studies of these processes become feasible for the first time. Especially the scattering of two $W^{\\pm}$ bosons of identical electric charge is considered a promising process for an initial study due to its distinct experimental signature. In the course of this work, $20.3 \\, \\mathrm{fb}^{−1}$ of proton-proton collision data recorded by t...

  5. Detector for a linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mnich, J

    2003-01-01

    The proposals under discussion for a new e^{+}e^{-} linear collider with centre-of-mass energies around 1 TeV include designs for large detectors with unprecedented performances in energy, momentum and position resolution. These very stringent requirements are dictated by the precision measurements aimed at this collider to complement the exploratory experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. Here a status report on detector R&D projects for the liner collider is given focused on the technologies under study for the vertex detector, the large tracking chamber and the calorimeters.

  6. World lays groundwork for future linear collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, Toni

    2010-01-01

    "New physics from the Large Hadron Collider can best be explored with a large lepton collider; realizing one will require mobilizing accelerator and particle physicists, funding agencies, and politicians" (3 pages)

  7. Towards future circular colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikt, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) presently provides proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass (c.m.) energy of 13 TeV. The LHC design was started more than 30 years ago, and its physics program will extend through the second half of the 2030's. The global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is now preparing for a post-LHC project. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new ˜100 km tunnel. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCCee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3 S n superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly-efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. Following the FCC concept, the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) in Beijing has initiated a parallel design study for an e + e - Higgs factory in China (CEPC), which is to be succeeded by a high-energy hadron collider (SPPC). At present a tunnel circumference of 54 km and a hadron collider c.m. energy of about 70 TeV are being considered. After a brief look at the LHC, this article reports the motivation and the present status of the FCC study, some of the primary design challenges and R&D subjects, as well as the emerging global collaboration.

  8. First measurement and correction of nonlinear errors in the experimental insertions of the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, E. H.; Tomás, R.; Giovannozzi, M.; Persson, T. H. B.

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinear magnetic errors in low-β insertions can contribute significantly to detuning with amplitude, linear and nonlinear chromaticity, and lead to degradation of dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. As such, the correction of nonlinear errors in the experimental insertions of colliders can be of critical significance for successful operation. This is expected to be of particular relevance to the LHC's second run and its high luminosity upgrade, as well as to future colliders such as the Future Circular Collider. Current correction strategies envisioned for these colliders assume it will be possible to calculate optimized local corrections through the insertions, using a magnetic model of the errors. This paper shows however, that reliance purely upon magnetic measurements of the nonlinear errors of insertion elements is insufficient to guarantee a good correction quality in the relevant low-β* regime. It is possible to perform beam-based examination of nonlinear magnetic errors via the feed-down to readily observed beam properties upon application of closed orbit bumps, and methods based upon feed-down to tune have been utilized at RHIC, SIS18, and SPS. This paper demonstrates the extension of such methodology to include direct observation of feed-down to linear coupling in the LHC. It is further shown that such beam-based studies can be used to complement magnetic measurements performed during LHC construction, in order to validate and refine the magnetic model of the collider. Results from first attempts of the measurement and correction of nonlinear errors in the LHC experimental insertions are presented. Several discrepancies of beam-based studies with respect to the LHC magnetic model are reported.

  9. Role of net baryon density on rapidity width of identified particles from the lowest energies available at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron to those at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Nur; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb

    2017-08-01

    Widths of the rapidity distributions of various identified hadrons generated with the UrQMD-3.4 event generator at all the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies have been presented and compared with the existing experimental results. An increase in the width of the rapidity distribution of Λ could be seen with both Monte Carlo (MC) and experimental data for the studied energies. Using MC data, the study has been extended to Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies. A similar jump, as observed in the plot of rapidity width versus rest mass at Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and all SPS energies, persists even at RHIC and LHC energies, confirming its universal nature from AGS to the highest LHC energies. Such observation indicates that pair production may not be the only mechanism of particle production at the highest LHC energies. However, with MC data, the separate mass scaling for mesons and baryons is found to exist even at the top LHC energy.

  10. Fault detection on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN: design, simulation and realization of a High Voltage Pulse Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Cavicchioli, C; Biagi, E; Bozzini, D

    2007-01-01

    This project was developed inside the Quality Assurance Plan (ELQA) of the LHC. The superconducting circuits of the collider show a great complexity concerning the control system, because of various reasons: the tunnel is placed around 50 to 175 m underground, the circuits work at temperatures of 1.9 K, all the structure should be perfectly aligned and the electronic part has considerable dimensions. To maximize the running time of the collider, it is necessary to develop methods for the diagnostic of defects and for the precise localization of the segment of the accelerator that contains the fault. From my studies it emerged that a possible way to localize electrical faults in the LHC superconducting circuits is to combine the use of time domain reflectometry methods and high voltage pulses. Therefore, I have designed and realized a high voltage pulse generator that will be an important instrument for the fault location among the accelerator.

  11. W+W-+3 -jet production at the Large Hadron Collider in next-to-leading-order QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febres Cordero, F.; Hofmann, P.; Ita, H.

    2017-02-01

    We present next-to-leading-order (NLO) QCD predictions to W+W- production in association with up to three jets at hadron colliders. We include contributions from couplings of the W bosons to light quarks as well as trilinear vector couplings. These processes are used in vector-boson coupling measurements, are background to Higgs signals and are needed to constrain many new physics scenarios. For the first time NLO QCD predictions are shown for electroweak di-vector boson production with three jets at a hadron collider. We show total and differential cross sections for the LHC with proton center-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV. To perform the calculation we employ on-shell and unitarity methods implemented in the blackhat library along with the sherpa package. We have produced event files that can be accessed for future dedicated studies.

  12. Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In response to a request from the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is preparing the foundation for a next-generation large-scale accelerator infrastructure in the heart of Europe. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh), to be accommodated in a new ∼100 km tunnel near Geneva. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), which could be installed in the same tunnel as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3Sn superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. The interna...

  13. Towards Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN presently provides proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass (c.m.) energy of 13 TeV. The LHC design was started more than 30 years ago, and its physics programme will extend through the second half of the 2030’s. The global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is now preparing for a post-LHC project. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new ∼100 km tunnel. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on $Nb_3Sn$ superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton c...

  14. Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In response to a request from the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is preparing the foundation for a next-generation large-scale accelerator infrastructure in the heart of Europe. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh), to be accommodated in a new ∼100 km tunnel near Geneva. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), which could be installed in the same tunnel as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detector, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3Sn superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. The internat...

  15. 13000 a current lead with 1.5 W heat load to 4.5 K for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Good, J A; Martini, L

    2000-01-01

    Cryogenic Ltd. and ENEL S.p.A. have collaborated on the design and construction of prototype current leads for the Large Hadron Collider project at CERN, Geneva. The aim is to deliver a direct current of 13 kA into a 4.5 K liquid helium bath with a total heat load of less than 1.5 W. These hybrid leads transport the current via a resistive heat exchanger cooled by a separate source of helium gas in the high temperature region, and below 50 K via self-cooled high temperature superconductor. (6 refs).

  16. Test of QCD at colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Shima; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS and CMS collaborations measure QCD processes in a wide kinematic range using proton--proton colliding data at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A variety of recent results is presented. The results provide validation of the current understanding of QCD, such as the proton structure and interactions and radiations of partons.

  17. The International Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Barish, Barry

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we describe the key features of the recently completed technical design for the International Linear Collider (ILC), a 200-500 GeV linear electron-positron collider (expandable to 1 TeV) that is based on 1.3 GHz superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) technology. The machine parameters and detector characteristics have been chosen to complement the Large Hadron Collider physics, including the discovery of the Higgs boson, and to further exploit this new particle physics energy frontier with a precision instrument. The linear collider design is the result of nearly twenty years of R&D, resulting in a mature conceptual design for the ILC project that reflects an international consensus. We summarize the physics goals and capability of the ILC, the enabling R&D and resulting accelerator design, as well as the concepts for two complementary detectors. The ILC is technically ready to be proposed and built as a next generation lepton collider, perhaps to be built in stages beginning as a Hig...

  18. Spread in Dipole Cable Magnetization and Consequences on the Spread of DC Persistent Currents in the Main Dipole of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, B; Granata, V; Le Naour, S; Oberli, L R; Sanfilippo, S; Santoni, C; Scandale, Walter; Schwerg, N; Todesco, Ezio; Völlinger, C

    2004-01-01

    The production of more than 60% of superconducting cables for the main dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider has been completed. The results of the measurements of cable magnetization and the dependence on the manufacturer are presented. The strand magnetization produces field errors that have been measured in a large number of dipoles, all tested in cold conditions. We examine here the correlation between the available magnetic measurements and the large database of cable magnetization. The analysis is based on models documented in the literature. Finally, a forecast of the persistent current effects to be expected in the LHC main dipoles is presented, and the more critical parameters for beam dynamics are singled out.

  19. Particle multiplicities in lead-lead collisions at the CERN large hadron collider from nonlinear evolution with running coupling corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albacete, Javier L

    2007-12-31

    We present predictions for the pseudorapidity density of charged particles produced in central Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC. Particle production in such collisions is calculated in the framework of k(t) factorization. The nuclear unintegrated gluon distributions at LHC energies are determined from numerical solutions of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation including recently calculated running coupling corrections. The initial conditions for the evolution are fixed by fitting Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider data at collision energies square root[sNN]=130 and 200 GeV per nucleon. We obtain dNch(Pb-Pb)/deta(square root[sNN]=5.5 TeV)/eta=0 approximately 1290-1480.

  20. CERN Library | Pauline Gagnon presents the book "Who cares about particle physics? : making sense of the Higgs boson, the Large Hadron Collider and CERN" | 15 September

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2016-01-01

    "Who cares about particle physics? : making sense of the Higgs boson, the Large Hadron Collider and CERN ", by Pauline Gagnon. Thursday 15 September 2016, 16:00 - 17:30 in the CERN Library (Bldg 52 1-052) *Coffee will be served at 15:30* CERN, the European Laboratory for particle physics, regularly makes the news. What kind of research happens at this international laboratory and how does it impact people's daily lives? Why is the discovery of the Higgs boson so important? Particle physics describes all matter found on Earth, in stars and all galaxies but it also tries to go beyond what is known to describe dark matter, a form of matter five times more prevalent than the known, regular matter. How do we know this mysterious dark matter exists and is there a chance it will be discovered soon? About sixty countries contributed to the construction of the gigantic Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its immense detectors. Dive in to discover how international teams of researchers...

  1. The Large Hadron Collider and the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN as Tools to Generate Warm Dense Matter and Non–Ideal Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Gryaznov, V; Piriz, A R; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E

    2011-01-01

    The largest accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, has entered into commission- ing phase. It is expected that when this impressive machine will become fully operational, it will generate two counter rotating 7 TeV/c proton beams that will be made to collide, leading to an unprecedented luminosity of 1034 cm−2s−1. Total energy stored in each LHC beam is about 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is a very critical issue when working with such extremely powerful beams. It is important to know the consequences of an accidental release of the beam energy in order to design protection system for the equipment. For this purpose we have carried out extensive numerical simulations of the interaction of one full LHC beam with copper and graphite targets which are materials of practical importance. Our calculations have shown that the LHC protons will penetrate up to about 35 m in solid copper and 10 m in solid graphite. A very interesting outcome of this work i...

  2. The large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the search for the divine particle; El gran acelerador de hadrones (LHC) y la busqueda de la particula divina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, G.

    2008-07-01

    The large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a particle circular accelerator of 27 km of circumference. It will be used to study the smallest known particles. Two beams of subatomic particles called hadrons either protons or lead ion- will travel in opposite directions inside the circular accelerator gaining energy with every lap. Physicists will use the LHC to recreate the conditions just after the Big Bang, by colliding the two beams had-on at very high energy. There are many theories as to what will result from these collisions, but what's for sure is that a brave new world of physics will emerge from the new accelerator, as knowledge in particle physics goes on to describe the working of the Universe. for decades, the Standard Model of particle physics has served physicists well as a means of understanding the fundamental laws of Nature, but it does not tell the whole story. Only experimental data using the higher energies reached by the LHC can push knowledge forward, challenging those who seek confirmation of established knowledge, and those who dare to dream beyond the paradigm. The Higgs boson, that complete the standard model, is waited to be found. (Author)

  3. The Large Hadron Collider and the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN as Tools to Generate Warm Dense Matter and Non-Ideal Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Deutsch, C; Gryaznov, V; Lomonosov, I V; Shutov, A; Piriz, A R; Fortov, V E; Geissel, H; Redmer, R

    2011-01-01

    The largest accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, has entered into commissioning phase. It is expected that when this impressive machine will become fully operational, it will generate two counter rotating 7 TeV/c proton beams that will be made to collide, leading to an unprecedented luminosity of 10(34) cm(-2)s(-1). Total energy stored in each LHC beam is about 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is a very critical issue when working with such extremely powerful beams. It is important to know the consequences of an accidental release of the beam energy in order to design protection system for the equipment. For this purpose we have carried out extensive numerical simulations of the interaction of one full LHC beam with copper and graphite targets which are materials of practical importance. Our calculations have shown that the LHC protons will penetrate up to about 35 m in solid copper and 10 m in solid graphite. A very interesting outcome of this work i...

  4. Studies of electroweak interactions and searches for new physics using photonic events with missing energy at the Large Electron-Positron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Gataullin, Marat I

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I study the production of photonic events with missing energy in e+e- collisions at the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) Collider. My analysis was based on 619 inverse picobarns of data collected by the L3 detector during 1998--2000 at center-of-mass energies between 189 and 208 GeV, the highest energies ever attained in an e+e- collider. I selected a high-purity sample of 2,022 well-reconstructed single- and multi-photon events with missing energy. I used this sample to study the pair-production of neutrinos accompanied by the emission of one or more photons. The average ratio of the measured to expected cross section was found to be R = 0.987±0.022(stat)±0.014 (syst). The number of light neutrino species was measured to be 2.98±0.05(stat)±0.04(syst), and the first direct evidence for the pair-production of electron neutrinos was found. The experimental errors in these results are smaller than those of comparable previous measurements. The selection results are also given in the form of table...

  5. Wideband Precision Current Transformer for the Magnet Current of the Beam Extraction Kicker Magnet of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Gräwer, G

    2004-01-01

    The LHC beam extraction system is composed of 15 fast kicker magnets per beam to extract the particles in one turn of the collider and to safely dispose them on external absorbers. Each magnet is powered by a separate pulse generator. The generator produces a magnet current pulse with 3 us rise time, 20 kA amplitude and 1.8 ms fall time, of which 90 us are needed to dump the beam. The beam extraction system requires a high level of reliability. To detect any change in the magnet current characteristics, which might indicate a slow degradation of the pulse generator, a high precision wideband current transformer will be installed. For redundancy reasons, the results obtained with this device will be cross-checked with a Rogowski coil, installed adjacent to the transformer. A prototype transformer has been successfully tested at nominal current levels and showed satisfactory results compared with the output of a high frequency resistive coaxial shunt. The annular core of the ring type transformer is composed of...

  6. Bottomonium production in hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner Mariotto, C. [Universidade de Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia]. E-mail: mariotto@if.ufrgs.br; Gay Ducati, M.B. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Fenomenologia de Particulas em Altas Energias; Ingelman, G. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). High Energy Physics

    2004-07-01

    Production of bottomonium in hadronic collisions is studied in the framework of the soft colour approach. We report some results for production of {upsilon} in the Tevatron and predictions for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC). (author)

  7. Next-to-next-to-leading-order subtraction formalism in hadron collisions and its application to Higgs-boson production at the large hadron collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Stefano; Grazzini, Massimiliano

    2007-06-01

    We consider higher-order QCD corrections to the production of colorless high-mass systems (lepton pairs, vector bosons, Higgs bosons, etc.) in hadron collisions. We propose a new formulation of the subtraction method to numerically compute arbitrary infrared-safe observables for this class of processes. To cancel the infrared divergences, we exploit the universal behavior of the associated transverse-momentum (qT) distributions in the small-qT region. The method is illustrated in general terms up to the next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD perturbation theory. As a first explicit application, we study Higgs-boson production through gluon fusion. Our calculation is implemented in a parton level Monte Carlo program that includes the decay of the Higgs boson into two photons. We present selected numerical results at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  8. The Evolution of the Control System for the Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Oliver; Dissertori, Günther; Lustermann, Werner; Zelepoukine, Serguei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of the Detector Control System (DCS) designed and implemented for the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as well as the operational experience acquired during the LHC physics data taking periods of 2010 and 2011. The current implementation in terms of functionality and planned hardware upgrades are presented. Furthermore, a project for reducing the long-term software maintenance, including a year-long detailed analysis of the existing applications, is put forward and the current outcomes which have informed the design decisions for the next CMS ECAL DCS software generation are described. The main goals for the new version are to minimize external dependencies enabling smooth migration to new hardware and software platforms and to maintain the existing functionality whilst substantially reducing support and maintenance effort through homogenization, simplification and standardization of the contr...

  9. The Large Hadron Collider the greatest adventure in town and ten reasons why it matters, as illustrated by the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Millington, Andrew J; MacPherson, Rob; Nordberg, Markus

    2016-01-01

    When the discovery of the Higgs Boson at CERN hit the headlines in 2012, the world was stunned by this achievement of modern science. Less well appreciated, however, were the many ways in which this benefited wider society. The Large Hadron Collider — The Greatest Adventure in Town charts a path through the cultural, economic and medical gains of modern particle physics. It illustrates these messages through the ATLAS experiment at CERN, one of the two big experiments which found the Higgs particle. Moving clear of in-depth physics analysis, it draws on the unparalleled curiosity about particle physics aroused by the Higgs discovery, and relates it to developments familiar in the modern world, including the Internet, its successor "The Grid", and the latest cancer treatments. In this book, advances made from developing the 27 kilometre particle accelerator and its detectors are presented with the benefit of first hand interviews and are extensively illustrated throughout. Interviewees are leading physicis...

  10. Prospective results for vector-boson fusion-mediated Higgs-boson searches in the four lepton final state at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider is expected to be completed and operational in the second half of 2026, and will necessitate substantial upgrades to the ATLAS inner tracker detector. The impact of increased tracking coverage in the forward direction was investigated in terms of the separation of vector-boson fusion and gluon fusion-mediated Higgs-boson decays to four leptons in association with two jets. For an analysis dominated by statistical uncertainty, with vector-boson fusion production events treated as signal on top of gluon fusion background, the extension of tracking from pseudorapidity $|\\eta| < 2.7$ to $|\\eta| < 4.0$ improved the prospective vector-boson fusion discovery significance by 16%, while the relative uncertainty on the signal strength $\\Delta\\mu/\\mu$ was reduced by 6%.

  11. Top Quark Pair Production in Association with a Jet with Next-to-Leading-Order QCD Off-Shell Effects at the Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, G; Hartanto, H B; Kraus, M; Worek, M

    2016-02-05

    We present a complete description of top quark pair production in association with a jet in the dilepton channel. Our calculation is accurate to next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD and includes all nonresonant diagrams, interferences, and off-shell effects of the top quark. Moreover, nonresonant and off-shell effects due to the finite W gauge boson width are taken into account. This calculation constitutes the first fully realistic NLO computation for top quark pair production with a final state jet in hadronic collisions. Numerical results for differential distributions as well as total cross sections are presented for the Large Hadron Collider at 8 TeV. With our inclusive cuts, NLO predictions reduce the unphysical scale dependence by more than a factor of 3 and lower the total rate by about 13% compared to leading-order QCD predictions. In addition, the size of the top quark off-shell effects is estimated to be below 2%.

  12. Search for dark matter in association with a leptonically decaying $Z$ boson in the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Elliot, Alison Anne-Marie; McPherson, Robert

    This dissertation describes a search for the invisible decays of dark matter particles produced in association with a $Z$ boson, where the latter decays to a charged lepton pair. The dataset for this search includes 13.3 fb$^{-1}$ of collisions recorded in 2015 and 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV in the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva, Switzerland. The invisible particles manifest themselves as missing transverse momentum, or MET, in the detector, while the charged leptons of interest are electron ($e^+e^-$) or muon ($\\mu^+\\mu^-$) pairs. The models simulated for this study are vector mediated simplified models with Dirac fermionic dark matter particles with couplings $g_q$ = 0.25, $g_{\\chi}$ = 1 and $g_{\\ell} = 0$ . The main background to this analysis, $ZZ\\rightarrow\\ell^+\\ell^-\

  13. Optimization of the design of DC-DC converters for improving the electromagnetic compatibility with the Front-End electronic for the super Large Hadron Collider Trackers

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes Rojas, Cristian Alejandro; Blanchot, G

    2011-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN sets new challenges for the powering of the detectors. One of the powering schemes under study is based on DC-DC buck converters mounted on the front-end modules. The hard environmental conditions impose strict restrictions to the converters in terms of low volume, radiation and magnetic field tolerance. Furthermore, the noise emission of the switching converters must not affect the performance of the powered systems. A study of the sources and paths of noise of a synchronous buck converter has been made for identifying the critical parameters to reduce their emissions. As proof of principle, a converter was designed following the PCB layout considerations proposed and then used for powering a silicon strip module prototype for the ATLAS upgrade, in order to evaluate their compatibility.

  14. The Evolution of the Control System for the Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Holme, Oliver; Dissertori, Günther; Lustermann, Werner; Zelepoukine, Serguei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of the Detector Control System (DCS) designed and implemented for the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as well as the operational experience acquired during the LHC physics data taking periods of 2010 and 2011. The current implementation in terms of functionality and planned hardware upgrades are presented. Furthermore, a project for reducing the long-term software maintenance, including a year-long detailed analysis of the existing applications, is put forward and the current outcomes which have informed the design decisions for the next CMS ECAL DCS software generation are described. The main goals for the new version are to minimize external dependencies enabling smooth migration to new hardware and software platforms and to maintain the existing functionality whilst substantially reducing support and maintenance effort through homogenization, simplification and standardization of the contr...

  15. Development of Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors for the Upgrade of the Muon System of the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bouhali, Othmane

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery of the long awaited Higgs boson in 2012, the Large hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and its two general purpose experiments (ATLAS and CMS) are preparing to break new grounds in High Energy Physics (HEP). The international HEP collaboration has established a rigorous research program of exploring new physics at the high energy frontiers. The program includes substantial increase in the luminosity of the LHC putting detectors into a completely new and unprecedented harsh environment. In order to maintain their excellent performance, an upgrade of the existing detectors is mandatory. In this work we will describe ongoing efforts for the upgrade of the CMS muon detection system, in particular the addition of detection layers based on the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology. We will summarize the past 5-year R\\ and D program and the future installation and operation plans.

  16. Physics at Future Hadron Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2002-08-07

    We discuss the physics opportunities and detector challenges at future hadron colliders. As guidelines for energies and luminosities we use the proposed luminosity and/or energy upgrade of the LHC (SLHC), and the Fermilab design of a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). We illustrate the physics capabilities of future hadron colliders for a variety of new physics scenarios (supersymmetry, strong electroweak symmetry breaking, new gauge bosons, compositeness and extra dimensions). We also investigate the prospects of doing precision Higgs physics studies at such a machine, and list selected Standard Model physics rates.

  17. Physics at future hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U. Baur et al.

    2002-12-23

    We discuss the physics opportunities and detector challenges at future hadron colliders. As guidelines for energies and luminosities we use the proposed luminosity and/or energy upgrade of the LHC (SLHC), and the Fermilab design of a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). We illustrate the physics capabilities of future hadron colliders for a variety of new physics scenarios (supersymmetry, strong electroweak symmetry breaking, new gauge bosons, compositeness and extra dimensions). We also investigate the prospects of doing precision Higgs physics studies at such a machine, and list selected Standard Model physics rates.

  18. Accelerators, Colliders, and Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, Ernest D.

    2003-12-01

    The author traces his involvement in the evolution of particle accelerators over the past 50 years. He participated in building the first billion-volt accelerator, the Brookhaven Cosmotron, which led to the introduction of the "strong-focusing" method that has in turn led to the very large accelerators and colliders of the present day. The problems of acceleration of spin-polarized protons are also addressed, with discussions of depolarizing resonances and "Siberian snakes" as a technique for mitigating these resonances.

  19. O (αs3) analysis of inclusive jet and di-jet production in heavy ion reactions at the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuncun; Vitev, Ivan; Zhang, Ben-Wei

    2012-07-01

    Jets physics in heavy ion reactions is an important new area of active research at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that paves the way for novel tests of QCD multi-parton dynamics in dense nuclear matter. At present, perturbative QCD calculations of hard probes in elementary nucleon-nucleon reactions can be consistently combined with the effects of the nuclear medium up to O (αs3). While such accuracy is desirable but not necessary for leading particle tomography, it is absolutely essential for the new jet observables. With this motivation, we present first results and predictions to O (αs3) for the recent LHC lead-lead (Pb + Pb) run at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon-nucleon pair. Specifically, we focus on the suppression of the single and double inclusive jet cross sections. Our analysis includes not only final-state inelastic parton interactions in the QGP, but also initial-state cold nuclear matter effects and an estimate of the non-perturbative hadronization corrections. We demonstrate how an enhanced di-jet asymmetry in central Pb + Pb reactions at the LHC, recently measured by the ATLAS and CMS experiments, can be derived from these results. We show quantitatively that a fraction of this enhancement may be related to the ambiguity in the separation between the jet and the soft background medium and/or the diffusion of the parton shower energy away from the jet axis through collisional processes. We point to a suite of measurements that can help build a consistent picture of parton shower modification in heavy ion collisions at the LHC.

  20. Calibration of the ATLAS precision muon chambers and study of the decay {tau} {yields} {mu}{mu}{mu} at the large hadron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeben, Joerg Horst Jochen von

    2010-07-07

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide protons at centre-of-mass energies of up to 14 TeV. One of the two general purpose experiments at the LHC is ATLAS, built to probe a broad spectrum of physics processes of the Standard Model of particle physics and beyond. ATLAS is equipped with a muon spectrometer comprising three superconducting air-core toroid magnets and 1150 precision drift tube (MDT) chambers measuring muon trajectories with better than 50 {mu}m position resolution. The accuracy of the space-to-drift-time relationships of the MDT chambers is one of the main contributions to the momentum resolution. In this thesis, an improved method for the calibration of the precision drift tube chambers in magnetic fields has been developed and tested using curved muon track segments. An accuracy of the drift distance measurement of better than 20 {mu}m is achieved leading to negligible deterioration of the muon momentum resolution. The second part of this work is dedicated to the study of the lepton flavour violating decay {tau}{yields}{mu}{mu}{mu}. Lepton flavour violation is predicted by almost every extension of the Standard Model. About 10{sup 12}{tau} leptons are produced per year at an instantaneous luminosity of 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Simulated data samples have been used to evaluate the sensitivity of the ATLAS experiment for {tau}{yields}{mu}{mu}{mu} decays with an integrated luminosity of 10 fb{sup -1}. Taking theoretical and experimental systematic uncertainties into account an upper limit on the signal branching ratio of B({tau}{yields}{mu}{mu}{mu}) <5.9 x 10{sup -7} at 90% confidence level is achievable. This result represents the first estimation in ATLAS. (orig.)

  1. High Energy Hadron Colliders - Report of the Snowmass 2013 Frontier Capabilities Hadron Collider Study Group

    CERN Document Server

    Barletta, William; Battaglia, Marco; Klute, Markus; Mangano, Michelangelo; Prestemon, Soren; Rossi, Lucio; Skands, Peter

    2013-01-01

    High energy hadron colliders have been the tools for discovery at the highest mass scales of the energy frontier from the SppS, to the Tevatron and now the LHC. This report reviews future hadron collider projects from the high luminosity LHC upgrade to a 100 TeV hadron collider in a large tunnel, the underlying technology challenges and R&D directions and presents a series of recommendations for the future development of hadron collider research and technology.

  2. Beam-loss induced pressure rise of Large Hadron Collider collimator materials irradiated with 158 GeV/u $In^{49+}$ ions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, Edgar; Hansen, Jan; Page, Eric; Vincke, H

    2004-01-01

    During heavy ion operation, large pressure rises, up to a few orders of magnitude, were observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL. The dynamic pressure rises were triggered by lost beam ions that impacted onto the vacuum chamber walls and desorbed about 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 7/ molecules per ion. The deterioration of the dynamic vacuum conditions can enhance charge-exchange beam losses and can lead to beam instabilities or even to beam abortion triggered by vacuum interlocks. Consequently, a dedicated measurement of heavy-ion induced molecular desorption in the GeV/u energy range is important for Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ion operation. In 2003, a desorption experiment was installed at the super proton synchrotron to measure the beam-loss induced pressure rise of potential LHC collimator materials. Samples of bare graphite, sputter coated (Cu, TiZrV) graphite, and 316 LN (low carbon with nitrogen) stainless steel were irradiated under grazing angle with 158 GeV/u indium ions. After a description of the new experimental ...

  3. Beam-loss induced pressure rise of Large Hadron Collider collimator materials irradiated with 158 GeV/u In49+ ions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahner, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Hansen, J.; Page, E.; Vincke, H.

    2004-10-01

    During heavy ion operation, large pressure rises, up to a few orders of magnitude, were observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL. The dynamic pressure rises were triggered by lost beam ions that impacted onto the vacuum chamber walls and desorbed about 104 to 107 molecules per ion. The deterioration of the dynamic vacuum conditions can enhance charge-exchange beam losses and can lead to beam instabilities or even to beam abortion triggered by vacuum interlocks. Consequently, a dedicated measurement of heavy-ion induced molecular desorption in the GeV/u energy range is important for Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ion operation. In 2003, a desorption experiment was installed at the Super Proton Synchrotron to measure the beam-loss induced pressure rise of potential LHC collimator materials. Samples of bare graphite, sputter coated (Cu, TiZrV) graphite, and 316LN (low carbon with nitrogen) stainless steel were irradiated under grazing angle with 158 GeV/u indium ions. After a description of the new experimental setup, the results of the pressure rise measurements are presented, and the derived desorption yields are compared with data from other experiments.

  4. MMS Observations of Large Guide Field Symmetric Reconnection Between Colliding Reconnection Jets at the Center of a Magnetic Flux Rope at the Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oieroset, M.; Phan, T. D.; Haggerty, C.; Shay, M. A.; Eastwood, J. P.; Gershman, D. J.; Drake, J. F.; Fujimoto, M.; Ergun, R. E.; Mozer, F. S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report evidence for reconnection between colliding reconnection jets in a compressed current sheet at the center of a magnetic flux rope at Earth's magnetopause. The reconnection involved nearly symmetric Inflow boundary conditions with a strong guide field of two. The thin (2.5 ion-skin depth (d(sub i) width) current sheet (at approximately 12 d(sub i) downstream of the X line) was well resolved by MMS, which revealed large asymmetries in plasma and field structures in the exhaust. Ion perpendicular heating, electron parallel heating, and density compression occurred on one side of the exhaust, while ion parallel heating and density depression were shifted to the other side. The normal electric field and double out-of-plane (bifurcated) currents spanned almost the entire exhaust. These observations are in good agreement with a kinetic simulation for similar boundary conditions, demonstrating in new detail that the structure of large guide field symmetric reconnection is distinctly different from antiparallel reconnection.

  5. The upgraded Pixel detector and the commissioning of the Inner Detector tracking of the ATLAS experiment for Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00019188; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will provide new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with the high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130~nm technology. In addition, the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during Run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. Complementing detector improvements, many improvements to Inner Detector track and vertex reconstr...

  6. Design and test of the benches for the magnetic measurement of the LHC dipoles. [Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billan, J.; Buckley, J.; Saban, R.; Sievers, P.; Walckiers, L. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1994-07-01

    The magnetic measurement of more than 1,300 LHC dipoles comprises the content of higher harmonic field components, field direction and field integrals. The measurements will be carried out along a warm bore installed inside the magnet cold bore, thus allowing the use of rotating coils at room temperature. This coil, together with Hall and NMR detectors is mounted at one end of a 12.5 m long shaft which is specially designed for very high rotational stiffness and which is controlled from its far end by a motor, an angular encoder and a level meter, all standard components placed outside the magnetic field without space restrictions. Particular emphasis has been put on the user-friendliness of the bench and its automated, computer-controlled operation requiring a minimum of staff, an important issue during production measurements of large series of magnets. The bench and its performed and precision achieved during its commissioning are described.

  7. Search for Supersymmetry in final states with three leptons and missing transverse energy with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has collected an unprecedented amount of data in the 3 years of data taking since its start. In this document I will dis- cuss the results of the analysis I performed during my PhD at the university of Sussex for the search of Supersymmetry in events with three leptons (electron/muon/tau) and missing transverse energy in the final state. The search is performed on the full dataset collected by the experiment in 2012, at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. These results are interpreted in SUSY models with chargino-neutralino pair production via decays involving sleptons, staus, gauge bosons and the newly discovered Higgs boson. These results presen- ted improve on previous searches performed at ATLAS in three lepton final states with only electrons and muons. Special focus will be given to the optimisation process of Su- persymmetry signal with respect to the SM background, and the statistical interpretation of the results obtained with this search.

  8. Impact of the recent results by the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations at the CERN Large Hadron Collider on an effective Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Scopel, S; Fornengo, N; Bottino, A

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the impact for light neutralinos in an effective Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model of the recent results presented by the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations at the CERN Large Hadron Collider for a search of supersymmetry in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with an integrated luminosity of 35 inverse pb. We find that, in the specific case of light neutralinos, efficiencies for the specific signature searched by ATLAS (jets+missing transverse energy and an isolated lepton) imply a lower sensitivity compared to CMS (which searches for jets +missing transverse energy). Focusing on the CMS bound, if squark soft masses of the three families are assumed to be degenerate, the combination of the ensuing constraint on squark and gluino masses with the experimental limit on the b to s + gamma decay imply a lower bound on the neutralino mass that can reach the value of 11.9 GeV, depending on the gluino mass. On the other hand, when the universality condition among squ...

  9. Polarization of the top quark as a probe of its chromomagnetic and chromoelectric couplings in single-top production at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Rindani, Saurabh D; Thomas, Anthony W

    2015-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to top quark chromomagnetic (CMDM) and chromoelectric (CEDM) dipole moments and $Wtb$ effective couplings in single-top production in association with a $W^-$ boson, followed by semileptonic decay of the top. We calculate the top polarization and the effects of these anomalous couplings on it at two centre-of-mass (cm) energies, 8 TeV and 14 TeV. As a measure of top polarization, we look at decay-lepton angular distributions in the laboratory frame, without requiring reconstruction of the rest frame of the top, and study the effect of the anomalous couplings on these distributions. We construct certain asymmetries to study the sensitivity of these distributions to top-quark couplings. The Wt single-top production mode helps to isolate the anomalous $ttg$ and $Wtb$ couplings, in contrast to top-pair production and other single-top production modes, where other new-physics effects can also contribute. We determine individual limits on the dominant coup...

  10. A New Boson with a Mass of 125 GeV Observed with the CMS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    CMS Collabortion; Abbaneo, D.; Abbiendi, G.; Abbrescia, M.; Abdullin, S.; Abdulsalam, A.; Acharya, B. S.; Acosta, D.; Acosta, J. G.; Adair, A.; Adam, W.; Adam, N.; Adamczyk, D.; Adams, T.; Adams, M. R.; Adiguzel, A.; Adler, V.; Adolphi, R.; Adzic, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Agostino, L.; Agram, J.-L.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Aguilo, E.; Ahmad, M.; Ahmad, M. K. H.; Ahuja, S.; Akchurin, N.; Akgun, U.; Akgun, B.; Akin, I. V.; Alagoz, E.; Albajar, C.; Albayrak, E. A.; Albergo, S.; Albert, M.; Albrow, M.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Alexander, J.; Aliev, T.; Alimena, J.; Allfrey, P.; Almeida, N.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Aly, A.; Amaglobeli, N.; Amapane, N.; Ambroglini, F.; Amsler, C.; Anagnostou, G.; Anastassov, A.; Andelin, D.; Anderson, J.; Anderson, M.; Andrea, J.; Andreev, Yu.; Andreev, V.; Andreev, V.; Andrews, W.; Anfreville, M.; Angelini, F.; Anghel, I. M.; Anisimov, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Ansari, M. H.; Antonelli, L.; Anttila, E.; Antunovic, Z.; Apanasevich, L.; Apollinari, G.; Appelt, E.; Apresyan, A.; Apyan, A.; Arce, P.; Arcidiacono, R.; Ardalan, F.; Arenton, M. W.; Arezzini, S.; Arfaei, H.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arndt, K.; Arneodo, M.; Arora, S.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Asghar, M. I.; Askew, A.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Ata, M.; Atac, M.; Attebury, G.; Attikis, A.; Auffray, E.; Autermann, C.; Auzinger, G.; Avdeeva, E.; Avery, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Avila, C.; Awad, A.; Ayan, A. S.; Azarkin, M.; Azhgirey, I.; Aziz, T.; Azzi, P.; Azzolini, V.; Azzurri, P.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babb, J.; Baccaro, S.; Bacchetta, N.; Bachtis, M.; Baden, A.; Badgett, W.; Badier, J.; Baechler, J.; Baffioni, S.; Bagaturia, I.; Bagliesi, G.; Bai, Y.; Bailleux, D.; Baillon, P.; Bainbridge, R.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Bakirci, M. N.; Bakken, J. A.; Balazs, M.; Baldin, B.; Ball, A. H.; Ball, G.; Ballin, J.; Ban, Y.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, S.; Bäni, L.; Banicz, K.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Banzuzi, K.; Barashko, V.; Barbagli, G.; Barberis, E.; Barbone, L.; Barczyk, A.; Bard, R.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bargassa, P.; Barge, D.; Baringer, P.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barney, D.; Barone, L.; Barrass, T.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, C.; Bartoloni, A.; Basegmez, S.; Basso, L.; Basti, A.; Bateman, E.; Battilana, C.; Bauer, J.; Bauer, D.; Bauer, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Baulieu, G.; Baumbaugh, B.; Baumgartel, D.; Baur, U.; Bayshev, I.; Bazterra, V. E.; Bean, A.; Beauceron, S.; Beaudette, F.; Beaumont, W.; Beaupere, N.; Becheva, E.; Bedjidian, M.; Beernaert, K.; Behner, F.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Belforte, S.; Beliy, N.; Belknap, D.; Bell, A. J.; Bell, K. W.; Bellan, R.; Bellato, M.; Bellazzini, R.; Bellinger, J. N.; Belotelov, I.; Belyaev, A.; Belyaev, A.; Benaglia, A.; Bencze, G.; Bendavid, J.; Benedetti, D.; Benelli, G.; Benettoni, M.; Benhabib, L.; Beni, N.; Benitez, J. F.; Benussi, L.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Beranek, S.; Beretvas, A.; Bergauer, T.; Berger, J.; Bergholz, M.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardes, C. A.; Bernardini, J.; Bernardino Rodrigues, N.; Bernet, C.; Berry, D.; Berry, E.; Berryhill, J.; Bertl, W.; Bertoldi, M.; Berzano, U.; Besancon, M.; Besson, A.; Betchart, B.; Betev, B.; Bethani, A.; Betts, R. R.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhandari, V.; Bhardwaj, A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhatti, A.; Bheesette, S.; Bialas, W.; Bialkowska, H.; Biallass, P.; Bian, J. G.; Bianchi, G.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, S.; Biasini, M.; Biasotto, M.; Biino, C.; Bilei, G. M.; Bilin, B.; Bilki, B.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bitioukov, S.; Blau, B.; Blekman, F.; Blobel, V.; Bloch, D.; Bloch, P.; Bloom, K.; Bluj, M.; Blüm, P.; Blumenfeld, B.; Blyweert, S.; Boccali, T.; Bocci, A.; Bochenek, J.; Bockelman, B.; Bodek, A.; Bodin, D.; Boimska, B.; Bolla, G.; Bolognesi, S.; Bolton, T.; Bonacorsi, D.; Bonato, A.; Bondu, O.; Bonnett Del Alamo, M.; Bontenackels, M.; Boos, E.; Borcherding, F.; Bornheim, A.; Borras, K.; Borrello, L.; Bortignon, P.; Bortoletto, D.; Bose, T.; Bose, S.; Böser, C.; Bosi, F.; Bostock, F.; Botta, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouhali, O.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourilkov, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Boutigny, D.; Boutle, S.; Bradley, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Branca, A.; Branson, A.; Branson, J. G.; Brauer, R.; Braunschweig, W.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Breuker, H.; Brew, C.; Brez, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Brigljevic, V.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Brito, L.; Broccolo, G.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Brochet, S.; Brom, J.-M.; Brona, G.; Brooke, J. J.; Broutin, C.; Brown, R. M.; Brownson, E.; Brun, H.; Bruno, G.; Buchmann, M. A.; Buchmuller, O.; Bucinskaite, I.; Budd, H.; Buege, V.; Bujak, A.; Bunichev, V.; Bunin, P.; Bunkowski, K.; Bunn, J.; Buontempo, S.; Burgmeier, A.; Burkett, K.; Busson, P.; Busza, W.; Butler, A. P. H.; Butler, P. H.; Butler, J. N.; Butt, J.; Butz, E.; Bylsma, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Higgs boson was postulated nearly five decades ago within the framework of the standard model of particle physics and has been the subject of numerous searches at accelerators around the world. Its discovery would verify the existence of a complex scalar field thought to give mass to three of the carriers of the electroweak force—the W+, W-, and Z0 bosons—as well as to the fundamental quarks and leptons. The CMS Collaboration has observed, with a statistical significance of five standard deviations, a new particle produced in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The evidence is strongest in the diphoton and four-lepton (electrons and/or muons) final states, which provide the best mass resolution in the CMS detector. The probability of the observed signal being due to a random fluctuation of the background is about 1 in 3 × 106. The new particle is a boson with spin not equal to 1 and has a mass of about 1.25 giga-electron volts. Although its measured properties are, within the uncertainties of the present data, consistent with those expected of the Higgs boson, more data are needed to elucidate the precise nature of the new particle.

  11. Quench characteristics of Ag/AuBi2223 HTS-stainless steel stack used for the hybrid current leads of the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Mosawi, M K; Beduz, C; Yang, Y; Ballarino, A

    2008-01-01

    The quench characteristics of Ag/Au sheathed Bi2223 tapes have been investigated in an adiabatic condition and in a configuration similar to that used in hybrid high temperature superconducting current leads, namely the 13000A leads used for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A specialised rig was designed and constructed to provide a carefully controlled environment. The samples were prepared from HTS tape soldered onto a stainless steel substrate with a number of temperature sensors at various positions along the length of tape. One end of the lead (cold end) was maintained at 6K using G-M cryo-cooler whereas the temperature of the other end (warm end) can be varied and maintained at temperatures up to 100K. The thermal runaway currents (quench currents) at various warm end temperatures (in the range of 40-100K) were determined. The temperature evolutions at various locations along the tape were recorded at different top end temperatures and currents. The effect of the stainless steel mechanical reinforceme...

  12. Compact muon solenoid experiment on the Large Hadron Collider%在大型强子对撞机上的CMS实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国明

    2009-01-01

    LHC(large hadron collider)是目前世界上能量最高的强子对撞机.CMS(compact muon solenoid,中文译名是紧凑型缪子螺线管探测器)是LHC上的主要实验计划之一,其目标就是要寻找Higgs粒子或者超出标准模型的其他新粒子,探清自然界的电弱破缺机制,以及寻找暗物质.CMS实验位于高能量和高亮度的最前沿,是21世纪初人类认识微观世界最重要的物理实验之一.中国参加了这项国际合作,制作了部分μ子探测器、磁铁支架、电子学和地板等,目前转入物理研究工作,争取在物理研究中作出有显示度的贡献.文章简要介绍了CMS探测器以及CMS实验的目标和意义.

  13. Yield ratios of identified hadrons in p +p , p +Pb , and Pb +Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng-lan; Wang, Guo-jing; Wang, Rui-qin; Li, Hai-hong; Song, Jun

    2017-06-01

    Yield ratios of identified hadrons observed in high multiplicity p +p and p +Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider show remarkable similarity with those in Pb+Pb collisions, indicating some important and universal underlying dynamics in hadron production for different quark gluon final states. We use the quark combination model to explain the data of yield ratios in these three collision systems. The observed p /π and Λ /Ks0 can be reproduced simultaneously by quark combination, and these two ratios reflect the probability of baryon production at hadronization which is the same in the light sector and strange sector and is roughly constant in p +p , p +Pb , and Pb+Pb collision systems over three orders of magnitude in charged particle multiplicity. The data of Ks0/π , Λ /π , Ξ /π , and Ω /π show a hierarchy behavior relating to the strangeness content and are naturally explained by quark combination both in the saturate stage at high multiplicity and in the increase stage at moderate multiplicity. Our results suggest that the characteristic of quark combination is necessary in describing the production of hadrons in small systems created in p +p and p +Pb collisions.

  14. Search for Long-Lived Neutral Particles in Final States with a Muon and Multi-Track Displaced Vertex with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, Chang Wei

    This work presents the result of a search for a new long-lived neutral particle decaying into a muon and charged hadrons in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with a total integrated luminosity of 4.4 inverse femtobarn, using the ATLAS detector located at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Many extensions to the current Standard Model of particle physics predict the existence of such new particles, including the neutralino in an R-parity violating supersymmetry scenario. In this search, a set of selection criteria has been established to be sensitive to this kind of signal, in addition to evaluating the background in a data-driven manner. No excess of events above the expected background is observed with the collected data and limits are set on the squark pair production cross section, multiplied by the branching ratio for a squark to decay, via a long-lived neutralino, to a muon and charged hadrons, as a function of the neutralino lifetime. In addition, we present a study on two-trac...

  15. A New Boson with a Mass of 125 GeV Observed with the CMS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Majerotto, Walter; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Szoncsó, Fritz; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Emeliantchik, Igor; Litomin, Aliaksandr; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Solin, Alexander; Stefanovitch, Roman; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Fedorov, Andrey; Korzhik, Mikhail; Missevitch, Oleg; Zuyeuski, Raman; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Beaumont, Willem; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Druzhkin, Dmitry; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Goorens, Robert; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Rugovac, Shkelzen; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Iope, Rogerio Luiz; Lagana, Caio; Lietti, Sergio M; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Vutova, Mariana; Roumenin, Chavdar; Uzunova, Daniela; Zahariev, Roman; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; He, Kang-Lin; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Li, Wei-Guo; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Sun, Gongxing; Sun, Han-Sheng; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Yang, Min; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhenxia; Zhao, Wei-Ren; Zhu, Zian; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Cai, Jianxin; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Hong-Tao; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Ye, Yan-Lin; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Aly, Ayman; Assran, Yasser; Awad, Adel; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Strumia, Alessandro; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Anttila, Erkki; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Katajisto, Harri Mikael; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kotamäki, Miikka; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Vanhala, Tommi Pekka; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Anfreville, Marc; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kircher, François; Lemaire, Marie-Claude; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Mandjavidze, Irakli; Nayak, Aruna; Pansart, Jean-Pierre; Rander, John; Reymond, Jean-Marc; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Badier, Jean; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Becheva, Emilia; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Cerutti, Muriel; Chamont, David; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Geerebaert, Yannick; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hennion, Pascale; Milleret, Gérard; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Romanteau, Thierry; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sartirana, Andrea; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Gross, Laurent; Huss, Daniel; Juillot, Pierre; Kieffer, Eric; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Pansanel, Jérôme; Patois, Yannick; Van Hove, Pierre; Boutigny, Dominique; Mercier, Damien; Baulieu, Guillaume; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brochet, Sébastien; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Combaret, Christophe; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Giraud, Noël; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Haroutunian, Roger; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Lumb, Nicholas; Mathez, Hervé; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Rurua, Lali; Amaglobeli, Nodar; Bagaturia, Iuri; Chiladze, Badri; Kvatadze, Ramazi; Lomidze, David; Shanidze, Revaz; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Adolphi, Roman; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Brauer, Richard; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Schmitz, Detlef; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Biallass, Philipp; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hilgers, Guenter; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Philipps, Barthel; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Sowa, Michael; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Goettlicher, Peter; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lewendel, Birgit; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Muhl, Carsten; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosemann, Christoph; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Youngman, Christopher; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sibille, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Bauer, Julia; Berger, Joram; Blüm, Peter; Böser, Christian; Buege, Volker; Chen, Zheng-Yu; Chowdhury, Shantanu; Chwalek, Thorsten; Daeuwel, Daniel; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Fahrer, Manuel; Feindt, Michael; Felzmann, Ulrich; Frey, Martin; Furgeri, Alexander; Gebauer, Iris; Gessler, Andreas; Gruschke, Jasmin; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauler, Florian; Hauth, Thomas; Heier, Stefan; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Heinrich, Michael; Heiss, Andreas; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Husemann, Ulrich; Imhof, Markus; Jung, Christopher; Junghans, Sascha; Katkov, Igor; Kerzel, Ulrich; Knoblauch, Dieter; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kräber, Michael; Kuhr, Thomas; Liamsuwan, Thiansin; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Menchikov, Alexandre; Mol, Xavier; Mörmann, Dirk; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Neuberger, Dirk; Neuland, Maike Brigitte; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ortega Gomez, Tino; Ott, Jochen; Piasecki, Christian; Poschlad, Angela; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Röcker, Steffen; Roederer, Frank; Sabellek, Andreas; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Dennis; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Schwerdtfeger, Wolfgang; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Skiba, Alexander; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Theel, Andreas; Thümmel, Wolf Hagen; Troendle, Daniel; Trunov, Artem; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Markus; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Zvada, Marian; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zalan, Peter; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Fenyvesi, Andras; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Zilizi, Gyula; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Chatterji, Sudeep; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Gupta, Pooja; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Ghodgaonkar, Manohar; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Ganguli, Som N; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Raghavan, R; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bheesette, Satyanarayana; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Lakkireddi, Venkatesam Reddy; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Panyam, Nagaraj; Verma, Piyush; Ardalan, Farhad; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; De Robertis, Giuseppe; Donvito, Giacinto; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Loddo, Flavio; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Natali, Sergio; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Ranieri, Antonio; Romano, Francesco; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Spinoso, Vincenzo; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Noto, Francesco; Potenza, Renato; Saizu, Mirela Angela; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Parrini, Giuliano; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Farinon, Stefania; Greco, Michela; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Carbone, Luca; D'Angelo, Pasqualino; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dini, Paolo; Farina, Fabio Mario; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Negri, Pietro; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pullia, Antonino; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Benettoni, Massimo; Biasotto, Massimo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Gulmini, Michele; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Loreti, Maurizio; Margoni, Martino; Maron, Gaetano; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Berzano, Umberto; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Passeri, Daniele; Placidi, Pisana; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Angelini, Franco; Arezzini, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Basti, Andrea; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Bosi, Filippo; Brez, Alessandro; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Calzolari, Federico; Carboni, Andrea; Castaldi, Rino; Cerri, Claudio; Ciampa, Alberto; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Giusti, Simone; Kraan, Aafke; Latronico, Luca; Ligabue, Franco; Linari, Stefano; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Massa, Maurizio; Massai, Marco Maria; Mazzoni, Enrico; Messineo, Alberto; Moggi, Andrea; Palla, Fabrizio; Raffaelli, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Sanguinetti, Giulio; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Spandre, Gloria; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Baccaro, Stefania; Barone, Luciano; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cavallari, Francesca; Dafinei, Ioan; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Talamo, Ivano Giuseppe; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Peroni, Cristiana; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Kavka, Carlos; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Ham, Seung Woo; Han, Daehee; Kang, Juheon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Kyung Sook; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Man Woo; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Suh, Jun Suhk; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Jo, Youngkwon; Kang, Minho; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Hahn, Garam; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Naujikas, Rolandas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Bernardino Rodrigues, Nuno; Butler, Anthony Philip Howard; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Williams, Jennifer C; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Goscilo, Lukasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Kudla, Ignacy Maciek; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Czyrkowski, Henryk; Dabrowski, Ryszard; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Oklinski, Wojciech; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Zabolotny, Wojciech; Zych, Pawel; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Alemany-Fernandez, Reyes; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Rasteiro Da Silva, Jose; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Ershov, Yuri; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golunov, Alexander; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbounov, Nikolai; Gorbunov, Ilya; Gramenitski, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Korenkov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Kurenkov, Alexander; Lanev, Alexander; Makankin, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Melnitchenko, Igor; Mitsyn, Valeri Valentinovitch; Moisenz, Petr; Oleynik, Danila; Orlov, Alexandre; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Petrosyan, Artem; Savina, Maria; Semenov, Roman; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skachkova, Anna; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smetannikov, Vladimir; Smirnov, Vitaly; Smolin, Dmitry; Tikhonenko, Elena; Vasilyev, Sergey; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zhiltsov, Victor; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Anisimov, Alexander; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Pivovarov, Grigory; Postoev, Vladimir E; Rubakov, Valery; Shirinyants, Valery; Solovey, Anatoly; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kiselevich, Ivan; Kolosov, Victor; Konoplyannikov, Anatoly; Kossov, Mikhail; Kozlov, Yury; Krokhotin, Andrey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Oulianov, Alexei; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Shreyber, Irina; Stepanov, Nikita; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zaytsev, Valentin; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Demiyanov, Andrey; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Ilyin, Viacheslav; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Kryukov, Alexander; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Proskuryakov, Alexander; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Levine, Andrey; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryabov, Alexander; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Talov, Vladimir; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Smiljkovic, Nebojsa; Zupan, Marko; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Aspell, Paul; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baechler, Joachim; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Campi, Domenico; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cerminara, Gianluca; Charkiewicz, Andrzej; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daguin, Jerome; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eppard, Michael; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gastal, Martin; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Goudard, Raphael; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Gutleber, Johannes; Hammarstrom, Robert; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Loos, Robert; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marchioro, Alessandro; Marques Pinho Noite, João; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moneta, Lorenzo; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Onnela, Antti; Orsini, Luciano; Osborne, John Andrew; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petagna, Paolo; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucci, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Postema, Hans; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Ricci, Daniel; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Ryjov, Vladimir; Sakulin, Hannes; Samyn, Dirk; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sciaba, Andrea; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Taylor, Bruce G; Teller, Olivier; Tropea, Paola; Troska, Jan; Tsesmelis, Emmanuel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vasey, François; Veillet, Lucien; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wertelaers, Piet; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Feichtinger, Derek; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Beat; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Bäni, Lukas; Behner, Frank; Betev, Botjo; Blau, Bertrand; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Da Silva Di Calafiori, Diogo Raphael; Dambach, Sarah; Davatz, Giovanna; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Djambazov, Lubomir; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eggel, Christina; Eugster, Jürg; Faber, Gérard; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hintz, Wieland; Hits, Dmitry; Hofer, Hans; Holme, Oliver; Horvath, Istvan; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Punz, Thomas; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Röser, Ulf; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Schinzel, Dietrich; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Suter, Henry; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Trüb, Peter; Udriot, Stève; Urscheler, Christina; Viertel, Gert; von Gunten, Hans Peter; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Kilminster, Benjamin; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Ferro, Cristina; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Gao, Zhengwei; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liau, Jiun-jie; Lin, Sheng-Wen; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Ueno, Koji; Velikzhanin, Yury; Wan, Xia; Wang, Chin-chi; Wang, Minzu; Wei, Jui-Te; Yeh, Ping; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Lukyanenko, Sergiy; Soroka, Dmytro; Sorokin, Pavel; Ahmad, Mian Khawar Hasham; Branson, Andrew; McClatchey, Richard; Odeh, Mohammed; Shamdasani, Jetendr; Soomro, Kamran; Barrass, Timothy; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lacesso, Winnie; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bateman, Eddie; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David JA; Connolly, John F; Coughlan, John A; Denton, Len G; Flower, Paul S; French, Marcus; Greenhalgh, Justin; Halsall, Robert; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Hill, John; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Lintern, Laurence Albert; Lodge, Anthony B; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Pearson, Matthew; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Smith, Brian; Sproston, Martin; Stephenson, Richard; Tomalin, Ian R; Torbet, Martin; Williams, Julian; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Bauer, Daniela; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Jones, John; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Leaver, James; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Miller, Derek George; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Noy, Matthew; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Rand, Duncan; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Timlin, Claire; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Wingham, Matthew; Zorba, Osman; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Hazen, Eric; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Wu, Shouxiang; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Hooper, Ryan; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Unalan, Zeynep; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Case, Michael; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Grim, Gary; Gunion, Jack; Holbrook, Britt; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Lin, Feng-Cheng; Miceli, Tia; Murray, Patrick; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rowe, Jeff; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Kubic, Jonathan; Otwinowski, Stanislaw; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Yang, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Yangheng; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Layter, John G; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Shen, Benjamin C; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cinquilli, Mattia; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Martin, Terrence; Mrak-Tadel, Alja; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sfiligoi, Igor; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Golf, Frank; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Kyre, Susanne; Lowette, Steven; Magazzu, Guido; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; White, Dean; Adamczyk, David; Apresyan, Artur; Barczyk, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Denis, Gregory; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Galvez, Philippe; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Lebeau, Michel; Legrand, Iosif; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Maxa, Zdenek; Mott, Alexander; Mughal, Azher; Nae, Dan; Newman, Harvey B; Ravot, Sylvain; Rogan, Christopher; Rozsa, Sandor Gyula; Shevchenko, Sergey; Shin, Kyoungha; Spiropulu, Maria; Steenberg, Conrad; Thomas, Michael; Timciuc, Vladlen; van Lingen, Frank; Veverka, Jan; Voicu, Bucoveanu-Ramiro; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhu, Kejun; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Johnson, Douglas; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Stroiney, Steven; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albert, Merina; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Badgett, William; Bailleux, David; Bakken, Jon Alan; Baldin, Boris; Banicz, Karoly; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Binkley, Morris; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Dagenhart, William; Derylo, Greg; Dumitrescu, Catalin; Dykstra, David; Eartly, David P; Elias, John E; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Eulisse, Giulio; Evans, David; Fagan, David; Fisk, Ian; Foulkes, Stephen; Freeman, Jim; Gaines, Irwin; Gao, Yanyan; Gartung, Patrick; Giacchetti, Lisa; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Guo, Yuyi; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Holzman, Burt; Hooberman, Benjamin; Howell, Joseph; Huang, Chih-hao; Hufnagel, Dirk; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Jones, Christopher Duncan; Joshi, Umesh; Juska, Evaldas; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Larson, Krista; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lopez Perez, Juan Antonio; Los, Serguei; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Mishra, Kalanand; Moccia, Stefano; Mommsen, Remigius K; Mrenna, Stephen; Murray, Steven John; Musienko, Yuri; Muzaffar, Shahzad; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Osborne, Ianna; Pivarski, James; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rapsevicius, Valdas; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Rossman, Paul; Ryu, Seangchan; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Shaw, Theresa; Smith, Richard P; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tanenbaum, William; Taylor, Lucas; Thompson, Rich; Tiradani, Anthony; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Tuura, Lassi; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yarba, Julia; Yun, Jae Chul; Zimmerman, Thomas; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Barashko, Victor; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Dolinsky, Sergei; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Gorn, Lisa; Holmes, Daniel; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Madorsky, Alexander; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Scurlock, Bobby; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Stasko, John; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bertoldi, Maurizio; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Dharmaratna, Welathantri GD; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Tentindo, Silvia; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chung, Man-Ho; Evdokimov, Olga; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Hollis, Richard; Iordanova, Aneta; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Ayan, Ahmet Sedat; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Debbins, Paul; Duru, Firdevs; Ingram, F Duane; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael Jan; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Schmidt, Ianos; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Coppage, Don; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Grassi, Tullio; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Rossato, Kenneth; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Toole, Terrence; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Egeland, Ricky; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Haupt, Jason; Inyakin, Alexandre; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Attebury, Garhan; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bockelman, Brian; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malik, Sudhir; Snihur, Robert; Snow, Gregory R; Swanson, David; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Moromisato, Jorge; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Swain, John; Trocino, Daniele; Von Goeler, Eberhard; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Gobbi, Bruno; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Lusito, Letizia; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Baumbaugh, Barry; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Rush, Chuck J; Sehgal, Veejay; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Koay, Sue Ann; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Wildish, Tony; Xie, Zhen; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Bonnett Del Alamo, Miguel; Brownson, Eric; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Arndt, Kirk; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bujak, Adam; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Lee, Jik; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Miyamoto, Jun; Neumeister, Norbert; Rott, Carsten; Roy, Amitava; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Lee, Sang Joon; Li, Wei; Liu, Jinghua H; Matveev, Mikhail; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Tumanov, Alexander; Yepes, Pablo; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Ginther, George; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Sakumoto, Willis; Slattery, Paul; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Ragghianti, Gerald; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Andelin, Daniel; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Phillips II, David; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Bellinger, James Nugent; Borrello, Laura; Bradley, Daniel; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Crotty, Ian; Dasu, Sridhara; Feyzi, Farshid; Friis, Evan; Gorski, Thomas; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lackey, Joe; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Loveless, Richard; Lusin, Sergei; Magrans de Abril, Marc; Maier, Will; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua; Wenman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The Higgs boson was postulated nearly five decades ago within the framework of the standard model of particle physics and has been the subject of numerous searches at accelerators around the world. Its discovery would verify the existence of a complex scalar field thought to give mass to three of the carriers of the electroweak force—the W+, W–, and Z0 bosons—as well as to the fundamental quarks and leptons. The CMS Collaboration has observed, with a statistical significance of five standard deviations, a new particle produced in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The evidence is strongest in the diphoton and four-lepton (electrons and/or muons) final states, which provide the best mass resolution in the CMS detector. The probability of the observed signal being due to a random fluctuation of the background is about 1 in 3 × 106. The new particle is a boson with spin not equal to 1 and has a mass of about 125 giga–electron volts. Although its measured properties are, withi...

  16. Measurement of very forward neutron energy spectra for 7 TeV proton–proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Adriani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider forward (LHCf experiment is designed to use the LHC to verify the hadronic-interaction models used in cosmic-ray physics. Forward baryon production is one of the crucial points to understand the development of cosmic-ray showers. We report the neutron-energy spectra for LHC s=7 TeV proton–proton collisions with the pseudo-rapidity η ranging from 8.81 to 8.99, from 8.99 to 9.22, and from 10.76 to infinity. The measured energy spectra obtained from the two independent calorimeters of Arm1 and Arm2 show the same characteristic feature before unfolding the detector responses. We unfolded the measured spectra by using the multidimensional unfolding method based on Bayesian theory, and the unfolded spectra were compared with current hadronic-interaction models. The QGSJET II-03 model predicts a high neutron production rate at the highest pseudo-rapidity range similar to our results, and the DPMJET 3.04 model describes our results well at the lower pseudo-rapidity ranges. However, no model perfectly explains the experimental results over the entire pseudo-rapidity range. The experimental data indicate a more abundant neutron production rate relative to the photon production than any model predictions studied here.

  17. A search for the ttH (H → bb) channel at the Large Hadron Collider with the ATLAS detector using a matrix element method

    CERN Document Server

    Basye, Austin Thomas

    A matrix element method analysis of the Standard Model Higgs boson, produced in association with two top quarks decaying to the lepton-plus-jets channel is presented. Based on 20.3 fb−1 of √s=8 TeV data, produced at the Large Hadron Collider and collected by the ATLAS detector, this analysis utilizes multiple advanced techniques to search for tt ̄H signatures with a 125 GeV Higgs boson decaying to two b-quarks. After categorizing selected events based on their jet and b-tag multiplicities, signal rich regions are analyzed using the matrix element method. Resulting variables are then propagated to two parallel multivariate analyses utilizing Neural Networks and Boosted Decision Trees respectively. As no significant excess is found, an observed (expected) limit of 3.4 (2.2) times the Standard Model cross-section is determined at 95% confidence, using the CLs method, for the Neural Network analysis. For the Boosted Decision Tree analysis, an observed (expected) limit of 5.2 (2.7) times the Standard Model cr...

  18. Electromagnetic probes of a pure-glue initial state in nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovchenko, V.; Karpenko, Iu. A.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Satarov, L. M.; Mishustin, I. N.; Kämpfer, B.; Stoecker, H.

    2016-08-01

    Partonic matter produced in the early stage of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is assumed to be composed mainly of gluons, and quarks and antiquarks are produced at later times. To study the implications of such a scenario, the dynamical evolution of a chemically nonequilibrated system is described by ideal (2+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics with a time dependent (anti)quark fugacity. The equation of state interpolates linearly between the lattice data for the pure gluonic matter and the lattice data for the chemically equilibrated quark-gluon plasma. The spectra and elliptic flows of thermal dileptons and photons are calculated for central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider energy of √{sN N}=2.76 TeV. We test the sensitivity of the results to the choice of equilibration time, including also the case where the complete chemical equilibrium of partons is reached already at the initial stage. It is shown that a suppression of quarks at early times leads to a significant reduction of the yield of the thermal dileptons, but only to a rather modest suppression of the pT distribution of direct photons. It is demonstrated that an enhancement of photon and dilepton elliptic flows might serve as a promising signature of the pure-glue initial state.

  19. Measurement of very forward neutron energy spectra for 7 TeV proton--proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Del Prete, M.; Haguenauer, M.; Itow, Y.; Kasahara, K.; Kawade, K.; Makino, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubayashi, E.; Menjo, H.; Mitsuka, G.; Muraki, Y.; Okuno, Y.; Papini, P.; Perrot, A-L.; Ricciarini, S.; Sako, T.; Sakurai, N.; Sugiura, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Tamura, T.; Tiberio, A.; Torii, S.; Tricomi, A.; Turner, W.C.; Zhou, Q.D.

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider forward (LHCf) experiment is designed to use the LHC to verify the hadronic-interaction models used in cosmic-ray physics. Forward baryon production is one of the crucial points to understand the development of cosmic-ray showers. We report the neutron-energy spectra for LHC $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV proton--proton collisions with the pseudo-rapidity $\\eta$ ranging from 8.81 to 8.99, from 8.99 to 9.22, and from 10.76 to infinity. The measured energy spectra obtained from the two independent calorimeters of Arm1 and Arm2 show the same characteristic feature before unfolding the difference in the detector responses. We unfolded the measured spectra by using the multidimensional unfolding method based on Bayesian theory, and the unfolded spectra were compared with current hadronic-interaction models. The QGSJET II-03 model predicts a high neutron production rate at the highest pseudo-rapidity range similar to our results and the DPMJET 3.04 model describes our results well at the lower pseudo-...

  20. The Big Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Barna-Alper Productions Inc. Toronto

    2005-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is a gigantic particle-smasher, designed to discover the origins of the universe. Awe-inspiring in vision and scope, it’s also the most expensive physics experiment in history with a price-tag of 4 billion dollars.Documentary series "Mega builders" : a fast-paced, character-driven show that focuses on the world’s biggest and most intriguing engineering challenges – the projects that are making history, and the people who are making it happen.

  1. Hadron-hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Month, M.; Weng, W.T.

    1983-06-21

    The objective is to investigate whether existing technology might be extrapolated to provide the conceptual framework for a major hadron-hadron collider facility for high energy physics experimentation for the remainder of this century. One contribution to this large effort is to formalize the methods and mathematical tools necessary. In this report, the main purpose is to introduce the student to basic design procedures. From these follow the fundamental characteristics of the facility: its performance capability, its size, and the nature and operating requirements on the accelerator components, and with this knowledge, we can determine the technology and resources needed to build the new facility.

  2. Probing short-range nucleon-nucleon interactions with an electron-ion collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gerald A.; Sievert, Matthew D.; Venugopalan, Raju

    2016-04-01

    We derive the cross section for exclusive vector meson production in high-energy deeply inelastic scattering off a deuteron target that disintegrates into a proton and a neutron carrying large relative momentum in the final state. This cross section can be expressed in terms of a novel gluon transition generalized parton distribution (T-GPD); the hard scale in the final state makes the T-GPD sensitive to the short-distance nucleon-nucleon interaction. We perform a toy model computation of this process in a perturbative framework and discuss the time scales that allow the separation of initial- and final-state dynamics in the T-GPD. We outline the more general computation based on the factorization suggested by the toy computation: In particular, we discuss the relative role of "pointlike" and "geometric" Fock configurations that control the parton dynamics of short-range nucleon-nucleon scattering. With the aid of exclusive J /ψ production data at the Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator at DESY, as well as elastic nucleon-nucleon cross sections, we estimate rates for exclusive deuteron photodisintegration at a future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC). Our results, obtained using conservative estimates of EIC integrated luminosities, suggest that center-of-mass energies sNN˜12 GeV2 of the neutron-proton subsystem can be accessed. We argue that the high energies of the EIC can address outstanding dynamical questions regarding the short-range quark-gluon structure of nuclear forces by providing clean gluon probes of such "knockout" exclusive reactions in light and heavy nuclei.

  3. Development of a Large Area Advanced Fast RICH Detector for Particle Identification at the Large Hadron Collider Operated with Heavy Ions

    CERN Multimedia

    Piuz, F; Braem, A; Van beelen, J B; Lion, G; Gandi, A

    2002-01-01

    %RD26 %title\\\\ \\\\During the past two years, RD26 groups have focused their activities on the production of CsI-RICH prototypes of large area, up to a square meter, to demonstrate their application in High Energy experiments. Many large CsI-photocathodes (up to 40) were produced following the processing techniques furthermore developped in the collaboration. Taking the Quantum Efficiency (QE) measured at 180 nm as a comparative figure of merit of a CsI-PC. Figure 1 shows the increase of the performance while improvements were successively implemented in the PC processing sequence. Most efficient were the use of substrates made of nickel, the heat treatment and handling of the PCs under inert gas. Actually, three large systems based on CsI-RICH have got approval in the following HEP experiments: HADES at GSI, COMPASS/NA58 at CERN and HMPID/ALICE at LHC implying up to 14 square metres of CsI-PC. In addition, several CsI-RICH detectors have been successfully operated in the Threshold Imaging Detector at NA44 and ...

  4. Physics at the Large Hadron Collider. Higgs boson (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 February 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) "Physics at the Large Hadron Collider. Higgs boson" was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, on 26 February 2014. The agenda of the session, announced on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS, listed the following reports: (1) Boos E E (Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "Standard Model and predictions for the Higgs boson"; (2) Zaytsev A M (National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Moscow) "ATLAS experiment. The Higgs boson and the Standard Model"; (3) Lanyov A V (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region) "CMS collaboration results: Higgs boson and search for new physics"; (4) Kazakov D I (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region) "The Higgs boson has been found: what is next?" Papers written on the basis of oral reports 1, 3, and 4 are published below. An extensive review of the topic in item 2 will be published in an upcoming issue of Physics-Uspekhi. • Standard Model and predictions for the Higgs boson, E E Boos Physics-Uspekhi, 2014, Volume 57, Number 9, Pages 912-923 • CMS collaboration results: Higgs boson and search for new physics, A V Lanyov Physics-Uspekhi, 2014, Volume 57, Number 9, Pages 923-930 • The Higgs boson is found: what is next?, D I Kazakov Physics-Uspekhi, 2014, Volume 57, Number 9, Pages 930-942

  5. Last magnet in place for colossal collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Cho, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    "Workers have installed the last magnet for the world's mew highest-energy particle smasher, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The installation marks an important milestone; however, researchers still may not get the collider completed in time to start it up in November as planned." (1 page)

  6. Design flaw could delay collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Cho, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    "A magnet for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) failed during a key test at the European particle physics laboratory CERN last week. Physicists and engineers will have to repair the damaged manget and retrofil others to correct the underlying design flaw.."(1 page)

  7. Cosmic ray experiments in the era of the large hadron collider%大型强子对撞机时代的宇宙线实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘加丽; 曹臻

    2011-01-01

    随着大型强子对撞机(LHC)对撞实验的深入进行,宇宙线实验中许多不确定因素将在实验中确定下来,而大型的、多种探测手段的联合观测将把宇宙线实验研究推入精确测量的时代,对可能的宇宙线起源模型的限制将增强,对电子、各种核乃至γ光子和中微子的精确测量,将增加揭开宇宙线起源这一世纪谜团、甚至于寻找到暗物质源的可能性,而亟待解决的基本问题是利用高山地面实验装置,通过与空间直接测量的相互标定,确定能量标度并传递到能谱截断的极高能区,实现完整、一致、单一和可靠的宇宙线能谱、成分和到达方向各向异性度的测量.%Many uncertainties in cosmic ray experiments will be eliminated with more measurements on the interaction between hadrons in the Large Hadron Collider experiment. Cosmic ray experiments will step into a new era marked by the high precision of measurements carried out by combined multipurpose instruments on very large scales. This will put stricter constraints on models of the source of cosmic rays and their propagation through the universe. Measurements of electrons, all kinds of nuclei, and even gamma rays and neutrinos will enhance the possibility of a breakthrough in solving the mystery of the origin of cosmic rays, or in finding the source of dark matter. A fundamental problem in ultra-high energy cosmic ray experiments is the energy scale of ground based experiments. A unique and straightforward approach is to calibrate the energy spectra of nuclei measured by space or balloon borne experiments using ground based detectors at high altitudes, and extrapolate the scale to the whole ultra-high energy range to the spectral cut-off limits, so that complete, consistent, unique and reliable measurements can be performed on their energy spectrum, composition and anisotropy.

  8. The world's largest superconducting magnet has gone into action as Europe's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator begins to take shape

    CERN Multimedia

    Turner, Adam

    2006-01-01

    "Built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the LHC is located inside a 27 kilometre ciruclar underground tunnel, lying 100 metres below ground beneath Swizerland and France. Scientists will use the LHC to recreate the conditions just after the Big Bang, by colliding two beams of protons travelling in opposite directions at close to the speed of light." (1/2 page)

  9. Photon collider Higgs factories

    CERN Document Server

    Telnov, V I

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson (and still nothing else) have triggered appearance of many proposals of Higgs factories for precision measurement of the Higgs properties. Among them there are several projects of photon colliders (PC) without e+e- in addition to PLC based on e+e- linear colliders ILC and CLIC. In this paper, following a brief discussion of Higgs factories physics program I give an overview of photon colliders based on linear colliders ILC and CLIC, and of the recently proposed photon-collider Higgs factories with no e+e- collision option based on recirculation linacs in ring tunnels.

  10. Hadron Colliders and Hadron Collider Physics Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisov D.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes main developments of the hadron colliders and physics results obtained since their inception around forty years ago. The increase in the collision energy of over two orders of magnitude and even larger increases in luminosity provided experiments with unique data samples. Developments of full acceptance detectors, particle identification and analysis methods provided fundamental discoveries and ultra-precise measurements which culminated in the completion and in depth verification of the Standard Model. Hadron Collider Physics symposium provided opportunities for those working at hadron colliders to share results of their research since 1979 and helped greatly to develop the field of particle physics.

  11. Radiative corrections for the LHC and linear collider era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Laenen; D. Wackeroth

    2009-01-01

    We emphasize the importance of including radiative corrections when extracting physics from colliders such as the Tevatron Run II at Fermilab, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, and a future linear collider (LC). We review both well-tested methods and recent advances for calculating these corr

  12. Optimizing integrated luminosity of future hadron colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Benedikt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The integrated luminosity, a key figure of merit for any particle-physics collider, is closely linked to the peak luminosity and to the beam lifetime. The instantaneous peak luminosity of a collider is constrained by a number of boundary conditions, such as the available beam current, the maximum beam-beam tune shift with acceptable beam stability and reasonable luminosity lifetime (i.e., the empirical “beam-beam limit”, or the event pileup in the physics detectors. The beam lifetime at high-luminosity hadron colliders is largely determined by particle burn off in the collisions. In future highest-energy circular colliders synchrotron radiation provides a natural damping mechanism, which can be exploited for maximizing the integrated luminosity. In this article, we derive analytical expressions describing the optimized integrated luminosity, the corresponding optimum store length, and the time evolution of relevant beam parameters, without or with radiation damping, while respecting a fixed maximum value for the total beam-beam tune shift or for the event pileup in the detector. Our results are illustrated by examples for the proton-proton luminosity of the existing Large Hadron Collider (LHC at its design parameters, of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC, and of the Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh.

  13. The development of colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1997-03-01

    During the period of the 50`s and the 60`s colliders were developed. Prior to that time there were no colliders, and by 1965 a number of small devices had worked, good understanding had been achieved, and one could speculate, as Gersh Budker did, that in a few years 20% of high energy physics would come from colliders. His estimate was an under-estimate, for now essentially all of high energy physics comes from colliders. The author presents a brief review of that history: sketching the development of the concepts, the experiments, and the technological advances which made it all possible.

  14. Muon collider design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R.; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.; Tollestrup, A.; Baltz, A.; Caspi, S.; P., Chen; W-H., Cheng; Y., Cho; Cline, D.; Courant, E.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.; Garren, A.; Gordon, H.; Green, M.; Gupta, R.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnstone, C.; Kahn, S.; Kirk, H.; Kycia, T.; Y., Lee; Lissauer, D.; Luccio, A.; McInturff, A.; Mills, F.; Mokhov, N.; Morgan, G.; Neuffer, D.; K-Y., Ng; Noble, R.; Norem, J.; Norum, B.; Oide, K.; Parsa, Z.; Polychronakos, V.; Popovic, M.; Rehak, P.; Roser, T.; Rossmanith, R.; Scanlan, R.; Schachinger, L.; Silvestrov, G.; Stumer, I.; Summers, D.; Syphers, M.; Takahashi, H.; Torun, Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Turner, W.; van Ginneken, A.; Vsevolozhskaya, T.; Weggel, R.; Willen, E.; Willis, W.; Winn, D.; Wurtele, J.; Zhao, Y.

    1996-11-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity \\mu^+ \\mu^- colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Detector background, polarization, and nonstandard operating conditions are discussed.

  15. Muon Muon Collider: Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, J.C.; Palmer, R.B.; /Brookhaven; Tollestrup, A.V.; /Fermilab; Sessler, A.M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Skrinsky, A.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Ankenbrandt, C.; Geer, S.; Griffin, J.; Johnstone, C.; Lebrun, P.; McInturff, A.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mokhov, N.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Ng, K.Y.; Noble, R.; Novitski, I.; Popovic, M.; Qian, C.; Van Ginneken, A. /Fermilab /Brookhaven /Wisconsin U., Madison /Tel Aviv U. /Indiana U. /UCLA /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC /Argonne /Sobolev IM, Novosibirsk /UC, Davis /Munich, Tech. U. /Virginia U. /KEK, Tsukuba /DESY /Novosibirsk, IYF /Jefferson Lab /Mississippi U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /MIT /Columbia U. /Fairfield U. /UC, Berkeley

    2012-04-05

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice - we believe - to allow us to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring wich has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design. Muons because of their large mass compared to an electron, do not produce significant synchrotron radiation. As a result there is negligible beamstrahlung and high energy collisions are not limited by this phenomena. In addition, muons can be accelerated in circular devices which will be considerably smaller than two full-energy linacs as required in an e{sup +} - e{sup -} collider. A hadron collider would require a CM energy 5 to 10 times higher than 4 TeV to have an equivalent energy reach. Since the accelerator size is limited by the strength of bending magnets, the hadron collider for the same physics reach would have to be much larger than the muon collider. In addition, muon collisions should be cleaner than hadron collisions. There are many detailed particle

  16. On the Future High Energy Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2015-09-28

    High energy particle colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present the near term US, European and international strategies of the particle physics community are centered on full exploitation of the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). A number of the next generation collider facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium and far-future of accelerator-based high energy physics. In this paper we offer a uniform approach to evaluation of various accelerators based on the feasibility of their energy reach, performance potential and cost range.

  17. Discovery of the Higgs boson, measurements of Higgs boson properties, and search for high mass beyond the Standard Model scalar particle in the diphoton final state with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00336678

    With 4.8~$\\rm{fb}^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data collected at $\\sqrt{s}=7~\\rm{TeV}$ in 2011, and 5.9~$\\rm{fb}^{-1}$ collected at $\\sqrt{s}=8~\\rm{TeV}$ in 2012 by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider, an excess of 4.5 standard deviations from the background-only hypothesis is observed near 126.5~GeV in the diphoton invariant mass spectra. Along with the excesses observed in the $H \\rightarrow ZZ^{(*)}\\rightarrow \\ell\\ell\\ell\\ell$ and $H \\rightarrow WW^{(*)}\\rightarrow \\ell\

  18. Collective accelerator for electron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, R.J.

    1985-05-13

    A recent concept for collective acceleration and focusing of a high energy electron bunch is discussed, in the context of its possible applicability to large linear colliders in the TeV range. The scheme can be considered to be a member of the general class of two-beam accelerators, where a high current, low voltage beam produces the acceleration fields for a trailing high energy bunch.

  19. Muon Muon Collider: Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, J.C.; Palmer, R.B.; /Brookhaven; Tollestrup, A.V.; /Fermilab; Sessler, A.M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Skrinsky, A.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Ankenbrandt, C.; Geer, S.; Griffin, J.; Johnstone, C.; Lebrun, P.; McInturff, A.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mokhov, N.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Ng, K.Y.; Noble, R.; Novitski, I.; Popovic, M.; Qian, C.; Van Ginneken, A. /Fermilab /Brookhaven /Wisconsin U., Madison /Tel Aviv U. /Indiana U. /UCLA /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC /Argonne /Sobolev IM, Novosibirsk /UC, Davis /Munich, Tech. U. /Virginia U. /KEK, Tsukuba /DESY /Novosibirsk, IYF /Jefferson Lab /Mississippi U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /MIT /Columbia U. /Fairfield U. /UC, Berkeley

    2012-04-05

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice - we believe - to allow us to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring wich has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design. Muons because of their large mass compared to an electron, do not produce significant synchrotron radiation. As a result there is negligible beamstrahlung and high energy collisions are not limited by this phenomena. In addition, muons can be accelerated in circular devices which will be considerably smaller than two full-energy linacs as required in an e{sup +} - e{sup -} collider. A hadron collider would require a CM energy 5 to 10 times higher than 4 TeV to have an equivalent energy reach. Since the accelerator size is limited by the strength of bending magnets, the hadron collider for the same physics reach would have to be much larger than the muon collider. In addition, muon collisions should be cleaner than hadron collisions. There are many detailed particle

  20. Electron performance studies for the Higgs→ 4 lepton search in proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV, with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Anastopoulos, Christos

    2010-01-01

    The Standard Model of the electroweak and strong interactions is an, extremely successful, effective theory that describes the electromagnetic, weak, and strong forces at the quantum level. One of the key elements of the SM is the Higgs mechanism, that generates the masses of the weak vector bosons, of the charged quarks and of the leptons. The Higgs mechanism predicts the existence of a massive scalar particle, the Higgs boson, which is the only particle of the SM not yet experimentally observed. For this reason, its discovery or exclusion is one of the main goals of the ATLAS experiment in the Large Hadron Collider. The experimentally cleanest signature for the discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider is its “golden” decay to four leptons, Higgs→ZZ(∗) →4ℓ. The ability to efficiently identify electrons, while retaining a high rejection against QCD-jets and electrons, is of high importance to the Higgs searches using its “golden” decay channel. Furthermore, the prediction of t...

  1. Physics at Hadronic Colliders (4/4)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Hadron colliders are often called "discovery machines" since they produce the highest mass particles and thus give often the best chance to discover new high mass particles. Currently they are particularly topical since the Large Hadron Collider will start operating later this year, increasing the centre-of-mass energy by a factor of seven compared to the current highest energy collider, the Tevatron. I will review the benefits and challenges of hadron colliders and review some of the current physics results from the Tevatron and give an outlook to the future results we are hoping for at the LHC. Prerequisite knowledge: Introduction to Particle Physics (F. Close), Detectors (W. Riegler, at least mostly) and The Standard Model (A. Pich)

  2. Physics at Hadronic Colliders (3/4)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Hadron colliders are often called "discovery machines" since they produce the highest mass particles and thus give often the best chance to discover new high mass particles. Currently they are particularly topical since the Large Hadron Collider will start operating later this year, increasing the centre-of-mass energy by a factor of seven compared to the current highest energy collider, the Tevatron. I will review the benefits and challenges of hadron colliders and review some of the current physics results from the Tevatron and give an outlook to the future results we are hoping for at the LHC. Prerequisite knowledge: Introduction to Particle Physics (F. Close), Detectors (W. Riegler, at least mostly) and The Standard Model (A. Pich)

  3. Physics at Hadronic Colliders (2/4)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Hadron colliders are often called "discovery machines" since they produce the highest mass particles and thus give often the best chance to discover new high mass particles. Currently they are particularly topical since the Large Hadron Collider will start operating later this year, increasing the centre-of-mass energy by a factor of seven compared to the current highest energy collider, the Tevatron. I will review the benefits and challenges of hadron colliders and review some of the current physics results from the Tevatron and give an outlook to the future results we are hoping for at the LHC. Prerequisite knowledge: Introduction to Particle Physics (F. Close), Detectors (W. Riegler, at least mostly) and The Standard Model (A. Pich)

  4. Physics at Hadronic Colliders (1/4)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Hadron colliders are often called "discovery machines" since they produce the highest mass particles and thus give often the best chance to discover new high mass particles. Currently they are particularly topical since the Large Hadron Collider will start operating later this year, increasing the centre-of-mass energy by a factor of seven compared to the current highest energy collider, the Tevatron. I will review the benefits and challenges of hadron colliders and review some of the current physics results from the Tevatron and give an outlook to the future results we are hoping for at the LHC. Prerequisite knowledge: Introduction to Particle Physics (F. Close), Detectors (W. Riegler, at least mostly) and The Standard Model (A. Pich)

  5. Optimizing integrated luminosity of future hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The integrated luminosity, a key figure of merit for any particle-physics collider, is closely linked to the peak luminosity and to the beam lifetime. The instantaneous peak luminosity of a collider is constrained by a number of boundary conditions, such as the available beam current, the maximum beam-beam tune shift with acceptable beam stability and reasonable luminosity lifetime (i.e., the empirical “beam-beam limit”), or the event pileup in the physics detectors. The beam lifetime at high-luminosity hadron colliders is largely determined by particle burn off in the collisions. In future highest-energy circular colliders synchrotron radiation provides a natural damping mechanism, which can be exploited for maximizing the integrated luminosity. In this article, we derive analytical expressions describing the optimized integrated luminosity, the corresponding optimum store length, and the time evolution of relevant beam parameters, without or with radiation damping, while respecting a fixed maximum value...

  6. Linear collider: a preview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  7. Considerations on Energy Frontier Colliders after LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2016-11-15

    Since 1960’s, particle colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics, 29 total have been built and operated, 7 are in operation now. At present the near term US, European and international strategies of the particle physics community are centered on full exploitation of the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The future of the world-wide HEP community critically depends on the feasibility of possible post-LHC colliders. The concept of the feasibility is complex and includes at least three factors: feasibility of energy, feasibility of luminosity and feasibility of cost. Here we overview all current options for post-LHC colliders from such perspective (ILC, CLIC, Muon Collider, plasma colliders, CEPC, FCC, HE-LHC) and discuss major challenges and accelerator R&D required to demonstrate feasibility of an energy frontier accelerator facility following the LHC. We conclude by taking a look into ultimate energy reach accelerators based on plasmas and crystals, and discussion on the perspectives for the far future of the accelerator-based particle physics. This paper largely follows previous study [1] and the presenta ion given at the ICHEP’2016 conference in Chicago [2].

  8. The development of colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1993-02-01

    Don Kerst, Gersh Budker, and Bruno Touschek were the individuals, and the motivating force, which brought about the development of colliders, while the laboratories at which it happened were Stanford, MURA, the Cambridge Electron Accelerator, Orsay, Frascati, CERN, and Novosibirsk. These laboratories supported, during many years, this rather speculative activity. Of course, many hundreds of physicists contributed to the development of colliders but the men who started it, set it in the right direction, and forcefully made it happen, were Don, Gersh, and Bruno. Don was instrumental in the development of proton-proton colliders, while Bruno and Gersh spearheaded the development of electron-positron colliders. In this brief review of the history, I will sketch the development of the concepts, the experiments, and the technological developments which made possible the development of colliders. It may look as if the emphasis is on theoretical concepts, but that is really not the case, for in this field -- the physics of beams -- the theory and experiment go hand in hand; theoretical understanding and advances are almost always motivated by the need to explain experimental results or the desire to construct better experimental devices.

  9. Measurement of Hadronic Event Shapes and Jet Substructure in Proton-Proton Collisions at 7.0 TeV Center-of-Mass Energy with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, D W; Schwartzman, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents the first measurement of 6 hadronic event shapes in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $sqrt{s}=7$ TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Results are presented at the particle-level, permitting comparisons to multiple Monte Carlo event generator tools. Numerous tools and techniques that enable detailed analysis of the hadronic final state at high luminosity are described. The approaches presented utilize the dual strengths of the ATLAS calorimeter and tracking systems to provide high resolution and robust measurements of the hadronic jets that constitute both a background and a signal throughout ATLAS physics analyses. The study of the hadronic final state is then extended to jet substructure, where the energy flow and topology within individual jets is studied at the detector level and techniques for estimating systematic uncertainties for such measurements are commissioned in the first data. These first substructure measurements in ATLAS include t...

  10. Search for Diphoton Events with Large Missing Transverse Energy in 6.3 fb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ Collisions using the D0 Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Mark Stephen [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A search for diphoton events with large missing transverse energy produced in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV is presented. The data were collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider between 2002 and 2010, and correspond to 6.3 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. The observed missing transverse energy distribution is well described by the Standard Model prediction, and 95% C.L. limits are derived on two realizations of theories beyond the Standard Model. In a gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking scenario, the breaking scale Λ is excluded for Λ < 124 TeV. In a universal extra dimension model including gravitational decays, the compactification radius Rc is excluded for Rc-1 < 477 GeV.

  11. Maintaining an effective and efficient control system for the Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment during Long-Term Operations of CERN�??s Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The sub-detectors of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) multi-purpose particle detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have been collecting physics data from particle collisions for almost three years. During this period, the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) Detector Control System (DCS) has contributed to the high level of availability of the experiment. This paper presents the current architecture of this distributed and heterogeneous control system alongside plans and developments for future improvements. To ensure that the system can efficiently operate and adapt to changes throughout the required operation lifetime of more than a decade, the potential legacy aspects of this kind of control system must be carefully managed. Such issues include evolving system requirements, turnover of staff members, potential benefits from new technologies and the need to follow release schedules of external software dependencies. The techniques and results of the work to continually maintain, improve and stre...

  12. Testing Saturation at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, C

    2003-01-01

    We extend the saturation models a la Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff to cross-sections of hard processes initiated by virtual-gluon probes separated by large rapidity intervals at hadron colliders. We derive their analytic expressions and apply them to physical examples, such as saturation effects for Mueller-Navelet jets. By comparison to gamma*-gamma* cross-sections we find a more abrupt transition to saturation. We propose to study observables with a potentially clear saturation signal and to use heavy vector and flavored mesons as alternative virtual-gluon probes.

  13. SUSY CP phases and asymmetries at colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Kittel, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, physical phases of complex parameters lead to CP violation. We show how triple products of particle momenta or spins can be used to construct asymmetries, that allow us to probe these CP phases. To give specific examples, we discuss the production of neutralinos at the International Linear Collider. For the Large Hadron Collider, we discuss CP asymmetries in squark decays, and in the tri-lepton signal. We find that the CP asymmetries can be as large as 60%.

  14. SUSY CP phases and asymmetries at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, Olaf, E-mail: kittel@ugr.e [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and CAFPE, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2009-06-01

    In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, physical phases of complex parameters lead to CP violation. We show how triple products of particle momenta or spins can be used to construct asymmetries, that allow us to probe these CP phases. To give specific examples, we discuss the production of neutralinos at the International Linear Collider (ILC). For the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we discuss CP asymmetries in squark decays, and in the tri-lepton signal. We find that the CP asymmetries can be as large as 60%.

  15. COLLIDE Pro Helvetia Award

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The COLLIDE Pro Helvetia Award is run in partnership with Pro Helvetia, giving the opportunity to Swiss artists to do research at CERN for three months.   From left to right: Laura Perrenoud, Marc Dubois and Simon de Diesbach. The photo shows their VR Project, +2199. Fragment.In are the winning artists of COLLIDE Pro Helvetia. They came to CERN for two months in 2015, and will now continue their last month in the laboratory. Fragment.In is a Swiss based interaction design studio. They create innovative projects, interactive installations, video and game design. Read more about COLLIDE here.

  16. Development and deployment of an inner detector minimum bias trigger and analysis of minimum bias data of the ATLAS experiment at the large hadron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwee, Regina Esther

    2012-01-13

    Soft inelastic QCD processes are the dominant proton-proton interaction type at the LHC. More than 20 of such collisions pile up within a single bunch-crossing at ATLAS, when the LHC is operated at design luminosity of L=10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} colliding proton bunches with an energy of {radical}(s)=14 TeV. Inelastic interactions are characterised by a small transverse momentum transfer and can only be approximated by phenomenological models that need experimental data as input. The initial phase of LHC beam operation in 2009, with luminosities ranging from L=10{sup 27} to 10{sup 31} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, offered an ideal period to select single proton-proton interactions and study general aspects of their properties. As first part of this thesis, a Minimum Bias trigger was developed and used for data-taking in ATLAS. This trigger, mbSpTrk, processes signals of the silicon tracking detectors of ATLAS and was designed to fulfill efficiently reject empty events, while possible biases in the selection of proton-proton collisions is reduced to a minimum. The trigger is flexible enough to cope also with changing background conditions allowing to retain low-p{sub T} events while machine background is highly suppressed. As second part, measurements of inelastic charged particles were performed in two phase-space regions. Centrally produced charged particles were considered with a pseudorapidity smaller than 0.8 and a transverse momentum of at least 0.5 or 1 GeV. Four characteristic distributions were measured at two centre-of-mass energies of {radical}(s)=0.9 and 7 TeV. The results are presented with minimal model dependency to compare them to predictions of different Monte Carlo models for soft particle production. This analysis represents also the ATLAS contribution for the first common LHC analysis to which the ATLAS, CMS and ALICE collaborations agreed. The pseudorapidity distributions for both energies and phase-space regions are compared to the respective

  17. Collide@CERN Geneva

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Kieffer, Robert; Blas Temino, Diego; Bertolucci, Sergio; Mr. Decelière, Rudy; Mr. Hänni, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    CERN, the Republic an