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Sample records for large hadron-electron collider

  1. A Large Hadron Electron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Abelleira Fernandez, J L; Adzic, P; Akay, A N; Aksakal, H; Albacete, J L; Allanach, B; Alekhin, S; Allport, P; Andreev, V; Appleby, R B; Arikan, E; Armesto, N; Azuelos, G; Bai, M; Barber, D; Bartels, J; Behnke, O; Behr, J; Belyaev, A S; Ben-Zvi, I; Bernard, N; Bertolucci, S; Bettoni, S; Biswal, S; Blumlein, J; Bottcher, H; Bogacz, A; Bracco, C; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Braun, H; Brodsky, S; Bruning, O; Bulyak, E; Buniatyan, A; Burkhardt, H; Cakir, I T; Cakir, O; Calaga, R; Caldwell, A; Cetinkaya, V; Chekelian, V; Ciapala, E; Ciftci, R; Ciftci, A K; Cole, B A; Collins, J C; Dadoun, O; Dainton, J; Roeck, A.De; d'Enterria, D; DiNezza, P; Dudarev, A; Eide, A; Enberg, R; Eroglu, E; Eskola, K J; Favart, L; Fitterer, M; Forte, S; Gaddi, A; Gambino, P; Garcia Morales, H; Gehrmann, T; Gladkikh, P; Glasman, C; Glazov, A; Godbole, R; Goddard, B; Greenshaw, T; Guffanti, A; Guzey, V; Gwenlan, C; Han, T; Hao, Y; Haug, F; Herr, W; Herve, A; Holzer, B J; Ishitsuka, M; Jacquet, M; Jeanneret, B; Jensen, E; Jimenez, J M; Jowett, J M; Jung, H; Karadeniz, H; Kayran, D; Kilic, A; Kimura, K; Klees, R; Klein, M; Klein, U; Kluge, T; Kocak, F; Korostelev, M; Kosmicki, A; Kostka, P; Kowalski, H; Kraemer, M; Kramer, G; Kuchler, D; Kuze, M; Lappi, T; Laycock, P; Levichev, E; Levonian, S; Litvinenko, V N; Lombardi, A; Maeda, J; Marquet, C; Mellado, B; Mess, K H; Milanese, A; Milhano, J G; Moch, S; Morozov, I I; Muttoni, Y; Myers, S; Nandi, S; Nergiz, Z; Newman, P R; Omori, T; Osborne, J; Paoloni, E; Papaphilippou, Y; Pascaud, C; Paukkunen, H; Perez, E; Pieloni, T; Pilicer, E; Pire, B; Placakyte, R; Polini, A; Ptitsyn, V; Pupkov, Y; Radescu, V; Raychaudhuri, S; Rinolfi, L; Rizvi, E; Rohini, R; Rojo, J; Russenschuck, S; Sahin, M; Salgado, C A; Sampei, K; Sassot, R; Sauvan, E; Schaefer, M; Schneekloth, U; Schorner-Sadenius, T; Schulte, D; Senol, A; Seryi, A; Sievers, P; Skrinsky, A N; Smith, W; South, D; Spiesberger, H; Stasto, A M; Strikman, M; Sullivan, M; Sultansoy, S; Sun, Y P; Surrow, B; Szymanowski, L; Taels, P; Tapan, I; Tasci, T; Tassi, E; Kate, H.Ten; Terron, J; Thiesen, H; Thompson, L; Thompson, P; Tokushuku, K; Tomas Garcia, R; Tommasini, D; Trbojevic, D; Tsoupas, N; Tuckmantel, J; Turkoz, S; Trinh, T N; Tywoniuk, K; Unel, G; Ullrich, T; Urakawa, J; VanMechelen, P; Variola, A; Veness, R; Vivoli, A; Vobly, P; Wagner, J; Wallny, R; Wallon, S; Watt, G; Weiss, C; Wiedemann, U A; Wienands, U; Willeke, F; Xiao, B W; Yakimenko, V; Zarnecki, A F; Zhang, Z; Zimmermann, F; Zlebcik, R; Zomer, F; CERN. Geneva. LHeC Department

    2012-01-01

    This document provides a brief overview of the recently published report on the design of the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), which comprises its physics programme, accelerator physics, technology and main detector concepts. The LHeC exploits and develops challenging, though principally existing, accelerator and detector technologies. This summary is complemented by brief illustrations of some of the highlights of the physics programme, which relies on a vastly extended kinematic range, luminosity and unprecedented precision in deep inelastic scattering. Illustrations are provided regarding high precision QCD, new physics (Higgs, SUSY) and electron-ion physics. The LHeC is designed to run synchronously with the LHC in the twenties and to achieve an integrated luminosity of O(100) fb$^{-1}$. It will become the cleanest high resolution microscope of mankind and will substantially extend as well as complement the investigation of the physics of the TeV energy scale, which has been enabled by the LHC.

  2. A Large Hadron Electron Collider at CERN, Physics, Machine, Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adolphson, C

    2011-01-01

    The physics programme and the design are described of a new electron-hadron collider, the LHeC, in which electrons of $60$ to possibly $140$\\,GeV collide with LHC protons of $7000$\\,GeV. With an $ep$ design luminosity of about $10^{33}$\\,cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, the Large Hadron Electron Collider exceeds the integrated luminosity collected at HERA by two orders of magnitude and the kinematic range by a factor of twenty in the four-momentum squared, $Q^2$, and in the inverse Bjorken $x$. The physics programme is devoted to an exploration of the energy frontier, complementing the LHC and its discovery potential for physics beyond the Standard Model with high precision deep inelastic scattering (DIS) measurements. These are projected to solve a variety of fundamental questions in strong and electroweak interactions. The LHeC thus becomes the world's cleanest high resolution microscope, designed to continue the path of deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering into unknown areas of physics and kinematics. The physics ...

  3. Design of the large hadron electron collider interaction region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Alaniz, E.; Newton, D.; Tomás, R.; Korostelev, M.

    2015-11-01

    The large hadron electron collider (LHeC) is a proposed upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) within the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, to provide electron-nucleon collisions and explore a new regime of energy and luminosity for deep inelastic scattering. The design of an interaction region for any collider is always a challenging task given that the beams are brought into crossing with the smallest beam sizes in a region where there are tight detector constraints. In this case integrating the LHeC into the existing HL-LHC lattice, to allow simultaneous proton-proton and electron-proton collisions, increases the difficulty of the task. A nominal design was presented in the the LHeC conceptual design report in 2012 featuring an optical configuration that focuses one of the proton beams of the LHC to β*=10 cm in the LHeC interaction point to reach the desired luminosity of L =1033 cm-2 s-1 . This value is achieved with the aid of a new inner triplet of quadrupoles at a distance L*=10 m from the interaction point. However the chromatic beta beating was found intolerable regarding machine protection issues. An advanced chromatic correction scheme was required. This paper explores the feasibility of the extension of a novel optical technique called the achromatic telescopic squeezing scheme and the flexibility of the interaction region design, in order to find the optimal solution that would produce the highest luminosity while controlling the chromaticity, minimizing the synchrotron radiation power and maintaining the dynamic aperture required for stability.

  4. Design of the large hadron electron collider interaction region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cruz-Alaniz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The large hadron electron collider (LHeC is a proposed upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC within the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC project, to provide electron-nucleon collisions and explore a new regime of energy and luminosity for deep inelastic scattering. The design of an interaction region for any collider is always a challenging task given that the beams are brought into crossing with the smallest beam sizes in a region where there are tight detector constraints. In this case integrating the LHeC into the existing HL-LHC lattice, to allow simultaneous proton-proton and electron-proton collisions, increases the difficulty of the task. A nominal design was presented in the the LHeC conceptual design report in 2012 featuring an optical configuration that focuses one of the proton beams of the LHC to β^{*}=10  cm in the LHeC interaction point to reach the desired luminosity of L=10^{33}  cm^{-2} s^{-1}. This value is achieved with the aid of a new inner triplet of quadrupoles at a distance L^{*}=10  m from the interaction point. However the chromatic beta beating was found intolerable regarding machine protection issues. An advanced chromatic correction scheme was required. This paper explores the feasibility of the extension of a novel optical technique called the achromatic telescopic squeezing scheme and the flexibility of the interaction region design, in order to find the optimal solution that would produce the highest luminosity while controlling the chromaticity, minimizing the synchrotron radiation power and maintaining the dynamic aperture required for stability.

  5. Measuring CP nature of top-Higgs couplings at the future Large Hadron electron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradhwaj Coleppa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the sensitivity of top-Higgs coupling by considering the associated vertex as CP phase (ζt dependent through the process pe−→t¯hνe in the future Large Hadron electron Collider. In particular the decay modes are taken to be h→bb¯ and t¯ → leptonic mode. Several distinct ζt dependent features are demonstrated by considering observables like cross sections, top-quark polarisation, rapidity difference between h and t¯ and different angular asymmetries. Luminosity (L dependent exclusion limits are obtained for ζt by considering significance based on fiducial cross sections at different σ-levels. For electron and proton beam-energies of 60 GeV and 7 TeV respectively, at L=100 fb−1, the regions above π/5<ζt≤π are excluded at 2σ confidence level, which reflects better sensitivity expected at the Large Hadron Collider. With appropriate error fitting methodology we find that the accuracy of SM top-Higgs coupling could be measured to be κ=1.00±0.17(0.08 at s=1.3(1.8 TeV for an ultimate L=1ab−1.

  6. Cryogenic Studies for the Proposed CERN Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC)

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, F

    2011-01-01

    The LHeC (Large Hadron electron Collider) is a proposed future colliding beam facility for lepton-nucleon scattering particle physics at CERN. A new 60 GeV electron accelerator will be added to the existing 27 km circumference 7 TeV LHC for collisions of electrons with protons and heavy ions. Two basic design options are being pursued. The first is a circular accelerator housed in the existing LHC tunnel which is referred to as the "Ring-Ring" version. Low field normal conducting magnets guide the particle beam while superconducting (SC) RF cavities cooled to 2 K are installed at two opposite locations at the LHC tunnel to accelerate the beams. For this version in addition a 10 GeV re-circulating SC injector will be installed. In total four refrigerators with cooling capacities between 1.2 kW and 3 kW @ 4.5 K are needed. The second option, referred to as the "Linac-Ring" version consists of a race-track re-circulating energy-recovery type machine with two 1 km long straight acceleration sections. The 944 hi...

  7. QCD and low-x physics at a Large Hadron electron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Laycock, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) is a proposed facility which will exploit the new world of energy and intensity offered by the LHC for electron-proton scattering, through the addition of a new electron accelerator. This contribution, which is derived from the draft CERN-ECFA-NuPECC Conceptual Design report (due for release in 2012), addresses the expected impact of the LHeC precision and extended kinematic range for low Bjorken-x and diffractive physics, and detailed simulation studies and prospects for high precision QCD and electroweak fits. Numerous observables which are sensitive to the expected low-x saturation of the parton densities are explored. These include the inclusive electron-proton scattering cross section and the related structure functions $F_2$ and $F_L$, as well as exclusive processes such as deeply-virtual Compton scattering and quasi-elastic heavy vector meson production and diffractive virtual photon dissociation. With a hundred times the luminosity that was achieved at HERA, s...

  8. Cryogenic studies for the proposed CERN large hadron electron collider (LHEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, F.; LHeC Study Team, The

    2012-06-01

    The LHeC (Large Hadron electron Collider) is a proposed future colliding beam facility for lepton-nucleon scattering particle physics at CERN. A new 60 GeV electron accelerator will be added to the existing 27 km circumference 7 TeV LHC for collisions of electrons with protons and heavy ions. Two basic design options are being pursued. The first is a circular accelerator housed in the existing LHC tunnel which is referred to as the "Ring-Ring" version. Low field normal conducting magnets guide the particle beam while superconducting (SC) RF cavities cooled to 2 K are installed at two opposite locations at the LHC tunnel to accelerate the beams. For this version in addition a 10 GeV re-circulating SC injector will be installed. In total four refrigerators with cooling capacities between 1.2 kW and 3 kW @ 4.5 K are needed. The second option, referred to as the "Linac-Ring" version consists of a race-track re-circulating energyrecovery type machine with two 1 km long straight acceleration sections. The 944 high field 2 K SC cavities dissipate 30 kW at CW operation. Eight 10 kW @ 4.5 K refrigerators are proposed. The particle detector contains a combined SC solenoid and dipole forming the cold mass and an independent liquid argon calorimeter. Cooling is done with two individual small sized cryoplants; a 4.5 K helium, and a 87 K liquid nitrogen plant.

  9. A Large Hadron Electron Collider at CERN: Report on the Physics and Design Concepts for Machine and Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abelleira Fernandez, J.L.; Akay, A.N.; Aksakal, H.; Albacete, J.L.; Alekhin, S.; Allport, P.; Andreev, V.; Appleby, R.B.; Arikan, E.; Armesto, N.; Azuelos, G.; Bai, M.; Barber, D.; Bartels, J.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Belyaev, A.S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Bernard, N.; Bertolucci, S.; Bettoni, S.; Biswal, S.; Blumlein, J.; Bottcher, H.; Bogacz, A.; Bracco, C.; Brandt, G.; Braun, H.; Brodsky, S.; Buning, O.; Bulyak, E.; Buniatyan, A.; Burkhardt, H.; Cakir, I.T.; Cakir, O.; Calaga, R.; Cetinkaya, V.; Ciapala, E.; Ciftci, R.; Ciftci, A.K.; Cole, B.A.; Collins, J.C.; Dadoun, O.; Dainton, J.; De Roeck, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Dudarev, A.; Eide, A.; Enberg, R.; Eroglu, E.; Eskola, K.J.; Favart, L.; Fitterer, M.; Forte, S.; Gaddi, A.; Gambino, P.; Garcia Morales, H.; Gehrmann, T.; Gladkikh, P.; Glasman, C.; Godbole, R.; Goddard, B.; Greenshaw, T.; Guffanti, A.; Guzey, V.; Gwenlan, C.; Han, T.; Hao, Y.; Haug, F.; Herr, W.; Herve, A.; Holzer, B.J.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jacquet, M.; Jeanneret, B.; Jimenez, J.M.; Jowett, J.M.; Jung, H.; Karadeniz, H.; Kayran, D.; Kilic, A.; Kimura, K.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kluge, T.; Kocak, F.; Korostelev, M.; Kosmicki, A.; Kostka, P.; Kowalski, H.; Kramer, G.; Kuchler, D.; Kuze, M.; Lappi, T.; Laycock, P.; Levichev, E.; Levonian, S.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Lombardi, A.; Maeda, J.; Marquet, C.; Mellado, B.; Mess, K.H.; Milanese, A.; Moch, S.; Morozov, I.I.; Muttoni, Y.; Myers, S.; Nandi, S.; Nergiz, Z.; Newman, P.R.; Omori, T.; Osborne, J.; Paoloni, E.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pascaud, C.; Paukkunen, H.; Perez, E.; Pieloni, T.; Pilicer, E.; Pire, B.; Placakyte, R.; Polini, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Pupkov, Y.; Radescu, V.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Rinol, L.; Rohini, R.; Rojo, J.; Russenschuck, S.; Sahin, M.; Salgado, C.A.; Sampei, K.; Sassot, R.; Sauvan, E.; Schneekloth, U.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schulte, D.; Senol, A.; Seryi, A.; Sievers, P.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Smith, W.; Spiesberger, H.; Stasto, A.M.; Strikman, M.; Sullivan, M.; Sultansoy, S.; Sun, Y.P.; Surrow, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Taels, P.; Tapan, I.; Tasci, T.; Tassi, E.; Ten Kate, H.; Terron, J.; Thiesen, H.; Thompson, L.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomas Garcia, R.; Tommasini, D.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuckmantel, J.; Turkoz, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tywoniuk, K.; Unel, G.; Urakawa, J.; VanMechelen, P.; Variola, A.; Veness, R.; Vivoli, A.; Vobly, P.; Wagner, J.; Wallny, R.; Wallon, S.; Watt, G.; Weiss, C.; Wiedemann, U.A.; Wienands, U.; Willeke, F.; Xiao, B.W.; Yakimenko, V.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Zhang, Z.; Zimmermann, F.; Zlebcik, R.; Zomer, F.

    2012-01-01

    The physics programme and the design are described of a new collider for particle and nuclear physics, the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), in which a newly built electron beam of 60 GeV, up to possibly 140 GeV, energy collides with the intense hadron beams of the LHC. Compared to HERA, the kinematic range covered is extended by a factor of twenty in the negative four-momentum squared, $Q^2$, and in the inverse Bjorken $x$, while with the design luminosity of $10^{33}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ the LHeC is projected to exceed the integrated HERA luminosity by two orders of magnitude. The physics programme is devoted to an exploration of the energy frontier, complementing the LHC and its discovery potential for physics beyond the Standard Model with high precision deep inelastic scattering measurements. These are designed to investigate a variety of fundamental questions in strong and electroweak interactions. The physics programme also includes electron-deuteron and electron-ion scattering in a $(Q^2, 1/x)$ ran...

  10. Comment on "Polarized window for left-right symmetry and a right-handed neutrino at the Large Hadron-Electron Collider"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Farinaldo S.

    2016-06-01

    Reference [1 S. Mondal and S. K. Rai, Phys. Rev. D 93, 011702 (2016).] recently argued that the projected Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC) presents a unique opportunity to discover a left-right symmetry since the LHeC has availability for polarized electrons. In particular, the authors apply some basic pT cuts on the jets and claim that the on-shell production of right-handed neutrinos at the LHeC, which violates lepton number in two units, has practically no standard model background and, therefore, that the right-handed nature of WR interactions that are intrinsic to left-right symmetric models can be confirmed by using colliding beams consisting of an 80% polarized electron and a 7 TeV proton. In this Comment, we show that their findings, as presented, have vastly underestimated the SM background which prevents a Left-Right symmetry signal from being seen at the LHeC.

  11. Design study of the large hadron electron collider and a rapid cycling synchrotron as alternative to the PS booster upgrade at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitterer, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the exploration of particle physics at center of mass energies at the TeV scale has begun. To extend the discovery potential of the LHC, a major upgrade is foreseen around 2020 of the LHC itself and the LHC injectors - the chain of accelerators preparing the beam for the LHC. One of the injectors - the second one in the chain - is the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Booster. Its performance is currently limited by the space-charge effect, which is the effect of the electromagnetic field of the particle beam on itself. This effect becomes weaker with higher energy, and therefore an energy upgrade of the PS Booster to 2 GeV maximum beam energy is foreseen. As the PS Booster is with its 40 years already an old machine, the construction of a new accelerator, a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), to replace the PS Booster has been proposed. In this thesis different options for the beam guidance in the RCS - referred to as lattice and optics - are studied, followed by a more general comparison of different lattices and optics and their performance under consideration of the space-charge effect. To further complement the LHC physics program, also the possibility of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering at the LHC has been suggested, referred to as Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC). In this case the proton beam of the LHC collides with the electron beam, which is accelerated in a separate newly built machine. Two options are considered as electron accelerator: a new energy recovery linac - the Linac-Ring option - and the installation of an electron ring in the existing LHC tunnel - the Ring-Ring option. One of the main challenges of the Ring-Ring option is the integration of the electron ring in the current LHC tunnel. A layout, lattice and optics of the electron accelerator is developed in this thesis, which meets the requirements with regard to integration and reaches the beam parameters demanded by the particle physics experiments.

  12. Design study of the large hadron electron collider and a rapid cycling synchrotron as alternative to the PS booster upgrade at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitterer, Miriam

    2013-02-22

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the exploration of particle physics at center of mass energies at the TeV scale has begun. To extend the discovery potential of the LHC, a major upgrade is foreseen around 2020 of the LHC itself and the LHC injectors - the chain of accelerators preparing the beam for the LHC. One of the injectors - the second one in the chain - is the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Booster. Its performance is currently limited by the space-charge effect, which is the effect of the electromagnetic field of the particle beam on itself. This effect becomes weaker with higher energy, and therefore an energy upgrade of the PS Booster to 2 GeV maximum beam energy is foreseen. As the PS Booster is with its 40 years already an old machine, the construction of a new accelerator, a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), to replace the PS Booster has been proposed. In this thesis different options for the beam guidance in the RCS - referred to as lattice and optics - are studied, followed by a more general comparison of different lattices and optics and their performance under consideration of the space-charge effect. To further complement the LHC physics program, also the possibility of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering at the LHC has been suggested, referred to as Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC). In this case the proton beam of the LHC collides with the electron beam, which is accelerated in a separate newly built machine. Two options are considered as electron accelerator: a new energy recovery linac - the Linac-Ring option - and the installation of an electron ring in the existing LHC tunnel - the Ring-Ring option. One of the main challenges of the Ring-Ring option is the integration of the electron ring in the current LHC tunnel. A layout, lattice and optics of the electron accelerator is developed in this thesis, which meets the requirements with regard to integration and reaches the beam parameters demanded by the particle physics experiments.

  13. Light neutral C P -even Higgs boson within the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model at the Large Hadron Electron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Siba Prasad; Nowakowski, Marek

    2017-09-01

    We analyze the prospects of observing the light charge parity (C P )-even neutral Higgs bosons (h1) in their decays into b b ¯ quarks, in the neutral and charged current production processes e h1q and ν h1q at the upcoming Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), with √{s }≈1.296 TeV . Assuming that the intermediate Higgs boson (h2 ) is Standard Model (SM)-like, we study the Higgs production within the framework of next-to-minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM). We consider the constraints from dark-matter, sparticle masses, and the Higgs boson data. The signal in our analysis can be classified as three jets, with electron (missing energy) coming from the neutral (charged) current interaction. We demand that the number of b -tagged jets in the central rapidity region be greater or equal to two. The remaining jet is tagged in the forward regions. With this forward jet and two b -tagged jets in the central region, we reconstructed three jets invariant masses. Applying some lower limits on these invariant masses turns out to be an essential criterion to enhance the signal-to-background rates, with slightly different sets of kinematical selections in the two different channels. We consider almost all reducible and irreducible SM background processes. We find that the non-SM like Higgs boson, h1, would be accessible in some of the NMSSM benchmark points, at approximately the 0.4 σ (2.5 σ ) level in the e +3 j channel up to Higgs boson masses of 75 GeV, and in the ET +3 j channel could be discovered with the 1.7 σ (2.4 σ ) level up to Higgs boson masses of 88 GeV with 100 fb-1 of data in a simple cut-based (with optimization) selection. With ten times more data accumulation at the end of the LHeC run, and using optimization, one can have 5 σ discovery in the electron (missing energy) channel up to 85 (more than 90) GeV.

  14. Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "In the spring 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine at CERN (the European Particle Physics laboratory) will be switched on for the first time. The huge machine is housed in a circular tunnel, 27 km long, excavated deep under the French-Swiss border near Geneva." (1,5 page)

  15. Large Hadron Collider manual

    CERN Document Server

    Lavender, Gemma

    2018-01-01

    What is the universe made of? How did it start? This Manual tells the story of how physicists are seeking answers to these questions using the world’s largest particle smasher – the Large Hadron Collider – at the CERN laboratory on the Franco-Swiss border. Beginning with the first tentative steps taken to build the machine, the digestible text, supported by color photographs of the hardware involved, along with annotated schematic diagrams of the physics experiments, covers the particle accelerator’s greatest discoveries – from both the perspective of the writer and the scientists who work there. The Large Hadron Collider Manual is a full, comprehensive guide to the most famous, record-breaking physics experiment in the world, which continues to capture the public imagination as it provides new insight into the fundamental laws of nature.

  16. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Juettner Fernandes, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    What really happened during the Big Bang? Why did matter form? Why do particles have mass? To answer these questions, scientists and engineers have worked together to build the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world: the Large Hadron Collider. Includes glossary, websites, and bibliography for further reading. Perfect for STEM connections. Aligns to the Common Core State Standards for Language Arts. Teachers' Notes available online.

  17. Beyond the Large Hadron Collider: A First Look at Cryogenics for CERN Future Circular Colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Philippe; Tavian, Laurent

    Following the first experimental discoveries at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the recent update of the European strategy in particle physics, CERN has undertaken an international study of possible future circular colliders beyond the LHC. The study, conducted with the collaborative participation of interested institutes world-wide, considers several options for very high energy hadron-hadron, electron-positron and hadron-electron colliders to be installed in a quasi-circular underground tunnel in the Geneva basin, with a circumference of 80 km to 100 km. All these machines would make intensive use of advanced superconducting devices, i.e. high-field bending and focusing magnets and/or accelerating RF cavities, thus requiring large helium cryogenic systems operating at 4.5 K or below. Based on preliminary sets of parameters and layouts for the particle colliders under study, we discuss the main challenges of their cryogenic systems and present first estimates of the cryogenic refrigeration capacities required, with emphasis on the qualitative and quantitative steps to be accomplished with respect to the present state-of-the-art.

  18. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    't Hooft, Gerardus; Llewellyn Smith, Christopher Hubert; Brüning, Oliver Sim; Collier, Paul; Stapnes, Steinar; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Stachel, Johanna; Lederman, Leon Max

    2007-01-01

    Several articles about the LHC: The Making of the standard model; high-energy colliders and the rise of the standard model; How the LHC came to be; Building a behemoth; Detector challenges at the LHC; Beyond the standard model with the LHC; The quest for the quark-gluon plasma; The God particle et al. (42 pages

  19. Large Hadron Collider nears completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Installation of the final component of the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator is under way along the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. When completed this summer, the LHC will be the world's largest and most complex scientific instrument.

  20. CERN's Large Hadron Collider project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Tom A.

    1997-03-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. After an outline of the physics motivation, we describe the LHC machine, interaction rates, experimental challenges, and some important physics channels to be studied. Finally we discuss the four experiments planned at the LHC: ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHC-B.

  1. CERN's Large Hadron Collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnley, Tom A.

    1997-01-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. After an outline of the physics motivation, we describe the LHC machine, interaction rates, experimental challenges, and some important physics channels to be studied. Finally we discuss the four experiments planned at the LHC: ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHC-B

  2. Perspectives on large linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1987-11-01

    Three main items in the design of large linear colliders are presented. The first is the interrelation of energy and luminosity requirements. These two items impose severe constraints on the accelerator builder who must design a machine to meet the needs of experimentl high energy physics rather than designing a machine for its own sake. An introduction is also given for linear collider design, concentrating on what goes on at the collision point, for still another constraint comes here from the beam-beam interaction which further restricts the choices available to the accelerator builder. The author also gives his impressions of the state of the technology available for building these kinds of machines within the next decade. The paper concludes with a brief recommendation for how we can all get on with the work faster, and hope to realize these machines sooner by working together. 10 refs., 9 figs

  3. The large hadron collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiani, L.

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter has greatly advanced, over the last decades. The standard theory of fundamental interactions presents us with a theoretically sound picture, which describes with great accuracy known physical phenomena on most diverse energy and distance scales. These range from 10 -16 cm, inside the nucleons, up to large-scale astrophysical bodies, including the early Universe at some nanosecond after the Big-Bang and temperatures of the order of 10 2 GeV. The picture is not yet completed, however, as we lack the observation of the Higgs boson, predicted in the 100-500 GeV range - a particle associated with the generation of particle masses and with the quantum fluctuations in the primordial Universe. In addition, the standard theory is expected to undergo a change of regime in the 10 3 GeV region, with the appearance of new families of particles, most likely associated with the onset of a new symmetry (supersymmetry). In 1994, the CERN Council approved the construction of the large hadron collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider of a new design to be installed in the existing LEP tunnel, with an energy of 7 TeV per beam and extremely large luminosity, of ∝10 34 cm -2 s -1 . Construction was started in 1996, with the additional support of the US, Japan, Russia, Canada and other European countries, making the LHC a really global project, the first one in particle physics. After a short review of the physics scenario, I report on the present status of the LHC construction. Special attention is given to technological problems such as the realization of the super-conducting dipoles, following an extensive R and D program with European industries. The construction of the large LHC detectors has required a vast R and D program by a large international community, to overcome the problems posed by the complexity of the collisions and by the large luminosity of the machine. (orig.)

  4. Perspectives on large Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1987-01-01

    The accelerator community now generally agrees that the Linear Collider is the most cost-effective technology for reaching much higher energies in the center-of-mass than can be attained in the largest of the e + e - storage rings, LEP. Indeed, even as the first linear collider, the SLC at SLAC, is getting ready to begin operations groups, at SLAC, Novosibirsk, CERN and KEK are doing R and D and conceptual design studies on a next generation machine in the 1 TeV energy region. In this perspectives talk I do not want to restrict my comments to any particular design, and so I will talk about a high-energy machine as the NLC, which is shorthand for the Next Linear Collider, and taken to mean a machine with a center-of-mass energy someplace in the 0.5 to 2 TeV energy range with sufficient luminosity to carry out a meaningful experimental program. I want to discuss three main items with you. The first is the interrelation of energy and luminosity requirements. These two items impose severe constraints on the accelerator builder. Next, I will give an introduction to linear collider design, concentrating on what goes on at the collision point, for still another constraint comes here from the beam-beam interaction which further restricts the choices available to the accelerator builder.Then, I want to give my impressions of the state of the technology available for building these kinds of machines within the next decade

  5. Very large hadron collider (VLHC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A VLHC informal study group started to come together at Fermilab in the fall of 1995 and at the 1996 Snowmass Study the parameters of this machine took form. The VLHC as now conceived would be a 100 TeV hadron collider. It would use the Fermilab Main Injector (now nearing completion) to inject protons at 150 GeV into a new 3 TeV Booster and then into a superconducting pp collider ring producing 100 TeV c.m. interactions. A luminosity of {approximately}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} is planned. Our plans were presented to the Subpanel on the Planning for the Future of US High- Energy Physics (the successor to the Drell committee) and in February 1998 their report stated ``The Subpanel recommends an expanded program of R&D on cost reduction strategies, enabling technologies, and accelerator physics issues for a VLHC. These efforts should be coordinated across laboratory and university groups with the aim of identifying design concepts for an economically and technically viable facility`` The coordination has been started with the inclusion of physicists from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and Cornell University. Clearly, this collaboration must expanded internationally as well as nationally. The phrase ``economically and technically viable facility`` presents the real challenge.

  6. The promise of the large collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "In 2007, the most powerful particle accelerator ever built, CERN's new Large hadron Collider, will probe the secrets of matter in the energy states prevailing in the moments after the Big Bang. By colliding particles together when they are moving at close to the speed of ight, physicists hope to find out about matter in its earliest forms, using the energy produced by the collisions." (2 pages)

  7. ALICE A Large Ion Collider Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Mager, M; Rohr, D M; Suljic, M; Miskowiec, D C; Donigus, B; Mercado-perez, J; Lohner, D; Bertelsen, H; Kox, S; Cheynis, B; Sambyal, S S; Usai, G; Agnello, M; Toscano, L; Miake, Y; Inaba, M; Maldonado cervantes, I A; Fernandez tellez, A; Kulibaba, V; Zinovjev, G; Martynov, Y; Usenko, E; Pshenichnov, I; Nikolaev, S; Vasiliev, A; Vinogradov, A; Moukhanova, T; Vasilyev, A; Kozlov, Y; Voloshin, K; Kiselev, S; Kirilko, Y; Lyublev, E; Kondratyeva, N; Gameiro munhoz, M; Alarcon do passo suaide, A; Lagana fernandes, C; Carlin filho, N; Yin, Z; Zhu, J; Luo, J; Pikna, M; Bombara, M; Pastircak, B; Marangio, G; Gianotti, P; Muccifora, V; Sputowska, I A; Ilkiv, I; Christiansen, P; Dodokhov, V; Yurevich, V; Fedunov, A; Malakhov, A; Efremov, A; Feofilov, G; Vinogradov, L; Asryan, A; Kovalenko, V; Piyarathna, D; Myers, C J; Martashvili, I; Oh, H; Cherney, M G; D'erasmo, G; Wagner, V; Smakal, R; Sartorelli, G; Xaplanteris karampatsos, L; Mlynarz, J; Murray, C J; Oh, S; Becker, B; Zbroszczyk, H P; Feldkamp, L; Pappalardo, G; Khlebnikov, A; Basmanov, V; Punin, V; Demanov, V; Naseer, M A; Gotovac, S; Zgura, S I; Yang, H; Vernet, R; Son, C; Shtejer diaz, K; Hwang, S; Alfaro molina, J R; Jahnke, C; Richter, M R; Garcia-solis, E J; Hitchcock, T M; Bazo alba, J L; Utrobicic, A; Brun, R; Divia, R; Hillemanns, H; Schukraft, J; Riedler, P; Eulisse, G; Von haller, B; Kushpil, V; Ivanov, M; Malzacher, P; Schweda, K O; Renfordt, R A E; Reygers, K J; Pachmayer, Y C; Gaardhoeje, J J; Bearden, I G; Porteboeuf, S J; Borel, H; Pereira da costa, H D A; Faivre, J; Germain, M; Schutz, Y R; Delagrange, H; Batigne, G; Stocco, D; Estienne, M D; Bergognon, A A E; Zoccarato, Y D; Jones, P G; Levai, P; Bencedi, G; Khan, M M; Mahapatra, D P; Ghosh, P; Das, T K; Cicalo, C; De falco, A; Mazzoni, A M; Cerello, P; De marco, N; Riccati, L; Saavedra san martin, O; Paic, G; Ovchynnyk, V; Karavicheva, T; Kucheryaeva, M; Skuratovskiy, O; Mal kevich, D; Bogdanov, A; Pereira, L G; Cai, X; Zhu, X; Wang, M; Kar, S; Fan, F; Sitar, B; Cerny, V; Aggarwal, M M; Bianchi, N; Torii, H; Hori, Y; Tsuji, T; Herrera corral, G A; Kowalski, M; Rybicki, A; Deloff, A; Petrovici, A; Nomokonov, P; Parfenov, A; Koshurnikov, E; Shahaliyev, E; Rogochaya, E; Kondratev, V; Oreshkina, N; Tarasov, A; Norenberg, M; Bodnya, E; Bogolyubskiy, M; Symons, T; Blanco, F; Madagodahettige don, D M; Umaka, E N; Schaefer, B; De pasquale, S; Fusco girard, M; Kim, J; Jeon, H; Nandi, B K; Kumar, J; Sarkar - sinha, T; Arcelli, S; Scapparone, E; Shevel, A; Nikulin, V; Komkov, B; Voloshin, S; Hille, P T; Kannan, S; Dainese, A; Matynia, R M; Dabala, L B; Zimmermann, M B; Vinogradov, Y; Vikhlyantsev, O; Telnov, A; Tumkin, A; Van leeuwen, M; Erdal, H A; Keidel, R; Rui, R; Yeo, I; Vilakazi, Z; Klay, J L; Boswell, B D; Lindenstruth, V; Tveter, T S; Batzing, P C; Breitner, T G; Sahoo, R; Roy, A; Musa, L; Perini, D; Vande vyvre, P; Fuchs, U; Oberegger, M; Aglieri rinella, G; Salgueiro domingues da silva, R M; Kalweit, A P; Greco, V; Bellini, F; Bond, P M; Mohammadi, N; Marin, A M; Glassel, P; Schicker, R M; Staley, F M; Castillo castellanos, J E; Furget, C; Real, J; Martino, J F; Evans, D; Sahu, P K; Sahu, S K; Ahammed, Z; Saini, J; Bala, R; Gupta, R; Di bari, D; Biasotto, M; Nappi, G; Esumi, S; Sano, M; Roehrich, D; Lonne, P; Drakin, Y; Manko, V; Nikulin, S; Yushmanov, I; Kozlov, K; Kerbikov, B; Stavinskiy, A; Sultanov, R; Raniwala, R; Zhou, D; Zhu, H; Meres, M; Kralik, I; Parmar, S; Rizzi, V; Orlandi, A; Lea, R; Kuijer, P G; Figiel, J; Gorlich, L M; Shabratova, G; Lobanov, V; Zaporozhets, S; Ivanov, A; Iglovikov, V; Ochirov, A; Petrov, V; Jacobs, P M; De gruttola, D; Corsi, F; Varma, R; Nania, R; Wilkinson, J J; Samsonov, V; Pruneau, C A; Caines, H L; Aronsson, T; Adare, A M; Zwick, S M; Fearick, R W; Ostrowski, P K; Kulasinski, K; Heine, N; Wilk, A; Ilkaev, R; Ilkaeva, L; Pavlov, V; Mikhaylyukov, K; Rybin, A; Naumov, N; Mudnic, E; Cortese, P; Listratenko, O; Stan, I; Nooren, G; Song, J; Krawutschke, T; Kim, S Y; Hwang, D S; Lee, S H; Leon monzon, I; Vorobyev, I; Skaali, B; Wikne, J; Dordic, O; Yan, Y; Mazumder, R; Shahoyan, R; Kluge, A; Pellegrino, F; Safarik, K; Tauro, A; Foka, P; Frankenfeld, U M; Masciocchi, S; Schwarz, K E; Bailhache, R M; Anguelov, V; Hansen, A; Vulpescu, B; Baldisseri, A; Aphecetche, L B; Berenyi, D; Sahoo, S; Nayak, T K; Muhuri, S; Patra, R N; Adhya, S P; Potukuchi, B; Masoni, A; Scomparin, E; Beole, S; Mizuno, S; Enyo, H; Cuautle flores, E; Gonzalez zamora, P; Djuvsland, O; Altinpinar, S; Wagner, B; Fehlker, D; Velure, A; Potin, S; Kurepin, A; Ryabinkin, E; Kiselev, I; Pestov, Y; Hayrapetyan, A; Manukyan, N; Lutz, J; Belikov, I; Roy, C S; Takahashi, J; Araujo silva figueredo, M; Tang, S; Szarka, I; Kapusta, S; Hasko, J; Putis, M; Sandor, L; Vrlakova, J; Das, S; Hayashi, S; Van rijn, A J; Siemiarczuk, T; Petrovici, M; Petris, M; Stenlund, E A; Malinina, L; Fateev, O; Kolozhvari, A; Altsybeev, I; Sadovskiy, S; Soloviev, A; Ploskon, M A; Mayes, B W; Sorensen, S P; Mazer, J A; Awes, T; Virgili, T; Pagano, P; Krus, M; Sett, P; Bhatt, H; Sinha, B; Khan, P; Antonioli, P; Scioli, G; Sakaguchi, H; Volkov, S; Khanzadeev, A; Malaev, M; Lisa, M A; Loggins, V R; Schuster, T R; Scharenberg, R P; Turrisi, R; Debski, P R; Oleniacz, J; Westerhoff, U; Yanovskiy, V; Domrachev, S; Smirnova, Y; Zimmermann, S; Veldhoen, M; Van der maarel, J; Kileng, B; Seo, J; Lopez torres, E; Camerini, P; Jang, H J; Buthelezi, E Z; Suleymanov, M K O; Belmont moreno, E; Zhao, C; Perales, M; Kobdaj, C; Spyropoulou-stassinaki, M; Roukoutakis, F; Keil, M; Morsch, A; Rademakers, A; Soos, C; Zampolli, C; Grigoras, C; Chibante barroso, V M; Schuchmann, S; Grigoras, A G; Lafuente mazuecos, A; Wegrzynek, A T; Bielcikova, J; Kushpil, S; Braun-munzinger, P; Andronic, A; Zimmermann, A; Rosnet, P; Ramillien barret, V; Lopez, X B; Arbor, N; Erazmus, B E; Pichot, P; Pillot, P; Grossiord, J; Boldizsar, L; Khan, S; Puddu, G; Marras, D; Siddhanta, S; Costanza, S; Botta, E; Gallio, M; Masera, M; Simonetti, L; Prino, F; Oppedisano, C; Vargas trevino, A D; Nystrand, J I; Ullaland, K; Haaland, O S; Huang, M; Naumov, S; Zinovjev, M; Trubnikov, V; Alkin, A; Ivanytskyi, O; Guber, F; Karavichev, O; Nyanin, A; Sibiryak, Y; Peresunko, D Y; Patarakin, O; Aleksandrov, D; Blau, D; Yasnopolskiy, S; Chumakov, M; Vetlitskiy, I; Nedosekin, A; Selivanov, A; Okorokov, V; Grigoryan, A; Papikyan, V; Kuhn, C C; Wan, R; Cajko, F; Siska, M; Mares, J; Zavada, P; Ceballos sanchez, C; Reolon, A R; Gunji, T; Snellings, R; Mayer, C; Klusek-gawenda, M J; Schiaua, C C; Andrei, C; Herghelegiu, A I; Soegaard, C; Panebrattsev, Y; Penev, V; Efimov, L; Zanevskiy, Y; Vechernin, V; Zarochentsev, A; Kolevatov, R; Agapov, A; Polishchuk, B; Nattrass, C; Anticic, T; Kwon, Y; Kim, M; Moon, T; Seger, J E; Petran, M; Sahoo, B; Das bose, L; Hushnud, H; Hatzifotiadou, D; Shigaki, K; Jha, D M; Murray, S; Badala, A; Putevskoy, S; Shapovalova, E; Haiduc, M; Mitu, C M; Mischke, A; Grelli, A; Hetland, K F; Rachevski, A; Menchaca-rocha, A A; De cuveland, J; Hutter, D; Langhammer, M; Dahms, T; Watkins, E P; Gago medina, A M; Planinic, M; Riegler, W; Telesca, A; Knichel, M L; Lazaridis, L; Ferencei, J; Martin, N A; Appelshaeuser, H; Heckel, S T; Windelband, B S; Nielsen, B S; Chojnacki, M; Baldit, A; Manso, F; Crochet, P; Espagnon, B; Uras, A; Lietava, R; Lemmon, R C; Agocs, A G; Viyogi, Y; Pal, S K; Singhal, V; Khan, S A; Alam, S N; Rodriguez cahuantzi, M; Maslov, M; Kurepin, A; Ippolitov, M; Lebedev, V; Tsvetkov, A; Klimov, A; Agafonov, G; Martemiyanov, A; Loginov, V; Kononov, S; Hnatic, M; Kalinak, P; Trzaska, W H; Raha, S; Canoa roman, V; Cruz albino, R; Botje, M; Gladysz-dziadus, E; Marszal, T; Oskarsson, A N E; Otterlund, I; Tydesjo, H; Ljunggren, H M; Vodopyanov, A; Akichine, P; Kuznetsov, A; Vedeneyev, V; Naumenko, P; Bilov, N; Rogalev, R; Evdokimov, S; Braidot, E; Bellwied, R; De caro, A; Kang, J H; Gorbunov, Y; Lee, J; Pachr, M; Dash, S; Roy, P K; Cifarelli, L; Laurenti, G; Margotti, A; Sugitate, T; Ivanov, V; Zhalov, M; Salzwedel, J S N; Pavlinov, A; Harris, J W; Caballero orduna, D; Fiore, E M; Pluta, J M; Kisiel, A R; Wrobel, D; Klein-boesing, C; Grimaldi, A; Zhitnik, A; Nazarenko, S; Zavyalov, N; Miroshnikov, D; Kuryakin, A; Vyushin, A; Mamonov, A; Vickovic, L; Niculescu, M; Fragiacomo, E; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S; Foertsch, S V; Brown, C R; Lovhoiden, G; Harton, A V; Khosonthongkee, K; Langoy, R; Schmidt, H R; Betev, L; Buncic, P; Di mauro, A; Martinengo, P; Gargiulo, C; Grosse-oetringhaus, J F; Costa, F; Baltasar dos santos pedrosa, F; Laudi, E; Adamova, D; Lippmann, C; Schmidt, C J; Book, J H; Grajcarek, R; Christensen, C H; Dupieux, P; Bastid, N; Rakotozafindrabe, A M; Conesa balbastre, G; Martinez-garcia, G; Suire, C P; Ducroux, L; Tieulent, R N; Jusko, A; Barnafoldi, G G; Pochybova, S; Hussain, T; Dubey, A K; Acharya, S; Gupta, A; Ricci, R A; Meddi, F; Vercellin, E; Chujo, T; Watanabe, K; Onishi, H; Akiba, Y; Vergara limon, S; Tejeda munoz, G; Skjerdal, K; Svistunov, S; Reshetin, A; Maevskaya, A; Antonenko, V; Mishustin, N; Meleshko, E; Korsheninnikov, A; Balygin, K; Zagreev, B; Akindinov, A; Mikhaylov, K; Gushchin, O; Grigoryev, V; Gulkanyan, H; Sanchez castro, X; Peretti pezzi, R; Oliveira da silva, A C; Harmanova, Z; Vokal, S; Beitlerova, A; Rak, J; Ghosh, S K; Bhati, A K; Spiriti, E; Ronchetti, F; Casanova diaz, A O; Kuzmin, N; Melkumov, G; Zinchenko, A; Shklovskaya, A; Bunzarov, Z I; Chernenko, S; Rogachevskiy, O; Toulina, T; Kompaniets, M; Titov, A; Kharlov, Y; Dantsevich, G; Stolpovskiy, M; Porter, R J; Datskova, O V; Kim, D S; Jung, W W; Kim, H; Bielcik, J; Pospisil, V; Cepila, J; Das, D; Williams, C; Pesci, A; Roshchin, E; Grounds, A; Humanic, T; Steinpreis, M D; Yaldo, C G; Smirnov, N; Heinz, M T; Connors, M E; Barile, F; Lunardon, M; Orzan, G; Wielanek, D H; Servais, E L J; Patecki, M; Passfeld, A; Zhelezov, S; Morkin, A; Zabelin, O; Hobbs, D A; Gul, M; Ramello, L; Van den brink, A; Bertens, R A; Lodato, D F; Haque, M R; Kim, E J; Coccetti, F; Margagliotti, G V; Rauf, A W; Sandoval, A; Berger, M E; Munzer, R H; Qvigstad, H; Lindal, S; Cervantes jr, M; Kebschull, U W; Engel, H; Karasu uysal, A; Lien, J A; Hess, B A; Calvo villar, E; Augustinus, A; Carena, W; Chochula, P; Chapeland, S; Dobrin, A F; Reidt, F; Bock, F; Festanti, A; Galdames perez, A; Sumbera, M; Averbeck, R P; Garabatos cuadrado, J; Reichelt, P S; Marquard, M; Stachel, J; Wang, Y; Boggild, H; Gulbrandsen, K H; Hansen, J C; Charvet, J F; Shabetai, A; Hadjidakis, C M; Krivda, M; Vertesi, R; Mitra, J; Altini, V; Ferretti, A; Gagliardi, M; Sakata, D; Niida, T; Martinez hernandez, M I; Yang, S; Karpechev, E; Veselovskiy, A; Konevskikh, A; Finogeev, D; Fokin, S; Karadzhev, K; Kucheryaev, Y; Plotnikov, V; Ryabinin, M; Golubev, A; Kaplin, V; Ter-minasyan, A; Abramyan, A; Raniwala, S; Hippolyte, B; Strmen, P; Krivan, F; Kalliokoski, T E A; Chang, B; De cataldo, G; Paticchio, V; Fantoni, A; Gomez jimenez, R; Christakoglou, P; Cyz, A; Wilk, G A; Kurashvili, P; Pop, A; Arefiev, V; Batyunya, B; Lioubochits, V; Zryuev, V; Sokolov, M; Patalakha, D; Pinsky, L; Timmins, A R; Petracek, V; Krelina, M; Chattopadhyay, S; Basile, M; Falchieri, D; Miftakhov, N; Garner, R M; Konyushikhin, M; Joseph, N; Srivastava, B K; Cleymans, J W A; Dietel, T; Soramel, F; Pawlak, T J; Kucinski, M; Janik, M A; Surma, K D; Wessels, J P; Riggi, F; Ivanov, A; Selin, I; Budnikov, D; Filchagin, S; Sitta, M; Gheata, M; Danu, A; Peitzmann, T; Reicher, M; Helstrup, H; Subasi, M; Mathis, A M; Nilsson, M S; Rist, J A S; Jena, C; Lara martinez, C E; Vasileiou, M

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\ALICE is a general-purpose heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC. It currently includes more than 750~physicists and $\\sim$70 institutions in 27 countries.\\\\ \\\\The detector is designed to cope with the highest particle multiplicities anticipated for Pb-Pb reactions (dN/dy~$\\approx$~8000) and it will be operational at the start-up of the LHC. In addition to heavy systems, the ALICE Collaboration will study collisions of lower-mass ions, which are a means of varying the energy density, and protons (both pp and p-nucleus), which provide reference data for the nucleus-nucleus collisions.\\\\ \\\\ALICE consists of a central part, which measures event-by-event hadrons, electrons and photons, and a forward spectrometer to measure muons. The central part, which covers polar angles from 45$^{0} $ to 135$^{0} $ ($\\mid \\eta \\mid $ < 0.9) over the full azimuth, is embedded in the large L3 solenoidal mag...

  8. Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunava

    2011-01-01

    The European Center for Nuclear Research or CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has caught our attention partly due to the film "Angels and Demons." In the movie, an antimatter bomb attack on the Vatican is foiled by the protagonist. Perhaps just as controversial is the formation of mini black holes (BHs). Recently, the American Physical Society…

  9. Higgs physics at the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Higgs boson; Large Hadron Collider; electroweak symmetry; spin and CP of the Higgs boson ... I shall then give a short description of the pre-LHC constraints on the Higgs mass and the theoretical predictions for the LHC along with a discussion of the current experimental results, ending with prospects in the near future at ...

  10. Status of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Lyndon R.

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), due to be commissioned in 2007, will provide particle physics with the first laboratory tool to access the energy frontier above 1 TeV. In order to achieve this, protons must be accelerated and stored at 7 TeV, colliding with an unprecedented luminosity of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 The 8.3 Tesla guide field is obtained using conventional NbTi technology cooled to below the lambda point of helium. The machine is now well into its installation phase, with first beam injection foreseen for spring 2007. A brief status report is given and future prospects are discussed. (orig.)

  11. The Large Hadron Collider project

    CERN Document Server

    Maiani, Luciano

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter has greatly advanced, over the last decades. The standard theory of fundamental interactions presents us with a theoretically sound picture, which describes with great accuracy known physical phenomena on most diverse energy and distance scales. These range from 10/sup -16/ cm, inside the nucleons, up to large-scale astrophysical bodies, including the early Universe at some nanosecond after the Big-Bang and temperatures of the order of 10/sup 2/ GeV. The picture is not yet completed, however, as we lack the observation of the Higgs boson, predicted in the 100-500 GeV range-a particle associated with the generation of particle masses and with the quantum fluctuations in the primordial Universe. In addition, the standard theory is expected to undergo a change of regime in the 10/sup 3/ GeV region, with the appearance of new families of particles, most likely associated with the onset of a new symmetry (supersymmetry). In 1994, the CERN Council approved the con...

  12. Large Hadron Collider commissioning and first operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, S

    2012-02-28

    A history of the commissioning and the very successful early operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described. The accident that interrupted the first commissioning, its repair and the enhanced protection system put in place are fully described. The LHC beam commissioning and operational performance are reviewed for the period from 2010 to mid-2011. Preliminary plans for operation and future upgrades for the LHC are given for the short and medium term.

  13. Machine availability at the Large Hardron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Pojer, M; Wagner, S

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important parameters for a particle accelerator is its uptime, the period of time when it is functioning and available for use. In its second year of operation, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has experienced high machine availability, which is one of the ingredients of its brilliant performance. Some of the reasons for the observed MTBF are presented. The approach of periodic maintenance stops is also discussed. Some considerations on the ideal length of a physics fill are drawn.

  14. Machine availability at the Large Hardron Collider

    OpenAIRE

    Pojer, M; Schmidt, R; Wagner, S

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important parameters for a particle accelerator is its uptime, the period of time when it is functioning and available for use. In its second year of operation, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has experienced high machine availability, which is one of the ingredients of its brilliant performance. Some of the reasons for the observed MTBF are presented. The approach of periodic maintenance stops is also discussed. Some considerations on the ideal length of a physics fill are dr...

  15. Luminosity Tuning at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmer, W

    2006-01-01

    By measuring and adjusting the beta-functions at the interaction point (IP the luminosity is being optimized. In LEP (Large Electron Positron Collider) this was done with the two closest doublet magnets. This approach is not applicable for the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) and RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) due to the asymmetric lattice. In addition in the LHC both beams share a common beam pipe through the inner triplet magnets (in these region changes of the magnetic field act on both beams). To control and adjust the beta-functions without perturbation of other optics functions, quadrupole groups situated on both sides further away from the IP have to be used where the two beams are already separated. The quadrupoles are excited in specific linear combinations, forming the so-called "tuning knobs" for the IP beta-functions. For a specific correction one of these knobs is scaled by a common multiplier. The different methods which were used to compute such knobs are discussed: (1) matching in MAD, (2)i...

  16. 1st Large Hadron Collider Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Juste, A; Martínez, M; Riu, I; Sorin, V

    2013-01-01

    The conference is the result of merging two series of international conferences, "Physics at Large Hadron Collider" (PLHC2012) and "Hadron Collider Physics Symposium" (HCP2012). With a program devoted to topics such as the Standard Model and Beyond, the Higgs Boson, Supersymmetry, Beauty and Heavy Ion Physics, the conference aims at providing a lively forum for discussion between experimenters and theorists of the latest results and of new ideas. LHCP 2013 will be hosted by IFAE (Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies) in Barcelona (Spain), and will take place from May 13 to 18, 2013. The venue will be the Hotel Catalonia Plaza, Plaza España (Barcelona). More information will be posted soon. For questions, please contact lhcp2013@ifae.es.

  17. Computing and data handling requirements for SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] and LHC [Large Hadron Collider] experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, A.J.

    1990-05-01

    A number of issues for computing and data handling in the online in environment at future high-luminosity, high-energy colliders, such as the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC), are outlined. Requirements for trigger processing, data acquisition, and online processing are discussed. Some aspects of possible solutions are sketched. 6 refs., 3 figs

  18. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LHC workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentation and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol.1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol.2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol.3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  19. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LHC workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentaiton and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol. 1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol. 2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol. 3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  20. The Large Hadron Collider, a personal recollection

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, L

    2014-01-01

    The construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been a massive endeavor spanning almost 30 years from conception to commissioning. Building the machine with the highest possible energy (7 TeV) in the existing LEP tunnel of 27 km circumference and with a tunnel diameter of only 3.8m has required considerable innovation. The first was the development of an idea first proposed by Bob Palmer at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1978, where the two rings are integrated into a single magnetic structure. This compact 2-in-1 structure was essential for the LHC due to both the limited space available in the existing Large Electron-Positron collider tunnel and the cost. The second innovation was the bold move to use superfluid helium cooling on a massive scale, which was imposed by the need to achieve a high (8.3 T) magnetic field using an affordable Nb-Ti superconductor. In this article, no attempt is made to give a comprehensive review of the machine design. This can be found in the LHC Design Report {[}1], w...

  1. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LCH workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentation and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol. 1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol. 2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol. 3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  2. Physics at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Raychaudhari, Amitava

    2009-01-01

    In an epoch when particle physics is awaiting a major step forward, the Large Hydron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva will soon be operational. It will collide a beam of high energy protons with another similar beam circulation in the same 27 km tunnel but in the opposite direction, resulting in the production of many elementary particles some never created in the laboratory before. It is widely expected that the LHC will discover the Higgs boson, the particle which supposedly lends masses to all other fundamental particles. In addition, the question as to whether there is some new law of physics at such high energy is likely to be answered through this experiment. The present volume contains a collection of articles written by international experts, both theoreticians and experimentalists, from India and abroad, which aims to acquaint a non-specialist with some basic issues related to the LHC. At the same time, it is expected to be a useful, rudimentary companion of introductory exposition and technical expert...

  3. Protection of the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R.; Assmann, R.; Carlier, E.; Dehning, B.; Denz, R.; Goddard, B.; Holzer, E. B.; Kain, V.; Puccio, B.; Todd, B.; Uythoven, J.; Wenninger, J.; Zerlauth, M.

    2006-11-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will collide two counter-rotating proton beams, each with an energy of 7 TeV. The energy stored in the superconducting magnet system will exceed 10 GJ, and each beam has a stored energy of 362 MJ which could cause major damage to accelerator equipment in the case of uncontrolled beam loss. Safe operation of the LHC will therefore rely on a complex system for equipment protection. The systems for protection of the superconducting magnets in case of quench must be fully operational before powering the magnets. For safe injection of the 450 GeV beam into the LHC, beam absorbers must be in their correct positions and specific procedures must be applied. Requirements for safe operation throughout the cycle necessitate early detection of failures within the equipment, and active monitoring of the beam with fast and reliable beam instrumentation, mainly beam loss monitors (BLM). When operating with circulating beams, the time constant for beam loss after a failure extends from apms to a few minutes—failures must be detected sufficiently early and transmitted to the beam interlock system that triggers a beam dump. It is essential that the beams are properly extracted on to the dump blocks at the end of a fill and in case of emergency, since the beam dump blocks are the only elements of the LHC that can withstand the impact of the full beam.

  4. Aperture meter for the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.J.; Fuchsberger, K.; Redaelli, S.

    2012-01-01

    The control of the high intensity beams of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particular challenging and requires a good modeling of the machine and monitoring of various machine parameters. During operation it is crucial to ensure a minimal distance between the beam edge and the aperture of sensitive equipment, e.g. the superconducting magnets, which in all cases must be in the shadow of the collimator's that protect the machine. Possible dangerous situations must be detected as soon as possible. In order to provide the operator with information about the current machine bottlenecks an aperture meter application was developed based on the LHC online modeling tool-chain. The calculation of available free aperture takes into account the best available optics and aperture model as well as the relevant beam measurements. This paper describes the design and integration of this application into the control environment and presents results of the usage in daily operation and from validation measurements. (authors)

  5. The large hadron collider beauty experiment calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, A.; LHCb Collaboration; Martens, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment (LHCb), one of the four largest experiments at the LHC at CERN, is dedicated to precision studies of CP violation and other rare effects, in particular in the b and c quark sectors. It aims at precisely measuring the Standard Model parameters and searching for effects inconsistent with this picture. The LHCb calorimeter system comprises a scintillating pad detector, a pre-shower (PS), electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic calorimeters, all of these employing the principle of transporting the light from scintillating layers with wavelength shifting fibers to photomultipliers. The fast response of the calorimeters ensures their key role in the LHCb trigger, which has to cope with the LHC collision rate of 40MHz. After discussing the design and expected performance of the LHCb calorimeter system, one addresses the time and energy calibration issues. The results obtained with the calorimeter system from the first LHC data will be shown.

  6. Cryogenics for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P

    2000-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a 26.7 km circumference superconducting accelerator equipped with high-field magnets operating in superfluid helium below 1.9 K, has now fully entered construction at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. The heart of the LHC cryogenic system is the quasi-isothermal magnet cooling scheme, in which flowing two-phase saturated superfluid helium removes the heat load from the 36000 ton cold mass, immersed in some 400 m/sup 3/ static pressurised superfluid helium. The LHC also makes use of supercritical helium for nonisothermal cooling of the beam screens which intercept most of the dynamic heat loads at higher temperature. Although not used in normal operation, liquid nitrogen will provide the source of refrigeration for precooling the machine. Refrigeration for the LHC is produced in eight large refrigerators, each with an equivalent capacity of about 18 kW at 4.5 K, completed by 1.8 K refrigeration units making use of several stages of hydrodynamic cold compressor...

  7. Il Collisore LHC (Large Hadron Collider)

    CERN Multimedia

    Brianti, Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    In 2007, in a new Collider in the tunnel of 27km, collisions will be made between very powerful beams of protons and ions. The energies will be very high to try to catch the most tiny particle (1 page)

  8. Higgs Boson and the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Sunanda

    2014-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics has been extremely successful in explaining all the precision data collected during the past few decades. The model, however, was incomplete with one of the key particles still not experimentally observed till 2012. This particle is predicted by the theory in the context of providing mass to the fundamental constituents as well as the exchange particles W and Z bosons. In the recent past, two experiments, ATLAS and CMS operating at the Large Hadron Collider, CERN have observed the evidence of a new state. Search signal of this object has been motivated by the Higgs boson within the Standard Model. These results have been consolidated with newer data and some attempt has gone to determine some of the properties of this newly observed state. Some of the most important recent results in this context are presented in this lecture. Several groups from India have participated in the LHC program and contributed to various aspects like the machine, computing grid and the experiments. In particular, 3 institutes and 2 University groups have been a member of the CMS collaboration and took part in the discovery of the new state. The participation of the Indian groups are also highlighted. (author)

  9. Recent results from the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz Maestre, J

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of the physics results obtained by experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2009–2010, for an integrated luminosity of L ≈ 40 pb$^{−1}$ , collected mostly at a centre-of-mass energy of √ s = 7 TeV. After an introduction to the physics environment at the LHC and the current performance of the accelerator and detectors, we will discuss quantum chro- modynamics and B-physics analyses, W and Z production, the first results in the top sector, and searches for new physics, with particular emphasis on su- persymmetry and Higgs studies. While most of the presented results are in remarkable agreement with Standard Model predictions, the excellent perfor- mance of the LHC machine and experiments, the prompt analysis of all data within just a few months after the end of data taking, and the high quality of the results obtained constitute an encouraging step towards unique measurements and exciting discoveries in the 2011–2012 period and beyond.

  10. The Very Large Hadron Collider: The farthest energy frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, William A.

    2001-01-01

    The Very Large Hadron Collider (or Eloisatron) represents what may well be the final step on the energy frontier of accelerator-based high energy physics. While an extremely high luminosity proton collider at 100-200 TeV center of mass energy can probably be built in one step with LHC technology, that machine would cost more than what is presently politically acceptable. This talk summarizes the strategies of collider design including staged deployment, comparison with electron-positron colliders, opportunities for major innovation, and the technical challenges of reducing costs to manageable proportions. It also presents the priorities for relevant R and D for the next few years

  11. Tolerable systematic errors in Really Large Hadron Collider dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Dell, F.

    1996-01-01

    Maximum allowable systematic harmonics for arc dipoles in a Really Large Hadron Collider are derived. The possibility of half cell lengths much greater than 100 meters is justified. A convenient analytical model evaluating horizontal tune shifts is developed, and tested against a sample high field collider

  12. Really large hadron collider working group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, G.; Limon, P.; Syphers, M.

    1996-01-01

    A summary is presented of preliminary studies of three 100 TeV center-of-mass hadron colliders made with magnets of different field strengths, 1.8T, 9.5T and 12.6T. Descriptions of the machines, and some of the major and most challenging subsystems, are presented, along with parameter lists and the major issues for future study

  13. Large Hadron Collider The Discovery Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The mammoth machine, after a nine-year construction period, is scheduled (touch wood) to begin producing its beams of particles later this year. The commissioning process is planned to proceed from one beam to two beams to colliding beams; from lower energies to the terascale; from weaker test intensities to stronger ones suitable for producing data at useful rates but more difficult to control.

  14. The ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aad, G.; et al., [Unknown; Bentvelsen, S.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bos, K.; Boterenbrood, H.; Brouwer, G.; Buis, E.J.; Buskop, J.J.F.; Colijn, A.P.; Dankers, R.; Daum, C.; de Boer, R.; de Jong, P.; Ennes, P.; Gosselink, M.; Groenstege, H.; Hart, R.G.G.; Hartjes, F.; Hendriks, P.J.; Hessey, N.P.; Jansweijer, P.P.M.; Kieft, G.; Klok, P.F.; Klous, S.; Kluit, P.; Koffeman, E.; Koutsman, A.; Liebig, W.; Limper, M.; Linde, F.; Luijckx, G.; Massaro, G.; Muijs, A.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Reichold, A.; Rewiersma, P.; Rijpstra, M.; Scholte, R.C.; Schuijlenburg, H.W.; Snuverink, J.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van Eijk, B.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vreeswijk, M.; Werneke, P.

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS detector as installed in its experimental cavern at point 1 at CERN is described in this paper. A brief overview of the expected performance of the detector when the Large Hadron Collider begins operation is also presented.

  15. The future of the Large Hadron Collider and CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Rolf-Dieter

    2012-02-28

    This paper presents the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its current scientific programme and outlines options for high-energy colliders at the energy frontier for the years to come. The immediate plans include the exploitation of the LHC at its design luminosity and energy, as well as upgrades to the LHC and its injectors. This may be followed by a linear electron-positron collider, based on the technology being developed by the Compact Linear Collider and the International Linear Collider collaborations, or by a high-energy electron-proton machine. This contribution describes the past, present and future directions, all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics, and concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward.

  16. Physics Opportunities at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeck, Albert de

    2006-01-01

    In about two years time the LHC is scheduled to deliver its first pp collisions at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV. The LHC is expected to open up the discovery of new physics at the TeV scale, and give the final answer on the Standard Model Higgs. The LHC will however also be a tool for precision physics. Furthermore LHC is also a pA and AA collider. This report summarizes some of the physics opportunities of the LHC

  17. Design considerations and expectations of a very large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    The ELOISATRON Project is a proton-proton collider at very high energy and very large luminosity. The main goal is to determine the ultimate performance that is possible to achieve with reasonable extrapolation of the present accelerator technology. A complete study and design of the collider requires that several steps of investigations are undertaken. The authors count five of such steps as outlined in the report

  18. Electron Lenses for the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio [Fermilab; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab; Bruce, Roderik [CERN; Redaelli, Stefano [CERN; Rossi, Adriana [CERN; Salvachua, Belen [CERN

    2014-07-01

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in RHIC at BNL. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program and the European HiLumi LHC Design Study, hollow electron beam collimation was studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the LHC upgrades. This project is moving towards a technical design in 2014, with the goal to build the devices in 2015-2017, after resuming LHC operations and re-assessing needs and requirements at 6.5 TeV. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compensation in LHC luminosity upgrade scenarios with small crossing angles.

  19. Electron lenses for the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari†, G; Bruce, R; Redaelli, S; Rossi, A; Salvachua Ferrando, B

    2014-01-01

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beamswhose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-bybunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beamcompensation, and for the demonstration of halo scrapingwith hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in RHIC at BNL. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program and the European HiLumi LHC Design Study, hollow electron beam collimation was studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the LHC upgrades. A conceptual design was recently completed, and the project is moving towards a technical design in 2014–2015 for construction in 2015–2017, if needed, after resuming LHC operations and re-assessing collimation needs and requirements at 6.5 TeV. Because of the...

  20. Particles colliders at the Large High Energy Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, M.

    1996-01-01

    In this work we present an elementary introduction to particle accelerators, a basic guide of existing colliders and a description of the large european laboratories devoted to Elementary Particle Physics. This work is a large, corrected and updated version of an article published in: Ciencia-Tecnologia-Medio Ambiente Annual report 1996 Edition el Pais (Author)

  1. The Large Hadron Collider in the LEP tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brianti, G.; Huebner, K.

    1987-01-01

    The status of the studies for the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described. This collider will provide proton-proton collisions with 16 TeV centre-of-mass energy and a luminosity exceeding 10 33 cm -2 s -1 per interaction point. It can be installed in the tunnel of the Large Electron-Positron Storage Ring (LEP) above the LEP elements. It will use superconducting magnets of a novel, compact design, having two horizontally separated channels for the two counter-rotating bunched proton beams, which can collide in a maximum of seven interaction points. Collisions between protons of the LHC and electrons of LEP are also possible with a centre-of-mass energy of up to 1.8 TeV and a luminosity of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 . (orig.)

  2. Detectors for large e/sup +/e/sup -/ colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltay, C.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the author gives a brief review of the detectors now being built for the two new large e/sup +/e/sup -/ colliders, LEP, under construction at CERN, and the SLC, now under construction at SLAC. These colliders are intended to study the Z 0 energy region and above, with energies of around 100 to 200 GeV in the center of mass. The purpose of this paper is to list some of the physics topics of interest and given an indication of the requirements they make on the design of the detectors. It also contains a brief discussion giving some of the relevant parameters of the colliers, and gives a description of the large detectors now under construction to utilize these colliders

  3. CERN to start Large Hadron Collider november 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is expected to provide its first collisions in November 2007, CERN has announced. A two-month run at 0.9 TeV is planned for 2007 to test the accelerating and detecting equipment, and a full power run at 14 TeV is expected in the spring of 2008."

  4. Search for invisibly decaying Higgs boson at Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In several scenarios of Beyond Standard Model physics, the invisible decay mode of the Higgs boson is an interesting possibility. The search strategy for an invisible Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), using weak boson fusion process, has been studied in detail, by taking into account all possible ...

  5. The Large Hadron Collider - Expectations and Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litov, Leandar

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Colider (LHC) is the biggest particle accelerator in the world designed to accelerate protons and heavy ions to extremely high energies. The four detector complexes installed around the beam crossing points, are expected to shed light on some of the more fundamental questions about our Universe ever asked--what are the fundamental constituents of the matter, what are the forces controlling their behavior and what is the structure of the space-time. In November, the LHC will be restarted and the detector complexes are expected to commence taking the first collision data. The physical motivation for the LHC experimental program and some open questions of the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions (SM) are discussed. Special attention is paid to observation of signatures for physics beyond the SM and the discovery potential of the LHC experiments is commented. One of the two general-purpose detector complexes (CMS, the Compact Muon Solenoid) is described briefly.

  6. Monotop phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Agram, Jean-Laurent; Buttignol, Michael; Conte, Eric; Fuks, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate new physics scenarios where systems comprised of a single top quark accompanied by missing transverse energy, dubbed monotops, can be produced at the LHC. Following a simplified model approach, we describe all possible monotop production modes via an effective theory and estimate the sensitivity of the LHC, assuming 20 fb$^{-1}$ of collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, to the observation of a monotop state. Considering both leptonic and hadronic top quark decays, we show that large fractions of the parameter space are reachable and that new physics particles with masses ranging up to 1.5 TeV can leave hints within the 2012 LHC dataset, assuming moderate new physics coupling strengths.

  7. Graviton collider effects in one and more large extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudice, Gian F.; Plehn, Tilman; Strumia, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    Astrophysical bounds severely limit the possibility of observing collider signals of gravity with less than 3 flat extra dimensions. However, small distortions of the compactified space can lift the masses of the lightest graviton excitations, evading astrophysical bounds without affecting collider signals of quantum gravity. Following this procedure we reconsider theories with one large extra dimension. A slight space warping gives a model which is safe in the infrared against astrophysical and observational bounds, and which has the ultraviolet properties of gravity with a single flat extra dimension. We extend collider studies to the case of one extra dimension, pointing out its peculiarities. Finally, for a generic number of extra dimensions, we compare different channels in LHC searches for quantum gravity, introducing an ultraviolet cutoff as an additional parameter besides the Planck mass

  8. The Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider The Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Delepine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider will study protonproton collisions at unprecedented energies and luminosities. In this article we providefi rst a brief general introduction to particle physics. We then explain what CERN is. Thenwe describe the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the most powerful particle acceleratorever built. Finally we describe the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment, its physics goals,construction details, and current status.El experimento Compact Muon Solenoid en el Large Hadron Collider del CERN estudiarácolisiones protón protón a energías y luminosidades sin precedente. En este artículo presentamos primero una breve introducción general a la física de partículas. Despuésexplicamos lo que es el CERN. Luego describimos el Large Hadron Collider, el más potente acelerador de partículas construido por el hombre, en el CERN. Finalmente describimos el experimento Compact Muon Solenoid, sus objetivos en física, los detalles de su construcción,y su situación presente.

  9. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology, operational challenges and theoretical predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Gilles, Abelin R

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the highest-energy particle collider ever constructed and is considered "one of the great engineering milestones of mankind." It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) from 1998 to 2008, with the aim of allowing physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics and high-energy physics, and particularly prove or disprove the existence of the theorized Higgs boson and of the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories. In this book, the authors study the phenomenology, operational challenges and theoretical predictions of LHC. Topics discussed include neutral and charged black hole remnants at the LHC; the modified statistics approach for the thermodynamical model of multiparticle production; and astroparticle physics and cosmology in the LHC era.

  10. Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2014-01-01

    The idea of colliding two particle beams to fully exploit the energy of accelerated particles was first proposed by Rolf Wideröe, who in 1943 applied for a patent on the collider concept and was awarded the patent in 1953. The first three colliders — AdA in Italy, CBX in the US, and VEP-1 in the then Soviet Union — came to operation about 50 years ago in the mid-1960s. A number of other colliders followed. Over the past decades, colliders defined the energy frontier in particle physics. Different types of colliers — proton–proton, proton–antiproton, electron–positron, electron–proton, electron-ion and ion-ion colliders — have played complementary roles in fully mapping out the constituents and forces in the Standard Model (SM). We are now at a point where all predicted SM constituents of matter and forces have been found, and all the latest ones were found at colliders. Colliders also play a critical role in advancing beam physics, accelerator research and technology development. It is timel...

  11. Large hadron collider in the LEP tunnel. Proceedings. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A Workshop, jointly organized by ECFA and CERN, took place at Lausanne and at CERN in March 1984 to study various options for a pp (or panti p) collider which might be installed at a later data alongside LEP in the LEP tunnel. Following the exploration of e + e - physics up to the highest energy now foreseeable, this would open up the opportunity to investigate hadron collisions in the new energy range of 10 to 20 TeV in the centre of mass. These proceedings put together the documents prepared in connection with this Workshop. They cover possible options for a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the LEP tunnel, the physics case as it stands at present, and studies of experimental possibilities in this energy range with luminosities as now considered. See hints under the relevant topics. (orig./HSI)

  12. The Large Hadron Collider: Present Status and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R

    2000-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), due to be commissioned in 2005, will provide particle physics with the first laboratory tool to access the energy frontier above 1 TeV. In order to achieve this , protons must be accelerated and stored at 7 TeV, colliding with an unprecedented luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The 8.3 Tesla guide field is obtained using conventional NbTi technology cooled to below the lambda point of helium. Considerable modification of the infrastructure around the existing LEP tunnel is needed to house the LHC machine and detectors. The project is advancing according to schedule with most of the major hardware systems including cryogenics and magnets under construction. A brief status report is given and future prospects are discussed.

  13. Radiation protection at the LHC, CERN's large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, K.M.; Hoefert, M.; Stevenson, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    After a brief description of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which will produce 7 TeV on 7 TeV proton collisions, some of the radiological questions it raises will be discussed. The machine will be built in the 27 km circumference ring-tunnel of an existing collider at CERN. It aims to achieve collision rates of 10 9 per second in two of its high-energy particle detectors. This requires two high-intensity beams of more than 10 14 protons each. Shielding, access control and activation in addition to the high power in the proton-proton collisions must be taken into account. The detectors and local electronics of the particle physics experiments, which will surround these collisions, will have to be radiation resistant. Some of the environmental issues raised by the project will be discussed. (author)

  14. Large hadron collider in the LEP tunnel. Proceedings. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A Workshop, jointly organized by ECFA and CERN, took place at Lausanne and at CERN in March 1984 to study various options for a pp (or panti p) collider which might be installed at a later date alongside LEP in the LEP tunnel. Following the exploration of e + e - physics up to the highest energy now foreseeable, this would open up the opportunity to investigate hadron collisions in the new energy range of 10 to 20 TeV in the centre of mass. These proceedings put together the documents prepared in connection with this Workshop. They cover possible options for a Large Hadron Collider (LHC= in the LEP tunnel, the physics case at it stands at present, and studies of experimental possibilities in this energy range with luminosities as now considered. See hints under the relevant topics. (orig.)

  15. The Large Hadron Collider Present Status and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R

    2001-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), due to be commissioned in 2005, will provide particle physics with the first laboratory tool to access the energy frontier above 1 TeV. In order to achieve this , protons must be accelerated and stored at 7 TeV, colliding with an unprecedented luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The 8.3 Tesla guide field is obtained using conventional NbTi technology cooled to below the lambda point of helium. Considerable modification of the infrastructure around the existing LEP tunnel is needed to house the LHC machine and detectors. The project is advancing according to schedule with most of the major hardware systems including cryogenics and magnets under construction. A brief status report is given and future prospects are discussed.

  16. Design Study for a Staged Very Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex W.

    2002-02-27

    Particle physics makes its greatest advances with experiments at the highest energy. The only sure way to advance to a higher-energy regime is through hadron colliders--the Tevatron, the LHC, and then, beyond that, a Very Large Hadron Collider. At Snowmass-1996 [1], investigators explored the best way to build a VLHC, which they defined as a 100 TeV collider. The goals in this study are different. The current study seeks to identify the best and cheapest way to arrive at frontier-energy physics, while simultaneously starting down a path that will eventually lead to the highest-energy collisions technologically possible in any accelerator using presently conceivable technology. This study takes the first steps toward understanding the accelerator physics issues, the technological possibilities and the approximate cost of a particular model of the VLHC. It describes a staged approach that offers exciting physics at each stage for the least cost, and finally reaches an energy one-hundred times the highest energy currently achievable.

  17. Unveiling the top secrets with the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chierici, R.

    2013-12-01

    Top quark physics is one of the pillars of fundamental research in the field of high energy physics. It not only gives access to precision measurements for constraining the Standard Model of particles and interactions but also it represents a privileged domain for new physics searches. This contribution summarizes the main results in top quark physics obtained with the two general-purpose detectors ATLAS and CMS during the first two years of operations of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It covers the 2010 and 2011 data taking periods, where the LHC ran at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV.

  18. Unveiling the top secrets with the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chierici, R

    2013-01-01

    Top quark physics is one of the pillars of fundamental research in the field of high energy physics. It not only gives access to precision measurements for constraining the Standard Model of particles and interactions but also it represents a privileged domain for new physics searches. This contribution summarizes the main results in top quark physics obtained with the two general-purpose detectors ATLAS and CMS during the first two years of operations of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It covers the 2010 and 2011 data taking periods, where the LHC ran at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. (paper)

  19. Naming Conventions for the Large Hadron Collider Project

    CERN Document Server

    Faugeras, Paul E

    1997-01-01

    This report gives the procedures for defining standard abbreviations for the various machine components of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Project, as well as for the surface buildings and the underground Civil Engineering works of the LHC. The contents of this report has been approved by the LHC Project Leader and is published in the form of a Project Report in order to allow its immediate implementation. It will be incorporated later in the Quality Assurance Plan of the LHC Project which is under preparation.

  20. Department of Energy assessment of the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This report summarizes the conclusions of the committee that assessed the cost estimate for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This proton-proton collider will be built at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics near Geneva, Switzerland. The committee found the accelerator-project cost estimate of 2.3 billion in 1995 Swiss francs, or about $2 billion US, to be adequate and reasonable. The planned project completion date of 2005 also appears achievable, assuming the resources are available when needed. The cost estimate was made using established European accounting procedures. In particular, the cost estimate does not include R and D, prototyping and testing, spare parts, and most of the engineering labor. Also excluded are costs for decommissioning the Large Electron-Positron collider (LEP) that now occupies the tunnel, modifications to the injector system, the experimental areas, preoperations costs, and CERN manpower. All these items are assumed by CERN to be included in the normal annual operations budget rather than the construction budget. Finally, contingency is built into the base estimate, in contrast to Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that explicitly identify contingency. The committee's charge, given by Dr. James F. Decker, Deputy Directory of the DOE Office of Energy Research, was to understand the basis for the LHC cost estimate, identify uncertainties, and judge the overall validity of the estimate, proposed schedule, and related issues. The committee met at CERN April 22--26, 1996. The assessment was based on the October 1995 LHC Conceptual Design Report or ''Yellow Book,'' cost estimates and formal presentations made by the CERN staff, site inspection, detailed discussions with LHC technical experts, and the committee members' considerable experience

  1. ERL-BASED LEPTON-HADRON COLLIDERS: eRHIC AND LHeC

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    Two hadron-ERL colliders are being proposed. The Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) plans to collide the high-energy protons and heavy ions in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN with 60-GeV polarized electrons or positrons. The baseline scheme for this facility adds to the LHC a separate recirculating superconducting (SC) lepton linac with energy recovery, delivering a lepton current of 6.4mA. The electron-hadron collider project eRHIC aims to collide polarized (and unpolarized) electrons with a current of 50 (220) mA and energies in the range 5–30 GeV with a variety of hadron beams— heavy ions as well as polarized light ions— stored in the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL. The eRHIC electron beam will be generated in an energy recovery linac (ERL) installed inside the RHIC tunnel.

  2. Forward-central jet correlations at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deak, M. [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC; Hautmann, F. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Dept.; Jung, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Antwerpen Univ. (Belgium). Elementaire Deeltjes Fysics; Kutak, K. [Antwerpen Univ. (Belgium). Elementaire Deeltjes Fysics

    2010-12-15

    For high-p{sub T} forward processes at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), QCD logarithmic corrections in the hard transverse momentum and in the large rapidity interval may both be quantitatively significant. The theoretical framework to resum consistently both kinds of logarithmic corrections to higher orders in perturbation theory is based on QCD high-energy factorization. We present numerical Monte Carlo applications of this method to final-state observables associated with production of one forward and one central jet. By computing jet correlations in rapidity and azimuth, we analyze the role of corrections to the parton-showering chain from large-angle gluon radiation, and discuss this in relationship with Monte Carlo results modeling interactions due to multiple parton chains. (orig.)

  3. Forward-central jet correlations at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deak, M.; Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Antwerpen Univ.; Kutak, K.

    2010-12-01

    For high-p T forward processes at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), QCD logarithmic corrections in the hard transverse momentum and in the large rapidity interval may both be quantitatively significant. The theoretical framework to resum consistently both kinds of logarithmic corrections to higher orders in perturbation theory is based on QCD high-energy factorization. We present numerical Monte Carlo applications of this method to final-state observables associated with production of one forward and one central jet. By computing jet correlations in rapidity and azimuth, we analyze the role of corrections to the parton-showering chain from large-angle gluon radiation, and discuss this in relationship with Monte Carlo results modeling interactions due to multiple parton chains. (orig.)

  4. Detector development for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00367854; Gößling, Claus

    To maximise the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider, it will be upgraded to the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider in 2024. New detector challenges arise from the higher instantaneous luminosity and the higher particle flux. The new ATLAS Inner Tracker will replace the current tracking detector to be able to cope with these challenges. Many pixel detector technologies exist for particle tracking, but their suitability for the ATLAS Inner Tracker needs to be studied. Active high-voltage CMOS sensors, which are produced in industrialised processes, offer a fast readout and radiation tolerance. In this thesis the HV2FEI4v2 sensor, which is capacitively coupled to the ATLAS Pixel FE-I4 readout chip, is characterised for the usage in the outer layers of the ATLAS Inner Tracker. Key quantities of this prototype module are studied, such as the hit efficiency and the subpixel encoding. The early HV2FEI4v2 prototype shows promising results as a starting point for further module developments. Active CMO...

  5. The higgsino-singlino world at the large hadron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Soo [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Ray, Tirtha Sankar [University of Melbourne, ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2015-02-01

    We consider light higgsinos and singlinos in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model at the large hadron collider. We assume that the singlino is the lightest supersymmetric particle and that the higgsino is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle with the remaining supersymmetric particles in the multi-TeV range. This scenario, which is motivated by the flavor and CP issues, provides a phenomenologically viable dark matter candidate and improved electroweak fit consistent with the measured Higgs mass. Here, the higgsinos decay into on (off)-shell gauge boson and the singlino. We consider the leptonic decay modes and the resulting signature is three isolated leptons and missing transverse energy which is known as the trilepton signal. We simulate the signal and the Standard Model backgrounds and present the exclusion region in the higgsino-singlino mass plane at the large hadron collider at √(s) = 14 TeV for an integrated luminosity of 300 fb{sup -1}. (orig.)

  6. Jet Physics with A Large Ion Collider Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Jochen

    In the presence of the strongly-interacting medium created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, highly energetic partons from hard interactions lose energy through scattering and radiating. This effect, referred to as jet quenching, is observed as a suppression of particles with large momenta transverse to the beam axis (high-$p_\\perp$). To study the impact of the medium evolution on the energy loss modelling in the Monte Carlo event generator JEWEL, we compare results obtained for different scenarios of Au-Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 200~\\mathrm{GeV}$. For this purpose, JEWEL was extended to use the output of relativistic hydrodynamic calculations in the OSCAR2008H format. We find the modelling of common observables, e.g. the nuclear modification factor, to be rather insensitive to the details of the medium evolution, for which the analytically accessible Bjorken expansion can thus be considered adequate. The OSCAR interface now allows further studies also at LHC energies. Jets of large transve...

  7. The Large Hadron Collider unraveling the mysteries of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Beech, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest engineering project ever undertaken, and one of the most expensive. Why are physicists around the world so excited about it? What secrets of the universe does this gargantuan piece of machinery hope to reveal? What risks are there in operating it? Could the exotic particles that are produced in the collisions—including tiny black holes that should wink into and out of existence— between subatomic particles be a threat not only to humankind but to the planet itself? In this thorough and engaging review of cutting-edge physics and cosmology, you will learn why the collider was built and how it works. You will find out what scientists are hoping to find out and what current aspects of the Standard Model might need to be revised. You will even learn about the quest to identify so-called dark matter and dark energy, which many now feel make up most of what's out there. This is a wild ride into some very unfamiliar and strange territory, but it is well worth your t...

  8. Fast symplectic map tracking for the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan T. Abell

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Tracking simulations remain the essential tool for evaluating how multipolar imperfections in ring magnets restrict the domain of stable phase-space motion. In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN, particles circulate at the injection energy, when multipole errors are most significant, for more than 10^{7} turns, but systematic tracking studies are limited to a small fraction of this total time—even on modern computers. A considerable speedup is expected by replacing element-by-element tracking with the use of a symplectified one-turn map. We have applied this method to the realistic LHC lattice, version 6, and report here our results for various map orders, with special emphasis on precision and speed.

  9. Exploring Higher Dimensional Black Holes at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, C M; Parker, M A; Richardson, P; Sabetfakhri, A; Webber, Bryan R

    2005-01-01

    In some extra dimension theories with a TeV fundamental Planck scale, black holes could be produced in future collider experiments. Although cross sections can be large, measuring the model parameters is difficult due to the many theoretical uncertainties. Here we discuss those uncertainties and then we study the experimental characteristics of black hole production and decay at a typical detector using the ATLAS detector as a guide. We present a new technique for measuring the temperature of black holes that applies to many models. We apply this technique to a test case with four extra dimensions and, using an estimate of the parton-level production cross section error of 20\\%, determine the Planck mass to 15\\% and the number of extra dimensions to $\\pm$0.75.

  10. Exploring higher dimensional black holes at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Christopher M.; Palmer, Matthew J.; Parker, Michael A.; Richardson, Peter; Sabetfakhri, Ali; Webber, Bryan R.

    2005-01-01

    In some extra dimension theories with a TeV fundamental Planck scale, black holes could be produced in future collider experiments. Although cross sections can be large, measuring the model parameters is difficult due to the many theoretical uncertainties. Here we discuss those uncertainties and then we study the experimental characteristics of black hole production and decay at a typical detector using the ATLAS detector as a guide. We present a new technique for measuring the temperature of black holes that applies to many models. We apply this technique to a test case with four extra dimensions and, using an estimate of the parton-level production cross section error of 20%, determine the Planck mass to 15% and the number of extra dimensions to ±0.75

  11. In the loop Large Hadron Collider project - UK engineering firms

    CERN Document Server

    Wilks, N

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the latest measures being taken to boost the level of UK engineering firms' involvement in research at CERN (Centre for Nuclear Research), including its 27 km circular Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. Virtually all of the components on this complex project have had to be custom-made, usually in the form of collaboration. It is part of these collaborations that some UK firms have proved they can shine. However, despite the proven capabilities, the financial return continues to be less than the government's funding. Each of the 20 CERN member states provides funds in proportion to its GDP and the UK is the second largest financial contributor. UK firms become price-competitive where a contract calls for a degree of customisation or product development, project management and tight quality control. Development of the Particle Physics Grid, for dissemination and analysis of data from the LHC, continues to provide major supply opportunities for UK manufacturers.

  12. Cooldown and Warmup Studies for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P; Tavian, L; Wagner, U

    1998-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), currently under construction at CERN, will make use of superconducting magnets operating in superfluid helium below 2 K. The LHC ring is divided in 8 sectors, each of them cooled by a refrigerator of 18 kW at 4.5 K equivalent cooling power. For the cooldown and warmup of a 3.3 km long LHC sector, the flow available above 80 K per refrigerator is 770 g/s and the cor responding capacity is 600 kW. This paper presents the results of cooldown and warmup simulations, as concerns time delays, temperature difference across magnets, available power and flow-rates, and estimates of energy and liquid nitrogen consumption.

  13. Effective models of new physics at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llodra-Perez, J.

    2011-07-01

    With the start of the Large Hadron Collider runs, in 2010, particle physicists will be soon able to have a better understanding of the electroweak symmetry breaking. They might also answer to many experimental and theoretical open questions raised by the Standard Model. Surfing on this really favorable situation, we will first present in this thesis a highly model-independent parametrization in order to characterize the new physics effects on mechanisms of production and decay of the Higgs boson. This original tool will be easily and directly usable in data analysis of CMS and ATLAS, the huge generalist experiments of LHC. It will help indeed to exclude or validate significantly some new theories beyond the Standard Model. In another approach, based on model-building, we considered a scenario of new physics, where the Standard Model fields can propagate in a flat six-dimensional space. The new spatial extra-dimensions will be compactified on a Real Projective Plane. This orbifold is the unique six-dimensional geometry which possesses chiral fermions and a natural Dark Matter candidate. The scalar photon, which is the lightest particle of the first Kaluza-Klein tier, is stabilized by a symmetry relic of the six dimension Lorentz invariance. Using the current constraints from cosmological observations and our first analytical calculation, we derived a characteristic mass range around few hundred GeV for the Kaluza-Klein scalar photon. Therefore the new states of our Universal Extra-Dimension model are light enough to be produced through clear signatures at the Large Hadron Collider. So we used a more sophisticated analysis of particle mass spectrum and couplings, including radiative corrections at one-loop, in order to establish our first predictions and constraints on the expected LHC phenomenology. (author)

  14. Trading studies of a very large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have shown that the design of the ELOISATRON can be approached in five separate steps. In this report they deal with the two major issues of the collider: the size and the strength of the superconducting magnets. The reference design of the SSC calls for a collider circumference of 86 km. It represents the largest size that until recently was judged feasible. The reference design of the LHC requires a bending field of 9 Tesla, that industries are presently determined to demonstrate. Clearly the large size of the project presents problem with magnet tolerances, and collider operation and management. The high field of the superconducting magnets needs to be demonstrated, and the high-field option in excess of 9 Tesla requires extensive research and development. It is obvious from the start that, if the ELOISATRON has to allow large beam energies, the circumference has also to be larger than that of the SSC, probably of few hundred kilometers. On the other end, Tevatron, RHIC and SSC type of superconducting magnets have been built and demonstrated on a large scale and proven to be cost effective and reliable. Their field, nevertheless, hardly can exceed a value of 7.5 Tesla, without major modifications that need to be studied. The LHC type of magnets may be capable of 9 Tesla, but they are being investigated presently by the European industries. It is desired that if one wants to keep the size of the ring under reasonable limits, a somewhat higher bending field is required for the ELOISATRON, especially if one wants also to take advantage of the synchrotron radiation effects. A field value of 13 Tesla, twice the value of the SSC superconducting magnets, has recently been proposed, but it clearly needs a robust program of research and development. This magnet will not probably be of the RHIC/SSC type and not even of the LHC type. It will have to be designed and conceived anew. In the following they examine two possible approaches. In the first approach

  15. Unparticle self-interactions at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, Johannes; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effect of unparticle self-interactions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Especially, we discuss the three-point correlation function, which is determined by conformal symmetry up to a constant, and study its relation to processes with four-particle final states. These processes could be used as a favorable way to look for unparticle physics, and for weak enough couplings to the standard model, even the only way. We find updated upper bounds on the cross sections for unparticle-mediated 4γ final states at the LHC and novel upper bounds for the corresponding 2γ2l and 4l final states. The size of the allowed cross sections obtained are comparably large for large values of the scaling dimension of the unparticle sector, but they decrease with decreasing values of this parameter. In addition, we present relevant distributions for the different final states, enabling the possible identification of the unparticle scaling dimension if there was to be a large number of events of such final states at the LHC.

  16. Controls for the CERN large hadron collider (LHC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissler, K.H.; Perriollat, F.; Rabany, M.; Shering, G.

    1992-01-01

    CERN's planned large superconducting collider project presents several new challenges to the Control System. These are discussed along with current thinking as to how they can be met. The high field superconducting magnets are subject to 'persistent currents' which will require real time measurements and control using a mathematical model on a 2-10 second time interval. This may be realized using direct links, multiplexed using TDM, between the field equipment and central servers. Quench control and avoidance will make new demands on speed of response, reliability and surveillance. The integration of large quantities of industrially controlled equipment will be important. Much of the controls will be in common with LEP so a seamless integration of LHC and LEP controls will be sought. A very large amount of new high-tech equipment will have to be tested, assembled and installed in the LEP tunnel in a short time. The manpower and cost constrains will be much tighter than previously. New approaches will have to be found to solve many of these problems, with the additional constraint of integrating them into an existing frame work. (author)

  17. Working group report: Physics at the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cally viable physics issues at two hadron colliders currently under operation, the p¯p collider ... corrections to different SM processes are very important. ... Keeping all these in mind and the available skills and interests of the ... relation involving the masses of the Standard Model particles as well as the masses of any.

  18. Dijet physics with CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... Hadron Collider, at a proton–proton collision energy of. √ ... generator predicts less azimuthal decorrelation than observed in data [8]. ... The dijet mass spectrum predicted by quantum chromodynamics (QCD) falls smoothly.

  19. The Hunt for New Physics at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Pran; Davoudiasl, Hooman; Dutta, Bhaskar; Feldman, Daniel; Liu, Zuowei; Han, Tao; Langacker, Paul; Mohapatra, Rabi; Valle, Jose; Pilaftsis, Apostolos; Zerwas, Dirk; AbdusSalam, Shehu; Adam-Bourdarios, Claire; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Allanach, Benjamin; Altunkaynak, B; Anchordoqui, Luis A; Baer, Howard; Bajc, Borut; Buchmueller, O; Carena, M; Cavanaugh, R; Chang, S; Choi, Kiwoon; Csaki, C; Dawson, S; de Campos, F; De Roeck, A; Duhrssen, M; Eboli, O J.P; Ellis, J R; Flacher, H; Goldberg, H; Grimus, W; Haisch, U; Heinemeyer, S; Hirsch, M; Holmes, M; Ibrahim, Tarek; Isidori, G; Kane, Gordon; Kong, K; Lafaye, Remi; Landsberg, G; Lavoura, L; Lee, Jae Sik; Lee, Seung J; Lisanti, M; Lust, Dieter; Magro, M B; Mahbubani, R; Malinsky, M; Maltoni, Fabio; Morisi, S; Muhlleitner, M M; Mukhopadhyaya, B; Neubert, M; Olive, K A; Perez, Gilad; Perez, Pavel Fileviez; Plehn, T; Ponton, E; Porod, Werner; Quevedo, F; Rauch, M; Restrepo, D; Rizzo, T G; Romao, J C; Ronga, F J; Santiago, Jose; Schechter, J; Senjanovic, G; Shao, J; Spira, M; Stieberger, S; Sullivan, Zack; Tait, Tim M P; Tata, Xerxes; Taylor, T R; Toharia, M; Wacker, J; Wagner, C E.M; Wang, Lian-Tao; Weiglein, G; Zeppenfeld, D; Zurek, K

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider presents an unprecedented opportunity to probe the realm of new physics in the TeV region and shed light on some of the core unresolved issues of particle physics. These include the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass, the possible constituent of cold dark matter, new sources of CP violation needed to explain the baryon excess in the universe, the possible existence of extra gauge groups and extra matter, and importantly the path Nature chooses to resolve the hierarchy problem - is it supersymmetry or extra dimensions. Many models of new physics beyond the standard model contain a hidden sector which can be probed at the LHC. Additionally, the LHC will be a top factory and accurate measurements of the properties of the top and its rare decays will provide a window to new physics. Further, the LHC could shed light on the origin of neutralino masses if the new physics associated with their generation lies in the TeV region. Finally, the LHC is also a laboratory ...

  20. The Large Hadron Collider: lessons learned and summary

    CERN Document Server

    Llewellyn Smith, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine and detectors are now working superbly. There are good reasons to hope and expect that the new domain that the LHC is already exploring, operating at 7 TeV with a luminosity of 1033 cm−2 s−1, or the much bigger domain that will be opened up as the luminosity increases to over 1034 and the energy to 14 TeV, will provide clues that will usher in a new era in particle physics. The arguments that new phenomena will be found in the energy range that will be explored by the LHC have become stronger since they were first seriously analysed in 1984, although their essence has changed little. I will review the evolution of these arguments in a historical context, the development of the LHC project since 1984, and the outlook in the light of reports on the performance of the machine and detectors presented at this meeting.

  1. Large hadron collider (LHC) project quality assurance plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullo, Lisa; Karpenko, Victor; Robinson, Kem; Turner, William; Wong, Otis

    2002-09-30

    The LHC Quality Assurance Plan is a set of operating principles, requirements, and practices used to support Berkeley Lab's participation in the Large Hadron Collider Project. The LHC/QAP is intended to achieve reliable, safe, and quality performance in the LHC project activities. The LHC/QAP is also designed to fulfill the following objectives: (1) The LHC/QAP is Berkeley Lab's QA program document that describes the elements necessary to integrate quality assurance, safety management, and conduct of operations into the Berkeley Lab's portion of the LHC operations. (2) The LHC/QAP provides the framework for Berkeley Lab LHC Project administrators, managers, supervisors, and staff to plan, manage, perform, and assess their Laboratory work. (3) The LHC/QAP is the compliance document that conforms to the requirements of the Laboratory's Work Smart Standards for quality assurance (DOE O 414.1, 10 CFR 830.120), facility operations (DOE O 5480.19), and safety management (DOE P 450.4).

  2. A Search for Technicolor at The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Love, Jeremy R

    The ATLAS detector has been used in this analysis to search for Technihadrons, predicted by Technicolor theories, decaying to two muons. These new states can be produced by the Large Hadron Collider in proton-proton collisions with a center of mass energy of 7 TeV. The Low-Scale Technicolor model predicts the phenomenology of the new $\\rho_T$ and $\\omega_T$. The dimuon invariant mass spectrum is analyzed above 130 GeV to test the consistency of the observed data with the Standard Model prediction. We observe excellent agreement between our data and the background only hypothesis, and proceed to set limits on the cross section times branching ratio of the $\\rho_T$ and $\\omega_T$ as a function of their mass. We combine the dielectron and dimuon channels to exclude masses of the $\\rho_T$ and $\\omega_T$ between 130 GeV - 480 GeV at 95 % Confidence Level for masses of the $\\pi_T$ between 50 GeV - 480 GeV. In addition for the parameter choice of m($\\pi_T$) = m($\\rho_T$/$\\omega_T$) - 100 GeV, 95 % Confidence Level l...

  3. Development of superconducting links for the Large Hadron Collider machine

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine, new superconducting lines are being developed for the feeding of the LHC magnets. The proposed electrical layout envisages the location of the power converters in surface buildings, and the transfer of the current from the surface to the LHC tunnel, where the magnets are located, via superconducting links containing tens of cables feeding different circuits and transferring altogether more than 150 kA. Depending on the location, the links will have a length ranging from 300 m to 500 m, and they will span a vertical distance of about 80 m. An overview of the R&D program that has been launched by CERN is presented, with special attention to the development of novel types of cables made from MgB 2 and high temperature superconductors (Bi-2223 and REBCO) and to the results of the tests performed on prototype links. Plans for future activities are presented, together with a timeline for potential future integration in the LHC machine.

  4. Development of superconducting links for the Large Hadron Collider machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarino, Amalia

    2014-04-01

    In the framework of the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine, new superconducting lines are being developed for the feeding of the LHC magnets. The proposed electrical layout envisages the location of the power converters in surface buildings, and the transfer of the current from the surface to the LHC tunnel, where the magnets are located, via superconducting links containing tens of cables feeding different circuits and transferring altogether more than 150 kA. Depending on the location, the links will have a length ranging from 300 m to 500 m, and they will span a vertical distance of about 80 m. An overview of the R&D program that has been launched by CERN is presented, with special attention to the development of novel types of cables made from MgB2 and high temperature superconductors (Bi-2223 and REBCO) and to the results of the tests performed on prototype links. Plans for future activities are presented, together with a timeline for potential future integration in the LHC machine.

  5. Using Data from the Large Hadron Collider in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Now is an exciting time for physics students, because they have access to technology and experiments all over the world that were unthinkable a generation ago. Therefore, now is also the ideal time to bring these experiments into the classroom, so students can see what cutting edge science looks like, both in terms of the underlying physics and in terms of the technology used to gather data. With the continued running of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and the lab's continued dedication to providing open, worldwide access to their data, there is a unique opportunity for students to use these data in a manner very similar to how it's done in the particle physics community. In this session, we will explore ways for students to analyze real data from the CMS experiment at the LHC, plot these data to discover patterns and signals, and use these plots to determine quantities such as the invariant masses of the W, Z and Higgs bosons. Furthermore, we will show how such activities already fit well into standard introductory physics classes, and can in fact enhance already-existing lessons in the topics of momentum, kinematics, energy and electromagnetism.

  6. Dissecting multi-photon resonances at the large hadron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allanach, B.C. [University of Cambridge, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bhatia, D.; Iyer, Abhishek M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mumbai (India)

    2017-09-15

    We examine the phenomenology of the production, at the 13 TeV Large Hadron Collider (LHC), of a heavy resonance X, which decays via other new on-shell particles n into multi-(i.e. three or more) photon final states. In the limit that n has a much smaller mass than X, the multi-photon final state may dominantly appear as a two-photon final state because the γs from the n decay are highly collinear and remain unresolved. We discuss how to discriminate this scenario from X → γγ: rather than discarding non-isolated photons, it is better to relax the isolation criteria and instead form photon jets substructure variables. The spins of X and n leave their imprint upon the distribution of pseudo-rapidity gap Δη between the apparent two-photon states. Depending on the total integrated luminosity, this can be used in many cases to claim discrimination between the possible spin choices of X and n, although the case where X and n are both scalar particles cannot be discriminated from the direct X → γγ decay in this manner. Information on the mass of n can be gained by considering the mass of each photon jet. (orig.)

  7. First electron-cloud studies at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Dominguez, O; Arduini, G; Metral, E; Rumolo, G; Zimmermann, F; Maury Cuna, H

    2013-01-01

    During the beam commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with 150, 75, 50, and 25-ns bunch spacing, important electron-cloud effects, like pressure rise, cryogenic heat load, beam instabilities, or emittance growth, were observed. Methods have been developed to infer different key beam-pipe surface parameters by benchmarking simulations and pressure rise as well as heat-load observations. These methods allow us to monitor the scrubbing process, i.e., the reduction of the secondary emission yield as a function of time, in order to decide on the most appropriate strategies for machine operation. To better understand the influence of electron clouds on the beam dynamics, simulations have been carried out to examine both the coherent and the incoherent effects on the beam. In this paper we present the methodology and first results for the scrubbing monitoring process at the LHC. We also review simulated instability thresholds and tune footprints for beams of different emittance, interacting with an electr...

  8. Longitudinal emittance blowup in the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, P

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) relies on Landau damping for longitudinal stability. To avoid decreasing the stability margin at high energy, the longitudinal emittance must be continuously increased during the acceleration ramp. Longitudinal blowup provides the required emittance growth. The method was implemented through the summer of 2010. Band-limited RF phase-noise is injected in the main accelerating cavities during the whole ramp of about 11min. Synchrotron frequencies change along the energy ramp, but the digitally created noise tracks the frequency change. The position of the noise-band, relative to the nominal synchrotron frequency, and the bandwidth of the spectrum are set by pre-defined constants, making the diffusion stop at the edges of the demanded distribution. The noise amplitude is controlled by feedback using the measurement of the average bunch length. This algorithm reproducibly achieves the programmed bunch length of about 1.2ns, at flat top with low bunch-to-bunch scatter and provides a...

  9. The hunt for new physics at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdusSalam, S.; Adam-Bourdarios, C.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Allanach, B.; Altunkaynak, B.; Wagner, C.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider presents an unprecedented opportunity to probe the realm of new physics in the TeV region and shed light on some of the core unresolved issues of particle physics. These include the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass, the possible constituent of cold dark matter, new sources of CP violation needed to explain the baryon excess in the universe, the possible existence of extra gauge groups and extra matter, and importantly the path Nature chooses to resolve the hierarchy problem - is it supersymmetry or extra dimensions. Many models of new physics beyond the standard model contain a hidden sector which can be probed at the LHC. Additionally, the LHC will be a top factory and accurate measurements of the properties of the top and its rare decays will provide a window to new physics. Further, the LHC could shed light on the origin of neutralino masses if the new physics associated with their generation lies in the TeV region. Finally, the LHC is also a laboratory to test the hypothesis of TeV scale strings and D brane models. An overview of these possibilities is presented in the spirit that it will serve as a companion to the Technical Design Reports (TDRs) by the particle detector groups ATLAS and CMS to facilitate the test of the new theoretical ideas at the LHC. Which of these ideas stands the test of the LHC data will govern the course of particle physics in the subsequent decades.

  10. Large hadron collider (LHC) project quality assurance plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullo, Lisa; Karpenko, Victor; Robinson, Kem; Turner, William; Wong, Otis

    2002-01-01

    The LHC Quality Assurance Plan is a set of operating principles, requirements, and practices used to support Berkeley Lab's participation in the Large Hadron Collider Project. The LHC/QAP is intended to achieve reliable, safe, and quality performance in the LHC project activities. The LHC/QAP is also designed to fulfill the following objectives: (1) The LHC/QAP is Berkeley Lab's QA program document that describes the elements necessary to integrate quality assurance, safety management, and conduct of operations into the Berkeley Lab's portion of the LHC operations. (2) The LHC/QAP provides the framework for Berkeley Lab LHC Project administrators, managers, supervisors, and staff to plan, manage, perform, and assess their Laboratory work. (3) The LHC/QAP is the compliance document that conforms to the requirements of the Laboratory's Work Smart Standards for quality assurance (DOE O 414.1, 10 CFR 830.120), facility operations (DOE O 5480.19), and safety management (DOE P 450.4)

  11. Superconductive technologies for the Large Hadron collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2000-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project is the largest plant based on superconductivity and cryogenics: 27 km of tunnel filled with superconducting magnets and other equipment that will be kept at 1.9 K. The dipole magnets have to generate a minimum magnetic field of 8.3 T to allow collisions of proton beams at an energy of 14 TeV in the centre of mass. The construction of LHC started in 1997 at CERN in Geneva and required 10 years of research and development on fine- filament NbTi superconducting wires and cables, on magnet technology and on He-II refrigerators. In particular the project needs the production of about 1000 tons of high-homogeneity NbTi with current densities of more than 2000 A mm/sup -2/ at 9 T and 1.9 K, with tight control also of all other cable properties such as magnetization, interstrand resistance and copper resistivity. The paper describes the main dipole magnets and reviews the most significant steps in the research and development, focusing on the issues related to the conductor, to...

  12. Sextupole correction magnets for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Meinke, R B; Senti, M; Op de Beeck, W J; De Ryck, C; MacKay, W W

    1999-01-01

    About 2500 superconducting sextupole corrector magnets (MCS) are needed for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN to compensate persistent current sextupole fields of the main dipoles. The MCS is a cold bore magnet with iron yoke. The coils are made from a NbTi conductor, which is cooled to 1.9 K. In the original CERN design 6 individual sub-coils, made from a monolithic composite conductor, are assembled and spliced together to form the sextupole. The coils are individually wound around precision-machined central islands and stabilized with matching saddle pieces at both ends. The Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc. (AML) has produced an alternative design, which gives improved performance and reliability at reduced manufacturing cost. In the AML design, the magnet consists of three splice-free sub-coils, which are placed with an automated winding process into pockets of prefabricated G-11 support cylinders. Any assembly process of sub-coils with potential misalignment is eliminated. The AML magnet uses a Kapton-wra...

  13. The design, construction and commissioning of the CERN Large Electron-Positron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, S.; Picasso, E.

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of the most important parameters considered in the design of the CERN Large Electron-Positron collider. It is shown how these parameters affect the collider performance and how they have been optimised with respect to the cost of the project. The functioning of each major subsystem is described with respect to its role as part of the collider. Finally, the planning, testing and initial commissioning of LEP is described and possible future developments are outlined. (author)

  14. A search for technicolor at the large hadron collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeremy R.

    The Standard Model of particle physics provides an accurate description of all experimental data to date. The only unobserved piece of the Standard Model is the Higgs boson, a consequence of the spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by the Higgs mechanism. An alternative to the Higgs mechanism is proposed by Technicolor theories which break electroweak symmetry dynamically through a new force. Technicolor predicts many new particles, called Technihadrons, that could be observed by experiments at hadron colliders. This thesis presents a search for two of the lightest Technihadrons, the rhoT and oT. The Low-Scale Technicolor model predicts the phenomenology of these new states. The rhoT and oT are produced through qq annihilation and couple to Standard Model fermions through the Drell-Yan process, which can result in the dimuon final state. The rhoT and oT preferentially decay to the piT and a Standard Model gauge boson if kinematically allowed. Changing the mass of the piT relative to that of the rhoT and o T affects the cross section times branching fraction to dimuons. The rhoT and oT are expected to have masses below about 1 TeV. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN outside of Geneva, Switzerland, produces proton-proton collisions with a center of mass energy of 7 TeV. A general purpose high energy physics detector ATLAS has been used in this analysis to search for Technihadrons decaying to two muons. We use the ATLAS detector to reconstruct the tracks of muons with high transverse momentum coming from these proton-proton collisions. The dimuon invariant mass spectrum is analyzed above 130 GeV to test the consistency of the observed data with the Standard Model prediction. We observe excellent agreement between our data and the background only hypothesis, and proceed to set limits on the cross section times branching ratio of the rhoT and oT as a function of their mass using the Low-Scale Technicolor model. We combine the dielectron and dimuon channels

  15. Working group report: Dictionary of Large Hadron Collider signatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, ... of 14 TeV will shed light on the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking and are expected to provide collider signatures of dark matter (DM), thus directly ... SUSY superpartners have a different spin compared to their partners, while LHT.

  16. Destination Universe: The Incredible Journey of a Proton in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    This brochure illustrates the incredible journey of a proton as he winds his way through the CERN accelerator chain and ends up inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC is CERN's flagship particle accelerator which can collide protons together at close to the speed of light, creating circumstances like those just seconds after the Big Bang.

  17. Destination Universe: The Incredible Journey of a Proton in the Large Hadron Collider (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    This brochure illustrates the incredible journey of a proton as he winds his way through the CERN accelerator chain and ends up inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC is CERN's flagship particle accelerator which can collide protons together at close to the speed of light, creating circumstances like those just seconds after the Big Bang.

  18. CERN Library | Mario Campanelli presents "Inside CERN's Large Hadron Collider" | 16 March

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2016-01-01

    "Inside CERN's Large Hadron Collider" by Mario Campanelli. Presentation on Wednesday, 16 March at 4 p.m. in the Library (bldg 52-1-052) The book aims to explain the historical development of particle physics, with special emphasis on CERN and collider physics. It describes in detail the LHC accelerator and its detectors, describing the science involved as well as the sociology of big collaborations, culminating with the discovery of the Higgs boson.  Inside CERN's Large Hadron Collider  Mario Campanelli World Scientific Publishing, 2015  ISBN 9789814656641​

  19. Supersymmetric dark matter in the harsh light of the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    I review the status of the model of dark matter as the neutralino of supersymmetry in the light of constraints on supersymmetry given by the 7- to 8-TeV data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). PMID:25331902

  20. Heavy-Ion Collimation at the Large Hadron Collider: Simulations and Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Bruce, Roderik; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Bruce, Roderik

    2017-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) stores and collides proton and $^{208}$Pb$^{82+}$ beams of unprecedented energy and intensity. Thousands of superconducting magnets, operated at 1.9 K, guide the very intense and energetic particle beams, which have a large potential for destruction. This implies the demand for a multi-stage collimation system to provide protection from beam-induced quenches or even hardware damage. In heavy-ion operation, ion fragments with significant rigidity offsets ca...

  1. A large superconducting accelerator project. International linear collider (ILC). Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The international linear collider (ILC) is proposed as the next-energy-frontier particle accelerator anticipated to be realized through global cooperation. The ILC accelerator is composed of a pair of electron and positron linear accelerators to realize head-on collision with a center-of-mass energy of 500 (250+250) GeV. It is based on superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) technology, and the R and D and technical design have progressed in the technical design phase since 2007, and the technical design report (TDR) reached completion in 2012. This report reviews the ILC general design and technology. (author)

  2. CP violation in supersymmetry, Higgs sector and large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, Rohini M.

    2006-01-01

    In this talk I discuss some aspects of CP violation (CPV) in supersymmetry (SUSY) as well as in the Higgs sector. Further, I discuss ways in which these may be probed at hadronic colliders. In particular I will point out the ways in which studies in the χ ∼± , χ 2 ∼0 sector at Tevatron may be used to provide information on this and how the search can be extended to the LHC. I will then follow this by a discussion of the CP mixing induced in the Higgs sector due to the above-mentioned CPV in the soft SUSY breaking parameters and its effects on the Higgs phenomenology at the LHC. I would then point out some interesting aspects of the phenomenology of a moderately light charged Higgs boson, consistent with the LEP constraints, in this scenario. Decay of such a charged Higgs boson would also allow a probe of a light (≤)50 GeV), CP-violating (CPV) Higgs boson. Such a light neutral Higgs boson might have escaped detection at LEP and could also be missed at the LHC in the usual search channels. (author)

  3. Technological stakes of LHC, the large superconducting collider in project at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, P.

    1991-01-01

    The LHC large superconducting particle collider project is presented, with particular emphasis on its major technological requirements and returns, mostly in the domains of high-field electromagnets, superfluid helium cryogenics, and integration of such advanced techniques in a large machine. The corresponding cooperation and technological transfer to European laboratories and industries are briefly discussed [fr

  4. Signals of doubly-charged Higgsinos at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, Durmus A.; Frank, Mariana; Turan, Ismail; Huitu, Katri; Rai, Santosh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Several supersymmetric models with extended gauge structures, motivated by either grand unification or by neutrino mass generation, predict light doubly-charged Higgsinos. In this work we study productions and decays of doubly-charged Higgsinos present in left-right supersymmetric models, and show that they invariably lead to novel collider signals not found in the minimal supersymmetric model or in any of its extensions motivated by the μ problem or even in extra dimensional theories. We investigate their distinctive signatures at the Large Hadron Collider in both pair- and single-production modes, and show that they are powerful tools in determining the underlying model via the measurements at the Large Hadron Collider experiments.

  5. Drell–Yan process at Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Drell–Yan process [1] first studied with muon final states. In Standard .... Two large-statistics sets of signal events, based on the value of the dimuon invariant mass, .... quality control criteria are applied to this globally reconstructed muon.

  6. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC): The Energy Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brianti, Giorgio; Jenni, Peter

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Superconducting Magnets: Powerful, Precise, Plentiful * LHC Cryogenics: Quantum Fluids at Work * Current Leads: High Temperature Superconductors to the Fore * A Pumping Vacuum Chamber: Ultimate Simplicity * Vertex Detectors at LHC: In Search of Beauty * Large Silicon Trackers: Fast, Precise, Efficient * Two Approaches to High Resolution Electromagnetic Calorimetry * Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber: Chronometry of Particles * The LHCb RICH: The Lord of the Cherenkov Rings * Signal Processing: Taming the LHC Data Avalanche * Giant Magnets for Giant Detectors

  7. Taking Energy to the Physics Classroom from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Xabier; Cid, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the greatest experiment in history began. When in full operation, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will generate the greatest amount of information that has ever been produced in an experiment before. It will also reveal some of the most fundamental secrets of nature. Despite the enormous amount of information available on this…

  8. The Large Hadron Collider project: organizational and financial matters (of physics at the terascale)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, J.

    2012-01-01

    n this paper, I present a view of organizational and financial matters relevant for the successful construction and operation of the experimental set-ups at the Large Hadron Collider of CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva. Construction of these experiments was particularly

  9. Discovering a Light Scalar or Pseudoscalar at The Large Hadron Collider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The allowed standard model Higgs mass range has been reduced to a region between 114 and 130 GeV or above 500 GeV, at the 99% confidence level, since the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program started. Furthermore some of the experiments at Tevatron and LHC observe excesses that could arise from...

  10. Summary of the Very Large Hadron Collider Physics and Detector subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, D.; Keller, S.

    1996-01-01

    We summarize the activity of the Very Large Hadron Collider Physics and Detector subgroup during Snowmass 96. Members of the group: M. Albrow, R. Diebold, S. Feher, L. Jones, R. Harris, D. Hedin, W. Kilgore, J. Lykken, F. Olness, T. Rizzo, V. Sirotenko, and J. Womersley. 9 refs

  11. Large Hadron particle collider may not have its run this November

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), based at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, will not run in November this year as scheduled. The LHC was supposed to have a test run this yera, before switching on the scientific search for the Higgs boson in 2008."(1 page)

  12. A Tale of Two Searches, with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00360686

    Two searches carried out with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hardron Collider at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV. Primarily, a search for the associated production of a Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with a top quark pair. Additionally, a search for the existence of R-Parity violating Supersymmetry.

  13. Smash! exploring the mysteries of the Universe with the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Latta, Sara

    2017-01-01

    What is the universe made of? At CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, scientists have searched for answers to this question using the largest machine in the world: the Large Hadron Collider. It speeds up tiny particles, then smashes them togetherand the collision gives researchers a look at the building blocks of the universe.

  14. A Tale of Two Searches, with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    OpenAIRE

    Bouffard, Julian Michael; Jain, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Two searches carried out with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hardron Collider at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV. Primarily, a search for the associated production of a Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with a top quark pair. Additionally, a search for the existence of R-Parity violating Supersymmetry.

  15. CERN celebrating the Lowering of the final detector element for large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of the morning the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector began the descent into its underground experimental cavern in preparation for the start-up of CERNs Large Hadron Collider (LHC) this summer. This is a pivotal moment for the CMS collaboration.

  16. Inside CERN's Large Hadron Collider from the proton to the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2051256

    2016-01-01

    The book aims to explain the historical development of particle physics, with special emphasis on CERN and collider physics. It describes in detail the LHC accelerator and its detectors, describing the science involved as well as the sociology of big collaborations, culminating with the discovery of the Higgs boson. Readers are led step-by-step to understanding why we do particle physics, as well as the tools and problems involved in the field. It provides an insider's view on the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider.

  17. How to Find a Hidden World at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, James D.

    2008-01-01

    I discuss how the Large Hadron Collider era should broaden our view of particle physics research, and apply this thinking to the case of Hidden Worlds. I focus on one of the simplest representative cases of a Hidden World, and detail the rich implications it has for LHC physics, including universal suppression of Higgs boson production, trans-TeV heavy Higgs boson signatures, heavy-to-light Higgs boson decays, weakly coupled exotic gauge bosons, and Higgs boson decays to four fermions via light exotic gauge bosons. Some signatures may be accessible in the very early stages of collider operation, whereas others motivate a later high-lumonosity upgrade.

  18. Higgs Bosons, Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, and the Physics of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider, a 7 + 7 TeV proton-proton collider under construction at CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva), will take experiments squarely into a new energy domain where mysteries of the electroweak interaction will be unveiled. What marks the 1-TeV scale as an important target? Why is understanding how the electroweak symmetry is hidden important to our conception of the world around us? What expectations do we have for the agent that hides the electroweak symmetry? Why do particle physicists anticipate a great harvest of discoveries within reach of the LHC?

  19. Beam dynamics aspects of crab cavities in the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Y P; Barranco, J; Tomás, R; Weiler, T; Zimmermann, F; Calaga, R; Morita, A

    2009-01-01

    Modern colliders bring into collision a large number of bunches to achieve a high luminosity. The long-range beam-beam effects arising from parasitic encounters at such colliders are mitigated by introducing a crossing angle. Under these conditions, crab cavities (CC) can be used to restore effective head-on collisions and thereby to increase the geometric luminosity. Such crab cavities have been proposed for both linear and circular colliders. The crab cavities are rf cavities operated in a transverse dipole mode, which imparts on the beam particles a transverse kick that varies with the longitudinal position along the bunch. The use of crab cavities in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may not only raise the luminosity, but it could also complicate the beam dynamics, e.g., crab cavities might not only cancel synchrobetatron resonances excited by the crossing angle but they could also excite new ones, they could reduce the dynamic aperture for off-momentum particles, they could influence the aperture and orbit...

  20. Heavy-ion collisions at the dawn of the large hadron collider era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I present a review of the main topics associated with the study of heavy-ion collisions, intended for students starting or interested in the field. It is impossible to summarize in a few pages the large amount of information that is available today, after a decade of operations of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the beginning of operations at the Large Hadron Collider. Thus, I had to choose some of the results and theories in order to present the main ideas and goals. All results presented here are from publicly available references, but some of the discussions and opinions are my personal view, where I have made that clear in the text (author)

  1. Heavy-Ion Collimation at the Large Hadron Collider Simulations and Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083002; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Bruce, Roderik; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Bruce, Roderik

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) stores and collides proton and $^{208}$Pb$^{82+}$ beams of unprecedented energy and intensity. Thousands of superconducting magnets, operated at 1.9 K, guide the very intense and energetic particle beams, which have a large potential for destruction. This implies the demand for a multi-stage collimation system to provide protection from beam-induced quenches or even hardware damage. In heavy-ion operation, ion fragments with significant rigidity offsets can still scatter out of the collimation system. When they irradiate the superconducting LHC magnets, the latter risk to quench (lose their superconducting property). These secondary collimation losses can potentially impose a limitation for the stored heavy-ion beam energy. Therefore, their distribution in the LHC needs to be understood by sophisticated simulations. Such simulation tools must accurately simulate the particle motion of many different nuclides in the magnetic LHC lattice and simulate their interaction with t...

  2. Investigation of induced radioactivity in the CERN Large Electron Positron collider for its decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, Marco

    2004-01-01

    The future installation of the Large Hadron Collider in the tunnel formerly housing the Large Electron Positron collider (LEP) required the dismantling of the latter after 11-year operation. As required by the French legislation, an extensive theoretical study was conducted before decommissioning to establish the possible activation paths both in the accelerator and in the four experiments (L3, ALEPH, OPAL and DELPHI) installed around the ring. The aim was to define which areas may contain activated material and which ones would be completely free of activation. The four major sources of activation in LEP, i.e., distributed and localized beam losses, synchrotron radiation and the super-conducting RF cavities, were investigated. Conversion coefficients from unit lost beam power to induced specific activity were established for a number of materials. A similar study was conducted for the four experiments, evaluating the four potential sources of induced radioactivity, namely e**+e **- annihilation events, two-p...

  3. Environmental monitoring at CERN: present status and future plans for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Stevenson, G.R.; Vojtyla, P.; Wittekind, D.

    1998-01-01

    The present radiological impact of CERN on the environment is negligible. It is assessed that this will also be the case after the Large Hadron Collider starts operation in 2005. Nevertheless, the environmental monitoring programme at CERN will be further extended, so as to demonstrate that the Organization fully complies with standards and limits for environmental impact of nuclear installations as laid down by authorities in the CERN host countries. (P.A.)

  4. Operational Experience with and Performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Grummer, Aidan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency with the 4-layer ATLAS Pixel Detector are discussed. The detector has undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the fact that the Large Hadron Collider is exceeding expectations for instantaneous luminosity by more than a factor of two (more than $2 \\times 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$). Emphasizing radiation damage effects, the key status and performance metrics are described.

  5. Effects of bulk viscosity and hadronic rescattering in heavy ion collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sangwook; Paquet, Jean-François; Shen, Chun; Denicol, Gabriel; Schenke, Björn; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2018-03-01

    We describe ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider with a hybrid model using the IP-Glasma model for the earliest stage and viscous hydrodynamics and microscopic transport for the later stages of the collision. We demonstrate that within this framework the bulk viscosity of the plasma plays an important role in describing the experimentally observed radial flow and azimuthal anisotropy simultaneously. We further investigate the dependence of observables on the temperature below which we employ the microscopic transport description.

  6. Literature in focus - The Large Hadron Collider: A Marvel of Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cecile Noels

    Inside an insulating vacuum chamber in a tunnel about 100 metres below the surface of the Franco-Swiss plain near Geneva, packets of protons whirl around the 27-km circumference of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a speed close to that of light, colliding every 25 nanoseconds at four beam crossing points. The products of these collisions, of which hundreds of billions will be produced each second, are observed and measured with the most advanced particle-detection technology, capable of tracking individual particles as they generate a signature track during their passage through the detectors. All this information is captured, filtered and piped to huge networks of microprocessors for analysis and study by an international team of physicists. When the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) comes on line in 2009, it will be the largest scientific experiment ever constructed, and the data it produces will lead to a new understanding of our Universe. Many thousands of scientists and engineers were behind the planning...

  7. Literature in focus - The Large Hadron Collider: A Marvel of Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cecile Noels

    2009-01-01

    Inside an insulating vacuum chamber in a tunnel about 100 metres below the surface of the Franco-Swiss plain near Geneva, packets of protons whirl around the 27-km circumference of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a speed close to that of light, colliding every 25 nanoseconds at four beam crossing points. The products of these collisions, of which hundreds of billions will be produced each second, are observed and measured with the most advanced particle-detection technology, capable of tracking individual particles as they generate a signature track during their passage through the detectors. All this information is captured, filtered and piped to huge networks of microprocessors for analysis and study by an international team of physicists. When the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) comes on line in 2009, it will be the largest scientific experiment ever constructed, and the data it produces will lead to a new understanding of our Universe. Many thousands of scientists and engineers were behind the planning...

  8. Energy Extraction in the CERN Large Hadron Collider a Project Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Kazmine, B; Medvedko, A S; Sytchev, V V; Vasilev, L B

    2001-01-01

    In case of a resistive transition (quench), fast and reliable extraction of the magnetic energy, stored in the superconducting coils of the electromagnets of a particle collider, represents an important part of its magnet protection system. In general, the quench detectors, the quench heaters and the cold by-pass diodes across each magnet, together with the energy extraction facilities provide the required protection of the quenching superconductors against damage due to local energy dissipation. In CERN's LHC machine the energy stored in each of its eight superconducting dipole chains exceeds 1300 MJ. Following an opening of the extraction switches this energy will be absorbed in large extraction resistors located in the underground collider tunnel or adjacent galleries, during the exponential current decay. Also the sixteen, 13 kA quadrupole chains (QF, QD) and more than one hundred and fifty, 600 A circuits of the corrector magnets will be equipped with extraction systems. The extraction switch-gear is bas...

  9. Accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bauer et al.

    2002-12-05

    The following presents a study of the accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders (VLHCs). The main accelerator physics limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in future energy frontier hadron colliders are synchrotron radiation (SR) power, proton-collision debris power in the interaction regions (IR), number of events-per-crossing, stored energy per beam and beam-stability [1]. Quantitative estimates of these limits were made and translated into scaling laws that could be inscribed into the particle energy versus machine size plane to delimit the boundaries for possible VLHCs. Eventually, accelerator simulations were performed to obtain the maximum achievable luminosities within these boundaries. Although this study aimed at investigating a general VLHC, it was unavoidable to refer in some instances to the recently studied, [2], 200 TeV center-of-mass energy VLHC stage-2 design (VLHC-2). A more thorough rendering of this work can be found in [3].

  10. Test of Relativistic Gravity for Propulsion at the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    A design is presented of a laboratory experiment that could test the suitability of relativistic gravity for propulsion of spacecraft to relativistic speeds. An exact time-dependent solution of Einstein's gravitational field equation confirms that even the weak field of a mass moving at relativistic speeds could serve as a driver to accelerate a much lighter payload from rest to a good fraction of the speed of light. The time-dependent field of ultrarelativistic particles in a collider ring is calculated. An experiment is proposed as the first test of the predictions of general relativity in the ultrarelativistic limit by measuring the repulsive gravitational field of bunches of protons in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The estimated `antigravity beam' signal strength at a resonant detector of each proton bunch is 3 nm/s2 for 2 ns during each revolution of the LHC. This experiment can be performed off-line, without interfering with the normal operations of the LHC.

  11. Distinguishing spins in decay chains with photons at the large hardron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Freitas, A.; Landwehr, A.; Wyler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Several models for physics beyond the Standard Model predict new particles with a decay signature including hard photons and missing energy. Two well-motivated examples are supersymmetry with gauge-mediated breaking (GMSB) and the standard model with two universal extra dimensions. Both models lead to decay chains with similar collider signatures, including hard photon emission. The main discriminating feature are the spins of the new particles. In this paper we discuss how information about the spins of the particles can be extracted from lepton-photon or quark-photon invariant mass distributions at the Large Hadron Collider. The characteristic shapes of the distributions are derived analytically and then studied in a realistic Monte-Carlo simulation. We find that for a typical GMSB mass spectrum with particle masses below 1 TeV, already 10 fb -1 integrated luminosity at 14 TeV center-of-mass energy are sufficient to discriminate the two models with high significance. (orig.)

  12. Large Hadron Collider Physics (LHCP2017) conference | 15-20 May 2017 | Shanghai

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    The fifth Annual Large Hadron Collider Physics will be held in Shanghai and hosted by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in the period of May 15-20, 2017. The main goal of the conference is to provide intense and lively discussions between experimenters and theorists in such research areas as the Standard Model Physics and Beyond, the Higgs Boson, Supersymmetry, Heavy Quark Physics and Heavy Ion Physics as well as to share a recent progress in the high luminosity upgrades and future colliders developments.     The LHCP2017 website: http://lhcp2017.physics.sjtu.edu.cn/ Event date: 15 - 20 May 2017 Location: Shanghai, China

  13. The feasibility of experiments at high luminosity at the large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvey, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The studies reported in this volume extend some of those made during Workshop on Physics at Future Accelerators held at La Thuile and CERN in January 1987 (CERN 87-07, Vol. 1 and 2). They consider the feasibility of performing experiments with a 16 TeV proton-proton collider, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at luminosities as high as 5.10 34 cm -2 s -1 . To illustrate the difficulties and the extent to which the potential for discovery at the LHC might be improved by such a step, three specific topics were chosen: searches for a) a massive Higgs boson, b) SUSY gluinos and squarks, and c) a new Z'. Following the Summary Report of the High Luminosity Study Group are papers discussing a possible detector system, radiation levels, and the analyses leading to estimated mass-limits for the searches. (orig.)

  14. Radiation protection considerations in the design of the LHC, CERN's large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Huhtinen, M.; Moritz, L.E.; Nakashima, H.; Potter, K.M.; Rollet, S.; Stevenson, G.R.; Zazula, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the radiological concerns which are being taken into account in the design of the LHC (CERN's future Large Hadron Collider). The machine will be built in the 27 km circumference ring tunnel of the existing LEP collider at CERN. The high intensity of the circulating beams (each containing more than 10 14 protons at 7 TeV) determines the thickness specification of the shielding of the main-ring tunnel, the precautions to be taken in the design of the beam dumps and their associated caverns and the radioactivity induced by the loss of protons in the main ring by inelastic beam-gas interactions. The high luminosity of the collider is designed to provide inelastic collision rates of 10 9 per second in each of the two principal detector installations, ATLAS and CMS. These collisions determine the shielding of the experimental areas, the radioactivity induced in both the detectors and in the machine components on either side of the experimental installations and, to some extent, the radioactivity induced in the beam-cleaning (scraper) systems. Some of the environmental issues raised by the project will be discussed. (author)

  15. University of Tennessee deploys force10 C-series to analyze data from CERN's Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Force20 networks, the pioneer in building and securing reliable networks, today announced that the University of Tennessee physics department has deployed the C300 resilient switch to analyze data form CERN's Large Hadron Collider." (1 page)

  16. Large Area Silicon Tracking Detectors with Fast Signal Readout for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Köstner, S

    2005-01-01

    The Standard Model of elementary particles, which is summarized briefly in the second chapter, incorporates a number of successful theories to explain the nature and consistency of matter. However not all building blocks of this model could yet be tested by experiment. To confirm existing theories and to improve nowadays understanding of matter a new machine is currently being built at CERN, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), described in the third chapter. LHC is a proton-proton collider which will reach unprecedented luminosities and center of mass energies. Five experiments are attached to it to give answers to questions like the existence of the Higgs meson, which allows to explain the mass content of matter, and the origin of CP-violation, which plays an important role in the baryogenesis of the universe. Supersymmetric theories, proposing a bosonic superpartner for each fermion and vice versa, will be tested. By colliding heavy ions, high energy and particle densities can be achieved and probed. This stat...

  17. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: Measuring Matter Antimatter Asymmetries at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Parkes, Chris; Gutierrez, J

    2015-01-01

    This document is the student manual for a third year undergraduate laboratory experiment at the University of Manchester. This project aims to measure a fundamental difference between the behaviour of matter and antimatter through the analysis of data collected by the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The three-body dmecays $B^\\pm \\rightarrow h^\\pm h^+ h^-$, where $h^\\pm$ is a $\\pi^\\pm$ or $K^\\pm$ are studied. The inclusive matter antimatter asymmetry is calculated, and larger asymmetries are searched for in localized regions of the phase-space.

  18. 25th anniversary of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experimental programme

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2094367

    2017-01-01

    On Friday 15 December 2017, CERN celebrated the 25th anniversary of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experimental programme. The occasion was marked with a special scientific symposium looking at the LHC’s history, the physics landscape into which the LHC experiments were born, and the challenging path that led to the very successful LHC programme we know today. The anniversary was linked to a meeting that took place in 1992, in Evian, entitled "Towards the LHC Experimental Programme", marking a crucial milestone in the design and development of the LHC experiments.

  19. Polar Coding for the Large Hadron Collider: Challenges in Code Concatenation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2238544; Podzorny, Tomasz; Uythoven, Jan

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we present a concatenated repetition-polar coding scheme that is aimed at applications requiring highly unbalanced unequal bit-error protection, such as the Beam Interlock System of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Even though this concatenation scheme is simple, it reveals significant challenges that may be encountered when designing a concatenated scheme that uses a polar code as an inner code, such as error correlation and unusual decision log-likelihood ratio distributions. We explain and analyze these challenges and we propose two ways to overcome them.

  20. Beam-related machine protection for the CERN Large Hadron Collider experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Appleby

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva stores 360 MJ per beam of protons at the top machine energy. This amount of energy storage presents a considerable challenge to the machine protection systems designed to protect both the machine and the six LHC experiments. This paper provides an overview of the machine protection systems relevant to the protection of the experiments, and demonstrates their operation and level of protection through a series of injection and stored beam failure scenarios. We conclude that the systems provide sufficient coverage for the protection of the experiments as far as reasonably possible.

  1. Modeling of random geometric errors in superconducting magnets with applications to the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ferracin

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of random field-shape errors induced by cable mispositioning in superconducting magnets are presented and specific applications to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC main dipoles and quadrupoles are extensively discussed. Numerical simulations obtained with Monte Carlo methods are compared to analytic estimates and are used to interpret the experimental data for the LHC dipole and quadrupole prototypes. The proposed approach can predict the effect of magnet tolerances on geometric components of random field-shape errors, and it is a useful tool to monitor the obtained tolerances during magnet production.

  2. Design and Installation Challenges of the Neutral Beam Absorbers for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Vélez, Óscar

    2005-01-01

    El CERN (Consejo Europeo de Investigación Nuclear) está construyendo su nuevo acelerador de partículas en la frontera franco-suiza. Actualmente en la fase de instalación, El Large Hadron Collider (LHC), con 26,7 kilómetros de longitud a 100 metros bajo tierra, será el mayor y más potente acelerador de partículas jamás construido. A su llegada al CERN, cada uno de casi 2000 imanes superconductores que formarán parte del acelerador debe ser verificado, ensamblado y transportado hasta ...

  3. Dijet asymmetry at the energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Clint; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles; Schenke, Bjoern

    2011-01-01

    The martini numerical simulation allows for direct comparison of theoretical model calculations and the latest results for dijet asymmetry from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. In this paper, partons are simulated as undergoing radiative and collisional processes throughout the evolution of central lead-lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Using hydrodynamical background evolution determined by a simulation which fits well with the data on charged particle multiplicities from ALICE and a value of α s ≅0.25-0.3, the dijet asymmetry is found to be consistent with partonic energy loss in a hot, strongly interacting medium.

  4. Slip-Stick Mechanism in Training the Superconducting Magnets in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Todesco, E

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting magnets can exhibit training quenches during successive powering to reaching nominal performance. The slip–stick motion of the conductors is considered to be one of the mechanisms of training. In this paper, we present a simple quantitative model where the training is described as a discrete dynamical system matching the equilibrium between the energy margin of the superconducting cable and the frictional energy released during the conductor motion. The model can be explicitly solved in the linearized case, showing that the short sample limit is reached via a power law. Training phenomena have a large random component. A large set of data of the large hadron collider magnet tests is postprocessed according to previously defined methods to extract an average training curve for dipoles and quadrupoles. These curves show the asymptotic power law predicted by the model. The curves are then fit through the model, which has two free parameters. The model shows good agreement over a large range, bu...

  5. Slip-Stick Mechanism in Training the Superconducting Magnets in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Lorin, C

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting magnets can exhibit training quenches during successive powering to reaching nominal performance. The slip-stick motion of the conductors is considered to be one of the mechanisms of training. In this paper, we present a simple quantitative model where the training is described as a discrete dynamical system matching the equilibrium between the energy margin of the superconducting cable and the frictional energy released during the conductor motion. The model can be explicitly solved in the linearized case, showing that the short sample limit is reached via a power law. Training phenomena have a large random component. A large set of data of the large hadron collider magnet tests is postprocessed according to previously defined methods to extract an average training curve for dipoles and quadrupoles. These curves show the asymptotic power law predicted by the model. The curves are then fit through the model, which has two free parameters. The model shows good agreement over a large range, but ...

  6. Azimuthal coil size and field quality in the main CERN Large Hadron Collider dipoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ferracin

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Field quality in superconducting magnets strongly depends on the geometry of the coil. Fiberglass spacers (shims placed between the coil and the collars have been used to optimize magnetic and mechanical performances of superconducting magnets in large accelerators. A change in the shim thickness affects both the geometry of the coil and its state of compression (prestress under operational conditions. In this paper we develop a coupled magnetomechanical model of the main Large Hadron Collider dipole. This model allows us to evaluate the prestress dependence on the shim thickness and the map of deformations of the coil and the collars. Results of the model are compared to experimental measurements carried out in a dedicated experiment, where a magnet model has been reassembled 5 times with different shims. A good agreement is found between simulations and experimental data both on the mechanical behavior and on the field quality. We show that this approach allows us to improve this agreement with respect to models previously used in the literature. We finally evaluate the range of tunability that will be provided by shims during the production of the Large Hadron Collider main dipoles.

  7. Electron cloud buildup driving spontaneous vertical instabilities of stored beams in the Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Romano

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 2016 run, an anomalous beam instability was systematically observed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC. Its main characteristic was that it spontaneously appeared after beams had been stored for several hours in collision at 6.5 TeV to provide data for the experiments, despite large chromaticity values and high strength of the Landau-damping octupole magnet. The instability exhibited several features characteristic of those induced by the electron cloud (EC. Indeed, when LHC operates with 25 ns bunch spacing, an EC builds up in a large fraction of the beam chambers, as revealed by several independent indicators. Numerical simulations have been carried out in order to investigate the role of the EC in the observed instabilities. It has been found that the beam intensity decay is unfavorable for the beam stability when LHC operates in a strong EC regime.

  8. First β-beating measurement and optics analysis for the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aiba

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Proton beams were successfully steered through the entire ring of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC on September the 10th of 2008. A reasonable lifetime was achieved for the counterclockwise beam, namely beam 2, after the radiofrequency capture of the particle bunch was established. This provided the unique opportunity of acquiring turn-by-turn betatron oscillations for a maximum of 90 turns right at injection. Transverse coupling was not corrected and chromaticity was estimated to be large. Despite this largely constrained scenario, reliable optics measurements have been accomplished. These measurements together with the application of new algorithms for the reconstruction of optics errors have led to the identification of a dominant error source.

  9. Heavy-ion physics with the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukraft, J

    2012-02-28

    After close to 20 years of preparation, the dedicated heavy-ion experiment A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) took first data at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator with proton collisions at the end of 2009 and with lead nuclei at the end of 2010. After a short introduction into the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, this article recalls the main design choices made for the detector and summarizes the initial operation and performance of ALICE. Physics results from this first year of operation concentrate on characterizing the global properties of typical, average collisions, both in proton-proton (pp) and nucleus-nucleus reactions, in the new energy regime of the LHC. The pp results differ, to a varying degree, from most quantum chromodynamics-inspired phenomenological models and provide the input needed to fine tune their parameters. First results from Pb-Pb are broadly consistent with expectations based on lower energy data, indicating that high-density matter created at the LHC, while much hotter and larger, still behaves like a very strongly interacting, almost perfect liquid.

  10. submitter Training Behavior of the Main Dipoles in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Todesco, Ezio; Bajko, Marta; Bottura, Luca; Bruning, Oliver; De Rijk, Gijs; Fessia, Paolo; Hagen, Per; Naour, Sandrine Le; Modena, Michele; Perez, Juan Carlos; Rossi, Lucio; Schmidt, Rudiger; Siemko, Andrzej; Tock, Jean-Philippe; Tommasini, Davide; Verweij, Arjan; Willering, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, the 1232 Nb-Ti dipole magnets in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have been commissioned to 7.8 T operational field, with 172 quenches. More than 80% of these quenches occurred in the magnets of one of the three cold mass assemblers (3000 series), confirming what was already observed in 2008. In this paper, the recent analysis carried out on the quench performance of the Large Hadron Collider dipole magnets is reported, including the individual reception tests and the 2008 and 2015 commissioning campaigns, to better understand the above-mentioned anomaly and give an outlook for future operation and possible increase of the operational field. The lower part of the quench probability spectrum is compatible with Gaussian distributions; therefore, the training curve can be fit through error functions. An essential ingredient in this analysis is the estimate of the error to be associated with the training data due to sampling of rare events, allowing to test different hypothesis. Using this approach, an es...

  11. Supersymmetry phenomenology in the context of neutrino physics and the large hadron collider LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanussek, Marja

    2012-05-15

    Experimentally, it is well established that the Standard Model of particle physics requires an extension to accommodate the neutrino oscillation data, which indicates that at least two neutrinos are massive and that two of the neutrino mixing angles are large. Massive neutrinos are naturally present in a supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model which includes lepton-number violating terms (the B3 MSSM). Furthermore, supersymmetry stabilizes the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and the scale of unified theories or the Planck scale. In this thesis, we study in detail how neutrino masses are generated in the B3 MSSM. We present a mechanism how the experimental neutrino oscillation data can be realized in this framework. Then we discuss how recently published data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be used to constrain the parameter space of this model. Furthermore, we present work on supersymmetric models where R-parity is conserved, considering scenarios with light stops in the light of collider physics and scenarios with near-massless neutralinos in connection with cosmological restrictions.

  12. Supersymmetry phenomenology in the context of neutrino physics and the large hadron collider LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanussek, Marja

    2012-05-01

    Experimentally, it is well established that the Standard Model of particle physics requires an extension to accommodate the neutrino oscillation data, which indicates that at least two neutrinos are massive and that two of the neutrino mixing angles are large. Massive neutrinos are naturally present in a supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model which includes lepton-number violating terms (the B3 MSSM). Furthermore, supersymmetry stabilizes the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and the scale of unified theories or the Planck scale. In this thesis, we study in detail how neutrino masses are generated in the B3 MSSM. We present a mechanism how the experimental neutrino oscillation data can be realized in this framework. Then we discuss how recently published data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be used to constrain the parameter space of this model. Furthermore, we present work on supersymmetric models where R-parity is conserved, considering scenarios with light stops in the light of collider physics and scenarios with near-massless neutralinos in connection with cosmological restrictions.

  13. Revealing the large extra dimension effective interaction at an e+e- collider with polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankov, A. A.; Tsytrinov, A. V.; Paver, N.

    2007-01-01

    Several types of new physics scenarios are represented by contactlike effective interactions. An example is the exchange of nonstandard quanta of very large mass scales, beyond the kinematical limit for direct production set by the available collider energy. This kind of interactions can be revealed only through deviations of observables from the standard model predictions. If such deviations were observed, the relevant source should be identified among the possible models that could explain them. Here, we assess the expected 'identification reach' on the ADD model of gravity in large compactified extra dimensions, against the compositeness-inspired four-fermion contact interaction. As basic observables we take the differential cross sections for fermion-pair production at a 0.5-1 TeV electron-positron linear collider with both beams longitudinally polarized. For the four-fermion contact interaction, we assume a general linear combination of the individual models with definite chiralities, with arbitrary coupling constants. In this sense, the estimated identification reach on the ADD model can be considered as 'model independent'. In the analysis, we give estimates also for the expected ''discovery reaches'' on the various scenarios. We emphasize the substantial role of beams polarization in enhancing the sensitivity to the contactlike interactions under consideration

  14. Extracting the top-quark running mass using t anti t+1-jet events produced at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuster, J.; Vos, M. [Valencia Univ. and CSIC, Paterna (Spain). IFIC; Irles, A. [Paris-Sud XI Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France). Lab. de l' Accelerateur Lineaire; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Melini, D. [Valencia Univ. and CSIC, Paterna (Spain). IFIC; Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos; Uwer, P. [Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany)

    2017-04-04

    We present the calculation of the next-to-leading order QCD corrections for top quark pair production in association with an additional jet at hadron colliders, using the modified minimal subtraction scheme to renormalize the top-quark mass. The results are compared to measurements at the Large Hadron Collider run I. In particular, we determine the top-quark running mass from a fit of the theoretical results presented here to the LHC data.

  15. Extracting the top-quark running mass using t anti t + 1-jet events produced at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuster, J.; Vos, M. [IFIC, Universitat de Valencia y CSIC, Paterna (Spain); Irles, A. [Universite de Paris-Sud XI, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, Orsay (France); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Melini, D. [IFIC, Universitat de Valencia y CSIC, Paterna (Spain); Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Granada (Spain); Uwer, P. [Humboldt-Universitaet Berlin (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We present the calculation of the next-to-leading order QCD corrections for top-quark pair production in association with an additional jet at hadron colliders, using the modified minimal subtraction scheme to renormalize the top-quark mass. The results are compared to measurements at the Large Hadron Collider run I. In particular, we determine the top-quark running mass from a fit of the theoretical results presented here to the LHC data. (orig.)

  16. Search for Supersymmetry using Heavy Flavour Jets with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Tua, Alan

    The Standard Model of particle physics, despite being extremely successful, is not the ultimate description of physics. The nature of dark matter is not well described, unification of the forces is not achieved and the theory is plagued by a hierarchy problem. One of the proposed solutions to these issues is supersymmetry. This thesis describes numerous searches for supersymmetry carried out using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. In scenarios where R-parity is conserved, supersymmetric final states contain large amounts of missing transverse energy. Furthermore, should supersymmetry correctly describe Nature, the scalar partners of the third generation quarks might be the lightest scalar quarks. The searches reported here exploit these possibilities and make use of signatures which are rich in missing transverse energy and jets coming from heavy flavour quarks. Searches are carried out for direct pair production of third generation scalar quarks as well as gluino-mediated production of these p...

  17. Study of SUSY particles properties at the future International Linear Collider with the International Large Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, K.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Letters of Intent (LoI) for experiments at the International Linear Collider (ILC) have been submitted. Among the three proposals is the International Large Detector (ILD) concept which is at the focus of these studies. From various subjects addressed in the LoI, a wide spectrum of studies of SUSY particle properties is presented here. Most of them are benchmark reactions for the ILC and can be used both in physics studies and in work on detector design and optimization, respectively. All studies were performed with a full detector simulation using GEANT4, which is a great improvement compared to the previous results with much less detailed, so called f ast , simulation (SIMDET). The importance of this improved simulation is reflected in the results. The presented analyzes have been chosen to be the most challenging for the detector to study its performance and guide the detector development. Additionally an important problem of unavoidable beam induced backgrounds at linear colliders is addressed and ways of reducing its impact on physics studies are shown for an example SUSY analysis. (author)

  18. The Large Hadron Collider of CERN and the roadmap toward higher performance

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is exploring the new frontier of particle physics. It is the largest and most ambitious scientific instrument ever built and 100 years after the Rutherford experiment it continues that tradition of “smashing atoms” to unveil the secret of the infinitely small. LHC makes use of all what we learnt in 40 years of hadron colliders, in particular of ISR and Sp-pbarS at CERN and Tevatron at Fermilab, and it is based on Superconductivity, discovered also 100 years ago. Designing, developing the technology, building and finally commissioning the LHC took more than twenty years. While LHC is now successfully running, we are already preparing the future for the next step. First, by increasing of a factor five the LHC luminosity in ten years from now, and then by increasing its energy by a factor two or more, on the horizon of the next twenty years. These LHC upgrades, in luminosity and energy, will be the super-exploitation of the CERN infrastructure and is the best investment that the HEP...

  19. Science and the Large Hadron Collider: a probe into instrumentation, periodization and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Arpita

    2012-01-01

    On September 19, 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Switzerland, began the world’s highest energy experiments as a probe into the structure of matter and forces of nature. Just nine days after the gala start-up, an explosion occurred in the LHC tunnel that brought the epic collider to a complete standstill. In light of the catastrophic incident that disrupted the operation of the LHC, the paper investigates the relation of temporality to the cycle of work in science, and raises the question: What kind of methodological value should we ascribe to events such as crises or breakdowns? Drawing upon and integrating classical anthropological themes with two and a half years of fieldwork at the LHC particle accelerator complex, the paper explores how the incident in September, which affected the instrument, acquaints us with the distribution of work in the laboratory. The incident discloses that the organization of science is not a homogenous ensemble, but marked by an enormous diversity of tasks and p...

  20. Minimum Bias Measurements with the ATLAS Detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Leyton, M

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will collide bunches of protons (p) at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 14 TeV and a rate of 40 MHz. The unprecedented collision energy and interaction rate at the LHC will allow us to explore the TeV mass scale and take a major step forward in our understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The initial physics run of the LHC is expected to start in November 2009 and continue until the end of 2010, with collisions at sqrt(s) = 900 GeV, 7 TeV and 10 TeV. ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is a 4pi general-purpose detector designed for studying LHC collisions at the particle level. The design and layout of ATLAS are intended to cover the wide spectrum of physics signatures that are possible at the TeV mass scale. Construction and installation of the ATLAS detector at CERN are now complete. This dissertation focuses on measuring the properties of inelastic pp interactions at the LHC with the ATLAS detector. A method for measuring the central pseudorapidity den...

  1. Advanced superconducting technology for global science: The Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently in construction at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research near Geneva (Switzerland), will be, upon its completion in 2005 and for the next twenty years, the most advanced research instrument of the world's high-energy physics community, providing access to the energy frontier above 1 TeV per elementary constituent. Re-using the 26.7-km circumference tunnel and infrastructure of the past LEP electron-positon collider, operated until 2000, the LHC will make use of advanced superconducting technology-high-field Nb-Ti superconducting magnets operated in superfluid helium and a cryogenic ultra-high vacuum system-to bring into collision intense beams of protons and ions at unprecedented values of center-of-mass energy and luminosity (14 TeV and 10 34 cm -2 ·s -1 , respectively with protons). After some ten years of focussed R and D, the LHC components are presently series-built in industry and procured through world-wide collaboration. After briefly recalling the physics goals, performance challenges and design choices of the machine, we describe its major technical systems, with particular emphasis on relevant advances in the key technologies of superconductivity and cryogenics, and report on its construction progress

  2. Advanced superconducting technology for global science: The Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Ph.

    2002-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently in construction at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research near Geneva (Switzerland), will be, upon its completion in 2005 and for the next twenty years, the most advanced research instrument of the world's high-energy physics community, providing access to the energy frontier above 1 TeV per elementary constituent. Re-using the 26.7-km circumference tunnel and infrastructure of the past LEP electron-positon collider, operated until 2000, the LHC will make use of advanced superconducting technology-high-field Nb-Ti superconducting magnets operated in superfluid helium and a cryogenic ultra-high vacuum system-to bring into collision intense beams of protons and ions at unprecedented values of center-of-mass energy and luminosity (14 TeV and 1034 cm-2ṡs-1, respectively with protons). After some ten years of focussed R&D, the LHC components are presently series-built in industry and procured through world-wide collaboration. After briefly recalling the physics goals, performance challenges and design choices of the machine, we describe its major technical systems, with particular emphasis on relevant advances in the key technologies of superconductivity and cryogenics, and report on its construction progress.

  3. Conceptual design of hollow electron lenses for beam halo control in the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Previtali, Valentina [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Valishev, Alexander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bruce, Roderik [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Redaelli, Stefano [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Rossi, Adriana [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Salvachua Ferrando, Belen [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-06-26

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is a technique for halo control in high-power hadron beams. It is based on an electron beam (possibly pulsed or modulated in intensity) guided by strong axial magnetic fields which overlaps with the circulating beam in a short section of the ring. The concept was tested experimentally at the Fermilab Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses. We are proposing a conceptual design for applying this technique to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A prototype hollow electron gun for the LHC was built and tested. The expected performance of the hollow electron beam collimator was based on Tevatron experiments and on numerical tracking simulations. Halo removal rates and enhancements of halo diffusivity were estimated as a function of beam and lattice parameters. Proton beam core lifetimes and emittance growth rates were checked to ensure that undesired effects were suppressed. Hardware specifications were based on the Tevatron devices and on preliminary engineering integration studies in the LHC machine. Required resources and a possible timeline were also outlined, together with a brief discussion of alternative halo-removal schemes and of other possible uses of electron lenses to improve the performance of the LHC.

  4. Simulations and measurements of beam loss patterns at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R.; Boccone, V.; Bracco, C.; Brugger, M.; Cauchi, M.; Cerutti, F.; Deboy, D.; Ferrari, A.; Lari, L.; Marsili, A.; Mereghetti, A.; Mirarchi, D.; Quaranta, E.; Redaelli, S.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Rossi, A.; Salvachua, B.; Skordis, E.; Tambasco, C.; Valentino, G.; Weiler, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Wollmann, D.

    2014-08-21

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide proton beams of unprecedented energy, in order to extend the frontiers of high-energy particle physics. During the first very successful running period in 2010--2013, the LHC was routinely storing protons at 3.5--4 TeV with a total beam energy of up to 146 MJ, and even higher stored energies are foreseen in the future. This puts extraordinary demands on the control of beam losses. An un-controlled loss of even a tiny fraction of the beam could cause a superconducting magnet to undergo a transition into a normal-conducting state, or in the worst case cause material damage. Hence a multi-stage collimation system has been installed in order to safely intercept high-amplitude beam protons before they are lost elsewhere. To guarantee adequate protection from the collimators, a detailed theoretical understanding is needed. This article presents results of numerical simulations of the distribution of beam losses around the LHC that have leaked out of the co...

  5. Triple Z0-Boson Production in a Large Extra Dimensions Model at the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ruo-Cheng; Li Xiao-Zhou; Ma Wen-Gan; Guo Lei; Zhang Ren-You

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the effects induced by the interactions of the Kaluza—Klein graviton with the standard model (SM) particles on the triple Z 0 -boson production process at the International Linear Collider in the framework of the large extra dimension (LED) model. We present the dependence of the integrated cross sections on the electron-positron colliding energy √s, and various kinematic distributions of final Z 0 bosons and their subsequential decay products in both the SM and the LED model. We also provide the relationship between the integrated cross section and the fundamental scale MS by taking the number of the extra dimensions (d) as 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively. The numerical results show that the LED effect can induce an observable relative discrepancy for the integrated cross section (δ LED ). We find that the relative discrepancy of the LED effect can even reach a few dozen percent in the high transverse momentum area or the central rapidity region of the final Z 0 -bosons and muons

  6. Advanced Superconducting Technology for Global Science The Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P

    2002-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently in construction at CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research near Geneva (Switzerland), will be, upon its completion in 2005 and for the next twenty years, the most advanced research instrument of the world's high-energy physics community, providing access to the energy frontier above 1 TeV per elementary constituent. Re-using the 26.7-km circumference tunnel and infrastructure of the past LEP electron-positon collider, operated until 2000, the LHC will make use of advanced superconducting technology - high-field Nb-Ti superconducting magnets operated in superfluid helium and a cryogenic ultra-high vacuum system - to bring into collision intense beams of protons and ions at unprecedented values of center-of-mass energy and luminosity (14 TeV and 1034 cm-2.s-1, respectively with protons). After some ten years of focussed R&D, the LHC components are presently series-built in industry and procured through world-wide collaboration. After briefly recalling ...

  7. Fault Tracking of the Superconducting Magnet System at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Griesemer, Tobias

    2016-03-25

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is one of the most complex machines ever built. It is used to explore the mysteries of the universe by reproducing conditions of the big bang. High energy particles are collide in particle detectors and as a result of the collision process secondary particles are created. New particles could be discovered during this process. The operation of such a machine is not straightforward and is subject to many different types of failures. A model of LHC operation needs to be defined in order to understand the impact of the various failures on availability. As an example a typical operational cycle is described: the beams are first injected, then accelerated, and finally brought into collisions. Under nominal conditions, beams should be in collision (so-called ‘stable beams’ period) for about 10 hours and then extracted onto a beam dump block. In case of a failure, the Machine Protection Systems ensure safe extraction of the beams. From the experience in LHC Run 1 (2009 - 20...

  8. VUV photoemission studies of candidate Large Hadron Collider vacuum chamber materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cimino, R; Baglin, V

    1999-01-01

    In the context of future accelerators and, in particular, the beam vacuum of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a 27 km circumference proton collider to be built at CERN, VUV synchrotron radiation (SR) has been used to study both qualitatively and quantitatively candidate vacuum chamber materials. Emphasis is given to show that angle and energy resolved photoemission is an extremely powerful tool to address important issues relevant to the LHC, such as the emission of electrons that contributes to the creation of an electron cloud which may cause serious beam instabilities and unmanageable heat loads on the cryogenic system. Here we present not only the measured photoelectron yields from the proposed materials, prepared on an industrial scale, but also the energy and in some cases the angular dependence of the emitted electrons when excited with either a white light (WL) spectrum, simulating that in the arcs of the LHC, or monochromatic light in the photon energy range of interest. The effects on the materials ...

  9. Distinguishing spins in decay chains with photons at the large hardron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Freitas, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Landwehr, A.; Wyler, D. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-04-15

    Several models for physics beyond the Standard Model predict new particles with a decay signature including hard photons and missing energy. Two well-motivated examples are supersymmetry with gauge-mediated breaking (GMSB) and the standard model with two universal extra dimensions. Both models lead to decay chains with similar collider signatures, including hard photon emission. The main discriminating feature are the spins of the new particles. In this paper we discuss how information about the spins of the particles can be extracted from lepton-photon or quark-photon invariant mass distributions at the Large Hadron Collider. The characteristic shapes of the distributions are derived analytically and then studied in a realistic Monte-Carlo simulation. We find that for a typical GMSB mass spectrum with particle masses below 1 TeV, already 10 fb{sup -1} integrated luminosity at 14 TeV center-of-mass energy are sufficient to discriminate the two models with high significance. (orig.)

  10. The large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the search for the divine particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, G.

    2008-01-01

    The large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a particle circular accelerator of 27 km of circumference. I t will be used to study the smallest known particles. Two beams of subatomic particles called hadrons either protons or lead ion- will travel in opposite directions inside the circular accelerator gaining energy with every lap. Physicists will use the LHC to recreate the conditions just after the Big Bang, by colliding the two beams had-on at very high energy. There are many theories as to what will result from these collisions, but what's for sure is that a brave new world of physics will emerge from the new accelerator, as knowledge in particle physics goes on to describe the working of the Universe. for decades, the Standard Model of particle physics has served physicists well as a means of understanding the fundamental laws of Nature, but it does not tell the whole story. Only experimental data using the higher energies reached by the LHC can push knowledge forward, challenging those who seek confirmation of established knowledge, and those who dare to dream beyond the paradigm. The Higgs boson, that complete the standard model, is waited to be found. (Author)

  11. Conceptual design of hollow electron lenses for beam halo control in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, Giulio; Valishev, Alexander; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Adriana; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen

    2014-01-01

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is a technique for halo control in high-power hadron beams. It is based on an electron beam (possibly pulsed or modulated in intensity) guided by strong axial magnetic fields which overlaps with the circulating beam in a short section of the ring. The concept was tested experimentally at the Fermilab Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and the European FP7 HiLumi LHC Design Study, we are proposing a conceptual design for applying this technique to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A prototype hollow electron gun for the LHC was built and tested. The expected performance of the hollow electron beam collimator was based on Tevatron experiments and on numerical tracking simulations. Halo removal rates and enhancements of halo diffusivity were estimated as a function of beam and lattice parameters. Proton beam core lifetimes and emittance growth rates were check...

  12. Development of large-capacity refrigeration at 1.8 K for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P; Claudet, G

    1996-01-01

    CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, is working towards the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a high-energy, high-luminosity particle accelerator and collider [1] of 26.7 km circumference, due to start producing frontier physics, by bringing into collision intense proton and ion beams with centre-of-mass energies in the TeV-per-constituent range, at the beginning of the next century. The key technology for achieving this ambitious scientific goal at economically acceptable cost is the use of high-field superconducting magnets using Nb-Ti conductor operating in superfluid helium [2]. To maintain the some 25 km of bending and focusing magnets at their operating temperature of 1.9 K, the LHC cryogenic system will have to produce an unprecedented total refrigeration capacity of about 20 kW at 1.8 K, in eight cryogenic plants distributed around the machine circumference [3]. This has requested the undertaking of an industrial development programme, in the form of a collaboration betwe...

  13. Geometrical position of the Large Hadron Collider main dipole inside the cryostat

    CERN Document Server

    La China, M; Gubello, G; Hauviller, Claude; Scandale, Walter; Todesco, Ezio

    2002-01-01

    The superconducting dipole of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a cylindrical structure made of a shrinking cylinder containing iron laminations and collared coils. This 15 m long structure, weighing about 28 t, is horizontally bent by 5 mrad. Its geometrical shape should be preserved, from the assembly phase to the operational condition at cryogenic temperature. When inserted in its cryostat, the dipole cold mass is supported by three posts also providing the thermal insulation. Sliding interfaces should minimize the interference between the dipole and the cryostat during cooling down and warming up. Indeed, a possible non-linear response of the sliding interface can detrimentally affect the final dipole shape. This paper presents the results of dedicated tests investigating interferences and of specific simulations with a 3D finite element model (FEM) describing the mechanical behaviour of the dipole inside the cryostat. Comparison between measurements and FEM simulations is also discussed.

  14. Industrial Technology for Unprecented Energy and Luminosity The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P

    2004-01-01

    With over 3 billion Swiss francs procurement contracts under execution in industry and the installation of major technical systems in its first 3.3 km sector, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) construction is now in full swing at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The LHC is not only the most challenging particle accelerator, it is also the largest global project ever for a scientific instrument based on advanced technology. Starting from accelerator performance requirements, we recall how these can be met by an appropriate combination of technologies, such as high-field superconducting magnets, superfluid helium cryogenics, power electronics, with particular emphasis on developments required to meet demanding specifications, and industrialization issues which had to be solved for achieving series production of precision components under tight quality assurance and within limited resources. This provides the opportunity for reviewing the production status of the main systems and the progress ...

  15. Photoproduction of vector mesons in proton-proton ultraperipheral collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ya-Ping; Chen, Xurong

    2018-05-01

    Photoproduction of vector mesons is computed with dipole model in proton-proton ultraperipheral collisions (UPCs) at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The dipole model framework is employed in the calculations of vector mesons production in diffractive processes. Parameters of the bCGC model are refitted with the latest inclusive deep inelastic scattering experimental data. Employing the bCGC model and boosted Gaussian light-cone wave function for vector mesons, we obtain the prediction of rapidity distributions of J/ψ and ψ(2s) mesons in proton-proton ultraperipheral collisions at the LHC. The predictions give a good description of the experimental data of LHCb. Predictions of ϕ and ω mesons are also evaluated in this paper.

  16. Grid computing in pakistan and: opening to large hadron collider experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, N.; Osman, A.; Mahmood, A.; Rana, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    A grid computing facility was developed at sister institutes Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) and Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS) in collaboration with Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Computing Grid during early years of the present decade. The Grid facility PAKGRID-LCG2 as one of the grid node in Pakistan was developed employing mainly local means and is capable of supporting local and international research and computational tasks in the domain of LHC Computing Grid. Functional status of the facility is presented in terms of number of jobs performed. The facility developed provides a forum to local researchers in the field of high energy physics to participate in the LHC experiments and related activities at European particle physics research laboratory (CERN), which is one of the best physics laboratories in the world. It also provides a platform of an emerging computing technology (CT). (author)

  17. Electromigration driven failures on miniature silver fuses at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Trikoupis, Nikolaos; Perez Fontenla, Ana Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Spurious faults were observed on the miniature silver fuses of electronic cards used for the cryogenics instrumentation in the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) accelerator at CERN. By applying analytical tools and techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, spectrometry and Weibull reliability calculations and by the knowledge of operating temperatures and operational time of each unit, the origin of the problem has now been understood and can be attributed to electromigration. The selected fuse was operated at moderate temperature and load conditions and was considered as a “lifetime” component. However, it turned out to have a smaller than expected MTTF with failures following a Weibull distribution of $\\beta = 3.91$ and $\\eta = 2323$. The literature describes extensively the effects of electromigration, but there are only limited references referring to the impact of this phenomenon on miniature silver fuses for electronic circuits.

  18. EXERGY ANALYSIS OF THE CRYOGENIC HELIUM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FOR THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER (LHC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudet, S.; Lebrun, Ph.; Tavian, L.; Wagner, U.

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN features the world's largest helium cryogenic system, spreading over the 26.7 km circumference of the superconducting accelerator. With a total equivalent capacity of 145 kW at 4.5 K including 18 kW at 1.8 K, the LHC refrigerators produce an unprecedented exergetic load, which must be distributed efficiently to the magnets in the tunnel over the 3.3 km length of each of the eight independent sectors of the machine. We recall the main features of the LHC cryogenic helium distribution system at different temperature levels and present its exergy analysis, thus enabling to qualify second-principle efficiency and identify main remaining sources of irreversibility.

  19. The data acquisition and reduction challenge at the Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cittolin, Sergio

    2012-02-28

    The Large Hadron Collider detectors are technological marvels-which resemble, in functionality, three-dimensional digital cameras with 100 Mpixels-capable of observing proton-proton (pp) collisions at the crossing rate of 40 MHz. Data handling limitations at the recording end imply the selection of only one pp event out of each 10(5). The readout and processing of this huge amount of information, along with the selection of the best approximately 200 events every second, is carried out by a trigger and data acquisition system, supplemented by a sophisticated control and monitor system. This paper presents an overview of the challenges that the development of these systems has presented over the past 15 years. It concludes with a short historical perspective, some lessons learnt and a few thoughts on the future.

  20. Manufacturing and Installation of the Compound Cryogenic Distribution Line for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Riddone,, G; Bouillot, A; Brodzinski, K; Dupont, M; Fathallah, M; Fournel, JL; Gitton, E; Junker, S; Moussavi, H; Parente, C; Riddone, G

    2007-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) [1] currently under construction at CERN will make use of superconducting magnets operating in superfluid helium below 2 K. A compound cryogenic distribution line (QRL) will feed with helium at different temperatures and pressures the local elementary cooling loops in the cryomagnet strings. Low heat inleak to all temperature levels is essential for the overall LHC cryogenic performance. Following a competitive tendering, CERN adjudicated in 2001 the contract for the series line to Air Liquide (France). This paper recalls the main features of the technical specification and shows the project status. The basic choices and achievements for the industrialization phase of the series production are also presented, as well as the installation issues and status.

  1. Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Large Hadron Collider to 2025 and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Florio, Massimo; Sirtori, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Social cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of projects has been successfully applied in different fields such as transport, energy, health, education, and environment, including climate change. It is often argued that it is impossible to extend the CBA approach to the evaluation of the social impact of research infrastructures, because the final benefit to society of scientific discovery is generally unpredictable. Here, we propose a quantitative approach to this problem, we use it to design an empirically testable CBA model, and we apply it to the the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the highest-energy accelerator in the world, currently operating at CERN. We show that the evaluation of benefits can be made quantitative by determining their value to users (scientists, early-stage researchers, firms, visitors) and non-users (the general public). Four classes of contributions to users are identified: knowledge output, human capital development, technological spillovers, and cultural effects. Benefits for non-users can be ...

  2. Quench protection diodes for the large hadron collider LHC at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagedorn, D.; Naegele, W.

    1992-01-01

    For the quench protection of the main ring dipole and quadrupole magnets for the proposed Large Hadron Collider at CERN two lines of approach have been pursued for the realization of a suitable high current by-pass element and liquid helium temperature. Two commercially available diodes of the HERA type connected in parallel can easily meet the requirements if a sufficient good current sharing is imposed by current balancing elements. Design criteria for these current balancing elements are derived from individual diode characteristics. Single diode elements of thin base region, newly developed in industry, have been successfully tested. The results are promising and, if the diodes can be made with reproducible characteristics, they will provide the preferred solution especially in view of radiation hardness

  3. Simulations of fast crab cavity failures in the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee-Rendon, Bruce; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Barranco, Javier; Calaga, Rama; Marsili, Aurelien; Tomás, Rogelio; Zimmermann, Frank; Bouly, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    Crab cavities (CCs) are a key ingredient of the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) project for increasing the luminosity of the LHC. At KEKB, CCs have exhibited abrupt changes of phase and voltage during a time period of the order of a few LHC turns and considering the significant stored energy in the HL-LHC beam, CC failures represent a serious threat in regard to LHC machine protection. In this paper, we discuss the effect of CC voltage or phase changes on a time interval similar to, or longer than, the one needed to dump the beam. The simulations assume a quasistationary-state distribution to assess the particles losses for the HL-LHC. These distributions produce beam losses below the safe operation threshold for Gaussian tails, while, for non-Gaussian tails are on the same order of the limit. Additionally, some mitigation strategies are studied for reducing the damage caused by the CC failures.

  4. Search for excited electrons using the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Shilpi

    2013-01-01

    The start of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) opened a new window to the energy scale far beyond 1 TeV. There are different theories that predict new physics, and hence it is not clear what signature to expect in the data and which of the theory will describe it properly. However new physics could as well manifest itself in ways no one has yet thought of. Thus we have implemented a Model Unspecific Search in CMS (MUSiC). This approach has been applied to the CMS data and we have obtained the preliminary results. I will talk about this details of the analysis techniques, its implementation in analysing CMS data, results obtained and the discussion on the discrepancy observed

  5. Operational Experience and Performance with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Grummer, Aidan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector relies critically on its 4-layer Pixel Detector, that has undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered by the Large Hadron Collider, with record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 2 x 10^34 cm-2 s-1 recently surpassed. The key status and performance metrics of the ATLAS Pixel Detector are summarised, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency will be described, with special emphasis to radiation damage experience. In particular, radiation damage effects will be showed and signs of degradation which are visible but which are not impacting yet the tracking performance (but will): dE/dX, occupancy reduction with integrated luminosity, under-depletion effects with IBL in 2016, effects of annealing that is not insignificant for the inner-most layers. Therefore the offline software strat...

  6. Observation of very large transverse momentum jets at the CERN pp collider

    CERN Document Server

    Banner, M; Bonaudi, Franco; Borer, K; Borghini, M; Chollet, J C; Clark, A G; Conta, C; Darriulat, Pierre; Di Lella, L; Dines-Hansen, J; Dorsaz, P A; Fayard, L; Fraternali, M; Froidevaux, D; Gaillard, J M; Gildemeister, O; Goggi, V G; Grote, H; Hahn, B; Hänni, H; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P; Himel, T; Hungerbühler, V; Jenni, Peter; Kofoed-Hansen, Otto Møgens; Livan, M; Loucatos, Sotirios S; Madsen, B; Mansoulié, B; Mantovani, G C; Mapelli, L; Merkel, B; Mermikides, Michael E; Møllerud, R; Nilsson, B; Onions, Christopher J; Parrour, G; Pastore, F; Plothow-Besch, H; Repellin, J P; Ringel, J; Rothenberg, A F; Roussarie, A; Sauvage, G; Schacher, J; Siegrist, J L; Stocker, F; Teiger, J; Vercesi, V; Williams, H H; Zaccone, Henri; Zeller, W

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of total transverse energy Sigma E/sub T/ over the pseudorapidity interval -1( eta (1 and an azimuthal range Delta phi =300 degrees has been measured in the UA2 experiment at the CERN pp collider ( \\sqrt{s}=540 GeV) using a highly segmented total absorption calorimeter. In the events with the very large Sigma E/sub T/ ( Sigma E/sub T/>or approximately=60 GeV) most of the transverse energy is found to be contained in small angular regions as expected for high transverse momentum hadron jets. The authors discuss the properties of a sample of two-jet events with invariant two-jet masses up to 140 GeV/c/sup 2/ and measure the cross section for inclusive jet production in the range of jet transverse momenta between 15 and 60 Ge V/c.

  7. Exergy Analysis of the Cryogenic Helium Distribution System for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Claudet, S; Tavian, L; Wagner, U

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN features the world’s largest helium cryogenic system, spreading over the 26.7 km circumference of the superconducting accelerator. With a total equivalent capacity of 145 kW at 4.5 K including 18 kW at 1.8 K, the LHC refrigerators produce an unprecedented exergetic load, which must be distributed efficiently to the magnets in the tunnel over the 3.3 km length of each of the eight independent sectors of the machine. We recall the main features of the LHC cryogenic helium distribution system at different temperature levels and present its exergy analysis, thus enabling to qualify second-principle efficiency and identify main remaining sources of irreversibility..

  8. Design, construction, and performance of superconducting magnet support posts for the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blin, M.; Danielsson, H.; Evans, B.; Mathieu, M.

    1994-01-01

    Different support posts for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype superconducting magnets have been designed and manufactured. They have been evaluated both mechanically and thermally. The posts are made of a tubular section in composite materials, i.e. glass- or carbon-fibre and epoxy resin, with glued metallic heat intercepts and connections. Mechanical tests have been carried out with both radial and axial loads, before and after cooldown to working temperature. The design considerations and future developments concerning dimensions and other materials are also discussed in this paper. Thermal performance has been evaluated at 1.8 K, 5 K and 80 K in a precision heat leak measuring bench. The measurements have been carried out using calibrated thermal conductances (open-quotes heatmetersclose quotes) and boil-off methods. The measured performances of the posts have been compared with analytical predictions

  9. Field and structural analysis of 56 mm aperture dipole model magnets for the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Naihao; Yamamoto, Akira; Shintomi, Takakazu; Hirabayashi, Hiromi; Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Terashima, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new dipole model magnet design has been made with an aperture of 56 mm according to re-optimization of the accelerator design for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to be built at CERN. A feature of symmetric/separate collar configuration in the new design proposed by KEK has been evaluated in terms of field quality and mechanical stability according to the process of the magnet fabrication, cool-down and excitations. The analysis has been carried out by using the finite element analysis code ANSYS, in linkage of field analysis with structural analysis. Effect of the deformation, due to electromagnetic force, on the field quality has been also investigated. Results of the analysis will be presented

  10. Study for a failsafe trigger generation system for the Large Hadron Collider beam dump kicker magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Rampl, M

    1999-01-01

    The 27 km-particle accelerator Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which will be completed at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) in 2005, will work with extremely high beam energies (~334 MJ per beam). Since the equipment and in particular the superconducting magnets must be protected from damage caused by these high energy beams the beam dump must be able to absorb this energy very reliable at every stage of operation. The kicker magnets that extract the particles from the accelerator are synchronised with the beam by the trigger generation system. This thesis is a first study for this electronic module and its functions. A special synchronisation circuit and a very reliable electronic switch were developed. Most functions were implemented in a Gate-Array to improve the reliability and to facilitate modifications during the test stage. This study also comprises the complete concept for the prototype of the trigger generation system. During all project stages reliability was always the main determin...

  11. Search for Large Extra Dimensions in the Diphoton Final State at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Adler, Volker; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes e Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Awad, Adel; Khalil, Shaaban; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Tonutti, Manfred; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Rosin, Michele; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Karafasoulis, Konstantinos; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Radics, Balint; Sikler, Ferenc; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; 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Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jeong, Min-Soo; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Bona, Marcella; Breuker, Horst; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Maurisset, Aurelie; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguiló, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; MacEvoy, Barry C; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Chandra, Avdhesh; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Shen, Benjamin C; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Shin, Kyoungha; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Cassel, David; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Limon, Peter; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Mesa, Dalgis; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Quertenmont, Loic; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Flood, Kevin; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Palmonari, Francesco; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    A search for large extra spatial dimensions via virtual-graviton exchange in the diphoton channel has been carried out with the CMS detector at the LHC. No excess of events above the standard model expectations is found using a data sample collected in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. New lower limits on the effective Planck scale in the range of 1.6-2.3 TeV at the 95% confidence level are set, providing the most restrictive bounds to date on models with more than two large extra dimensions.

  12. Search for Large Extra Dimensions in the Diphoton Final State at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia)

    2011-05-01

    A search for large extra spatial dimensions via virtual-graviton exchange in the diphoton channel has been carried out with the CMS detector at the LHC. No excess of events above the standard model expectations is found using a data sample collected in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. New lower limits on the effective Planck scale in the range of 1.6-2.3 TeV at the 95% confidence level are set, providing the most restrictive bounds to date on models with more than two large extra dimensions.

  13. Calculations of safe collimator settings and β^{*} at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN was very successful and resulted in important physics discoveries. One way of increasing the luminosity in a collider, which gave a very significant contribution to the LHC performance in the first run and can be used even if the beam intensity cannot be increased, is to decrease the transverse beam size at the interaction points by reducing the optical function β^{*}. However, when doing so, the beam becomes larger in the final focusing system, which could expose its aperture to beam losses. For the LHC, which is designed to store beams with a total energy of 362 MJ, this is critical, since the loss of even a small fraction of the beam could cause a magnet quench or even damage. Therefore, the machine aperture has to be protected by the collimation system. The settings of the collimators constrain the maximum beam size that can be tolerated and therefore impose a lower limit on β^{*}. In this paper, we present calculations to determine safe collimator settings and the resulting limit on β^{*}, based on available aperture and operational stability of the machine. Our model was used to determine the LHC configurations in 2011 and 2012 and it was found that β^{*} could be decreased significantly compared to the conservative model used in 2010. The gain in luminosity resulting from the decreased margins between collimators was more than a factor 2, and a further contribution from the use of realistic aperture estimates based on measurements was almost as large. This has played an essential role in the rapid and successful accumulation of experimental data in the LHC.

  14. Viewpoint: the End of the World at the Large Hadron Collider?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    New arguments based on astrophysical phenomena constrain the possibility that dangerous black holes will be produced at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. On 8 August, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN injected its first beams, beginning an experimental program that will produce proton-proton collisions at an energy of 14 TeV. Particle physicists are waiting expectantly. The reason is that the Standard Model of strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, despite its many successes, is clearly incomplete. Theory says that the holes in the model should be filled by new physics in the energy region that will be studied by the LHC. Some candidate theories are simple quick fixes, but the most interesting ones involve new concepts of spacetime waiting to be discovered. Look up the LHC on Wikipedia, however, and you will find considerable space devoted to safety concerns. At the LHC, we will probe energies beyond those explored at any previous accelerator, and we hope to create particles that have never been observed. Couldn't we, then, create particles that would actually be dangerous, for example, ones that would eat normal matter and eventually turn the earth into a blob of unpleasantness? It is morbid fun to speculate about such things, and candidates for such dangerous particles have been suggested. These suggestions have been analyzed in an article in Reviews of Modern Physics by Jaffe, Busza, Wilczek, and Sandweiss and excluded on the basis of constraints from observation and from the known laws of physics. These conclusions have been upheld by subsequent studies conducted at CERN.

  15. Calculations of safe collimator settings and β* at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, R.; Assmann, R. W.; Redaelli, S.

    2015-06-01

    The first run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN was very successful and resulted in important physics discoveries. One way of increasing the luminosity in a collider, which gave a very significant contribution to the LHC performance in the first run and can be used even if the beam intensity cannot be increased, is to decrease the transverse beam size at the interaction points by reducing the optical function β*. However, when doing so, the beam becomes larger in the final focusing system, which could expose its aperture to beam losses. For the LHC, which is designed to store beams with a total energy of 362 MJ, this is critical, since the loss of even a small fraction of the beam could cause a magnet quench or even damage. Therefore, the machine aperture has to be protected by the collimation system. The settings of the collimators constrain the maximum beam size that can be tolerated and therefore impose a lower limit on β*. In this paper, we present calculations to determine safe collimator settings and the resulting limit on β*, based on available aperture and operational stability of the machine. Our model was used to determine the LHC configurations in 2011 and 2012 and it was found that β* could be decreased significantly compared to the conservative model used in 2010. The gain in luminosity resulting from the decreased margins between collimators was more than a factor 2, and a further contribution from the use of realistic aperture estimates based on measurements was almost as large. This has played an essential role in the rapid and successful accumulation of experimental data in the LHC.

  16. Simulations and measurements of beam loss patterns at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, R.; Assmann, R. W.; Boccone, V.; Bracco, C.; Brugger, M.; Cauchi, M.; Cerutti, F.; Deboy, D.; Ferrari, A.; Lari, L.; Marsili, A.; Mereghetti, A.; Mirarchi, D.; Quaranta, E.; Redaelli, S.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Rossi, A.; Salvachua, B.; Skordis, E.; Tambasco, C.; Valentino, G.; Weiler, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Wollmann, D.

    2014-08-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide proton beams of unprecedented energy, in order to extend the frontiers of high-energy particle physics. During the first very successful running period in 2010-2013, the LHC was routinely storing protons at 3.5-4 TeV with a total beam energy of up to 146 MJ, and even higher stored energies are foreseen in the future. This puts extraordinary demands on the control of beam losses. An uncontrolled loss of even a tiny fraction of the beam could cause a superconducting magnet to undergo a transition into a normal-conducting state, or in the worst case cause material damage. Hence a multistage collimation system has been installed in order to safely intercept high-amplitude beam protons before they are lost elsewhere. To guarantee adequate protection from the collimators, a detailed theoretical understanding is needed. This article presents results of numerical simulations of the distribution of beam losses around the LHC that have leaked out of the collimation system. The studies include tracking of protons through the fields of more than 5000 magnets in the 27 km LHC ring over hundreds of revolutions, and Monte Carlo simulations of particle-matter interactions both in collimators and machine elements being hit by escaping particles. The simulation results agree typically within a factor 2 with measurements of beam loss distributions from the previous LHC run. Considering the complex simulation, which must account for a very large number of unknown imperfections, and in view of the total losses around the ring spanning over 7 orders of magnitude, we consider this an excellent agreement. Our results give confidence in the simulation tools, which are used also for the design of future accelerators.

  17. Simulations and measurements of beam loss patterns at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bruce

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC is designed to collide proton beams of unprecedented energy, in order to extend the frontiers of high-energy particle physics. During the first very successful running period in 2010–2013, the LHC was routinely storing protons at 3.5–4 TeV with a total beam energy of up to 146 MJ, and even higher stored energies are foreseen in the future. This puts extraordinary demands on the control of beam losses. An uncontrolled loss of even a tiny fraction of the beam could cause a superconducting magnet to undergo a transition into a normal-conducting state, or in the worst case cause material damage. Hence a multistage collimation system has been installed in order to safely intercept high-amplitude beam protons before they are lost elsewhere. To guarantee adequate protection from the collimators, a detailed theoretical understanding is needed. This article presents results of numerical simulations of the distribution of beam losses around the LHC that have leaked out of the collimation system. The studies include tracking of protons through the fields of more than 5000 magnets in the 27 km LHC ring over hundreds of revolutions, and Monte Carlo simulations of particle-matter interactions both in collimators and machine elements being hit by escaping particles. The simulation results agree typically within a factor 2 with measurements of beam loss distributions from the previous LHC run. Considering the complex simulation, which must account for a very large number of unknown imperfections, and in view of the total losses around the ring spanning over 7 orders of magnitude, we consider this an excellent agreement. Our results give confidence in the simulation tools, which are used also for the design of future accelerators.

  18. Particles colliders at the Large High Energy Laboratories; Colisionadores de particulas en los grandes laboratorios de Fisica de Altas Energias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, M

    1996-09-01

    In this work we present an elementary introduction to particle accelerators, a basic guide of existing colliders and a description of the large european laboratories devoted to Elementary Particle Physics. This work is a large, corrected and updated version of an article published in: Ciencia-Tecnologia-Medio Ambiente Annual report 1996 Edition el Pais (Author)

  19. Jet signals for low mass strings at the large hadron collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A; Goldberg, Haim; Nawata, Satoshi; Taylor, Tomasz R

    2008-05-02

    The mass scale M{s} of superstring theory is an arbitrary parameter that can be as low as few TeVs if the Universe contains large extra dimensions. We propose a search for the effects of Regge excitations of fundamental strings at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in the process pp-->gamma+jet. The underlying parton process is dominantly the single photon production in gluon fusion, gg-->gammag, with open string states propagating in intermediate channels. If the photon mixes with the gauge boson of the baryon number, which is a common feature of D-brane quivers, the amplitude appears already at the string disk level. It is completely determined by the mixing parameter-and it is otherwise model (compactification) independent. Even for relatively small mixing, 100 fb{-1} of LHC data could probe deviations from standard model physics, at a 5sigma significance, for M{s} as large as 3.3 TeV.

  20. Study of high muon multiplicity cosmic ray events with ALICE at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Located 52 meters undergroundwith 28meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect atmosphericmuons produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. We present the muon multiplicity distribution of these cosmic-ray events and their comparison with Monte Carlo simulation. This analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density larger than 5.9 m$^{−2}$. The measured rate of these events shows that they stem from primary cosmic-rays with energies above 10$^{16}$ eV. The frequency of these events can be successfully described by assuming a heavy mass composition of primary cosmic-rays in this energy range and using the most recent hadronic interaction models to simulate the development of the resulting air sh...

  1. Summary of the very large hadron collider physics and detector workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.; Berger, M.; Brandt, A.; Eno, S.

    1997-01-01

    One of the options for an accelerator beyond the LHC is a hadron collider with higher energy. Work is going on to explore accelerator technologies that would make such a machine feasible. This workshop concentrated on the physics and detector issues associated with a hadron collider with an energy in the center of mass of the order of 100 to 200 TeV

  2. Ion Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, W

    2014-01-01

    High-energy ion colliders are large research tools in nuclear physics to study the Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP). The range of collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operational considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species. Ion species range from protons, including polarized protons in RHIC, to heavy nuclei like gold, lead and uranium. Asymmetric collision combinations (e.g. protons against heavy ions) are also essential. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams, limits are set by space charge, charge change, and intrabeam scattering effects, as well as beam losses due to a variety of other phenomena. Currently, there are two operating ion colliders, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  3. Correlation between magnetic field quality and mechanical components of the Large Hadron Collider main dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellesia, B.

    2006-12-01

    The 1234 superconducting dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider, working at a cryogenic temperature of 1.9 K, must guarantee a high quality magnetic field to steer the particles inside the beam pipe. Magnetic field measurements are a powerful way to detect assembly faults that could limit magnet performances. The aim of the thesis is the analysis of these measurements performed at room temperature during the production of the dipoles. In a large scale production the ideal situation is that all the magnets produced were identical. However all the components constituting a magnet are produced with certain tolerance and the assembly procedures are optimized during the production; due to these the reality drifts away from the ideal situation. We recollected geometrical data of the main components (superconducting cables, coil copper wedges and austenitic steel coil collars) and coupling them with adequate electro-magnetic models we reconstructed a multipolar field representation of the LHC dipoles defining their critical components and assembling procedures. This thesis is composed of 3 main parts: 1) influence of the geometry and of the assembling procedures of the dipoles on the quality of the magnetic field, 2) the use of measurement performed on the dipoles in the assembling step in order to solve production issues and to understand the behaviour of coils during the assembling step, and 3) a theoretical study of the uncertain harmonic components of the magnetic field in order to assess the dipole production

  4. The adventures of the Large Hadron Collider from the Big Bang to the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    Denegri, Daniel; Hoecker, Andreas; Roos, Lydia

    2018-01-01

    An introduction to the world of quarks and leptons, and of their interactions governed by fundamental symmetries of nature, as well as an introduction to the connection that exists between worlds of the infinitesimally small and the infinitely large. The book starts with a simple presentation of the theoretical framework, the so-called Standard Model, which evolved gradually since the 1960's. This is followed by its main experimental successes, and its weaknesses and incompleteness. We proceed then with the incredible story of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN — the largest purely scientific project ever realized. What follows is the discussion of the conception, design and construction of the detectors of size and complexity without precedent in scientific history. The book summarizes the main physics results obtained firstly during the initial phase of operation of the LHC, which culminated in the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 (the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2013). This is followed by the results o...

  5. The Local Helium Compound Transfer Lines for the Large Hadron Collider Cryogenic System

    CERN Document Server

    Parente, C; Munday, A; Wiggins, P

    2006-01-01

    The cryogenic system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN will include twelve new local helium transfer lines distributed among five LHC points in underground caverns. These lines, being manufactured and installed by industry, will connect the cold boxes of the 4.5-K refrigerators and the 1.8-K refrigeration units to the cryogenic interconnection boxes. The lines have a maximum of 30-m length and may possess either small or large re-distribution units to allow connection to the interface ports. Due to space restrictions the lines may have complex routings and require several elbowed sections. The lines consist of a vacuum jacket, a thermal shield and either three or four helium process pipes. Specific internal and external supporting and compensation systems were designed for each line to allow for thermal contraction of the process pipes (or vacuum jacket, in case of a break in the insulation vacuum) and to minimise the forces applied to the interface equipment. Whenever possible, f...

  6. Studies of supersymmetry models for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, A J

    2002-01-01

    This thesis demonstrates that supersymmetry can be discovered with the ATLAS experiment even if nature conspires to choose one of two rather difficult cases. In the first case where baryon-number is weakly violated, the lightest supersymmetric particle decays into three quarks. This leads to events with a very large multiplicity of jets which presents a difficult combinatorical problem at a hadronic collider. The distinctive property of the second class of model -- anomaly-mediation -- is the near degeneracy of the super-partners of the SU(2) weak bosons. The heavier charged wino decays producing its invisible neutral partner, the presence of which must be inferred from the apparent non-conservation of transverse momentum, as well as secondary particle(s) with low transverse momentum which must be extracted from a large background. Monte-Carlo simulations are employed to show that for the models examined not only can the distinctive signature of the model can be extracted, but that a variety of measurements (...

  7. A Possible 1.8 K Refrigeration Cycle for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Millet, F; Tavian, L; Wagner, U

    1998-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CERN, will make use of superconducting magnets operating below 2.0 K. This requires, for each of the eight future cryogenic installations, an isothermal cooling capacity of up to 2.4 kW obtained by vaporisation of helium II at 1.6 kPa and 1.8 K. The process design for this cooling duty has to satisfy several demands. It has to be adapted to four already existing as well as to four new refrigerators. It must cover a dynamic range of one to three, and it must to allow continuous pump-down from 4.5 K to 1.8 K. A possible solution, as presented in this paper, includes a combination of cold centrifugal and warm volumetric compressors. It is characterised by a low thermal load on the refrigerator, and a large range of adaptability to different operation modes. The expected power factor for 1.8 K cooling is given, and the proposed control strategy is explained.

  8. Modelling of flexibles for structural analysis of short straight section of Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhay Kumar; Dutta, Subhajit; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Soni, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Short Straight Section (SSS) of Large hadron Collider (LRCM) is a 8-meter long structure with a diameter of 1 meter and it houses a twin quadrupole. The cryogens are fed to the Sass through a jumper connection between Cryogenic Distribution Line (QRL) and SSS. The bus bars travel through interconnection bellows to adjoining magnets. CAT is studying the structural behavior of cold mass and the cryostat when subjected to various forces imposed on the SSS under various operating conditions of LHC machine including realignment required to compensate local sinking of the floor of the tunnel during the LHC machine's lifetime. CAT did calculation of reaction forces and moments on the Short Straight Section due to presence of jumper connection last year after the experimental verification of finite element model at CERN. Subsequently, a unified Fe model consisting of cold mass, cold feet, vacuum vessel, main vacuum vessel bellows (large sleeves), magnet interconnects, jumper connection, service module and precision motion jacks is being developed for studying the structural behaviour. (author)

  9. Radiation problems in the design of the large electron-positron collider (LEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasso, A.; Goebel, K.; Hoefert, M.; Rau, G.; Schoenbacher, H.; Stevenson, G.R.; Sullivan, A.H.; Swanson, W.P.; Tuyn, J.W.N.

    1984-01-01

    This is a comprehensive review of the radiation problems taken into account in the design studies for the Large Electron-Positron collider (LEP) now under construction at CERN. It provides estimates and calculations of the magnitude of the most important hazards, including those from non-ionizing radiations and magnetic fields as well as from ionizing radiation, and describes the measures to be taken in the design, construction, and operation to limit them. Damage to components is considered as well as the risk to people. More general explanations are given of the physical processes and technical parameters that influence the production and effects of radiation, and a comprehensive bibliography provides access to the basic theories and other discussions of the subject. The report effectively summarizes the findings of the Working Group on LEP radiation problems and parallels the results of analogous studies made for the previous large accelerator. The concluding chapters describe the LEP radiation protection system, which is foreseen to reduce doses far below the legal limits for all those working with the machine or living nearby, and summarize the environmental impact. Costs are also briefly considered. (orig.)

  10. Correlation between magnetic field quality and mechanical components of the Large Hadron Collider main dipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellesia, B

    2006-12-15

    The 1234 superconducting dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider, working at a cryogenic temperature of 1.9 K, must guarantee a high quality magnetic field to steer the particles inside the beam pipe. Magnetic field measurements are a powerful way to detect assembly faults that could limit magnet performances. The aim of the thesis is the analysis of these measurements performed at room temperature during the production of the dipoles. In a large scale production the ideal situation is that all the magnets produced were identical. However all the components constituting a magnet are produced with certain tolerance and the assembly procedures are optimized during the production; due to these the reality drifts away from the ideal situation. We recollected geometrical data of the main components (superconducting cables, coil copper wedges and austenitic steel coil collars) and coupling them with adequate electro-magnetic models we reconstructed a multipolar field representation of the LHC dipoles defining their critical components and assembling procedures. This thesis is composed of 3 main parts: 1) influence of the geometry and of the assembling procedures of the dipoles on the quality of the magnetic field, 2) the use of measurement performed on the dipoles in the assembling step in order to solve production issues and to understand the behaviour of coils during the assembling step, and 3) a theoretical study of the uncertain harmonic components of the magnetic field in order to assess the dipole production.

  11. Probing two-photon decay widths of mesons at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    Meson production cross sections in ultraperipheral relativistic heavy ion collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider are revisited. The relevance of meson models and of exotic QCD states is discussed. This study includes states that have not been considered before in the literature.

  12. Heavy-ion collimation at the Large Hadron Collider. Simulations and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermes, Pascal Dominik

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) stores and collides proton and 208 Pb 82+ beams of unprecedented energy and intensity. Thousands of superconducting magnets, operated at 1.9 K, guide the very intense and energetic particle beams, which have a large potential for destruction. This implies the demand for a multi-stage collimation system to provide protection from beam-induced quenches or even hardware damage. In heavy-ion operation, ion fragments with significant rigidity offsets can still scatter out of the collimation system. When they irradiate the superconducting LHC magnets, the latter risk to quench (lose their superconducting property). These secondary collimation losses can potentially impose a limitation for the stored heavy-ion beam energy. Therefore, their distribution in the LHC needs to be understood by sophisticated simulations. Such simulation tools must accurately simulate the particle motion of many different nuclides in the magnetic LHC lattice and simulate their interaction with the collimators. Previous simulation tools used simplified models for the simulation of particle-matter interaction and showed discrepancies compared to the measured loss patterns. This thesis describes the development and application of improved heavy-ion collimation simulation tools. Two different approaches are presented to provide these functionalities. In the first presented tool, called STIER, fragmentation at the primary collimator is simulated with the Monte-Carlo event generator FLUKA. The ion fragments scattered out of the primary collimator are subsequently tracked as protons with ion-equivalent rigidities in the existing proton tracking tool SixTrack. This approach was used to prepare the collimator settings for the 2015 LHC heavy-ion run and its predictions allowed reducing undesired losses. More accurate simulation results are obtained with the second presented simulation tool, in which SixTrack is extended to track arbitrary heavy ions. This new tracking

  13. Heavy-ion collimation at the Large Hadron Collider. Simulations and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermes, Pascal Dominik

    2016-12-19

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) stores and collides proton and {sup 208}Pb{sup 82+} beams of unprecedented energy and intensity. Thousands of superconducting magnets, operated at 1.9 K, guide the very intense and energetic particle beams, which have a large potential for destruction. This implies the demand for a multi-stage collimation system to provide protection from beam-induced quenches or even hardware damage. In heavy-ion operation, ion fragments with significant rigidity offsets can still scatter out of the collimation system. When they irradiate the superconducting LHC magnets, the latter risk to quench (lose their superconducting property). These secondary collimation losses can potentially impose a limitation for the stored heavy-ion beam energy. Therefore, their distribution in the LHC needs to be understood by sophisticated simulations. Such simulation tools must accurately simulate the particle motion of many different nuclides in the magnetic LHC lattice and simulate their interaction with the collimators. Previous simulation tools used simplified models for the simulation of particle-matter interaction and showed discrepancies compared to the measured loss patterns. This thesis describes the development and application of improved heavy-ion collimation simulation tools. Two different approaches are presented to provide these functionalities. In the first presented tool, called STIER, fragmentation at the primary collimator is simulated with the Monte-Carlo event generator FLUKA. The ion fragments scattered out of the primary collimator are subsequently tracked as protons with ion-equivalent rigidities in the existing proton tracking tool SixTrack. This approach was used to prepare the collimator settings for the 2015 LHC heavy-ion run and its predictions allowed reducing undesired losses. More accurate simulation results are obtained with the second presented simulation tool, in which SixTrack is extended to track arbitrary heavy ions. This new

  14. Beam losses from ultraperipheral nuclear collisions between ^{208}Pb^{82+} ions in the Large Hadron Collider and their alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bruce

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic interactions between colliding heavy ions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN will give rise to localized beam losses that may quench superconducting magnets, apart from contributing significantly to the luminosity decay. To quantify their impact on the operation of the collider, we have used a three-step simulation approach, which consists of optical tracking, a Monte Carlo shower simulation, and a thermal network model of the heat flow inside a magnet. We present simulation results for the case of ^{208}Pb^{82+} ion operation in the LHC, with focus on the ALICE interaction region, and show that the expected heat load during nominal ^{208}Pb^{82+} operation is 40% above the quench level. This limits the maximum achievable luminosity. Furthermore, we discuss methods of monitoring the losses and possible ways to alleviate their effect.

  15. Forward-backward asymmetries of lepton pairs in events with a large-transverse-momentum jet at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguila, F. del; Ametller, Ll.; Talavera, P.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss forward-backward charge asymmetries for lepton-pair production in association with a large-transverse-momentum jet at hadron colliders. The lepton charge asymmetry relative to the jet direction A FB j gives a new determination of the effective weak mixing angle sin 2 θ eff lept (M Z 2 ) with a statistical precision after cuts of ∼10 -3 (8x10 -3 ) at LHC (Tevatron). This is to be compared with the current uncertainty at LEP and SLD from the asymmetries alone, 2x10 -4 . The identification of b jets also allows for the measurement of the bottom-quark-Z asymmetry A FB b at hadron colliders, the resulting statistical precision for sin 2 θ eff lept (M Z 2 ) being ∼9x10 -4 (2x10 -2 at Tevatron), also lower than the reported precision at e + e - colliders, 3x10 -4

  16. Computer simulation of the emittance growth due to noise in large hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.

    1993-03-01

    The problem of emittance growth due to random fluctuations of the magnetic field in a hadron collider is considered. The results of computer simulations are compared with the analytical theory developed earlier. A good agreement was found between the analytical theory predictions and the computer simulations for the collider tunes located far enough from high order betatron resonances. The dependencies of the emittance growth rate on noise spectral density, beam separation at the Interaction Point (IP) and value of beam separation at long range collisions are studied. The results are applicable to the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC)

  17. Large Hadron Collider at CERN: Beams Generating High-Energy-Density Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, IV; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations that have been carried out to study the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper cylindrical target that is facially irradiated along the axis by one of the two Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 7 TeV/c proton beams. The energy deposition by protons in solid copper has been calculated using an established particle interaction and Monte Carlo code, FLUKA, which is capable of simulating all components of the particle cascades in matter, up to multi-TeV energies. This data has been used as input to a sophisticated two--dimensional hydrodynamic computer code, BIG2 that has been employed to study this problem. The prime purpose of these investigations was to assess the damage caused to the equipment if the entire LHC beam is lost at a single place. The FLUKA calculations show that the energy of protons will be deposited in solid copper within about 1~m assuming constant material parameters. Nevertheless, our hydrodynamic simulations have shown that the energy de...

  18. Reliability of the Beam Loss Monitors System for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Guaglio, G; Santoni, C

    2005-01-01

    The energy stored in the Large Hadron Collider is unprecedented. The impact of the beam particles can cause severe damage on the superconductive magnets, resulting in significant downtime for repairing. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) detects the secondary particles shower of the lost beam particles and initiates the extraction of the beam before any serious damage to the equipment can occur. This thesis defines the BLMS specifications in term of reliability. The main goal is the design of a system minimizing both the probability to not detect a dangerous loss and the number of false alarms generated. The reliability theory and techniques utilized are described. The prediction of the hazard rates, the testing procedures, the Failure Modes Effects and Criticalities Analysis and the Fault Tree Analysis have been used to provide an estimation of the probability to damage a magnet, of the number of false alarms and of the number of generated warnings. The weakest components in the BLMS have been pointed out....

  19. Prospects for Charged Higgs Boson Searches at the Large Hadron Collider with Early ATLAS Data

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, Jenna Louise; Jones, Roger; Yang, Un-Ki

    In some theories beyond the Standard Model, such as Supersymmetry, the two complex scalar doublets required for electro-weak symmetry breaking result in, amongst other new particles, two charged Higgs bosons, H ± . This thesis presents the expected sensitivity to the H ± , assuming proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy √ s = 10 TeV provided by the Large Hadron Collider and recorded by the ATLAS experiment. At this centre of mass energy, top-quark pairs are produced with a predicted cross section of 401.6 pb, and the H ± are potentially produced in the top quark decay t → bH + , which replaces the Standard Model decay t → bW + . The H ± were assumed to decay to the quark pairs c s or s c , and the presence of the H ± was inferred from a secondary peak in the W -boson mass distribution. A kinematic fitting method was used to gain better separation between the W -boson and H ± mass peaks, and a maximum likelihood method was used to set the expected upper limits on the branching ratio B ...

  20. Thermomechanical response of Large Hadron Collider collimators to proton and ion beam impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Cauchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC is designed to accelerate and bring into collision high-energy protons as well as heavy ions. Accidents involving direct beam impacts on collimators can happen in both cases. The LHC collimation system is designed to handle the demanding requirements of high-intensity proton beams. Although proton beams have 100 times higher beam power than the nominal LHC lead ion beams, specific problems might arise in case of ion losses due to different particle-collimator interaction mechanisms when compared to protons. This paper investigates and compares direct ion and proton beam impacts on collimators, in particular tertiary collimators (TCTs, made of the tungsten heavy alloy INERMET® 180. Recent measurements of the mechanical behavior of this alloy under static and dynamic loading conditions at different temperatures have been done and used for realistic estimates of the collimator response to beam impact. Using these new measurements, a numerical finite element method (FEM approach is presented in this paper. Sequential fast-transient thermostructural analyses are performed in the elastic-plastic domain in order to evaluate and compare the thermomechanical response of TCTs in case of critical beam load cases involving proton and heavy ion beam impacts.

  1. Probing high scale physics with top quarks at the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhe

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) running at TeV scale, we are expecting to find the deviations from the Standard Model in the experiments, and understanding what is the origin of these deviations. Being the heaviest elementary particle observed so far in the experiments with the mass at the electroweak scale, top quark is a powerful probe for new phenomena of high scale physics at the LHC. Therefore, we concentrate on studying the high scale physics phenomena with top quark pair production or decay at the LHC. In this thesis, we study the discovery potential of string resonances decaying to t/tbar final state, and examine the possibility of observing baryon-number-violating top-quark production or decay, at the LHC. We point out that string resonances for a string scale below 4 TeV can be detected via the t/tbar channel, by reconstructing center-of-mass frame kinematics of the resonances from either the t/tbar semi-leptonic decay or recent techniques of identifying highly boosted tops. For the study of baryon-number-violating processes, by a model independent effective approach and focusing on operators with minimal mass-dimension, we find that corresponding effective coefficients could be directly probed at the LHC already with an integrated luminosity of 1 inverse femtobarns at 7 TeV, and further constrained with 30 (100) inverse femtobarns at 7 (14) TeV.

  2. A central rapidity straw tracker and measurements on cryogenic components for the large hadron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsson, Hans

    1997-04-01

    The thesis is divided into two parts in which two different aspects of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project are discussed. The first part describes the design of a transition radiation tracker (TRT) for the inner detector in ATLAS. In particular, the barrel part was studied in detail. The barrel TRT consists of 52544 1.5 m long proportional tubes (straws), parallel to the beam axis and each with a diameter of 4 mm. The detector is divided into three module layers with 32 modules in each layer. The preparatory study comprises: module size optimization, mechanical and thermal calculations, tracking performance and material budget studies. The second part deals with the cryogenic system for the LHC superconducting magnets. They will work at a temperature below 2 K and it is essential to understand the thermal behaviour of the individual cryogenic components in order to assess the insulating properties of the magnet cryostat. The work involves the design of two dedicated heat-inlet measuring benches for cryogenic components, and the results from heat-inlet measurements on two different types of cryogenic components are reported. 54 refs., 79 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. The CERN Large Hadron Collider as a tool to study high-energy density matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N A; Kain, V; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Gryaznov, V; Piriz, A R; Temporal, M; Hoffmann, D H H; Fortov, V E

    2005-04-08

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will generate two extremely powerful 7 TeV proton beams. Each beam will consist of 2808 bunches with an intensity per bunch of 1.15x10(11) protons so that the total number of protons in one beam will be about 3x10(14) and the total energy will be 362 MJ. Each bunch will have a duration of 0.5 ns and two successive bunches will be separated by 25 ns, while the power distribution in the radial direction will be Gaussian with a standard deviation, sigma=0.2 mm. The total duration of the beam will be about 89 mus. Using a 2D hydrodynamic code, we have carried out numerical simulations of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper target that is irradiated with one of the LHC beams. These calculations show that only the first few hundred proton bunches will deposit a high specific energy of 400 kJ/g that will induce exotic states of high energy density in matter.

  4. ηc Hadroproduction at Large Hadron Collider Challenges NRQCD Factorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butenschoen Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on our analysis [1] of prompt ηc meson production, measured by the LHCb Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider, within the framework of non-relativistic QCD (NRQCD factorization up to the sub-leading order in both the QCD coupling constant αs and the relative velocity v of the bound heavy quarks. We thereby convert various sets of J/ψ and χc,J long-distance matrix elements (LDMEs, determined by different groups in J/ψ and χc,J yield and polarization fits, to ηc and hc production LDMEs making use of the NRQCD heavy quark spin symmetry. The resulting predictions for ηc hadroproduction in all cases greatly overshoot the LHCb data, while the color-singlet model contributions alone would indeed be sufficient. We investigate the consequences for the universality of the LDMEs, and show how the observed tensions remain in follow-up works by other groups.

  5. High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) : Preliminary Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollinari, G.; Béjar Alonso, I.; Brüning, O.; Lamont, M.; Rossi, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the largest scientific instruments ever built. Since opening up a new energy frontier for exploration in 2010, it has gathered a global user community of about 7,000 scientists working in fundamental particle physics and the physics of hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density. To sustain and extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s. This will increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond the original design value and the integrated luminosity (total collisions created) by a factor ten. The LHC is already a highly complex and exquisitely optimised machine so this upgrade must be carefully conceived and will require about ten years to implement. The new configuration, known as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovations that push accelerator technology beyond its present limits. Among these are cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting magnets, compact superconducting cavities for beam rotation with ultra-precise phase control, new technology and physical processes for beam collimation and 300 metre-long high-power superconducting links with negligible energy dissipation. The present document describes the technologies and components that will be used to realise the project and is intended to serve as the basis for the detailed engineering design of HL-LHC.

  6. Final implementation, commissioning, and performance of embedded collimator beam position monitors in the Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Valentino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During Long Shutdown 1, 18 Large Hadron Collider (LHC collimators were replaced with a new design, in which beam position monitor (BPM pick-up buttons are embedded in the collimator jaws. The BPMs provide a direct measurement of the beam orbit at the collimators, and therefore can be used to align the collimators more quickly than using the standard technique which relies on feedback from beam losses. Online orbit measurements also allow for reducing operational margins in the collimation hierarchy placed specifically to cater for unknown orbit drifts, therefore decreasing the β^{*} and increasing the luminosity reach of the LHC. In this paper, the results from the commissioning of the embedded BPMs in the LHC are presented. The data acquisition and control software architectures are reviewed. A comparison with the standard alignment technique is provided, together with a fill-to-fill analysis of the measured orbit in different machine modes, which will also be used to determine suitable beam interlocks for a tighter collimation hierarchy.

  7. Performance Analysis of the Ironless Inductive Position Sensor in the Large Hadron Collider Collimators Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Danisi, Alessandro; Losito, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The Ironless Inductive Position Sensor (I2PS) has been introduced as a valid alternative to Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) when external magnetic fields are present. Potential applications of this linear position sensor can be found in critical systems such as nuclear plants, tokamaks, satellites and particle accelerators. This paper analyzes the performance of the I2PS in the harsh environment of the collimators of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where position uncertainties of less than 20 μm are demanded in the presence of nuclear radiation and external magnetic fields. The I2PS has been targeted for installation for LHC Run 2, in order to solve the magnetic interference problem which standard LVDTs are experiencing. The paper describes in detail the chain of systems which belong to the new I2PS measurement task, their impact on the sensor performance and their possible further optimization. The I2PS performance is analyzed evaluating the position uncertainty (on 30 s), the magnetic im...

  8. Particle production at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider within an evolutionary model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyukov, Yu. M.; Shapoval, V. M.

    2018-06-01

    The particle yields and particle number ratios in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energy √{sN N}=2.76 TeV are described within the integrated hydrokinetic model (iHKM) at two different equations of state (EoS) for quark-gluon matter and the two corresponding hadronization temperatures T =165 MeV and T =156 MeV. The role of particle interactions at the final afterburner stage of the collision in the particle production is investigated by means of comparison of the results of full iHKM simulations with those where the annihilation and other inelastic processes (except for resonance decays) are switched off after hadronization/particlization, similarly as in the thermal models. An analysis supports the picture of continuous chemical freeze-out in the sense that the corrections to the sudden chemical freeze-out results, which arise because of the inelastic reactions at the subsequent evolution times, are noticeable and improve the description of particle number ratios. An important observation is that, although the particle number ratios with switched-off inelastic reactions are quite different at different particlization temperatures which are adopted for different equations of state to reproduce experimental data, the complete iHKM calculations bring very close results in both cases.

  9. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run 2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, M., E-mail: malte.backhaus@cern.ch

    2016-09-21

    During Run 1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the ATLAS Pixel Detector has shown excellent performance. The ATLAS collaboration took advantage of the first long shutdown of the LHC during 2013 and 2014 and extracted the ATLAS Pixel Detector from the experiment, brought it to surface and maintained the services. This included the installation of new service quarter panels, the repair of cables, and the installation of the new Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). Additionally, a completely new innermost pixel detector layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), was constructed and installed in May 2014 between a new smaller beam pipe and the existing Pixel Detector. With a radius of 3.3 cm the IBL is located extremely close to the interaction point. Therefore, a new readout chip and two new sensor technologies (planar and 3D) are used in the IBL. In order to achieve best possible physics performance the material budget was improved with respect to the existing Pixel Detector. This is realized using lightweight staves for mechanical support and a CO{sub 2} based cooling system. This paper describes the improvements achieved during the maintenance of the existing Pixel Detector as well as the performance of the IBL during the construction and commissioning phase. Additionally, first results obtained during the LHC Run 2 demonstrating the distinguished tracking performance of the new Four Layer ATLAS Pixel Detector are presented.

  10. A central rapidity straw tracker and measurements on cryogenic components for the large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, Hans.

    1997-04-01

    The thesis is divided into two parts in which two different aspects of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project are discussed. The first part describes the design of a transition radiation tracker (TRT) for the inner detector in ATLAS. In particular, the barrel part was studied in detail. The barrel TRT consists of 52544 1.5 m long proportional tubes (straws), parallel to the beam axis and each with a diameter of 4 mm. The detector is divided into three module layers with 32 modules in each layer. The preparatory study comprises: module size optimization, mechanical and thermal calculations, tracking performance and material budget studies. The second part deals with the cryogenic system for the LHC superconducting magnets. They will work at a temperature below 2 K and it is essential to understand the thermal behaviour of the individual cryogenic components in order to assess the insulating properties of the magnet cryostat. The work involves the design of two dedicated heat-inlet measuring benches for cryogenic components, and the results from heat-inlet measurements on two different types of cryogenic components are reported. 54 refs., 79 figs., 14 tabs

  11. Simulations of fast crab cavity failures in the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Yee-Rendon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Crab cavities (CCs are a key ingredient of the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC project for increasing the luminosity of the LHC. At KEKB, CCs have exhibited abrupt changes of phase and voltage during a time period of the order of a few LHC turns and considering the significant stored energy in the HL-LHC beam, CC failures represent a serious threat in regard to LHC machine protection. In this paper, we discuss the effect of CC voltage or phase changes on a time interval similar to, or longer than, the one needed to dump the beam. The simulations assume a quasistationary-state distribution to assess the particles losses for the HL-LHC. These distributions produce beam losses below the safe operation threshold for Gaussian tails, while, for non-Gaussian tails are on the same order of the limit. Additionally, some mitigation strategies are studied for reducing the damage caused by the CC failures.

  12. Development of N+ in P pixel sensors for a high-luminosity large hadron collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Shintaro; Yamamura, Kazuhisa; Unno, Yoshinobu; Ikegami, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. is developing an N+ in a p planar pixel sensor with high radiation tolerance for the high-luminosity large hadron collider (HL-LHC). The N+ in the p planar pixel sensor is a candidate for the HL-LHC and offers the advantages of high radiation tolerance at a reasonable price compared with the N+ in an n planar sensor, the three-dimensional sensor, and the diamond sensor. However, the N+ in the p planar pixel sensor still presents some problems that need to be solved, such as its slim edge and the danger of sparks between the sensor and readout integrated circuit. We are now attempting to solve these problems with wafer-level processes, which is important for mass production. To date, we have obtained a 250-μm edge with an applied bias voltage of 1000 V. To protect against high-voltage sparks from the edge, we suggest some possible designs for the N+ edge.

  13. Development of N+ in P pixel sensors for a high-luminosity large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Shintaro; Yamamura, Kazuhisa; Unno, Yoshinobu; Ikegami, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. is developing an N+ in a p planar pixel sensor with high radiation tolerance for the high-luminosity large hadron collider (HL-LHC). The N+ in the p planar pixel sensor is a candidate for the HL-LHC and offers the advantages of high radiation tolerance at a reasonable price compared with the N+ in an n planar sensor, the three-dimensional sensor, and the diamond sensor. However, the N+ in the p planar pixel sensor still presents some problems that need to be solved, such as its slim edge and the danger of sparks between the sensor and readout integrated circuit. We are now attempting to solve these problems with wafer-level processes, which is important for mass production. To date, we have obtained a 250-μm edge with an applied bias voltage of 1000 V. To protect against high-voltage sparks from the edge, we suggest some possible designs for the N+ edge. - Highlights: • We achieved a tolerance of 1000 V with a 250-μm edge by Al2O3 side wall passivation. • Above is a wafer process and suitable for mass production. • For edge-spark protection, we suggest N+ edge with an isolation

  14. Mathematical formulation to predict the harmonics of the superconducting Large Hadron Collider magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Sammut

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available CERN is currently assembling the LHC (Large Hadron Collider that will accelerate and bring in collision 7 TeV protons for high energy physics. Such a superconducting magnet-based accelerator can be controlled only when the field errors of production and installation of all magnetic elements are known to the required accuracy. The ideal way to compensate the field errors obviously is to have direct diagnostics on the beam. For the LHC, however, a system solely based on beam feedback may be too demanding. The present baseline for the LHC control system hence requires an accurate forecast of the magnetic field and the multipole field errors to reduce the burden on the beam-based feedback. The field model is the core of this magnetic prediction system, that we call the field description for the LHC (FIDEL. The model will provide the forecast of the magnetic field at a given time, magnet operating current, magnet ramp rate, magnet temperature, and magnet powering history. The model is based on the identification and physical decomposition of the effects that contribute to the total field in the magnet aperture of the LHC dipoles. Each effect is quantified using data obtained from series measurements, and modeled theoretically or empirically depending on the complexity of the physical phenomena involved. This paper presents the developments of the new finely tuned magnetic field model and, using the data accumulated through series tests to date, evaluates its accuracy and predictive capabilities over a sector of the machine.

  15. Search for Microscopic Black Hole Signatures at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Ka Vang [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

    2011-05-01

    A search for microscopic black hole production and decay in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV has been conducted using Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. A total integrated luminosity of 35 pb-1 data sample, taken by CMS Collaboration in year 2010, has been analyzed. A novel background estimation for multi-jet events beyond TeV scale has been developed. A good agreement with standard model backgrounds, dominated by multi-jet production, is observed for various final-state multiplicities. Using semi-classical approximation, upper limits on minimum black hole mass at 95% confidence level are set in the range of 3.5 - 4.5 TeV for values of the Planck scale up to 3 TeV. Model-independent limits are provided to further constrain microscopic black hole models with additional regions of parameter space, as well as new physics models with multiple energetic final states. These are the first limits on microscopic black hole production at a particle accelerator.

  16. Busca por dimensões extras no detector CMS do large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R

    We present the results of a search for experimental evidence of extra space dimensions in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, furnished by the Large Hadron Collider accelerator. We analyzed the data taken by the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment during 2011, which total an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb−1. The Randall-Sundrum warped extra dimensions model was used as a standard benchmark for the experimental signatures which could be observed in the data, in the presence of extra dimensions. The studied reaction is pp → G∗→ ZZ→ qqνν, where G∗ is the first Randall-Sundrum graviton resonance. The observations agree witht he Standard Model predictions. In the absence of experimental signals of extra dimensions, we put limits on the parameters of the Randall-Sundrum model. Upper limits, with 95% confidence, for the cross-section of processes which would raise the event yield in the channel considered are in the [0.047 – 0.021] pb range, for resonance masses in the [1000...

  17. The new Level-1 Topological Trigger for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00047907; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    At the CERN Large Hadron Collider, the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, the ATLAS experiment records high-energy proton collision to investigate the properties of fundamental particles. These collisions take place at a 40 MHz, and the ATLAS trigger system selects the interesting ones, reducing the rate to 1 kHz, allowing for their storage and subsequent offline analysis. The ATLAS trigger system is organized in two levels, with increasing degree of details and of accuracy. The first level trigger reduces the event rate to 100 kHz with a decision latency of less than 2.5 micro seconds. It is composed of the calorimeter trigger, muon trigger and central trigger processor. A new component of the first-level trigger was introduced in 2015: the Topological Processor (L1Topo). It allows to use detailed real-time information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon systems, to compute advanced kinematic quantities using state of the art FPGA processors, and to select interesting events based on several com...

  18. Superconductivity: Its Role, Its Success and Its Setbacks in the Large Hadron Collider of CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider - LHC, the particle accelerator at CERN, Geneva, is the largest and probably the most complex scientific instrument ever built. Superconductivity plays a key role because the accelerator is based on the reliable operation of almost 10,000 superconducting magnets cooled by 130 tonnes of helium at 1.9 and 4.2 K and containing a total stored magnetic energy of about 15,000 MJ (including detector magnets). The characteristics of the 1200 tonnes of high quality Nb-Ti cables have met the severe requests in terms of critical currents, magnetization and inter-strand resistance; the magnets are built with an unprecedented uniformity, about 0.01% of variation in field quality among the 1232 main dipoles which are 15 m in length and 30 tonnes in weight. The results of this 20 year long enterprise will be discussed together with problems faced during construction and commissioning and their remedies. Particular reference is made to the severe incident which occurred nine days after the spectacul...

  19. Operational Experience and Consolidations for the Current Lead Control Valves of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Perin, A; Pirotte, O; Krieger, B; Widmer, A

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider superconducting magnets are powered by more than 1400 gas cooled current leads ranging from 120 A to 13000 A. The gas flow required by the leads is controlled by solenoid proportional valves with dimensions from DN 1.8 mm to DN 10 mm. During the first months of operation, signs of premature wear were found in the active parts of the valves. This created major problems for the functioning of the current leads threatening the availability of the LHC. Following the detection of the problems, a series of measures were implemented to keep the LHC running, to launch a development program to solve the premature wear problem and to prepare for a global consolidation of the gas flow control system. This article describes first the difficulties encountered and the measures taken to ensure a continuous operation of the LHC during the first year of operation. The development of new friction free valves is then presented along with the consolidation program and the test equipment developed to val...

  20. Development of an abort gap monitor for the large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, requires monitoring the parasitic charge in the 3.3ms long gap in the machine fill structure. This gap, referred to as the abort gap, corresponds to the raise time of the abort kickers magnets. Any circulating particle present in the abort gap at the time of the kickers firing is lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, and can potentially damage a number of the LHC components. CERN specifications indicate a linear density of 6 x 106 protons over a 100 ns interval as the maximum charge safely allowed to accumulate in the abort gap at 7 TeV. We present a study of an abort gap monitor, based on a photomultiplier tube with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting such low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted in the dedicated diagnostics port. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) using a Hamamatsu 5961U MCP-PMT, which indicate that such an instrument has the required sensitivity to meet LHC specifications

  1. High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) : Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollinari, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Béjar Alonso, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Brüning, O. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Lamont, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Rossi, L. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-12-17

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the largest scientific instruments ever built. Since opening up a new energy frontier for exploration in 2010, it has gathered a global user community of about 7,000 scientists working in fundamental particle physics and the physics of hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density. To sustain and extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s. This will increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond the original design value and the integrated luminosity (total collisions created) by a factor ten. The LHC is already a highly complex and exquisitely optimised machine so this upgrade must be carefully conceived and will require about ten years to implement. The new configuration, known as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovations that push accelerator technology beyond its present limits. Among these are cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting magnets, compact superconducting cavities for beam rotation with ultra-precise phase control, new technology and physical processes for beam collimation and 300 metre-long high-power superconducting links with negligible energy dissipation. The present document describes the technologies and components that will be used to realise the project and is intended to serve as the basis for the detailed engineering design of HL-LHC.

  2. The Thermosiphon Cooling System of the ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Battistin, M; Bitadze, A; Bonneau, P; Botelho-Direito, J; Boyd, G; Corbaz, F; Crespo-Lopez, O; Da Riva, E; Degeorge, C; Deterre, C; DiGirolamo, B; Doubek, M; Favre, G; Godlewski, J; Hallewell, G; Katunin, S; Lefils, D; Lombard, D; McMahon, S; Nagai, K; Robinson, D; Rossi, C; Rozanov, A; Vacek, V; Zwalinski, L

    2015-01-01

    The silicon tracker of the ATLAS experiment at CERN Large Hadron Collider will operate around –15°C to minimize the effects of radiation damage. The present cooling system is based on a conventional evaporative circuit, removing around 60 kW of heat dissipated by the silicon sensors and their local electronics. The compressors in the present circuit have proved less reliable than originally hoped, and will be replaced with a thermosiphon. The working principle of the thermosiphon uses gravity to circulate the coolant without any mechanical components (compressors or pumps) in the primary coolant circuit. The fluorocarbon coolant will be condensed at a temperature and pressure lower than those in the on-detector evaporators, but at a higher altitude, taking advantage of the 92 m height difference between the underground experiment and the services located on the surface. An extensive campaign of tests, detailed in this paper, was performed using two small-scale thermosiphon systems. These tests confirmed th...

  3. Investigation of collimator materials for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085459; Bertarelli, Alessandro; Redaelli, Stefano

    This PhD thesis work has been carried out at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland), in the framework of the High Luminosity (HL) upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The HL-LHC upgrade will bring the accelerator beyond the nominal performance: it is planning to reach higher stored beam energy up to 700 MJ, through more intense proton beams. The present multi-stage LHC collimation system was designed to handle 360 MJ stored beam energy and withstand realistic losses only for this nominal beam. Therefore, the challenging HL-LHC beam parameters pose strong concerns for beam collimation, which call for important upgrades of the present system. The objective of this thesis is to provide solid basis for optimum choices of materials for the different collimators that will be upgraded for the baseline layout of the HL-LHC collimation system. To achieve this goal, material-related limitations of the present system are identified and novel advanced composite materials are se...

  4. Instrumentation status of the low-b magnet systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Darve, C.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Perin, A.; Vauthier, N.

    2011-01-01

    The low-beta magnet systems are located in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) insertion regions around the four interaction points. They are the key elements in the beams focusing/defocusing process allowing proton collisions at luminosity up to 10**34/cm**2s. Those systems are a contribution of the US-LHC Accelerator project. The systems are mainly composed of the quadrupole magnets (triplets), the separation dipoles and their respective electrical feed-boxes (DFBX). The low-beta magnet systems operate in an environment of extreme radiation, high gradient magnetic field and high heat load to the cryogenic system due to the beam dynamic effect. Due to the severe environment, the robustness of the diagnostics is primordial for the operation of the triplets. The hardware commissioning phase of the LHC was completed in February 2010. In the sake of a safer and more user-friendly operation, several consolidations and instrumentation modifications were implemented during this commissioning phase. This paper presents ...

  5. Instrumentation Status of the Low-β Magnet Systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Darve, C; Casas-Cubillos, J; Perin, A; Vauthier, N

    2011-01-01

    The low-β magnet systems are located in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) insertion regions around the four interaction points. They are the key elements in the beams focusing/defocusing process allowing proton collisions at luminosity up to 1034cm-2s-1. Those systems are a contribution of the US-LHC Accelerator project. The systems are mainly composed of the quadrupole magnets (triplets), the separation dipoles and their respective electrical feed-boxes (DFBX). The low-β magnet systems operate in an environment of extreme radiation, high gradient magnetic field and high heat load to the cryogenic system due to the beam dynamic effect. Due to the severe environment, the robustness of the diagnostics is primordial for the operation of the triplets. The hardware commissioning phase of the LHC was completed in February 2010. In the sake of a safer and more user-friendly operation, several consolidations and instrumentation modifications were implemented during this commissioning phase. This paper presents the in...

  6. Study of Drell-Yan process in CMS experiment at Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Jindal, Monika

    The proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the begining of a new era in the high energy physics. It enables the possibility of the discoveries at high-energy frontier and also allows the study of Standard Model physics with high precision. The new physics discoveries and the precision measurements can be achieved with highly efficient and accurate detectors like Compact Muon Solenoid. In this thesis, we report the measurement of the differential production cross-section of the Drell-Yan process, $q ar{q} ightarrow Z/gamma^{*} ightarrowmu^{+}mu^{-}$ in proton-proton collisions at the center-of-mass energy $sqrt{s}=$ 7 TeV using CMS experiment at the LHC. This measurement is based on the analysis of data which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $intmath{L}dt$ = 36.0 $pm$ 1.4 pb$^{-1}$. The measurement of the production cross-section of the Drell-Yan process provides a first test of the Standard Model in a new energy domain and may reveal exotic physics processes. The Drell...

  7. High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) Technical Design Report V. 0.1

    CERN Document Server

    Béjar Alonso I.; Brüning O.; Fessia P.; Lamont M.; Rossi L.; Tavian L.

    2017-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the largest scientific instruments ever built. Since opening up a newenergy frontier for exploration in 2010, it has gathered a global user community of about 7,000 scientists work-ing in fundamental particle physics and the physics of hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density. Tosustain and extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s. This will increase itsinstantaneous luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond the original design value and the integratedluminosity (total collisions created) by a factor ten. The LHC is already a highly complex and exquisitely opti-mised machine so this upgrade must be carefully conceived and will require about ten years to implement. Thenew configuration, known as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), relies on a number of key innovations that pushaccelerator technology beyond its present limits. Among these are cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting mag-nets, compact superconduc...

  8. High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider A description for the European Strategy Preparatory Group

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest scientific instrument ever built. It has been exploring the new energy frontier since 2009, gathering a global user community of 7,000 scientists. It will remain the most powerful accelerator in the world for at least two decades, and its full exploitation is the highest priority in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, adopted by the CERN Council and integrated into the ESFRI Roadmap. To extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade around 2020 to increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of 10 beyond its design value. As a highly complex and optimized machine, such an upgrade of the LHC must be carefully studied and requires about 10 years to implement. The novel machine configuration, called High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovative technologies, representing exceptional technological challenges, such as cutting-edge 13 tesla superconducting magnets, very compact and ultra-precise superconduc...

  9. The CERN Large Hadron Collider as a tool to study high-energy density matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Gryaznov, V; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Kain, V; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Temporal, M

    2005-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will generate two extremely powerful 7 TeV proton beams. Each beam will consist of 2808 bunches with an intensity per bunch of 1.15*10/sup 11/ protons so that the total number of protons in one beam will be about 3*10/sup 14/ and the total energy will be 362 MJ. Each bunch will have a duration of 0.5 ns and two successive bunches will be separated by 25 ns, while the power distribution in the radial direction will be Gaussian with a standard deviation, sigma =0.2 mm. The total duration of the beam will be about 89 mu s. Using a 2D hydrodynamic code, we have carried out numerical simulations of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper target that is irradiated with one of the LHC beams. These calculations show that only the first few hundred proton bunches will deposit a high specific energy of 400 kJ/g that will induce exotic states of high energy density in matter.

  10. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider the new machine for illuminating the mysteries of Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Brüning, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to the physics and technology of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). This new configuration of the LHC is one of the major accelerator projects for the next 15 years and will give new life to the LHC after its first 15-year operation. Not only will it allow more precise measurements of the Higgs boson and of any new particles that might be discovered in the next LHC run, but also extend the mass limit reach for detecting new particles. The HL-LHC is based on the innovative accelerator magnet technologies capable of generating 11–13 Tesla fields, with effectiveness enhanced by use of the new Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing scheme, and other state-of-the-art accelerator technologies, such as superconducting compact RF crab cavities, advanced collimation concepts, and novel power technology based on high temperature superconducting links. The book consists of a series of chapters touching on all issues of technology and design, and each chapter can be re...

  11. High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Apollinari, G; Béjar Alonso, I; Brüning, O; Lamont, M; Rossi, L

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the largest scientific instruments ever built. Since opening up a new energy frontier for exploration in 2010, it has gathered a global user community of about 7,000 scientists working in fundamental particle physics and the physics of hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density. To sustain and extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s. This will increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond the original design value and the integrated luminosity (total collisions created) by a factor ten. The LHC is already a highly complex and exquisitely optimised machine so this upgrade must be carefully conceived and will require about ten years to implement. The new configuration, known as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovations that push accelerator technology beyond its present limits. Among these are cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting magnets, compact superconducting cav...

  12. Final implementation, commissioning, and performance of embedded collimator beam position monitors in the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Gianluca; Baud, Guillaume; Bruce, Roderik; Gasior, Marek; Mereghetti, Alessio; Mirarchi, Daniele; Olexa, Jakub; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua, Belen; Valloni, Alessandra; Wenninger, Jorg

    2017-08-01

    During Long Shutdown 1, 18 Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collimators were replaced with a new design, in which beam position monitor (BPM) pick-up buttons are embedded in the collimator jaws. The BPMs provide a direct measurement of the beam orbit at the collimators, and therefore can be used to align the collimators more quickly than using the standard technique which relies on feedback from beam losses. Online orbit measurements also allow for reducing operational margins in the collimation hierarchy placed specifically to cater for unknown orbit drifts, therefore decreasing the β* and increasing the luminosity reach of the LHC. In this paper, the results from the commissioning of the embedded BPMs in the LHC are presented. The data acquisition and control software architectures are reviewed. A comparison with the standard alignment technique is provided, together with a fill-to-fill analysis of the measured orbit in different machine modes, which will also be used to determine suitable beam interlocks for a tighter collimation hierarchy.

  13. VUV photoemission studies of candidate Large Hadron Collider vacuum chamber materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cimino

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of future accelerators and, in particular, the beam vacuum of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC, a 27 km circumference proton collider to be built at CERN, VUV synchrotron radiation (SR has been used to study both qualitatively and quantitatively candidate vacuum chamber materials. Emphasis is given to show that angle and energy resolved photoemission is an extremely powerful tool to address important issues relevant to the LHC, such as the emission of electrons that contributes to the creation of an electron cloud which may cause serious beam instabilities and unmanageable heat loads on the cryogenic system. Here we present not only the measured photoelectron yields from the proposed materials, prepared on an industrial scale, but also the energy and in some cases the angular dependence of the emitted electrons when excited with either a white light (WL spectrum, simulating that in the arcs of the LHC, or monochromatic light in the photon energy range of interest. The effects on the materials examined of WL irradiation and /or ion sputtering, simulating the SR and ion bombardment expected in the LHC, were investigated. The studied samples exhibited significant modifications, in terms of electron emission, when exposed to the WL spectrum from the BESSY Toroidal Grating Monochromator beam line. Moreover, annealing and ion bombardment also induce substantial changes to the surface thereby indicating that such surfaces would not have a constant electron emission during machine operation. Such characteristics may be an important issue to define the surface properties of the LHC vacuum chamber material and are presented in detail for the various samples analyzed. It should be noted that all the measurements presented here were recorded at room temperature, whereas the majority of the LHC vacuum system will be maintained at temperatures below 20 K. The results cannot therefore be directly applied to these sections of the machine until

  14. Fundamental cavity impedance and longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baudrenghien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between beam dynamics and the radio frequency (rf station in circular colliders is complex and can lead to longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities at high beam currents. The excitation of the cavity higher order modes is traditionally damped using passive devices. But the wakefield developed at the cavity fundamental frequency falls in the frequency range of the rf power system and can, in theory, be compensated by modulating the generator drive. Such a regulation is the responsibility of the low-level rf (llrf system that measures the cavity field (or beam current and generates the rf power drive. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC rf was designed for the nominal LHC parameter of 0.55 A DC beam current. At 7 TeV the synchrotron radiation damping time is 13 hours. Damping of the instability growth rates due to the cavity fundamental (400.789 MHz can only come from the synchrotron tune spread (Landau damping and will be very small (time constant in the order of 0.1 s. In this work, the ability of the present llrf compensation to prevent coupled-bunch instabilities with the planned high luminosity LHC (HiLumi LHC doubling of the beam current to 1.1 A DC is investigated. The paper conclusions are based on the measured performances of the present llrf system. Models of the rf and llrf systems were developed at the LHC start-up. Following comparisons with measurements, the system was parametrized using these models. The parametric model then provides a more realistic estimation of the instability growth rates than an ideal model of the rf blocks. With this modeling approach, the key rf settings can be varied around their set value allowing for a sensitivity analysis (growth rate sensitivity to rf and llrf parameters. Finally, preliminary measurements from the LHC at 0.44 A DC are presented to support the conclusions of this work.

  15. CERN 's large hadron collider : Radiation protection aspects of design and commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Brugger, Markus; Menzel, Hans; Roesler, Stefan; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Full text: CERN, the world's largest particle physics laboratory provides high energy hadron beams for experiments exploring matter. For this purpose various accelerators are operated and in 2008 the last link will be added to the accelerator chain: beam will be injected into CERN 's new 'flagship', the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). From then on high energy physics experiments will exploit the LHC 's colliding beams of protons and lead ions with a center of mass energy of 14 TeV and 1150 TeV, respectively. Radiation Protection aspects were taken into account during the whole duration of the design phase. Conservative design constraints were defined in 1996; some years later some of them, in particular with respect to the dose to occupational exposed workers, had to be readjusted to account for the latest development in CERN 's radiation protection rules and regulations. Numerous radiation protection studies had been performed to ensure a lay-out of the machine and its experiments in compliance with these constraints. These studies assessed all radiation risks related to the various beam-operation modes of the accelerator. In all cases external exposure was identified as the major risk: due to high energetic, mixed radiation fields during beam-on and due to beta and gamma radiation fields caused by induced radioactivity during beam-off. Counter measures were implemented like an optimized beam operation to limit beam losses, installation of thick shielding, prohibition of access to the major part of the LHC underground areas during beam-operation and optimization of the equipment and its handling during maintenance and repair. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations were performed to derive from the various beam loss scenarios the dose rates the workers will be exposed to. Individual and collective doses were projected based on the calculations and the maintenance scenarios provided by the teams concerned. In an iterative way the lay-out of the various regions were optimized

  16. Prompt D*+ production in proton-proton and lead-lead collisions, measured with the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, R. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the results are presented of the first measurements of the D*+ meson nuclear modification factor RAA in heavy ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) detector at CERN. These open charmed mesons are a useful tool to

  17. Ion colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions (77Asb1, 81Bou1). The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  18. Ion colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions [77Asb1, 81Bou1]. The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  19. Reliability of the beam loss monitors system for the large hadron collider at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guaglio, G.

    2005-12-01

    The energy stored in the Large Hadron Collider is unprecedented. The impact of the beam particles can cause severe damage on the superconductive magnets, resulting in significant downtime for repairing. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) detects the secondary particles shower of the lost beam particles and initiates the extraction of the beam before any serious damage to the equipment can occur. This thesis defines the BLMS specifications in term of reliability. The main goal is the design of a system minimizing both the probability to not detect a dangerous loss and the number of false alarms generated. The reliability theory and techniques utilized are described. The prediction of the hazard rates, the testing procedures, the Failure Modes Effects and Criticalities Analysis and the Fault Tree Analysis have been used to provide an estimation of the probability to damage a magnet, of the number of false alarms and of the number of generated warnings. The weakest components in the BLMS have been pointed out. The reliability figures of the BLMS have been calculated using a commercial software package (Isograph.). The effect of the variation of the parameters on the obtained results has been evaluated with a sensitivity analysis. The reliability model has been extended by the results of radiation tests. Design improvements, like redundant optical transmission, have been implemented in an iterative process. The proposed system is compliant with the reliability requirements. The model uncertainties are given by the limited knowledge of the thresholds levels of the superconductive magnets and of the locations of the losses along the ring. The implemented model allows modifications of the system, following the measuring of the hazard rates during the LHC life. It can also provide reference numbers to other accelerators which will implement similar technologies. (author)

  20. Design and implementation of a crystal collimation test stand at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirarchi, D.; Redaelli, S.; Scandale, W.; Hall, G.

    2017-01-01

    Future upgrades of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) demand improved cleaning performance of its collimation system. Very efficient collimation is required during regular operations at high intensities, because even a small amount of energy deposited on superconducting magnets can cause an abrupt loss of superconducting conditions (quench). The possibility to use a crystal-based collimation system represents an option for improving both cleaning performance and impedance compared to the present system. Before relying on crystal collimation for the LHC, a demonstration under LHC conditions (energy, beam parameters, etc.) and a comparison against the present system is considered mandatory. Thus, a prototype crystal collimation system has been designed and installed in the LHC during the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), to perform feasibility tests during the Run 2 at energies up to 6.5 TeV. The layout is suitable for operation with proton as well as heavy ion beams. In this paper, the design constraints and the solutions proposed for this test stand for feasibility demonstration of crystal collimation at the LHC are presented. The expected cleaning performance achievable with this test stand, as assessed in simulations, is presented and compared to that of the present LHC collimation system. The first experimental observation of crystal channeling in the LHC at the record beam energy of 6.5 TeV has been obtained in 2015 using the layout presented (Scandale et al., Phys Lett B 758:129, 2016). First tests to measure the cleaning performance of this test stand have been carried out in 2016 and the detailed data analysis is still on-going. (orig.)

  1. Design and implementation of a crystal collimation test stand at the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirarchi, D.; Hall, G.; Redaelli, S.; Scandale, W.

    2017-06-01

    Future upgrades of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) demand improved cleaning performance of its collimation system. Very efficient collimation is required during regular operations at high intensities, because even a small amount of energy deposited on superconducting magnets can cause an abrupt loss of superconducting conditions (quench). The possibility to use a crystal-based collimation system represents an option for improving both cleaning performance and impedance compared to the present system. Before relying on crystal collimation for the LHC, a demonstration under LHC conditions (energy, beam parameters, etc.) and a comparison against the present system is considered mandatory. Thus, a prototype crystal collimation system has been designed and installed in the LHC during the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), to perform feasibility tests during the Run 2 at energies up to 6.5 TeV. The layout is suitable for operation with proton as well as heavy ion beams. In this paper, the design constraints and the solutions proposed for this test stand for feasibility demonstration of crystal collimation at the LHC are presented. The expected cleaning performance achievable with this test stand, as assessed in simulations, is presented and compared to that of the present LHC collimation system. The first experimental observation of crystal channeling in the LHC at the record beam energy of 6.5 TeV has been obtained in 2015 using the layout presented (Scandale et al., Phys Lett B 758:129, 2016). First tests to measure the cleaning performance of this test stand have been carried out in 2016 and the detailed data analysis is still on-going.

  2. Chromaticity decay due to superconducting dipoles on the injection plateau of the Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aquilina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that in a superconducting accelerator a significant chromaticity drift can be induced by the decay of the sextupolar component of the main dipoles. In this paper we give a brief overview of what was expected for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC on the grounds of magnetic measurements of individual dipoles carried out during the production. According to this analysis, the decay time constants were of the order of 200 s: since the injection in the LHC starts at least 30 minutes after the magnets are at constant current, the dynamic correction of this effect was not considered to be necessary. The first beam measurements of chromaticity showed significant decay even after a few hours. For this reason, a dynamic correction of decay on the injection plateau was implemented based on beam measurements. This means that during the injection plateau the sextupole correctors are powered with a varying current to cancel out the decay of the dipoles. This strategy has been implemented successfully. A similar phenomenon has been observed for the dependence of the decay amplitude on the powering history of the dipoles: according to magnetic measurements, also in this case time constants are of the order of 200 s and therefore no difference is expected between a one hour or a ten hours flattop. On the other hand, the beam measurements show a significant change of decay for these two conditions. For the moment there is no clue of the origin of these discrepancies. We give a complete overview of the two effects, and the modifications that have been done to the field model parameters to be able to obtain a final chromaticity correction within a few units.

  3. Design and implementation of a crystal collimation test stand at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirarchi, D.; Redaelli, S.; Scandale, W. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hall, G. [Imperial College, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    Future upgrades of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) demand improved cleaning performance of its collimation system. Very efficient collimation is required during regular operations at high intensities, because even a small amount of energy deposited on superconducting magnets can cause an abrupt loss of superconducting conditions (quench). The possibility to use a crystal-based collimation system represents an option for improving both cleaning performance and impedance compared to the present system. Before relying on crystal collimation for the LHC, a demonstration under LHC conditions (energy, beam parameters, etc.) and a comparison against the present system is considered mandatory. Thus, a prototype crystal collimation system has been designed and installed in the LHC during the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), to perform feasibility tests during the Run 2 at energies up to 6.5 TeV. The layout is suitable for operation with proton as well as heavy ion beams. In this paper, the design constraints and the solutions proposed for this test stand for feasibility demonstration of crystal collimation at the LHC are presented. The expected cleaning performance achievable with this test stand, as assessed in simulations, is presented and compared to that of the present LHC collimation system. The first experimental observation of crystal channeling in the LHC at the record beam energy of 6.5 TeV has been obtained in 2015 using the layout presented (Scandale et al., Phys Lett B 758:129, 2016). First tests to measure the cleaning performance of this test stand have been carried out in 2016 and the detailed data analysis is still on-going. (orig.)

  4. Measured and simulated heavy-ion beam loss patterns at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, P. D.; Bruce, R.; Jowett, J. M.; Redaelli, S.; Salvachua Ferrando, B.; Valentino, G.; Wollmann, D.

    2016-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN pushes forward to new regimes in terms of beam energy and intensity. In view of the combination of very energetic and intense beams together with sensitive machine components, in particular the superconducting magnets, the LHC is equipped with a collimation system to provide protection and intercept uncontrolled beam losses. Beam losses could cause a superconducting magnet to quench, or in the worst case, damage the hardware. The collimation system, which is optimized to provide a good protection with proton beams, has shown a cleaning efficiency with heavy-ion beams which is worse by up to two orders of magnitude. The reason for this reduced cleaning efficiency is the fragmentation of heavy-ion beams into isotopes with a different mass to charge ratios because of the interaction with the collimator material. In order to ensure sufficient collimation performance in future ion runs, a detailed theoretical understanding of ion collimation is needed. The simulation of heavy-ion collimation must include processes in which 82 + 208Pb ions fragment into dozens of new isotopes. The ions and their fragments must be tracked inside the magnetic lattice of the LHC to determine their loss positions. This paper gives an overview of physical processes important for the description of heavy-ion loss patterns. Loss maps simulated by means of the two tools ICOSIM [1,2] and the newly developed STIER (SixTrack with Ion-Equivalent Rigidities) are compared with experimental data measured during LHC operation. The comparison shows that the tool STIER is in better agreement.

  5. Asymmetric collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaj, V.; Colestock, P.; Goderre, G.; Johnson, D.; Martin, P.; Holt, J.; Kaplan, D.

    1993-01-01

    The study of CP violation in beauty decay is one of the key challenges facing high energy physics. Much work has not yielded a definitive answer how this study might best be performed. However, one clear conclusion is that new accelerator facilities are needed. Proposals include experiments at asymmetric electron-positron colliders and in fixed-target and collider modes at LHC and SSC. Fixed-target and collider experiments at existing accelerators, while they might succeed in a first observation of the effect, will not be adequate to study it thoroughly. Giomataris has emphasized the potential of a new approach to the study of beauty CP violation: the asymmetric proton collider. Such a collider might be realized by the construction of a small storage ring intersecting an existing or soon-to-exist large synchrotron, or by arranging collisions between a large synchrotron and its injector. An experiment at such a collider can combine the advantages of fixed-target-like spectrometer geometry, facilitating triggering, particle identification and the instrumentation of a large acceptance, while the increased √s can provide a factor > 100 increase in beauty-production cross section compared to Tevatron or HERA fixed-target. Beams crossing at a non-zero angle can provide a small interaction region, permitting a first-level decay-vertex trigger to be implemented. To achieve large √s with a large Lorentz boost and high luminosity, the most favorable venue is the high-energy booster (HEB) at the SSC Laboratory, though the CERN SPS and Fermilab Tevatron are also worth considering

  6. Emittance growth due to noise and its suppression with the Feedback system in large hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.; Parkhomchuk, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Stupakov, G.

    1993-03-01

    The problem of emittance growth due to random fluctuation of the magnetic field in hadron colliders is considered. Based on a simple one-dimensional linear model, a formula for an emittance growth rate as a function of the noise spectrum is derived. Different sources of the noise are analyzed and their role is estimated for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). A theory of feedback suppression of the emittance growth is developed which predicts the residual growth of the emittance in the accelerator with a feedback system

  7. Probing electroweak gauge boson scattering with the ATLAS detector at the large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anger, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Electroweak gauge bosons as central components of the Standard Model of particle physics are well understood theoretically and have been studied with high precision at past and present collider experiments. The electroweak theory predicts the existence of a scattering process of these particles consisting of contributions from triple and quartic bosonic couplings as well as Higgs boson mediated interactions. These contributions are not separable in a gauge invariant way and are only unitarized in the case of a Higgs boson as it is described by the Standard Model. The process is tied to the electroweak symmetry breaking which introduces the longitudinal modes for the massive electroweak gauge bosons. A study of this interaction is also a direct verification of the local gauge symmetry as one of the fundamental axioms of the Standard Model. With the start of the Large Hadron Collider and after collecting proton-proton collision data with an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb -1 at a center-of-mass energy of √(s)=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector, first-ever evidence for this process could be achieved in the context of this work. A study of leptonically decaying W ± W ± jj, same-electric-charge diboson production in association with two jets resulted in an observation of the electroweak W ± W ± jj production with same electric charge of the W bosons, inseparably comprising W ± W ± →W ± W ± electroweak gauge boson scattering contributions, with a significance of 3.6 standard deviations. The measured production cross section is in agreement with the Standard Model prediction. In the course of a study for leptonically decaying WZ productions, methods for background estimation, the extraction of systematic uncertainties and cross section measurements were developed. They were extended and applied to the WZjj final state whereof the purely electroweakly mediated contribution is intrinsically tied to the scattering of all Standard Model electroweak gauge bosons: W

  8. Design optimization of 600 A-13 kA current leads for the Large Hadron Collider project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Spiller, D M; Al-Mosawl, M K; Friend, C M; Thacker, P; Ballarino, A

    2001-01-01

    The requirements of the Large Hadron Collider project at CERN for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads have been widely publicized. CERN require hybrid current leads of resistive and HTS materials with current ratings of 600 A, 6 kA and 13 kA. BICC General Superconductors, in collaboration with the University of Southampton, have developed and manufactured prototype current leads for the Large Hadron Collider project. The resistive section consists of a phosphorus de-oxidized copper conductor and heat exchanger and the HTS section is constructed from BICC General's (Pb, Bi)2223 tapes with a reduced thermal conductivity Ag alloy sheath. We present the results of the materials optimization studies for the resistive and the HTS sections. Some results of the acceptance tests at CERN are discussed. (9 refs).

  9. For information - Université de Genève : Accelerator Physics Challenges for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2005-01-01

    UNIVERSITE DE GENEVE Faculte des sciences Section de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet - 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél : (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Mercredi 16 March SEMINAIRE DE PHYSIQUE CORPUSCULAIRE à 17h00 - Auditoire Stückelberg Accelerator Physics Challenges for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN Prof. Olivier Bruning / CERN The Large Hadron Collider project at CERN will bring the energy frontier of high energy particle physics back to Europe and with it push the accelerator technology into uncharted teritory. The talk presents the LHC project in the context of the past CERN accelerator developments and addresses the main challenges in terms of technology and accelerator physics. Information: http://dpnc.unige.ch/seminaire/annonce.html Organizer: A. Cervera Villanueva

  10. Advances in elementary particle physics with applied superconductivity. Contribution of superconducting technology to CERN large hadron collider accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was started in 1994 and completed in 2008. The LHC consists of more than seven thousand superconducting magnets and cavities, which play an essential role in elementary particle physics and its energy frontier. Since 2010, physics experiments at the new energy frontier have been carried out to investigate the history and elementary particle phenomena in the early universe. The superconducting technology applied in the energy frontier physics experiments is briefly introduced. (author)

  11. Inclusive large mass muon pair production in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions for colliding beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    For colliding beams of several species of ions we compare thermal to perturbative quantum chromodynamic contributions for inclusive large mass muon pair production by using a hydrodynamic model to estimate the temperatures of the quark-gluon plasma produced by each species. The production of high energy dimuons with M ≅-4 GeV, will be favored energetically by the quark-gluon plasma. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Large hadron collider will get us closer to the Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Khadilkar, Dhananjay

    2006-01-01

    The LHC consists of a 27 km tunnel located 100 meters under the ground near Geneva in Switzerland, lined with hundreds of superconducting magnets which will accelerate protons and subsequently collide them at mind-boggling energies of 14 terra electorn Volts. The result will be conditions prevalent just microseconds after the Big Band 15 billion years ago (1/2 page)

  13. Large Hadron Collider at CERN: Beams generating high-energy-density matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N A; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations that have been carried out to study the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic responses of a solid copper cylindrical target that is facially irradiated along the axis by one of the two Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 7 TeV/ c proton beams. The energy deposition by protons in solid copper has been calculated using an established particle interaction and Monte Carlo code, FLUKA, which is capable of simulating all components of the particle cascades in matter, up to multi-TeV energies. These data have been used as input to a sophisticated two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code BIG2 that has been employed to study this problem. The prime purpose of these investigations was to assess the damage caused to the equipment if the entire LHC beam is lost at a single place. The FLUKA calculations show that the energy of protons will be deposited in solid copper within about 1 m assuming constant material parameters. Nevertheless, our hydrodynamic simulations have shown that the energy deposition region will extend to a length of about 35 m over the beam duration. This is due to the fact that first few tens of bunches deposit sufficient energy that leads to high pressure that generates an outgoing radial shock wave. Shock propagation leads to continuous reduction in the density at the target center that allows the protons delivered in subsequent bunches to penetrate deeper and deeper into the target. This phenomenon has also been seen in case of heavy-ion heated targets [N. A. Tahir, A. Kozyreva, P. Spiller, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and A. Shutov, Phys. Rev. E 63, 036407 (2001)]. This effect needs to be considered in the design of a sacrificial beam stopper. These simulations have also shown that the target is severely damaged and is converted into a huge sample of high-energy density (HED) matter. In fact, the inner part of the target is transformed into a strongly coupled plasma with fairly uniform physical conditions. This work, therefore, has

  14. arXiv Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Multiple Partonic Interactions at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Astalos, R.; Bartalini, P.; Belyaev, I.; Bierlich, Ch.; Blok, B.; Buckley, A.; Ceccopieri, F.A.; Cherednikov, I.; Christiansen, J.R.; Ciangottini, D.; Deak, M.; Ducloue, B.; Field, R.; Gaunt, J.R.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Goerlich, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Gueta, O.; Gunnellini, P.; Helenius, I.; Jung, H.; Kar, D.; Kepka, O.; Klusek-Gawenda, M.; Knutsson, A.; Kotko, P.; Krasny, M.W.; Kutak, K.; Lewandowska, E.; Lykasov, G.; Maciula, R.; Moraes, A.M.; Martin, T.; Mitsuka, G.; Motyka, L.; Myska, M.; Otwinowski, J.; Pierog, T.; Pleskot, V.; Rinaldi, M.; Schafer, W.; Siodmok, A.; Sjostrand, T.; Snigirev, A.; Stasto, A.; Staszewski, R.; Stebel, T.; Strikman, M.; Szczurek, A.; Treleani, D.; Trzebinski, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Hameren, A.; van Mechelen, P.; Waalewijn, W.; Wang, W.Y.; MPI@LHC 2014

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Partonic Interactions are often crucial for interpreting results obtained at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The quest for a sound understanding of the dynamics behind MPI - particularly at this time when the LHC is due to start its "Run II" operations - has focused the aim of this workshop. MPI@LHC2014 concentrated mainly on the phenomenology of LHC measurements whilst keeping in perspective those results obtained at previous hadron colliders. The workshop has also debated some of the state-of-the-art theoretical considerations and the modeling of MPI in Monte Carlo event generators. The topics debated in the workshop included: Phenomenology of MPI processes and multiparton distributions; Considerations for the description of MPI in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD); Measuring multiple partonic interactions; Experimental results on inelastic hadronic collisions: underlying event, minimum bias, forward energy flow; Monte Carlo generator development and tuning; Connections with low-x phenomena, diffractio...

  15. Comparison of electric dipole moments and the Large Hadron Collider for probing CP violation in triple boson vertices

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Sunghoon

    2009-01-01

    CP violation from physics beyond the Standard Model may reside in triple boson vertices of the electroweak theory. We review the effective theory description and discuss how CP violating contributions to these vertices might be discerned by electric dipole moments (EDM) or diboson production at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Despite triple boson CP violating interactions entering EDMs only at the two-loop level, we find that EDM experiments are generally more powerful than the diboson processes. To give example to these general considerations we perform the comparison between EDMs and collider observables within supersymmetric theories that have heavy sfermions, such that substantive EDMs at the one-loop level are disallowed. EDMs generally remain more powerful probes, and next-generation EDM experiments may surpass even the most optimistic assumptions for LHC sensitivities.

  16. The Response of CMS Combined Calorimeters to Single Hadrons, Electrons and Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, Nural; Gumus, Kazim; Jeong Chi Young; Kim Hee Jong; Lee Sung Won; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We report on the response of the combined CMS electromagnetic (EB) and hadronic barrel (HB) calorimeters to hadrons, electrons and muons in a wide momentum range from 1 to 350 GeV/c. To our knowledge, this is the widest range of momenta in which any calorimeter system is studied. These tests, carried out at the H2 beam-line at CERN, provide a wealth of information, especially at low energies. We analyze in detail the differences in total calorimeter response to charged pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons and discuss the underlying phenomena. These data will play a crucial role in the thorough understanding of jets in CMS.

  17. Right-handed charged currents in the era of the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alioli, S. [CERN Theory Division,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cirigliano, V. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory,Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Dekens, W. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory,Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos Research Park,Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Vries, J. de [Nikhef, Theory Group,Science Park 105, 1098 XG, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mereghetti, E. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory,Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-05-16

    We discuss the phenomenology of right-handed charged currents in the framework of the Standard Model Effective Field Theory, in which they arise due to a single gauge-invariant dimension-six operator. We study the manifestations of the nine complex couplings of the W to right-handed quarks in collider physics, flavor physics, and low-energy precision measurements. We first obtain constraints on the couplings under the assumption that the right-handed operator is the dominant correction to the Standard Model at observable energies. We subsequently study the impact of degeneracies with other Beyond-the-Standard-Model effective interactions and identify observables, both at colliders and low-energy experiments, that would uniquely point to right-handed charged currents.

  18. Suggestions for new transverse oscillations damping systems in large synchrotrons and colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I.N.; Melnikov, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the high requirements on beam quality, modern synchrotrons and colliders require special systems for transverse oscillation damping (TDS). New system for the correction of injection errors and multibunch instabilities is proposed. The special beam monitor on the basis of the axial-slotted lines is developed for the transverse beam velocity measuring. The special nonlinear regime of damping is suggested to decrease the operating time of TDS. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. American superconductor technology to help CERN to explore the mysteries of matter company's high temperature superconductor wire to be used in CERN's Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    American Superconductor Corporation has been selected by CERN, to provide 14,000 meters of high temperature superconductor (HTS) wire for current lead devices that will be used in CERN's Large Hadron Collider (1 page).

  20. Comprehending particle production in proton+proton and heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Raghunath

    2017-01-01

    In the extreme conditions of temperature and energy density, nuclear matter undergoes a transition to a new phase, which is governed by partonic degrees of freedom. This phase is called Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). The transition to QGP phase was conjectured to take place in central nucleus-nucleus collisions. With the advent of unprecedented collision energy at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN, it has been possible to create energy densities higher than that was predicted by lattice QCD for a deconfinement transition

  1. Electromagnetic Design and Optimization of Directivity of Stripline Beam Position Monitors for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Draskovic, Drasko; Jones, Owain Rhodri; Lefèvre, Thibaut; Wendt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary electromagnetic design of a stripline Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the High Luminosity program of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN. The design is fitted into a new octagonal shielded Beam Screen for the low-beta triplets and is optimized for high directivity. It also includes internal Tungsten absorbers, required to reduce the energy deposition in the superconducting magnets. The achieved broadband directivity in wakefield solver simulations presents significant improvement over the directivity of the current stripline BPMs installed in the LHC.

  2. Reliability of Beam Loss Monitors System for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Guaglio, Gianluca; Santoni, C

    2004-01-01

    The employment of superconducting magnets, in the high energies colliders, opens challenging failure scenarios and brings new criticalities for the whole system protection. For the LHC beam loss protection system, the failure rate and the availability requirements have been evaluated using the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) approach. A downtime cost evaluation is used as input for the SIL approach. The most critical systems, which contribute to the final SIL value, are the dump system, the interlock system, the beam loss monitors system and the energy monitor system. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) is critical for short and intense particles losses, while at medium and higher loss time it is assisted by other systems, such as the quench protection system and the cryogenic system. For BLMS, hardware and software have been evaluated in detail. The reliability input figures have been collected using historical data from the SPS, using temperature and radiation damage experimental data as well as using standar...

  3. Distinguishing the Higgs Boson from the Dilaton at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Skiba, Witold; Grinstein, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    It is likely that the LHC will observe a color- and charge-neutral scalar whose decays are consistent with those of the standard model (SM) Higgs boson. The Higgs interpretation of such a discovery is not the only possibility. For example, electroweak symmetry breaking could be triggered by a spontaneously broken, nearly conformal sector. The spectrum of states at the electroweak scale would then contain a narrow scalar resonance, the pseudo-Goldstone boson of conformal symmetry breaking, with Higgs-boson-like properties. If the conformal sector is strongly coupled, this pseudodilaton may be the only new state accessible at high energy colliders. We discuss the prospects for distinguishing this mode from a minimal Higgs boson at the LHC and ILC. The main discriminants between the two scenarios are (i) cubic self-interactions and (ii) a potential enhancement of couplings to massless SM gauge bosons

  4. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Zhang, Chunhui; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hilden, Timo Eero; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; 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Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobayashi, Taiyo; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Legrand, Iosif; Lehas, Fatiha; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; 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Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pant, Divyash; Papcun, Peter; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rivetti, Angelo; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; 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Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasar, Cigdem; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-01-19

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. In this paper, we present the multiplicity distribution of these atmospheric muons and its comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. This analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density $\\rho_{\\mu} > 5.9~$m$^{-2}$. Similar events have been studied in previous underground experiments such as ALEPH and DELPHI at LEP. While these experiments were able to reproduce the measured muon multiplicity distribution with Monte Carlo simulations at low and intermediate multiplic...

  5. Trends in Cable Magnetization and Persistent Currents during the Production of the Main Dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, B; Granata, V; Le Naour, S; Oberli, L; Sanfilippo, S; Santoni, C; Scandale, Walter; Schwerg, N; Todesco, Ezio; Völlinger, C

    2005-01-01

    The production of more than 60% of superconducting cables for the main dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider has been completed. The results of the measurements of cable magnetization and the dependence on the manufacturers are presented. The strand magnetization produces field errors that have been measured in a large number of dipoles (approximately 100 to date) tested in cold conditions. We examine here the correlation between the available magnetic measurements and the large database of cable magnetization. The analysis is based on models documented elsewhere in the literature. Finally, a forecast of the persistent current effects to be expected in the LHC main dipoles is presented, and the more critical parameters for beam dynamics are singled out.

  6. A Silicon Strip Detector for the Phase II High Luminosity Upgrade of the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00425747; McMahon, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that detects proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV. The Semiconductor Tracker is part of the Inner Detector, implemented using silicon microstrip detectors with binary read-out, providing momentum measurement of charged particles with excellent resolution. The operation of the LHC and the ATLAS experiment started in 2010, with ten years of operation expected until major upgrades are needed in the accelerator and the experiments. The ATLAS tracker will need to be completely replaced due to the radiation damage and occupancy of some detector elements and the data links at high luminosities. These upgrades after the first ten years of operation are named the Phase-II Upgrade and involve a re-design of the LHC, resulting in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). This thesis presents the work carried out in the testing of the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade electronic systems in the future strips tracker a...

  7. Track distortion in a micromegas based large prototype of a Time Projection Chamber for the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Deb Sankar; Majumdar, Nayana; Sarkar, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Bhattacharya, P.; Attie, D.; Colas, P.; Ganjour, S.; Bhattacharya, Aparajita

    2016-01-01

    The principal particle tracker at the International Linear Collider (ILC) is planned to be a large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) where different Micro Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGDs) candidate as the gaseous amplifier. A Micromegas (MM) based TPC can meet the ILC requirement of continuous and precise pattern recognition. Seven MM modules, working as the end-plate of a Large Prototype TPC (LPTPC) installed at DESY, have been tested with a 5 GeV electron beam. Due to the grounded peripheral frame of the MM modules, at low drift, the electric field lines near the detector edge remain no longer parallel to the TPC axis. This causes signal loss along the boundaries of the MM modules as well as distortion in the reconstructed track. In presence of magnetic field, the distorted electric field introduces ExB effect

  8. Field quality in low-β superconducting quadrupoles and impact on the beam dynamics for the Large Hadron Collider upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bellesia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A possible scenario for the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider is based on large aperture quadrupoles to lower β^{*} in the interaction regions. Here we analyze the measurements relative to the field quality of the RHIC and LHC superconducting quadrupoles to find out the dependence of field errors on the size of the magnet aperture. Data are interpreted in the framework of a Monte Carlo analysis giving the reproducibility in the coil positioning reached in each production. We show that this precision is likely to be independent of the magnet aperture. Using this result, we can carry out an estimate of the impact of the field quality on the beam dynamics for the collision optics.

  9. Supersymmetry searches in events with at least four leptons using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)732150

    This thesis presents a search for supersymmetry using the dataset taken by ATLAS at the Large Hadron Collider with $\\sqrt{s}=$8$~$TeV during 2012. Events with four or more leptons are selected and required to satisfy additional kinematic criteria that define optimised signal regions. These criteria are chosen to reject the majority of events produced by Standard Model processes, whilst retaining a large fraction of events produced by a variety of proposed supersymmetry scenarios. The expected number of Standard Model events are estimated using a combination of Monte Carlo and data-driven methods, the predictions of which are tested against data in specifically designed validation regions. No significant deviations from the Standard Model estimations are observed within statistical and systematic uncertainties. Exclusion limits are then set at 95$\\%$ confidence level (CL) on a wide range of R-parity conserving and R-parity violating supersymmetry simplified models, as well as models of general gauge mediated s...

  10. Dual branch high voltage pulse generator for the beam extraction of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bonthond, J; Ducimetière, L; Jansson, U; Vossenberg, Eugène B

    2002-01-01

    The LHC beam extraction kicker system, MKD, is composed of 15 fast kicker magnets per beam to extract the particles in one turn from the collider and to dispose them, after dilution, on an external absorber. Each magnet is powered by a separate pulse generator. The original single branch generator consisted of a discharge capacitor in series with a solid state closing switch left bracket 1 right bracket operating at 30 kV. In combination with a parallel freewheel diode stack this generator produced a current pulse of 2.7 mus rise time, 18.5 kA amplitude and about 1.8 ms fall time, of which only about 90 mus are needed to dump the beam. The freewheel diode circuit is equipped with a flat top current droop compensation network, consisting of a low voltage, low stray inductance, high current discharge capacitor. Extensive reliability studies have meanwhile suggested to further increase the operational safety of this crucial system by equipping each generator with two parallel branches. This paper presents the re...

  11. Reliability of Beam Loss Monitors System for the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaglio, G.; Dehning, B.; Santoni, C.

    2004-11-01

    The employment of superconducting magnets in high energy colliders opens challenging failure scenarios and brings new criticalities for the whole system protection. For the LHC beam loss protection system, the failure rate and the availability requirements have been evaluated using the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) approach. A downtime cost evaluation is used as input for the SIL approach. The most critical systems, which contribute to the final SIL value, are the dump system, the interlock system, the beam loss monitors system and the energy monitor system. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) is critical for short and intense particle losses, while at medium and higher loss time it is assisted by other systems, such as the quench protection system and the cryogenic system. For BLMS, hardware and software have been evaluated in detail. The reliability input figures have been collected using historical data from the SPS, using temperature and radiation damage experimental data as well as using standard databases. All the data have been processed by reliability software (Isograph). The analysis ranges from the components data to the system configuration.

  12. Reliability of Beam Loss Monitors System for the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guaglio, G.; Dehning, B.; Santoni, C.

    2004-01-01

    The employment of superconducting magnets in high energy colliders opens challenging failure scenarios and brings new criticalities for the whole system protection. For the LHC beam loss protection system, the failure rate and the availability requirements have been evaluated using the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) approach. A downtime cost evaluation is used as input for the SIL approach. The most critical systems, which contribute to the final SIL value, are the dump system, the interlock system, the beam loss monitors system and the energy monitor system. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) is critical for short and intense particle losses, while at medium and higher loss time it is assisted by other systems, such as the quench protection system and the cryogenic system. For BLMS, hardware and software have been evaluated in detail. The reliability input figures have been collected using historical data from the SPS, using temperature and radiation damage experimental data as well as using standard databases. All the data have been processed by reliability software (Isograph). The analysis ranges from the components data to the system configuration

  13. Lattice design and beam optics calculations for the new large-scale electron-positron collider FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Haerer, Bastian; Prof. Dr. Schmidt, Ruediger; Dr. Holzer, Bernhard

    Following the recommendations of the European Strategy Group for High Energy Physics, CERN launched the Future Circular Collider Study (FCC) to investigate the feasibility of large-scale circular colliders for future high energy physics research. This thesis presents the considerations taken into account during the design process of the magnetic lattice in the arc sections of the electron-positron version FCC-ee. The machine is foreseen to operate at four different centre-of-mass energies in the range of 90 to 350 GeV. Different beam parameters need to be achieved for every energy, which requires a flexible lattice design in the arc sections. Therefore methods to tune the horizontal beam emittance without re-positioning machine components are implemented. In combination with damping and excitation wigglers a precise adjustment of the emittance can be achieved. A very first estimation of the vertical emittance arising from lattice imperfections is performed. Special emphasis is put on the optimisation of the ...

  14. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Schmidt, R; Piriz, A R

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding...

  15. Construction and testing of a large scale prototype of a silicon tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter for a future lepton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouëné, Jérémy

    2013-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration is preparing large scale prototypes of highly granular calorimeters for detectors to be operated at a future linear electron positron collider. After several beam campaigns at DESY, CERN and FNAL, the CALICE collaboration has demonstrated the principle of highly granular electromagnetic calorimeters with a first prototype called physics prototype. The next prototype, called technological prototype, addresses the engineering challenges which come along with the realisation of highly granular calorimeters. This prototype will comprise 30 layers where each layer is composed of four 9×9 cm 2 silicon wafers. The front end electronics is integrated into the detector layers. The size of each pixel is 5×5 mm 2 . This prototype enters its construction phase. We present results of the first layers of the technological prototype obtained during beam test campaigns in spring and summer 2012. According to these results the signal over noise ratio of the detector exceeds the R and D goal of 10:1

  16. Simulation study of electron cloud induced instabilities and emittance growth for the CERN Large Hadron Collider proton beam

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, Elena; Schulte, Daniel; Rumolo, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    The electron cloud may cause transverse single-bunch instabilities of proton beams such as those in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). We simulate these instabilities and the consequent emittance growth with the code HEADTAIL, which models the turn-by-turn interaction between the cloud and the beam. Recently some new features were added to the code, in particular, electric conducting boundary conditions at the chamber wall, transverse feedback, and variable beta functions. The sensitivity to several numerical parameters has been studied by varying the number of interaction points between the bunch and the cloud, the phase advance between them, and the number of macroparticles used to represent the protons and the electrons. We present simulation results for both LHC at injection and SPS with LHC-type beam, for different electron-cloud density levels, chromaticities, and bunch intensities. Two regimes with qualitatively different emittance growth are observed: above th...

  17. Model-independent description and Large Hadron Collider implications of suppressed two-photon decay of a light Higgs boson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phalen, Daniel J.; Thomas, Brooks; Wells, James D.

    2007-01-01

    For a standard model Higgs boson with mass between 115 GeV and 150 GeV, the two-photon decay mode is important for discovery at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We describe the interactions of a light Higgs boson in a more model-independent fashion and consider the parameter space where there is no two-photon decay mode. We argue from generalities that analysis of the tth discovery mode outside its normal thought of range of applicability is especially needed under these circumstances. We demonstrate the general conclusion with a specific example of parameters of a type I two-Higgs doublet theory, motivated by ideas in strongly coupled model building. We then specify a complete set of branching fractions and discuss the implications for the LHC

  18. A Particle Consistent with the Higgs Boson Observed with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Dressnandt, Nandor; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Duguid, Liam; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; 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Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gildemeister, Otto; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Goshaw, Alfred; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernandez, Carlos Medina; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molfetas, Angelos; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; 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Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, theoretical physicists proposed that a field permeates the universe and gives energy to the vacuum. This field was required to explain why some, but not all, fundamental particles have mass. Numerous precision measurements during recent decades have provided indirect support for the existence of this field, but one crucial prediction of this theory has remained unconfirmed despite 30 years of experimental searches: the existence of a massive particle, the standard model Higgs boson. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has now observed the production of a new particle with a mass of 126 giga–electron volts and decay signatures consistent with those expected for the Higgs particle. This result is strong support for the standard model of particle physics, including the presence of this vacuum field. The existence and properties of the newly discovered particle may also have consequences beyond the standard model itself.

  19. Optimising charged Higgs boson searches at the Large Hadron Collider across bb¯W± final states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Moretti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the most recent data from Higgs boson searches and analyses, we re-assess the scope of the Large Hadron Collider in accessing heavy charged Higgs boson signals in bb¯W± final states, wherein the contributing channels can be H+→tb¯, hW±, HW± and AW±. We consider a 2-Higgs Doublet Model Type-II and we assume as production mode bg→tH−+c.c., the dominant one over the range MH±≥480 GeV, as dictated by b→sγ constraints. Prospects of detection are found to be significant for various Run 2 energy and luminosity options.

  20. Quench protection test results and comparative simulations on the first 10 meter prototype dipoles for the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Mateos, F.; Gerin, G.; Marquis, A.

    1996-01-01

    The first 10 meter long dipole prototypes made by European Industry within the framework of the R and D program for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have been tested at CERN. As a part of the test program, a series of quench protection tests have been carried out in order to qualify the basic protection scheme foreseen for the LHC dipoles (quench heaters and cold diodes). Results are presented on the quench heater performance, and on the maximum temperatures and voltages observed during quenches under the so-called machine conditions. Moreover, an update of the quench simulation package specially developed at CERN (QUABER 2) has been recently made. Details on this new version of QUABER are given. Simulation runs have been made specifically to validate the model with the results from the measurements on quench protection mentioned above

  1. Cryogenic testing of by-pass diode stacks for the superconducting magnets of the large hadron collider at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Corte, A.; Catitti, A.; Chiarelli, S.; Di Ferdinando, E.; Verdini, L.; Gharib, A.; Hagedorn, D.; Turtu, S.; Basile, G. L.; Taddia, G.; Talli, M.; Viola, R.

    2002-01-01

    A dedicated facility prepared by ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy and Environment) for the cryogenic testing of by-pass diodes for the protection of the CERN Large Hadron Collider main magnets will be described. This experimental activity is in the frame of a contract awarded to OCEM, an Italian firm active in the field of electronic devices and power supplies, in collaboration with ENEA, for the manufacture and testing of all the diode stacks. In particular, CERN requests the measurement of the reverse and forward voltage diode characteristics at 300 K and 77 K, and endurance test cycles at liquid helium temperature. The experimental set-up at ENEA and data acquisition system developed for the scope will be described and the test results reported

  2. Calculation of abort thresholds for the Beam Loss Monitoring System of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Nemcic, Martin; Dehning, Bernd

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is one of the most critical machine protection systems for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Switzerland. Its main purpose is to protect the superconducting magnets from quenches and other equipment from damage by requesting a beam abort when the measured losses exceed any of the predefined threshold levels. The system consist of circa 4000 ionization chambers which are installed around the 27 kilometres ring (LHC). This study aims to choose a technical platform and produce a system that addresses all of the limitations with the current system that is used for the calculation of the LHC BLM abort threshold values. To achieve this, a comparison and benchmarking of the Java and .NET technical platforms is performed in order to establish the most suitable solution. To establish which technical platform is a successful replacement of the current abort threshold calculator, comparable prototype systems in Java and .NET we...

  3. A particle consistent with the Higgs boson observed with the ATLAS detector at the large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aad, G.; Ahles, F.; Barber, T.; Bernhard, R.; Boehler, M.; Bruneliere, R.; Christov, A.; Consorti, V.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Flechl, M.; Hartert, J.; Herten, G.; Horner, S.; Jakobs, K.; Janus, M.; Kononov, A.I.; Kuehn, S.; Lai, S.; Landgraf, U.; Lohwasser, K.; Ludwig, I.; Ludwig, J.; Mahboubi, K.; Mohr, W.; Nilsen, H.; Parzefall, U.; Rammensee, M.; Rave, T.C.; Rurikova, Z.; Schmidt, E.; Schumacher, M.; Siegert, F.; Stoerig, K.; Sundermann, J.E.; Temming, K.K.; Thoma, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Venturi, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Radziewski, H. von; Vu Anh, T.; Warsinsky, M.; Weiser, C.; Werner, M.; Wiik-Fuchs, L.A.M.; Winkelmann, S.; Xie, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Abreu, H.; Bachacou, H.; Bauer, F.; Besson, N.; Blanchard, J.B.; Bolnet, N.M.; Boonekamp, M.; Chevalier, L.; Ernwein, J.; Etienvre, A.I.; Formica, A.; Gauthier, L.; Giraud, P.F.; Guyot, C.; Hassani, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lancon, E.; Laporte, J.F.; Legendre, M.; Maiani, C.; Mal, P.; Manjarres Ramos, J.A.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Mijovic, L.; Morange, N.; Nguyen Thi Hong, V.; Nicolaidou, R.; Ouraou, A.; Resende, B.; Royon, C.R.; Schoeffel, L.; Schune, Ph.; Schwindling, J.; Simard, O.; Vranjes, N.; Xiao, M.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Andari, N.; Arnault, C.; Auge, E.; Barrillon, P.; Benoit, M.; Binet, S.; Bourdarios, C.; De La Taille, C.; De Vivie De Regie, J.B.; Duflot, L.; Escalier, M.; Fayard, L.; Fournier, D.; Grivaz, J.F.; Guillemin, T.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hrivnac, J.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Kado, M.; Lorenzo Martinez, N.; Lounis, A.; Makovec, N.; Matricon, P.; Niedercorn, F.; Poggioli, L.; Puzo, P.; Renaud, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rybkin, G.; Sauvan, J.B.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schaffer, A.C.; Serin, L.; Simion, S.; Tanaka, R.; Teinturier, M.; Veillet, J.J.; Wicek, F.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, Z.; Abajyan, T.; Arutinov, D.; Backhaus, M.; Barbero, M.; Bechtle, P.; Brock, I.; Cristinziani, M.; Davey, W.; Desch, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Glatzer, J.; Gonella, L.; Haefner, P.; Havranek, M.; Hellmich, D.; Hillert, S.; Huegging, F.; Karagounis, M.; Khoriauli, G.; Koevesarki, P.; Kostyukhin, V.V.; Kraus, J.K.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, H.; Lapoire, C.; Lehmacher, M.; Leyko, A.M.; Limbach, C.; Loddenkoetter, T.; Mazur, M.; Moser, N.; Mueller, K.; Nanava, G.; Nattermann, T.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.E.; Pohl, D.; Psoroulas, S.; Schaepe, S.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitz, M.; Schultens, M.J.; Schwindt, T.; Stillings, J.A.; Therhaag, J.; Tsung, J.W.; Uchida, K.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Urquijo, P.; Vogel, A.; Toerne, E. von; Wang, T.; Wermes, N.; Wienemann, P.; Zendler, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Abbott, B.; Gutierrez, P.; Jana, D.K.; Marzin, A.; Meera-Lebbai, R.; Norberg, S.; Saleem, M.; Severini, H.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Strauss, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, theoretical physicists proposed that a field permeates the universe and gives energy to the vacuum. This field was required to explain why some, but not all, fundamental particles have mass. Numerous precision measurements during recent decades have provided indirect support for the existence of this field, but one crucial prediction of this theory has remained unconfirmed despite 30 years of experimental searches: the existence of a massive particle, the standard model Higgs boson. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has now observed the production of a new particle with a mass of 126 giga-electron volts and decay signatures consistent with those expected for the Higgs particle. This result is strong support for the standard model of particle physics, including the presence of this vacuum field. The existence and properties of the newly discovered particle may also have consequences beyond the standard model itself. (authors)

  4. Determination of AC Characteristics of Superconducting Dipole Magnets in the Large Hadron Collider Based on Experimental Results and Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ambjørndalen, Sara; Verweij, Arjan

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) utilizes high-field superconducting Main Dipole Magnets that bend the trajectory of the beam. The LHC ring is electrically divided into eight octants, each allocating a 7 km chain of 154 Main Dipole Magnets. Dedicated de- tection and protection systems prevent irreversible magnet damage caused by quenches. Quench is a local transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state. Triggering of such systems, along with other failure scenarios, result in fast transient phenomena. In order to analyze the consequence of such electrical transients and failures in the dipole chain, one needs a circuit model that is validated against measurements. Currently, there exists an equivalent circuit of the Main Dipole Magnet resolved at an aperture level. Each aperture model takes into account the dynamic effects occurring in the magnets, trough a lossy-inductance model and parasitic capacitances to ground. At low frequencies the Main Dipole Magnet behaves as a linear inductor. Ca...

  5. Commissioning and First Operation of the Low-Beta Triplets and Their Electrical Feed Boxes at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Darve, C; Casas-Cubillos, J; Claudet, S; Feher, S; Ferlin, G; Kerby, J; Metral, L; Perin, A; Peterson, T; Prin, H; Rabehl, R; Vauthier, N; Wagner, U; van Weelderen, R

    2010-01-01

    The insertion regions located around the four interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are mainly composed of the low-b triplets, the separation dipoles and their respective electrical feed-boxes (DFBX). The low-b triplets are Nb-Ti superconductor quadrupole magnets, which operate at 215 T/m in superfluid helium at a temperature of 1.9 K. The commissioning and the first operation of these components have been performed. The thermo-mechanical behavior of the low-b triplets and DFBX were studied. Cooling and control systems were tuned to optimize the cryogenic operation of the insertion regions. Hardware commissioning also permitted to test the system response. This paper summarizes the performance results and the lessons learned.

  6. A Demonstration Experiment for the Forecast of Magnetic Field and Field Errors in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Sammut, N J; Bottura, L; Deferne, G; Lamont, M; Miles, J; Sanfilippo, S; Strzelczyk, M; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Xydi, P

    2008-01-01

    In order to reduce the burden on the beam-based feedback, the Large Hadron Collider control system is equipped with the Field Description for the LHC (FiDeL) which provides a forecast of the magnetic field and the multipole field errors. FiDeL has recently been extensively tested at CERN to determine main field tracking, multipole forecasting and compensation accuracy. This paper describes the rationale behind the tests, the procedures employed to power the main magnets and their correctors, and finally, we present the results obtained. We also give an indication of the prediction accuracy that the system can deliver during the operation of the LHC and we discuss the implications that these will have on the machine performance.

  7. Development of radiation-tolerant components for the quench detection system at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitterling, Oliver

    2017-04-03

    This works describes the results of a three year project to improve the radiation tolerance of the Quench Protection System of the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Radiation-induced premature beam aborts have been a limiting factor for accelerator availability in the recent years. Furthermore, the future upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider to its High Luminosity phase will further increase the radiation load and has higher requirements for the overall machine availability. Therefore equipment groups like the Quench protection groups have used the last years to redesign many of their systems to fulfill those requirements. In support of the development of radiation-tolerant systems, several proton beam irradiation campaigns were conducted to determine the inherent radiation tolerance of a selection of varied electronic components. Using components from this selection a new Quench Protection System for the 600 A corrector magnets was developed. The radiation tolerance of this system was further improved by developing a filter and error correction system for all discovered failure modes. Furthermore, compliance of the new system with the specification was shown by simulating the behavior of the system using data taken from the irradiation campaigns. The resulting system is operational since the beginning of 2016 and has in the first 9 months of operation not shown a single radiation-induced failure. Using results from simulations and irradiation campaigns the predicted failure cross section for the full new 600 A Quench Protection System is 4.358±0.564.10{sup -10} cm{sup 2} which is one order of magnitude lower than the target set during the development of this system.

  8. Development of radiation-tolerant components for the quench detection system at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitterling, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    This works describes the results of a three year project to improve the radiation tolerance of the Quench Protection System of the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Radiation-induced premature beam aborts have been a limiting factor for accelerator availability in the recent years. Furthermore, the future upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider to its High Luminosity phase will further increase the radiation load and has higher requirements for the overall machine availability. Therefore equipment groups like the Quench protection groups have used the last years to redesign many of their systems to fulfill those requirements. In support of the development of radiation-tolerant systems, several proton beam irradiation campaigns were conducted to determine the inherent radiation tolerance of a selection of varied electronic components. Using components from this selection a new Quench Protection System for the 600 A corrector magnets was developed. The radiation tolerance of this system was further improved by developing a filter and error correction system for all discovered failure modes. Furthermore, compliance of the new system with the specification was shown by simulating the behavior of the system using data taken from the irradiation campaigns. The resulting system is operational since the beginning of 2016 and has in the first 9 months of operation not shown a single radiation-induced failure. Using results from simulations and irradiation campaigns the predicted failure cross section for the full new 600 A Quench Protection System is 4.358±0.564.10 -10 cm 2 which is one order of magnitude lower than the target set during the development of this system.

  9. Jet Substructure as a New Higgs-Search Channel at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, Jonathan M.; Davison, Adam R.; Rubin, Mathieu; Salam, Gavin P.

    2008-01-01

    It is widely considered that, for Higgs boson searches at the CERN Large Hadron Colider, WH and ZH production where the Higgs boson decays to bb are poor search channels due to large backgrounds. We show that at high transverse momenta, employing state-of-the-art jet reconstruction and decomposition techniques, these processes can be recovered as promising search channels for the standard model Higgs boson around 120 GeV in mass

  10. Reaching record-low β* at the CERN Large Hadron Collider using a novel scheme of collimator settings and optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, R.; Bracco, C.; De Maria, R.; Giovannozzi, M.; Mereghetti, A.; Mirarchi, D.; Redaelli, S.; Quaranta, E.; Salvachua, B.

    2017-03-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is built to collide intense proton beams with an unprecedented energy of 7 TeV. The design stored energy per beam of 362 MJ makes the LHC beams highly destructive, so that any beam losses risk to cause quenches of superconducting magnets or damage to accelerator components. Collimators are installed to protect the machine and they define a minimum normalized aperture, below which no other element is allowed. This imposes a limit on the achievable luminosity, since when squeezing β* (the β-function at the collision point) to smaller values for increased luminosity, the β-function in the final focusing system increases. This leads to a smaller normalized aperture that risks to go below the allowed collimation aperture. In the first run of the LHC, this was the main limitation on β*, which was constrained to values above the design specification. In this article, we show through theoretical and experimental studies how tighter collimator openings and a new optics with specific phase-advance constraints allows a β* as small as 40 cm, a factor 2 smaller than β*=80 cm used in 2015 and significantly below the design value β*=55 cm, in spite of a lower beam energy. The proposed configuration with β*=40 cm has been successfully put into operation and has been used throughout 2016 as the LHC baseline. The decrease in β* compared to 2015 has been an essential contribution to reaching and surpassing, in 2016, the LHC design luminosity for the first time, and to accumulating a record-high integrated luminosity of around 40 fb-1 in one year, in spite of using less bunches than in the design.

  11. Geometric Scaling in New Combined Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiao-Jiao; Qi Lian; Kang Lin; Xiang Wen-Chang; Zhou Dai-Cui

    2014-01-01

    We study the geometric scaling in the new combined data of the hadron-electron ring accelerator by using the Golec-Biernat—Wüsthoff model. It is found that the description of the data is improved once the high accurate data are used to determine the model parameters. The value of x 0 extracted from the fit is larger than the one from the previous study, which indicates a larger saturation scale in the new combined data. This makes more data located in the saturation region, and our approach is more reliable. This study lets the saturation model confront such high precision new combined data, and tests geometric scaling with those data. We demonstrate that the data lie on the same curve, which shows the geometric scaling in the new combined data. This outcome seems to support that the gluon saturation would be a relevant mechanism to dominate the parton evolution process in deep inelastic scattering, due to the fact that the geometric scaling results from the gluon saturation mechanism

  12. Search for Microscopic Black Hole Signatures at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hartl, Christian; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; Cerny, Karel; De Wolf, Eddi A.; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Adler, Volker; Beauceron, Stephanie; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Ferreira Dias, Marco Andre; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dyulendarova, Milena; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Marinova, Evelina; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Ming; Yang, Min; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A.; Rykaczewski, Hans; Assran, Yasser; Awad, Adel; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Xiao, Hong; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Masetti, Gianni; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Srivastava, Ajay Kumar; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Wolf, Roger; Barth, Christian; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Renz, Manuel; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Dimitrov, Anton; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Marcellini, Stefano; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cimmino, Anna; De Cosa, Annapaola; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Conti, Enrico; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gresele, Ambra; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A.; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H.; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Sá Martins, Pedro; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Bondar, Nikolai; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Breuker, Horst; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Duarte Ramos, Fernando; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Henderson, Conor; Hesketh, Gavin; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Stoye, Markus; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Tsyganov, Andrey; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguiló, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Wilke, Lotte; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Dutta, Suchandra; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Demir, Zahide; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Clough, Andrew; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Fields, Laura Johanna; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M.; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Kaadze, Ketino; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Lomidze, David; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2013-07-16

    A search for microscopic black hole production and decay in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV has been conducted by the CMS Collaboration at the LHC, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35 inverse picobarns. Events with large total transverse energy are analyzed for the presence of multiple high-energy jets, leptons, and photons, typical of a signal expected from a microscopic black hole. Good agreement with the expected standard model backgrounds, dominated by QCD multijet production, is observed for various final-state multiplicities. Limits on the minimum black hole mass are set, in the range 3.5 -- 4.5 TeV, for a variety of parameters in a model with large extra dimensions, along with model-independent limits on new physics in these final states. These are the first direct limits on black hole production at a particle accelerator.

  13. The SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-01-01

    A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The author discusses the status of the machine and the detectors and give an overview of the physics which can be done at this new facility. He also gives some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built

  14. Qualification of Sub-Atmospheric Pressure Sensors for the Cryomagnet Bayonet Heat Exchangers of the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bager, T.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Jeanmonod, N.

    2006-04-01

    The superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be cooled at 1.9 K by distributed cooling loops working with saturated two-phase superfluid helium flowing in 107 m long bayonet heat exchangers located in each magnet cold-mass cell. The temperature of the magnets could be difficult to control because of the large dynamic heat load variations. Therefore, it is foreseen to measure the heat exchangers pressure to feed the regulation loops with the corresponding saturation temperature. The required uncertainty of the sub-atmospheric saturation pressure measurement shall be of the same order of the one associated to the magnet thermometers, in pressure it translates as ±5 Pa at 1.6 kPa. The transducers shall be radiation hard as they will endure, in the worst case, doses up to 10 kGy and 1015 neutronsṡcm-2 over 10 years. The sensors under evaluation were installed underground in the dump section of the SPS accelerator with a radiation environment close to the one expected for the LHC. The monitoring equipment was installed in a remote radiation protected area. This paper presents the results of the radiation qualification campaign with emphasis on the reliability and accuracy of the pressure sensors under the test conditions.

  15. Qualification of Sub-atmospheric Pressure Sensors for the Cryomagnet Bayonet Heat Exchangers of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanmonod, N; Casas-Cubillos, J

    2006-01-01

    The superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be cooled at 1.9 K by distributed cooling loops working with saturated two-phase superfluid helium flowing in 107 m long bayonet heat exchangers [1] located in each magnet cold-mass cell. The temperature of the magnets could be difficult to control because of the large dynamic heat load variations. Therefore, it is foreseen to measure the heat exchangers pressure to feed the regulation loops with the corresponding saturation temperature. The required uncertainty of the sub-atmospheric saturation pressure measurement shall be of the same order of the one associated to the magnet thermometers, in pressure it translates as ±5 Pa at 1.6 kPa. The transducers shall be radiation hard as they will endure, in the worst case, doses up to 10 kGy and 10**15 neutrons·cm**-2 over 10 years. The sensors under evaluation were installed underground in the dump section of the SPS accelerator with a radiation environment close to the one expected for the L...

  16. Schematic large-dimension coupled-channel study of strong inelastic excitations to high-lying states in colliding nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimura, M. [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Kernfysisch Versneller Inst.; Nakano, M.; Yahiro, M.; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.

    1980-01-01

    A mechanism of the strong inelastic excitation of colliding nuclei (e.g. deep inelastic heavy-ion collision) was studied in a schematic way based on a coupled channel (CC) framework. The purpose of this work is to see the gross behavior of the inelastic excitation strength versus epsilon (i.e. energy spectrum) for the assumed specific types of CC potentials between a large number of inelastic channels. Schematic large dimension CC calculation was considered rather than small-dimension CC calculation. The coupled N + 1 equations can be reduced to uncoupled N + 1 equations through the wellknown unitary transformation. An interesting case is that there exists strong channel independent coupling between any pair of the channels, all of which are almost degenerate in internal energy as compared with incoming c.m. energy. It was found that inelastic scattering hardly occurred while the collision was almost confined to the elastic component. The numerical calculation of S-matrix was carried out. Other cases, such as zero CC potential, the coupling between inelastic channel and entrance channel, and the case that the thickness of the coupling was changed, were investigated. As the results of the present study, it can be said that this CC coupling model may be useful for discussing continuum-continuum interactions in a breakup reaction by simulating the continuum states with many channels made discrete.

  17. Tracking down the elusive charginos/neutralinos through τ leptons at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabanita; Datta, Amitava

    2009-01-01

    An unconstrained minimal supersymmetric standard model with the superpartners of the strongly interacting particles very heavy (close to the kinematic reach of the LHC or even beyond it) and a relatively light electroweak sector is considered. Using the event generator Pythia it is shown that the 1τ-jet (tagged)+2l and 2τ-jets (tagged)+1l signals with a reasonably hard Ee T spectrum either by themselves or in combination with the conventional 3l signal, which is known to be of rather modest size with a soft Ee T spectrum, may appreciably extend the reach of chargino-neutralino search at the LHC with 10 fb -1 of integrated luminosity. This is especially so if the lighter chargino and the second lightest neutralino decays via two body leptonic modes with large branching ratios. The theoretical motivation of this scenario, yielding large values of the fine-tuning parameters but consistent with various indirect constraints including the dark matter relic density, is briefly discussed. It is shown that in the minimal supergravity model with an universal scalar mass at the grand unified theory scale, the signals involving τ-jets are not viable. Theoretically well-motivated variations of these boundary conditions are, however, adequate for reviving these signals.

  18. The Insulation Vacuum Barrier for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Magnet Cryostats

    CERN Document Server

    Castoldi, M; Parma, Vittorio; Skoczen, Blazej; Trilhe, P

    2000-01-01

    The sectorisation of the insulation vacuum of the LHC magnet cryostats, housing the superconducting magnets, which operate in a 1.9 K superfluid helium bath, is achieved by means of vacuum barriers. Each vacuum barrier is a leak-tight austenitic stainless steel thin-wall structure, mainly composed of large diameter (between 0.6 m and 0.9 m) bellows and concentric corrugated cylinders. It is mounted in the Short Straight Section (SSS) [1], between the magnet helium enclosure and the vacuum vessel. This paper presents the design of the vacuum barrier, concentrating mostly on its expected thermal performance, to fulfil the tight LHC heat in-leak budgets. Pressure and leak test results, confirming the mechanical design of two prototypes manufactured in industry, and the preparation of one of these vacuum barriers for cryogenic testing in an SSS prototype, are also mentioned.

  19. Beam losses from ultra-peripheral nuclear collisions between $^{208}$Pb$^{82+}$ ions in the Large Hadron Collider and their alleviation

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R.; Jowett, J.M.; Bocian, D.; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic interactions between colliding heavy ions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will give rise to localized beam losses that may quench superconducting magnets, apart from contributing significantly to the luminosity decay. To quantify their impact on the operation of the collider, we have used a three-step simulation approach, which consists of optical tracking, a Monte-Carlo shower simulation and a thermal network model of the heat flow inside a magnet. We present simulation results for the case of Pb ion operation in the LHC, with focus on the ALICE interaction region, and show that the expected heat load during nominal Pb operation is 40% above the quench level. This limits the maximum achievable luminosity. Furthermore, we discuss methods of monitoring the losses and possible ways to alleviate their effect.

  20. Study of electroweak gauge boson scattering in the WZ channel with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socher, Felix

    2016-07-15

    high centre-of-mass energies and luminosities to study these processes successfully. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is a circular proton-proton collider equipped to supply a suitable environment for such studies with the colliding protons being the sources for the scattering of massive electroweak gauge bosons. The dataset collected in 2012 by the ATLAS detector at the LHC with a total luminosity of 20.3 fb{sup -1} and a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV is analysed in this work. The elastic scattering process WZ → WZ is studied due to its clean signal properties. It provides a complementary measurement to W{sup ±}W{sup ±}→W{sup ±}W{sup ±} which reported the first significant evidence for massive electroweak gauge boson scattering. Given the current data, WZ→WZ scattering is not observed with large significantly. A cross section upper limit of 2.5 fb at 95% confidence level is measured, compatible with the cross section of 0.54 fb predicted by the Standard Model. In addition, distributions for several observables sensitive to electroweak gauge boson scattering are unfolded, removing effects caused by the measuring process. Physics beyond the Standard Model is probed in the framework of the electroweak chiral Lagrangian which expresses the size of effects from new physics in terms of strength parameters. The two strength parameters influencing the quartic gauge couplings are constrained to -0.44<α{sub 4}<0.49 and -0.49<α{sub 5}<0.47 thus limiting the possible size of new physics contributions.

  1. Study of electroweak gauge boson scattering in the WZ channel with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socher, Felix

    2016-01-01

    -of-mass energies and luminosities to study these processes successfully. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is a circular proton-proton collider equipped to supply a suitable environment for such studies with the colliding protons being the sources for the scattering of massive electroweak gauge bosons. The dataset collected in 2012 by the ATLAS detector at the LHC with a total luminosity of 20.3 fb"-"1 and a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV is analysed in this work. The elastic scattering process WZ → WZ is studied due to its clean signal properties. It provides a complementary measurement to W"±W"±→W"±W"± which reported the first significant evidence for massive electroweak gauge boson scattering. Given the current data, WZ→WZ scattering is not observed with large significantly. A cross section upper limit of 2.5 fb at 95% confidence level is measured, compatible with the cross section of 0.54 fb predicted by the Standard Model. In addition, distributions for several observables sensitive to electroweak gauge boson scattering are unfolded, removing effects caused by the measuring process. Physics beyond the Standard Model is probed in the framework of the electroweak chiral Lagrangian which expresses the size of effects from new physics in terms of strength parameters. The two strength parameters influencing the quartic gauge couplings are constrained to -0.44<α_4<0.49 and -0.49<α_5<0.47 thus limiting the possible size of new physics contributions.

  2. Search for signatures of extra dimensions in the diphoton mass spectrum at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knapitsch, Arno; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Rohringer, Christine; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Benucci, Leonardo; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Siguang; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Lingemann, Joschka; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Davids, Martina; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Röcker, Steffen; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Sikler, Ferenc; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Rizzi, Andrea; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Jo, Hyun Yong; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Seo, Eunsung; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Polujanskas, Mindaugas; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Brona, Grzegorz; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Pela, Joao; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Guiducci, Luigi; Gundacker, Stefan; Hansen, Magnus; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; 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Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Özbek, Melih; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Henderson, Conor; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sfiligoi, Igor; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pivarski, James; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Schwarz, Thomas; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Silvestre, Catherine; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Peterman, Alison; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Jindal, Pratima; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Wan, Zongru; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Sakumoto, Willis; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Gurrola, Alfredo; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Johnston, Cody; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goadhouse, Stephen; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Belknap, Donald; Bellinger, James Nugent; Bernardini, Jacopo; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2012-01-01

    A search for signatures of extra dimensions in the diphoton invariant-mass spectrum has been performed with the CMS detector at the LHC. No excess of events above the standard model expectation is observed using a data sample collected in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 inverse femtobarns. In the context of the large-extra-dimensions model, lower limits are set on the effective Planck scale in the range of 2.3-3.8 TeV at the 95% confidence level. These limits are the most restrictive bounds on virtual-graviton exchange to date. The most restrictive lower limits to date are also set on the mass of the first graviton excitation in the Randall-Sundrum model in the range of 0.86-1.84 TeV, for values of the associated coupling parameter between 0.01 and 0.10.

  3. Search for signatures of extra dimensions in the diphoton mass spectrum at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Khachatryan, Vardan; Sirunyan, Albert M.; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; /Yerevan Phys. Inst. /Vienna, OAW /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /Antwerp U., WISINF /Vrije U., Brussels /Brussels U. /Gent U. /Louvain U. /UMH, Mons /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U.

    2011-12-01

    A search for signatures of extra dimensions in the diphoton invariant-mass spectrum has been performed with the CMS detector at the LHC. No excess of events above the standard model expectation is observed using a data sample collected in proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb{sup -1}. In the context of the large-extra-dimensions model, lower limits are set on the effective Planck scale in the range of 2.3-3.8 TeV at the 95% confidence level. These limits are the most restrictive bounds on virtual-graviton exchange to date. The most restrictive lower limits to date are also set on the mass of the first graviton excitation in the Randall-Sundrum model in the range of 0.86-1.84 TeV, for values of the associated coupling parameter between 0.01 and 0.10.

  4. Supervision software for string 2 magnet test facility of large hadron collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayya, Y.S.; Sanadhya, Vivek; Lal, Pradeep; Goel, Vijay; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Saha, Shilpi

    2001-01-01

    The Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software for the String 2 test facility at CERN, Geneva is developed by BARC under the framework of CERN-DAE collaboration for LHC. The supervision application is developed using PCVue32 SCADA/MMI software. The String 2 test facility prototypes one full cell of LHC and is aimed at studying and validating the individual and collective behaviour of the superconducting magnets, before installing in the tunnel. The software integrates monitoring and supervisory control of all the main subsystems of String 2 such as Cryogenics, Vacuum, Power converters, Magnet protection, Energy extraction and interlock systems. It incorporates animated process synoptics, loop and equipment control panels, configurable trend windows for real-time and historical trending of process parameters, user settability for interlock and alarm thresholds, logging of process events, equipment faults and operator activity. The plant equipment are controlled by a variety of field located Programmable Logic Controllers and VME crates which communicate process IO to the central IO server using both vendor specific and custom protocols. The system leverages OPC (OLE for Process Controls) technology for realising a generic IO server. A large number of geographically distributed client stations are arranged to provide the process specific operator interface and these are connected to the Main IO server over CERN wide intranet and internet. (author)

  5. Event processing time prediction at the CMS experiment of the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cury, Samir; Gutsche, Oliver; Kcira, Dorian

    2014-01-01

    The physics event reconstruction is one of the biggest challenges for the computing of the LHC experiments. Among the different tasks that computing systems of the CMS experiment performs, the reconstruction takes most of the available CPU resources. The reconstruction time of single collisions varies according to event complexity. Measurements were done in order to determine this correlation quantitatively, creating means to predict it based on the data-taking conditions of the input samples. Currently the data processing system splits tasks in groups with the same number of collisions and does not account for variations in the processing time. These variations can be large and can lead to a considerable increase in the time it takes for CMS workflows to finish. The goal of this study was to use estimates on processing time to more efficiently split the workflow into jobs. By considering the CPU time needed for each job the spread of the job-length distribution in a workflow is reduced.

  6. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Giordani, MarioPaolo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector, in particular the IBL, will be presented, using collision data.

  7. Identification of electrons in the ZEUS hadron-electron separator with neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstens, J.O.

    1994-10-01

    An electron finder for the ZEUS experiment was constructed, which is specialized to electrons in the momentum range 0.5 to 3.0 GeV/c. For the first time this electron finder connects the informations of the calorimeter with those of the hadron-electron separator (HES). For this purpose the electron finder was equipped with a neural network. The electron finder reached on a data set of photoproduction events with conversion electrons an efficiency and discriminance of E=(62.9±2.2±0.6)% and D=(91.4±0.8±1.1)%. From these two quantities it can be calculated that the electron finder the ratio electrons to background increases by the factoe E/(1-D)=7.4 (Signal amplification). For the comparison: A neural net, to which only calorimeter informations have been made available, reached at the same efficiency a signal amplification of 2.4. A simple cut in the variable HES-signal reaches a signal amplification of 6.3. Hints were given, how training data sets with electrons and hadrons of higher energies can be obtained. With such data sets the working range of the electron finder can be without problems extended to higher momenta. As preparation for the construction of the electron finder an introduction to the foundations of the mathematics and the application of neural networks was given. By means of examples different methods for the convergence improvement have been tested. Numerous representations mediate illustrative imaginations on the mathematical process of the training of neural networks

  8. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: ALICE Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. In this paper, we present the multiplicity distribution of these atmospheric muons and its comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. This analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density ρ{sub μ} > 5.9 m{sup −2}. Similar events have been studied in previous underground experiments such as ALEPH and DELPHI at LEP. While these experiments were able to reproduce the measured muon multiplicity distribution with Monte Carlo simulations at low and intermediate multiplicities, their simulations failed to describe the frequency of the highest multiplicity events. In this work we show that the high multiplicity events observed in ALICE stem from primary cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 16} eV and that the frequency of these events can be successfully described by assuming a heavy mass composition of primary cosmic rays in this energy range. The development of the resulting air showers was simulated using the latest version of QGSJET to model hadronic interactions. This observation places significant constraints on alternative, more exotic, production mechanisms for these events.

  9. On-Line Radiation Test Facility for Industrial Equipment needed for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rausch, R

    1999-01-01

    The future Large Hadron Collider to be built at CERN will use superconducting magnets cooled down to 1.2 K. To preserve the superconductivity, the energy deposition dose levels in equipment located outside the cryostat, in the LHC tunnel, are calculated to be of the order of 1 to 10 Gy per year. At such dose levels, no major radiation-damage problems are to be expected, and the possibility of installing Commercial Of The Shelf (COTS) electronic equipment in the LHC tunnel along the accelerator is considered. To this purpose, industrial electronic equipment and circuits have to be qualified and tested against radiation to insure their long term stability and reliability. An on-line radiation test facility has been setup at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and a program of on-line tests for electronic equipment is ongoing. Equipment tested includes Industrial Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) from several manufacturers, standard VME modules, Fieldbuses like Profibus, WorldFIP and CAN, various electro...

  10. Messung der Produktion von aus leichten Quarks zusammengesetzten Hadronen und Anti-Kernen am Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Kalweit, Alexander; Wambach, Jochen

    With the recording of the first collisions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in November 2009, a new era in the domain of high energy and relativistic heavy-ion physics has started. As one of the early observables which can be addressed, the measurement of light quark flavor production is presented in this thesis. Hadrons that consist only of u, d, and s quarks constitute the majority of the produced particles in pp and Pb–Pb collisions. Their measurement forms the basis for a detailed understanding of the collision and for the answer of the question if hadronic matter undergoes a phase transition to the deconfined quark-gluon plasma at high temperatures. The basics of ultra-relativistic heavyion physics are briefly introduced in the first chapter followed by a short description of the ALICE experiment. A particular focus is put on the unique particle identification (PID) capabilities as they provide the basis of the measurements which are presented in the following chapters. The particle identification vi...

  11. Forecasting the Socio-Economic Impact of the Large Hadron Collider: a Cost-Benefit Analysis to 2025 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Florio, Massimo; Sirtori, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we develop a cost-benefit analysis of a major research infrastructure, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the highest-energy accelerator in the world, currently operating at CERN. We show that the evaluation of benefits can be made quantitative by estimating their welfare effects on different types of agents. Four classes of direct benefits are identified, according to the main social groups involved: (a) scientists; (b) students and young researchers; (c) firms in the procurement chain and other organizations; (d) the general public, including onsite and website visitors and other media users. These benefits are respectively related to the knowledge output of scientists; human capital formation; technological spillovers; and direct cultural effects for the general public. Welfare effects for taxpayers can also be estimated by the contingent valuation of the willingness to pay for a pure public good for which there is no specific direct use (i.e., as non-use value). Using a Monte Carlo approach, w...

  12. Thermomechanical assessment of the effects of a jaw-beam angle during beam impact on Large Hadron Collider collimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchi, Marija; Assmann, R. W.; Bertarelli, A.; Carra, F.; Lari, L.; Rossi, A.; Mollicone, P.; Sammut, N.

    2015-02-01

    The correct functioning of a collimation system is crucial to safely and successfully operate high-energy particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). However, the requirements to handle high-intensity beams can be demanding, and accident scenarios must be well studied in order to assess if the collimator design is robust against possible error scenarios. One of the catastrophic, though not very probable, accident scenarios identified within the LHC is an asynchronous beam dump. In this case, one (or more) of the 15 precharged kicker circuits fires out of time with the abort gap, spraying beam pulses onto LHC machine elements before the machine protection system can fire the remaining kicker circuits and bring the beam to the dump. If a proton bunch directly hits a collimator during such an event, severe beam-induced damage such as magnet quenches and other equipment damage might result, with consequent downtime for the machine. This study investigates a number of newly defined jaw error cases, which include angular misalignment errors of the collimator jaw. A numerical finite element method approach is presented in order to precisely evaluate the thermomechanical response of tertiary collimators to beam impact. We identify the most critical and interesting cases, and show that a tilt of the jaw can actually mitigate the effect of an asynchronous dump on the collimators. Relevant collimator damage limits are taken into account, with the aim to identify optimal operational conditions for the LHC.

  13. Sources of machine-induced background in the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, R.; et al.,

    2013-11-21

    One source of experimental background in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particles entering the detectors from the machine. These particles are created in cascades, caused by upstream interactions of beam protons with residual gas molecules or collimators. We estimate the losses on the collimators with SixTrack and simulate the showers with FLUKA and MARS to obtain the flux and distribution of particles entering the ATLAS and CMS detectors. We consider some machine configurations used in the first LHC run, with focus on 3.5 TeV operation as in 2011. Results from FLUKA and MARS are compared and a very good agreement is found. An analysis of logged LHC data provides, for different processes, absolute beam loss rates, which are used together with further simulations of vacuum conditions to normalize the results to rates of particles entering the detectors. We assess the relative importance of background from elastic and inelastic beam-gas interactions, and the leakage out of the LHC collimation system, and show that beam-gas interactions are the dominating source of machine-induced background for the studied machine scenarios. Our results serve as a starting point for the experiments to perform further simulations in order to estimate the resulting signals in the detectors.

  14. Thermomechanical assessment of the effects of a jaw-beam angle during beam impact on Large Hadron Collider collimators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Cauchi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The correct functioning of a collimation system is crucial to safely and successfully operate high-energy particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC. However, the requirements to handle high-intensity beams can be demanding, and accident scenarios must be well studied in order to assess if the collimator design is robust against possible error scenarios. One of the catastrophic, though not very probable, accident scenarios identified within the LHC is an asynchronous beam dump. In this case, one (or more of the 15 precharged kicker circuits fires out of time with the abort gap, spraying beam pulses onto LHC machine elements before the machine protection system can fire the remaining kicker circuits and bring the beam to the dump. If a proton bunch directly hits a collimator during such an event, severe beam-induced damage such as magnet quenches and other equipment damage might result, with consequent downtime for the machine. This study investigates a number of newly defined jaw error cases, which include angular misalignment errors of the collimator jaw. A numerical finite element method approach is presented in order to precisely evaluate the thermomechanical response of tertiary collimators to beam impact. We identify the most critical and interesting cases, and show that a tilt of the jaw can actually mitigate the effect of an asynchronous dump on the collimators. Relevant collimator damage limits are taken into account, with the aim to identify optimal operational conditions for the LHC.

  15. The application of the Monte Carlo code FLUKA in radiation protection studies for the large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistoni, Giuseppe; Broggi, Francesco; Brugger, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The multi-purpose particle interaction and transport code FLUKA is integral part of all radiation protection studies for the design and operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is one of the very few codes available for this type of calculations which is capable to calculate in one and the same simulation proton-proton and heavy ion collisions at LHC energies as well as the entire hadronic and electromagnetic particle cascade initiated by secondary particles in detectors and beam-line components from TeV energies down to energies of thermal neutrons. The present paper reviews these capabilities of FLUKA in giving details of relevant physics models along with examples of radiation protection studies for the LHC such as shielding studies for underground areas occupied by personnel during LHC operation and the simulation of induced radioactivity around beam loss points. Integral part of the FLUKA development is a careful benchmarking of specific models as well as the code performance in complex, real life applications which is demonstrated with examples of studies relevant to radiation protection at the LHC. (author)

  16. Who cares about particle physics? making sense of the Higgs boson, the Large Hadron Collider and CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2051327

    2016-01-01

    CERN, the European Laboratory for particle physics, regularly makes the news. What kind of research happens at this international laboratory and how does it impact people's daily lives? Why is the discovery of the Higgs boson so important? Particle physics describes all matter found on Earth, in stars and all galaxies but it also tries to go beyond what is known to describe dark matter, a form of matter five times more prevalent than the known, regular matter. How do we know this mysterious dark matter exists and is there a chance it will be discovered soon? About sixty countries contributed to the construction of the gigantic Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its immense detectors. Dive in to discover how international teams of researchers work together to push scientific knowledge forward. Here is a book written for every person who wishes to learn a little more about particle physics, without requiring prior scientific knowledge. It starts from the basics to build a solid understanding of current res...

  17. Search for Extra Dimensions in Diphoton Final States with the Atlas Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Yagci, Kamile

    I present a search for the extra dimensions in the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The extra-dimension theory proposes higher dimensional space in the context of several models. The gravitational force carrier graviton can propagate in the extra dimension(s). The graviton decays into diphoton final states which can be detected in the ATLAS experiment. The excellent calorimeter resolution provides a high performance for the identification of the photons. In this dissertation I analyzed the ATLAS data taken with 7 TeV proton-proton collisions in 2010. Using the earlier 3.1 pb-1, I tested diphoton physics in a search for One Universal Extra Dimension in events with diphoton + missing transverse energy. This model with deltaR = 20, M_D = 5 TeV and N = 6 was excluded for a curvature of 1/R < 729 GeV at 95% C.L.. Then I performed a search for the Randall Sundrum (RS) graviton decaying into diphoton resonances with the whole data taken in 2010 (36 pb-1). I excluded the RS graviton with M_G&l...

  18. Mathematical formulation to predict the harmonics of the superconducting Large Hadron Collider magnets. II. Dynamic field changes and scaling laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Sammut

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A superconducting particle accelerator like the LHC (Large Hadron Collider at CERN, can only be controlled well if the effects of the magnetic field multipoles on the beam are compensated. The demands on a control system solely based on beam feedback may be too high for the requirements to be reached at the specified bandwidth and accuracy. Therefore, we designed a suitable field description for the LHC (FIDEL as part of the machine control baseline to act as a feed-forward magnetic field prediction system. FIDEL consists of a physical and empirical parametric field model based on magnetic measurements at warm and in cryogenic conditions. The performance of FIDEL is particularly critical at injection when the field decays, and in the initial part of the acceleration when the field snaps back. These dynamic components are both current and time dependent and are not reproducible from cycle to cycle since they also depend on the magnet powering history. In this paper a qualitative and quantitative description of the dynamic field behavior substantiated by a set of scaling laws is presented.

  19. Development of Muon Drift-Tube Detectors for High-Luminosity Upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bittner, B; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Legger, F.; Richter, R.; Biebel, O.; Engl, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Rauscher, F.

    2016-01-01

    The muon detectors of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have to cope with unprecedentedly high neutron and gamma ray background rates. In the forward regions of the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector, for instance, counting rates of 1.7 kHz/square cm are reached at the LHC design luminosity. For high-luminosity upgrades of the LHC, up to 10 times higher background rates are expected which require replacement of the muon chambers in the critical detector regions. Tests at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility showed that drift-tube detectors with 15 mm diameter aluminum tubes operated with Ar:CO2 (93:7) gas at 3 bar and a maximum drift time of about 200 ns provide e?cient and high-resolution muon tracking up to the highest expected rates. For 15 mm tube diameter, space charge e?ects deteriorating the spatial resolution at high rates are strongly suppressed. The sense wires have to be positioned in the chamber with an accuracy of better than 50 ?micons in order to achieve the desired spatial...

  20. Impact of the 7 TeV/c Large Hadron Collider proton beam on a copper target

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Goddard, B; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Kain, V; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Temporal, M

    2005-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will allow for collision between two 7 TeV/c proton beams, each comprising 2808 bunches with 1.1*10/sup 11 / protons per bunch, traveling in opposite direction. The bunch length is 0.5 ns and two neighboring bunches are separated by 25 ns so that the duration of the entire beam is about 89 mu s. The beam power profile in the transverse direction is a Gaussian with a standard deviation of 0.2 mm. The energy stored in each beam is about 350 MJ that is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In case of a failure in the machine protection systems, the entire beam could impact directly onto an accelerator equipment. A first estimate of the scale of damage resulting from such a failure has been assessed for a solid copper target hit by the beam by carrying out three- dimensional energy deposition calculations and two-dimensional numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic response of the target. This work has shown that the penetration depth of the LHC protons will be be...

  1. The New Superfluid Helium Cryostats for the Short Straight Sections of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, W; Kurtyka, T; Parma, Vittorio; Renaglia, T; Rifflet, J M; Rohmig, P; Skoczen, Blazej; Tortschanoff, Theodor; Trilhe, P; Védrine, P; Vincent, D

    1998-01-01

    The lattice of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) contains 364 Short Straight Section (SSS) units, one in every 53 m long half-cell. An SSS consists of three major assemblies: the standard cryostat section, the cryogenic service module, and the jumper connection. The standard cryostat section of an SSS contains the twin aperture high-gradient superconducting quadrupole and two pairs of superconducting corrector magnets, operating in pressurized helium II at 1.9 K. Components for isolating cryostat insulation vacuum, and the cryogenic supply lines, have to be foreseen. Special emphasis is given to the design changes of the SSS following adoption of an external cryogenic supply line (QRL). A jumper connection connects the SSS to the QRL, linking all the cryogenic tubes necessary for the local full-cell cooling loop [at every second SSS]. The jumper is connected to one end of the standard cryostat section via the cryogenic service module, which also houses beam diagnostics, current feedthroughs, and instrument...

  2. A Novel Method and Error Analysis for Beam Optics Measurements and Corrections at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Langner, Andy Sven; Rossbach, Jörg; Tomás, Rogelio

    2017-02-17

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently the world's largest particle accelerator with the highest center of mass energy in particle collision experiments. The control of the particle beam focusing is essential for the performance reach of such an accelerator. For the characterization of the focusing properties at the LHC, turn-by-turn beam position data is simultaneously recorded at numerous measurement devices (BPMs) along the accelerator, while an oscillation is excited on the beam. A novel analysis method for these measurements ($N$-BPM method) is developed here, which is based on a detailed analysis of systematic and statistical error sources and their correlations. It has been applied during the commissioning of the LHC for operation at an unprecedented energy of 6.5 TeV. In this process a stronger focusing than its design specifications has been achieved. This results in smaller transverse beam sizes at the collision points and allows for a higher rate of particle collisions. For the derivation of ...

  3. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tahir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider (LHC is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%–20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect. It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS, to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle

  4. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Sancho, J. Blanco; Shutov, A.; Schmidt, R.; Piriz, A. R.

    2012-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%-20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect). It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials) at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle energy in the SPS beam is 440

  5. Why Large Hadron Collider?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Each pair differs by 1 unit of electric charge – charge 0 and −1 for neutrinos and charged ... fine-structure constant α, and the theory of strong interaction is called quantum ... electron they constitute all the visible matter of the Universe. All the ...

  6. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the design principles of the LHC, which gives access to the TeV energy scale for the first time. To achieve this, a number of technological innovations have been necessary. Two counter-rotating proton beams are guided and focused by superconducting magnets with a two-in-one structure allowing the machine to be installed in an existing tunnel. The very high field (>8 T) in the dipoles can only be achieved by cooling them below the superfluid transition temperature of liquid helium. More than 80 tons of superfluid helium is needed to cool the machine. In its first year of operation, the LHC has behaved very reliably and predictably. Single-bunch currents 30% above the design value have already been achieved, and the luminosity has increased by five orders of magnitude in the first 200 days of operation. Some of the results of commissioning and first operation are also discussed.

  7. Measurement of Electroweak Gauge Boson Scattering in the Channel $pp \\rightarrow W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}jj$ with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080413; Kobel, Michael; Heinemann, Beate; Klein, Uta

    Particle physics deals with the elementary constituents of our universe and their interactions. The electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism in the Standard Model of Particle Physics is of paramount importance and it plays a central role in the physics programmes of current high-energy physics experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. The study of scattering processes of massive electroweak gauge bosons provides an approach complementary to the precise measurement of the properties of the recently discovered Higgs boson. Owing to the unprecedented energies achieved in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider and the large amount of data collected, experimental studies of these processes become feasible for the first time. Especially the scattering of two $W^{\\pm}$ bosons of identical electric charge is considered a promising process for an initial study due to its distinct experimental signature. In the course of this work, $20.3 \\, \\mathrm{fb}^{−1}$ of proton-proton collision data recorded by t...

  8. Muon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity micro + micro - colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Problems of detector background are also discussed

  9. Muon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, David

    1995-01-01

    The increasing interest in the possibility of positive-negative muon colliders was reflected in the second workshop on the Physics Potential and Development of Muon Colliders, held in Sausalito, California, from 16-19 November, with some 60 attendees. It began with an overview of the particle physics goals, detector constraints, the muon collider and mu cooling, and source issues. The major issue confronting muon development is the possible luminosity achievable. Two collider energies were considered: 200 + 200 GeV and 2 + 2 TeV. The major particle physics goals are the detection of the higgs boson(s) for the lower energy collider, together with WW scattering and supersymmetric particle discovery. At the first such workshop, held in Napa, California, in 1992, it was estimated that a luminosity of some 10 30 and 3 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 for the low and high energy collider might be achieved (papers from this meeting were published in the October issue of NIM). This was considered a somewhat conservative estimate at the time. At the Sausalito workshop the goal was to see if a luminosity of 10 32 to 10 34 for the two colliders might be achievable and usable by a detector. There were five working groups - physics, 200 + 200 GeV collider, 2 + 2 TeV collider, detector design and backgrounds, and muon cooling and production methods. Considerable progress was made in all these areas at the workshop.

  10. A novel method and error analysis for beam optics measurements and corrections at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Andy Sven

    2017-02-03

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently the world's largest particle accelerator with the highest center of mass energy in particle collision experiments. The control of the particle beam focusing is essential for the performance reach of such an accelerator. For the characterization of the focusing properties at the LHC, turn-by-turn beam position data is simultaneously recorded at numerous measurement devices (BPMs) along the accelerator, while an oscillation is excited on the beam. A novel analysis method for these measurements (N-BPM method) is developed here, which is based on a detailed analysis of systematic and statistical error sources and their correlations. It has been applied during the commissioning of the LHC for operation at an unprecedented energy of 6.5TeV. In this process a stronger focusing than its design specifications has been achieved. This results in smaller transverse beam sizes at the collision points and allows for a higher rate of particle collisions. For the derivation of the focusing parameters at many synchrotron light sources, the change of the beam orbit is observed, which is induced by deliberate changes of magnetic fields (orbit response matrix). In contrast, the analysis of turn-by-turn beam position measurements is for many of these machines less precise due to the distance between two BPMs. The N-BPM method overcomes this limitation by allowing to include the measurement data from more BPMs in the analysis. It has been applied at the ALBA synchrotron light source and compared to the orbit response method. The significantly faster measurement with the N-BPM method is a considerable advantage in this case. Finally, an outlook is given to the challenges which lie ahead for the control of the beam focusing at the HL-LHC, which is a future major upgrade of the LHC.

  11. Mono-jet, -photon and -Z signals of a supersymmetric (B−L) model at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, W. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University,Giza (Egypt); Fiaschi, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton (United Kingdom); Khalil, S. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Moretti, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-23

    Search for invisible final states produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by new physics scenarios are normally carried out resorting to a variety of probes emerging from the initial state, in the form of single-jet, -photon and -Z boson signatures. These are particularly effective for models of Supersymmetry (SUSY) in presence of R-parity conservation, owing to the presence in their spectra of a stable neutralino as a Dark Matter (DM) candidate. We assume here as theoretical framework the Supersymmetric version of the (B−L) extension of the Standard Model (BLSSM), wherein a mediator for invisible decays can be the Z{sup ′} boson present in this scenario. The peculiarity of the signal is thus that the final state objects carry a very large (transverse) missing energy, since the Z{sup ′} is naturally massive and constrained by direct searches and Electro-Weak Precision Tests (EWPTs) to be at least in the TeV scale region. Under these circumstances the efficiency in accessing the invisible final state and rejecting the Standard Model (SM) background is very high. This somehow compensates the rather meagre production rates. Another special feature of this invisible BLSSM signal is its composition, which is often dominated by sneutrino decays (alongside the more traditional neutrino and neutralino modes). Sensitivity of the CERN machine to these two features can therefore help disentangling the BLSSM from more popular SUSY models. We assess in this analysis the scope of the LHC in establishing the aforementioned invisible signals through a sophisticated signal-to-background simulation carried out in presence of parton shower, hadronisation as well as detector effects. We find that significant sensitivity exists already after 300 fb{sup −1} during Run 2. We find that mono-jet events can be readily accessible at the LHC, so as to enable one to claim a prompt discovery, while mono-photon and -Z signals can be used as diagnostic tools of the underlying scenario.

  12. A particle consistent with the Higgs Boson observed with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Böhm, Jan; Chudoba, Jiří; Gallus, Petr; Gunther, Jaroslav; Havránek, Miroslav; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Juránek, Vojtěch; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Růžička, Pavel; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Tic, Tomáš; Vrba, Václav; Valenta, J.; Zeman, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 338, č. 6114 (2012), s. 1576-1582 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Higgs particle * mass * ATLAS * CERN LHC Coll * interpretation of experiments Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 31.027, year: 2012

  13. World lays groundwork for future linear collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, Toni

    2010-01-01

    "New physics from the Large Hadron Collider can best be explored with a large lepton collider; realizing one will require mobilizing accelerator and particle physicists, funding agencies, and politicians" (3 pages)

  14. Towards future circular colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikt, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) presently provides proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass (c.m.) energy of 13 TeV. The LHC design was started more than 30 years ago, and its physics program will extend through the second half of the 2030's. The global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is now preparing for a post-LHC project. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new ˜100 km tunnel. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCCee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3 S n superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly-efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. Following the FCC concept, the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) in Beijing has initiated a parallel design study for an e + e - Higgs factory in China (CEPC), which is to be succeeded by a high-energy hadron collider (SPPC). At present a tunnel circumference of 54 km and a hadron collider c.m. energy of about 70 TeV are being considered. After a brief look at the LHC, this article reports the motivation and the present status of the FCC study, some of the primary design challenges and R&D subjects, as well as the emerging global collaboration.

  15. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, J.; Adamová, Dagmar; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Brož, M.; Čepila, J.; Contreras, J. G.; Eyyubova, G.; Ferencei, Jozef; Křížek, Filip; Kučera, Vít; Kushpil, Svetlana; Mareš, Jiří A.; Petráček, V.; Pospíšil, Jan; Schulc, M.; Špaček, M.; Šumbera, Michal; Vajzer, Michal; Vaňát, Tomáš; Závada, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 1 (2016), s. 032 ISSN 1475-7516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : ALICE collaboration * cosmic ray experiments * cosmic rays detectors Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 4.734, year: 2016

  16. Colliding druthers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Johnson, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    Recommendations are made to maximize the usefulness of the colliding beam facility of the Main Ring and Energy Doubler at the Fermilab accelerator. The advantages of the transposed crossing geometry over the kissing geometry are pointed out

  17. Collider Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Zeppenfeld, D.

    1999-01-01

    These lectures are intended as a pedagogical introduction to physics at $e^+e^-$ and hadron colliders. A selection of processes is used to illustrate the strengths and capabilities of the different machines. The discussion includes $W$ pair production and chargino searches at $e^+e^-$ colliders, Drell-Yan events and the top quark search at the Tevatron, and Higgs searches at the LHC.

  18. Whither colliders after the Large Hadron Collider?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-06

    Nov 6, 2012 ... The mandate of the CLIC team is to demonstrate the feasibility of the CLIC concept, to be published by 2012 in ... from Europe and from DESY to the ILC Global Design Effort is the European X-ray .... The expectations from the.

  19. Towards Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN presently provides proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass (c.m.) energy of 13 TeV. The LHC design was started more than 30 years ago, and its physics programme will extend through the second half of the 2030’s. The global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is now preparing for a post-LHC project. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new ∼100 km tunnel. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on $Nb_3Sn$ superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton c...

  20. Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In response to a request from the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is preparing the foundation for a next-generation large-scale accelerator infrastructure in the heart of Europe. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh), to be accommodated in a new ∼100 km tunnel near Geneva. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), which could be installed in the same tunnel as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detector, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. The int...

  1. Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In response to a request from the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is preparing the foundation for a next-generation large-scale accelerator infrastructure in the heart of Europe. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh), to be accommodated in a new ∼100 km tunnel near Geneva. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), which could be installed in the same tunnel as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. The in...

  2. Flavor changing effects on single charged Higgs boson production associated with a bottom-charm pair at CERN Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Sun; Ma Wengan; Zhang Renyou; Guo Lei; Han Liang; Jiang Yi

    2007-01-01

    We study flavor changing effects on the pp→bcH ± +X process at the Large Hadron Collider, which are inspired by the left-handed up-type squark mixings in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). We find that the SUSY QCD radiative corrections to bcH ± coupling can significantly enhance the cross sections at the tree level by a factor about 1.5∼5 with our choice of parameters. We conclude that the squark-mixing mechanism in the MSSM makes the pp→bcH ± +X process a new channel for discovering a charged Higgs boson and investigating flavor changing effects

  3. Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  4. Collider workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The promise of initial results after the start of operations at CERN's SPS proton-antiproton collider and the prospects for high energy hadron collisions at Fermilab (Tevatron) and Brookhaven (ISABELLE) provided a timely impetus for the recent Topical Workshop on Forward Collider Physics', held at Madison, Wisconsin, from 10-12 December. It became the second such workshop to be held, the first having been in 1979 at the College de France, Paris. The 100 or so participants had the chance to hear preliminary results from the UA1, UA4 and UA5 experiments at the CERN SPS collider, together with other new data, including that from proton-antiproton runs at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings

  5. Comparison of electric dipole moments and the Large Hadron Collider for probing CP violation in triple boson vertices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sunghoon; Wells, James D.

    2009-01-01

    CP violation from physics beyond the standard model may reside in triple boson vertices of the electroweak theory. We review the effective theory description and discuss how CP-violating contributions to these vertices might be discerned by electric dipole moments (EDM) or diboson production at the LHC. Despite triple boson CP-violating interactions entering EDMs only at the two-loop level, we find that EDM experiments are generally more powerful than the diboson processes. To give an example to these general considerations we perform the comparison between EDMs and collider observables within supersymmetric theories that have heavy sfermions, such that substantive EDMs at the one-loop level are disallowed. EDMs generally remain more powerful probes, and next-generation EDM experiments may surpass even the most optimistic assumptions for LHC sensitivities.

  6. Structural Analysis of an Integrated Model of Short Straight Section, Service Module, Jumper Connection and Magnet Interconnects for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, S; Kumar, A; Skoczen, B; Soni, H C

    2004-01-01

    The Short Straight Section (SSS) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may undergo relative displacements between cold-mass and cryostat for the following three reasons: - Fabrication tolerance of interconnection bellows - Global smoothing after pre-alignment - Ground motion in a sector of the LHC tunnel The forces responsible for such displacements stem from finite stiffness of interconnect bellows & metal hoses of the internal piping of the jumper connection and from relatively flexible 'glass fibre reinforced epoxy' (GFRE) composite supports of the cold mass. In addition, the vacuum jacket of the jumper connection and the large sleeves attached to both ends of SSS produce elastic deformations of the cryostat vessel. A unified finite element model consisting of cryostat, large sleeves, vacuum jacket of jumper, interconnection bellows, internal piping of jumper, composite cold supports and alignment jacks has been prepared. The knowledge of the position of the cold mass with respect to its cryostat under va...

  7. Future colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1996-10-01

    The high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, pp), of lepton (e + e - , μ + μ - ) and photon-photon colliders are considered. Technical arguments for increased energy in each type of machine are presented. Their relative size, and the implications of size on cost are discussed

  8. Collider Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is summary of the activities of the working group on collider physics in the IXth Workshop on High Energy Physics Phenomenology (WHEPP-9) held at the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India in January 2006. Some of the work subsequently done on these problems by the subgroups formed during the workshop is ...

  9. CERN Library | Pauline Gagnon presents the book "Who cares about particle physics? : making sense of the Higgs boson, the Large Hadron Collider and CERN" | 15 September

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2016-01-01

    "Who cares about particle physics? : making sense of the Higgs boson, the Large Hadron Collider and CERN ", by Pauline Gagnon. Thursday 15 September 2016, 16:00 - 17:30 in the CERN Library (Bldg 52 1-052) *Coffee will be served at 15:30* CERN, the European Laboratory for particle physics, regularly makes the news. What kind of research happens at this international laboratory and how does it impact people's daily lives? Why is the discovery of the Higgs boson so important? Particle physics describes all matter found on Earth, in stars and all galaxies but it also tries to go beyond what is known to describe dark matter, a form of matter five times more prevalent than the known, regular matter. How do we know this mysterious dark matter exists and is there a chance it will be discovered soon? About sixty countries contributed to the construction of the gigantic Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its immense detectors. Dive in to discover how international teams of researchers...

  10. QCD and collider physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stirling, William James

    1991-12-01

    1. Some basic theory. 2. Two important applications: - e+ e- annihilation (LEPSLS) ; deep inelastic scattering (HERA). 3. Other applications..., large Pt jets, W and Z, heavy quark production..., (pp- colliders). In this lecture: some basic theory. 1. QCD as a non abelian gauge field theory. 2. Asymptotic freedom. 3. Beyond leading order - renormalisation schemes. 4. MS.

  11. Conceptual design report for a superconducting coil suitable for use in the large solenoid detector at the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, R.W.; Grimson, J.H.; Krebs, H.J.; Kephart, R.D.; Theriot, D.; Wands, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The conceptual design of a large superconducting solenoid suitable for a magnetic detector at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was done at Fermilab. The magnet will provide a magnetic field of 1.7 T over a volume 8 m in diameter by 16 m long. The particle-physics calorimetry will be inside the field volume and so the coil will be bath cooled and cryostable; the vessels will be stainless steel. Predictability of performance and the ability to safely negotiate all probable failure modes, including a quench, are important items of the design philosophy. Our conceptual design of the magnet and calorimeter has convinced us that this magnet is a reasonable extrapolation of present technology and is therefore feasible. The principal difficulties anticipated are those associated with the very large physical dimensions and stored energy of the magnet. 5 figs

  12. Wideband Precision Current Transformer for the Magnet Current of the Beam Extraction Kicker Magnet of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Gräwer, G

    2004-01-01

    The LHC beam extraction system is composed of 15 fast kicker magnets per beam to extract the particles in one turn of the collider and to safely dispose them on external absorbers. Each magnet is powered by a separate pulse generator. The generator produces a magnet current pulse with 3 us rise time, 20 kA amplitude and 1.8 ms fall time, of which 90 us are needed to dump the beam. The beam extraction system requires a high level of reliability. To detect any change in the magnet current characteristics, which might indicate a slow degradation of the pulse generator, a high precision wideband current transformer will be installed. For redundancy reasons, the results obtained with this device will be cross-checked with a Rogowski coil, installed adjacent to the transformer. A prototype transformer has been successfully tested at nominal current levels and showed satisfactory results compared with the output of a high frequency resistive coaxial shunt. The annular core of the ring type transformer is composed of...

  13. Minimal spontaneously broken hidden sector and its impact on Higgs boson physics at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabinger, Robert; Wells, James D.

    2005-01-01

    Little experimental data bears on the question of whether there is a spontaneously broken hidden sector that has no Standard Model quantum numbers. Here we discuss the prospects of finding evidence for such a hidden sector through renormalizable interactions of the Standard Model Higgs boson with a Higgs boson of the hidden sector. We find that the lightest Higgs boson in this scenario has smaller rates in standard detection channels, and it can have a sizeable invisible final state branching fraction. Details of the hidden sector determine whether the overall width of the lightest state is smaller or larger than the Standard Model width. We compute observable rates, total widths and invisible decay branching fractions within the general framework. We also introduce the 'A-Higgs Model', which corresponds to the limit of a hidden sector Higgs boson weakly mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson. This model has only one free parameter in addition to the mass of the light Higgs state and it illustrates most of the generic phenomenology issues, thereby enabling it to be a good benchmark theory for collider searches. We end by presenting an analogous supersymmetry model with similar phenomenology, which involves hidden sector Higgs bosons interacting with MSSM Higgs bosons through D-terms

  14. \\psi (2S) enhancement in p-Pb collision as an indication of quark-gluon plasma formation at the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, S.; Singh, R., Captain; Mishra, M.

    2018-03-01

    Proton-nucleus collisions serve as an important baseline for the understanding and interpretation of the nucleus-nucleus collisions. These collisions have been employed to characterize the cold nuclear matter effects at SPS and Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider energies for the past several years, as it was thought that quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is not formed in such collisions. However, at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), there seems a possibility that QGP is formed during proton-lead (p-Pb) collisions. In this work, we have derived an expression for gluon induced excitation of J/\\psi to \\psi (2S), using pNRQCD, and show that the relative enhancement of \\psi (2S) vis-à-vis J/\\psi , especially at high p T , gives further indication that the QGP is indeed formed in p-Pb collisions at the most central collisions at LHC energy. J/\\psi and \\psi (2S) suppression effects seen at ALICE are also qualitatively explained.

  15. Studies of electroweak interactions and searches for new physics using photonic events with missing energy at the Large Electron-Positron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Gataullin, Marat I

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I study the production of photonic events with missing energy in e+e- collisions at the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) Collider. My analysis was based on 619 inverse picobarns of data collected by the L3 detector during 1998--2000 at center-of-mass energies between 189 and 208 GeV, the highest energies ever attained in an e+e- collider. I selected a high-purity sample of 2,022 well-reconstructed single- and multi-photon events with missing energy. I used this sample to study the pair-production of neutrinos accompanied by the emission of one or more photons. The average ratio of the measured to expected cross section was found to be R = 0.987±0.022(stat)±0.014 (syst). The number of light neutrino species was measured to be 2.98±0.05(stat)±0.04(syst), and the first direct evidence for the pair-production of electron neutrinos was found. The experimental errors in these results are smaller than those of comparable previous measurements. The selection results are also given in the form of table...

  16. The Large Hadron Collider and the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN as Tools to Generate Warm Dense Matter and Non–Ideal Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Gryaznov, V; Piriz, A R; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E

    2011-01-01

    The largest accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, has entered into commission- ing phase. It is expected that when this impressive machine will become fully operational, it will generate two counter rotating 7 TeV/c proton beams that will be made to collide, leading to an unprecedented luminosity of 1034 cm−2s−1. Total energy stored in each LHC beam is about 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is a very critical issue when working with such extremely powerful beams. It is important to know the consequences of an accidental release of the beam energy in order to design protection system for the equipment. For this purpose we have carried out extensive numerical simulations of the interaction of one full LHC beam with copper and graphite targets which are materials of practical importance. Our calculations have shown that the LHC protons will penetrate up to about 35 m in solid copper and 10 m in solid graphite. A very interesting outcome of this work i...

  17. The Large Hadron Collider and the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN as Tools to Generate Warm Dense Matter and Non-Ideal Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Deutsch, C; Gryaznov, V; Lomonosov, I V; Shutov, A; Piriz, A R; Fortov, V E; Geissel, H; Redmer, R

    2011-01-01

    The largest accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, has entered into commissioning phase. It is expected that when this impressive machine will become fully operational, it will generate two counter rotating 7 TeV/c proton beams that will be made to collide, leading to an unprecedented luminosity of 10(34) cm(-2)s(-1). Total energy stored in each LHC beam is about 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is a very critical issue when working with such extremely powerful beams. It is important to know the consequences of an accidental release of the beam energy in order to design protection system for the equipment. For this purpose we have carried out extensive numerical simulations of the interaction of one full LHC beam with copper and graphite targets which are materials of practical importance. Our calculations have shown that the LHC protons will penetrate up to about 35 m in solid copper and 10 m in solid graphite. A very interesting outcome of this work i...

  18. Colliding muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Is a muon-muon collider really practical? That is the question being asked by Bob Palmer. Well known in particle physics, Palmer, with Nick Samios and Ralph Shutt, recently won the American Physical Society's Panofsky Prize for their 1964 discovery of the omega minus. As well as contributing to other major experiments, both at CERN and in the US, he has contributed ideas to stochastic cooling and novel acceleration schemes

  19. Search for dark matter in association with a leptonically decaying $Z$ boson in the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00379232; McPherson, Robert

    This dissertation describes a search for the invisible decays of dark matter particles produced in association with a $Z$ boson, where the latter decays to a charged lepton pair. The dataset for this search includes 13.3 fb$^{-1}$ of collisions recorded in 2015 and 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV in the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva, Switzerland. The invisible particles manifest themselves as missing transverse momentum, or MET, in the detector, while the charged leptons of interest are electron ($e^+e^-$) or muon ($\\mu^+\\mu^-$) pairs. The models simulated for this study are vector mediated simplified models with Dirac fermionic dark matter particles with couplings $g_q$ = 0.25, $g_{\\chi}$ = 1 and $g_{\\ell} = 0$ . The main background to this analysis, $ZZ\\rightarrow\\ell^+\\ell^-\

  20. The Large Hadron Collider the greatest adventure in town and ten reasons why it matters, as illustrated by the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Millington, Andrew J; MacPherson, Rob; Nordberg, Markus

    2016-01-01

    When the discovery of the Higgs Boson at CERN hit the headlines in 2012, the world was stunned by this achievement of modern science. Less well appreciated, however, were the many ways in which this benefited wider society. The Large Hadron Collider — The Greatest Adventure in Town charts a path through the cultural, economic and medical gains of modern particle physics. It illustrates these messages through the ATLAS experiment at CERN, one of the two big experiments which found the Higgs particle. Moving clear of in-depth physics analysis, it draws on the unparalleled curiosity about particle physics aroused by the Higgs discovery, and relates it to developments familiar in the modern world, including the Internet, its successor "The Grid", and the latest cancer treatments. In this book, advances made from developing the 27 kilometre particle accelerator and its detectors are presented with the benefit of first hand interviews and are extensively illustrated throughout. Interviewees are leading physicis...

  1. The Evolution of the Control System for the Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Holme, Oliver; Dissertori, Günther; Lustermann, Werner; Zelepoukine, Serguei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of the Detector Control System (DCS) designed and implemented for the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as well as the operational experience acquired during the LHC physics data taking periods of 2010 and 2011. The current implementation in terms of functionality and planned hardware upgrades are presented. Furthermore, a project for reducing the long-term software maintenance, including a year-long detailed analysis of the existing applications, is put forward and the current outcomes which have informed the design decisions for the next CMS ECAL DCS software generation are described. The main goals for the new version are to minimize external dependencies enabling smooth migration to new hardware and software platforms and to maintain the existing functionality whilst substantially reducing support and maintenance effort through homogenization, simplification and standardization of the contr...

  2. Top Quark Pair Production in Association with a Jet with Next-to-Leading-Order QCD Off-Shell Effects at the Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, G; Hartanto, H B; Kraus, M; Worek, M

    2016-02-05

    We present a complete description of top quark pair production in association with a jet in the dilepton channel. Our calculation is accurate to next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD and includes all nonresonant diagrams, interferences, and off-shell effects of the top quark. Moreover, nonresonant and off-shell effects due to the finite W gauge boson width are taken into account. This calculation constitutes the first fully realistic NLO computation for top quark pair production with a final state jet in hadronic collisions. Numerical results for differential distributions as well as total cross sections are presented for the Large Hadron Collider at 8 TeV. With our inclusive cuts, NLO predictions reduce the unphysical scale dependence by more than a factor of 3 and lower the total rate by about 13% compared to leading-order QCD predictions. In addition, the size of the top quark off-shell effects is estimated to be below 2%.

  3. Towards the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    The broad physics potential of e+e- linear colliders was recognized by the high energy physics community right after the end of LEP in 2000. In 2007, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) now under construction at CERN will obtain its first collisions. The LHC, colliding protons with protons at 14 TeV, will discover a standard model Higgs boson over the full potential mass range, and should be sensitive to new physics into the several TeV range. The program for the Linear Collider (LC) will be set in the context of the discoveries made at the LHC. All the proposals for a Linear Collider will extend the discoveries and provide a wealth of measurements that are essential for giving deeper understanding of their meaning, and pointing the way to further evolution of particle physics in the future. For the mexican groups is the right time to join such an effort

  4. Calibration of the ATLAS precision muon chambers and study of the decay {tau} {yields} {mu}{mu}{mu} at the large hadron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeben, Joerg Horst Jochen von

    2010-07-07

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide protons at centre-of-mass energies of up to 14 TeV. One of the two general purpose experiments at the LHC is ATLAS, built to probe a broad spectrum of physics processes of the Standard Model of particle physics and beyond. ATLAS is equipped with a muon spectrometer comprising three superconducting air-core toroid magnets and 1150 precision drift tube (MDT) chambers measuring muon trajectories with better than 50 {mu}m position resolution. The accuracy of the space-to-drift-time relationships of the MDT chambers is one of the main contributions to the momentum resolution. In this thesis, an improved method for the calibration of the precision drift tube chambers in magnetic fields has been developed and tested using curved muon track segments. An accuracy of the drift distance measurement of better than 20 {mu}m is achieved leading to negligible deterioration of the muon momentum resolution. The second part of this work is dedicated to the study of the lepton flavour violating decay {tau}{yields}{mu}{mu}{mu}. Lepton flavour violation is predicted by almost every extension of the Standard Model. About 10{sup 12}{tau} leptons are produced per year at an instantaneous luminosity of 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Simulated data samples have been used to evaluate the sensitivity of the ATLAS experiment for {tau}{yields}{mu}{mu}{mu} decays with an integrated luminosity of 10 fb{sup -1}. Taking theoretical and experimental systematic uncertainties into account an upper limit on the signal branching ratio of B({tau}{yields}{mu}{mu}{mu}) <5.9 x 10{sup -7} at 90% confidence level is achievable. This result represents the first estimation in ATLAS. (orig.)

  5. Towards the conceptual design of the cryogenic system of the Future Circular Collider (FCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowski, M.; Correia Rodrigues, H.; Delikaris, D.; Duda, P.; Haberstroh, C.; Holdener, F.; Klöppel, S.; Kotnig, C.; Millet, F.; Polinski, J.; Quack, H.; Tavian, L.

    2017-12-01

    Following the update of the European strategy in particle physics, CERN has undertaken an international study of possible future circular colliders beyond the LHC. The study considers several options for very high-energy hadron-hadron, electron-positron and hadron-electron colliders. From the cryogenics point of view, the most challenging option is the hadron-hadron collider (FCC-hh) for which the conceptual design of the cryogenic system is progressing. The FCC-hh cryogenic system will have to produce up to 120 kW at 1.8 K for the superconducting magnet cooling, 6 MW between 40 and 60 K for the beam-screen and thermal-shield cooling as well as 850 g/s between 40 and 290 K for the HTS current-lead cooling. The corresponding total entropic load represents about 1 MW equivalent at 4.5 K and this cryogenic system will be by far the largest ever designed. In addition, the total mass to be cooled down is about 250’000 t and an innovative cool-down process must be proposed. This paper will present the proposed cryogenic layout and architecture, the cooling principles of the main components, the corresponding cooling schemes, as well as the cryogenic plant arrangement and proposed process cycles. The corresponding required development plan for such challenging cryogenic system will be highlighted.

  6. Physics at Future Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Baur, U.; Parsons, J.; Albrow, M.; Denisov, D.; Han, T.; Kotwal, A.; Olness, F.; Qian, J.; Belyaev, S.; Bosman, M.; Brooijmans, G.; Gaines, I.; Godfrey, S.; Hansen, J.B.; Hauser, J.; Heintz, U.; Hinchliffe, I.; Kao, C.; Landsberg, G.; Maltoni, F.; Oleari, C.; Pagliarone, C.; Paige, F.; Plehn, T.; Rainwater, D.; Reina, L.; Rizzo, T.; Su, S.; Tait, T.; Wackeroth, D.; Vataga, E.; Zeppenfeld, D.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the physics opportunities and detector challenges at future hadron colliders. As guidelines for energies and luminosities we use the proposed luminosity and/or energy upgrade of the LHC (SLHC), and the Fermilab design of a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). We illustrate the physics capabilities of future hadron colliders for a variety of new physics scenarios (supersymmetry, strong electroweak symmetry breaking, new gauge bosons, compositeness and extra dimensions). We also investigate the prospects of doing precision Higgs physics studies at such a machine, and list selected Standard Model physics rates.

  7. Colliding nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, Roger; Remaud, Bernard; Suraud, E.; Durand, Dominique; Tamain, Bernard; Gobbi, A.; Cugnon, J.; Drapier, Olivier; Govaerts, Jan; Prieels, Rene

    1995-09-01

    This 14. international school Joliot-Curie of nuclear physic deals with nuclei in collision at high energy. Nine lectures are included in the proceedings of this summer school: 1 - From statistical mechanics outside equilibrium to transport equations (Balian, R.); 2 - Modeling of heavy ions reactions (Remaud, B.); 3 - Kinetic equations in heavy ions physics (Suraud, E.); 4 - Colliding nuclei near the Fermi energy (Durand, D.; Tamain, B.); 5 - From the Fermi to the relativistic energy domain: which observable? For which physics? (Gobbi, A.); 6 - Collisions at relativistic and ultra relativistic energies, Theoretical aspects (Cugnon, J.); 7 - Quark-gluon plasma: experimental signatures (Drapier, O.); 8 - Electroweak interaction: a window on physics beyond the standard model (Govaerts, J.); 9 - Symmetry tests in β nuclear process: polarization techniques (Prieels, R.)

  8. Leak-tightness assessment of demountable joints for the super fluid helium system of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, J.C.; Poncet, A.; Trilhe, P.

    1994-01-01

    The future high energy accelerator LHC presently considered at CERN, will make heavy use of demountable cryogenic joints operating at superfluid helium temperatures (1.8 K). These joints will be required for connecting the cryomagnets to their feeding lines, helium safety valves to cold masses, both on their measuring benches and eventually in their final installation set-up. The very large size of the future machine and, consequently, the large number of cryogenic joints imply that their reliability in leak tightness be very high, in particular after extreme loading conditions such as the high helium pressures resulting from superconducting magnet quenches. For these reasons, a test set-up has been especially built at CERN to reproduce these conditions, and to assess the leak tightness reliability of commercially available joints. A description of the facility is presented, together with the first test results

  9. The uses of electrostatic bending and focussing elements for auxiliary storage rings in large proton collider tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss the possibility of using electrostatic elements, instead of magnets, for bending and focusing in auxiliary electron storage rings in the tunnels of large proton accelerators. For example, in the proposed SSC tunnel, electron beam energies of --100 GeV appear to be possible. Benefits of electrostatic systems over conventional magnets in cost, aperture, beam dynamics, radiation hardness, and power are presented. Electrostatic element designs are discussed, as are applications to electron, anti-proton and heavy ion beams

  10. Search for Microscopic Black Holes in Multijet Final States with the ATLAS Detector using 8 TeV Proton-Proton Collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Saddique, Asif

    Microscopic black holes are expected to produce a high multiplicity of Standard Model (SM) particles having large transverse momenta in the final state. In this thesis, a search for microscopic black holes in multijet final states with the ATLAS 2012 data using 8 TeV centre of mass energy of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider is performed in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $20.3$ fb$^{-1}$. The search is simplified to multijet final states because most of the expected SM particles produced from black hole decay would lead to hadronic jets. The data events with high-transverse momenta have been analysed for different exclusive jet multiplicities, i.e. $2,3,...,7$, and inclusive jet multiplicities, i.e. $\\geq 3,4,...,7$. In this multijet analysis, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) multijet production is the main background. For all the multijet final states, the data distributions for the sum of jet transverse momenta ($H_{T}=\\sum p_{T}$) in an event have been observed ...

  11. The upgraded Pixel detector and the commissioning of the Inner Detector tracking of the ATLAS experiment for Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00019188; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will provide new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with the high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130~nm technology. In addition, the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during Run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. Complementing detector improvements, many improvements to Inner Detector track and vertex reconstr...

  12. Mathematical formulation to predict the harmonics of the superconducting Large Hadron Collider magnets: III. Precycle ramp rate effects and magnet characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Sammut

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN is equipped with a feed-forward control system known as the field description for the LHC (FiDeL which is designed to predict the magnetic field and its multipoles, hence reducing the burden on beam based feedback. FiDeL consists of a physical and empirical parametric field model based on magnetic measurements at warm and in cryogenic conditions. It is particularly critical during beam injection when the field decays and at the beginning of acceleration when the field snaps back. It is known that the decay amplitude is largely affected by the powering history of the magnet, particularly by the precycle flattop current and duration and the preinjection preparation duration. Recently, we have collected data that quantify the dependence of the decay amplitude on the precycle ramp rate. This paper presents the results of the measurements performed to investigate this effect, and the method included in FiDeL to model the precycle dependence. With this complete picture of dynamic changes, we finally discuss the effect on the data taken at nominally constant field, along the magnet loadline. We show that a correction for dynamic changes is required for adequate magnet characterization.

  13. submitter Influence of 3D Effects on Field Quality in the Straight Part of Accelerator Magnets for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Emelie; Todesco, Ezio; Enomoto, Shun; Farinon, Stefania; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Sugano, Michinaka; Savary, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    A dedicated D1 beam separation dipole is currently being developed at KEK for the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). Four 150 mm aperture, 5.6 T magnetic field and 6.7 m long Nb-Ti magnets will replace resistive D1 dipoles. The development includes fabrication and testing of 2.2 m model magnets. The dipole has a single layer coil and thin spacers between coil and iron, giving a non-negligible impact of saturation on field quality at nominal field. The magnetic design of the straight section coil cross section is based on 2D optimization and a separate optimization concerns the coil ends. However, magnetic measurements of the short model showed a large difference (tens of units) between the sextupole harmonic in the straight part and the 2D calculation. This difference is correctly modelled only by a 3D analysis: 3D calculations show that the magnetic field quality in the straight part is influenced by the coil ends, even for the 6.7 m long magnets. The effect is even more remarkable in the sho...

  14. submitter Influence of 3D Effects on Field Quality in the Straight Part of Accelerator Magnets for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Emelie; Todesco, Ezio; Enomoto, Shun; Farinon, Stefania; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Sugano, Michinaka; Savary, Frederic

    2018-01-01

    A dedicated D1 beam separation dipole is currently being developed at KEK for the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). Four 150 mm aperture, 5.6 T magnetic field and 6.7 m long Nb-Ti magnets will replace resistive D1 dipoles. The development includes fabrication and testing of 2.2 m model magnets. The dipole has a single layer coil and thin spacers between coil and iron, giving a non-negligible impact of saturation on field quality at nominal field. The magnetic design of the straight section coil cross section is based on 2D optimization and a separate optimization concerns the coil ends. However, magnetic measurements of the short model showed a large difference (tens of units) between the sextupole harmonic in the straight part and the 2D calculation. This difference is correctly modelled only by a 3D analysis: 3D calculations show that the magnetic field quality in the straight part is influenced by the coil ends, even for the 6.7 m long magnets. The effect is even more remarkable in the sho...

  15. Beam-loss induced pressure rise of Large Hadron Collider collimator materials irradiated with 158 GeV/u $In^{49+}$ ions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, Edgar; Hansen, Jan; Page, Eric; Vincke, H

    2004-01-01

    During heavy ion operation, large pressure rises, up to a few orders of magnitude, were observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL. The dynamic pressure rises were triggered by lost beam ions that impacted onto the vacuum chamber walls and desorbed about 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 7/ molecules per ion. The deterioration of the dynamic vacuum conditions can enhance charge-exchange beam losses and can lead to beam instabilities or even to beam abortion triggered by vacuum interlocks. Consequently, a dedicated measurement of heavy-ion induced molecular desorption in the GeV/u energy range is important for Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ion operation. In 2003, a desorption experiment was installed at the super proton synchrotron to measure the beam-loss induced pressure rise of potential LHC collimator materials. Samples of bare graphite, sputter coated (Cu, TiZrV) graphite, and 316 LN (low carbon with nitrogen) stainless steel were irradiated under grazing angle with 158 GeV/u indium ions. After a description of the new experimental ...

  16. MMS Observations of Large Guide Field Symmetric Reconnection Between Colliding Reconnection Jets at the Center of a Magnetic Flux Rope at the Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oieroset, M.; Phan, T. D.; Haggerty, C.; Shay, M. A.; Eastwood, J. P.; Gershman, D. J.; Drake, J. F.; Fujimoto, M.; Ergun, R. E.; Mozer, F. S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report evidence for reconnection between colliding reconnection jets in a compressed current sheet at the center of a magnetic flux rope at Earth's magnetopause. The reconnection involved nearly symmetric Inflow boundary conditions with a strong guide field of two. The thin (2.5 ion-skin depth (d(sub i) width) current sheet (at approximately 12 d(sub i) downstream of the X line) was well resolved by MMS, which revealed large asymmetries in plasma and field structures in the exhaust. Ion perpendicular heating, electron parallel heating, and density compression occurred on one side of the exhaust, while ion parallel heating and density depression were shifted to the other side. The normal electric field and double out-of-plane (bifurcated) currents spanned almost the entire exhaust. These observations are in good agreement with a kinetic simulation for similar boundary conditions, demonstrating in new detail that the structure of large guide field symmetric reconnection is distinctly different from antiparallel reconnection.

  17. Development of superconducting sextupole and decapole spool corrector magnets at CAT for the main dipole of Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puntambekar, A.M.; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting (Sc)-corrector magnets are one of the important Indian contributions to LHC under construction at Geneva, Switzerland. Under DAE-CERN collaboration we embarked on the development of these magnets at CAT. This involved making prototype to validate basic design, then incorporate engineering design features and develop all tooling, machines to suit large production lot. We started the work in close collaboration with LHC/ICP, CERN and developed necessary tooling and fixtures, machining methods for intricate shape coil supports, Sc coil winding machines, test-equipment for warm and cold testing etc and made several prototypes. These prototypes were tested at CAT and CERN at warm and at 4.2 and 1.8K for acceptance. This paper describes salient features of prototype development at CAT. (author)

  18. Future Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, Eberhard

    1998-01-01

    Plans for future hadron colliders are presented, and accelerator physics and engineering aspects common to these machines are discussed. The Tevatron is presented first, starting with a summary of the achievements in Run IB which finished in 1995, followed by performance predictions for Run II which will start in 1999, and the TeV33 project, aiming for a peak luminosity $L ~ 1 (nbs)^-1$. The next machine is the Large Hadron Collider LHC at CERN, planned to come into operation in 2005. The last set of machines are Very Large Hadron Colliders which might be constructed after the LHC. Three variants are presented: Two machines with a beam energy of 50 TeV, and dipole fields of 1.8 and 12.6 T in the arcs, and a machine with 100 TeV and 12 T. The discussion of accelerator physics aspects includes the beam-beam effect, bunch spacing and parasitic collisions, and the crossing angle. The discussion of the engineering aspects covers synchrotron radiation and stored energy in the beams, the power in the debris of the p...

  19. A New Boson with a Mass of 125 GeV Observed with the CMS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Majerotto, Walter; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Szoncsó, Fritz; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Emeliantchik, Igor; Litomin, Aliaksandr; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Solin, Alexander; Stefanovitch, Roman; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Fedorov, Andrey; Korzhik, Mikhail; Missevitch, Oleg; Zuyeuski, Raman; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Beaumont, Willem; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Druzhkin, Dmitry; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Goorens, Robert; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Rugovac, Shkelzen; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Iope, Rogerio Luiz; Lagana, Caio; Lietti, Sergio M; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Vutova, Mariana; Roumenin, Chavdar; Uzunova, Daniela; Zahariev, Roman; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; He, Kang-Lin; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Li, Wei-Guo; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Sun, Gongxing; Sun, Han-Sheng; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Yang, Min; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhenxia; Zhao, Wei-Ren; Zhu, Zian; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Cai, Jianxin; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Hong-Tao; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Ye, Yan-Lin; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Aly, Ayman; Assran, Yasser; Awad, Adel; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Strumia, Alessandro; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Anttila, Erkki; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Katajisto, Harri Mikael; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kotamäki, Miikka; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Vanhala, Tommi Pekka; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Anfreville, Marc; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kircher, François; Lemaire, Marie-Claude; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Mandjavidze, Irakli; Nayak, Aruna; Pansart, Jean-Pierre; Rander, John; Reymond, Jean-Marc; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Badier, Jean; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Becheva, Emilia; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Cerutti, Muriel; Chamont, David; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Geerebaert, Yannick; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hennion, Pascale; Milleret, Gérard; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Romanteau, Thierry; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sartirana, Andrea; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Gross, Laurent; Huss, Daniel; Juillot, Pierre; Kieffer, Eric; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Pansanel, Jérôme; Patois, Yannick; Van Hove, Pierre; Boutigny, Dominique; Mercier, Damien; Baulieu, Guillaume; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brochet, Sébastien; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Combaret, Christophe; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Giraud, Noël; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Haroutunian, Roger; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Lumb, Nicholas; Mathez, Hervé; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Rurua, Lali; Amaglobeli, Nodar; Bagaturia, Iuri; Chiladze, Badri; Kvatadze, Ramazi; Lomidze, David; Shanidze, Revaz; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Adolphi, Roman; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Brauer, Richard; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Schmitz, Detlef; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Biallass, Philipp; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hilgers, Guenter; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Philipps, Barthel; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Sowa, Michael; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Goettlicher, Peter; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lewendel, Birgit; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Muhl, Carsten; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosemann, Christoph; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Youngman, Christopher; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sibille, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Bauer, Julia; Berger, Joram; Blüm, Peter; Böser, Christian; Buege, Volker; Chen, Zheng-Yu; Chowdhury, Shantanu; Chwalek, Thorsten; Daeuwel, Daniel; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Fahrer, Manuel; Feindt, Michael; Felzmann, Ulrich; Frey, Martin; Furgeri, Alexander; Gebauer, Iris; Gessler, Andreas; Gruschke, Jasmin; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauler, Florian; Hauth, Thomas; Heier, Stefan; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Heinrich, Michael; Heiss, Andreas; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Husemann, Ulrich; Imhof, Markus; Jung, Christopher; Junghans, Sascha; Katkov, Igor; Kerzel, Ulrich; Knoblauch, Dieter; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kräber, Michael; Kuhr, Thomas; Liamsuwan, Thiansin; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Menchikov, Alexandre; Mol, Xavier; Mörmann, Dirk; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Neuberger, Dirk; Neuland, Maike Brigitte; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ortega Gomez, Tino; Ott, Jochen; Piasecki, Christian; Poschlad, Angela; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Röcker, Steffen; Roederer, Frank; Sabellek, Andreas; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Dennis; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Schwerdtfeger, Wolfgang; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Skiba, Alexander; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Theel, Andreas; Thümmel, Wolf Hagen; Troendle, Daniel; Trunov, Artem; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Markus; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Zvada, Marian; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zalan, Peter; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Fenyvesi, Andras; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Zilizi, Gyula; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Chatterji, Sudeep; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Gupta, Pooja; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Ghodgaonkar, Manohar; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Ganguli, Som N; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Raghavan, R; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bheesette, Satyanarayana; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Lakkireddi, Venkatesam Reddy; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Panyam, Nagaraj; Verma, Piyush; Ardalan, Farhad; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; De Robertis, Giuseppe; Donvito, Giacinto; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Loddo, Flavio; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Natali, Sergio; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Ranieri, Antonio; Romano, Francesco; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Spinoso, Vincenzo; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Noto, Francesco; Potenza, Renato; Saizu, Mirela Angela; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Parrini, Giuliano; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Farinon, Stefania; Greco, Michela; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Carbone, Luca; D'Angelo, Pasqualino; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dini, Paolo; Farina, Fabio Mario; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Negri, Pietro; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pullia, Antonino; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Benettoni, Massimo; Biasotto, Massimo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Gulmini, Michele; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Loreti, Maurizio; Margoni, Martino; Maron, Gaetano; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Berzano, Umberto; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Passeri, Daniele; Placidi, Pisana; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Angelini, Franco; Arezzini, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Basti, Andrea; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Bosi, Filippo; Brez, Alessandro; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Calzolari, Federico; Carboni, Andrea; Castaldi, Rino; Cerri, Claudio; Ciampa, Alberto; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Giusti, Simone; Kraan, Aafke; Latronico, Luca; Ligabue, Franco; Linari, Stefano; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Massa, Maurizio; Massai, Marco Maria; Mazzoni, Enrico; Messineo, Alberto; Moggi, Andrea; Palla, Fabrizio; Raffaelli, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Sanguinetti, Giulio; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Spandre, Gloria; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Baccaro, Stefania; Barone, Luciano; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cavallari, Francesca; Dafinei, Ioan; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Talamo, Ivano Giuseppe; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Peroni, Cristiana; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Kavka, Carlos; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Ham, Seung Woo; Han, Daehee; Kang, Juheon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Kyung Sook; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Man Woo; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Suh, Jun Suhk; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Jo, Youngkwon; Kang, Minho; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Hahn, Garam; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Naujikas, Rolandas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Bernardino Rodrigues, Nuno; Butler, Anthony Philip Howard; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Williams, Jennifer C; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Goscilo, Lukasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Kudla, Ignacy Maciek; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Czyrkowski, Henryk; Dabrowski, Ryszard; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Oklinski, Wojciech; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Zabolotny, Wojciech; Zych, Pawel; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Alemany-Fernandez, Reyes; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Rasteiro Da Silva, Jose; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Ershov, Yuri; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golunov, Alexander; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbounov, Nikolai; Gorbunov, Ilya; Gramenitski, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Korenkov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Kurenkov, Alexander; Lanev, Alexander; Makankin, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Melnitchenko, Igor; Mitsyn, Valeri Valentinovitch; Moisenz, Petr; Oleynik, Danila; Orlov, Alexandre; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Petrosyan, Artem; Savina, Maria; Semenov, Roman; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skachkova, Anna; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smetannikov, Vladimir; Smirnov, Vitaly; Smolin, Dmitry; Tikhonenko, Elena; Vasilyev, Sergey; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zhiltsov, Victor; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Anisimov, Alexander; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Pivovarov, Grigory; Postoev, Vladimir E; Rubakov, Valery; Shirinyants, Valery; Solovey, Anatoly; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kiselevich, Ivan; Kolosov, Victor; Konoplyannikov, Anatoly; Kossov, Mikhail; Kozlov, Yury; Krokhotin, Andrey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Oulianov, Alexei; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Shreyber, Irina; Stepanov, Nikita; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zaytsev, Valentin; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Demiyanov, Andrey; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Ilyin, Viacheslav; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Kryukov, Alexander; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Proskuryakov, Alexander; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Levine, Andrey; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryabov, Alexander; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Talov, Vladimir; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Smiljkovic, Nebojsa; Zupan, Marko; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Aspell, Paul; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baechler, Joachim; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Campi, Domenico; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cerminara, Gianluca; Charkiewicz, Andrzej; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daguin, Jerome; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eppard, Michael; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gastal, Martin; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Goudard, Raphael; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Gutleber, Johannes; Hammarstrom, Robert; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Loos, Robert; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marchioro, Alessandro; Marques Pinho Noite, João; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moneta, Lorenzo; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Onnela, Antti; Orsini, Luciano; Osborne, John Andrew; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petagna, Paolo; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucci, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Postema, Hans; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Ricci, Daniel; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Ryjov, Vladimir; Sakulin, Hannes; Samyn, Dirk; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sciaba, Andrea; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Taylor, Bruce G; Teller, Olivier; Tropea, Paola; Troska, Jan; Tsesmelis, Emmanuel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vasey, François; Veillet, Lucien; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wertelaers, Piet; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Feichtinger, Derek; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Beat; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Bäni, Lukas; Behner, Frank; Betev, Botjo; Blau, Bertrand; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Da Silva Di Calafiori, Diogo Raphael; Dambach, Sarah; Davatz, Giovanna; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Djambazov, Lubomir; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eggel, Christina; Eugster, Jürg; Faber, Gérard; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hintz, Wieland; Hits, Dmitry; Hofer, Hans; Holme, Oliver; Horvath, Istvan; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Punz, Thomas; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Röser, Ulf; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Schinzel, Dietrich; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Suter, Henry; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Trüb, Peter; Udriot, Stève; Urscheler, Christina; Viertel, Gert; von Gunten, Hans Peter; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Kilminster, Benjamin; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Ferro, Cristina; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Gao, Zhengwei; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liau, Jiun-jie; Lin, Sheng-Wen; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Ueno, Koji; Velikzhanin, Yury; Wan, Xia; Wang, Chin-chi; Wang, Minzu; Wei, Jui-Te; Yeh, Ping; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Lukyanenko, Sergiy; Soroka, Dmytro; Sorokin, Pavel; Ahmad, Mian Khawar Hasham; Branson, Andrew; McClatchey, Richard; Odeh, Mohammed; Shamdasani, Jetendr; Soomro, Kamran; Barrass, Timothy; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lacesso, Winnie; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bateman, Eddie; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David JA; Connolly, John F; Coughlan, John A; Denton, Len G; Flower, Paul S; French, Marcus; Greenhalgh, Justin; Halsall, Robert; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Hill, John; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Lintern, Laurence Albert; Lodge, Anthony B; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Pearson, Matthew; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Smith, Brian; Sproston, Martin; Stephenson, Richard; Tomalin, Ian R; Torbet, Martin; Williams, Julian; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Bauer, Daniela; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Jones, John; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Leaver, James; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Miller, Derek George; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Noy, Matthew; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Rand, Duncan; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Timlin, Claire; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Wingham, Matthew; Zorba, Osman; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Hazen, Eric; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Wu, Shouxiang; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Hooper, Ryan; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Unalan, Zeynep; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Case, Michael; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Grim, Gary; Gunion, Jack; Holbrook, Britt; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Lin, Feng-Cheng; Miceli, Tia; Murray, Patrick; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rowe, Jeff; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Kubic, Jonathan; Otwinowski, Stanislaw; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Yang, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Yangheng; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Layter, John G; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Shen, Benjamin C; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cinquilli, Mattia; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Martin, Terrence; Mrak-Tadel, Alja; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sfiligoi, Igor; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Golf, Frank; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Kyre, Susanne; Lowette, Steven; Magazzu, Guido; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; White, Dean; Adamczyk, David; Apresyan, Artur; Barczyk, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Denis, Gregory; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Galvez, Philippe; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Lebeau, Michel; Legrand, Iosif; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Maxa, Zdenek; Mott, Alexander; Mughal, Azher; Nae, Dan; Newman, Harvey B; Ravot, Sylvain; Rogan, Christopher; Rozsa, Sandor Gyula; Shevchenko, Sergey; Shin, Kyoungha; Spiropulu, Maria; Steenberg, Conrad; Thomas, Michael; Timciuc, Vladlen; van Lingen, Frank; Veverka, Jan; Voicu, Bucoveanu-Ramiro; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhu, Kejun; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Johnson, Douglas; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Stroiney, Steven; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albert, Merina; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Badgett, William; Bailleux, David; Bakken, Jon Alan; Baldin, Boris; Banicz, Karoly; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Binkley, Morris; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Dagenhart, William; Derylo, Greg; Dumitrescu, Catalin; Dykstra, David; Eartly, David P; Elias, John E; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Eulisse, Giulio; Evans, David; Fagan, David; Fisk, Ian; Foulkes, Stephen; Freeman, Jim; Gaines, Irwin; Gao, Yanyan; Gartung, Patrick; Giacchetti, Lisa; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Guo, Yuyi; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Holzman, Burt; Hooberman, Benjamin; Howell, Joseph; Huang, Chih-hao; Hufnagel, Dirk; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Jones, Christopher Duncan; Joshi, Umesh; Juska, Evaldas; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Larson, Krista; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lopez Perez, Juan Antonio; Los, Serguei; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Mishra, Kalanand; Moccia, Stefano; Mommsen, Remigius K; Mrenna, Stephen; Murray, Steven John; Musienko, Yuri; Muzaffar, Shahzad; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Osborne, Ianna; Pivarski, James; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rapsevicius, Valdas; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Rossman, Paul; Ryu, Seangchan; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Shaw, Theresa; Smith, Richard P; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tanenbaum, William; Taylor, Lucas; Thompson, Rich; Tiradani, Anthony; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Tuura, Lassi; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yarba, Julia; Yun, Jae Chul; Zimmerman, Thomas; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Barashko, Victor; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Dolinsky, Sergei; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Gorn, Lisa; Holmes, Daniel; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Madorsky, Alexander; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Scurlock, Bobby; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Stasko, John; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bertoldi, Maurizio; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Dharmaratna, Welathantri GD; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Tentindo, Silvia; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chung, Man-Ho; Evdokimov, Olga; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Hollis, Richard; Iordanova, Aneta; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Ayan, Ahmet Sedat; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Debbins, Paul; Duru, Firdevs; Ingram, F Duane; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael Jan; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Schmidt, Ianos; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Coppage, Don; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Grassi, Tullio; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Rossato, Kenneth; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Toole, Terrence; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Egeland, Ricky; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Haupt, Jason; Inyakin, Alexandre; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Attebury, Garhan; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bockelman, Brian; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malik, Sudhir; Snihur, Robert; Snow, Gregory R; Swanson, David; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Moromisato, Jorge; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Swain, John; Trocino, Daniele; Von Goeler, Eberhard; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Gobbi, Bruno; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Lusito, Letizia; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Baumbaugh, Barry; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Rush, Chuck J; Sehgal, Veejay; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Koay, Sue Ann; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Wildish, Tony; Xie, Zhen; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Bonnett Del Alamo, Miguel; Brownson, Eric; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Arndt, Kirk; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bujak, Adam; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Lee, Jik; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Miyamoto, Jun; Neumeister, Norbert; Rott, Carsten; Roy, Amitava; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Lee, Sang Joon; Li, Wei; Liu, Jinghua H; Matveev, Mikhail; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Tumanov, Alexander; Yepes, Pablo; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Ginther, George; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Sakumoto, Willis; Slattery, Paul; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Ragghianti, Gerald; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Andelin, Daniel; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Phillips II, David; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Bellinger, James Nugent; Borrello, Laura; Bradley, Daniel; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Crotty, Ian; Dasu, Sridhara; Feyzi, Farshid; Friis, Evan; Gorski, Thomas; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lackey, Joe; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Loveless, Richard; Lusin, Sergei; Magrans de Abril, Marc; Maier, Will; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua; Wenman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The Higgs boson was postulated nearly five decades ago within the framework of the standard model of particle physics and has been the subject of numerous searches at accelerators around the world. Its discovery would verify the existence of a complex scalar field thought to give mass to three of the carriers of the electroweak force—the W+, W–, and Z0 bosons—as well as to the fundamental quarks and leptons. The CMS Collaboration has observed, with a statistical significance of five standard deviations, a new particle produced in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The evidence is strongest in the diphoton and four-lepton (electrons and/or muons) final states, which provide the best mass resolution in the CMS detector. The probability of the observed signal being due to a random fluctuation of the background is about 1 in 3 × 106. The new particle is a boson with spin not equal to 1 and has a mass of about 125 giga–electron volts. Although its measured properties are, withi...

  20. Predictions for multiplicities and flow harmonics in 5.44 TeV Xe+Xe collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskola, K. J.; Niemi, H.; Paatelainen, R.; Tuominen, K.

    2018-03-01

    We present the event-by-event next-to-leading-order perturbative-QCD + saturation + viscous hydrodynamics (EKRT) model predictions for the centrality dependence of the charged hadron multiplicity in the pseudorapidity interval |η |≤0.5 , and for the centrality dependence of the charged hadron flow harmonics vn{2 } obtained from two-particle cumulants, in √{sN N}=5.44 TeV Xe+Xe collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Our prediction for the 0-5 % central charged multiplicity is d Nch/d η =1218 ±46 . We also predict vn{2 } in Xe+Xe collisions to increase more slowly from central towards peripheral collisions than those in a Pb+Pb system. We find that at 10 ,⋯,50 % centralities v2{2 } is smaller and v3{2 } is larger than in the Pb+Pb system while v4{2 } is of the same magnitude in both systems. We also find that the ratio of flow harmonics in Xe+Xe collisions and in Pb+Pb collisions shows a slight sensitivity to the temperature dependence of the shear-viscosity-to-entropy ratio. As we discuss here, the new nuclear mass-number systematics especially in the flow harmonics serves as a welcome further constraint for describing the space-time evolution of a heavy-ion system and for determining the shear viscosity and other transport properties of strongly interacting matter.

  1. A search for the ttH (H → bb) channel at the Large Hadron Collider with the ATLAS detector using a matrix element method

    CERN Document Server

    Basye, Austin Thomas

    A matrix element method analysis of the Standard Model Higgs boson, produced in association with two top quarks decaying to the lepton-plus-jets channel is presented. Based on 20.3 fb−1 of √s=8 TeV data, produced at the Large Hadron Collider and collected by the ATLAS detector, this analysis utilizes multiple advanced techniques to search for tt ̄H signatures with a 125 GeV Higgs boson decaying to two b-quarks. After categorizing selected events based on their jet and b-tag multiplicities, signal rich regions are analyzed using the matrix element method. Resulting variables are then propagated to two parallel multivariate analyses utilizing Neural Networks and Boosted Decision Trees respectively. As no significant excess is found, an observed (expected) limit of 3.4 (2.2) times the Standard Model cross-section is determined at 95% confidence, using the CLs method, for the Neural Network analysis. For the Boosted Decision Tree analysis, an observed (expected) limit of 5.2 (2.7) times the Standard Model cr...

  2. Search for Supersymmetry in final states with three leptons and missing transverse energy with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has collected an unprecedented amount of data in the 3 years of data taking since its start. In this document I will dis- cuss the results of the analysis I performed during my PhD at the university of Sussex for the search of Supersymmetry in events with three leptons (electron/muon/tau) and missing transverse energy in the final state. The search is performed on the full dataset collected by the experiment in 2012, at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. These results are interpreted in SUSY models with chargino-neutralino pair production via decays involving sleptons, staus, gauge bosons and the newly discovered Higgs boson. These results presen- ted improve on previous searches performed at ATLAS in three lepton final states with only electrons and muons. Special focus will be given to the optimisation process of Su- persymmetry signal with respect to the SM background, and the statistical interpretation of the results obtained with this search.

  3. Quench characteristics of Ag/AuBi2223 HTS-stainless steel stack used for the hybrid current leads of the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Mosawi, M K; Beduz, C; Yang, Y; Ballarino, A

    2008-01-01

    The quench characteristics of Ag/Au sheathed Bi2223 tapes have been investigated in an adiabatic condition and in a configuration similar to that used in hybrid high temperature superconducting current leads, namely the 13000A leads used for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A specialised rig was designed and constructed to provide a carefully controlled environment. The samples were prepared from HTS tape soldered onto a stainless steel substrate with a number of temperature sensors at various positions along the length of tape. One end of the lead (cold end) was maintained at 6K using G-M cryo-cooler whereas the temperature of the other end (warm end) can be varied and maintained at temperatures up to 100K. The thermal runaway currents (quench currents) at various warm end temperatures (in the range of 40-100K) were determined. The temperature evolutions at various locations along the tape were recorded at different top end temperatures and currents. The effect of the stainless steel mechanical reinforceme...

  4. Measurement of very forward neutron energy spectra for 7 TeV proton--proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Del Prete, M.; Haguenauer, M.; Itow, Y.; Kasahara, K.; Kawade, K.; Makino, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubayashi, E.; Menjo, H.; Mitsuka, G.; Muraki, Y.; Okuno, Y.; Papini, P.; Perrot, A-L.; Ricciarini, S.; Sako, T.; Sakurai, N.; Sugiura, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Tamura, T.; Tiberio, A.; Torii, S.; Tricomi, A.; Turner, W.C.; Zhou, Q.D.

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider forward (LHCf) experiment is designed to use the LHC to verify the hadronic-interaction models used in cosmic-ray physics. Forward baryon production is one of the crucial points to understand the development of cosmic-ray showers. We report the neutron-energy spectra for LHC $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV proton--proton collisions with the pseudo-rapidity $\\eta$ ranging from 8.81 to 8.99, from 8.99 to 9.22, and from 10.76 to infinity. The measured energy spectra obtained from the two independent calorimeters of Arm1 and Arm2 show the same characteristic feature before unfolding the difference in the detector responses. We unfolded the measured spectra by using the multidimensional unfolding method based on Bayesian theory, and the unfolded spectra were compared with current hadronic-interaction models. The QGSJET II-03 model predicts a high neutron production rate at the highest pseudo-rapidity range similar to our results and the DPMJET 3.04 model describes our results well at the lower pseudo-...

  5. Development of a Large Area Advanced Fast RICH Detector for Particle Identification at the Large Hadron Collider Operated with Heavy Ions

    CERN Multimedia

    Piuz, F; Braem, A; Van beelen, J B; Lion, G; Gandi, A

    2002-01-01

    %RD26 %title\\\\ \\\\During the past two years, RD26 groups have focused their activities on the production of CsI-RICH prototypes of large area, up to a square meter, to demonstrate their application in High Energy experiments. Many large CsI-photocathodes (up to 40) were produced following the processing techniques furthermore developped in the collaboration. Taking the Quantum Efficiency (QE) measured at 180 nm as a comparative figure of merit of a CsI-PC. Figure 1 shows the increase of the performance while improvements were successively implemented in the PC processing sequence. Most efficient were the use of substrates made of nickel, the heat treatment and handling of the PCs under inert gas. Actually, three large systems based on CsI-RICH have got approval in the following HEP experiments: HADES at GSI, COMPASS/NA58 at CERN and HMPID/ALICE at LHC implying up to 14 square metres of CsI-PC. In addition, several CsI-RICH detectors have been successfully operated in the Threshold Imaging Detector at NA44 and ...

  6. Muon Collider Progress: Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-09-10

    A muon collider would be a powerful tool for exploring the energy-frontier with leptons, and would complement the studies now under way at the LHC. Such a device would offer several important benefits. Muons, like electrons, are point particles so the full center-of-mass energy is available for particle production. Moreover, on account of their higher mass, muons give rise to very little synchrotron radiation and produce very little beamstrahlung. The first feature permits the use of a circular collider that can make efficient use of the expensive rf system and whose footprint is compatible with an existing laboratory site. The second feature leads to a relatively narrow energy spread at the collision point. Designing an accelerator complex for a muon collider is a challenging task. Firstly, the muons are produced as a tertiary beam, so a high-power proton beam and a target that can withstand it are needed to provide the required luminosity of ~1 × 10{sup 34} cm{sup –2}s{sup –1}. Secondly, the beam is initially produced with a large 6D phase space, which necessitates a scheme for reducing the muon beam emittance (“cooling”). Finally, the muon has a short lifetime so all beam manipulations must be done very rapidly. The Muon Accelerator Program, led by Fermilab and including a number of U.S. national laboratories and universities, has undertaken design and R&D activities aimed toward the eventual construction of a muon collider. Design features of such a facility and the supporting R&D program are described.

  7. Particle physics experiments at high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptman, John

    2011-01-01

    Written by one of the detector developers for the International Linear Collider, this is the first textbook for graduate students dedicated to the complexities and the simplicities of high energy collider detectors. It is intended as a specialized reference for a standard course in particle physics, and as a principal text for a special topics course focused on large collider experiments. Equally useful as a general guide for physicists designing big detectors. (orig.)

  8. Hadron-hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.; Weng, W.T.

    1983-01-01