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Sample records for large flexible manipulator

  1. Telerobotic operation of structurally flexible, long-reach manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; Hwang, D.H.; Babcock, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    As a part of the Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, long-reach manipulators are being considered for the retrieval of waste from large storage tanks. Long-reach manipulators may have characteristics significantly different from those of typical industrial robots because of the flexibility of long links needed to cover the large workspace. To avoid structural vibrations during operation, control algorithms employing various types of shaping filters were investigated. A new approach that uses embedded simulation was developed and compared with others. In the new approach, generation of joint trajectories considering link flexibility was also investigated

  2. Modeling of Flexible Beams for Robotic Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Jorge; Ayala Botto, Miguel; Costa, Jose sa da

    2002-01-01

    This work treats the problem of modeling robotic manipulators with structural flexibility. A mathematical model of a planar manipulator with a single flexible link is developed. This model is capable of reproducing nonlinear dynamic effects, such as the beam stiffening due to the centrifugal forces induced by the rotation of the joints, giving it the capability to predict reliable dynamic behaviors for a wide range of applications. On the other hand, the model complexity is reduced, in order to keep it amenable for analysis and controller design. The models found in current literature for control design of flexible manipulator arms present dynamic limitations for the sake of real time implementation in a control scheme. These limitations are the result of premature linearization in the formulation of the dynamics equations. In this paper, this common linearization is presented and their dynamic limitations uncovered. An alternative reliable model is then presented. The model is founded on two basic assumptions: inextensibility of the neutral fiber and moderate rotations of the cross sections in order to account for the foreshortening of the beam due to bending. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed model has the closest dynamic behavior to the real beam

  3. Control of a flexible bracing manipulator: Integration of current research work to realize the bracing manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo

    1991-01-01

    All research results about flexible manipulator control were integrated to show a control scenario of a bracing manipulator. First, dynamic analysis of a flexible manipulator was done for modeling. Second, from the dynamic model, the inverse dynamic equation was derived, and the time domain inverse dynamic method was proposed for the calculation of the feedforward torque and the desired flexible coordinate trajectories. Third, a tracking controller was designed by combining the inverse dynamic feedforward control with the joint feedback control. The control scheme was applied to the tip position control of a single link flexible manipulator for zero and non-zero initial condition cases. Finally, the contact control scheme was added to the position tracking control. A control scenario of a bracing manipulator is provided and evaluated through simulation and experiment on a single link flexible manipulator.

  4. A large divertor manipulator for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Albrecht, E-mail: albrecht.herrmann@ipp.mpg.de; Jaksic, Nikola; Leitenstern, Peter; Greuner, Henri; Krieger, Karl; Marné, Pascal de; Oberkofler, Martin; Rohde, Volker; Schall, Gerd

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A large divertor manipulator for ASDEX Upgrade is developed and tested. • It allows replacing a relevant part of the divertor by dedicated targets and probes. • Modified solid standard targets. • Electrical and mechanical probes for dedicated investigations. • Test of actively cooled component. - Abstract: In 2013 a new bulk tungsten divertor, Div-III, was installed in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). During the concept and design phase of Div-III the option of adaptable divertor instrumentation and divertor modification as contribution for divertor investigations in preparation of ITER was given a high priority. To gain flexibility for the test of divertor modifications without affecting the operational space of AUG, the large divertor manipulator, DIM-II, was designed and installed. DIM-II allows to retract 2 out of 128 outer divertor target tiles including the water cooled support structure into a target exchange box and to replace these targets without breaking the vacuum of the AUG vessel. DIM-II is based on a carriage-rail system with a driving rod pushing a front-end with the target module into the divertor position for plasma operation. Three types of front-ends are foreseen for physics investigations: (i) modified standard targets clamped to the standard cooling structure, (ii) dedicated front-ends making use of the whole available volume of about 230 × 160 × 80 mm{sup 3} and (iii) actively cooled/heated targets for cooling water temperatures up to 230 °C. This paper presents the DIM-II design including the FEM calculations for the modified divertor support structure and the front-end options, as well as the test procedure and operation mode.

  5. Advanced manipulator system for large hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertut, J.; Moreau, C.; Brossard, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Large hot cells can be approached as extrapolated from smaller ones as wide, higher or longer in size with the same concept of using mechanical master slave manipulators and high density windows. This concept leads to a large number of working places and corresponding equipments, with a number of penetrations through the biological protection. When the large cell does not need a permanent operation of number of work places, as in particular to serve PIE machines and maintain the facility, use of servo manipulators with a large supporting unit and extensive use of television appears optimal. The advance on MA 23 and supports will be described including the extra facilities related to manipulators introduction and maintenance. The possibility to combine a powered manipulator and MA 23 (single or pair) on the same boom crane system will be described. An advance control system to bring the minimal dead time to control support movement, associated to the master slave arm operation is under development. The general television system includes over view cameras, associated with the limited number of windows, and manipulators camera. A special new system will be described which brings an automatic control of manipulator cameras and saves operator load and dead time. Full scale tests with MA 23 and support will be discussed. (author)

  6. Efficient dynamic simulation of flexible link manipulators with PID control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Jonker, Jan B.; Mook, D.T.; Balachandran, B.

    2001-01-01

    For accurate simulations of the dynamic behavior of flexible manipulators the combination of a perturbation method and modal analysis is proposed. First, the vibrational motion is modeled as a first-order perturbation of a nominal rigid link motion. The vibrational motion is then described by a set

  7. Impact Vibration Attenuation for a Flexible Robotic Manipulator through Transfer and Dissipation of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushu Bian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the presence of system flexibility, impact can excite severe large amplitude vibration responses of the flexible robotic manipulator. This impact vibration exhibits characteristics of remarkable nonlinearity and strong energy. The main goal of this study is to put forward an energy-based control method to absorb and attenuate large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible robotic manipulator. The method takes advantage of internal resonance and is implemented through a vibration absorber based on the transfer and dissipation of energy. The addition of the vibration absorber to the flexible arm generates a coupling effect between vibration modes of the system. By means of analysis on 2:1 internal resonance, the exchange of energy is proven to be existent. The impact vibrational energy can be transferred from the arm to the absorber and dissipated through the damping of the absorber. The results of numerical simulations are promising and preliminarily verify that the method is feasible and can be used to combat large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible manipulator undergoing rigid motion.

  8. Tracking control of the hydraulically actuated flexible manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; Babcock, S.M.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The remediation of single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks is one of the urgent tasks of the Department of Energy that challenge state-of-the-art equipment and methods. The use of long-reach manipulators is being seriously considered for this remediation task. Because high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratio requirements, these long-reach manipulator systems are expected to use hydraulic actuators and to exhibit significant structural flexibility. The controller has been designed to compensate for the hydraulic actuator dynamics by using a load-compensated velocity feedforward loop and to increase the bandwidth by using a pressure feed backloop. Shaping filter techniques have been applied as a feedforward controller to avoid structural vibrations during operation. Among various types of shaping filter methods investigated an approach, referred to as a ''feedforward simulation filter'' that uses embedded simulation, has been presented

  9. Design and experimental evaluation of flexible manipulator control algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; Hwang, D.H.; Babcock, S.M.; Kress, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program of the US Department of Energy, the remediation of single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks is one of the areas that challenge state-of-the-art equipment and methods. The use of long-reach manipulators is being seriously considered for this task. Because of high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratio requirements, these long-reach manipulator systems are expected to use hydraulic actuators and to exhibit significant structural flexibility. The controller has been designed to compensate for the hydraulic actuator dynamics by using a load-compensated velocity feedforward loop and to increase the bandwidth by using an inner pressure feedback loop. Shaping filter techniques have been applied as feedforward controllers to avoid structural vibrations during operation. Various types of shaping filter methods have been investigated. Among them, a new approach, referred to as a ''feedforward simulation filter'' that uses embedded simulation, has been presented

  10. Adaptive precompensators for flexible-link manipulator control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzes, Anthony P.; Yurkovich, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    The application of input precompensators to flexible manipulators is considered. Frequency domain compensators color the input around the flexible mode locations, resulting in a bandstop or notch filter in cascade with the system. Time domain compensators apply a sequence of impulses at prespecified times related to the modal frequencies. The resulting control corresponds to a feedforward term that convolves in real-time the desired reference input with a sequence of impulses and produces a vibration-free output. An adaptive precompensator can be implemented by combining a frequency domain identification scheme which is used to estimate online the modal frequencies and subsequently update the bandstop interval or the spacing between the impulses. The combined adaptive input preshaping scheme provides the most rapid slew that results in a vibration-free output. Experimental results are presented to verify the results.

  11. Input shaping methods for telerobotic operation of flexible, long-reach manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo; Hwang, Dong-Hwan; Babcock, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Among the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program of the U.S. Department of Energy, the remediation of radioactive waste from the underground storage tank challenges the state-of-the-art equipment and methods. Long-reach manipulators are being considered to be one of the most advantageous approaches for the retrieval of waste from large storage tanks. Because of long-reach manipulator's high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratios, such manipulator system exhibits significant structural flexibility. To avoid structural vibrations during operation, control algorithms employing various types of shaping filters were investigated. A robust notch filtering method and an impulse shaping method were evaluated. In addition to that, a new approach that uses imbedded simulation was developed and compared with others. In the new approach, joint trajectories have been generated considering the flexible link dynamics

  12. Large area and flexible electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Caironi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    From materials to applications, this ready reference covers the entire value chain from fundamentals via processing right up to devices, presenting different approaches to large-area electronics, thus enabling readers to compare materials, properties and performance.Divided into two parts, the first focuses on the materials used for the electronic functionality, covering organic and inorganic semiconductors, including vacuum and solution-processed metal-oxide semiconductors, nanomembranes and nanocrystals, as well as conductors and insulators. The second part reviews the devices and applicatio

  13. VIBRATION REDUCTION ON SINGLE-LINK FLEXIBLE MANIPULATOR USING H∞ CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberd Saragih

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the vibration and position control of a single link flexible manipulator. Robot link manipulators are widely used in various industrial applications. It is desirable to build light weight flexible manipulators. Light flexible manipulators have a variety of applications, most significantly in space exploration,manufacturing automation, construction, mining, and hazardous operation. Timoshenko beam theory is used to derive mathematical model of a flexible manipulator. The dynamic equations of motion are obtained using the Lagrange's formulation of dynamics.The H∞ controller is designed for vibration and position control of the system. Simulations are presented and show that vibration and position control of a single flexible link can be controlled with the designed H∞ controller.

  14. Large remote manipulator operating and maintenance experience at IEM cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.F.; McGuinness, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has two large Electro-Mechanical Manipulators (EMM's). These manipulators are used for cell operations (processing of reactor core components) as well as general cell maintenance. From our eleven years of operation and maintenance experience with these large EMM's, we have learned many lessons concerning manipulator design. This paper describes the IEM Cell EMM design features and discusses operating and maintenance experience at the IEM Cell

  15. 49 CFR 178.940 - Standards for flexible Large Packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Flexible Large Packagings types are designated: (1) 51H flexible plastics. (2) 51M flexible paper. (b... this subchapter, flexible Large Packaging must be resistant to aging and degradation caused by ultraviolet radiation. (5) For plastic flexible Large Packagings, if necessary, protection against ultraviolet...

  16. Accurate nonlinear modeling for flexible manipulators using mixed finite element formulation in order to obtain maximum allowable load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfandiar, Habib; KoraYem, Moharam Habibnejad

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the researchers try to examine nonlinear dynamic analysis and determine Dynamic load carrying capacity (DLCC) in flexible manipulators. Manipulator modeling is based on Timoshenko beam theory (TBT) considering the effects of shear and rotational inertia. To get rid of the risk of shear locking, a new procedure is presented based on mixed finite element formulation. In the method proposed, shear deformation is free from the risk of shear locking and independent of the number of integration points along the element axis. Dynamic modeling of manipulators will be done by taking into account small and large deformation models and using extended Hamilton method. System motion equations are obtained by using nonlinear relationship between displacements-strain and 2nd PiolaKirchoff stress tensor. In addition, a comprehensive formulation will be developed to calculate DLCC of the flexible manipulators during the path determined considering the constraints end effector accuracy, maximum torque in motors and maximum stress in manipulators. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the method proposed taking two-link flexible and fixed base manipulators for linear and circular paths into consideration. Experimental results are also provided to validate the theoretical model. The findings represent the efficiency and appropriate performance of the method proposed.

  17. Accurate nonlinear modeling for flexible manipulators using mixed finite element formulation in order to obtain maximum allowable load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfandiar, Habib; KoraYem, Moharam Habibnejad [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this study, the researchers try to examine nonlinear dynamic analysis and determine Dynamic load carrying capacity (DLCC) in flexible manipulators. Manipulator modeling is based on Timoshenko beam theory (TBT) considering the effects of shear and rotational inertia. To get rid of the risk of shear locking, a new procedure is presented based on mixed finite element formulation. In the method proposed, shear deformation is free from the risk of shear locking and independent of the number of integration points along the element axis. Dynamic modeling of manipulators will be done by taking into account small and large deformation models and using extended Hamilton method. System motion equations are obtained by using nonlinear relationship between displacements-strain and 2nd PiolaKirchoff stress tensor. In addition, a comprehensive formulation will be developed to calculate DLCC of the flexible manipulators during the path determined considering the constraints end effector accuracy, maximum torque in motors and maximum stress in manipulators. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the method proposed taking two-link flexible and fixed base manipulators for linear and circular paths into consideration. Experimental results are also provided to validate the theoretical model. The findings represent the efficiency and appropriate performance of the method proposed.

  18. Composite Sliding Mode Control for a Free-Floating Space Rigid-Flexible Coupling Manipulator System

    OpenAIRE

    Congqing, Wang; Pengfei, Wu; Xin, Zhou; Xiwu, Pei

    2013-01-01

    The flexible space manipulator is a highly nonlinear and coupled dynamic system. This paper proposes a novel composite sliding mode control to deal with the vibration suppression and trajectory tracking of a free-floating space rigid-flexible coupling manipulator with a rigid payload. First, the dynamic equations of this system are established by using Lagrange and assumed mode methods and in the meantime this dynamic modelling allows consideration of the modelling errors, the external distur...

  19. Simultaneous control and piezoelectric insert optimization for manipulators with flexible link

    OpenAIRE

    Bottega, Valdecir; Pergher, Rejane; Fonseca, Jun S. O.

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes a tracking control model for a flexible link robotic manipulator using simultaneously motor torques and piezoelectric actuators. The dynamic model of manipulator is obtained in a closed form through the Lagrangian approach. The control uses the motor torques for the tracking control of the joints and also to reduce the low frequency vibration induced in the manipulator links. The stability of this control is guaranteed by the Lyapunov stability theory. Piezoelectric actuato...

  20. Swarm Manipulation of Large Surface Vessels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Erik T

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this Trident project was to develop an independent control scheme to allow a team of autonomous tugboats to move a large disabled vessel, such as a barge, to a desired position and orientation...

  1. Experimental studies of control concepts for a parallel manipulator with flexible links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, Markus; Eberhard, Peter; Seifried, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Control of flexible multibody systems, such as flexible manipulators, is a challenging task. This is especially true if end-effector trajectory tracking is aspired. On the one hand, these systems require a large number of generalized coordinates to describe their dynamical behavior accurately. On the other hand, only a small subset of these values can be measured or reconstructed on-the-fly. Hence, it is difficult, if not nearly impossible, to use a state controller. In addition, flexible systems are under actuated, i.e. they possess less control inputs than generalized coordinates. In case of a non-collocated output controller, which is the case for end-effector trajectory tracking, the closed loop of the system might lose passivity and is non-minimum phase. In order to achieve end-effector trajectory tracking, exact and approximate feed-forward controls can be applied. In this work, two different versions of such concepts are compared experimentally. These model-based concepts are computed off-line and they supply, next to the required input values, a C1 -continuous solution of the complete state vector which can be used for feedback control. If the system is non-minimum phase, a two-sided boundary value problem has to be solved and the solution includes a pre-actuation as well as a post-actuation phase. While the exact method incorporates all dynamical effects of the flexible multibody system, the approximate concepts neglect certain implications, for example the dynamical effects due to the flexibility. In addition to the presentation of the theoretical basics of the control approaches and the underlying models, this contribution addresses some of the crucial obstacles, which have to be overcome for the operation of the test bench, e.g., signal conditioning, state reconstruction and friction compensation. Since the installed sensors do not allow the direct measurement of the end effector position, image tracking is used to judge the quality of the different

  2. Control issues related to bilateral teleoperation of long-reach, flexible manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    A challenging problem presently being addressed by the Department of Energy (DOE) is the extraction of large volumes of hazardous waste from underground waste storage facilities. The nature of the material requires the use of robotic and teleoperated systems. Furthermore, the constraints of the storage tanks require the use of long reach manipulators. These robots are characterized by their large workspace and reduced mass. Unfortunately, this reduction in mass increases structural compliance, making these robots susceptible to vibration. Until recently, no attempt has been made to provide the operator any type of force reflection due to the compliance of the slave robot. This paper addresses the control of bilateral teleoperation systems that use long-reach, flexible manipulators. Analysis and experiments show that the compliance of the slave robot directly affects the stability of the teleoperation system. This study suggests that this may be controlled by increasing the damping on the master robot. However, this increase in target damping increases the energy an operator must exert during the execution of a task. A new teleoperation strategy adapts the target impedance of the master robot to variations in the identified impedance of the remote environment coupled to the slave robot. Experiments show increased performance due to a decrease in the energy the operator must provide during task execution

  3. Two-Link Flexible Manipulator Control Using Sliding Mode Control Based Linear Matrix Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfatman; Marzuki, Mohammad; Alif Mardiyah, Nur

    2017-04-01

    Two-link flexible manipulator is a manipulator robot which at least one of its arms is made of lightweight material and not rigid. Flexible robot manipulator has some advantages over the rigid robot manipulator, such as lighter, requires less power and costs, and to result greater payload. However, suitable control algorithm to maintain the two-link flexible robot manipulator in accurate positioning is very challenging. In this study, sliding mode control (SMC) was employed as robust control algorithm due to its insensitivity on the system parameter variations and the presence of disturbances when the system states are sliding on a sliding surface. SMC algorithm was combined with linear matrix inequality (LMI), which aims to reduce the effects of chattering coming from the oscillation of the state during sliding on the sliding surface. Stability of the control algorithm is guaranteed by Lyapunov function candidate. Based on simulation works, SMC based LMI resulted in better performance improvements despite the disturbances with significant chattering reduction. This was evident from the decline of the sum of squared tracking error (SSTE) and the sum of squared of control input (SSCI) indexes respectively 25.4% and 19.4%.

  4. Development of a modular integrated control architecture for flexible manipulators. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, B.L.; Battiston, G.

    1994-01-01

    In April 1994, ORNL and SPAR completed the joint development of a manipulator controls architecture for flexible structure controls under a CRADA between the two organizations. The CRADA project entailed design and development of a new architecture based upon the Modular Integrated Control Architecture (MICA) previously developed by ORNL. The new architecture, dubbed MICA-II, uses an object-oriented coding philosophy to provide a highly modular and expandable architecture for robotic manipulator control. This architecture can be readily ported to control of many different manipulator systems. The controller also provides a user friendly graphical operator interface and display of many forms of data including system diagnostics. The capabilities of MICA-II were demonstrated during oscillation damping experiments using the Flexible Beam Experimental Test Bed at Hanford

  5. Dynamic Analysis and Vibration Attenuation of Cable-Driven Parallel Manipulators for Large Workspace Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingli Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cable-driven parallel manipulators are one of the best solutions to achieving large workspace since flexible cables can be easily stored on reels. However, due to the negligible flexural stiffness of cables, long cables will unavoidably vibrate during operation for large workspace applications. In this paper a finite element model for cable-driven parallel manipulators is proposed to mimic small amplitude vibration of cables around their desired position. Output feedback of the cable tension variation at the end of the end-effector is utilized to design the vibration attenuation controller which aims at attenuating the vibration of cables by slightly varying the cable length, thus decreasing its effect on the end-effector. When cable vibration is attenuated, motion controller could be designed for implementing precise large motion to track given trajectories. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the dynamic model and the control algorithm.

  6. Flexible manipulation of terahertz wave reflection using polarization insensitive coding metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu-Sheng, Li; Ze-Jiang, Zhao; Jian-Quan, Yao

    2017-11-27

    In order to extend to 3-bit encoding, we propose notched-wheel structures as polarization insensitive coding metasurfaces to control terahertz wave reflection and suppress backward scattering. By using a coding sequence of "00110011…" along x-axis direction and 16 × 16 random coding sequence, we investigate the polarization insensitive properties of the coding metasurfaces. By designing the coding sequences of the basic coding elements, the terahertz wave reflection can be flexibly manipulated. Additionally, radar cross section (RCS) reduction in the backward direction is less than -10dB in a wide band. The present approach can offer application for novel terahertz manipulation devices.

  7. Demonstration of non-collocated vibration control of a flexible manipulator using electrical dynamic absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Myeong; Kim, Heungseob; Boo, Kwangsuck; Brennan, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study into the vibration control of a servo system comprising a servo motor and a flexible manipulator. Two modes of the system are controlled by using the servo motor and an accelerometer attached to the tip of the flexible manipulator. The control system is thus non-collocated. It consists of two electrical dynamic absorbers, each of which consists of a modal filter and, in case of an out-of-phase mode, a phase inverter. The experimental results show that each absorber acts as a mechanical dynamic vibration absorber attached to each mode and significantly reduces the settling time for the system response to a step input. (technical note)

  8. Active Vibration Suppression of a 3-DOF Flexible Parallel Manipulator Using Efficient Modal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the dynamic modeling and efficient modal control of a planar parallel manipulator (PPM with three flexible linkages actuated by linear ultrasonic motors (LUSM. To achieve active vibration control, multiple lead zirconate titanate (PZT transducers are mounted on the flexible links as vibration sensors and actuators. Based on Lagrange’s equations, the dynamic model of the flexible links is derived with the dynamics of PZT actuators incorporated. Using the assumed mode method (AMM, the elastic motion of the flexible links are discretized under the assumptions of pinned-free boundary conditions, and the assumed mode shapes are validated through experimental modal test. Efficient modal control (EMC, in which the feedback forces in different modes are determined according to the vibration amplitude or energy of their own, is employed to control the PZT actuators to realize active vibration suppression. Modal filters are developed to extract the modal displacements and velocities from the vibration sensors. Numerical simulation and vibration control experiments are conducted to verify the proposed dynamic model and controller. The results show that the EMC method has the capability of suppressing multimode vibration simultaneously, and both the structural and residual vibrations of the flexible links are effectively suppressed using EMC approach.

  9. Interactive Web-based e-learning for Studying Flexible Manipulator Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul K. M. Azad

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— This paper presents a web-based e-leaning facility for simulation, modeling, and control of flexible manipulator systems. The simulation and modeling part includes finite difference and finite element simulations along with neural network and genetic algorithm based modeling strategies for flexible manipulator systems. The controller part constitutes a number of open-loop and closed-loop designs. Closed loop control designs include the classical, adaptive, and neuro-model based strategies. Matlab software package and its associated toolboxes are used to implement these. The Matlab web server is used as the gateway between the facility and web-access. ASP.NET technology and SQL database are utilized to develop web applications for access control, user account and password maintenance, administrative management, and facility utilization monitoring. The reported facility provides a flexible but effective approach of web-based interactive e-learning facility of an engineering system. This can be extended to incorporate additional engineering systems within the e-learning framework.

  10. Dynamic modelling and adaptive robust tracking control of a space robot with two-link flexible manipulators under unknown disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinxin; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; He, Wei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, both the closed-form dynamics and adaptive robust tracking control of a space robot with two-link flexible manipulators under unknown disturbances are developed. The dynamic model of the system is described with assumed modes approach and Lagrangian method. The flexible manipulators are represented as Euler-Bernoulli beams. Based on singular perturbation technique, the displacements/joint angles and flexible modes are modelled as slow and fast variables, respectively. A sliding mode control is designed for trajectories tracking of the slow subsystem under unknown but bounded disturbances, and an adaptive sliding mode control is derived for slow subsystem under unknown slowly time-varying disturbances. An optimal linear quadratic regulator method is proposed for the fast subsystem to damp out the vibrations of the flexible manipulators. Theoretical analysis validates the stability of the proposed composite controller. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the performance of the closed-loop flexible space robot system.

  11. Low back pain and its treatment by spinal manipulation: measures of flexibility and asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, F K; Tobis, J S

    1982-02-01

    Nineteen low back pain patients and eight patients not suffering from low back pain were given several tests of flexibility and asymmetry by two different examiners. Three criteria of reliability and validity were used: (1) significant agreement between independent observers, (2) significantly different scores in the groups with and without low back pain, and (3) significant improvement following a successful spinal manipulation. Tests of anterior flexion and asymmetry of foot eversion met only the first and second criteria while tests of hamstring tightness and asymmetry of voluntary straight leg raising met only the first and third criteria. Passive and voluntary straight leg raising tests were the only measures that met all three criteria. Therefore, of the objective tests investigated here, only passive or voluntary straight leg raising can be strongly recommended for use in the evaluation of spinal manipulative therapy for low back pain.

  12. Experimental determination of frequency response function estimates for flexible joint industrial manipulators with serial kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saupe, Florian; Knoblach, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Two different approaches for the determination of frequency response functions (FRFs) are used for the non-parametric closed loop identification of a flexible joint industrial manipulator with serial kinematics. The two applied experiment designs are based on low power multisine and high power chirp excitations. The main challenge is to eliminate disturbances of the FRF estimates caused by the numerous nonlinearities of the robot. For the experiment design based on chirp excitations, a simple iterative procedure is proposed which allows exploiting the good crest factor of chirp signals in a closed loop setup. An interesting synergy of the two approaches, beyond validation purposes, is pointed out.

  13. A time domain inverse dynamic method for the end point tracking control of a flexible manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo; Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    The inverse dynamic equation of a flexible manipulator was solved in the time domain. By dividing the inverse system equation into the causal part and the anticausal part, we calculated the torque and the trajectories of all state variables for a given end point trajectory. The interpretation of this method in the frequency domain was explained in detail using the two-sided Laplace transform and the convolution integral. The open loop control of the inverse dynamic method shows an excellent result in simulation. For real applications, a practical control strategy is proposed by adding a feedback tracking control loop to the inverse dynamic feedforward control, and its good experimental performance is presented.

  14. Input preshaping with frequency domain information for flexible-link manipulator control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzes, Anthony; Englehart, Matthew J.; Yurkovich, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    The application of an input preshaping scheme to flexible manipulators is considered. The resulting control corresponds to a feedforward term that convolves in real-time the desired reference input with a sequence of impulses and produces a vibration free output. The robustness of the algorithm with respect to injected disturbances and modal frequency variations is not satisfactory and can be improved by convolving the input with a longer sequence of impulses. The incorporation of the preshaping scheme to a closed-loop plant, using acceleration feedback, offers satisfactory disturbance rejection due to feedback and cancellation of the flexible mode effects due to the preshaping. A frequency domain identification scheme is used to estimate the modal frequencies on-line and subsequently update the spacing between the impulses. The combined adaptive input preshaping scheme provides the fastest possible slew that results in a vibration free output.

  15. Direct adaptive fuzzy control of a translating piezoelectric flexible manipulator driven by a pneumatic rodless cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-cheng; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Xian-min; Han, Jian-da

    2013-04-01

    This study presents a novel translating piezoelectric flexible manipulator driven by a rodless cylinder. Simultaneous positioning control and vibration suppression of the flexible manipulator is accomplished by using a hybrid driving scheme composed of the pneumatic cylinder and a piezoelectric actuator. Pulse code modulation (PCM) method is utilized for the cylinder. First, the system dynamics model is derived, and its standard multiple input multiple output (MIMO) state-space representation is provided. Second, a composite proportional derivative (PD) control algorithms and a direct adaptive fuzzy control method are designed for the MIMO system. Also, a time delay compensation algorithm, bandstop and low-pass filters are utilized, under consideration of the control hysteresis and the caused high-frequency modal vibration due to the long stroke of the cylinder, gas compression and nonlinear factors of the pneumatic system. The convergence of the closed loop system is analyzed. Finally, experimental apparatus is constructed and experiments are conducted. The effectiveness of the designed controllers and the hybrid driving scheme is verified through simulation and experimental comparison studies. The numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system scheme of employing the pneumatic drive and piezoelectric actuator can suppress the vibration and achieve the desired positioning location simultaneously. Furthermore, the adopted adaptive fuzzy control algorithms can significantly enhance the control performance.

  16. Controlled manipulation of flexible carbon nanotubes through shape-dependent pushing by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung-Cheol; Qian, Xiaoping

    2013-09-17

    A systematic approach to manipulating flexible carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been developed on the basis of atomic force microscope (AFM) based pushing. Pushing CNTs enables efficient transport and precise location of individual CNTs. A key issue for pushing CNTs is preventing defective distortion in repetitive bending and unbending deformation. The approach presented here controls lateral movement of an AFM tip to bend CNTs without permanent distortion. The approach investigates possible defects caused by tensile strain of the outer tube under uniform bending and radial distortion by kinking. Using the continuum beam model and experimental bending tests, dependency of maximum bending strain on the length of bent CNTs and radial distortion on bending angles at a bent point have been demonstrated. Individual CNTs are manipulated by limiting the length of bent CNTs and the bending angle. In our approach, multiwalled CNTs with 5-15 nm diameter subjected to bending deformation produce no outer tube breakage under uniform bending and reversible radial deformation with bending angles less than 110°. The lateral tip movement is determined by a simple geometric model that relies on the shape of multiwalled CNTs. The model effectively controls deforming CNT length and bending angle for given CNT shape. Experimental results demonstrate successful manipulation of randomly dispersed CNTs without visual defects. This approach to pushing can be extended to develop a wide range of CNT based nanodevice applications.

  17. Large displacement bi-directional out-of-plane Lorentz actuator array for surface manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoungyoul; Afsharipour, Elnaz; Chrusch, Dwayne; Shafai, Cyrus; Andersen, David; Burley, Greg

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a large displacement out-of-plane Lorentz actuator array for surface manipulation. Actuators are formed from single crystal silicon flexible serpentine springs on either side of a rigid crossbar containing a narrow contact pillar. A rigid mounting rail system was employed to enable a 5  ×  5 array, which offers scalability of the array size. Analytical and finite element models were used to optimize actuator design. Individual actuators were tested to show linear deflection response of  ±150 µ m motion, using a  ±14.7 mA current in the presence of a 0.48 T magnetic field. This actuator array is suitable for various 2D surface modification applications due to its large deformation with low current and temperature of operation, and narrow contact area to a target surface. (paper)

  18. Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcock, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    The patent concerns a manipulator, which enables operations to be carried out remotely from the operator. The device is suitable for use in handling of radioactive materials and other hazardous liquids or gases. The specifications are given, and the movements of the manipulator arm described. (U.K.)

  19. Tolerance Towards Sensor Faults: An Application to a Flexible Arm Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Pin Tan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As more engineering operations become automatic, the need for robustness towards faults increases. Hence, a fault tolerant control (FTC scheme is a valuable asset. This paper presents a robust sensor fault FTC scheme implemented on a flexible arm manipulator, which has many applications in automation. Sensor faults affect the system's performance in the closed loop when the faulty sensor readings are used to generate the control input. In this paper, the non-faulty sensors are used to reconstruct the faults on the potentially faulty sensors. The reconstruction is subtracted from the faulty sensors to form a compensated ‘virtual sensor’ and this signal (instead of the normally used faulty sensor output is then used to generate the control input. A design method is also presented in which the FTC scheme is made insensitive to any system uncertainties. Two fault conditions are tested; total failure and incipient faults. Then the scheme robustness is tested by implementing the flexible joint's FTC scheme on a flexible link, which has different parameters. Excellent results have been obtained for both cases (joint and link; the FTC scheme caused the system performance is almost identical to the fault-free scenario, whilst providing an indication that a fault is present, even for simultaneous faults.

  20. Flexible parents: joint effects of handicapping and brood size manipulation on female parental care in Nicrophorus vespilloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz, Tom; Smiseth, Per T

    2018-02-22

    Parental care is highly variable, reflecting that parents make flexible decisions in response to variation in the cost of care to themselves and the benefit to their offspring. Much of the evidence that parents respond to such variation derives from handicapping and brood size manipulations, the separate effects of which are well understood. However, little is known about their joint effects. Here, we fill this gap by conducting a joint handicapping and brood size manipulation in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We handicapped half of the females by attaching a lead weight to their pronotum, leaving the remaining females as controls. We also manipulated brood size by providing each female with 5, 20 or 40 larvae. In contrast to what we predicted, handicapped females spent more time provisioning food than controls. We also found that handicapped females spent more time consuming carrion. Furthermore, handicapped females spent a similar amount of time consuming carrion regardless of brood size, whereas controls spent more time consuming carrion as brood increased. Females spent more time provisioning food towards larger broods, and females were more likely to engage in carrion consumption when caring for larger broods. We conclude that females respond to both handicapping and brood size manipulations, but these responses are largely independent of each other. Overall, our results suggest that handicapping might lead to a higher investment into current reproduction and that it might be associated with compensatory responses that negate the detrimental impact of higher cost of care in handicapped parents. © 2018 Crown copyright. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen’s Printer for Scotland. Note: some government agencies may require additional wording and acknowledgement.

  1. Gravure printing of graphene for large-area flexible electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Ethan B; Lim, Sooman; Zhang, Heng; Frisbie, C Daniel; Francis, Lorraine F; Hersam, Mark C

    2014-07-09

    Gravure printing of graphene is demonstrated for the rapid production of conductive patterns on flexible substrates. Development of suitable inks and printing parameters enables the fabrication of patterns with a resolution down to 30 μm. A mild annealing step yields conductive lines with high reliability and uniformity, providing an efficient method for the integration of graphene into large-area printed and flexible electronics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. An Adaptable Robot Vision System Performing Manipulation Actions With Flexible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodenhagen, Leon; Fugl, Andreas R.; Jordt, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    system should be viewed as a library of new technologies that have been proven to work in close to industrial conditions. As a rather basic, but necessary part, we provide a technology for determining the shape of the object when passing on, e. g., a conveyor belt prior to being handled. The main......This paper describes an adaptable system which is able to perform manipulation operations (such as Peg-in-Hole or Laying-Down actions) with flexible objects. As such objects easily change their shape significantly during the execution of an action, traditional strategies, e. g., for solve path......, operating in real-time. Simulations have been used to bootstrap the learning of optimal actions, which are subsequently improved through real-world executions. To achieve reproducible results, we demonstrate this for casted silicone test objects of regular shape. Note to Practitioners-The aim of this work...

  3. Input shaping filter methods for the control of structurally flexible, long-reach manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo; Hwang, Dong-Hwan; Babcock, S.M.; Burks, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    Within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program of the US Department of Energy, the remediation of single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks is one of the areas that challenge state-of-the-art equipment and methods. Concepts that utilize long-reach manipulators are being seriously considered for this task. Due to high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratio requirements, these long-reach manipulator systems are expected to exhibit significant structural flexibility. To avoid structural vibrations during operation, various types of shaping filter methods have been investigated. A robust notch filtering method and an impulse shaping method were used as simulation benchmarks. In addition to that, two very different approaches have been developed and compared. One new approach, referred to as a ''feedforward simulation filter,'' uses imbedded simulation with complete knowledge of the system dynamics. The other approach, ''fuzzy shaping method,'' employs a fuzzy logic method to modify the joint trajectory from the desired end-position trajectory without precise knowledge of the system dynamics

  4. Identifying the adaptive mechanism in globular proteins: Fluctuations in densely packed regions manipulate flexible parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Lutfu Safak; Atilgan, Ali Rana

    2000-09-01

    A low-resolution structural model based on the packing geometry of α-carbons is utilized to establish a connection between the flexible and rigid parts of a folded protein. The former commonly recognizes a complementing molecule for making a complex, while the latter manipulates the necessary conformational change for binding. We attempt analytically to distinguish this control architecture that intrinsically exists in globular proteins. First with two-dimensional simple models, then for a native protein, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, we explicitly demonstrate that inserting fluctuations in tertiary contacts supported by the stable core, one can regulate the displacement of residues on loop regions. The positional fluctuations of the flexible regions are annihilated by the rest of the protein in conformity with the Le Chatelier-Braun principle. The results indicate that the distortion of the principal nonbonded contacts between highly packed residues is accompanied by that of the slavery fluctuations that are widely distributed over the native structure. These positional arrangements do not appear in a reciprocal relation between a perturbation and the associated response; the effect of a movement of residue i on residue j is not equal to that of the same movement of residue j on residue i.

  5. Large-area high-efficiency flexible PHOLED lighting panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Huiqing; Mandlik, Prashant; Levermore, Peter A.; Silvernail, Jeff; Ma, Ruiqing; Brown, Julie J.

    2012-09-01

    Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) provide various attractive features for next generation illumination systems, including high efficiency, low power, thin and flexible form factor. In this work, we incorporated phosphorescent emitters and demonstrated highly efficient white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) devices on flexible plastic substrates. The 0.94 cm2 small-area device has total thickness of approximately 0.25 mm and achieved 63 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 85 and CCT = 2920 K. We further designed and fabricated a 15 cm x 15 cm large-area flexible white OLED lighting panels, finished with a hybrid single-layer ultra-low permeability single layer barrier (SLB) encapsulation film. The flexible panel has an active area of 116.4 cm2, and achieved a power efficacy of 47 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 83 and CCT = 3470 K. The efficacy of the panel at 3,000 cd/m2 is 43 lm/W. The large-area flexible PHOLED lighting panel is to bring out enormous possibilities to the future general lighting applications.

  6. Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, Y.; Routelous, F.; Spina, G.; Perpina, J.; Suquet, J.; Rossi, M.; Zanca, M.; Billiet, A.; Madec, L.; Lemoine, T.; Gaboriaud, G.; Aubert, B.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Neuenschwander, S.; Brisse, H.; Rehel, J.L.; Rebibo, G.; Bensimon, J.L.; Kulski, A.; Serhal, M.; Nguyen, K.V.; Lescure, R.; Cymbalista, M.

    2005-01-01

    Three articles have for purpose the radiation doses optimization in medical imaging. The first one concerns the radiation protection of manipulators working at a PET scan post, the second one concerns more particularly the optimization of doses delivered in pediatric computerized tomography, the third one is devoted to a comparison between radiation dose and image quality through scanners of adult temporal bone. (N.C.)

  7. Coupling characteristics of rigid body motion and elastic deformation of a 3-PRR parallel manipulator with flexible links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuping; Mills, James K.; Cleghorn, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of multibody dynamics with flexible links is a challenging task, which not only involves the effect of rigid body motion on elastic deformations, but also includes the influence of elastic deformations on rigid body motion. This paper presents coupling characteristics of rigid body motions and elastic motions of a 3-PRR parallel manipulator with three flexible intermediate links. The intermediate links are modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams with pinned-pinned boundary conditions based on the assumed mode method (AMM). Using Lagrange multipliers, the fully coupled equations of motions of the flexible parallel manipulator are developed by incorporating the rigid body motions with elastic motions. The mutual dependence of elastic deformations and rigid body motions are investigated from the analysis of the derived equations of motion. Open-loop simulation without joint motion controls and closed-loop simulation with joint motion controls are performed to illustrate the effect of elastic motion on rigid body motions and the coupling effect amongst flexible links. These analyses and results provide valuable insight to the design and control of the parallel manipulator with flexible intermediate links

  8. A variable geometry truss manipulator for positioning large payloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoughton, R.S.; Tucker, J.C.; Horner, C.G.

    1995-02-01

    A major thrust within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Decontamination and Dismantling (D ampersand D) Robotics program is the development of a Selective Equipment Removal System (SERS). SERS will consist of a mobile vehicle, a Dual-Arm Work Module (DAWM), and a deployment manipulator capable of extending the DAWM up to 6.096m (20) from the vehicle. The DAWM, built by RedZone Robotics, includes two Schilling Titan II manipulators, a unique five degree-of-freedom (DOF) module for positioning/orienting the two Schilling arms, and a massive steel backplane to maintain structural rigidity. Together with its payload, the DAWM weighs about 975 kg (2150 pounds). In order to accurately position the DAWM, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) together with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center (NASA LARC) are developing a deployment manipulator, which includes two double-octahedral Variable Geometry Truss (VGT) modules connected with a static truss section. The entire SERS system (Figure 1) will include the mobile vehicle, a 2-DOF base actuation system (waist rotate and pitch) with an output link approximately 2.134m (7) in length, the VGT system and the DAWM. The VGT system (Figure 2) consists of a 1.067m (42) diameter (∼1.346m (53) long) base VGT, which mounts to the end of the output link of the base actuation system, a 1.524m (60) long static truss section which tapers from 1.067m (42) diameter at its base to 0.8128m (32) diameter at the end, and a 0.8128m (32) diameter (∼1.0922m (43) long) tip VGT to which the DAWM is mounted. The stiffness of the VGT system is such that with the base VGT mounted to a rigid base and the VGT system oriented horizontally (worst case), the static deflection of the DAWM together with full payload will be less than 0.0254m

  9. Value of flexibility in systems with large wind penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Silva , Vera

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is the quantification of the value of operation flexibility in systems with large penetration of wind generation. This begins with the quantification of the impact of wind generation (WG) uncertainty on the system's needs for frequency regulation and reserve. This is done by combing the stochastic behaviour of wind generation, demand uncertainty and generation outages. Two different approaches are compared to access the implications of using normal distribution approx...

  10. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  11. Dynamic Model and Vibration Power Flow of a Rigid-Flexible Coupling and Harmonic-Disturbance Exciting System for Flexible Robotic Manipulator with Elastic Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic of a flexible robotic manipulator (FRM which consists of rigid driving base, flexible links, and flexible joints. With considering the motion fluctuations caused by the coupling effect, such as the motor parameters and mechanism inertias, as harmonic disturbances, the system investigated in this paper remains a parametrically excited system. An elastic restraint model of the FRM with elastic joints (FRMEJ is proposed, which considers the elastic properties of the connecting joints between the flexible arm and the driving base, as well as the harmonic disturbances aroused by the electromechanical coupling effect. As a consequence, the FRMEJ accordingly remains a flexible multibody system which conveys the effects of rigid-flexible couple and electromechanical couple. The Lagrangian function and Hamilton’s principle are used to establish the dynamic model of the FRMEJ. Based on the dynamic model proposed, the vibration power flow is introduced to show the vibration energy distribution. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the effect of the joint elasticities and the disturbance excitations, and the influences of the structure parameters and motion parameters on the vibration power flow are studied. The results obtained in this paper contribute to the structure design, motion optimization, and vibration control of FRMs.

  12. Dynamic modeling and hierarchical compound control of a novel 2-DOF flexible parallel manipulator with multiple actuation modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Song, Yimin; Sun, Tao; Jin, Xueying

    2018-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of rigid-flexible coupling dynamic modeling and active control of a novel flexible parallel manipulator (PM) with multiple actuation modes. Firstly, based on the flexible multi-body dynamics theory, the rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model (RFDM) of system is developed by virtue of the augmented Lagrangian multipliers approach. For completeness, the mathematical models of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and piezoelectric transducer (PZT) are further established and integrated with the RFDM of mechanical system to formulate the electromechanical coupling dynamic model (ECDM). To achieve the trajectory tracking and vibration suppression, a hierarchical compound control strategy is presented. Within this control strategy, the proportional-differential (PD) feedback controller is employed to realize the trajectory tracking of end-effector, while the strain and strain rate feedback (SSRF) controller is developed to restrain the vibration of the flexible links using PZT. Furthermore, the stability of the control algorithm is demonstrated based on the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, two simulation case studies are performed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results indicate that, under the redundant actuation mode, the hierarchical compound control strategy can guarantee the flexible PM achieves singularity-free motion and vibration attenuation within task workspace simultaneously. The systematic methodology proposed in this study can be conveniently extended for the dynamic modeling and efficient controller design of other flexible PMs, especially the emerging ones with multiple actuation modes.

  13. Attitude tracking control of flexible spacecraft with large amplitude slosh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingle; Yue, Baozeng

    2017-12-01

    This paper is focused on attitude tracking control of a spacecraft that is equipped with flexible appendage and partially filled liquid propellant tank. The large amplitude liquid slosh is included by using a moving pulsating ball model that is further improved to estimate the settling location of liquid in microgravity or a zero-g environment. The flexible appendage is modelled as a three-dimensional Bernoulli-Euler beam, and the assumed modal method is employed. A hybrid controller that combines sliding mode control with an adaptive algorithm is designed for spacecraft to perform attitude tracking. The proposed controller has proved to be asymptotically stable. A nonlinear model for the overall coupled system including spacecraft attitude dynamics, liquid slosh, structural vibration and control action is established. Numerical simulation results are presented to show the dynamic behaviors of the coupled system and to verify the effectiveness of the control approach when the spacecraft undergoes the disturbance produced by large amplitude slosh and appendage vibration. Lastly, the designed adaptive algorithm is found to be effective to improve the precision of attitude tracking.

  14. Flexible DWDM Grid Manipulation Using Four Wave Mixing-based Time Lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Guan, Pengyu; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2014-01-01

    An experimental demonstration of dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) grid manipulation is carried out using two time lenses. A DWDM spectrum is compressed from a 100-GHz to a 28-GHz grid with error-free performance.......An experimental demonstration of dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) grid manipulation is carried out using two time lenses. A DWDM spectrum is compressed from a 100-GHz to a 28-GHz grid with error-free performance....

  15. Policy Driven Development: Flexible Policy Insertion for Large Scale Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchak, Barry; Krüger, Ingolf

    2012-07-01

    The success of a software system depends critically on how well it reflects and adapts to stakeholder requirements. Traditional development methods often frustrate stakeholders by creating long latencies between requirement articulation and system deployment, especially in large scale systems. One source of latency is the maintenance of policy decisions encoded directly into system workflows at development time, including those involving access control and feature set selection. We created the Policy Driven Development (PDD) methodology to address these development latencies by enabling the flexible injection of decision points into existing workflows at runtime , thus enabling policy composition that integrates requirements furnished by multiple, oblivious stakeholder groups. Using PDD, we designed and implemented a production cyberinfrastructure that demonstrates policy and workflow injection that quickly implements stakeholder requirements, including features not contemplated in the original system design. PDD provides a path to quickly and cost effectively evolve such applications over a long lifetime.

  16. Large area flexible lighting foils using distributed bare LED dies on polyester substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Kusters, R.H.L.; Cauwe, M.; Waal, A. van der; Brand, J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Integration of LEDs on flexible foil substrates is of interest for flexible lighting applications and for backlights for flexible displays. Such a large area lighting device can be made by integrating a matrix of closely spaced LEDs on a flexible foil substrate. Preferably, these LEDs are integrated

  17. Finite Element Analysis for Active-force Control on Vibration of a Flexible Single-link Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadir Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research are to formulate the equations of motion of the system, to develop computational codes by a finite element analysis in order to perform dynamics simulation with vibration control, to propose an effective control scheme using active-force (AF control a flexible single-link manipulator. The system used in this paper consists of an aluminum beam as a flexible link, a clamp-part, a servo motor to rotate the link and a piezoelectric actuator to control vibration. Computational codes on time history responses, FFT (Fast Fourier Transform processing and eigenvalues-eigenvectors analysis were developed to calculate dynamic behavior of the link. Furthermore, the AF control was designed to drive the piezoelectric actuator. Calculated results have revealed that the vibration of the system can be suppressed effectively.

  18. Flexible Slippery Surface to Manipulate Droplet Coalescence and Sliding, and Its Practicability in Wind-Resistant Water Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanfeng; Qian, Baitai; Lai, Chuilin; Wang, Xiaowen; Ma, Kaikai; Guo, Yujuan; Zhu, Xingli; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H

    2017-07-26

    A flexible slippery membrane (FSM) with tunable morphology and high elastic deformability has been developed by infusing perfluoropolyether (PFPE) into a fluorinated-copolymer-modified thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofiberous membrane. To immobilize PFPE in TPU matrix, we synthesized a fluorinated-copolymer poly(DFMA-co-IBOA-co-LMA) with low surface energy, high chemical affinity to PFPE, adequate flexibility, and strong physical adhesion on TPU. Upon external tensile stress, the as-prepared FSM can realize a real-time manipulation of water sliding and coalescence on it. Furthermore, it exhibits the ability to preserve the captured water from being blown away by strong wind, which ensures the water collection efficiency in windy regions.

  19. Dynamic Model and Vibration Characteristics of Planar 3-RRR Parallel Manipulator with Flexible Intermediate Links considering Exact Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianchao Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of the dynamic model of a planar 3-RRR flexible parallel manipulator (FPM, it is often difficult to achieve active vibration control algorithm based on the system dynamic model. To establish a simple and efficient dynamic model of the planar 3-RRR FPM to study its dynamic characteristics and build a controller conveniently, firstly, considering the effect of rigid-flexible coupling and the moment of inertia at the end of the flexible intermediate link, the modal function is determined with the pinned-free boundary condition. Then, considering the main vibration modes of the system, a high-efficiency coupling dynamic model is established on the basis of guaranteeing the model control accuracy. According to the model, the modal characteristics of the flexible intermediate link are analyzed and compared with the modal test results. The results show that the model can effectively reflect the main vibration modes of the planar 3-RRR FPM; in addition the model can be used to analyze the effects of inertial and coupling forces on the dynamics model and the drive torque of the drive motor. Because this model is of the less dynamic parameters, it is convenient to carry out the control program.

  20. Computationally efficient dynamic modeling of robot manipulators with multiple flexible-links using acceleration-based discrete time transfer matrix method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xuping; Sørensen, Rasmus; RahbekIversen, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    , and then is linearized based on the acceleration-based state vector. The transfer matrices for each type of components/elements are developed, and used to establish the system equations of a flexible robot manipulator by concatenating the state vector from the base to the end-effector. With this strategy, the size...... manipulators, and only involves calculating and transferring component/element dynamic equations that have small size. The numerical simulations and experimental testing of flexible-link manipulators are conducted to validate the proposed methodologies....

  1. Optimal trajectories for flexible-link manipulator slewing using recursive quadratic programming: Experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, G.G.; Eisler, G.R.; Feddema, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    Procedures for trajectory planning and control of flexible link robots are becoming increasingly important to satisfy performance requirements of hazardous waste removal efforts. It has been shown that utilizing link flexibility in designing open loop joint commands can result in improved performance as opposed to damping vibration throughout a trajectory. The efficient use of link compliance is exploited in this work. Specifically, experimental verification of minimum time, straight line tracking using a two-link planar flexible robot is presented. A numerical optimization process, using an experimentally verified modal model, is used for obtaining minimum time joint torque and angle histories. The optimal joint states are used as commands to the proportional-derivative servo actuated joints. These commands are precompensated for the nonnegligible joint servo actuator dynamics. Using the precompensated joint commands, the optimal joint angles are tracked with such fidelity that the tip tracking error is less than 2.5 cm

  2. Computationally efficient dynamic modeling of robot manipulators with multiple flexible-links using acceleration-based discrete time transfer matrix method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xuping; Sørensen, Rasmus; RahbekIversen, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel and computationally efficient modeling method for the dynamics of flexible-link robot manipulators. In this method, a robot manipulator is decomposed into components/elements. The component/element dynamics is established using Newton–Euler equations, and then is linea......This paper presents a novel and computationally efficient modeling method for the dynamics of flexible-link robot manipulators. In this method, a robot manipulator is decomposed into components/elements. The component/element dynamics is established using Newton–Euler equations......, and then is linearized based on the acceleration-based state vector. The transfer matrices for each type of components/elements are developed, and used to establish the system equations of a flexible robot manipulator by concatenating the state vector from the base to the end-effector. With this strategy, the size...... manipulators, and only involves calculating and transferring component/element dynamic equations that have small size. The numerical simulations and experimental testing of flexible-link manipulators are conducted to validate the proposed methodologies....

  3. Nonlinear modelling and dynamic stability analysis of a flexible Cartesian robotic manipulator with base disturbance and terminal load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ju

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The flexible Cartesian robotic manipulator (FCRM is coming into widespread application in industry. Because of the feeble rigidity and heavy deflection, the dynamic characteristics of the FCRM are easily influenced by external disturbances which mainly concentrate in the driving end and the load end. Thus, with the influence of driving base disturbance and terminal load considered, the motion differential equations of the FCRM under the plane motion of the base are constructed, which contain the forced and non-linear parametric excitations originated from the disturbances of base lateral and axial motion respectively. Considering the relationship between the coefficients of the motion differential equations and the mode shapes of the flexible manipulator, the analytic expressions of the mode shapes with terminal load are deduced. Then, based on multiple scales method and rectangular coordinate transformation, the average equations of the FCRM are derived to analyze the influence mechanism of base disturbance and terminal load on the system parametric vibration stability. The results show that terminal load mainly affects the node locations of mode shapes and mode frequencies of the FCRM, and the axial motion disturbance of the driving base introduces parametric excitation while the lateral motion disturbance generates forced excitation for the transverse vibration model of the FCRM. Furthermore, with the increase of the base excitation acceleration and terminal load, the parametric vibration instability region of the FCRM increases significantly. This study will be helpful for the dynamic characteristics analysis and vibration control of the FCRM.

  4. Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  5. Novel Concept for Flexible and Resilient Large Power Transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Parag [ABB Inc.; Englebretson, Steven [ABB Inc.; Ramanan, V. R. R [ABB Inc.

    2018-03-30

    This feasibility study investigates a flexible and adaptable LPT design solution which can facilitate long-term replacement in the event of both catastrophic failures as well as scheduled replacements, thereby increasing grid resilience. The scope of this project has been defined based on an initial system study and identification of the transformer requirements from an overall system load flow perspective.

  6. On stiffening cables of a long reach manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.; Santiago, P.

    1996-01-01

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator's slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator's stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator's wrist

  7. Large-scale field testing on flexible shallow landslide barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnion, Louis; Volkwein, Axel; Wendeler, Corinna; Roth, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Open shallow landslides occur regularly in a wide range of natural terrains. Generally, they are difficult to predict and result in damages to properties and disruption of transportation systems. In order to improve the knowledge about the physical process itself and to develop new protection measures, large-scale field experiments were conducted in Veltheim, Switzerland. Material was released down a 30° inclined test slope into a flexible barrier. The flow as well as the impact into the barrier was monitored using various measurement techniques. Laser devices recording flow heights, a special force plate measuring normal and shear basal forces as well as load cells for impact pressures were installed along the test slope. In addition, load cells were built in the support and retaining cables of the barrier to provide data for detailed back-calculation of load distribution during impact. For the last test series an additional guiding wall in flow direction on both sides of the barrier was installed to achieve higher impact pressures in the middle of the barrier. With these guiding walls the flow is not able to spread out before hitting the barrier. A special constructed release mechanism simulating the sudden failure of the slope was designed such that about 50 m3 of mixed earth and gravel saturated with water can be released in an instant. Analysis of cable forces combined with impact pressures and velocity measurements during a test series allow us now to develop a load model for the barrier design. First numerical simulations with the software tool FARO, originally developed for rockfall barriers and afterwards calibrated for debris flow impacts, lead already to structural improvements on barrier design. Decisive for the barrier design is the first dynamic impact pressure depending on the flow velocity and afterwards the hydrostatic pressure of the complete retained material behind the barrier. Therefore volume estimation of open shallow landslides by assessing

  8. Application of flexible scope in large testing laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Di Candia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available According as the international definition of Flexible Scope, a laboratory must demonstrate face with the accreditation body that it has the knowledge, experience and competence to work within the full range of its flexible scope, as well as possessing suitable laboratory environments and equipment. The laboratory must also demonstrate that it has a management system in place that can control its proposed approach while continuing to comply with the requirements of ISO 17025:2005. In case of UKAS (Unites Kingdom Accreditation Service, prior to offering accreditation for flexible scope they must have a high degree of confidence that the staff are technically competent and that the management system controlling certain key processes as development, review, validation and authorization.LATU apply these requirements since 2004 as "Unified Tests". Until this date, LATU was doing the same type of tests in different materials departments using different equipment, personal, and testing quality control. In order to that were defined cross disciplinary groups to analyze this topic approaching in personal competence and quality control tests improvement, and resource's decrease. For example, LATU has the Unified Test Tensile Strength accredited by UKAS in: corrugated and solid fiberboard, paper board, linerboard, cork plugs, plastic bags, plastic sheeting, paper, woven fabrics, plastic woven bags and woven plastic. As a result of the Unified Tests was generated a general unified manage procedure with unified criteria's, responsibilities and actions. Was written a unique testing procedure not only with the actual flexible scope and the flexibilities limits but also the compliance requirements of ISO 17025 and the accreditations body methodology. We could decrease the amount of documentation to control. Was defined the methodology and implemented periodicaly internal inter comparisons between departments in order to valid the unified tests and has a unique

  9. A Research on the Primary Mirror Manipulator of Large Segmented-mirror Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, H.

    2012-09-01

    Since Galileo firstly used the telescope to observe the sky 400 years ago, the aperture of the telescope has become larger and larger to observe the deeper universe, and the segmented-mirror telescope is becoming more and more popular with increasing aperture. In the early 21st century, a series of segmented-mirror telescopes have been constructed including the Large Sky Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) of China. LAMOST is a meridian reflecting Schmidt telescope, and the dimension of the primary mirror is about 6.7 m× 6 m, which is composed of 37 hexagonal sub-mirrors. However, a problem about the mirror installation appears with the increasing aperture. If there are hundreds of sub-mirrors in the telescope, it is a challenging job to mount and dismount them to the truss. This problem is discussed in this paper and a manipulator for the primary mirror of LAMOST is designed to perform the mount and dismount work. In chapter 1, all the segmented-mirror telescopes in the world are introduced and how the sub-mirrors of these telescopes are installed has been investigated. After comparing with the serial and the parallel robot, a serial robot manipulator proposal, which has several redundant degrees of freedom (DOFs), has been chosen from a series of design proposals. In chapter 2, the theoretical analysis has been carried out on the basis of the design proposal, which includes the forward kinematics and the inverse kinematics. Firstly the D-H coordinate is built according to the structure of the manipulator, so it is possible to obtain the end-effector position and orientation from the individual joint motion thanks to the forward kinematics. Because of the redundant DOFs of the manipulator, the inverse kinematics solution can be a very trick task, and the result may not be only, therefore a kind of simulation is carried out to get the numerical solution using ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical System). In the dynamics analysis the

  10. Temporal flexibility and careers: The role of large-scale organizations for physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Forrest Briscoe

    2006-01-01

    Temporal flexibility and careers: The role of large-scale organizations for physicians. Forrest Briscoe Briscoe This study investigates how employment in large-scale organizations affects the work lives of practicing physicians. Well-established theory associates larger organizations with bureaucratic constraint, loss of workplace control, and dissatisfaction, but this author finds that large scale is also associated with greater schedule and career flexibility. Ironically, the bureaucratic p...

  11. River food web response to large-scale riparian zone manipulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Timothy Wootton

    Full Text Available Conservation programs often focus on select species, leading to management plans based on the autecology of the focal species, but multiple ecosystem components can be affected both by the environmental factors impacting, and the management targeting, focal species. These broader effects can have indirect impacts on target species through the web of interactions within ecosystems. For example, human activity can strongly alter riparian vegetation, potentially impacting both economically-important salmonids and their associated river food web. In an Olympic Peninsula river, Washington state, USA, replicated large-scale riparian vegetation manipulations implemented with the long-term (>40 yr goal of improving salmon habitat did not affect water temperature, nutrient limitation or habitat characteristics, but reduced canopy cover, causing reduced energy input via leaf litter, increased incident solar radiation (UV and PAR and increased algal production compared to controls. In response, benthic algae, most insect taxa, and juvenile salmonids increased in manipulated areas. Stable isotope analysis revealed a predominant contribution of algal-derived energy to salmonid diets in manipulated reaches. The experiment demonstrates that riparian management targeting salmonids strongly affects river food webs via changes in the energy base, illustrates how species-based management strategies can have unanticipated indirect effects on the target species via the associated food web, and supports ecosystem-based management approaches for restoring depleted salmonid stocks.

  12. Structural Flexibility of Large Direct Drive Generators for Wind Turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, G.

    2013-01-01

    The trend in wind energy is towards large offshore wind farms. This trend has led to the demand for high reliability and large single unit wind turbines. Different energy conversion topologies such as multiple stage geared generators, single stage geared generators and gearless (direct drive)

  13. Out-reach in-space technology experiments program: Control of flexible robot manipulators in zero gravity, experiment definition phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Warren F.

    1989-01-01

    The results obtained show that it is possible to control light-weight robots with flexible links in a manner that produces good response time and does not induce unacceptable link vibrations. However, deflections induced by gravity cause large static position errors with such a control system. For this reason, it is not possible to use this control system for controlling motion in the direction of gravity. The control system does, on the other hand, have potential for use in space. However, in-space experiments will be needed to verify its applicability to robots moving in three dimensions.

  14. ZnO HEMTs on Flexible Substrates for Large Area Monolithic Antenna Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMBP Tech will implement Zinc Oxide high mobility material technology it has developed specifically for flexible electronics into a direct write process onto large...

  15. Fabrication of large area flexible nanoplasmonic templates with flow coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; Devetter, Brent M.; Roosendaal, Timothy; LaBerge, Max; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Alvine, Kyle J.

    2017-07-01

    We describe the development of a custom-built two-axis flow coater for the deposition of polymeric nanosphere monolayers that could be used in the fabrication of large area nanoplasmonic films. The technique described here has the capability of depositing large areas (up to 7 in. × 10 in.) of self-assembled monolayers of polymeric nanospheres onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. Here, three sets of films consisting of different diameters (ranging from 100 to 300 nm) of polymeric nanospheres were used to demonstrate the capabilities of this instrument. To improve the surface wettability of the PET substrates during wet-deposition, we enhanced the wettability by using a forced air blown-arc plasma treatment system. Both the local microstructure, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, describing monolayer and multilayer coverage, and the overall macroscopic uniformity of the resultant nanostructured film were optimized by controlling the relative stage to blade speed and nanosphere concentration. We also show using a smaller nanoparticle template that such monolayers can be used to form nanoplasmonic films. As this flow-coating approach is a scalable technique, large area films such as the ones described here have a variety of crucial emerging applications in areas such as energy, catalysis, and chemical sensing.

  16. Responses of arthropods to large-scale manipulations of dead wood in loblolly pine stands of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale experimental manipulations of deadwood are needed to better understand its importance to animal communities in managed forests. In this experiment, we compared the abundance, species richness, diversity, and composition of arthropods in 9.3-ha plots in which either (1) all coarse woody debris was removed, (2) a large number of logs were added, (3) a large...

  17. Large-Scale Direct-Writing of Aligned Nanofibers for Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dong; Ding, Yajiang; Duan, Yongqing; Su, Jiangtao; Yin, Zhouping; Huang, Yong An

    2018-05-01

    Nanofibers/nanowires usually exhibit exceptionally low flexural rigidities and remarkable tolerance against mechanical bending, showing superior advantages in flexible electronics applications. Electrospinning is regarded as a powerful process for this 1D nanostructure; however, it can only be able to produce chaotic fibers that are incompatible with the well-patterned microstructures in flexible electronics. Electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) direct-writing technology enables large-scale deposition of highly aligned nanofibers in an additive, noncontact, real-time adjustment, and individual control manner on rigid or flexible, planar or curved substrates, making it rather attractive in the fabrication of flexible electronics. In this Review, the ground-breaking research progress in the field of EHD direct-writing technology is summarized, including a brief chronology of EHD direct-writing techniques, basic principles and alignment strategies, and applications in flexible electronics. Finally, future prospects are suggested to advance flexible electronics based on orderly arranged EHD direct-written fibers. This technology overcomes the limitations of the resolution of fabrication and viscosity of ink of conventional inkjet printing, and represents major advances in manufacturing of flexible electronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Nonlinear model and attitude dynamics of flexible spacecraft with large amplitude slosh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingle; Yue, Baozeng

    2017-04-01

    This paper is focused on the nonlinearly modelling and attitude dynamics of spacecraft coupled with large amplitude liquid sloshing dynamics and flexible appendage vibration. The large amplitude fuel slosh dynamics is included by using an improved moving pulsating ball model. The moving pulsating ball model is an equivalent mechanical model that is capable of imitating the whole liquid reorientation process. A modification is introduced in the capillary force computation in order to more precisely estimate the settling location of liquid in microgravity or zero-g environment. The flexible appendage is modelled as a three dimensional Bernoulli-Euler beam and the assumed modal method is employed to derive the nonlinear mechanical model for the overall coupled system of liquid filled spacecraft with appendage. The attitude maneuver is implemented by the momentum transfer technique, and a feedback controller is designed. The simulation results show that the liquid sloshing can always result in nutation behavior, but the effect of flexible deformation of appendage depends on the amplitude and direction of attitude maneuver performed by spacecraft. Moreover, it is found that the liquid sloshing and the vibration of flexible appendage are coupled with each other, and the coupling becomes more significant with more rapid motion of spacecraft. This study reveals that the appendage's flexibility has influence on the liquid's location and settling time in microgravity. The presented nonlinear system model can provide an important reference for the overall design of the modern spacecraft composed of rigid platform, liquid filled tank and flexible appendage.

  19. Control of a long reach manipulator with suspension cables for waste storage tank remediation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator's slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator's stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator's wrist

  20. Design of a Large-scale Three-dimensional Flexible Arrayed Tactile Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiang Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new type of large-scale three-dimensional flexible arrayed tactile sensor based on conductive rubber. It can be used to detect three-dimensional force information on the continuous surface of the sensor, which realizes a true skin type tactile sensor. The widely used method of liquid rubber injection molding (LIMS method is used for "the overall injection molding" sample preparation. The structure details of staggered nodes and a new decoupling algorithm of force analysis are given. Simulation results show that the sensor based on this structure can achieve flexible measurement of large-scale 3-D tactile sensor arrays.

  1. Highly Flexible and High-Performance Complementary Inverters of Large-Area Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Pu, Jiang

    2016-03-23

    Complementary inverters constructed from large-area monolayers of WSe2 and MoS2 achieve excellent logic swings and yield an extremely high gain, large total noise margin, low power consumption, and good switching speed. Moreover, the WSe2 complementary-like inverters built on plastic substrates exhibit high mechanical stability. The results provide a path toward large-area flexible electronics. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Backup flexibility classes in emerging large-scale renewable electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachtberger, D.P.; Becker, S.; Schramm, S.; Greiner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flexible backup demand in a European wind and solar based power system is modelled. • Three flexibility classes are defined based on production and consumption timescales. • Seasonal backup capacities are shown to be only used below 50% renewable penetration. • Large-scale transmission between countries can reduce fast flexible capacities. - Abstract: High shares of intermittent renewable power generation in a European electricity system will require flexible backup power generation on the dominant diurnal, synoptic, and seasonal weather timescales. The same three timescales are already covered by today’s dispatchable electricity generation facilities, which are able to follow the typical load variations on the intra-day, intra-week, and seasonal timescales. This work aims to quantify the changing demand for those three backup flexibility classes in emerging large-scale electricity systems, as they transform from low to high shares of variable renewable power generation. A weather-driven modelling is used, which aggregates eight years of wind and solar power generation data as well as load data over Germany and Europe, and splits the backup system required to cover the residual load into three flexibility classes distinguished by their respective maximum rates of change of power output. This modelling shows that the slowly flexible backup system is dominant at low renewable shares, but its optimized capacity decreases and drops close to zero once the average renewable power generation exceeds 50% of the mean load. The medium flexible backup capacities increase for modest renewable shares, peak at around a 40% renewable share, and then continuously decrease to almost zero once the average renewable power generation becomes larger than 100% of the mean load. The dispatch capacity of the highly flexible backup system becomes dominant for renewable shares beyond 50%, and reach their maximum around a 70% renewable share. For renewable shares

  3. Rain forest nutrient cycling and productivity in response to large-scale litter manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tana E; Lawrence, Deborah; Clark, Deborah A; Chazdon, Robin L

    2009-01-01

    Litter-induced pulses of nutrient availability could play an important role in the productivity and nutrient cycling of forested ecosystems, especially tropical forests. Tropical forests experience such pulses as a result of wet-dry seasonality and during major climatic events, such as strong El Niños. We hypothesized that (1) an increase in the quantity and quality of litter inputs would stimulate leaf litter production, woody growth, and leaf litter nutrient cycling, and (2) the timing and magnitude of this response would be influenced by soil fertility and forest age. To test these hypotheses in a Costa Rican wet tropical forest, we established a large-scale litter manipulation experiment in two secondary forest sites and four old-growth forest sites of differing soil fertility. In replicated plots at each site, leaves and twigs (forest floor. We analyzed leaf litter mass, [N] and [P], and N and P inputs for addition, removal, and control plots over a two-year period. We also evaluated basal area increment of trees in removal and addition plots. There was no response of forest productivity or nutrient cycling to litter removal; however, litter addition significantly increased leaf litter production and N and P inputs 4-5 months following litter application. Litter production increased as much as 92%, and P and N inputs as much as 85% and 156%, respectively. In contrast, litter manipulation had no significant effect on woody growth. The increase in leaf litter production and N and P inputs were significantly positively related to the total P that was applied in litter form. Neither litter treatment nor forest type influenced the temporal pattern of any of the variables measured. Thus, environmental factors such as rainfall drive temporal variability in litter and nutrient inputs, while nutrient release from decomposing litter influences the magnitude. Seasonal or annual variation in leaf litter mass, such as occurs in strong El Niño events, could positively

  4. Large Neighborhood Search and Adaptive Randomized Decompositions for Flexible Jobshop Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacino, Dario; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a constraint-based scheduling approach to the flexible jobshop, a generalization of the traditional jobshop scheduling where activities have a choice of machines. It studies both large neighborhood (LNS) and adaptive randomized de- composition (ARD) schemes, using random...

  5. Measurement and correlation of high frequency behaviors of a very flexible beam undergoing large deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Wook; Kim, Hyun Woo; Ku, Hi Chun; Yoo, Wan Suk

    2009-01-01

    A correlation method of high frequency behaviors of a very flexible beam undergoing large displacement is presented. The suggested method based on the experimental modal analysis leads to more accurate correlation results because it directly uses the modal parameters of each mode achieved from experiment. First, the modal testing and the parameter identification method are suggested for flexible multibody dynamics. Due to the flexibility of a very thin beam, traditional testing methods such as impact hammer or contact type accelerometer are not working well. The suggested measurement with high speed camera, even though the test beam is very flexible, is working well. Using measurements with a high speed camera, modal properties until the 5th mode are measured. And After measuring each damping ratio until the 5th mode, a generic damping model is constructed using inverse modal transformation technique. It's very interesting that the modal transformation technique can be also applied even in the ANCF simulation which uses the global displacement and finite slope as the nodal coordinates. The results of experiment and simulation are compared until the 5th mode frequency, respectively, by using ANCF forced vibration analysis. Through comparison between numerical simulation and experiment, this study showed that the proposed generic damping matrix, modal testing and parameter identification method is very proper in flexible multibody dynamic problems undergoing large deformation

  6. Nonlinear analysis of flexible beams undergoing large rotations Via symbolic computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiaofeng

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a two-stage approach is presented for analyzing flexible beams undergoing large rotations. In the first stage, the symbolic forms of equations of motion and the Jacobian matrix are generated by means of MATLAB and written into a MATLAB script file automatically, where the flexible beams are described by the unified formulation presented in our previous paper. In the second stage, the derived equations of motion are solved by means of implicit numerical methods. Several comparison computations are performed. The two-stage approach proves to be much more efficient than pure numerical one.

  7. Floating substructure flexibility of large-volume 10MW offshore wind turbine platforms in dynamic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Michael; Hansen, Anders Melchior; Bredmose, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Designing floating substructures for the next generation of 10MW and larger wind turbines has introduced new challenges in capturing relevant physical effects in dynamic simulation tools. In achieving technically and economically optimal floating substructures, structural flexibility may increase to the extent that it becomes relevant to include in addition to the standard rigid body substructure modes which are typically described through linear radiation-diffraction theory. This paper describes a method for the inclusion of substructural flexibility in aero-hydro-servo-elastic dynamic simulations for large-volume substructures, including wave-structure interactions, to form the basis of deriving sectional loads and stresses within the substructure. The method is applied to a case study to illustrate the implementation and relevance. It is found that the flexible mode is significantly excited in an extreme event, indicating an increase in predicted substructure internal loads. (paper)

  8. To increase controllability of a large flexible antenna by modal optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Pengpeng; Jiang, Wenjian

    2017-12-01

    Large deployable antennas are widely used in aerospace engineering to meet the envelop limit of rocket fairing. The high flexibility and low damping of antenna has proposed critical requirement not only for stability control of the antenna itself, but also for attitude control of the satellite. This paper aims to increase controllability of a large flexible antenna by modal optimization. Firstly, Sensitivity analysis of antenna modal frequencies to stiffness of support structure and stiffness of scanning mechanism are conducted respectively. Secondly, Modal simulation results of antenna frequencies are given, influences of scanning angles on moment of inertia and modal frequencies are evaluated, and modal test is carried out to validate the simulation results. All the simulation and test results show that, after modal optimization the modal characteristic of the large deployable antenna meets the controllability requirement well.

  9. [100] or [110] aligned, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2015-03-24

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, [100] or [110] textured, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  10. Finite Element Analysis for Active-force Control on Vibration of a Flexible Single-link Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadir Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research are to formulate theequations of motion of the system, to develop computationalcodes by a finite element analysis in order to perform dynamicssimulation with vibration control, to propose an effective controlscheme using active-force (AF control a flexible single-linkmanipulator. The system used in this paper consists of analuminum beam as a flexible link, a clamp-part, a servo motor torotate the link and a piezoelectric actuator to control vibration.Computational codes on time history responses, FFT (FastFourier Transform processing and eigenvalues-eigenvectorsanalysis were developed to calculate dynamic behavior of thelink. Furthermore, the AF control was designed to drive thepiezoelectric actuator. Calculated results have revealed that thevibration of the system can be suppressed effectively

  11. Design of a Generic and Flexible Data Structure for Efficient Formulation of Large Scale Network Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Sarup, Bent; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    structure for efficient formulation of enterprise-wide optimization problems is presented. Through the integration of the described data structure in our synthesis and design framework, the problem formulation workflow is automated in a software tool, reducing time and resources needed to formulate large......The formulation of Enterprise-Wide Optimization (EWO) problems as mixed integer nonlinear programming requires collecting, consolidating and systematizing large amount of data, coming from different sources and specific to different disciplines. In this manuscript, a generic and flexible data...... problems, while ensuring at the same time data consistency and quality at the application stage....

  12. A Large-Scale Multibody Manipulator Soft Sensor Model and Experiment Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress signal is difficult to obtain in the health monitoring of multibody manipulator. In order to solve this problem, a soft sensor method is presented. In the method, stress signal is considered as dominant variable and angle signal is regarded as auxiliary variable. By establishing the mathematical relationship between them, a soft sensor model is proposed. In the model, the stress information can be deduced by angle information which can be easily measured for such structures by experiments. Finally, test of ground and wall working conditions is done on a multibody manipulator test rig. The results show that the stress calculated by the proposed method is closed to the test one. Thus, the stress signal is easier to get than the traditional method. All of these prove that the model is correct and the method is feasible.

  13. Microstructural Control via Copious Nucleation Manipulated by In Situ Formed Nucleants: Large-Sized and Ductile Metallic Glass Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenli; Wu, Yuan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiongjun; Chen, Houwen; Guo, Zhenxi; Lu, Zhaoping

    2016-10-01

    A novel strategy to control the precipitation behavior of the austenitic phase, and to obtain large-sized, transformation-induced, plasticity-reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites, with good tensile properties, is proposed. By inducing heterogeneous nucleation of the transformable reinforcement via potent nucleants formed in situ, the characteristics of the austenitic phase are well manipulated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A large scale flexible real-time communications topology for the LHC accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Lauckner, R J; Ribeiro, P; Wijnands, Thijs

    1999-01-01

    The LHC design parameters impose very stringent beam control requirements in order to reach the nominal performance. Prompted by the lack of accurate models to predict field behaviour in superconducting magnet systems the control system of the accelerator will provide flexible feedback channels between monitors and magnets around the 27 Km circumference machine. The implementation of feedback systems composed of a large number of sparsely located elements presents some interesting challenges. Our goal was to find a topology where the control loop requirements: number and distribution of nodes, latency and throughput could be guaranteed without compromising the flexibility. Our proposal is to federate a number of well known technologies and concepts, namely ATM, WorldFIP and RTOS, into a general framework. (6 refs).

  15. Stability Result For Dynamic Inversion Devised to Control Large Flexible Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Irene M.

    2001-01-01

    High performance aircraft of the future will be designed lighter, more maneuverable, and operate over an ever expanding flight envelope. One of the largest differences from the flight control perspective between current and future advanced aircraft is elasticity. Over the last decade, dynamic inversion methodology has gained considerable popularity in application to highly maneuverable fighter aircraft, which were treated as rigid vehicles. This paper is an initial attempt to establish global stability results for dynamic inversion methodology as applied to a large, flexible aircraft. This work builds on a previous result for rigid fighter aircraft and adds a new level of complexity that is the flexible aircraft dynamics, which cannot be ignored even in the most basic flight control. The results arise from observations of the control laws designed for a new generation of the High-Speed Civil Transport aircraft.

  16. Large Scale Triboelectric Nanogenerator and Self-Powered Flexible Sensor for Human Sleep Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoheng Ding

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG and its application as a sensor is a popular research subject. There is demand for self-powered, flexible sensors with high sensitivity and high power-output for the next generation of consumer electronics. In this study, a 300 mm × 300 mm carbon nanotube (CNT-doped porous PDMS film was successfully fabricated wherein the CNT influenced the micropore structure. A self-powered TENG tactile sensor was established according to triboelectric theory. The CNT-doped porous TENG showed a voltage output seven times higher than undoped porous TENG and 16 times higher than TENG with pure PDMS, respectively. The TENG successfully acquired human motion signals, breath signals, and heartbeat signals during a sleep monitoring experiment. The results presented here may provide an effective approach for fabricating large-scale and low-cost flexible TENG sensors.

  17. CMOS compatible route for GaAs based large scale flexible and transparent electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nour, Maha A.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Droopad, Ravi; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Flexible electronics using gallium arsenide (GaAs) for nano-electronics with high electron mobility and optoelectronics with direct band gap are attractive for many applications. Here we describe a state-of-the-art CMOS compatible batch fabrication process of transforming traditional electronic circuitry into large-area flexible, semitransparent platform. We show a simple release process for peeling off 200 nm of GaAs from 200 nm GaAs/300 nm AlAs stack on GaAs substrate using diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF). This process enables releasing a single top layer compared to peeling off all layers with small sizes at the same time. This is done utilizing a network of release holes which contributes to the better transparency (45 % at 724 nm wavelength) observed.

  18. CMOS compatible route for GaAs based large scale flexible and transparent electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nour, Maha A.

    2014-08-01

    Flexible electronics using gallium arsenide (GaAs) for nano-electronics with high electron mobility and optoelectronics with direct band gap are attractive for many applications. Here we describe a state-of-the-art CMOS compatible batch fabrication process of transforming traditional electronic circuitry into large-area flexible, semitransparent platform. We show a simple release process for peeling off 200 nm of GaAs from 200 nm GaAs/300 nm AlAs stack on GaAs substrate using diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF). This process enables releasing a single top layer compared to peeling off all layers with small sizes at the same time. This is done utilizing a network of release holes which contributes to the better transparency (45 % at 724 nm wavelength) observed.

  19. Solution Coating of Superior Large-Area Flexible Perovskite Thin Films with Controlled Crystal Packing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jianbo

    2017-05-08

    Solution coating of organohalide lead perovskites offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area flexible optoelectronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control of crystal packing. Herein, this study reports using solution shearing to confine crystal nucleation and growth in large-area printed MAPbI3 thin films. Near single-crystalline perovskite microarrays are demonstrated with a high degree of controlled macroscopic alignment and crystal orientation, which exhibit significant improvements in optical and optoelectronic properties comparing with their random counterparts, spherulitic, and nanograined films. In particular, photodetectors based on the confined films showing intense anisotropy in charge transport are fabricated, and the device exhibits significantly improved performance in all aspects by one more orders of magnitude relative to their random counterparts. It is anticipated that perovskite films with controlled crystal packing may find applications in high-performance, large-area printed optoelectronics, and solar cells.

  20. Solution Coating of Superior Large-Area Flexible Perovskite Thin Films with Controlled Crystal Packing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jianbo; Liu, Yucheng; Ren, Xiaodong; Yang, Zhou; Li, Ruipeng; Su, Hang; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Junzhuo; Xu, Hua; Hu, Jian-Yong; Amassian, Aram; Zhao, Kui; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2017-01-01

    Solution coating of organohalide lead perovskites offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area flexible optoelectronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control of crystal packing. Herein, this study reports using solution shearing to confine crystal nucleation and growth in large-area printed MAPbI3 thin films. Near single-crystalline perovskite microarrays are demonstrated with a high degree of controlled macroscopic alignment and crystal orientation, which exhibit significant improvements in optical and optoelectronic properties comparing with their random counterparts, spherulitic, and nanograined films. In particular, photodetectors based on the confined films showing intense anisotropy in charge transport are fabricated, and the device exhibits significantly improved performance in all aspects by one more orders of magnitude relative to their random counterparts. It is anticipated that perovskite films with controlled crystal packing may find applications in high-performance, large-area printed optoelectronics, and solar cells.

  1. Enabling Technologies for Fabrication of Large Area Flexible Antennas, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flexible, foldable, and/or inflatable antenna systems open up a wealth of opportunities. Integrating antenna elements and related electronics onto flexible...

  2. Hybrid PD and effective multi-mode positive position feedback control for slewing and vibration suppression of a smart flexible manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Jun-qiang; Wei, Yan-ding; Yang, Yi-ling; Xie, Feng-ran

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid control strategy for slewing and vibration suppression of a smart flexible manipulator is presented in this paper. It consists of a proportional derivative controller to realize motion control, and an effective multi-mode positive position feedback (EMPPF) controller to suppress the multi-mode vibration. Rather than treat each mode equally as the standard multi-mode PPF, the essence of the EMPPF is that control forces of different modes are applied according to the mode parameters of the respective modes, so the vibration modes with less vibration energy receive fewer control forces. Stability conditions for the close loop system are established through stability analysis. Optimal parameters of the EMPPF controller are obtained using the method of root locus analysis. The performance of the proposed strategy is demonstrated by simulation and experiments. Experimental results show that the first two vibration modes of the manipulator are effectively suppressed. The setting time of the setup descends approximately 55%, reaching 3.12 s from 5.67 s. (paper)

  3. Hybrid PD and effective multi-mode positive position feedback control for slewing and vibration suppression of a smart flexible manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jun-qiang; Wei, Yan-ding; Yang, Yi-ling; Xie, Feng-ran

    2015-03-01

    A hybrid control strategy for slewing and vibration suppression of a smart flexible manipulator is presented in this paper. It consists of a proportional derivative controller to realize motion control, and an effective multi-mode positive position feedback (EMPPF) controller to suppress the multi-mode vibration. Rather than treat each mode equally as the standard multi-mode PPF, the essence of the EMPPF is that control forces of different modes are applied according to the mode parameters of the respective modes, so the vibration modes with less vibration energy receive fewer control forces. Stability conditions for the close loop system are established through stability analysis. Optimal parameters of the EMPPF controller are obtained using the method of root locus analysis. The performance of the proposed strategy is demonstrated by simulation and experiments. Experimental results show that the first two vibration modes of the manipulator are effectively suppressed. The setting time of the setup descends approximately 55%, reaching 3.12 s from 5.67 s.

  4. Towards development of nanofibrous large strain flexible strain sensors with programmable shape memory properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, N.; Asif, H.; Naguib, H. E.

    2018-05-01

    Electrospun polymeric fibers can be used as strain sensors due to their large surface to weight/volume ratio, high porosity and pore interconnectivity. Large strain flexible strain sensors are used in numerous applications including rehabilitation, health monitoring, and sports performance monitoring where large strain detection should be accommodated by the sensor. This has boosted the demand for a stretchable, flexible and highly sensitive sensor able to detect a wide range of mechanically induced deformations. Herein, a physically cross-linked polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) blend is made into nanofiber networks via electrospinning. The PLA/TPU weight ratio is optimized to obtain a maximum attainable strain of 100% while maintaining its mechanical integrity. The TPU/PLA fibers also allowed for their thermally activated recovery due to shape memory properties of the substrate. This novel feature enhances the sensor’s performance as it is no longer limited by its plastic deformation. Using spray coating method, a homogeneous layer of single-walled carbon nanotube is deposited onto the as-spun fiber mat to induce electrical conductivity to the surface of the fibers. It is shown that stretching and bending the sensor result in a highly sensitive and linear response with a maximum gauge factor of 33.

  5. Preliminary results on the dynamics of large and flexible space structures in Halo orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagrossi, Andrea; Lavagna, Michèle

    2017-05-01

    The global exploration roadmap suggests, among other ambitious future space programmes, a possible manned outpost in lunar vicinity, to support surface operations and further astronaut training for longer and deeper space missions and transfers. In particular, a Lagrangian point orbit location - in the Earth- Moon system - is suggested for a manned cis-lunar infrastructure; proposal which opens an interesting field of study from the astrodynamics perspective. Literature offers a wide set of scientific research done on orbital dynamics under the Three-Body Problem modelling approach, while less of it includes the attitude dynamics modelling as well. However, whenever a large space structure (ISS-like) is considered, not only the coupled orbit-attitude dynamics should be modelled to run more accurate analyses, but the structural flexibility should be included too. The paper, starting from the well-known Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem formulation, presents some preliminary results obtained by adding a coupled orbit-attitude dynamical model and the effects due to the large structure flexibility. In addition, the most relevant perturbing phenomena, such as the Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP) and the fourth-body (Sun) gravity, are included in the model as well. A multi-body approach has been preferred to represent possible configurations of the large cis-lunar infrastructure: interconnected simple structural elements - such as beams, rods or lumped masses linked by springs - build up the space segment. To better investigate the relevance of the flexibility effects, the lumped parameters approach is compared with a distributed parameters semi-analytical technique. A sensitivity analysis of system dynamics, with respect to different configurations and mechanical properties of the extended structure, is also presented, in order to highlight drivers for the lunar outpost design. Furthermore, a case study for a large and flexible space structure in Halo orbits around

  6. Responses of arthropods to large-scale manipulations of dead wood in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Hanula, James L

    2009-08-01

    Large-scale experimental manipulations of dead wood are needed to better understand its importance to animal communities in managed forests. In this experiment, we compared the abundance, species richness, diversity, and composition of arthropods in 9.3-ha plots in which either (1) all coarse woody debris was removed, (2) a large number of logs were added, (3) a large number of snags were added, or (4) no coarse woody debris was added or removed. The target taxa were ground-dwelling arthropods, sampled by pitfall traps, and saproxylic beetles (i.e., dependent on dead wood), sampled by flight intercept traps and emergence traps. There were no differences in total ground-dwelling arthropod abundance, richness, diversity, or composition among treatments. Only the results for ground beetles (Carabidae), which were more species rich and diverse in log input plots, supported our prediction that ground-dwelling arthropods would benefit from additions of dead wood. There were also no differences in saproxylic beetle abundance, richness, diversity, or composition among treatments. The findings from this study are encouraging in that arthropods seem less sensitive than expected to manipulations of dead wood in managed pine forests of the southeastern United States. Based on our results, we cannot recommend inputting large amounts of dead wood for conservation purposes, given the expense of such measures. However, the persistence of saproxylic beetles requires that an adequate amount of dead wood is available in the landscape, and we recommend that dead wood be retained whenever possible in managed pine forests.

  7. Multi-layered fabrication of large area PDMS flexible optical light guide sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert; Knopf, George K.; Bordatchev, Evgueni V.

    2017-02-01

    Large area polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flexible optical light guide sheets can be used to create a variety of passive light harvesting and illumination systems for wearable technology, advanced indoor lighting, non-planar solar light collectors, customized signature lighting, and enhanced safety illumination for motorized vehicles. These thin optically transparent micro-patterned polymer sheets can be draped over a flat or arbitrarily curved surface. The light guiding behavior of the optical light guides depends on the geometry and spatial distribution of micro-optical structures, thickness and shape of the flexible sheet, refractive indices of the constituent layers, and the wavelength of the incident light. A scalable fabrication method that combines soft-lithography, closed thin cavity molding, partial curing, and centrifugal casting is described in this paper for building thin large area multi-layered PDMS optical light guide sheets. The proposed fabrication methodology enables the of internal micro-optical structures (MOSs) in the monolithic PDMS light guide by building the optical system layer-by-layer. Each PDMS layer in the optical light guide can have the similar, or a slightly different, indices of refraction that permit total internal reflection within the optical sheet. The individual molded layers may also be defect free or micro-patterned with microlens or reflecting micro-features. In addition, the bond between adjacent layers is ensured because each layer is only partially cured before the next functional layer is added. To illustrate the scalable build-by-layers fabrication method a three-layer mechanically flexible illuminator with an embedded LED strip is constructed and demonstrated.

  8. Inkjet printed large-area flexible circuits: a simple methodology for optimizing the printing quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Wu, Youwei; Shen, Xiaoqin; Lai, Wenyong; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a simple methodology was developed to enhance the patterning resolution of inkjet printing, involving process optimization as well as substrate modification and treatment. The line width of the inkjet-printed silver lines was successfully reduced to 1/3 of the original value using this methodology. Large-area flexible circuits with delicate patterns and good morphology were thus fabricated. The resultant flexible circuits showed excellent electrical conductivity as low as 4.5 Ω/□ and strong tolerance to mechanical bending. The simple methodology is also applicable to substrates with various wettability, which suggests a general strategy to enhance the printing quality of inkjet printing for manufacturing high-performance large-area flexible electronics. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Nos. 2014CB648300, 2017YFB0404501), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21422402, 21674050), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BK20140060, BK20130037, BK20140865, BM2012010), the Program for Jiangsu Specially-Appointed Professors (No. RK030STP15001), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (No. NCET-13-0872), the NUPT "1311 Project" and Scientific Foundation (Nos. NY213119, NY213169), the Synergetic Innovation Center for Organic Electronics and Information Displays, the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), the Leading Talent of Technological Innovation of National Ten-Thousands Talents Program of China, the Excellent Scientific and Technological Innovative Teams of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (No. TJ217038), the Program for Graduate Students Research and Innovation of Jiangsu Province (No. KYZZ16-0253), and the 333 Project of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BRA2017402, BRA2015374).

  9. A Novel Method of Fabricating Flexible Transparent Conductive Large Area Graphene Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Tian-Ju; Yuan Chun-Qiu; Tang Wei; Tong Song-Zhao; Huang Wei; Min Yong-Gang; Liu Yi-Dong; Epstein, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    We fabricate flexible conductive and transparent graphene films on position-emission-tomography substrates and prepare large area graphene films by graphite oxide sheets with the new technical process. The multi-layer graphene oxide sheets can be chemically reduced by HNO 3 and HI to form a highly conductive graphene film on a substrate at lower temperature. The reduced graphene oxide sheets show a high conductivity sheet with resistance of 476 Ω/sq and transmittance of 76% at 550 nm (6 layers). The technique used to produce the transparent conductive graphene thin film is facile, inexpensive, and can be tunable for a large area production applied for electronics or touch screens. (paper)

  10. Computational investigation of large-scale vortex interaction with flexible bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Benjamin; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2003-11-01

    The interaction of large-scale vortices with flexible bodies is examined with particular interest paid to the energy and momentum budgets of the system. Finite difference direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations on a moving curvilinear grid is coupled with a finite difference structural solver of both a linear membrane under tension and linear Euler-Bernoulli beam. The hydrodynamics and structural dynamics are solved simultaneously using an iterative procedure with the external structural forcing calculated from the hydrodynamics at the surface and the flow-field velocity boundary condition given by the structural motion. We focus on an investigation into the canonical problem of a vortex-dipole impinging on a flexible membrane. It is discovered that the structural properties of the membrane direct the interaction in terms of the flow evolution and the energy budget. Pressure gradients associated with resonant membrane response are shown to sustain the oscillatory motion of the vortex pair. Understanding how the key mechanisms in vortex-body interactions are guided by the structural properties of the body is a prerequisite to exploiting these mechanisms.

  11. Simulation of robot manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Bills, K.C.; Kwon, D.S.; Schoenwald, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory's development of an environment for the simulation of robotic manipulators. Simulation includes the modeling of kinematics, dynamics, sensors, actuators, control systems, operators, and environments. Models will be used for manipulator design, proposal evaluation, control system design and analysis, graphical preview of proposed motions, safety system development, and training. Of particular interest is the development of models for robotic manipulators having at least one flexible link. As a first application, models have been developed for the Pacific Northwest Laboratories' Flexible Beam Testbed which is a one-Degree-Of-Freedom, flexible arm with a hydraulic base actuator. Initial results show good agreement between model and experiment

  12. Photovoltaic properties of conjugated polymer/fullerene composites on large area flexible substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desta Gebeyehu

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present measurements of the photovoltaic response of bulk donor-acceptor heterojunction between the conjugated polymer, poly(3-octylthiophene, P3OT, (as a donor, D and fullerene (methanofullerene, (as acceptor, A, deposited between indium tin oxide and aluminum electrodes. The innovation involves the substrate, which is a polymer foil instead of glass. These devices are based on ultrafast, reversible, metastable photoinduced electron transfer and charge separation. We also present the efficiency and stability studies on large area (6 cm x 6 cm flexible plastic solar cells with monochromatic energy conversion efficiency (e of about 1.5% and carrier collection efficiency of nearly 20%. Further more, we have investigated the surface network morphology of these films layers by atomic force microscope (AFM. The development of solar cells based on composites of organic conjugated semi-conducting polymers with fullerene derivatives can provide a new method in the exploitation of solar energy.

  13. CAST: a new program package for the accurate characterization of large and flexible molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebner, Christoph; Becker, Johannes; Weber, Daniel; Bellinger, Daniel; Tafipolski, Maxim; Brückner, Charlotte; Engels, Bernd

    2014-09-15

    The presented program package, Conformational Analysis and Search Tool (CAST) allows the accurate treatment of large and flexible (macro) molecular systems. For the determination of thermally accessible minima CAST offers the newly developed TabuSearch algorithm, but algorithms such as Monte Carlo (MC), MC with minimization, and molecular dynamics are implemented as well. For the determination of reaction paths, CAST provides the PathOpt, the Nudge Elastic band, and the umbrella sampling approach. Access to free energies is possible through the free energy perturbation approach. Along with a number of standard force fields, a newly developed symmetry-adapted perturbation theory-based force field is included. Semiempirical computations are possible through DFTB+ and MOPAC interfaces. For calculations based on density functional theory, a Message Passing Interface (MPI) interface to the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)-accelerated TeraChem program is available. The program is available on request. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Flexible non-linear predictive models for large-scale wind turbine diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach-Andersen, Martin; Rømer-Odgaard, Bo; Winther, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate how flexible non-linear models can provide accurate and robust predictions on turbine component temperature sensor data using data-driven principles and only a minimum of system modeling. The merits of different model architectures are evaluated using data from a large set...... of turbines operating under diverse conditions. We then go on to test the predictive models in a diagnostic setting, where the output of the models are used to detect mechanical faults in rotor bearings. Using retrospective data from 22 actual rotor bearing failures, the fault detection performance...... of the models are quantified using a structured framework that provides the metrics required for evaluating the performance in a fleet wide monitoring setup. It is demonstrated that faults are identified with high accuracy up to 45 days before a warning from the hard-threshold warning system....

  15. Rod-coating: towards large-area fabrication of uniform reduced graphene oxide films for flexible touch screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Liang, Minghui; Fang, Yan; Qiu, Tengfei; Zhang, Jin; Zhi, Linjie

    2012-06-05

    A novel strategy is developed for the large-scale fabrication of reduced graphene oxide films directly on flexible substrates in a controlled manner by the combination of a rod-coating technique and room-temperature reduction of graphene oxide. The as-prepared films display excellent uniformity, good transparency and conductivity, and great flexibility in a touch screen. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Hierarchical hybrid control of manipulators: Artificial intelligence in large scale integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    Both in practical engineering and in control of muscular systems, low level subsystems automatically provide crude approximations to the proper response. Through low level tuning of these approximations, the proper response variant can emerge from standardized high level commands. Such systems are expressly suited to emerging large scale integrated circuit technology. A computer, using symbolic descriptions of subsystem responses, can select and shape responses of low level digital or analog microcircuits. A mathematical theory that reveals significant informational units in this style of control and software for realizing such information structures are formulated.

  17. Efficient Disk-Based Techniques for Manipulating Very Large String Databases

    KAUST Repository

    Allam, Amin

    2017-05-18

    Indexing and processing strings are very important topics in database management. Strings can be database records, DNA sequences, protein sequences, or plain text. Various string operations are required for several application categories, such as bioinformatics and entity resolution. When the string count or sizes become very large, several state-of-the-art techniques for indexing and processing such strings may fail or behave very inefficiently. Modifying an existing technique to overcome these issues is not usually straightforward or even possible. A category of string operations can be facilitated by the suffix tree data structure, which basically indexes a long string to enable efficient finding of any substring of the indexed string, and can be used in other operations as well, such as approximate string matching. In this document, we introduce a novel efficient method to construct the suffix tree index for very long strings using parallel architectures, which is a major challenge in this category. Another category of string operations require clustering similar strings in order to perform application-specific processing on the resulting possibly-overlapping clusters. In this document, based on clustering similar strings, we introduce a novel efficient technique for record linkage and entity resolution, and a novel method for correcting errors in a large number of small strings (read sequences) generated by the DNA sequencing machines.

  18. Valuing physically and financially-induced flexibility in large-scale water resources systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Pina, Jasson; Côté, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    In a world characterized by rapid changes in terms of water demands and supplies, there is a growing and persistent need for institutional reforms that promote cross-sectoral, adaptive management processes and policies. Yet, in many regions throughout the world, the continued expansion of supply-side infrastructure is still perceived as the way to go despite the rising financial, social and environmental costs. This trend is further compounded by the risks posed by climate change; reservoir storage, for example, is still perceived as a key element of climate change adaptation strategies in many countries. There is a growing concern that such strategies may result in a rigidity trap whereby the physical and institutional infrastructure become inflexible and unable to adapt to changes because they are mutually reinforcing each other. However, several authors have recently advocated for adaptive, flexible, management techniques involving a more diversified portfolio of measures whose management is regularly updated as new information about supplies and demands becomes available. Despite being conceptually attractive, such a management approach presents several challenges to policy makers. One of them is the sheer amount of information that must be processed each time a management decision must be taken. To address this issue, we propose an optimization framework that can be used to determine the optimal management of a large portfolio of physical and financial assets using various hydro-climatic information. This optimization framework is illustrated with the management of a power system in Quebec involving various power stations, reservoirs, power and energy contracts as well as hydrologic and climatic data. The results can be used to assess the economic value of the flexibility induced by either the physical assets (power stations and reservoirs) or by the financial ones (contracts), an information we believe is important to highlight the benefits of adaptive

  19. Bioinspired legged-robot based on large deformation of flexible skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayyas, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present STARbot, a bioinspired legged robot capable of multiple locomotion modalities by using large deformation of its skeleton. We construct STARbot by using origami-style folding of flexible laminates. The long-term goal is to provide a robotic platform with maximum mobility on multiple surfaces. This paper particularly studies the quasistatic model of STARbot’s leg under different conditions. We describe the large elastic deformation of a leg under external force, payload, and friction by using a set of non-dimensional, nonlinear approximate equations. We developed a test mechanism that models the motion of a leg in STARbot. We augmented several foot shapes and then tested them on soft to rough grounds. Both simulation and experimental findings were in good agreement. We utilized the model to develop several scales of tri and quad STARbot. We demonstrated the capability of these robots to locomote by combining their leg deformations with their foot motions. The combination provided a design platform for an active suspension STARbot with controlled foot locomotion. This included the ability of STARbot to change size, run over obstacles, walk and slide. Furthermore, in this paper we discuss a cost effective manufacturing and production method for manufacturing STARbot. (paper)

  20. Bioinspired legged-robot based on large deformation of flexible skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayyas, Mohammad

    2014-11-11

    In this article we present STARbot, a bioinspired legged robot capable of multiple locomotion modalities by using large deformation of its skeleton. We construct STARbot by using origami-style folding of flexible laminates. The long-term goal is to provide a robotic platform with maximum mobility on multiple surfaces. This paper particularly studies the quasistatic model of STARbot's leg under different conditions. We describe the large elastic deformation of a leg under external force, payload, and friction by using a set of non-dimensional, nonlinear approximate equations. We developed a test mechanism that models the motion of a leg in STARbot. We augmented several foot shapes and then tested them on soft to rough grounds. Both simulation and experimental findings were in good agreement. We utilized the model to develop several scales of tri and quad STARbot. We demonstrated the capability of these robots to locomote by combining their leg deformations with their foot motions. The combination provided a design platform for an active suspension STARbot with controlled foot locomotion. This included the ability of STARbot to change size, run over obstacles, walk and slide. Furthermore, in this paper we discuss a cost effective manufacturing and production method for manufacturing STARbot.

  1. Dealing with a large installation of SRF cavities: Characterizing limitations and exploiting operational flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Reece; B. Madre; L. Doolittle; J. Delayen

    1999-01-01

    Linacs using a large number of SRF cavities can have an awkwardly large number of degrees of freedom for operational setup. The cost and robustness of operation as a function of operating gradient is a particular characteristic of each cavity system and the intended beamloading. A systematic characterization of these limitations has been developed which yields a valuable guide for development resource allocation. In addition, a software tool has been developed which enables the CEBAF machine operator to conveniently exploit the flexibility that results from the many degrees of freedom in response to changing programmatic needs. The two CEBAF SRF linacs each have about 160 independently-controlled SRF cavities. The software utility (LEM++) establishes the operationally optimum gradient in each cavity in response to the operator providing only three of the following four parameters: linac voltage, anticipated beam current, rf cryoheat load, and net rf trip rate. The utility is now fully operational at CEBAF. The methods employed and particular features useful for operations will be presented. The interactive process that has brought the software to its current form will also be discussed. The analysis scheme used to characterize the limitations of the ensemble of cavities will be presented as well

  2. Printable nanostructured silicon solar cells for high-performance, large-area flexible photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Biswas, Roshni; Li, Weigu; Kang, Dongseok; Chan, Lesley; Yoon, Jongseung

    2014-10-28

    Nanostructured forms of crystalline silicon represent an attractive materials building block for photovoltaics due to their potential benefits to significantly reduce the consumption of active materials, relax the requirement of materials purity for high performance, and hence achieve greatly improved levelized cost of energy. Despite successful demonstrations for their concepts over the past decade, however, the practical application of nanostructured silicon solar cells for large-scale implementation has been hampered by many existing challenges associated with the consumption of the entire wafer or expensive source materials, difficulties to precisely control materials properties and doping characteristics, or restrictions on substrate materials and scalability. Here we present a highly integrable materials platform of nanostructured silicon solar cells that can overcome these limitations. Ultrathin silicon solar microcells integrated with engineered photonic nanostructures are fabricated directly from wafer-based source materials in configurations that can lower the materials cost and can be compatible with deterministic assembly procedures to allow programmable, large-scale distribution, unlimited choices of module substrates, as well as lightweight, mechanically compliant constructions. Systematic studies on optical and electrical properties, photovoltaic performance in experiments, as well as numerical modeling elucidate important design rules for nanoscale photon management with ultrathin, nanostructured silicon solar cells and their interconnected, mechanically flexible modules, where we demonstrate 12.4% solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiency for printed ultrathin (∼ 8 μm) nanostructured silicon solar cells when configured with near-optimal designs of rear-surface nanoposts, antireflection coating, and back-surface reflector.

  3. Immersive Interaction, Manipulation and Analysis of Large 3D Datasets for Planetary and Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariser, O.; Calef, F.; Manning, E. M.; Ardulov, V.

    2017-12-01

    We will present implementation and study of several use-cases of utilizing Virtual Reality (VR) for immersive display, interaction and analysis of large and complex 3D datasets. These datasets have been acquired by the instruments across several Earth, Planetary and Solar Space Robotics Missions. First, we will describe the architecture of the common application framework that was developed to input data, interface with VR display devices and program input controllers in various computing environments. Tethered and portable VR technologies will be contrasted and advantages of each highlighted. We'll proceed to presenting experimental immersive analytics visual constructs that enable augmentation of 3D datasets with 2D ones such as images and statistical and abstract data. We will conclude by presenting comparative analysis with traditional visualization applications and share the feedback provided by our users: scientists and engineers.

  4. Motion control of a large gap magnetic suspension system for microrobotic manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, David; Khamesee, Mir Behrad [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2007-06-07

    Magnetic suspension systems have shown a great deal of promise in the field of microrobotics. This paper discusses the performance of a new large gap magnetic suspension system developed by the researchers. The magnetic drive unit consists of six electromagnets attached to a soft iron pole piece and yoke. Levitation of an 11.19 g microrobot prototype is demonstrated for step, ramp and periodic input trajectories using PID control. The working envelope of the microrobot is 30 x 22 x 20 mm{sup 3}, with an RMS error on the order of 18 {mu}m in the vertical direction and 8 {mu}m in the horizontal direction. It is demonstrated that the levitated microrobot is able to track the desired trajectory precisely and that the system has potential application for micromanipulation.

  5. Motion control of a large gap magnetic suspension system for microrobotic manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, David; Khamesee, Mir Behrad

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic suspension systems have shown a great deal of promise in the field of microrobotics. This paper discusses the performance of a new large gap magnetic suspension system developed by the researchers. The magnetic drive unit consists of six electromagnets attached to a soft iron pole piece and yoke. Levitation of an 11.19 g microrobot prototype is demonstrated for step, ramp and periodic input trajectories using PID control. The working envelope of the microrobot is 30 x 22 x 20 mm 3 , with an RMS error on the order of 18 μm in the vertical direction and 8 μm in the horizontal direction. It is demonstrated that the levitated microrobot is able to track the desired trajectory precisely and that the system has potential application for micromanipulation

  6. Using Java to visualize and manipulate large arrays of neutron scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelson, D.; Worlton, T.; Chatterjee, A.; Hammonds, J.; Chen, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source at Argonne National Laboratory is a world class pulsed neutron source with thirteen instruments designed to characterize materials using time-of-flight neutron scattering techniques. For each instrument, a collimated pulse of neutrons is directed to a material sample. The neutrons are scattered by the sample and detected by arrays of detectors. The type, number and arrangement of detectors vary widely from instrument to instrument, depending on which properties of materials are being studied. In all cases, the faster, higher energy neutrons reach the detectors sooner than the lower energy neutrons. This produces a time-of-flight spectrum at each detector element. The time-of-flight spectrum produced by each detector element records the scattering intensity at hundreds to thousands of discrete time intervals. Since there are typically between two hundred and ten thousand distinct detector elements, a single set of raw data can include millions of points. Often many such datasets are collected for a single sample to determine the effect of different conditions on the microscopic structure and dynamics of the sample. In this project, Java was used to construct a portable highly interactive system for viewing and operating on large collections of time-of-flight spectra. Java performed surprisingly well in handling large amounts of data quickly was fast enough even with standard PC hardware. Although Java may not be the choice at this time for applications where computational efficiency is the primary refinement, any disadvantages in this case were outweighed by the advantages of a clean object oriented language with a portable set of GUI components. The authors anticipate that Java will prove useful for scientific computing and data visualization in situations where portability, case of use and effective use of software development manpower are critical

  7. Large electrical manipulation of permittivity in BaTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 bimorph heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ci, Penghong; Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    We report a strain-mediated electric field manipulation of permittivity in BaTiO 3 (barium titanate, BT) ceramic by a Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) bimorph. This BT/PZT heterostructure exhibited a relatively large permittivity tunability of BT up to ±10% in a wide frequency range under an electric field of ±4 kV/cm applied to the PZT bimorph. The permittivity tunability is attributed to the strain in BT produced by the PZT bimorph. Calculations of the relationship between permittivity and applied electric field were developed, and corresponded well with measurements. The BT/PZT heterostructure has potential for applications in broadband field tunable smart electronic devices.

  8. Antibacterial activity of large-area monolayer graphene film manipulated by charge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Wang, Gang; Zhu, Hongqin; Zhang, Miao; Zheng, Xiaohu; Di, Zengfeng; Liu, Xuanyong; Wang, Xi

    2014-03-12

    Graphene has attracted increasing attention for potential applications in biotechnology due to its excellent electronic property and biocompatibility. Here we use both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) to investigate the antibacterial actions of large-area monolayer graphene film on conductor Cu, semiconductor Ge and insulator SiO2. The results show that the graphene films on Cu and Ge can surprisingly inhibit the growth of both bacteria, especially the former. However, the proliferation of both bacteria cannot be significantly restricted by the graphene film on SiO2. The morphology of S. aureus and E. coli on graphene films further confirms that the direct contact of both bacteria with graphene on Cu and Ge can cause membrane damage and destroy membrane integrity, while no evident membrane destruction is induced by graphene on SiO2. From the viewpoint of charge transfer, a plausible mechanism is proposed here to explain this phenomenon. This study may provide new insights for the better understanding of antibacterial actions of graphene film and for the better designing of graphene-based antibiotics or other biomedical applications.

  9. Laser Direct Write micro-fabrication of large area electronics on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharatos, F.; Makrygianni, M.; Geremia, R.; Biver, E.; Karnakis, D.; Leyder, S.; Puerto, D.; Delaporte, P.; Zergioti, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser Direct Writing of metallic patterns with a minimum feature size of 1 μm. • Selective Laser Ablation of 50 nm thick metal films on flexible substrates. • Selective Laser sintering resulting in an electrical resistivity of 9 μΩ cm. • Laser fabrication of interdigitated electrodes for sensor applications. - Abstract: To date, Laser Direct Write (LDW) techniques, such as Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT), selective laser ablation and selective laser sintering of metal nanoparticle (NP) ink layers are receiving growing attention for the printing of uniform and well-defined conductive patterns with resolution down to 10 μm. For flexible substrates in particular, selective laser sintering of such NP patterns has been widely applied, as a low temperature and high resolution process compatible with large area electronics. In this work, LDW of silver NP inks has been carried out on polyethylene-terephthalate (PET), polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN) and polyimide (PI) substrates to achieve low electrical resistivity electrodes. In more detail, high speed short pulsed (picosecond and nanosecond) lasers with repetition rates up to 1 MHz were used to print (LIFT) metal NP inks. We thus achieved uniform and continuous patterns with a minimum feature size of 1 μm and a total footprint larger than 1 cm"2. Next, the printed patterns were laser sintered with ns pulses at 532 nm over a wide laser fluence window, resulting in an electrical resistivity of 10 μΩ cm. We carried out spatial beam shaping experiments to achieve a top-hat laser intensity profile and employed selective laser ablation of thin films (thickness on the order of 100 nm) to produce silver micro-electrodes with a resolution on the order of 10 μm and a low line edge roughness. Laser sintering was combined with laser ablation to constitute a fully autonomous micro-patterning technique of metallic micro-features, with a 10 μm resolution and geometrical characteristics tuned for

  10. Laser Direct Write micro-fabrication of large area electronics on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharatos, F.; Makrygianni, M. [National Technical University of Athens, Physics Department, Zografou Campus, 15780 (Greece); Geremia, R.; Biver, E.; Karnakis, D. [Oxford Lasers Ltd, Unit 8 Moorbrook Park, Oxfordshire OX11 7HP (United Kingdom); Leyder, S.; Puerto, D.; Delaporte, P. [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LP3 – UMR 7341, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Zergioti, I., E-mail: zergioti@central.ntua.gr [National Technical University of Athens, Physics Department, Zografou Campus, 15780 (Greece)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Laser Direct Writing of metallic patterns with a minimum feature size of 1 μm. • Selective Laser Ablation of 50 nm thick metal films on flexible substrates. • Selective Laser sintering resulting in an electrical resistivity of 9 μΩ cm. • Laser fabrication of interdigitated electrodes for sensor applications. - Abstract: To date, Laser Direct Write (LDW) techniques, such as Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT), selective laser ablation and selective laser sintering of metal nanoparticle (NP) ink layers are receiving growing attention for the printing of uniform and well-defined conductive patterns with resolution down to 10 μm. For flexible substrates in particular, selective laser sintering of such NP patterns has been widely applied, as a low temperature and high resolution process compatible with large area electronics. In this work, LDW of silver NP inks has been carried out on polyethylene-terephthalate (PET), polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN) and polyimide (PI) substrates to achieve low electrical resistivity electrodes. In more detail, high speed short pulsed (picosecond and nanosecond) lasers with repetition rates up to 1 MHz were used to print (LIFT) metal NP inks. We thus achieved uniform and continuous patterns with a minimum feature size of 1 μm and a total footprint larger than 1 cm{sup 2}. Next, the printed patterns were laser sintered with ns pulses at 532 nm over a wide laser fluence window, resulting in an electrical resistivity of 10 μΩ cm. We carried out spatial beam shaping experiments to achieve a top-hat laser intensity profile and employed selective laser ablation of thin films (thickness on the order of 100 nm) to produce silver micro-electrodes with a resolution on the order of 10 μm and a low line edge roughness. Laser sintering was combined with laser ablation to constitute a fully autonomous micro-patterning technique of metallic micro-features, with a 10 μm resolution and geometrical characteristics tuned for

  11. [Effects of large bio-manipulation fish pen on community structure of crustacean zooplankton in Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhi-Xin; Xie, Ping; Guo, Long-Gen; Xu, Jun; Zhou, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    In 2005, a large bio-manipulation pen with the stock of silver carp and bighead carp was built to control the cyanobacterial bloom in Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake. This paper investigated the seasonal variation of the community structure of crustacean zooplankton and the water quality within and outside the pen. There were no significant differences in the environmental parameters and phytoplankton biomass within and outside the pen. The species composition and seasonal dynamics of crustacean zooplankton within and outside the pen were similar, but the biomass of crustacean zooplankton was greatly suppressed by silver carp and bighead carp. The total crustacean zooplankton biomass and cladocerans biomass were significantly lower in the pen (P < 0.05). In general, silver carp and bighead carp exerted more pressure on cladoceran species than on copepod species. A distinct seasonal succession of crustacean zooplankton was observed in the Bay. Many crustacean species were only dominated in given seasons. Large-sized crustacean (mainly Daphnia sp. and Cyclops vicnus) dominated in winter and spring, while small-sized species (mainly Bosmina sp., Ceriodaphnia cornuta, and Limnoithona sinensis) dominated in summer and autumn. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that water transparency, temperature, and phytoplankton biomass were the most important factors affecting the seasonal succession of the crustacean.

  12. Effectiveness of elastic damping in the pivot joints of cargo boom of crane-manipulating installations at large gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev I.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article was the analysis of dynamic processes in the cylindrical hinges with large gaps in the cargo boom crane-manipulating installations of mobile machines in operation. Consider the design of damping device for articulated joints, which creates a braking force of elastic resistance to the displacement of the hinge pin within the large gap. The mechanism of action of the damping devices was considered. Analysis of the effectiveness of damping device for re-ducing the dynamic stress state in the elements of cargo boom metal structures depending on the gap size and the stiff-ness of the damping device was performed. Damping device with an elastic shock absorbing elements substantially reduces the additional impact load at the time of selection of the gap in the joint, slow the growth of clearance in the pivot joint, limit the size of the gap specified value, which must not be exceeded during the entire service life of swivel independently from the intensity of his load.

  13. Flexible Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery with High Safety and Large Volumetric Energy Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoli; Chen, Long; Su, Xiuli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-06-20

    A flexible and wearable aqueous lithium-ion battery is introduced based on spinel Li1.1 Mn2 O4 cathode and a carbon-coated NASICON-type LiTi2 (PO4 )3 anode (NASICON=sodium-ion super ionic conductor). Energy densities of 63 Wh kg(-1) or 124 mWh cm(-3) and power densities of 3 275 W kg(-1) or 11.1 W cm(-3) can be obtained, which are seven times larger than the largest reported till now. The full cell can keep its capacity without significant loss under different bending states, which shows excellent flexibility. Furthermore, two such flexible cells in series with an operation voltage of 4 V can be compatible with current nonaqueous Li-ion batteries. Therefore, such a flexible cell can potentially be put into practical applications for wearable electronics. In addition, a self-chargeable unit is realized by integrating a single flexible aqueous Li-ion battery with a commercial flexible solar cell, which may facilitate the long-time outdoor operation of flexible and wearable electronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Gevorgyan, Suren; Gholamkhass, Bobak

    2009-01-01

    A round robin for the performance of roll-to-roll coated flexible large-area polymer solar-cell modules involving 18 different laboratories in Northern America, Europe and Middle East is presented. The study involved the performance measurement of the devices at one location (Risø DTU) followed b...

  15. Solution processed large area fabrication of Ag patterns as electrodes for flexible heaters, electrochromics and organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Ritu; Walia, Sunil; Hösel, Markus

    2014-01-01

    , the process takes only a few minutes without any expensive instrumentation. The electrodes exhibited excellent adhesion and mechanical properties, important for flexible device application. Using Ag patterned electrodes, heaters operating at low voltages, pixelated electrochromic displays as well as organic...... solar cells have been demonstrated. The method is extendable to produce defect-free patterns over large areas as demonstrated by roll coating....

  16. An Indium-Free Anode for Large-Area Flexible OLEDs: Defect-Free Transparent Conductive Zinc Tin Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Masis, M.; Dauzou, F.; Jeangros, Q.; Dabirian, A.; Lifka, H.; Gierth, R.; Ruske, M.; Moet, D.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Ballif, C.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible large-area organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) require highly conductive and transparent anodes for efficient and uniform light emission. Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) is the standard anode in industry. However, due to the scarcity of indium, alternative anodes that eliminate its use are

  17. Highly Integrated, Reconfigurable, Large-Area, Flexible Radar Antenna Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Highly-integrated, reconfigurable radar antenna arrays fabricated on flexible substrates offer high functionality in a portable package that can be rolled up and...

  18. Laser Direct Write micro-fabrication of large area electronics on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharatos, F.; Makrygianni, M.; Geremia, R.; Biver, E.; Karnakis, D.; Leyder, S.; Puerto, D.; Delaporte, P.; Zergioti, I.

    2016-06-01

    To date, Laser Direct Write (LDW) techniques, such as Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT), selective laser ablation and selective laser sintering of metal nanoparticle (NP) ink layers are receiving growing attention for the printing of uniform and well-defined conductive patterns with resolution down to 10 μm. For flexible substrates in particular, selective laser sintering of such NP patterns has been widely applied, as a low temperature and high resolution process compatible with large area electronics. In this work, LDW of silver NP inks has been carried out on polyethylene-terephthalate (PET), polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN) and polyimide (PI) substrates to achieve low electrical resistivity electrodes. In more detail, high speed short pulsed (picosecond and nanosecond) lasers with repetition rates up to 1 MHz were used to print (LIFT) metal NP inks. We thus achieved uniform and continuous patterns with a minimum feature size of 1 μm and a total footprint larger than 1 cm2. Next, the printed patterns were laser sintered with ns pulses at 532 nm over a wide laser fluence window, resulting in an electrical resistivity of 10 μΩ cm. We carried out spatial beam shaping experiments to achieve a top-hat laser intensity profile and employed selective laser ablation of thin films (thickness on the order of 100 nm) to produce silver micro-electrodes with a resolution on the order of 10 μm and a low line edge roughness. Laser sintering was combined with laser ablation to constitute a fully autonomous micro-patterning technique of metallic micro-features, with a 10 μm resolution and geometrical characteristics tuned for interdigitated electrodes for sensor applications.

  19. On the Effect of Hull Girder Flexibility on the Vertical Wave Bending Moment for Ultra Large Container Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2012-01-01

    Currently, a number of very large container ships are being built and more are on order, and some concerns have been expressed about the importance of the reduced hull girder stiffness to the wave-induced loads. The main concern is related to the fatigue life, but also a possible increase...... in the global hull girder loads as consequence of the increased hull flexibility must be considered. This is especially so as the rules of the classification societies do not explicitly account for the effect of hull flexibility on the global loads. In the present paper an analysis has been carried out...... in the waves. Slamming forces are determined by a standard momentum formulation. The hull flexibility is modelled as a nonprismatic Timoshenko beam. Generally, good agreement with experimental results and more accurate numerical predictions has previously been obtained in a number of studies. The statistical...

  20. Critical element study on autonomous position control of articulated-arm type manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka

    1994-10-01

    An articulated-arm type manipulator can be operated effectively in a restricted space due to its flexibility and it can be attractive for a wide range of in-vessel maintenance such as viewing, inspection and limiter handling in fusion experimental reactors. In case of the in-vessel maintenance using a flexible manipulator, it is quite essential to develop an autonomous control method for compensating a deflection of manipulator so as to minimize the maintenance time with high precision. For this purpose, a new position control method using a combination of neural network predictor with a rigid inverse kinematics is being developed. The key features of this method are to simplify a kinematics modeling of flexible manipulator, to enable quick position compensation in stead of ordinary large matrix compensation, and to be applicable to a wide variety of manipulator characteristics. A sub-scaled model of flexible manipulator with 4 joints has been fabricated for a benchmark experiments of the autonomous position control. Comparing analytical simulation with experiments using the flexible manipulator, it has been demonstrated that the new position control method gives significant improvement in control performance with high precision in order of a figure. In addition, further optimization can be possible by adding other non-linear predictors such as radial basis function and fuzzy modeling. This paper describes the details of a sub-scaled flexible manipulator and a neural network position control system as well as results of analytical simulation and benchmark experiments. (author)

  1. Large-Area High-Performance Flexible Pressure Sensor with Carbon Nanotube Active Matrix for Electronic Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nela, Luca; Tang, Jianshi; Cao, Qing; Tulevski, George; Han, Shu-Jen

    2018-03-14

    Artificial "electronic skin" is of great interest for mimicking the functionality of human skin, such as tactile pressure sensing. Several important performance metrics include mechanical flexibility, operation voltage, sensitivity, and accuracy, as well as response speed. In this Letter, we demonstrate a large-area high-performance flexible pressure sensor built on an active matrix of 16 × 16 carbon nanotube thin-film transistors (CNT TFTs). Made from highly purified solution tubes, the active matrix exhibits superior flexible TFT performance with high mobility and large current density, along with a high device yield of nearly 99% over 4 inch sample area. The fully integrated flexible pressure sensor operates within a small voltage range of 3 V and shows superb performance featuring high spatial resolution of 4 mm, faster response than human skin (<30 ms), and excellent accuracy in sensing complex objects on both flat and curved surfaces. This work may pave the road for future integration of high-performance electronic skin in smart robotics and prosthetic solutions.

  2. A simple and flexible route to large-area conductive transparent graphene thin-films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arapov, K.; Goryachev, A.; With, de G.; Friedrich, H.

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed conductive, flexible and transparent graphene thin films continue drawing attention from science and technology due to their potential for many electrical applications. Here, an up-scalable method for the solution processing of graphite to graphene and further to self-assembled

  3. Large flexibility of high aspect ratio carbon nanostructures fabricated by electron-beam-induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, J D; Gordeev, S N, E-mail: jdb28@bath.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-26

    The mechanical properties of free-standing electron beam deposited amorphous carbon structures have been studied using atomic force microscopy. The fabricated carbon blades are found to be extraordinarily flexible, capable of undergoing vertical deflection up to {approx} 75% of their total length without inelastic deformation. The elastic bending modulus of these structures was calculated to be 28 {+-} 10 GPa.

  4. Floating substructure flexibility of large-volume 10MW offshore wind turbine platforms in dynamic calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Michael; Hansen, Anders Melchior; Bredmose, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    to the extent that it becomes relevant to include in addition to the standard rigid body substructure modes which are typically described through linear radiation-diffraction theory. This paper describes a method for the inclusion of substructural flexibility in aero-hydro-servo-elastic dynamic simulations...

  5. Experimental manipulation of TN:TP ratiossuppress cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystinconcentration in large-scale in situ mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Theodore D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    A global dataset was compiled to examine relations between the total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratio (TN:TP) and microcystin concentration in lakes and reservoirs. Microcystin concentration decreased as TN:TP ratios increased, suggesting that manipulation of the TN:TP ratio may reduce microcystin concentrations. This relationship was experimentally tested by adding ammonium nitrate to increase the TN:TP ratio in large-scale (70 m3), in situ mesocosms located in a eutrophic reservoir that routinely experiences toxic blooms of cyanobacteria. At a TN:TP ratio >75:1, chlorophytes dominated the phytoplankton community in the mesocosms, while cyanobacterial biovolume was significantly reduced and microcystin was not detected. In contrast, the unmanipulated reservoir was dominated by cyanobacteria, and microcystin was detected. Secchi depths were 1.1 to 1.8 times greater in the mesocosms relative to the reservoir. Cladoceran zooplankton had a larger body size (0.14 mm on average) in the mesocosms compared to conspecifics in the reservoir, which was likely related to the higher quality food. Combined, these empirical and experimental data indicate that although nutrient addition is counterintuitive to current cyanobacteria management practices, increasing the TN:TP ratio by adding nitrogen may be a potential short-term management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins when other alternatives (e.g., phosphorus reduction) are not possible. Additional experimental studies with careful controls are needed to define best management practices and identify any potential unintended consequences before nitrogen addition is implemented as a lake and reservoir management practice.

  6. Large area flexible polymer solar cells with high efficiency enabled by imprinted Ag grid and modified buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Shudi; Lin, Jie; Liu, Kong; Yue, Shizhong; Ren, Kuankuan; Tan, Furui; Wang, Zhijie; Jin, Peng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    To take a full advantage of polymer semiconductors on realization of large-area flexible photovoltaic devices, herein, we fabricate polymer solar cells on the basis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with imprinted Ag grid as transparent electrode. The key fabrication procedure is the adoption of a modified PEDOT:PSS (PH1000) solution for spin-coating the buffer layer to form a compact contact with the substrate. In comparison with the devices with intrinsic PEDOT:PSS buffer layer, the advanced devices present a much higher efficiency of 6.51%, even in a large device area of 2.25 cm"2. Subsequent characterizations reveal that such devices show an impressive performance stability as the bending angle is enlarged to 180° and bending time is up to 1000 cycles. Not only providing a general methodology to construct high efficient and flexible polymer solar cells, this paper also involves deep insights on device working mechanism in bending conditions.

  7. Large-Area Cross-Aligned Silver Nanowire Electrodes for Flexible, Transparent, and Force-Sensitive Mechanochromic Touch Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seungse; Kang, Saewon; Pandya, Ashish; Shanker, Ravi; Khan, Ziyauddin; Lee, Youngsu; Park, Jonghwa; Craig, Stephen L; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2017-04-25

    Silver nanowire (AgNW) networks are considered to be promising structures for use as flexible transparent electrodes for various optoelectronic devices. One important application of AgNW transparent electrodes is the flexible touch screens. However, the performances of flexible touch screens are still limited by the large surface roughness and low electrical to optical conductivity ratio of random network AgNW electrodes. In addition, although the perception of writing force on the touch screen enables a variety of different functions, the current technology still relies on the complicated capacitive force touch sensors. This paper demonstrates a simple and high-throughput bar-coating assembly technique for the fabrication of large-area (>20 × 20 cm 2 ), highly cross-aligned AgNW networks for transparent electrodes with the sheet resistance of 21.0 Ω sq -1 at 95.0% of optical transmittance, which compares favorably with that of random AgNW networks (sheet resistance of 21.0 Ω sq -1 at 90.4% of optical transmittance). As a proof of concept demonstration, we fabricate flexible, transparent, and force-sensitive touch screens using cross-aligned AgNW electrodes integrated with mechanochromic spiropyran-polydimethylsiloxane composite film. Our force-sensitive touch screens enable the precise monitoring of dynamic writings, tracing and drawing of underneath pictures, and perception of handwriting patterns with locally different writing forces. The suggested technique provides a robust and powerful platform for the controllable assembly of nanowires beyond the scale of conventional fabrication techniques, which can find diverse applications in multifunctional flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  8. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices on {110} oriented substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2014-08-05

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices on {110} textured substrates are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  9. {100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100}, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2012-05-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100} oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  10. Flight Dynamics Simulation Modeling and Control of a Large Flexible Tiltrotor Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    analyses as it retains a momentum theory type rotor system. Later, CAMRAD, a comprehensive aeromechanics and dynamics model capa- ble of multi-rotor and...isotropic, linearly elastic material. 8. All blades are identical. 9. Euler- Bernoulli beam theory is used, implying plane cross sections remain plane and...aircraft could be improved to achieve a higher fidelity structural response. Currently, flexible wings are modeled as Bernoulli beams. Actual aircraft

  11. Successive sheep grazing reduces population density of Brandt's voles in steppe grassland by altering food resources: a large manipulative experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Yin, Baofa; Wan, Xinrong; Wei, Wanhong; Wang, Guiming; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Livestock grazing has shaped grassland ecosystems around the world. Previous studies indicated grazing showed various impacts on small rodents; however, most studies were conducted over 1-2 years without controlling for confounding factors such as immigration/emigration and predation in rodents. Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) are generally recognized as pests because of food overlap with domestic herbivores, but are also important for biodiversity conservation because they provide nests or food to many birds. Fully understanding the ecological relationship between domestic herbivores and small mammals is essential to making ecosystem management decisions. To address these needs, we carried out a field experiment during the period 2010-2013 to assess the effects of sheep grazing on vegetation and the population density of Brandt's voles along a gradient of three grazing intensities by using 12 large-scale enclosures. Responses of Brandt's voles to livestock grazing varied with grazing intensity and year. As compared to the control group, sheep grazing had no effect on vole abundance in the first year but an overall negative effect on vole abundance in the following 3 years. Successive grazing caused decreases in survival and male body mass of voles, but had no significant effect on fecundity. Negative effects of grazing were associated with a grazing-induced deterioration in both food quantity (reflected by biomass and cover of less-preferred plants), and food quality (measured by tannin and total phenol content). Our findings highlight the urgent need for more flexible management of yearly rotational grazing to optimize livestock production while maintaining species diversity and ecosystem health.

  12. Mathematical Model and Calibration Experiment of a Large Measurement Range Flexible Joints 6-UPUR Six-Axis Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhi Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays improving the accuracy and enlarging the measuring range of six-axis force sensors for wider applications in aircraft landing, rocket thrust, and spacecraft docking testing experiments has become an urgent objective. However, it is still difficult to achieve high accuracy and large measuring range with traditional parallel six-axis force sensors due to the influence of the gap and friction of the joints. Therefore, to overcome the mentioned limitations, this paper proposed a 6-Universal-Prismatic-Universal-Revolute (UPUR joints parallel mechanism with flexible joints to develop a large measurement range six-axis force sensor. The structural characteristics of the sensor are analyzed in comparison with traditional parallel sensor based on the Stewart platform. The force transfer relation of the sensor is deduced, and the force Jacobian matrix is obtained using screw theory in two cases of the ideal state and the state of flexibility of each flexible joint is considered. The prototype and loading calibration system are designed and developed. The K value method and least squares method are used to process experimental data, and in errors of kind Ι and kind II linearity are obtained. The experimental results show that the calibration error of the K value method is more than 13.4%, and the calibration error of the least squares method is 2.67%. The experimental results prove the feasibility of the sensor and the correctness of the theoretical analysis which are expected to be adopted in practical applications.

  13. Transparent, broadband, flexible, and bifacial-operable photodetectors containing a large-area graphene-gold oxide heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Lun; Yu, Chen-Chieh; Lin, Keng-Te; Yang, Tai-Chi; Wang, En-Yun; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2015-05-26

    In this study, we combine graphene with gold oxide (AuOx), a transparent and high-work-function electrode material, to achieve a high-efficient, low-bias, large-area, flexible, transparent, broadband, and bifacial-operable photodetector. The photodetector operates through hot electrons being generated in the graphene and charge separation occurring at the AuOx-graphene heterojunction. The large-area graphene covering the AuOx electrode efficiently prevented reduction of its surface; it also acted as a square-centimeter-scale active area for light harvesting and photodetection. Our graphene/AuOx photodetector displays high responsivity under low-intensity light illumination, demonstrating picowatt sensitivity in the ultraviolet regime and nanowatt sensitivity in the infrared regime for optical telecommunication. In addition, this photodetector not only exhibited broadband (from UV to IR) high responsivity-3300 A W(-1) at 310 nm (UV), 58 A W(-1) at 500 nm (visible), and 9 A W(-1) at 1550 nm (IR)-but also required only a low applied bias (0.1 V). The hot-carrier-assisted photoresponse was excellent, especially in the short-wavelength regime. In addition, the graphene/AuOx photodetector exhibited great flexibility and stability. Moreover, such vertical heterojunction-based graphene/AuOx photodetectors should be compatible with other transparent optoelectronic devices, suggesting applications in flexible and wearable optoelectronic technologies.

  14. Transparent Large-Area MoS2 Phototransistors with Inkjet-Printed Components on Flexible Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Young; Ha, Jewook; Cho, Kyungjune; Pak, Jinsu; Seo, Jiseok; Park, Jongjang; Kim, Jae-Keun; Chung, Seungjun; Hong, Yongtaek; Lee, Takhee

    2017-10-24

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have gained considerable attention as an emerging semiconductor due to their promising atomically thin film characteristics with good field-effect mobility and a tunable band gap energy. However, their electronic applications have been generally realized with conventional inorganic electrodes and dielectrics implemented using conventional photolithography or transferring processes that are not compatible with large-area and flexible device applications. To facilitate the advantages of 2D TMDCs in practical applications, strategies for realizing flexible and transparent 2D electronics using low-temperature, large-area, and low-cost processes should be developed. Motivated by this challenge, we report fully printed transparent chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-synthesized monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) phototransistor arrays on flexible polymer substrates. All the electronic components, including dielectric and electrodes, were directly deposited with mechanically tolerable organic materials by inkjet-printing technology onto transferred monolayer MoS 2 , and their annealing temperature of printed MoS 2 phototransistors exhibit excellent transparency and mechanically stable operation.

  15. Mathematical Model and Calibration Experiment of a Large Measurement Range Flexible Joints 6-UPUR Six-Axis Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanzhi; Zhang, Caifeng; Zhang, Dan; Shi, Zhongpan; Zhao, Tieshi

    2016-08-11

    Nowadays improving the accuracy and enlarging the measuring range of six-axis force sensors for wider applications in aircraft landing, rocket thrust, and spacecraft docking testing experiments has become an urgent objective. However, it is still difficult to achieve high accuracy and large measuring range with traditional parallel six-axis force sensors due to the influence of the gap and friction of the joints. Therefore, to overcome the mentioned limitations, this paper proposed a 6-Universal-Prismatic-Universal-Revolute (UPUR) joints parallel mechanism with flexible joints to develop a large measurement range six-axis force sensor. The structural characteristics of the sensor are analyzed in comparison with traditional parallel sensor based on the Stewart platform. The force transfer relation of the sensor is deduced, and the force Jacobian matrix is obtained using screw theory in two cases of the ideal state and the state of flexibility of each flexible joint is considered. The prototype and loading calibration system are designed and developed. The K value method and least squares method are used to process experimental data, and in errors of kind Ι and kind II linearity are obtained. The experimental results show that the calibration error of the K value method is more than 13.4%, and the calibration error of the least squares method is 2.67%. The experimental results prove the feasibility of the sensor and the correctness of the theoretical analysis which are expected to be adopted in practical applications.

  16. Long-reach manipulation for waste storage tank remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Kress, R.L.; Hamel, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    Remediation of large underground storage tanks containing hazardous waste provides an application for state-of-the-art technology in flexible link manipulator design and control and a need for additional research and development. Application requirements are described, and preliminary analyses associated with this problem are summarized. Inherent physical limitations of flexible manipulators are discussed. Potential kinematic configurations, drive-train elements, and control issues for both free-space motion and damping of forced vibration are addressed. Also included are future directions for research and development in mechanical components and control strategies. 21 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Hydraulic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, A.K.; Srikrishnamurty, G.

    1990-01-01

    Successful operation of nuclear plant is largely dependent on safe handling of radio-active material. In order to reduce this handling problem and minimise the exposure of radiation, various handling equipment and manipulators have been developed according to the requirements. Manufacture of nuclear fuel, which is the most important part of the nuclear industry, involves handling of uranium ingots weighing approximately 250 kg. This paper describes a specially designed hydraulic manipulator for handling of the ingots in a limited space. It was designed to grab and handle the ingots in any position. This has following drive motions: (1)gripping and releasing, (2)lifting and lowering (z-motion), (3)rotation about the horizontal axis (azimuth drive), (4)rotation about the job axis, and (5)rotation about the vertical axis. For horizontal motion (X and Y axis motion) this equipment is mounted on a motorised trolley, so that it can move inside the workshop. For all drives except the rotation about the job axis, hydraulic cylinders have been used with a battery operated power pack. Trolley drive is also given power from same battery. This paper describes the design aspects of this manipulator. (author). 4 figs

  18. The transport sectors potential contribution to the flexibility in the power sector required by large-scale wind power integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2007-01-01

    -scale integration of renewable energy in the power system – in specific wind power. In the plan, 20 % of the road transport is based on electricity and 20 % on bio- fuels. This, together with other initiatives allows for up to 55-60 % wind power penetration in the power system. A fleet of 0.5 mio electrical...... vehicles in Denmark in 2030 connected to the grid 50 % of the time represents an aggregated flexible power capacity of 1- 1.5 GW and an energy capacity of 10-150 GWh.......In 2006, the Danish Society of Engineers developed a visionary plan for the Danish energy system in 2030. The paper presents and qualifies selected part of the analyses, illustrating the transport sectors potential to contribute to the flexibility in the power sector, necessary for large...

  19. Large-area compatible fabrication and encapsulation of inkjet-printed humidity sensors on flexible foils with integrated thermal compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Lopez, F; Quintero, A Vásquez; Mattana, G; Briand, D; De Rooij, N F

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the simultaneous fabrication of ambient relative humidity (RH) and temperature sensors arrays, inkjet-printed on flexible substrates and subsequently encapsulated at foil level. These sensors are based on planar interdigitated capacitors with an inkjet-printed sensing layer and meander-shaped resistors. Their combination allows the compensation of the RH signals variations at different temperatures. The whole fabrication of the system is carried out at foil level and involves the utilization of additive methods such as inkjet-printing and electrodeposition. Electrodeposition of the printed lines resulted in an improvement of the thermoresistors. The sensors have been characterized and their performances analyzed. The encapsulation layer does not modify the performances of the sensors in terms of sensitivity or response time. This work demonstrates the potential of inkjet-printing in the large-area fabrication of light-weight and cost-efficient gas sensors on flexible substrates. (paper)

  20. A novel large thrust-weight ratio V-shaped linear ultrasonic motor with a flexible joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoniu; Yao, Zhiyuan; Yang, Mojian

    2017-06-01

    A novel large thrust-weight ratio V-shaped linear ultrasonic motor with a flexible joint is proposed in this paper. The motor is comprised of a V-shaped transducer, a slider, a clamp, and a base. The V-shaped transducer consists of two piezoelectric beams connected through a flexible joint to form an appropriate coupling angle. The V-shaped motor is operated in the coupled longitudinal-bending mode. Longitudinal and bending movements are transferred by the flexible joint between the two beams. Compared with the coupled longitudinal-bending mode of the single piezoelectric beam or the symmetrical and asymmetrical modes of the previous V-shaped transducer, the coupled longitudinal-bending mode of the V-shaped transducer with a flexible joint provides higher vibration efficiency and more convenient mode conformance adjustment. A finite element model of the V-shaped transducer is created to numerically study the influence of geometrical parameters and to determine the final geometrical parameters. In this paper, three prototypes were then fabricated and experimentally investigated. The modal test results match well with the finite element analysis. The motor mechanical output characteristics of three different coupling angles θ indicate that V-90 (θ = 90°) is the optimal angle. The mechanical output experiments conducted using the V-90 prototype (Size: 59.4 mm × 30.7 mm × 4 mm) demonstrate that the maximum unloaded speed is 1.2 m/s under a voltage of 350 Vpp, and the maximum output force is 15 N under a voltage of 300 Vpp. The proposed novel V-shaped linear ultrasonic motor has a compact size and a simple structure with a large thrust-weight ratio (0.75 N/g) and high speed.

  1. Composite flexible skin with large negative Poisson’s ratio range: numerical and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.; Scarpa, F.; Farrow, I. R.; Liu, Y. J.; Leng, J. S.

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing, characterization and parametric modeling of a novel fiber-reinforced composite flexible skin with in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio (auxetic) behavior. The elastic mechanical performance of the auxetic skin is evaluated using a three-dimensional analytical model based on the classical laminate theory (CLT) and Sun’s thick laminate theory. Good agreement is observed between in-plane Poisson’s ratios and Young’s moduli of the composite skin obtained by the theoretical model and the experimental results. A parametric analysis carried out with the validated model shows that significant changes in the in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio can be achieved through different combinations of matrix and fiber materials and stacking sequences. It is also possible to identify fiber-reinforced composite skin configurations with the same in-plane auxeticity but different orthotropic stiffness performance, or the same orthotropic stiffness performance but different in-plane auxeticity. The analysis presented in this work provides useful guidelines to develop and manufacture flexible skins with negative Poisson’s ratio for applications focused on morphing aircraft wing designs.

  2. Composite flexible skin with large negative Poisson’s ratio range: numerical and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y J; Leng, J S; Scarpa, F; Farrow, I R; Liu, Y J

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing, characterization and parametric modeling of a novel fiber-reinforced composite flexible skin with in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio (auxetic) behavior. The elastic mechanical performance of the auxetic skin is evaluated using a three-dimensional analytical model based on the classical laminate theory (CLT) and Sun’s thick laminate theory. Good agreement is observed between in-plane Poisson’s ratios and Young’s moduli of the composite skin obtained by the theoretical model and the experimental results. A parametric analysis carried out with the validated model shows that significant changes in the in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio can be achieved through different combinations of matrix and fiber materials and stacking sequences. It is also possible to identify fiber-reinforced composite skin configurations with the same in-plane auxeticity but different orthotropic stiffness performance, or the same orthotropic stiffness performance but different in-plane auxeticity. The analysis presented in this work provides useful guidelines to develop and manufacture flexible skins with negative Poisson’s ratio for applications focused on morphing aircraft wing designs. (paper)

  3. Ultrahigh-rate supercapacitors with large capacitance based on edge oriented graphene coated carbonized cellulous paper as flexible freestanding electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guofeng; Li, Shiqi; Fan, Zhao-Xia; Hoque, Md Nadim Ferdous; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2016-09-01

    Large-capacitance and ultrahigh-rate electrochemical supercapacitors (UECs) with frequency response up to kilohertz (kHz) range are reported using light, thin, and flexible freestanding electrodes. The electrode is formed by perpendicularly edge oriented multilayer graphene/thin-graphite (EOG) sheets grown radially around individual fibers in carbonized cellulous paper (CCP), with cellulous carbonization and EOG deposition implemented in one step. The resulted ∼10 μm thick EOG/CCP electrode is light and flexible. The oriented porous structure of EOG with large surface area, in conjunction with high conductivity of the electrode, ensures ultrahigh-rate performance of the fabricated cells, with large areal capacitance of 0.59 mF cm-2 and 0.53 mF cm-2 and large phase angle of -83° and -80° at 120 Hz and 1 kHz, respectively. Particularly, the hierarchical EOG/CCP sheet structure allows multiple sheets stacked together for thick electrodes with almost linearly increased areal capacitance while maintaining the volumetric capacitance nearly no degradation, a critical merit for developing practical faraday-scale UECs. 3-layers of EOG/CCP electrode achieved an areal capacitance of 1.5 mF cm-2 and 1.4 mF cm-2 at 120 Hz and 1 kHz, respectively. This demonstration moves a step closer to the goal of bridging the frequency/capacitance gap between supercapacitors and electrolytic capacitors.

  4. Analysis of flexible fabric structures for large-scale subsea compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimm, A; Garvey, S

    2009-01-01

    The idea of storing compressed air in submerged flexible fabric structures anchored to the seabed is being investigated for its potential to be a clean, economically-attractive means of energy storage which could integrate well with offshore renewable energy conversion. In this paper a simple axisymmetric model of an inextensional pressurised bag is presented, along with its implementation in a constrained multidimensional optimization used to minimise the cost of the bag materials per unit of stored energy. Base pressure difference and circumferential stress are included in the optimization, and the effect of hanging ballast masses from the inside of the bag is also considered. Results are given for a zero pressure natural shape bag, a zero pressure bag with circumferential stress and hanging masses, and a nonzero pressure bag with circumferential stress and hanging masses.

  5. Large deformation and mechanics of flexible isotropic membrane ballooning in three dimensions by differential quadrature method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozaffari, M.; Atai, A. A.; Mostafa, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient and accurate new methodology in the differential quadrature analysis of structural mechanics for flexible membranes ballooning in three dimensions under a negative air pressure differential. The differential quadrature method is employed to discretize the resulting equations in the axial direction as well as for the solution procedure. The weighting coefficients employed are not exclusive, and any accurate and efficient method such as the generalized differential quadrature method may be used to produce the methods weighting coefficients. A second-order paraboloid of revolution is assumed to describe the ballooning shape. This study asserts the accuracy, convergency, and efficiency of the methodology by solving some typical stability, straining analysis membrane problems, and comparing the results with those of the exact solutions and/or those of physical tests

  6. Large deformation and mechanics of flexible isotropic membrane ballooning in three dimensions by differential quadrature method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffari, M.; Atai, A. A.; Mostafa, N. [Islamic Azad University, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents a computationally efficient and accurate new methodology in the differential quadrature analysis of structural mechanics for flexible membranes ballooning in three dimensions under a negative air pressure differential. The differential quadrature method is employed to discretize the resulting equations in the axial direction as well as for the solution procedure. The weighting coefficients employed are not exclusive, and any accurate and efficient method such as the generalized differential quadrature method may be used to produce the methods weighting coefficients. A second-order paraboloid of revolution is assumed to describe the ballooning shape. This study asserts the accuracy, convergency, and efficiency of the methodology by solving some typical stability, straining analysis membrane problems, and comparing the results with those of the exact solutions and/or those of physical tests

  7. Highly Flexible and High-Performance Complementary Inverters of Large-Area Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Pu, Jiang; Funahashi, Kazuma; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Takenobu, Taishi

    2016-01-01

    Complementary inverters constructed from large-area monolayers of WSe2 and MoS2 achieve excellent logic swings and yield an extremely high gain, large total noise margin, low power consumption, and good switching speed. Moreover, the WSe2

  8. Self-assembled large scale metal alloy grid patterns as flexible transparent conductive layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohl, Melinda; Dombovari, Aron; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Kordas, Krisztian

    2015-09-01

    The development of scalable synthesis techniques for optically transparent, electrically conductive coatings is in great demand due to the constantly increasing market price and limited resources of indium for indium tin oxide (ITO) materials currently applied in most of the optoelectronic devices. This work pioneers the scalable synthesis of transparent conductive films (TCFs) by exploiting the coffee-ring effect deposition coupled with reactive inkjet printing and subsequent chemical copper plating. Here we report two different promising alternatives to replace ITO, palladium-copper (PdCu) grid patterns and silver-copper (AgCu) fish scale like structures printed on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates, achieving sheet resistance values as low as 8.1 and 4.9 Ω/sq, with corresponding optical transmittance of 79% and 65% at 500 nm, respectively. Both films show excellent adhesion and also preserve their structural integrity and good contact with the substrate for severe bending showing less than 4% decrease of conductivity even after 105 cycles. Transparent conductive films for capacitive touch screens and pixels of microscopic resistive electrodes are demonstrated.

  9. Roll-coating fabrication of flexible large area small molecule solar cells with power conversion efficiency exceeding 1%

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenqing; Liu, Shiyong; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    All solution-processed flexible large area small molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated via roll-coating technology. Our devices were produced from slot-die coating on a lab-scale mini roll-coater under ambient conditions without the use of spin-coating or vacuum evaporation.......01%, combined with an open circuit voltage of 0.73 V, a short-circuit current density of 3.13 mA cm (2) and a fill factor of 44% were obtained for the device with SM1, which was the first example reported for efficient roll-coating fabrication of flexible large area small molecule solar cells with PCE exceeding...... methods. Four diketopyrrolopyrrole based small molecules (SMs 1-4) were utilized as electron donors with (6,6)phenyl- C61-butyric acid methyl ester as an acceptor and their photovoltaic performances based on roll-coated devices were investigated. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1...

  10. Building flexibility and managing complexity in community mental health: lessons learned in a large urban centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Saab, Dima; Francombe Pridham, Kate; Aery, Anjana; Nakhost, Arash

    2018-01-24

    Across many jurisdictions, adults with complex mental health and social needs face challenges accessing appropriate supports due to system fragmentation and strict eligibility criteria of existing services. To support this underserviced population, Toronto's local health authority launched two novel community mental health models in 2014, inspired by Flexible Assertive Community Team principles. This study explores service user and provider perspectives on the acceptability of these services, and lessons learned during early implementation. We purposively sampled 49 stakeholders (staff, physicians, service users, health systems stakeholders) and conducted 17 semi-structured qualitative interviews and 5 focus groups between October 23, 2014 and March 2, 2015, exploring stakeholder perspectives on the newly launched team based models, as well as activities and strategies employed to support early implementation. Interviews and focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings revealed wide-ranging endorsement for the two team-based models' success in engaging the target population of adults with complex service needs. Implementation strengths included the broad recognition of existing service gaps, the use of interdisciplinary teams and experienced service providers, broad partnerships and collaboration among various service sectors, training and team building activities. Emerging challenges included lack of complementary support services such as suitable housing, organizational contexts reluctant to embrace change and risk associated with complexity, as well as limited service provider and organizational capacity to deliver evidence-based interventions. Findings identified implementation drivers at the practitioner, program, and system levels, specific to the implementation of community mental health interventions for adults with complex health and social needs. These can inform future efforts to address the health

  11. NOBLE - Flexible concept recognition for large-scale biomedical natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Eugene; Mitchell, Kevin; Legowski, Elizabeth; Corrigan, Julia; Chavan, Girish; Jacobson, Rebecca S

    2016-01-14

    Natural language processing (NLP) applications are increasingly important in biomedical data analysis, knowledge engineering, and decision support. Concept recognition is an important component task for NLP pipelines, and can be either general-purpose or domain-specific. We describe a novel, flexible, and general-purpose concept recognition component for NLP pipelines, and compare its speed and accuracy against five commonly used alternatives on both a biological and clinical corpus. NOBLE Coder implements a general algorithm for matching terms to concepts from an arbitrary vocabulary set. The system's matching options can be configured individually or in combination to yield specific system behavior for a variety of NLP tasks. The software is open source, freely available, and easily integrated into UIMA or GATE. We benchmarked speed and accuracy of the system against the CRAFT and ShARe corpora as reference standards and compared it to MMTx, MGrep, Concept Mapper, cTAKES Dictionary Lookup Annotator, and cTAKES Fast Dictionary Lookup Annotator. We describe key advantages of the NOBLE Coder system and associated tools, including its greedy algorithm, configurable matching strategies, and multiple terminology input formats. These features provide unique functionality when compared with existing alternatives, including state-of-the-art systems. On two benchmarking tasks, NOBLE's performance exceeded commonly used alternatives, performing almost as well as the most advanced systems. Error analysis revealed differences in error profiles among systems. NOBLE Coder is comparable to other widely used concept recognition systems in terms of accuracy and speed. Advantages of NOBLE Coder include its interactive terminology builder tool, ease of configuration, and adaptability to various domains and tasks. NOBLE provides a term-to-concept matching system suitable for general concept recognition in biomedical NLP pipelines.

  12. Design of Large Area PLEDs on Flexible Substrates: Highly Efficient Flexible Devices Using a Statistical Copolymer of Oxadiazole-Containing PPV

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christian, Hermona Y; Vaidyanathan, Subbu; Ko, Changhee; Galvin, Mary E; Beyer, Rick

    2004-01-01

    With polymers as the active layer on a plastic substrate, construction of flexible devices is possible, although the use of calcium cathodes places stringent requirements on the encapsulation of the device...

  13. Model Predictive Control for Flexible Power Consumption of Large-Scale Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    A model predictive control (MPC) scheme is introduced to directly control the electrical power consumption of large-scale refrigeration systems. Deviation from the baseline of the consumption is corresponded to the storing and delivering of thermal energy. By virtue of such correspondence...

  14. Large and Small Scale Nitrogen and Phosporous Manipulation Experiment in a Tree-Grass Ecosystem: first year of results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Mirco; Perez Priego, Oscar; El-Madany, Tarek; Guan, JinHong; Carrara, Arnaud; Fava, Francesco; Moreno, Gerardo; Kolle, Olaf; Rossini, Micol; Schrumpf, Marion; Julitta, Tommaso; Reichstein, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have shown how human induced N/P imbalances affect essential ecosystem processes (e.g. photosynthesis, plant growth rate, respiration), and might be particularly important in water-limited ecosystems. In this contribution we will present the experimental design and the results of the first year of two nutrient manipulation experiments conducted at different spatial scale. In the first experiment a cluster of 2 eddy covariance (EC) flux towers has been set up beside a long-term EC site (Las Majadas del Tietar, Spain). Sites are selected in a way to have similar nutrient conditions, canopy structure, and stoichiometry of the different vegetation and soil pools. Two of the three footprints will be manipulated with addition of N and NP fertilizer at the beginning of 2015. The comparison of the three EC flux towers installed during the first year of the experiment (without fertilization) will be shown. We characterized the differences of the responses of carbon and water fluxes measured by the EC systems to environmental drivers, and structural and biophysical properties of the canopy. The second experiment was conducted over a Mediterranean grassland, where 16 plots of 10x10 meters that were manipulated by adding nutrient (N, P, and NP). The overall objective was to investigate the response of the gross primary productivity (GPP), assessed by using transparent transient-state canopy chambers, to different nutrient availability. The second objective was to evaluate the capability of hyperspectral data and Solar induced fluorescence to track short- and long-term GPP and light use efficiency variation under different N and P fertilization treatments. Spectral vegetation indices (VIs) were acquired manually using high resolution spectrometers (HR4000, OceanOptics, USA) along a phenological cycle. The VIs used included photochemical reflectance index (PRI), MERIS terrestrial-chlorophyll index (MTCI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Solar

  15. Next generation non-vacuum, maskless, low temperature nanoparticle ink laser digital direct metal patterning for a large area flexible electronics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyeob Yeo

    Full Text Available Flexible electronics opened a new class of future electronics. The foldable, light and durable nature of flexible electronics allows vast flexibility in applications such as display, energy devices and mobile electronics. Even though conventional electronics fabrication methods are well developed for rigid substrates, direct application or slight modification of conventional processes for flexible electronics fabrication cannot work. The future flexible electronics fabrication requires totally new low-temperature process development optimized for flexible substrate and it should be based on new material too. Here we present a simple approach to developing a flexible electronics fabrication without using conventional vacuum deposition and photolithography. We found that direct metal patterning based on laser-induced local melting of metal nanoparticle ink is a promising low-temperature alternative to vacuum deposition- and photolithography-based conventional metal patterning processes. The "digital" nature of the proposed direct metal patterning process removes the need for expensive photomask and allows easy design modification and short turnaround time. This new process can be extremely useful for current small-volume, large-variety manufacturing paradigms. Besides, simple, scalable, fast and low-temperature processes can lead to cost-effective fabrication methods on a large-area polymer substrate. The developed process was successfully applied to demonstrate high-quality Ag patterning (2.1 µΩ·cm and high-performance flexible organic field effect transistor arrays.

  16. Next generation non-vacuum, maskless, low temperature nanoparticle ink laser digital direct metal patterning for a large area flexible electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Junyeob; Hong, Sukjoon; Lee, Daehoo; Hotz, Nico; Lee, Ming-Tsang; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Flexible electronics opened a new class of future electronics. The foldable, light and durable nature of flexible electronics allows vast flexibility in applications such as display, energy devices and mobile electronics. Even though conventional electronics fabrication methods are well developed for rigid substrates, direct application or slight modification of conventional processes for flexible electronics fabrication cannot work. The future flexible electronics fabrication requires totally new low-temperature process development optimized for flexible substrate and it should be based on new material too. Here we present a simple approach to developing a flexible electronics fabrication without using conventional vacuum deposition and photolithography. We found that direct metal patterning based on laser-induced local melting of metal nanoparticle ink is a promising low-temperature alternative to vacuum deposition- and photolithography-based conventional metal patterning processes. The "digital" nature of the proposed direct metal patterning process removes the need for expensive photomask and allows easy design modification and short turnaround time. This new process can be extremely useful for current small-volume, large-variety manufacturing paradigms. Besides, simple, scalable, fast and low-temperature processes can lead to cost-effective fabrication methods on a large-area polymer substrate. The developed process was successfully applied to demonstrate high-quality Ag patterning (2.1 µΩ·cm) and high-performance flexible organic field effect transistor arrays.

  17. Responses of Arthropods to large scale manipulations of dead wood in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Ulyshen; James Hanula

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale experimentalmanipulations of deadwood are needed to better understand its importance to animal communities in managed forests. In this experiment, we compared the abundance, species richness, diversity, and composition of arthropods in 9.3-ha plots in which either (1) all coarse woody debris was removed, (2) a large number of logs were added, (3) a large...

  18. Nonlinear modeling, strength-based design, and testing of flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters under large dynamic loads for rotorcraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadenham, Stephen; Erturk, Alper

    2014-04-01

    There has been growing interest in enabling wireless health and usage monitoring for rotorcraft applications, such as helicopter rotor systems. Large dynamic loads and acceleration fluctuations available in these environments make the implementation of vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesters a very promising choice. However, such extreme loads transmitted to the harvester can also be detrimental to piezoelectric laminates and overall system reliability. Particularly flexible resonant cantilever configurations tuned to match the dominant excitation frequency can be subject to very large deformations and failure of brittle piezoelectric laminates due to excessive bending stresses at the root of the harvester. Design of resonant piezoelectric energy harvesters for use in these environments require nonlinear electroelastic dynamic modeling and strength-based analysis to maximize the power output while ensuring that the harvester is still functional. This paper presents a mathematical framework to design and analyze the dynamics of nonlinear flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters under large base acceleration levels. A strength-based limit is imposed to design the piezoelectric energy harvester with a proof mass while accounting for material, geometric, and dissipative nonlinearities, with a focus on two demonstrative case studies having the same linear fundamental resonance frequency but different overhang length and proof mass values. Experiments are conducted at different excitation levels for validation of the nonlinear design approach proposed in this work. The case studies in this work reveal that harvesters exhibiting similar behavior and power generation performance at low excitation levels (e.g. less than 0.1g) can have totally different strength-imposed performance limitations under high excitations (e.g. above 1g). Nonlinear modeling and strength-based design is necessary for such excitation levels especially when using resonant cantilevers with no

  19. Fast printing of thin, large area, ITO free electrochromics on flexible barrier foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Hösel, Markus; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    Processing of large area, indium tin oxide (ITO) free electrochromic (EC) devices has been carried out using roll-toroll (R2R) processing. By use of very fine high-conductive silver grids with a hexagonal structure, it is possible to achieve good transparency of the electrode covered substrates...... and when used in EC devices switching times are similar to corresponding ITO devices. This is obtained without the uneven switching of larger areas, which is generally observed when using ITO because of its high-sheet resistance. The silver electrode structures for 18 ×18 cm2 devices can be processed...

  20. Three-Dimensional Dynamics of a Flexible Marine Riser Undergoing Large Elastic Deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman-Nair, W.; Baddour, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    The equations of the three dimensional motion of a marine riser undergoing large elastic deformations are formulated using Kane's formalism. The riser is modeled using lumped masses connected by extensional and rotational springs including structural damping. Surface waves are described by Stokes? second-order wave theory. Fluid-structure coupling is achieved by application of the hydrodynamic loads via Morison's equation and added-mass coefficients using the instantaneous relative velocities and accelerations between the fluid field and the riser segments. In the same way, a model for incorporating the effects of vortex-induced lift forces is included. The effect of internal flow is included in the model. The detailed algorithm is presented and the equations are solved using a robust implementation of the Runge-Kutta method provided in MATLAB. The mathematical model and associated algorithm are validated by comparing the steady-state equilibrium configuration of the riser with special cases of an elastic catenary mooring line and large deflection statics of a cantilever beam. The results of sample simulations are presented

  1. Analysis of Large Flexible Body Deformation in Multibody Systems Using Absolute Coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombrowski, Stefan von [Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics, German Aerospace Center (DLR) (Germany)], E-mail: stefan.von.dombrowski@dlr.de

    2002-11-15

    To consider large deformation problems in multibody system simulations a finite element approach, called absolute nodal coordinate.formulation,has been proposed. In this formulation absolute nodal coordinates and their material derivatives are applied to represent both deformation and rigid body motion. The choice of nodal variables allows a fully nonlinear representation of rigid body motion and can provide the exact rigid body inertia in the case of large rotations. The methodology is especially suited for but not limited to modeling of beams, cables and shells in multibody dynamics.This paper summarizes the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for a 3D Euler-Bernoulli beam model, in particular the definition of nodal variables, corresponding generalized elastic and inertia forces and equations of motion. The element stiffness matrix is a nonlinear function of the nodal variables even in the case of linearized strain/displacement relations. Nonlinear strain/displacement relations can be calculated from the global displacements using quadrature formulae.Computational examples are given which demonstrate the capabilities of the applied methodology. Consequences of the choice of shape.functions on the representation of internal forces are discussed. Linearized strain/displacement modeling is compared to the nonlinear approach and significant advantages of the latter, when using the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, are outlined.

  2. Analysis of Large Flexible Body Deformation in Multibody Systems Using Absolute Coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowski, Stefan von

    2002-01-01

    To consider large deformation problems in multibody system simulations a finite element approach, called absolute nodal coordinate.formulation,has been proposed. In this formulation absolute nodal coordinates and their material derivatives are applied to represent both deformation and rigid body motion. The choice of nodal variables allows a fully nonlinear representation of rigid body motion and can provide the exact rigid body inertia in the case of large rotations. The methodology is especially suited for but not limited to modeling of beams, cables and shells in multibody dynamics.This paper summarizes the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for a 3D Euler-Bernoulli beam model, in particular the definition of nodal variables, corresponding generalized elastic and inertia forces and equations of motion. The element stiffness matrix is a nonlinear function of the nodal variables even in the case of linearized strain/displacement relations. Nonlinear strain/displacement relations can be calculated from the global displacements using quadrature formulae.Computational examples are given which demonstrate the capabilities of the applied methodology. Consequences of the choice of shape.functions on the representation of internal forces are discussed. Linearized strain/displacement modeling is compared to the nonlinear approach and significant advantages of the latter, when using the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, are outlined

  3. Modelling of flexibles for structural analysis of short straight section of Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhay Kumar; Dutta, Subhajit; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Soni, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Short Straight Section (SSS) of Large hadron Collider (LRCM) is a 8-meter long structure with a diameter of 1 meter and it houses a twin quadrupole. The cryogens are fed to the Sass through a jumper connection between Cryogenic Distribution Line (QRL) and SSS. The bus bars travel through interconnection bellows to adjoining magnets. CAT is studying the structural behavior of cold mass and the cryostat when subjected to various forces imposed on the SSS under various operating conditions of LHC machine including realignment required to compensate local sinking of the floor of the tunnel during the LHC machine's lifetime. CAT did calculation of reaction forces and moments on the Short Straight Section due to presence of jumper connection last year after the experimental verification of finite element model at CERN. Subsequently, a unified Fe model consisting of cold mass, cold feet, vacuum vessel, main vacuum vessel bellows (large sleeves), magnet interconnects, jumper connection, service module and precision motion jacks is being developed for studying the structural behaviour. (author)

  4. Gust load alleviation wind tunnel tests of a large-aspect-ratio flexible wing with piezoelectric control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Bi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An active control technique utilizing piezoelectric actuators to alleviate gust-response loads of a large-aspect-ratio flexible wing is investigated. Piezoelectric materials have been extensively used for active vibration control of engineering structures. In this paper, piezoelectric materials further attempt to suppress the vibration of the aeroelastic wing caused by gust. The motion equation of the flexible wing with piezoelectric patches is obtained by Hamilton’s principle with the modal approach, and then numerical gust responses are analyzed, based on which a gust load alleviation (GLA control system is proposed. The gust load alleviation system employs classic proportional-integral-derivative (PID controllers which treat piezoelectric patches as control actuators and acceleration as the feedback signal. By a numerical method, the control mechanism that piezoelectric actuators can be used to alleviate gust-response loads is also analyzed qualitatively. Furthermore, through low-speed wind tunnel tests, the effectiveness of the gust load alleviation active control technology is validated. The test results agree well with the numerical results. Test results show that at a certain frequency range, the control scheme can effectively alleviate the z and x wingtip accelerations and the root bending moment of the wing to a certain extent. The control system gives satisfying gust load alleviation efficacy with the reduction rate being generally over 20%.

  5. Manipulators in teleoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Teleoperated manipulators represent a mature technology which has evolved over nearly 40 years of applications experience. The wide range of manipulator concepts developed thus far reflect differing applications, priorities, and philosophies. The technology of teleoperated manipulators is in a rapid state of change (just as are industrial robotics) fueled by microelectronics and materials advances. Large strides in performance and dexterity are now practical and advantageous. Even though improved controls and sensory feedback will increase functionality, overall costs should be reduced as manipulator fabrication and assembly labor costs are reduced through improved manufacturing technology. As these advances begin to materialize, broader applications in nonnuclear areas should occur

  6. Silver nanowire/polymer composite soft conductive film fabricated by large-area compatible coating for flexible pressure sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sujie; Li, Siying; Peng, Sai; Huang, Yukun; Zhao, Jiaqing; Tang, Wei; Guo, Xiaojun

    2018-01-01

    Soft conductive films composed of a silver nanowire (AgNW) network, a neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS over-coating layer and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer substrate are fabricated by large area compatible coating processes. The neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS layer is shown to be able to significantly improve the conductivity, stretchability and air stability of the conductive films. The soft conductive films are patterned using a simple maskless patterning approach to fabricate an 8 × 8 flexible pressure sensor array. It is shown that such soft conductive films can help to improve the sensitivity and reduce the signal crosstalk over the pressure sensor array. Project supported by the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (No. 16JC1400603).

  7. Flexible Multi-Bit Feedback Design for HARQ Operation of Large-Size Data Packets in 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khosravirad, Saeed; Mudolo, Luke; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2017-01-01

    large-size data packet thanks to which the transmitter node can reduce the retransmission size to only include the initially failed segments of the packet. We study the effect of feedback size on retransmission efficiency through extensive link-level simulations over realistic channel models. Numerical......A reliable feedback channel is vital to report decoding acknowledgments in retransmission mechanisms such as the hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ). While the feedback bits are known to be costly for the wireless link, a feedback message more informative than the conventional single......-bit feedback can increase resource utilization efficiency. Considering the practical limitations for increasing feedback message size, this paper proposes a framework for the design of flexible-content multi-bit feedback. The proposed design is capable of efficiently indicating the faulty segments of a failed...

  8. Interfacial layers and semi-transparent electrodes for large area flexible organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Bhushan Ramesh

    the exciton recombination and charge carrier losses in the devices. I report on the implementation of a novel exciton blocking layer of an intrinsic organic material, ‘N,N'-di-1-naphthalenyl-N,N'-diphenyl [1,1':4',1'':4'',1‴-quaterphenyl]-4,4‴-diamine (4P-NPD)’, in organic small molecule-based OPVs. Using...... this interlayer, the efficiency of OPV devices increased by approx. 24 % compared to reference devices. I also report on the use the use of electron transport layer of organic material ‘2,9-Dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bathocuproine, BCP)’ for inverted small molecule-based lab-scale and up......-scaled OPVs. The pronounced clustering of the BCP layer lead to increasing discrepancies in the device performance with the increase in the device size, which disqualifies it for use of in the inverted large area OPVs. The second section deals with up-scaling of highly conductive semi-transparent electrodes...

  9. How to deal with negative power price spikes?-Flexible voluntary curtailment agreements for large-scale integration of wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstaett, Christine; Brunekreeft, Gert; Jahnke, Katy

    2011-01-01

    For the large-scale integration of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), the German system seems to reach its limits. In 2009, the electricity wholesale market experienced serious negative prices at times of high wind and low demand. The feed-in system in Germany consists of a fixed feed-in price, a take-off obligation and a RES priority rule, and in practice only very restrictive use of RES-E curtailment. Exactly the latter is the problem. We argue that the overall performance of the system would improve seriously by lifting the restrictions on the use of voluntary curtailment agreements, while retaining the priority rule as such. Since generators of RES-E can only improve under this system reform, investment conditions improve, leading to higher installed RES-E capacity. This in turn implies that reduced wind output due to curtailment can actually be offset by higher wind output in all periods in which there is no problem. - Highlights: → We examine the large-scale integration of electricity from renewable sources (RES-E) into the German energy market. → Seriously negative prices at the wholesale market suggest that market design could be improved. → We argue that allowing flexible use of voluntary curtailment agreements (VCA), while keeping the priority feed-in rule, would increase the total system's efficiency. → Improved investment conditions due to flexible use of VCAs leading to higher installed RES-E capacity could offset the reduced wind output and would not impede climate policy goals.

  10. Low-cost and large-scale flexible SERS-cotton fabric as a wipe substrate for surface trace analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanmin; Ge, Fengyan; Guang, Shanyi; Cai, Zaisheng

    2018-04-01

    The large-scale surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) cotton fabrics were fabricated based on traditional woven ones using a dyeing-like method of vat dyes, where silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were in-situ synthesized by 'dipping-reducing-drying' process. By controlling the concentration of AgNO3 solution, the optimal SERS cotton fabric was obtained, which had a homogeneous close packing of Ag NPs. The SERS cotton fabric was employed to detect p-Aminothiophenol (PATP). It was found that the new fabric possessed excellent reproducibility (about 20%), long-term stability (about 57 days) and high SERS sensitivity with a detected concentration as low as 10-12 M. Furthermore, owing to the excellent mechanical flexibility and good absorption ability, the SERS cotton fabric was employed to detect carbaryl on the surface of an apple by simply swabbing, which showed great potential in fast trace analysis. More importantly, this study may realize large-scale production with low cost by a traditional cotton fabric.

  11. The large terminase DNA packaging motor grips DNA with its ATPase domain for cleavage by the flexible nuclease domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Brendan J.; Hayes, Janelle A.; Stone, Nicholas P.; Xu, Rui-Gang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Many viruses use a powerful terminase motor to pump their genome inside an empty procapsid shell during virus maturation. The large terminase (TerL) protein contains both enzymatic activities necessary for packaging in such viruses: the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) that powers DNA translocation and an endonuclease that cleaves the concatemeric genome at both initiation and completion of genome packaging. However, how TerL binds DNA during translocation and cleavage remains mysterious. Here we investigate DNA binding and cleavage using TerL from the thermophilic phage P74-26. We report the structure of the P74-26 TerL nuclease domain, which allows us to model DNA binding in the nuclease active site. We screened a large panel of TerL variants for defects in binding and DNA cleavage, revealing that the ATPase domain is the primary site for DNA binding, and is required for nuclease activity. The nuclease domain is dispensable for DNA binding but residues lining the active site guide DNA for cleavage. Kinetic analysis of DNA cleavage suggests flexible tethering of the nuclease domains during DNA cleavage. We propose that interactions with the procapsid during DNA translocation conformationally restrict the nuclease domain, inhibiting cleavage; TerL release from the capsid upon completion of packaging unlocks the nuclease domains to cleave DNA. PMID:28082398

  12. Techniques for Large-Scale Bacterial Genome Manipulation and Characterization of the Mutants with Respect to In Silico Metabolic Reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    diCenzo, George C; Finan, Turlough M

    2018-01-01

    The rate at which all genes within a bacterial genome can be identified far exceeds the ability to characterize these genes. To assist in associating genes with cellular functions, a large-scale bacterial genome deletion approach can be employed to rapidly screen tens to thousands of genes for desired phenotypes. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the generation of deletions of large segments of bacterial genomes that relies on the activity of a site-specific recombinase. In this procedure, two recombinase recognition target sequences are introduced into known positions of a bacterial genome through single cross-over plasmid integration. Subsequent expression of the site-specific recombinase mediates recombination between the two target sequences, resulting in the excision of the intervening region and its loss from the genome. We further illustrate how this deletion system can be readily adapted to function as a large-scale in vivo cloning procedure, in which the region excised from the genome is captured as a replicative plasmid. We next provide a procedure for the metabolic analysis of bacterial large-scale genome deletion mutants using the Biolog Phenotype MicroArray™ system. Finally, a pipeline is described, and a sample Matlab script is provided, for the integration of the obtained data with a draft metabolic reconstruction for the refinement of the reactions and gene-protein-reaction relationships in a metabolic reconstruction.

  13. A manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, G.V.; Hofmann, D.A.; Ashby, R.

    1984-01-01

    A manipulator is described, for remote handling of objects within an enclosure, by an operator outside the enclosure. The manipulator consists of a telescopically extensible arm member, the action of which is controlled by a motor-driven lead screw. (U.K.)

  14. Energy Flexibility from Large Prosumers to Support Distribution System Operation—A Technical and Legal Case Study on the Amsterdam ArenA Stadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Kuiken

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To deal with the rising integration of stochastic renewables and energy intensive distributed energy resources (DER to the electricity network, alternatives to expensive network reinforcements are increasingly needed. An alternative solution often under consideration is integrating flexibility from the consumer side to system management. However, such a solution needs to be contemplated from different angles before it can be implemented in practice. To this end, this article considers a case study of the Amsterdam ArenA stadium and its surrounding network where flexibility is expected to be available to support the network in the future. The article studies the technical aspects of using this flexibility to determine to what extent, despite the different, orthogonal goals, the available flexibility can be used by various stakeholders in scenarios with a large load from electric vehicle charging points. Furthermore, a legal study is performed to determine the feasibility of the technical solutions proposed by analysing current European Union (EU and Dutch law and focusing on the current agreements existing between the parties involved. The article shows that flexibility in the network provided by Amsterdam ArenA is able to significantly increase the number of charging points the network can accommodate. Nonetheless, while several uses of flexibility are feasible under current law, the use of flexibility provided by electric vehicles specifically faces several legal challenges in current arrangements.

  15. An easy, low-cost method to transfer large-scale graphene onto polyethylene terephthalate as a transparent conductive flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we develop a low-cost method for transferring a large-scale graphene film onto a flexible transparent substrate. An easily accessible method for home-made chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and a commercial photograph laminator were utilized to fabricate the low-cost graphene-based transparent conductive flexible substrate. The graphene was developed based on CVD growth on nickel foil using a carbon gas source, and the graphene thin film was easily transferred onto the laminating film via a heated photograph laminator. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were utilized to examine the morphological characteristics of the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to examine the microstructure of the graphene. The optical–electronic properties of the transferred graphene flexible thin film were measured by ultraviolet–visible spectrometry and a four-point probe. The advantage of this method is that large-scale graphene-based thin films can be easily obtained. We provide an economical method for fabricating a graphene-based transparent conductive flexible substrate. - Highlight: • We synthesized the large-scale graphene by thermal CVD method. • A low-cost commercial photograph laminator was used to transfer graphene. • A large-scale transparent and flexible graphene substrate was obtained easily

  16. An easy, low-cost method to transfer large-scale graphene onto polyethylene terephthalate as a transparent conductive flexible substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo, E-mail: jack_hsieh@mail.mcut.edu.tw

    2014-11-03

    In this study, we develop a low-cost method for transferring a large-scale graphene film onto a flexible transparent substrate. An easily accessible method for home-made chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and a commercial photograph laminator were utilized to fabricate the low-cost graphene-based transparent conductive flexible substrate. The graphene was developed based on CVD growth on nickel foil using a carbon gas source, and the graphene thin film was easily transferred onto the laminating film via a heated photograph laminator. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were utilized to examine the morphological characteristics of the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to examine the microstructure of the graphene. The optical–electronic properties of the transferred graphene flexible thin film were measured by ultraviolet–visible spectrometry and a four-point probe. The advantage of this method is that large-scale graphene-based thin films can be easily obtained. We provide an economical method for fabricating a graphene-based transparent conductive flexible substrate. - Highlight: • We synthesized the large-scale graphene by thermal CVD method. • A low-cost commercial photograph laminator was used to transfer graphene. • A large-scale transparent and flexible graphene substrate was obtained easily.

  17. The Immersive Virtual Reality Lab: Possibilities for Remote Experimental Manipulations of Autonomic Activity on a Large Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Juvrud

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for large-scale remote data collection in a controlled environment, and the in-home availability of virtual reality (VR and the commercial availability of eye tracking for VR present unique and exciting opportunities for researchers. We propose and provide a proof-of-concept assessment of a robust system for large-scale in-home testing using consumer products that combines psychophysiological measures and VR, here referred to as a Virtual Lab. For the first time, this method is validated by correlating autonomic responses, skin conductance response (SCR, and pupillary dilation, in response to a spider, a beetle, and a ball using commercially available VR. Participants demonstrated greater SCR and pupillary responses to the spider, and the effect was dependent on the proximity of the stimuli to the participant, with a stronger response when the spider was close to the virtual self. We replicated these effects across two experiments and in separate physical room contexts to mimic variability in home environment. Together, these findings demonstrate the utility of pupil dilation as a marker of autonomic arousal and the feasibility to assess this in commercially available VR hardware and support a robust Virtual Lab tool for massive remote testing.

  18. The Immersive Virtual Reality Lab: Possibilities for Remote Experimental Manipulations of Autonomic Activity on a Large Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvrud, Joshua; Gredebäck, Gustaf; Åhs, Fredrik; Lerin, Nils; Nyström, Pär; Kastrati, Granit; Rosén, Jörgen

    2018-01-01

    There is a need for large-scale remote data collection in a controlled environment, and the in-home availability of virtual reality (VR) and the commercial availability of eye tracking for VR present unique and exciting opportunities for researchers. We propose and provide a proof-of-concept assessment of a robust system for large-scale in-home testing using consumer products that combines psychophysiological measures and VR, here referred to as a Virtual Lab. For the first time, this method is validated by correlating autonomic responses, skin conductance response (SCR), and pupillary dilation, in response to a spider, a beetle, and a ball using commercially available VR. Participants demonstrated greater SCR and pupillary responses to the spider, and the effect was dependent on the proximity of the stimuli to the participant, with a stronger response when the spider was close to the virtual self. We replicated these effects across two experiments and in separate physical room contexts to mimic variability in home environment. Together, these findings demonstrate the utility of pupil dilation as a marker of autonomic arousal and the feasibility to assess this in commercially available VR hardware and support a robust Virtual Lab tool for massive remote testing.

  19. Are building users prepared for energy flexible buildings?—A large-scale survey in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Rongling; Dane, G.Z.; Finck, C.J.; Zeiler, W.

    2017-01-01

    Building energy flexibility might play a crucial role in demand side management for integrating intermittent renewables into smart grids. The potential of building energy flexibility depends not only on the physical characteristics of a building but also on occupant behaviour in the building.

  20. Influence of Pelvicaliceal Anatomy on Stone Clearance After Flexible Ureteroscopy and Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Large Renal Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takaaki; Murota, Takashi; Okada, Shinsuke; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Muguruma, Kouei; Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of pelvicaliceal anatomy on stone clearance in patients with remnant fragments in the lower pole after flexible ureteroscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy (fURSL) for renal stones >15 mm. This retrospective study included 67 patients with radiopaque residual fragments (>2 mm) in the lower pole after fURSL for large renal stones (>15 mm). The preoperative infundibular length (IL), infundibular width (IW), infundibulopelvic angle (IPA), and caliceal pelvic height (CPH) were measured using intravenous urography. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine whether any of these measurements affected stone clearance. Of the 67 patients, 55 (82.1%) were stone free (SF) 3 months after fURSL. The anatomic factors significantly favorable for an SF status were a short IL, broad IW, wide IPA, and low CPH. On multivariate analysis, the IPA had a significant influence on an SF status after fURSL (p=0.010). An IPA renal stones according to our multivariate analysis. Additional studies are required to further evaluate the characteristics of the pelvicaliceal anatomy influencing stone clearance.

  1. Optical response of large-area aluminum-coated nano-bucket arrays on flexible PET substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohertz, Donna; Chuo, Yindar; Omrane, Badr; Landrock, Clint; Kavanagh, Karen L.

    2014-09-01

    The high-cost of fabrication of nanohole arrays for extraordinary optical transmission, surface-plasmon-resonance-based sensors, inhibits their widespread commercial adoption. Production typically involves the application of small-area patterning techniques, such as focused-ion-beam milling, and electron-beam lithography onto high-cost gold-coated substrates. Moving to lower-cost manufacturing is a critical step for applications such as the detection of environmental oil-leaks, or water quality assurance. In these applications, the sensitivity requirements are relatively low, and a bio-compatible inert surface, such as gold, is unnecessary. We report on the optical response of aluminum-coated nano-bucket arrays fabricated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The arrays are fabricated using an economical roll-to-roll UV-casting process from large sheets of nickel templates generated from master quartz stamps. The nano-featured surface is subsequently coated with 50 nm of thermally-evaporated aluminum. The roll-to-roll production process has a 97% yield over a 600 m roll producing nano-buckets with 240 nm diameters, 300 nm deep, with a 70° taper. When exposed to a series of refractive index standards (glucose solutions), changes in the locations of the resonance transmission peaks result in optical sensitivities as high as 390 ± 20 nm/RIU. The peak transmission is approximately 5% of illumination, well within the sensitivity requirements of most common low-cost detectors.

  2. Evidencing `Tight Bound States' in the Hydrogen Atom:. Empirical Manipulation of Large-Scale XD in Violation of QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Richard L.; Vigier, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    In this work we extend Vigier's recent theory of `tight bound state' (TBS) physics and propose empirical protocols to test not only for their putative existence, but also that their existence if demonstrated provides the 1st empirical evidence of string theory because it occurs in the context of large-scale extra dimensionality (LSXD) cast in a unique M-Theoretic vacuum corresponding to the new Holographic Anthropic Multiverse (HAM) cosmological paradigm. Physicists generally consider spacetime as a stochastic foam containing a zero-point field (ZPF) from which virtual particles restricted by the quantum uncertainty principle (to the Planck time) wink in and out of existence. According to the extended de Broglie-Bohm-Vigier causal stochastic interpretation of quantum theory spacetime and the matter embedded within it is created annihilated and recreated as a virtual locus of reality with a continuous quantum evolution (de Broglie matter waves) governed by a pilot wave - a `super quantum potential' extended in HAM cosmology to be synonymous with the a `force of coherence' inherent in the Unified Field, UF. We consider this backcloth to be a covariant polarized vacuum of the (generally ignored by contemporary physicists) Dirac type. We discuss open questions of the physics of point particles (fermionic nilpotent singularities). We propose a new set of experiments to test for TBS in a Dirac covariant polarized vacuum LSXD hyperspace suggestive of a recently tested special case of the Lorentz Transformation put forth by Kowalski and Vigier. These protocols reach far beyond the recent battery of atomic spectral violations of QED performed through NIST.

  3. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL's flexible/prismatic test stand

  4. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  5. MoveBots - Flexible Object Handling using Dexterous Grippers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jimmy Alison

    .This dissertation present work that focus on increasing flexibility ofrobotic grasping by using simulation tools, dexterous hands and tactile sensors.The work is centered on development of tools and methods for graspplanning, analysis and simulation.Overall the research contributes with valuable tools......Within recent years there has been an increased focus in flexible automationin industrial production. This focus is strongly related to the demandfor small product batches and individually customized products. To enablesuch flexibility large machinery is exchanged or upgraded with high degreeof...... freedom robot manipulators. These manipulators are programmable andmultipurpose and often only limited by their gripper systems. These limitationsare significant since the design and flexibility of the gripper determineswhich objects the system can handle.Current gripper systems are typically simple...

  6. Flexible CIGS solar cells on large area polymer foils with in-line deposition methods and application of alternative back contacts - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A. N.

    2009-08-15

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the work performed within this project and also reports on synergies with other projects that helped to make a significant contribution to the development of CIGS thin film solar cells on flexible substrates such as polymer foils. The project's aims were to learn more about up-scaling issues and to demonstrate the abilities required for the processing of layers on large area polyimide foils for flexible CIGS solar cells. Custom-built evaporators that were designed and constructed in-house are described. A CIGS system for in-line deposition was also modified for roll-to-roll deposition and alternative electrical back contacts to conventional ones were evaluated on flexible polyimide foils. The objectives of the project and the results obtained are looked at and commented on in detail.

  7. Ultrasonic Spray-Coating of Large-Scale TiO2 Compact Layer for Efficient Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Flexible electronics have attracted great interest in applications for the wearable devices. Flexible solar cells can be integrated into the flexible electronics as the power source for the wearable devices. In this work, an ultrasonic spray-coating method was employed to deposit TiO2 nanoparticles on polymer substrates for the fabrication of flexible perovskite solar cells (PSCs. Pre-synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles were first dispersed in ethanol to prepare the precursor solutions with different concentrations (0.5 mg/mL, 1.0 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL and then sprayed onto the conductive substrates to produce compact TiO2 films with different thicknesses (from 30 nm to 150 nm. The effect of the different drying processes on the quality of the compact TiO2 film was studied. In order to further improve the film quality, titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetylacetonate (TAA was added into the TiO2-ethanol solution at a mole ratio of 1.0 mol % with respect to the TiO2 content. The final prepared PSC devices showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE of 14.32% based on the indium doped tin oxide coated glass (ITO-glass substrate and 10.87% on the indium doped tin oxide coated polyethylene naphthalate (ITO-PEN flexible substrate.

  8. Large-amplitude and narrow-band vibration phenomenon of a foursquare fix-supported flexible plate in a rigid narrow channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Lifang, E-mail: liu_lifang1106@yahoo.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China); Lu Daogang, E-mail: ludaogang@ncepu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China); Li Yang, E-mail: qinxiuyi@sina.com [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China); Zhang Pan, E-mail: zhangpan@ncepu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China); Niu Fenglei, E-mail: niufenglei@ncepu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > FIV of a foursquare fix-supported flexible plate exposed to axial flow was studied. > Special designed test section and advanced measuring equipments were adopted. > The narrow-band vibration phenomenon with large amplitude was observed. > Line of plate's vibration amplitude and flow rate was investigated. > The phenomenon and the measurement error were analyzed. - Abstract: An experiment was performed to analyze the flow-induced vibration behavior of a foursquare fix-supported flexible plate exposed to the axial flow within a rigid narrow channel. The large-amplitude and narrow-band vibration phenomenon was observed in the experiment when the flow velocity varied with the range of 0-5 m/s. The occurring condition and some characteristics of the large-amplitude and narrow-band vibrations were investigated.

  9. Room-Temperature and Solution-Processable Cu-Doped Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles for Efficient Hole-Transport Layers of Flexible Large-Area Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiqi; Yao, Kai; Wang, Xiaofeng; Xia, Xuefeng; Leng, Shifeng; Li, Fan

    2017-12-06

    Flexible perovskite solar cells (PSCs) using plastic substrates have become one of the most attractive points in the field of thin-film solar cells. Low-temperature and solution-processable nanoparticles (NPs) enable the fabrication of semiconductor thin films in a simple and low-cost approach to function as charge-selective layers in flexible PSCs. Here, we synthesized phase-pure p-type Cu-doped NiO x NPs with good electrical properties, which can be processed to smooth, pinhole-free, and efficient hole transport layers (HTLs) with large-area uniformity over a wide range of film thickness using a room-temperature solution-processing technique. Such a high-quality inorganic HTL allows for the fabrication of flexible PSCs with an active area >1 cm 2 , which have a power conversion efficiency over 15.01% without hysteresis. Moreover, the Cu/NiO x NP-based flexible devices also demonstrate excellent air stability and mechanical stability compared to their counterpart fabricated on the pristine NiO x films. This work will contribute to the evolution of upscaling flexible PSCs with a simple fabrication process and high device performances.

  10. Vertically building Zn2SnO4 nanowire arrays on stainless steel mesh toward fabrication of large-area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengdao; Zhou, Yong; Bao, Chunxiong; Xue, Guogang; Zhang, Jiyuan; Liu, Jianguo; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

    2012-06-07

    Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowire arrays were for the first time grown onto a stainless steel mesh (SSM) in a binary ethylenediamine (En)/water solvent system using a solvothermal route. The morphology evolution following this reaction was carefully followed to understand the formation mechanism. The SSM-supported Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowire was utilized as a photoanode for fabrication of large-area (10 cm × 5 cm size as a typical sample), flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The synthesized Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowires exhibit great bendability and flexibility, proving potential advantage over other metal oxide nanowires such as TiO(2), ZnO, and SnO(2) for application in flexible solar cells. Relative to the analogous Zn(2)SnO(4) nanoparticle-based flexible DSSCs, the nanowire geometry proves to enhance solar energy conversion efficiency through enhancement of electron transport. The bendable nature of the DSSCs without obvious degradation of efficiency and facile scale up gives the as-made flexible solar cell device potential for practical application.

  11. Research on mechanism of the large-amplitude and narrow-band vibration of a flexible flat plate in the rectangular channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Lifang, E-mail: liu_lifang1106@yahoo.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China); State Nuclear Power Software Development Center, Building 1, Compound No. 29, North Third Ring Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100029 (China); Lu Daogang [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The large amplitude and narrow-band vibration experiment was performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The added mass theory was used to analyze the test plates' natural vibration characteristics in static water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The occurring condition of the large amplitude and narrow band vibration was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The large amplitude and narrow-band vibration mechanism was investigated. - Abstract: Further experiments and theoretical analysis were performed to investigate mechanism of the large-amplitude and narrow-band vibration behavior of a flexible flat plate in a rectangular channel. Test plates with different thicknesses were adopted in the FIV experiments. The natural vibration characteristics of the flexible flat plates in air were tested, and the added mass theory of column was used to analyze the flexible flat plates' natural vibration characteristics in static water. It was found that the natural vibration frequency of a certain test plate in static water is approximately within the main vibration frequency band of the plate when it was induced to vibrate with the large-amplitude and narrow-band in the rectangular channel. It can be concluded that the harmonic between the flowing fluid and the vibrating plate is one of the key reasons to induce the large-amplitude and narrow-band vibration phenomenon. The occurring condition of the phenomenon and some important narrow-band vibration characteristics of a foursquare fix-supported flexible flat plate were investigated.

  12. Are building users prepared for energy flexible buildings—A large-scale survey in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rongling; Dane, Gamze; Finck, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Building energy flexibility might play a crucial role in demand side management for integrating intermittent renewables into smart grids. The potential of building energy flexibility depends not only on the physical characteristics of a building but also on occupant behaviour in the building. Bui...... incentives such as financial rewards....... never heard of smart grids. However, unfamiliarity with smart grids increased with age, and half of the respondents aged 20–29 years old were aware of the concept. Monetary incentives were identified as the biggest motivating factor for adoption of smart grid technologies. It was also found that people...

  13. A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing-First public demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Norrman, Kion

    2009-01-01

    , complete processing in air using commonly available screen printing, and finally, simple mechanical encapsulation using a flexible packaging material and electrical contacting post-production using crimped contacts. We detail the production of more than 2000 modules in one production run and show......A complete polymer solar cell module prepared in the ambient atmosphere under industrial conditions is presented. The versatility of the polymer solar cell technology is demonstrated through the use of abstract forms for the active area, a flexible substrate, processing entirely from solution...

  14. Quantum mechanical computations and spectroscopy: from small rigid molecules in the gas phase to large flexible molecules in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Vincenzo; Improta, Roberto; Rega, Nadia

    2008-05-01

    Interpretation of structural properties and dynamic behavior of molecules in solution is of fundamental importance to understand their stability, chemical reactivity, and catalytic action. While information can be gained, in principle, by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, the interpretation of the rich indirect information that can be inferred from the analysis of experimental spectra is seldom straightforward because of the subtle interplay of several different effects, whose specific role is not easy to separate and evaluate. In such a complex scenario, theoretical studies can be very helpful at two different levels: (i) supporting and complementing experimental results to determine the structure of the target molecule starting from its spectral properties; (ii) dissecting and evaluating the role of different effects in determining the observed spectroscopic properties. This is the reason why computational spectroscopy is rapidly evolving from a highly specialized research field into a versatile and widespread tool for the assignment of experimental spectra and their interpretation in terms of chemical physical effects. In such a situation, it becomes important that both computationally and experimentally oriented chemists are aware that new methodological advances and integrated computational strategies are available, providing reliable estimates of fundamental spectral parameters not only for relatively small molecules in the gas phase but also for large and flexible molecules in condensed phases. In this Account, we review the most significant methodological contributions from our research group in this field, and by exploiting some recent results of their application to the computation of IR, UV-vis, NMR, and EPR spectral parameters, we discuss the microscopic mechanisms underlying solvent and vibrational effects on the spectral parameters. After reporting some recent achievements for the study of excited states by first principle quantum mechanical

  15. Manipulatives Work!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, Peggy L.

    2001-01-01

    Fifth graders (n=16) engaged in manipulative activities to improve their grasp of math concepts; one-third were identified as exceptional children. Posttest results after 12 lessons showed the overall class average increased from 49% to 59% and all areas improved compared to pretest scores. Attitude changes were also apparent. (Contains 24…

  16. A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren

    2010-01-01

    by transportation to a participating laboratory for performance measurement and return to the starting location (Risø DTU) for re-measurement of the performance. It was found possible to package polymer solar-cell modules using a flexible plastic barrier material in such a manner that degradation of the devices...

  17. Stainless steel decontamination manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three, large-volume coverage manipulator systems were designed and built for the Defense Water Processing Facility at the Savannah River Laboratory. These stainless steel systems will be used for high-pressure spray decontamination of waste containers and large process equipment modules. Each system has a manipulator arm, folding boom, and vertical drive and guide structure. Handling capacity is 45 kg, horizontal reach is 4.6 m with a 180-deg swing motion, and the vertical travel is 6 m. The system is remotely removable and replaceable in modules using an overhead crane and an impact wrench. The manipulator arm has seven motions: Shoulder rotation and pivot, elbow pivot, wrist pivot and rotation, and grip open-close. All motions are variable speed and are slip-clutch protected to prevent overloading from external forces (collisions)

  18. Currency Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Weithing Zhang; Thomas Mertens; Tarek Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Many central banks manage the stochastic behavior of their currencies' exchange rates by imposing pegs relative to a target currency. We study the effects of such currency manipulation in a multi-country model of exchange rate determination with endogenous capital accumulation. We find that the imposition of an exchange rate peg relative to a given target currency increases the volatility of consumption in the target country and decreases the volatility of the target currency's exchange rate ...

  19. ITO-free flexible polymer solar cells: From small model devices to roll-to-roll processed large modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manceau, Matthieu; Angmo, Dechan; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    and the resultant performances compared. Modules comprising 16 serially connected cells gave total area efficiencies up to 0.5% (235 cm2 – 1% on the active area) while the best monolithic ones gave 0.35% (100 cm2 – 0.4% on the active area). The freshly prepared devices consistently showed an inflection point......) monolithic modules (to achieve high geometric fill factor and increase the flexibility of the process). For this second concept, the only layer that needs to be patterned is the silver grid electrode and the grid pattern design can then be readily tuned. As an example, four different patterns were used...

  20. Ambient fabrication of flexible and large-area organic light-emitting devices using slot-die coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandstrom, Andreas; Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-01-01

    available in smartphones, but the promise of a continuous ambient fabrication has unfortunately not materialized yet, as organic light-emitting diodes invariably depend on the use of one or more time-and energy-consuming process steps under vacuum. Here we report an all-solution-based fabrication...... of an alternative emissive device, a light-emitting electrochemical cell, using a slot-die roll-coating apparatus. The fabricated flexible sheets exhibit bidirectional and uniform light emission, and feature a fault-tolerant >1-mu m-thick active material that is doped in situ during operation. It is notable...

  1. Parametric design studies of long-reach manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; March-Leuba, S.; Babcock, S.M.; Burks, B.L.; Hamel, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    A number of different approaches have been studied for remediation of waste storage tanks at various sites. One of the most promising approaches is the use of a high-capacity, long-reach manipulation (LRM) system with a variety of end effectors for dislodging the waste. LRMs may have characteristics significantly different from those of industrial robots due to the long links needed to cover the large workspace. Because link lengths are much greater than their diameters, link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. LRMs will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional, kinematic, and performance requirements, a design approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics considering link flexibility is presented with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. This paper addresses key design issues for LRM-based waste retrieval systems. It discusses the effects of parameters such as payload capacity, storage tanks size, and access port diameter on manipulator structural design. The estimated weight, fundamental natural frequency, and static deflection of the manipulator have been calculated for various parameter conditions

  2. Modeling, estimation and identification methods for static shape determination of flexible structures. [for large space structure design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.; Scheid, R. E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines methods for modeling, identification and estimation for static determination of flexible structures. The shape estimation schemes are based on structural models specified by (possibly interconnected) elliptic partial differential equations. The identification techniques provide approximate knowledge of parameters in elliptic systems. The techniques are based on the method of maximum-likelihood that finds parameter values such that the likelihood functional associated with the system model is maximized. The estimation methods are obtained by means of a function-space approach that seeks to obtain the conditional mean of the state given the data and a white noise characterization of model errors. The solutions are obtained in a batch-processing mode in which all the data is processed simultaneously. After methods for computing the optimal estimates are developed, an analysis of the second-order statistics of the estimates and of the related estimation error is conducted. In addition to outlining the above theoretical results, the paper presents typical flexible structure simulations illustrating performance of the shape determination methods.

  3. Sub-surface laser nanostructuring in stratified metal/dielectric media: a versatile platform towards flexible, durable and large-scale plasmonic writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siozios, A; Bellas, D V; Lidorikis, E; Patsalas, P; Kalfagiannis, N; Cranton, W M; Koutsogeorgis, D C; Bazioti, C; Dimitrakopulos, G P; Vourlias, G

    2015-01-01

    Laser nanostructuring of pure ultrathin metal layers or ceramic/metal composite thin films has emerged as a promising route for the fabrication of plasmonic patterns with applications in information storage, cryptography, and security tagging. However, the environmental sensitivity of pure Ag layers and the complexity of ceramic/metal composite film growth hinder the implementation of this technology to large-scale production, as well as its combination with flexible substrates. In the present work we investigate an alternative pathway, namely, starting from non-plasmonic multilayer metal/dielectric layers, whose growth is compatible with large scale production such as in-line sputtering and roll-to-roll deposition, which are then transformed into plasmonic templates by single-shot UV-laser annealing (LA). This entirely cold, large-scale process leads to a subsurface nanoconstruction involving plasmonic Ag nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a hard and inert dielectric matrix on top of both rigid and flexible substrates. The subsurface encapsulation of Ag NPs provides durability and long-term stability, while the cold character of LA suits the use of sensitive flexible substrates. The morphology of the final composite film depends primarily on the nanocrystalline character of the dielectric host and its thermal conductivity. We demonstrate the emergence of a localized surface plasmon resonance, and its tunability depending on the applied fluence and environmental pressure. The results are well explained by theoretical photothermal modeling. Overall, our findings qualify the proposed process as an excellent candidate for versatile, large-scale optical encoding applications. (paper)

  4. Development of large high-voltage pressure insulators for the Princeton TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] flexible transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalise, D.T.; Fong, E.; Haughian, J.; Prechter, R.

    1986-10-01

    Specially formulated insulator materials with improved strength and high-voltage properties were developed and used for critical components of the flexible transmission lines to the TFTR neutral beam ion sources. These critical components are plates which support central conductors as they exit the high-voltage power supply and enter the ion source enclosure. Each plate acts both as a high-voltage insulator and as a pressure barrier to the SF 6 insulating gas. The original plate was made of commercial glass-epoxy laminate which limited the plate voltage capacity. The newly developed insulator is made of specially-formulated cycloalphatic Di-epoxide whose isotropic properties exhibit increased arc resistance. It is cast in one piece with skirts which greatly increase the breakdown voltage. This paper discusses the design, fabrication and testing of the new insulator

  5. Switch-loop flexibility affects transport of large drugs by the promiscuous AcrB multidrug efflux transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hi-jea; Müller, Reinke T; Pos, Klaas M

    2014-08-01

    Multidrug efflux transporters recognize a variety of structurally unrelated compounds for which the molecular basis is poorly understood. For the resistance nodulation and cell division (RND) inner membrane component AcrB of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux system from Escherichia coli, drug binding occurs at the access and deep binding pockets. These two binding areas are separated by an 11-amino-acid-residue-containing switch loop whose conformational flexibility is speculated to be essential for drug binding and transport. A G616N substitution in the switch loop has a distinct and local effect on the orientation of the loop and on the ability to transport larger drugs. Here, we report a distinct phenotypical pattern of drug recognition and transport for the G616N variant, indicating that drug substrates with minimal projection areas of >70 Å(2) are less well transported than other substrates. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Correlated motion of protein subdomains and large-scale conformational flexibility of RecA protein filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Garmay; A, Shvetsov; D, Karelov; D, Lebedev; A, Radulescu; M, Petukhov; V, Isaev-Ivanov

    2012-02-01

    Based on X-ray crystallographic data available at Protein Data Bank, we have built molecular dynamics (MD) models of homologous recombinases RecA from E. coli and D. radiodurans. Functional form of RecA enzyme, which is known to be a long helical filament, was approximated by a trimer, simulated in periodic water box. The MD trajectories were analyzed in terms of large-scale conformational motions that could be detectable by neutron and X-ray scattering techniques. The analysis revealed that large-scale RecA monomer dynamics can be described in terms of relative motions of 7 subdomains. Motion of C-terminal domain was the major contributor to the overall dynamics of protein. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the MD trajectories in the atom coordinate space showed that rotation of C-domain is correlated with the conformational changes in the central domain and N-terminal domain, that forms the monomer-monomer interface. Thus, even though C-terminal domain is relatively far from the interface, its orientation is correlated with large-scale filament conformation. PCA of the trajectories in the main chain dihedral angle coordinate space implicates a co-existence of a several different large-scale conformations of the modeled trimer. In order to clarify the relationship of independent domain orientation with large-scale filament conformation, we have performed analysis of independent domain motion and its implications on the filament geometry.

  7. Fully Screen-Printed, Large-Area, and Flexible Active-Matrix Electrochromic Displays Using Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuan; Lau, Christian; Liu, Yihang; Wu, Fanqi; Gui, Hui; Liu, Qingzhou; Ma, Yuqiang; Wan, Haochuan; Amer, Moh R; Zhou, Chongwu

    2016-11-22

    Semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes are ideal semiconductors for printed electronics due to their advantageous electrical and mechanical properties, intrinsic printability in solution, and desirable stability in air. However, fully printed, large-area, high-performance, and flexible carbon nanotube active-matrix backplanes are still difficult to realize for future displays and sensing applications. Here, we report fully screen-printed active-matrix electrochromic displays employing carbon nanotube thin-film transistors. Our fully printed backplane shows high electrical performance with mobility of 3.92 ± 1.08 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , on-off current ratio I on /I off ∼ 10 4 , and good uniformity. The printed backplane was then monolithically integrated with an array of printed electrochromic pixels, resulting in an entirely screen-printed active-matrix electrochromic display (AMECD) with good switching characteristics, facile manufacturing, and long-term stability. Overall, our fully screen-printed AMECD is promising for the mass production of large-area and low-cost flexible displays for applications such as disposable tags, medical electronics, and smart home appliances.

  8. Cognitive Flexibility Training: A Large-Scale Multimodal Adaptive Active-Control Intervention Study in Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessika I. V. Buitenweg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As aging is associated with cognitive decline, particularly in the executive functions, it is essential to effectively improve cognition in older adults. Online cognitive training is currently a popular, though controversial method. Although some changes seem possible in older adults through training, far transfer, and longitudinal maintenance are rarely seen. Based on previous literature we created a unique, state-of-the-art intervention study by incorporating frequent sessions and flexible, novel, adaptive training tasks, along with an active control group. We created a program called TAPASS (Training Project Amsterdam Seniors and Stroke, a randomized controlled trial. Healthy older adults (60–80 y.o. were assigned to a frequent- (FS or infrequent switching (IS experimental condition or to the active control group and performed 58 half-hour sessions over the course of 12 weeks. Effects on executive functioning, processing- and psychomotor speed, planning, verbal long term memory, verbal fluency, and reasoning were measured on four time points before, during and after the training. Additionally, we examined the explorative question which individual aspects added to training benefit. Besides improvements on the training, we found significant time effects on multiple transfer tasks in all three groups that likely reflected retest effects. No training-specific improvements were detected, and we did not find evidence of additional benefits of individual characteristics. Judging from these results, the therapeutic value of using commercially available training games to train the aging brain is modest, though any apparent effects should be ascribed more to expectancy and motivation than to the elements in our training protocol. Our results emphasize the importance of using parallel tests as outcome measures for transfer and including both active and passive control conditions. Further investigation into different training methods is advised

  9. Flexible Polydimethylsiloxane Foams Decorated with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Enable Unprecedented Detection of Ultralow Strain and Pressure Coupled with a Large Working Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglio, Rossella; Mariani, Stefano; Robbiano, Valentina; Strambini, Lucanos; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2018-04-25

    Low-cost piezoresistive strain/pressure sensors with large working range, at the same time able to reliably detect ultralow strain (≤0.1%) and pressure (≤1 Pa), are one of the challenges that have still to be overcome for flexible piezoresistive materials toward personalized health-monitoring applications. In this work, we report on unprecedented, simultaneous detection of ultrasmall strain (0.1%, i.e., 10 μm displacement over 10 mm) and subtle pressure (20 Pa, i.e., a force of only 2 mN over an area of 1 cm 2 ) in compression mode, coupled with a large working range (i.e., up to 60% for strain-6 mm in displacement-and 50 kPa for pressure) using piezoresistive, flexible three-dimensional (3D) macroporous polydimethylsiloxane (pPDMS) foams decorated with pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). pPDMS/CNT foams with pore size up to 500 μm (i.e., twice the size of those of commonly used foams, at least) and porosity of 77%, decorated with a nanostructured surface network of CNTs at densities ranging from 7.5 to 37 mg/cm 3 are prepared using a low-cost and scalable process, through replica molding of sacrificial sugar templates and subsequent drop-casting of CNT ink. A thorough characterization shows that piezoresistive properties of the foams can be finely tuned by controlling the CNT density and reach an optimum at a CNT density of 25 mg/cm 3 , for which a maximum change of the material resistivity (e.g., ρ 0 /ρ 50 = 4 at 50% strain) is achieved under compression. Further static and dynamic characterization of the pPDMS/CNT foams with 25 mg/cm 3 of CNTs highlights that detection limits for strain and pressure are 0.03% (3 μm displacement over 10 mm) and 6 Pa (0.6 mN over an area of 1 cm 2 ), respectively; moreover, good stability and limited hysteresis are apparent by cycling the foams with 255 compression-release cycles over the strain range of 0-60%, at different strain rates up to 10 mm/min. Our results on piezoresistive, flexible pPDMS/CNT foams

  10. Control and manipulation of cold atoms in optical tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muldoon, Cecilia; Brandt, Lukas; Dong Jian; Stuart, Dustin; Brainis, Edouard; Himsworth, Matthew; Kuhn, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Neutral atoms trapped by laser light are among the most promising candidates for storing and processing information in a quantum computer or simulator. The application certainly calls for a scalable and flexible scheme for addressing and manipulating the atoms. We have now made this a reality by implementing a fast and versatile method to dynamically control the position of neutral atoms trapped in optical tweezers. The tweezers result from a spatial light modulator (SLM) controlling and shaping a large number of optical dipole-force traps. Trapped atoms adapt to any change in the potential landscape, such that one can rearrange and randomly access individual sites within atom-trap arrays. (paper)

  11. Cavity Mediated Manipulation of Distant Spin Currents Using a Cavity-Magnon-Polariton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lihui; Harder, Michael; Hyde, Paul; Zhang, Zhaohui; Hu, Can-Ming; Chen, Y P; Xiao, John Q

    2017-05-26

    Using electrical detection of a strongly coupled spin-photon system comprised of a microwave cavity mode and two magnetic samples, we demonstrate the long distance manipulation of spin currents. This distant control is not limited by the spin diffusion length, instead depending on the interplay between the local and global properties of the coupled system, enabling systematic spin current control over large distance scales (several centimeters in this work). This flexibility opens the door to improved spin current generation and manipulation for cavity spintronic devices.

  12. Multiconformation, Density Functional Theory-Based pKa Prediction in Application to Large, Flexible Organic Molecules with Diverse Functional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochevarov, Art D; Watson, Mark A; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Philipp, Dean M

    2016-12-13

    We consider the conformational flexibility of molecules and its implications for micro- and macro-pK a . The corresponding formulas are derived and discussed against the background of a comprehensive scientific and algorithmic description of the latest version of our computer program Jaguar pK a , a density functional theory-based pK a predictor, which is now capable of acting on multiple conformations explicitly. Jaguar pK a is essentially a complex computational workflow incorporating research and technologies from the fields of cheminformatics, molecular mechanics, quantum mechanics, and implicit solvation models. The workflow also makes use of automatically applied empirical corrections which account for the systematic errors resulting from the neglect of explicit solvent interactions in the algorithm's implicit solvent model. Applications of our program to large, flexible organic molecules representing several classes of functional groups are shown, with a particular emphasis in illustrations laid on drug-like molecules. It is demonstrated that a combination of aggressive conformational search and an explicit consideration of multiple conformations nearly eliminates the dependence of results on the initially chosen conformation. In certain cases this leads to unprecedented accuracy, which is sufficient for distinguishing stereoisomers that have slightly different pK a values. An application of Jaguar pK a to proton sponges, the pK a of which are strongly influenced by steric effects, showcases the advantages that pK a predictors based on quantum mechanical calculations have over similar empirical programs.

  13. Integrating anti-reflection and superhydrophobicity of moth-eye-like surface morphology on a large-area flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chia-Hsing; Niu, Pei-Lun; Sung, Cheng-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) roll-to-roll (R2R) process with argon and oxygen (Ar–O 2 ) plasma ashing and coating of a dilute perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) layer to fabricate the large-area moth-eye-like surface morphology on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. By using Maxwell-Garnett's effective medium theory, the optimal dimensions of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was designed and fabricated with UV-NIL R2R process to obtain maximum transmittance ratio. In addition, the base angle (θ = 30.1°) of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was modified with Ar–O 2 plasma ashing and coated with a dilute FDTS layer to possess both superhydrophobic and air-retention properties. This increases both the transmittance ratio of 4% and contact angle to 153°. (paper)

  14. Flexible Bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Russell J; Casal, Roberto F; Lazarus, Donald R; Ost, David E; Eapen, George A

    2018-03-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy has changed the course of pulmonary medicine. As technology advances, the role of the flexible bronchoscope for both diagnostic and therapeutic indications is continually expanding. This article reviews the historical development of the flexible bronchoscopy, fundamental uses of the flexible bronchoscope as a tool to examine the central airways and obtain diagnostic tissue, and the indications, complications, and contraindications to flexible bronchoscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A flexible and cost-effective compensation method for leveling using large-scale coordinate measuring machines and its application in aircraft digital assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhengping; Li, Shuanggao; Huang, Xiang

    2018-06-01

    In the assembly process of large-size aerospace products, the leveling and horizontal alignment of large components are essential prior to the installation of an inertial navigation system (INS) and the final quality inspection. In general, the inherent coordinate systems of large-scale coordinate measuring devices are not coincident with the geodetic horizontal system, and a dual-axis compensation system is commonly required for the measurement of difference in heights. These compensation systems are expensive and dedicated designs for different devices at present. Considering that a large-size assembly site usually needs more than one measuring device, a compensation approach which is versatile for different devices would be a more convenient and economic choice for manufacturers. In this paper, a flexible and cost-effective compensation method is proposed. Firstly, an auxiliary measuring device called a versatile compensation fixture (VCF) is designed, which mainly comprises reference points for coordinate transformation and a dual-axis inclinometer, and a kind of network tighten points (NTPs) are introduced and temporarily deployed in the large measuring space to further reduce transformation error. Secondly, the measuring principle of height difference is studied, based on coordinate transformation theory and trigonometry while considering the effects of earth curvature, and the coordinate transformation parameters are derived by least squares adjustment. Thirdly, the analytical solution of leveling uncertainty is analyzed, based on which the key parameters of the VCF and the proper deployment of NTPs are determined according to the leveling accuracy requirement. Furthermore, the proposed method is practically applied to the assembly of a large helicopter by developing an automatic leveling and alignment system. By measuring four NTPs, the leveling uncertainty (2σ) is reduced by 29.4% to about 0.12 mm, compared with that without NTPs.

  16. Rosin-enabled ultraclean and damage-free transfer of graphene for large-area flexible organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Du, Jinhong; Zhang, Dingdong; Sun, Hengda; Yin, Lichang; Ma, Laipeng; Chen, Jiangshan; Ma, Dongge; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Ren, Wencai

    2017-02-01

    The large polymer particle residue generated during the transfer process of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition is a critical issue that limits its use in large-area thin-film devices such as organic light-emitting diodes. The available lighting areas of the graphene-based organic light-emitting diodes reported so far are usually transfer method using rosin as a support layer, whose weak interaction with graphene, good solubility and sufficient strength enable ultraclean and damage-free transfer. The transferred graphene has a low surface roughness with an occasional maximum residue height of about 15 nm and a uniform sheet resistance of 560 Ω per square with about 1% deviation over a large area. Such clean, damage-free graphene has produced the four-inch monolithic flexible graphene-based organic light-emitting diode with a high brightness of about 10,000 cd m-2 that can already satisfy the requirements for lighting sources and displays.

  17. Pose Space Surface Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yoshiyasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Example-based mesh deformation techniques produce natural and realistic shapes by learning the space of deformations from examples. However, skeleton-based methods cannot manipulate a global mesh structure naturally, whereas the mesh-based approaches based on a translational control do not allow the user to edit a local mesh structure intuitively. This paper presents an example-driven mesh editing framework that achieves both global and local pose manipulations. The proposed system is built with a surface deformation method based on a two-step linear optimization technique and achieves direct manipulations of a model surface using translational and rotational controls. With the translational control, the user can create a model in natural poses easily. The rotational control can adjust the local pose intuitively by bending and twisting. We encode example deformations with a rotation-invariant mesh representation which handles large rotations in examples. To incorporate example deformations, we infer a pose from the handle translations/rotations and perform pose space interpolation, thereby avoiding involved nonlinear optimization. With the two-step linear approach combined with the proposed multiresolution deformation method, we can edit models at interactive rates without losing important deformation effects such as muscle bulging.

  18. Remote manipulation techniques in the maintenance and repair of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rininsland, H.; Boehme, G.

    1986-01-01

    Remote manipulation means the application of multi-purpose devices featuring high mobility and universal applicability. The paper describes such a remote manipulation system (manipulation vehicle MF1 and MF2, master-slave manipulator, TFTR maintenance manipulator) which can be used flexibly in the NNP during maintenance and repair and in incident and accident situations. Connecting elements and tools can be redesigned for remote manipulation to meet the specific application environments. (DG) [de

  19. Eraser-based eco-friendly fabrication of a skin-like large-area matrix of flexible carbon nanotube strain and pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatiya, Parikshit; Badhulika, Sushmee

    2017-03-03

    This paper reports a new type of electronic, recoverable skin-like pressure and strain sensor, produced on a flexible, biodegradable pencil-eraser substrate and fabricated using a solvent-free, low-cost and energy efficient process. Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film, the strain sensing element, was patterned on pencil eraser with a rolling pin and a pre-compaction mechanical press. This induces high interfacial bonding between the MWCNTs and the eraser substrate, which enables the sensor to achieve recoverability under ambient conditions. The eraser serves as a substrate for strain sensing, as well as acting as a dielectric for capacitive pressure sensing, thereby eliminating the dielectric deposition step, which is crucial in capacitive-based pressure sensors. The strain sensing transduction mechanism is attributed to the tunneling effect, caused by the elastic behavior of the MWCNTs and the strong mechanical interlock between MWCNTs and the eraser substrate, which restricts slippage of MWCNTs on the eraser thereby minimizing hysteresis. The gauge factor of the strain sensor was calculated to be 2.4, which is comparable to and even better than most of the strain and pressure sensors fabricated with more complex designs and architectures. The sensitivity of the capacitive pressure sensor was found to be 0.135 MPa -1 .To demonstrate the applicability of the sensor as artificial electronic skin, the sensor was assembled on various parts of the human body and corresponding movements and touch sensation were monitored. The entire fabrication process is scalable and can be integrated into large areas to map spatial pressure distributions. This low-cost, easily scalable MWCNT pin-rolled eraser-based pressure and strain sensor has huge potential in applications such as artificial e-skin in flexible electronics and medical diagnostics, in particular in surgery as it provides high spatial resolution without a complex nanostructure architecture.

  20. Improved flexibility with large-scale variable renewable power in cities through optimal demand side management and power-to-heat conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salpakari, Jyri; Mikkola, Jani; Lund, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New models for optimal control of shiftable loads and power-to-heat conversion. • Full technical and economic potential with optimal controls. • Detailed time series of shiftable loads based on empirical data. • Case study of Helsinki (Finland) with over 90% share of district heating. • Positive net present values in cost-optimal operation. - Abstract: Solar and wind power are potential carbon-free energy solutions for urban areas, but they are also subject to large variability. At the same time, urban areas offer promising flexibility solutions for balancing variable renewable power. This paper presents models for optimal control of power-to-heat conversion to heating systems and shiftable loads in cities to incorporate large variable renewable power schemes. The power-to-heat systems comprise heat pumps, electric boilers, and thermal storage. The control strategies comprise optimal matching of load and production, and cost-optimal market participation with investment analysis. All analyses are based on hourly data. The models are applied to a case study in Helsinki, Finland. For a scheme providing ca. 50% of all electricity in the city through self-consumption of variable renewables, power-to-heat with thermal storage could absorb all the surplus production. A significant reduction in the net load magnitude was obtained with shiftable loads. Investments to both power-to-heat and load shifting with electric heating and commercial refrigeration have a positive net present value if the resources are controlled cost-optimally.

  1. On flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Christoph R.; Briglauer, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    By building on theoretical work by Mills and Schumann (1985) and Ungern-Sternberg (1990) this paper provides evidence on the determinants of two dimensions of flexibility, the flexibility in adjusting aggregate output over time (tactical flexibility) as well as the ability to switch quickly between products (operational flexibility). Econometric analysis of a sample of 40.000 farms in Upper-Austria for the period 1980 to 1990 suggests that larger full-time farms operated by younger, better ed...

  2. WORKER, a program for histogram manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolger, J.E.; Ellinger, H.; Moore, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    A set of programs is provided which may link to any user-written program, permitting dynamic creation of histograms as well as display, manipulation and transfer of histogrammed data. With wide flexibility, constants within the user's code may be set or monitored at any time during execution. (Auth.)

  3. The flexibility requirements for power plants with CCS in a future energy system with a large share of intermittent renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A. S.; van den Broek, M.; Seebregts, A.; Faaij, A. P. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates flexibility issues of future low-carbon power systems. The short-term power system impacts of intermittent renewables are identified and roughly quantified based on a review of wind integration studies. Next, the flexibility parameters of three types of power plants with CO2

  4. Benefits of coal-fired power generation with flexible CCS in a future northwest European power system with large scale wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wijk, Pieter Cornelis; Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; Van den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Slot, Thijs; Stienstra, Gerard; Van der Veen, Wim; Faaij, André P C

    Coal-fired power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is projected as a cost-effective technology to decarbonize the power sector. Intermittent renewables could reduce its load factor and revenues, so flexible capture unit operation strategies (flexible CCS) have been suggested to

  5. Large scale integration of flexible non-volatile, re-addressable memories using P(VDF-TrFE) and amorphous oxide transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelinck, Gerwin H; Cobb, Brian; Van Breemen, Albert J J M; Myny, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric polymers and amorphous metal oxide semiconductors have emerged as important materials for re-programmable non-volatile memories and high-performance, flexible thin-film transistors, respectively. However, realizing sophisticated transistor memory arrays has proven to be a challenge, and demonstrating reliable writing to and reading from such a large scale memory has thus far not been demonstrated. Here, we report an integration of ferroelectric, P(VDF-TrFE), transistor memory arrays with thin-film circuitry that can address each individual memory element in that array. n-type indium gallium zinc oxide is used as the active channel material in both the memory and logic thin-film transistors. The maximum process temperature is 200 °C, allowing plastic films to be used as substrate material. The technology was scaled up to 150 mm wafer size, and offers good reproducibility, high device yield and low device variation. This forms the basis for successful demonstration of memory arrays, read and write circuitry, and the integration of these. (paper)

  6. Fabrication of a large-area, flexible micro-pyramid PET film SERS substrate and its application in the detection of dye in herbal tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Huang, Meizhen; Chen, Jie; Kong, Lili; Wang, Keihui

    2018-05-01

    A simple method, based on a roll-to-roll ultraviolet micro-pyramid imprinting technique and a nanoparticle self-assembling process in aqueous solution, to fabricate a large-area, flexible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) polyethylene glycol terephthalate substrate is proposed. The SERS substrate is demonstrated to be of high sensitivity. The detection concentration of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) measured by a portable Raman spectrometer is down to 10-9 mol l-1. The relative standard deviation values of different spots and different substrates are less than 13%. In addition, the feasibility for rapid detection of dye in herbal tea based on this SERS substrate and a portable Raman spectrometer is investigated. Three industrial dyes are employed to simulate the dyeing process. It is presented that R6G of 4.8× {{10}-7} g ml-1, malachite green of 10-6 g ml-1 and Auramine O of 10-6 g ml-1 in herbal tea could be detected rapidly. The experimental results imply that this method could be potentially applied in the field of dyed herbal tea detection.

  7. Research on The Construction of Flexible Multi-body Dynamics Model based on Virtual Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Z. H.; Ye, X.; Yang, F.

    2018-05-01

    Focus on the harsh operation condition of space manipulator, which cannot afford relative large collision momentum, this paper proposes a new concept and technology, called soft-contact technology. In order to solve the problem of collision dynamics of flexible multi-body system caused by this technology, this paper also proposes the concepts of virtual components and virtual hinges, and constructs flexible dynamic model based on virtual components, and also studies on its solutions. On this basis, this paper uses NX to carry out model and comparison simulation for space manipulator in 3 different modes. The results show that using the model of multi-rigid body + flexible body hinge + controllable damping can make effective control on amplitude for the force and torque caused by target satellite collision.

  8. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  9. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisinger, Joseph W. Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a FR-amework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator FR-om these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC(trademark)s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost

  10. Master-slave-manipulator 'EMSM I'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, G.W.; Salaske, M.

    1976-01-01

    A master-slave manipulator with electric force transmission and reflection was developed for the first time in the German Federal Republic. The apparatus belongs to the class of 200 N carrying capacity. It is intended mainly for nuclear purposes and especially for use in large hot cells and also for medium and heavy manipulator vehicles. The most innovations compared with previously known foreign electric master-slave manipulators are two additional possibilities of movement and the electric dead weight compensation. (orig.) [de

  11. Master-slave-manipulator EMSM I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, G.W.; Salaske, M.

    1976-01-01

    A master-slave manipulator with electric force transmission and reflection was developed for the first time in the German Federal Republic. The aparatus belongs to the class of 200 N carrying capacity. It is intended mainly for nuclear purposes and especially for use in large hot cells and also for medium and heavy manipulator vehicles. The most obvious innovations compared with previously known foreign electric master-slave manipulators are two additional possibilities of movement and the electric dead weightcompensation. (orig.) [de

  12. Flexible Carbon Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Schwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon aerogels are highly porous materials with a large inner surface area. Due to their high electrical conductivity they are excellent electrode materials in supercapacitors. Their brittleness, however, imposes certain limitations in terms of applicability. In that context, novel carbon aerogels with varying degree of flexibility have been developed. These highly porous, light aerogels are characterized by a high surface area and possess pore structures in the micrometer range, allowing for a reversible deformation of the aerogel network. A high ratio of pore size to particle size was found to be crucial for high flexibility. For dynamic microstructural analysis, compression tests were performed in-situ within a scanning electron microscope allowing us to directly visualize the microstructural flexibility of an aerogel. The flexible carbon aerogels were found to withstand between 15% and 30% of uniaxial compression in a reversible fashion. These findings might stimulate further research and new application fields directed towards flexible supercapacitors and batteries.

  13. Energy Flexibility from Large Prosumers to Support Distribution System Operation—A Technical and Legal Case Study on the Amsterdam ArenA Stadium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, Dirk; Más, Heyd; Haji Ghasemi, Maryam; Blaauwbroek, Niels; Vo, Thai; van der Klauw, Thijs; Nguyen, Phuong

    2018-01-01

    To deal with the rising integration of stochastic renewables and energy intensive distributed energy resources (DER) to the electricity network, alternatives to expensive network reinforcements are increasingly needed. An alternative solution often under consideration is integrating flexibility from

  14. Currency Manipulation versus Current Account Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Junning Cai

    2005-01-01

    It is said that a country’s currency peg can become currency manipulation representing protracted government intervention in the foreign exchange market that gives it unfair competitive advantage in international trade yet prevents effective balance of payments in its trade partners. Regarding this widespread fallacy, this paper explains why currency peg is not currency manipulation even when it keeps a country’s currency undervalued. We clarify that 1) government is inherently a major player...

  15. Large modular pebble-bed reactors with passive safety properties as a contribution for catastrophe-free nuclear technology. Flexibility in design and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eladly, H.

    1996-01-01

    Worldwide investigations are carried out for different reactor concepts, in order to realize nuclear energy production in modular power plants. In that concept several small or middle sized reactors are joined together in a modular way to form one power plant. The size of MODUL-reactors is designed in such a way, that exclusively inherent safety properties perform the control of accidents without active technical proceedings. In order to achieve this, the reactor should be relatively small. On the other hand, it should be relatively large for economic and competitive reasons. The range of possible development of the modular pebble-bed reactor for raising the power output are discussed in this study. Based on the MODUL 200 MW concept, the design of the 'Great-Modul-Medul' reactor (GMM) with a power output of 500 MWth is introduced, in which the loading modus MEDUL is applied with repeated circulation of the spheres through the core. A 'Great-Modul-OTTO' GMO with a power output of 400 MWth is designed with only one pass of the pebbles (OTTO). In comparison to the GMM, that has the advantage of being simpler in construction and in the method of operation. Furthermore, another simplification is studied consisting of the combination (PO) of 'Peu a Peu' and 'OTTO' loading modus. All designed cases show a favourable flexibility when changing the application of the reactor from steam cycle to gas turbine cycle or to seawater desalination. The study outlines, that the inherently determined limitation of the excess temperature in case of a loss coolant accident and the ability for controling the water ingress reactivity are maintained for all variants being considered. (orig.) [de

  16. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  17. Conflicting flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, P.; Schaap, A.

    2011-01-01

    New buildings are designed for first users. For a sustainable approach there are many advantages in designing in flexibility and adjustability in order to enable and facilitate the other sequential users. For the first investor this flexibility is translated into improved exit values due to

  18. Interventional MR-Mammography: manipulator-assisted large core biopsy and interstitial laser therapy of tumors of the female breast; Interventionelle MR-Mammographie: Manipulatorgestuetzte Biopsie und interstitielle Lasertherapie von Tumoren der weiblichen Brust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleiderer, S.O.R.; Reichenbach, J.R.; Wurdinger, S.; Marx, C.; Freesmeyer, M.G.; Kaiser, W.A. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany); Vagner, J.; Fischer, H. [Inst. fuer Medizintechnik und Biophysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Schneider, A. [Klinik fuer Frauenheilkunde, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The present study investigated the clinical application of magnetic resonance (MR)-guided breast interventions, such as manipulator-assisted large core breast biopsy (LCBB) inside a 1.5 T whole-body magnet and MR-guided interstitial laser therapy (ILT). Sixteen patients underwent LCBB and 1 additional patient underwent 4 sessions of ILT of a recurrent undifferentiated lymph node metastasis in the axilla using a Nd-YAG laser (1064 nm). Temperature changes of the tumor tissue during ILT were monitored using phase images of a gradient echo sequence (GRE) (TR/TE/FA = 25/12/30). In 5 patients the biopsy findings were histopathologically confirmed after open surgery. In 3 patients, the biopsy missed one tubular and one ductal carcinoma; one invasive carcinoma was underestimated. Eight patients with benign findings are still in the follow-up period. The heating zone during ILT was well delineated on subtracted phase images. No severe adverse events were observed with LCBB or ILT. MR-guided breast biopsies are feasible with the manipulator system inside a whole-body 1.5 Tesla MR scanner. GRE information is suitable for therapy monitoring during ILT within the tumor. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the accuracy of the manipulator system and the efficacy of ILT in the treatment of breast lesions. (orig.) [German] Die klinische Anwendung MR-gestuetzter Interventionen an der Mamma wie die roboterassistierte Brustbiopsie innerhalb eines Ganzkoerpertomographen oder die kernspintomographisch kontrollierte interstitielle Lasertherapie (ILT) wurden untersucht. 16 Patientinnen unterzogen sich einer Brustbiopsie. Eine weitere Patientin wurde in insgesamt 4 Sitzungen mit einem Nd-YAG-Laser (1064 nm) an einem undifferenzierten axillaeren Lymphknotenrezidiv eines Mammakarzinoms behandelt. Temperaturaenderungen im Tumor waehrend der ILT wurden mit Hilfe von Phasenbildern einer Gradientenechosequenz (GRE) (TR/TE/FA = 25/12/30) visualisiert. Bei 5 Patientinnen wurde der

  19. Real-Time Strategy Game Training: Emergence of a Cognitive Flexibility Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian D.; Maddox, W. Todd; Love, Bradley C.

    2013-01-01

    Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS) game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function. PMID:23950921

  20. Real-time strategy game training: emergence of a cognitive flexibility trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian D; Maddox, W Todd; Love, Bradley C

    2013-01-01

    Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS) game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function.

  1. Real-time strategy game training: emergence of a cognitive flexibility trait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Glass

    Full Text Available Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function.

  2. Getting Manipulative about Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Janet K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Math manipulatives that are made from inexpensive, common items help students understand basic mathematics concepts. Learning activities using Cheerios, jellybeans, and clay as teaching materials are suggested. (DF)

  3. A CMOS-compatible large-scale monolithic integration of heterogeneous multi-sensors on flexible silicon for IoT applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2017-02-07

    We report CMOS technology enabled fabrication and system level integration of flexible bulk silicon (100) based multi-sensors platform which can simultaneously sense pressure, temperature, strain and humidity under various physical deformations. We also show an advanced wearable version for body vital monitoring which can enable advanced healthcare for IoT applications.

  4. A CMOS-compatible large-scale monolithic integration of heterogeneous multi-sensors on flexible silicon for IoT applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.; Sevilla, Galo T.; Velling, Seneca J.; Cordero, Marlon D.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    We report CMOS technology enabled fabrication and system level integration of flexible bulk silicon (100) based multi-sensors platform which can simultaneously sense pressure, temperature, strain and humidity under various physical deformations. We also show an advanced wearable version for body vital monitoring which can enable advanced healthcare for IoT applications.

  5. Manipulation of Cash-Settled Futures Contracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Pirrong, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Replacement of delivery settlement of futures contracts with cash settlement is frequently proposed to reduce the frequency of market manipulation. This article shows that it is always possible to design a delivery-settled futures contract that is less susceptible to cornering by a large long than any given cash-settled contract. Such a contract is more susceptible to manipulation by large shorts, however. Therefore, cash settlement does not uniformly dominate delivery settlement as a means o...

  6. Master-slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaker, L.W.; Jelatis, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A remote control master-slave manipulator for performing work on the opposite side of a barrier wall, is described. The manipulator consists of a rotatable horizontal support adapted to extend through the wall and two longitudinally extensible arms, a master and a slave, pivotally connected one to each end of the support. (U.K.)

  7. In Praise of Manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowding, Keith; Van Hees, Martin

    Many theorists believe that the manipulation of voting procedures is a serious problem. Accordingly, much of social choice theory examines the conditions under which strategy-proofness can be ensured, and what kind of procedures do a better job of preventing manipulation. This article argues that

  8. Cell manipulation in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hoyoung; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Won Gu

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other manipulations. We furthermore focus on history where the manipulation techniques originate and also discuss future perspectives with key examples where available. (topical review)

  9. Manipulator comparative testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N.; Fujita, Y.; Maeda, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program examined differences among manipulator systems from the United States and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, the Model M-2 of Central Research Laboratories Division of Sargent Industries (CRL), and the GCA Corporation PaR Systems Model 6000. The site of testing was the Remote Operations Maintenance Demonstration (ROMD) facility, operated by the Fuel Recycle Division in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In all stages of testing, operators using the CRL Model M-2 manipulator had consistently lower times to completion and error rates than they did using other machines. Performance was second best with the Meidensha BILARM 83A in master-slave mode. Performance with the BILARM in switchbox mode and the PaR 6000 manipulator was approximately equivalent in terms of criteria recorded in testing. These data show no impact of force reflection on task performance

  10. Silvabase: A flexible data file management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambing, Steven J.; Reynolds, Sandra J.

    1991-01-01

    The need for a more flexible and efficient data file management system for mission planning in the Mission Operations Laboratory (EO) at MSFC has spawned the development of Silvabase. Silvabase is a new data file structure based on a B+ tree data structure. This data organization allows for efficient forward and backward sequential reads, random searches, and appends to existing data. It also provides random insertions and deletions with reasonable efficiency, utilization of storage space well but not at the expense of speed, and performance of these functions on a large volume of data. Mission planners required that some data be keyed and manipulated in ways not found in a commercial product. Mission planning software is currently being converted to use Silvabase in the Spacelab and Space Station Mission Planning Systems. Silvabase runs on a Digital Equipment Corporation's popular VAX/VMS computers in VAX Fortran. Silvabase has unique features involving time histories and intervals such as in operations research. Because of its flexibility and unique capabilities, Silvabase could be used in almost any government or commercial application that requires efficient reads, searches, and appends in medium to large amounts of almost any kind of data.

  11. Manipulation, salience, and nudges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noggle, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Cass Sunstein and Richard Thaler recommend helping people make better decisions by employing 'nudges', which they define as noncoercive methods of influencing choice for the better. Not surprisingly, healthcare practitioners and public policy professionals have become interested in whether nudges might be a promising method of improving health-related behaviors without resorting to heavy-handed methods such as coercion, deception, or government regulation. Many nudges seem unobjectionable as they merely improve the quality and quantity available for the decision-maker. However, other nudges influence decision-making in ways that do not involve providing more and better information. Nudges of this sort raise concerns about manipulation. This paper will focus on noninformational nudges that operate by changing the salience of various options. It will survey two approaches to understanding manipulation, one which sees manipulation as a kind of pressure, and one that sees it as a kind of trickery. On the pressure view, salience nudges do not appear to be manipulative. However, on the trickery view (which the author favors), salience nudges will be manipulative if they increase the salience so that it is disproportionate to that fact's true relevance and importance for the decision at hand. By contrast, salience nudges will not be manipulative if they merely highlight some fact that is true and important for the decision at hand. The paper concludes by providing examples of both manipulative and nonmanipulative salience nudges. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Flexible Foam Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Werner, Brian T.; Scherzinger, William M.; Lo, Chi S.

    2018-03-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of a 15 pcf flexible polyurethane foam to large deformation at different strain rates and temperatures. Results from these experiments indicated that at room temperature, flexible polyurethane foams exhibit significant nonlinear elastic deformation and nearly return to their original undeformed shape when unloaded. However, when these foams are cooled to temperatures below their glass transition temperature of approximately -35 o C, they behave like rigid polyurethane foams and exhibit significant permanent deformation when compressed. Thus, a new model which captures this dramatic change in behavior with temperature was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Flex_Foam to describe the mechanical response of both flexible and rigid foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments. Next, development of the Flex Foam model for flexible polyurethane and other flexible foams is described. Selection of material parameters are discussed and finite element simulations with the new Flex Foam model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this new model.

  13. Workplace flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordato, C; Harris, J

    1990-01-01

    Whether your organization is in a growth pattern or downsizing, you are probably facing change. To gain some insight into your options, here is an in-depth look at the problems and benefits of some flexible work arrangements from a just published study by Catalyst.

  14. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.; Bauer, F.; Groß, H.; Sieglen, G.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  15. Manipulators for production and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Ian

    1987-01-01

    The development of caves or cells and master-slave manipulators to handle radioactive materials is discussed. Some of the most recent advances are described. A manipulator arm, a master-slave manipulator and a servomanipulator mounted on a manipulator are illustrated. Future developments are discussed - these include resolved tip control for the manipulator. (UK)

  16. Powered manipulator control arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Mouee, Theodore; Vertut, Jean; Marchal, Paul; Germon, J.C.; Petit, Michel

    1975-01-01

    A remote operated control arm for powered manipulators is described. It includes an assembly allowing several movements with position sensors for each movement. The number of possible arm movements equals the number of possible manipulator movements. The control systems may be interrupted as required. One part of the arm is fitted with a system to lock it with respect to another part of the arm without affecting the other movements, so long as the positions of the manipulator and the arm have not been brought into complete coincidence. With this system the locking can be ended when complete concordance is achieved [fr

  17. The direct manipulation shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.E.; Christiansen, M.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerator controls systems provide parameter display pages which allow the operator to monitor and manipulate selected control points in the system. Display pages are generally implemented as either hand-crafted, purpose-built programs; or by using a specialized display page layout tool. These two methods of display page development exhibit the classic trade-off between functionality vs. ease of implementation. In the Direct Manipulation Shell we approach the process of developing a display page in a manifestly object-oriented manner. This is done by providing a general framework for interactively instantiating and manipulating display objects. (author)

  18. Analysis of the forced vibration test of the Hualien large scale soil-structure interaction model using a flexible volume substructuring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Nakamura, N.

    1995-01-01

    A 1/4-scale cylindrical reactor containment model was constructed in Hualien, Taiwan for foil-structure interaction (SSI) effect evaluation and SSI analysis procedure verification. Forced vibration tests were executed before backfill (FVT-1) and after backfill (FVT-2) to characterize soil-structure system characteristics under low excitations. A number of organizations participated in the pre-test blind prediction and post-test correlation analyses of the forced vibration test using various industry familiar methods. In the current study, correlation analyses were performed using a three-dimensional flexible volume substructuring method. The results are reported and soil property sensitivities are evaluated in the paper. (J.P.N.)

  19. Coordinated parallel and series flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) to support a power grid with a large amount of wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Cantallops, Marcal; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sumper, Andreas; Rull-Duran, Joan [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (ES). Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC)

    2009-07-01

    Wind power constitutes one of the more viable alternatives to conventional power generation technology. In the previous years, wind power penetration on electric grids has grown notably, and has brought several new issues related to its integration into power grids. Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) installed in the right place and controlled conveniently are able to mitigate and solve many of these issues. In the present work, a STATCOM and a SSSC are used coordinately to fully support an electric grid. Simulations include normal and fault operation. (orig.)

  20. Control and applications of cooperating disparate robotic manipulators relevant to nuclear waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Jae Young; Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    Remote handling in nuclear waste management requires a robotic system with precise motion as well as a large workspace. The concept of a small arm mounted on the end of a large arm may satisfy such needs. However, the performance of such a serial configuration lacks payload capacity which is a crucial factor for handling a massive object. Also, this configuration induces more flexibility on the structure. To overcome these problems, the topology of bracing the tip of the small arm (not the large arm) and having an end effector in the middle of the chain is proposed in this paper. Also, control of these cooperating disparate manipulators is accomplished in computer simulations. Thus, this robotic system can have the accuracy of the small arm, and at the same time, it can have the payload capacity and large workspace of the large arm.

  1. Geometric control of manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiruarooran, C.

    1996-01-01

    Resolved motion control enables the end effector to be moved as a rigid body in space without having to work out manually the joint combinations needed. Since a rigid body in space has three independent translational and three independent rotational movements, a manipulator with at least six joints can be controlled in this way. Normally the manipulator has more than six joints providing an infinite number of ways of moving the tip in the desired direction and this redundancy can be exploited in a variety of ways. Resolved motion tests performed on a hydraulically operated heavy duty manipulator at the Dungeness nuclear power plant are described. The results have shown that manipulators with as many as ten joints can be controlled under resolved tip motion and the areas which are critical to the performance of this type of control have been identified. (UK)

  2. MATHEMATICAL MODEL MANIPULATOR ROBOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Krakhmalev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model to describe the dynamics of manipulator robots. Mathematical model are the implementation of the method based on the Lagrange equation and using the transformation matrices of elastic coordinates. Mathematical model make it possible to determine the elastic deviations of manipulator robots from programmed motion trajectories caused by elastic deformations in hinges, which are taken into account in directions of change of the corresponding generalized coordinates. Mathematical model is approximated and makes it possible to determine small elastic quasi-static deviations and elastic vibrations. The results of modeling the dynamics by model are compared to the example of a two-link manipulator system. The considered model can be used when performing investigations of the mathematical accuracy of the manipulator robots.

  3. Compliant Aerial Manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelds, T.; Capra, A.; Hamaza, S.

    2016-01-01

    joints. The approach aims at limiting the influence of impacts on the controlled attitude dynamics in order to allow the aerial manipulator to remain stable during and after impact. The developed concept is intended to convert kinetic energy into potential energy, which is permanently stored into elastic...... elements by means of directional locking mechanisms. The proposed approach has been tested on a 2 d.o.f. manipulator mounted on a quadrotor UAV. The manipulation system has one active rotational d.o.f. compensating for pitch movements of the UAV and one passive linear joint which is in charge of absorbing...... the impact energy. The device has been used to validate the method through experiments, in comparison with a rigid manipulator. The results show that the proposed approach and the developed mechanical system achieve stable impact absorption without bouncing away from the interacting environment. Our work has...

  4. Manipulating Strings in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.

  5. Highly conformal SiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminate gas-diffusion barriers for large-area flexible electronics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Young-Min; Park, Young-Wook; Park, Tae-Hyun; Jeong, Jin-Wook; Choi, Hyun-Ju; Song, Eun-Ho; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Lee, Jin-Woo; Kim, Cheol-Ho

    2010-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a flexible gas-diffusion barrier film, containing an SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 nanolaminate on a plastic substrate. Highly uniform and conformal coatings can be made by alternating the exposure of a flexible polyethersulfone surface to vapors of SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 , at nanoscale thickness cycles via RF-magnetron sputtering deposition. The calcium degradation test indicates that 24 cycles of a 10/10 nm inorganic bilayer, top-coated by UV-cured resin, greatly enhance the barrier performance, with a permeation rate of 3.79 x 10 -5 g m -2 day -1 based on the change in the ohmic behavior of the calcium sensor at 20 deg. C and 50% relative humidity. Also, the permeation rate for 30 cycles of an 8/8 nm inorganic bilayer coated with UV resin was beyond the limited measurable range of the Ca test at 60 deg. C and 95% relative humidity. It has been found that such laminate films can effectively suppress the void defects of a single inorganic layer, and are significantly less sensitive against moisture permeation. This nanostructure, fabricated by an RF-sputtering process at room temperature, is verified as being useful for highly water-sensitive organic electronics fabricated on plastic substrates.

  6. Flexible licensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn Jansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The case is presented for a more flexible approach to licensing online library resources. Today's distributed education environment creates pressure for UK higher and further education institutions (HEI/FEIs to form partnerships and to develop educational products and roll them out across the globe. Online library resources are a key component of distributed education and yet existing licensing agreements struggle to keep pace with the increasing range of users and purposes for which they are required. This article describes the process of developing a flexible approach to licensing and proposes a new model licence for online library resources which has the adaptability needed in this new global educational landscape. These ideas have been presented and discussed at various workshops across Eduserv's and JISC Collections' higher education and publisher communities, and further consultation is ongoing.

  7. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-03-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors\\'s magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors\\'s deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor\\'s large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications.

  8. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bodong; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho N.; Kosel, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors's magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors's deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor's large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications. - Highlights: • A flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensor is developed. • Studies are carried out using a flexible microstrip transmission line. • An MI ratio of up to 90% is obtained. • The effect of magnetostriction is studied

  9. Tool position tracking control of a nonlinear uncertain flexible robot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Robot manipulators have become progressively important in the field of flexible ... this research, tracking of tool position and minimization of motor torque are ...... and Menhaj M B 2013a Position and current control of a permanent-magnet syn-.

  10. Tool position tracking control of a nonlinear uncertain flexible robot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moreover, other different papers and thesis of flexible manipulators ... various applications is highly sensitive to variations of disturbance torque acting on ...... Dang X 2014 Robust adaptive sliding-mode control of condenser-cleaning mobile.

  11. Manipulating colloids with charges and electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunissen, M. E.

    2007-02-01

    This thesis presents the results of experimental investigations on a variety of colloidal suspensions. Colloidal particles are at least a hundred times larger than atoms or molecules, but suspended in a liquid they display the same phase behavior, including fluid and crystalline phases. Due to their relatively large size, colloids are much easier to investigate and manipulate, though. This makes them excellent condensed matter model systems. With this in mind, we studied micrometer-sized perspex (‘PMMA’) spheres, labeled with a fluorescent dye for high-resolution confocal microscopy imaging, and suspended in a low-polar mixture of the organic solvents cyclohexyl bromide and cis-decalin. This system offered us the flexibility to change the interactions between the particles from ‘hard-sphere-like’ to long-ranged repulsive (between like-charged particles), long-ranged attractive (between oppositely charged particles) and dipolar (in an electric field). We investigated the phase behavior of our suspensions as a function of the particle concentration, the ionic strength of the solvent and the particles’ charges. In this way, we obtained new insight in the freezing and melting behavior of like-charged and oppositely charged colloids. Interestingly, we found that the latter can readily form large crystals, thus defying the common belief that plus-minus interactions inevitably lead to aggregation. Moreover, we demonstrated that these systems can serve as a reliable model system for classical ionic matter (‘salts’), and that opposite-charge interactions can greatly facilitate the self-assembly of new structures with special properties for applications. On a slightly different note, we also studied electrostatic effects in mixtures of the cyclohexyl bromide solvent and water, both with and without colloidal particles present. This provided new insight in the stabilization mechanisms of oil-water emulsions and gave us control over the self-assembly of various

  12. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...... the perspective of the consumer: what does living in a demand response setup look like to participants – and what kinds of behaviour and interest motivate – and emerge from – their participation in EcoGrid 2.0....

  13. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...

  14. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  15. Balanced articulated manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Daniel; Germond, J.-C.; Marchal, Paul; Vertut, Jean.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a manipulator of the type comprising a master arm and a slave arm, capable of working in a containment restricted by a wall fitted with an aperture to introduce the slave arm into the containment. According to the invention this manipulator is permanently balanced irrespective of its distortions when it is secured to the wall of the containment in which it is desired to work. The entire manipulator is also balanced when being set up and when moved outside the containment, in relation to a supporting axle. This result is achieved in a simplified manner by giving homothetic shapes to the various component parts of the slave and master arms, the master arm having at least one balancing weight [fr

  16. Optoelectronic Tweezers for Microparticle and Cell Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming Chiang (Inventor); Chiou, Pei-Yu (Inventor); Ohta, Aaron T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An optical image-driven light induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) apparatus and method are described which provide for the manipulation of particles or cells with a diameter on the order of 100 micromillimeters or less. The apparatus is referred to as optoelectric tweezers (OET) and provides a number of advantages over conventional optical tweezers, in particular the ability to perform operations in parallel and over a large area without damage to living cells. The OET device generally comprises a planar liquid-filled structure having one or more portions which are photoconductive to convert incoming light to a change in the electric field pattern. The light patterns are dynamically generated to provide a number of manipulation structures that can manipulate single particles and cells or group of particles/cells. The OET preferably includes a microscopic imaging means to provide feedback for the optical manipulation, such as detecting position and characteristics wherein the light patterns are modulated accordingly.

  17. Modeling of Continuum Manipulators Using Pythagorean Hodograph Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjeet; Amara, Yacine; Melingui, Achille; Mani Pathak, Pushparaj; Merzouki, Rochdi

    2018-05-10

    Research on continuum manipulators is increasingly developing in the context of bionic robotics because of their many advantages over conventional rigid manipulators. Due to their soft structure, they have inherent flexibility, which makes it a huge challenge to control them with high performances. Before elaborating a control strategy of such robots, it is essential to reconstruct first the behavior of the robot through development of an approximate behavioral model. This can be kinematic or dynamic depending on the conditions of operation of the robot itself. Kinematically, two types of modeling methods exist to describe the robot behavior; quantitative methods describe a model-based method, and qualitative methods describe a learning-based method. In kinematic modeling of continuum manipulator, the assumption of constant curvature is often considered to simplify the model formulation. In this work, a quantitative modeling method is proposed, based on the Pythagorean hodograph (PH) curves. The aim is to obtain a three-dimensional reconstruction of the shape of the continuum manipulator with variable curvature, allowing the calculation of its inverse kinematic model (IKM). It is noticed that the performances of the PH-based kinematic modeling of continuum manipulators are considerable regarding position accuracy, shape reconstruction, and time/cost of the model calculation, than other kinematic modeling methods, for two cases: free load manipulation and variable load manipulation. This modeling method is applied to the compact bionic handling assistant (CBHA) manipulator for validation. The results are compared with other IKMs developed in case of CBHA manipulator.

  18. Data manipulation with R

    CERN Document Server

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2014-01-01

    This book is a step-by step, example-oriented tutorial that will show both intermediate and advanced users how data manipulation is facilitated smoothly using R.This book is aimed at intermediate to advanced level users of R who want to perform data manipulation with R, and those who want to clean and aggregate data effectively. Readers are expected to have at least an introductory knowledge of R and some basic administration work in R, such as installing packages and calling them when required.

  19. Flexible nanovectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugno, Nicola M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show that the control of adhesion in highly flexible (a property that could be crucial for smart drug delivery but which is still ignored in the literature) nanovectors can help in smartly targeting and delivering the drug. The existence of and the conditions for activating and controlling a super-adhesive state are addressed. Even if such a state has never been observed in nanovectors, our calculations, as well as observations in spiders and geckos, suggest its existence and feasible control. Control of the competition between the drag and the adhesive force is exploited to improve the targeting ability and a hierarchical model is applied to describe a real vasculature. The high flexibility of the nanovector is used to smartly deliver the drug only during adhesion by nanopumping or, as a limiting case, by the new concept of 'adhesion induced nanovector implosion'; a liquid drop analogy is utilized for the calculations. Fast (pumping) and slow (diffusion) drug deliveries can thus be separately controlled by controlling the size and shape of the nanovector. Multiple stage nanovectors are also briefly discussed, mimicking aerospace vector strategies.

  20. Flexible nanovectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugno, Nicola M.

    2008-11-01

    In this paper we show that the control of adhesion in highly flexible (a property that could be crucial for smart drug delivery but which is still ignored in the literature) nanovectors can help in smartly targeting and delivering the drug. The existence of and the conditions for activating and controlling a super-adhesive state are addressed. Even if such a state has never been observed in nanovectors, our calculations, as well as observations in spiders and geckos, suggest its existence and feasible control. Control of the competition between the drag and the adhesive force is exploited to improve the targeting ability and a hierarchical model is applied to describe a real vasculature. The high flexibility of the nanovector is used to smartly deliver the drug only during adhesion by nanopumping or, as a limiting case, by the new concept of 'adhesion induced nanovector implosion'; a liquid drop analogy is utilized for the calculations. Fast (pumping) and slow (diffusion) drug deliveries can thus be separately controlled by controlling the size and shape of the nanovector. Multiple stage nanovectors are also briefly discussed, mimicking aerospace vector strategies.

  1. A Flexible Maximum Power Point Tracking Control Strategy Considering Both Conversion Efficiency and Power Fluctuation for Large-inertia Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmin Meng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In wind turbine control, maximum power point tracking (MPPT control is the main control mode for partial-load regimes. Efficiency potentiation of energy conversion and power smoothing are both two important control objectives in partial-load regime. However, on the one hand, low power fluctuation signifies inefficiency of energy conversion. On the other hand, enhancing efficiency may increase output power fluctuation as well. Thus the two objectives are contradictory and difficult to balance. This paper proposes a flexible MPPT control framework to improve the performance of both conversion efficiency and power smoothing, by adaptively compensating the torque reference value. The compensation was determined by a proposed model predictive control (MPC method with dynamic weights in the cost function, which improved control performance. The computational burden of the MPC solver was reduced by transforming the cost function representation. Theoretical analysis proved the good stability and robustness. Simulation results showed that the proposed method not only kept efficiency at a high level, but also reduced power fluctuations as much as possible. Therefore, the proposed method could improve wind farm profits and power grid reliability.

  2. Strategic Management of Large Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangYingluo; LiuYi; LiYuan

    2004-01-01

    The strategic management of large projects is both theoretically and practically important. Some scholars have advanced flexible strategy theory in China. The difference of strategic flexibility and flexible strategy is pointed out. The supporting system and characteristics of flexible strategy are analyzed. The changes of flexible strategy and integration of strategic management are discussed.

  3. Intelligent Hierarchical Modal Control of a Novel Manipulator with Slewing and Deployable Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, V. J.; Zhang, J.; de Silva, C. W.

    1. Introduction The Space Shuttle based Canada arm has vividly demonstrated its application in launching of satellites as well as retrieval of disabled spacecraft for repair. There have been proposals for free flying robotic systems with appropriate instrumentation to monitor health of spacecraft, identify problems and even perform corrective measures. Most of these applications involve multilink manipulators with revolute joints for which there is a vast body of literature [1]. On the other hand, manipulators with revolute as well as prismatic joints, permitting slewing as well as deployment/retrieval of links, have received relatively little attention [2]. Such variable geometry, snake-like manipulators have distinct advantages of reduced coupling effects leading to simpler equations of motion and inverse kinematics, less number of singularity conditions, and ease of obstacle avoidance [3]. 2. Hierarchical Structure The control system developed for the deployable manipulator has a three-level structure. This hierarchical structure takes the advantages of a crisp controller; specially, a modal controller, with those of a soft, knowledge-based, supervisory control . The overall structure can be separated and developed as three main layers. The first layer is the lowest layer of the control system. It deals with information coming from sensors attached to the plant ( manipulator). This type of information is characterized by a large amount of individual data points of high resolution, produced and collected at high frequency. The crisp controller that is used is a state feedback regulator with its feedback gain matrix determined using the eigenstructure assignment approach. The data processing for monitoring and evaluation of the system performance occurs in this intermediate or second layer. Here high-resolution, crisp data from sensors are filtered to afford representation of the current state of the manipulator. This servo-expert layer acts as an interface

  4. Cellulose Nanofiber Composite Substrates for Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Sabo; Jung-Hun Seo; Zhenqiang Ma

    2012-01-01

    Flexible electronics have a large number of potential applications including malleable displays and wearable computers. The current research into high-speed, flexible electronic substrates employs the use of plastics for the flexible substrate, but these plastics typically have drawbacks, such as high thermal expansion coefficients. Transparent films made from...

  5. Development of an advanced robot manipulator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomichi, Takeo; Higuchi, Masaru; Shimizu, Yujiro; Ohnishi, Ken

    1991-01-01

    A sophisticated manipulator system for an advanced robot was developed under the 'Advanced Robot Technology Development' Program promoted and supported by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of MITI. The authors have participated in the development of a fingered manipulator with force and tactile sensors applicable to a masterslave robot system. Our slave manipulator is equipped with four fingers. Though the finger needs many degrees of freedom so as to be suitable for skilful handing of an object, our fingers are designed to have minimum degree of freedom in order to reduce weight. Each finger tip was designed to be similar to a human finger which has flexibility, softness and contact feeling. The shape of the master finger manipulator was so designed that the movement of the fingers is smoother and that the constraint feeling of the operator is smaller. We were adopted to a pneumatic pressure system for transmitting the tactile feeling of the slave fingers to the master fingers. A multiple sensory bilateral control system which gives an operator a feeling of force and tactile reduces his feeling of constraint in carrying out work with a robot system. (author)

  6. MANIPULATING CONSUMERS THROUGH ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.

  7. Manipulating the Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaze, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

  8. Microrobots to Manipulate Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    At DTU Fotonik we developed and harnessed the new and emerging research area of so-called Light Robotics including the 3D-printed micro-tools coined Wave-guided Optical Waveguides that can be real-time laser-manipulated in a 3D-volume with six-degrees-of-freedom. To be exploring the full potentia...

  9. Automated visual attention manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Lambalgen, R. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a system for visual attention manipulation is introduced and formally described. This system is part of the design of a software agent that supports naval crew in her task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. A case study is described in hich the system is used

  10. Data manipulation with R

    CERN Document Server

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2015-01-01

    This book is for all those who wish to learn about data manipulation from scratch and excel at aggregating data effectively. It is expected that you have basic knowledge of R and have previously done some basic administration work with R.

  11. The TFTR maintenance manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kungl, D.; Loesser, D.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Cerdan, G.

    1989-01-01

    TFTR plans to begin D-T experiments in mid 1990. The D-T experimental program will produce approximately one hundred shots, with a neutron generation rate of 10 19 neutrons per shot. This will result in high levels of activation in TFTR, especially in the vacuum vessel. The primary purpose of the Maintenance Manipulator is to provide a means of remotely performing certain defined maintenance and inspection tasks inside the vacuum torus so as to minimize personnel exposure to radiation. The manipulator consists of a six-link folding boom connected to a fixed boom on a movable carriage. The entire manipulator is housed in a vacuum antechamber connected to the vacuum torus, through a port formerly used for a vacuum pumping duct. The configuration extends 180 0 in either direction to provide complete coverage of the torus. The four 3500 l/s turbopumps which were formerly used in the pumping duct will be mounted on the antechamber. The manipulator will utilize two end effectors. The first, called a General Inspection Arm (GIA) provides a movable platform to an inspection camera and an in-vacuum leak detector. The second is a bilateral, force-reflecting pair of slave arms which utilize specially developed tools to perform several maintenance functions. All components except the slave arms are capable of operating in TFTR's vacuum environment and during 150 0 C bakeout of the torus. (orig.)

  12. Manipulating Combinatorial Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Gilbert

    This set of transparencies shows how the manipulation of combinatorial structures in the context of modern combinatorics can easily lead to interesting teaching and learning activities at every level of education from elementary school to university. The transparencies describe: (1) the importance and relations of combinatorics to science and…

  13. Quantifying the transient carbon dynamics of ecosystem scale carbon cycle responses to piñon pine mortality using a large-scale experimental manipulation, remote sensing and model-data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, M. E.; Hilton, T. W.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Fox, A. M.; Robinson, E.; McDowell, N. G.; Rahn, T.; Sinsabaugh, R.

    2012-12-01

    The southwestern United States experienced an extended drought from 1999-2002 which led to widespread coniferous tree mortality throughout New Mexico, Arizona, Utah and Colorado. Piñon-juniper (PJ) woodlands, which occupy 24 million ha throughout the Southwest, proved to be extremely vulnerable to this drought, experiencing 40 to 95% mortality of piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and 2-25% mortality of juniper (Juniperus monosperma) in less than 3 years (Breshears et al., 2005). Understanding the response trajectories of these woodlands is crucial given that climate projections for the region suggest that episodic droughts, such as the one correlated with these recent conifer mortality, are likely to increase in frequency and severity and to expand northward. We are using a combination of eddy covariance, soil respiration, sap flow and biomass carbon pool measurements made at: (i) an undisturbed PJ woodland (control) in central New Mexico and at a manipulation site within 2 miles of the control where all piñon trees greater than 7 cm diameter at breast height within the 4 ha flux footprint were girdled (decreasing LAI by ~ 1/3) to quantify the response of ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in PJ woodlands to widespread piñon mortality. As expected, piñon mortality triggered an abrupt shift in carbon stocks from productive biomass to detritus, leading to a 25% decrease in gross primary production, and >50% decrease in net ecosystem production in the two years following mortality. Because litter and course woody debris are slow to decompose in these semiarid environments, ecosystem respiration initially decreased following mortality, and only increased two years post mortality following a large monsoon precipitation event. In the three years following mortality, reduced competition for water in these water limited ecosystems and increased light availability has triggered compensatory growth in understory vegetation observed in both remote sensing and ground

  14. Open Source Tools for Temporally Controlled Rodent Behavior Suitable for Electrophysiology and Optogenetic Manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Solari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the brain controls behavior requires observing and manipulating neural activity in awake behaving animals. Neuronal firing is timed at millisecond precision. Therefore, to decipher temporal coding, it is necessary to monitor and control animal behavior at the same level of temporal accuracy. However, it is technically challenging to deliver sensory stimuli and reinforcers as well as to read the behavioral responses they elicit with millisecond precision. Presently available commercial systems often excel in specific aspects of behavior control, but they do not provide a customizable environment allowing flexible experimental design while maintaining high standards for temporal control necessary for interpreting neuronal activity. Moreover, delay measurements of stimulus and reinforcement delivery are largely unavailable. We combined microcontroller-based behavior control with a sound delivery system for playing complex acoustic stimuli, fast solenoid valves for precisely timed reinforcement delivery and a custom-built sound attenuated chamber using high-end industrial insulation materials. Together this setup provides a physical environment to train head-fixed animals, enables calibrated sound stimuli and precisely timed fluid and air puff presentation as reinforcers. We provide latency measurements for stimulus and reinforcement delivery and an algorithm to perform such measurements on other behavior control systems. Combined with electrophysiology and optogenetic manipulations, the millisecond timing accuracy will help interpret temporally precise neural signals and behavioral changes. Additionally, since software and hardware provided here can be readily customized to achieve a large variety of paradigms, these solutions enable an unusually flexible design of rodent behavioral experiments.

  15. Open Source Tools for Temporally Controlled Rodent Behavior Suitable for Electrophysiology and Optogenetic Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Nicola; Sviatkó, Katalin; Laszlovszky, Tamás; Hegedüs, Panna; Hangya, Balázs

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how the brain controls behavior requires observing and manipulating neural activity in awake behaving animals. Neuronal firing is timed at millisecond precision. Therefore, to decipher temporal coding, it is necessary to monitor and control animal behavior at the same level of temporal accuracy. However, it is technically challenging to deliver sensory stimuli and reinforcers as well as to read the behavioral responses they elicit with millisecond precision. Presently available commercial systems often excel in specific aspects of behavior control, but they do not provide a customizable environment allowing flexible experimental design while maintaining high standards for temporal control necessary for interpreting neuronal activity. Moreover, delay measurements of stimulus and reinforcement delivery are largely unavailable. We combined microcontroller-based behavior control with a sound delivery system for playing complex acoustic stimuli, fast solenoid valves for precisely timed reinforcement delivery and a custom-built sound attenuated chamber using high-end industrial insulation materials. Together this setup provides a physical environment to train head-fixed animals, enables calibrated sound stimuli and precisely timed fluid and air puff presentation as reinforcers. We provide latency measurements for stimulus and reinforcement delivery and an algorithm to perform such measurements on other behavior control systems. Combined with electrophysiology and optogenetic manipulations, the millisecond timing accuracy will help interpret temporally precise neural signals and behavioral changes. Additionally, since software and hardware provided here can be readily customized to achieve a large variety of paradigms, these solutions enable an unusually flexible design of rodent behavioral experiments.

  16. UNITY OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL FUNCTIONS FLEXIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    George MOLDOVEANU; Cosmin DOBRIN

    2012-01-01

    The paper has the goal to analyse the correlation of the flexibility of all organizational functions. Based upon theoretical and practical studies, the decrease of flexibility into an "activity area" of organizations implies a diminution on a large scale of the flexibility of the processing system as a law expression of the decreasing outputs within economy. Therefore, at the level of each organizational function there are several major directions ensuring the flexibility of the "ensemble".

  17. A comparison of force sensing techniques for planetary manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmick, Daniel; Okon, Avi; DiCicco, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Five techniques for sensing forces with a manipulator are compared analytically and experimentally. The techniques compared are: a six-axis wrist force/torque sensor, joint torque sensors, link strain gauges, motor current sensors, and flexibility modeling. The accuracy and repeatability fo each technique is quantified and compared.

  18. Micro manipulators to handle micro machines. ; Aiming at developing clever and deft robots. Micro machine wo handling surutameno micro manipulator. ; Kashikoku kiyo na robot kaihatsu wo mezashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujie, M [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-11-15

    The current state of micro manipulators (MM) to control micro machines is described. No MM can be realized with the conventional robots of which finger positions and attitudes are controlled by information on angles of each articulate. To solve this problem, such a system using the conception called a master slave manipulator with complex structure is proposed, in which human ways of manipulation are coupled with master arms with simple structure and slave arms facilitating works via a computer. The MM requires a flexible articulate chaining mechanism when the considerations on smallness of the arm structure and chaining of the multiple actuators are taken. To control the relative positions and attitudes, development of the control algorithm is required, which can learn the command signals given to a large number of actuators to drive mechanisms with ultra high freedoms and the relationship among changes in the end effector movements, rotation and directions, and can perform works according to precise relative positioning of objects to be handled. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debray, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    Chameleons have developed a specialized ballistic tongue which elongates more than six times its rest length at speeds higher than 3.5 m s -1 and accelerations 350 m s -2 , with a highly flexible mobile part, and which applies no continuous force during forward motion. These characteristics are possible because this tongue consists of two highly specialized systems, an ejection system for the forward motion and an accordion-like system for the retraction. Four manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon and based on this design have been developed, resulting in three characteristics similar to the tongue of the chameleon: extensibility of the manipulator, flexibility of the mobile part, and absence of continuous force during the forward motion. The first manipulator mimics the basic mechanism of the tongue of the chameleon and reproduced its basic performances. A second manipulator performs a catching function at a speed of 3.5 m s -1 with an acceleration of 573 m s -2 while elongating seven times its rest length. The design of this manipulator is such that the dc motor used for retraction applies a torque 25 times its rated torque. Moreover, during the retraction, the mobile part of the manipulator moves due to its own inertia, allowing the dc motor to rotate at full velocity. In another manipulator, the addition of an elastomer in the mobile part allows for control of the retraction velocity. A model for these two manipulators compares well with the experimental data. Finally, the addition of wings on the mobile part allows us to take the advantage of aerodynamic effects, which is unusual for manipulators.

  20. Manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debray, Alexis

    2011-06-01

    Chameleons have developed a specialized ballistic tongue which elongates more than six times its rest length at speeds higher than 3.5 m s(-1) and accelerations 350 m s(-2), with a highly flexible mobile part, and which applies no continuous force during forward motion. These characteristics are possible because this tongue consists of two highly specialized systems, an ejection system for the forward motion and an accordion-like system for the retraction. Four manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon and based on this design have been developed, resulting in three characteristics similar to the tongue of the chameleon: extensibility of the manipulator, flexibility of the mobile part, and absence of continuous force during the forward motion. The first manipulator mimics the basic mechanism of the tongue of the chameleon and reproduced its basic performances. A second manipulator performs a catching function at a speed of 3.5 m s(-1) with an acceleration of 573 m s(-2) while elongating seven times its rest length. The design of this manipulator is such that the dc motor used for retraction applies a torque 25 times its rated torque. Moreover, during the retraction, the mobile part of the manipulator moves due to its own inertia, allowing the dc motor to rotate at full velocity. In another manipulator, the addition of an elastomer in the mobile part allows for control of the retraction velocity. A model for these two manipulators compares well with the experimental data. Finally, the addition of wings on the mobile part allows us to take the advantage of aerodynamic effects, which is unusual for manipulators.

  1. Manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debray, Alexis, E-mail: debray.alexis@canon.co.jp [Canon Incorporation, 3-30-2, Shimomaruko, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 146-8501 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Chameleons have developed a specialized ballistic tongue which elongates more than six times its rest length at speeds higher than 3.5 m s{sup -1} and accelerations 350 m s{sup -2}, with a highly flexible mobile part, and which applies no continuous force during forward motion. These characteristics are possible because this tongue consists of two highly specialized systems, an ejection system for the forward motion and an accordion-like system for the retraction. Four manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon and based on this design have been developed, resulting in three characteristics similar to the tongue of the chameleon: extensibility of the manipulator, flexibility of the mobile part, and absence of continuous force during the forward motion. The first manipulator mimics the basic mechanism of the tongue of the chameleon and reproduced its basic performances. A second manipulator performs a catching function at a speed of 3.5 m s{sup -1} with an acceleration of 573 m s{sup -2} while elongating seven times its rest length. The design of this manipulator is such that the dc motor used for retraction applies a torque 25 times its rated torque. Moreover, during the retraction, the mobile part of the manipulator moves due to its own inertia, allowing the dc motor to rotate at full velocity. In another manipulator, the addition of an elastomer in the mobile part allows for control of the retraction velocity. A model for these two manipulators compares well with the experimental data. Finally, the addition of wings on the mobile part allows us to take the advantage of aerodynamic effects, which is unusual for manipulators.

  2. Electrode-Impregnable and Cross-Linkable Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) Triblock Polymer Electrolytes with High Ionic Conductivity and a Large Voltage Window for Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae Hee; Lee, Jang Yong; Suh, Dong Hack; Hong, Young Taik; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2017-10-04

    We present cross-linkable precursor-type gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) that have large ionic liquid uptake capability, can easily penetrate electrodes, have high ion conductivity, and are mechanically strong as high-performance, flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors (SC). Our polymer precursors feature a hydrophilic-hydrophobic poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock main-chain structure and trifunctional silane end groups that can be multi-cross-linked with each other through a sol-gel process. The cross-linked solid-state electrolyte film with moderate IL content (200 wt %) shows a well-balanced combination of excellent ionic conductivity (5.0 × 10 -3 S cm -1 ) and good mechanical stability (maximum strain = 194%). Moreover, our polymer electrolytes have various advantages including high thermal stability (decomposition temperature > 330 °C) and the capability to impregnate electrodes to form an excellent electrode-electrolyte interface due to the very low viscosity of the precursors. By assembling our GPE-impregnated electrodes and solid-state GPE film, we demonstrate an all-solid-state SC that can operate at 3 V and provides an improved specific capacitance (112.3 F g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 ), better rate capability (64% capacity retention until 20 A g -1 ), and excellent cycle stability (95% capacitance decay over 10 000 charge/discharge cycles) compared with those of a reference SC using a conventional PEO electrolyte. Finally, flexible SCs with a high energy density (22.6 W h kg -1 at 1 A g -1 ) and an excellent flexibility (>93% capacitance retention after 5000 bending cycles) can successfully be obtained.

  3. A universal microscope manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Boyadzhiev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A modified and improved model of a mechanical manipulator for observation of pinned and mounted insects is described. This device allows movement of the observed object around three perpendicular axes in the field of vision at all magnifications of stereomicroscopes. The main improvement of this new model is positioning of the guiding knobs for rotating around two of the axes next to each other, allowing faster and easier manipulation of the studied object. Thus, one of the main advantages of this device is the possibility to rotate the specimen without the need to refocus. The device enables easily reaching a precession deviation in the intersection point of axes up to 0.5 mm in the process of assembling.

  4. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres

  5. Manipulation of quantum evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabera, David Jose Fernandez; Mielnik, Bogdan

    1994-01-01

    The free evolution of a non-relativistic charged particle is manipulated using time-dependent magnetic fields. It is shown that the application of a programmed sequence of magnetic pulses can invert the free evolution process, forcing an arbitrary wave packet to 'go back in time' to recover its past shape. The possibility of more general operations upon the Schrodinger wave packet is discussed.

  6. Manipulating atoms with photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, C.N.

    1998-01-01

    The article is a translation of the lecture delivered on the occasion of the 1997 Nobel Prize awarding ceremony. The physical mechanisms which allow manipulating of neutral atoms with laser photons are described. A remark is also made concerning several possible applications of ultra-cool atoms and streams of future research. The article is completed by Prof. Cohen-Tannoudji's autobiography. (Z.J.)

  7. Protozoa manipulation by ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancy Milena Porras Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganism manipulation, considered as controlled motion and positioning, is one of the most important activities in microbiology and medicine. To achieve this goal there are some techniques such as those which and optical forces, among others. These techniques are usually sophisticated, and some of them can induce irreversible alterations on the microorganisms which prevents their use in another tests. Thus, there is justified the study of technological alternatives to manipulate microorganisms in an easy and cost-effective way. This work shows the interaction between protozoa and air microbubbles when they are under the influence of an ultrasonic field of 5.8 mW. At the microbubbles resonant frequencies, microorganisms were attracted toward the bubbles' frontier remaining there while the ultrasonic field was applied. Once the ultrasound disappears, protozoa recover their freedom of movement. The observed effects could be used as the actuation principle of devices capable to trap, hold and release microorganisms of high mobility without any apparent damage. Microbubbles are generated by electrolysis which take place on the surface of an electrode array, while the ultrasound is originated by means of a piezoelectric transducer. As microorganisms there were employed those present in stagnated water, and were observed through an stereomicroscope. Key words: manipulator; protozoa; ultrasonic; transducer; piezoelectric.

  8. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In many scientific and commercial domains we encounter flexibility objects, i.e., objects with explicit flexibilities in a time and an amount dimension (e.g., energy or product amount). Applications of flexibility objects require novel and efficient techniques capable of handling large amounts...... and aiming at energy balancing during aggregation. In more detail, this paper considers the complete life cycle of flex-objects: aggregation, disaggregation, associated requirements, efficient incremental computation, and balance aggregation techniques. Extensive experiments based on real-world data from...

  9. Sporadic manipulation in money markets with central bank standing facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Ewerhart, Christian; Cassola, Nuno; Ejerskov, Steen; Valla, Natacha

    2004-01-01

    In certain market environments, a large investor may benefit from building up a futures position first and trading subsequently in the spot market (Kumar and Seppi, 1992). The present paper identifies a variation of this type of manipulation that might occur in money markets with an interest rate corridor. We show that manipulation involving the use of central bank facilities would be observable only sporadically. The probability of manipulation decreases when the central bank uses an active ...

  10. Using Manipulatives in Math Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, Eileen S.

    1987-01-01

    Guidelines for teachers to better use manipulatives in the teaching of mathematics to learning disabled learners are offered including a rationale for manipulatives, selection crteria, principles underlying productive use of manipulatives, and making the transition from the concrete to the symbolic. Suggested materials and distributors are listed.…

  11. An integrated open-cavity system for magnetic bead manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Nimeh, F T; Salem, F M

    2013-02-01

    Superparamagnetic beads are increasingly used in biomedical assays to manipulate, transport, and maneuver biomaterials. We present a low-cost integrated system designed in bulk CMOS to manipulate and separate biomedical magnetic beads. The system consists of 8 × 8 coil-arrays suitable for single bead manipulation, or collaborative multi-bead manipulation, using pseudo-parallel executions. We demonstrate the flexibility of the design in terms of different coil sizes, DC current levels, and layout techniques. In one array module example, the size of a single coil is 30 μm × 30 μm and the full array occupies an area of 248 μm × 248 μm in 0.5 μm CMOS technology. The programmable DC current source supports 8 discrete levels up to 1.5 mA. The total power consumption of the entire module is 9 mW when running at full power.

  12. Burkholderia thailandensis: Genetic Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Erin C

    2017-05-16

    Burkholderia thailandensis is a Gram-negative bacterium endemic to Southeast Asian and northern Australian soils. It is non-pathogenic; therefore, it is commonly used as a model organism for the related human pathogens Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei. B. thailandensis is relatively easily genetically manipulated and a variety of robust genetic tools can be used in this organism. This unit describes protocols for conjugation, natural transformation, mini-Tn7 insertion, and allelic exchange in B. thailandensis. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Spatial manipulation with microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eLin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical gradients convey information through space, time, and concentration, and are ultimately capable of spatially resolving distinct cellular phenotypes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. How these gradients develop, evolve, and function during development, homeostasis, and various disease states is a subject of intense interest across a variety of disciplines. Microfluidic technologies have become essential tools for investigating gradient sensing in vitro due to their ability to precisely manipulate fluids on demand in well controlled environments at cellular length scales. This minireview will highlight their utility for studying gradient sensing along with relevant applications to biology.

  14. High-flexibility, noncollapsing lightweight hose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.A.

    1993-04-20

    A high-flexibility, noncollapsing, lightweight, large-bore, wire-reinforced hose is inside fiber-reinforced PVC tubing that is flexible, lightweight, and abrasion resistant. It provides a strong, kink- and collapse-free conduit for moving large quantities of dangerous fluids, e.g., removing radioactive waste water or processing chemicals.

  15. Consumer Central Energy Flexibility in Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Energy flexibility in buildings will play an important role in the smart energy system. Office buildings have more potentials to provide energy flexibility to the grid compared to other types of buildings, due to the existing building management, control systems and large energy consumption....... Consumers in office buildings (building owners/managers and occupants) take a main role for adopting and engaging in building energy flexibility. In this paper provides a systematic review of consumer central energy flexibility in office buildings with the discussion of social, technical and business...... can boost energy flexibility in the office buildings....

  16. Better with Byzantine: Manipulation-Optimal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Abraham; Sandholm, Tuomas

    A mechanism is manipulable if it is in some agents’ best interest to misrepresent their private information. The revelation principle establishes that, roughly, anything that can be accomplished by a manipulable mechanism can also be accomplished with a truthful mechanism. Yet agents often fail to play their optimal manipulations due to computational limitations or various flavors of incompetence and cognitive biases. Thus, manipulable mechanisms in particular should anticipate byzantine play. We study manipulation-optimal mechanisms: mechanisms that are undominated by truthful mechanisms when agents act fully rationally, and do better than any truthful mechanism if any agent fails to act rationally in any way. This enables the mechanism designer to do better than the revelation principle would suggest, and obviates the need to predict byzantine agents’ irrational behavior. We prove a host of possibility and impossibility results for the concept which have the impression of broadly limiting possibility. These results are largely in line with the revelation principle, although the considerations are more subtle and the impossibility not universal.

  17. Vibration control of an artificial muscle manipulator with a magnetorheological fluid brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, H.; Midorikawa, Y.; Nakamura, T.

    2013-02-01

    Recently, proposed applications of robots require them to contact human safely. Therefore, we focus on pneumatic rubber artificial muscle. This actuator is flexible, light, and has high-power density. However, because the artificial muscle is flexible, it vibrates when there is a high load. Therefore, we paid attention to the magnetorheological (MR) fluid. We propose a control method of the MR brake considering energy of the manipulator system. By this control method, MR brake dissipates energy leading to vibration of the manipulator. In this paper, we calculated the energy and controlled the MR brake. And, we deliberated the proposal method by simulation using the dynamic model of the manipulator, and experiment.

  18. Remote control manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, T

    1970-02-28

    A prior-art remote control manipulator comprises a horizontal suspension section, a master arm and a slave arm which are coupled to ends of the suspension section in a manner to pivotally move relative to the suspension section, and a connecting device which includes a tape and which joins both the arms. When the connecting device malfunctions, the slave arm can neither be extended nor contracted. Means to keep the tension of the tape is required which restricts the extension length of the slave arm. Further, the slave arm can be moved only in the axial direction. The invention described provides an improved remote control manipulator of the specified type. A moving device which moves the slave arm relative to the master arm without the intervention of the connecting device is mounted on a movable part of the slave arm, while pulleys which maintain the joining relationship of the connecting device are mounted on the movable part and fixed part of the slave arm. Owing to this construction, movement of the slave arm is assured despite troubles which may arise in the connecting device. In addition, no slack arises in the tape. By applying a similar construction to the horizontal suspension section, the suspension section can be stretched, and hence, the slave arm can be moved in a direction orthogonal to its axis.

  19. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  20. Vehicle-manipulator systems modeling for simulation, analysis, and control

    CERN Document Server

    From, Pal Johan; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad

    2014-01-01

    Furthering the aim of reducing human exposure to hazardous environments, this monograph presents a detailed study of the modeling and control of vehicle-manipulator systems. The text shows how complex interactions can be performed at remote locations using systems that combine the manipulability of robotic manipulators with the ability of mobile robots to locomote over large areas.  The first part studies the kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies and standard robotic manipulators and can be used as an introduction to robotics focussing on robust mathematical modeling. The monograph then moves on to study vehicle-manipulator systems in great detail with emphasis on combining two different configuration spaces in a mathematically sound way. Robustness of these systems is extremely important and Modeling and Control of Vehicle-manipulator Systems effectively represents the dynamic equations using a mathematically robust framework. Several tools from Lie theory and differential geometry are used to obtain glob...

  1. Kinematics at the Main Mechanism of a Railbound Forging Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Heavy payload forging manipulators are mainly characterized by large load output and large capacitive load input. The relationship between outputs and inputs will greatly influence the control and the reliability. Forging manipulators have become more prevalent in the industry today. They are used to manipulate objects to be forged. The most common forging manipulators are moving on a railway to have a greater precision and stability. They have been called the railbound forging manipulators. In this paper we analyze the general kinematics of the main mechanism from a such manipulator. Kinematic scheme shows a typical forging manipulator, with the basic motions in operation process: walking, motion of the tong and buffering. The lifting mechanism consists of several parts including linkages, hydraulic drives and motion pairs. The principle of type design from the viewpoints of the relationship between output characteristics and actuator inputs is discussed. An idea of establishing the incidence relationship between output characteristics and actuator inputs is proposed. These novel forging manipulators which satisfy certain functional requirements provide an effective help for the design of forging manipulators.

  2. Rational manipulation of digital EEG: pearls and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Udaya

    2014-12-01

    The advent of digital EEG has provided greater flexibility and more opportunities in data analysis to optimize the diagnostic yield. Changing the filter settings, sensitivity, montages, and time-base are possible rational manipulations to achieve this goal. The options to use polygraphy, video, and quantification are additional useful features. Aliasing and loss of data are potential pitfalls in the use of digital EEG. This review illustrates some common clinical scenarios where rational manipulations can enhance the diagnostic EEG yield and potential pitfalls in the process.

  3. [Language Manipulation, Surrogacy, Altruism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Ruiz-Calderón, José Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The Newspeak propitiates a change of the sense of the words and next to the double thinking forms the picture of totalitarianism described by Orwell in 1984. The purpose of the Newspeak is to make all other forms of thought impossible. In bioethics the Newspeak is applied, not because Bioethics is a new science but by the manipulative intention. The twentieth-century political language has, according to Orwell, the intention to remove the ″mental image ″ of what really happens. This is clear in the terms ″surrogacy ″. On the one hand, the mother is deprived of her child. On the other, there is no legal subrogation. As has been said the technique reduces a woman to the condition of a vessel. The excuse of gratuity does not change the exploitative relationship, since gratuitousness in the provision of women is not the altruism of all those involved in surrogacy.

  4. Media and manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Braco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the media are huge, both in everyday life and in cultural, spiritual and political life of modern man. Their power in the sense of political shaping of people and shaping of public opinion is very distinctive. In the process of propaganda to influence public opinion, they use various manipulative procedures in order to accomplish certain interests and objectives. Through the media, politics realizes its economic, ideological, political and even military activities. The war in the former Yugoslavia and former Bosnia and Herzegovina was also waged through the media. This media war still is spreading the hate speech, thus still causing conflicts and disintegration processes in the Balkans.

  5. Interactive protein manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  6. Interactive protein manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures

  7. Characteristics of manipulative in mathematics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiandaru, A.; Istihapsari, V.; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Setyawan, F.; Hendroanto, A.

    2017-12-01

    A manipulative is a teaching aid designed such that students could understand mathematical concepts by manipulating it. This article aims to provide an insight to the characteristics of manipulatives produced in the mathematics laboratory of Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Indonesia. A case study was conducted to observe the existing manipulatives produced during the latest three years and classified the manipulatives based on the characteristics found. There are four kinds of manipulatives: constructivism manipulative, virtual manipulative, informative manipulative, and game-based manipulative. Each kinds of manipulative has different characteristics and impact towards the mathematics learning.

  8. Control of large flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervelde, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in robust design of generalized parity relations, design of failure sensitive observers using the geometric system theory of Wonham, computational techniques for evaluation of the performance of control systems with fault tolerance and redundancy management features, and the design and evaluation od control systems for structures having nonlinear joints are described.

  9. Energy Flexibility in the Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Energy flexibility can address the challenges of large scale integration of renewable energy resources and thereby increasing imbalance in the power system. Flexible power system can provide reliable supply, low electricity cost and sustainability. Various situations and factors influence...... the adoption of the flexibility solutions, such as flexible electricity generation, demand-response, and electricity storage. This paper tries to analyze the current energy flexibility solutions and the factors that can influence the energy flexibility adoption. This paper takes Philippines as case study...... to provide an overview of the current condition of the Philippines’ power system and discuss the energy flexibility in the Philippines’ power system. A further discussion and recommendation is conducted in the end of the paper....

  10. Kinematics Modelling of Tendon-Driven Continuum Manipulator with Crossed Notches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. X.; Yang, W. L.; Du, Z. J.

    2018-03-01

    Single port surgical robot (SPSR) is a giant leap in the development of minimally invasive surgical robot. An innovative manipulator with high control accuracy and good kinematic dexterity can reduce wound, expedite recovery, and improve the success rate. This paper presents a tendon-driven continuum manipulator with crossed notches. This manipulator has two degrees of freedom (DOF), which possesses good flexibility and high capacity. Then based on cantilever beam theory, a mechanics model is proposed, which connects external force and deformation of a single flexible ring (SFR). By calculating the deformation of each SFR, the manipulator is considered as a series robot whose joint numbers is equal to SFR numbers, and the kinematics model is established through Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) procedure. In this paper, the total manipulator is described as a curve tube whose curvature is increased from tip to base. Experiments were conducted and the comparison between theoretical and actual results proved the rationality of the models.

  11. Adaptive control of robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents a novel approach to adaptive control of manipulators to achieve trajectory tracking by the joint angles. The central concept in this approach is the utilization of the manipulator inverse as a feedforward controller. The desired trajectory is applied as an input to the feedforward controller which behaves as the inverse of the manipulator at any operating point; the controller output is used as the driving torque for the manipulator. The controller gains are then updated by an adaptation algorithm derived from MRAC (model reference adaptive control) theory to cope with variations in the manipulator inverse due to changes of the operating point. An adaptive feedback controller and an auxiliary signal are also used to enhance closed-loop stability and to achieve faster adaptation. The proposed control scheme is computationally fast and does not require a priori knowledge of the complex dynamic model or the parameter values of the manipulator or the payload.

  12. Image manipulation as research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Debra; Noonan, Bridget

    2009-06-01

    A growing number of research misconduct cases handled by the Office of Research Integrity involve image manipulations. Manipulations may include simple image enhancements, misrepresenting an image as something different from what it is, and altering specific features of an image. Through a study of specific cases, the misconduct findings associated with image manipulation, detection methods and those likely to identify such manipulations, are discussed. This article explores sanctions imposed against guilty researchers and the factors that resulted in no misconduct finding although relevant images clearly were flawed. Although new detection tools are available for universities and journals to detect questionable images, this article explores why these tools have not been embraced.

  13. The Manipulative Discourse of Gandalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to investigate discursive, cognitive and social aspects of manipulation in regard to the dialogues of the literary fictional character of Gandalf in the trilogy of The Lord of the Rings. Accordingly, the researcher has taken a multidisciplinary approach to an account of discursive manipulation, and focuses on the cognitive dimensions of manipulation. As a result, the researcher demonstrates meticulously how manipulation involves intensifying the power, moral superiority and the credibility of the speaker(s, while abusing the others (recipients, along with an emotional and attractive way of expression, and supplemented by reasonable facts and documents in regard to a specific issue.

  14. Balance and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The 'work-life balance' and flexible working are currently key buzz terms in the NHS. Those looking for more information on these topics should visit Flexibility at www.flexibility.co.uk for a host of resources designed to support new ways of working, including information on flexible workers and flexible rostering, the legal balancing act for work-life balance and home working.

  15. Multiplexed Force and Deflection Sensing Shell Membranes for Robotic Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Lae; Black, Richard; Moslehi, Behzad; Cutkosky, Mark; Chau, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Force sensing is an essential requirement for dexterous robot manipulation, e.g., for extravehicular robots making vehicle repairs. Although strain gauges have been widely used, a new sensing approach is desirable for applications that require greater robustness, design flexibility including a high degree of multiplexibility, and immunity to electromagnetic noise. This invention is a force and deflection sensor a flexible shell formed with an elastomer having passageways formed by apertures in the shell, with an optical fiber having one or more Bragg gratings positioned in the passageways for the measurement of force and deflection.

  16. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  17. Tree manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, K.; Takenaka, C.; Ishizuka, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Yagai, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Some forest operations such as thinning and harvesting management could cause changes in N cycling and N2O emission from soils, since thinning and harvesting managements are accompanied with changes in aboveground environments such as an increase of slash falling and solar radiation on the forest floor. However, a considerable uncertainty exists in effects of thinning and harvesting on N2O fluxes regarding changes in belowground environments by cutting trees. To focus on the effect of changes in belowground environments on the N2O emissions from soils, we conducted a tree manipulation experiment in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) stand without soil compaction and slash falling near the chambers and measured N2O flux at 50 cm and 150 cm distances from the tree trunk (stump) before and after cutting. We targeted 5 trees for the manipulation and established the measurement chambers to the 4 directions around each targeted tree relative to upper slope (upper, left, right, lower positions). We evaluated the effect of logging on the emission by using hierarchical Bayesian model. HB model can evaluate the variability in observed data and their uncertainties in the estimation with various probability distributions. Moreover, the HB model can easily accommodate the non-linear relationship among the N2O emissions and the environmental factors, and explicitly take non-independent data (nested structure of data) for the estimation into account by using random effects in the model. Our results showed tree cutting stimulated N2O emission from soils, and also that the increase of N2O flux depended on the distance from the trunk (stump): the increase of N2O flux at 50 cm from the trunk (stump) was greater than that of 150 cm from the trunk. The posterior simulation of the HB model indicated that the stimulation of N2O emission by tree cut- ting could reach up to 200 cm in our experimental plot. By tree cutting, the estimated N2O emission at 0-40 cm from the trunk doubled

  18. Remote inspection manipulators for AGR II: Babcock Power's interstitial manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyley, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The interstitial manipulator has been designed and built by Babcock Power for the remote visual inspection of AGR II reactors at Heysham and Torness. Its five drives are operated from a console local to the manipulator on the pile cap, or from a similar console located remotely. The need to operate from an interstitial ISI standpipe has restricted the size of the components entering the reactor, and this has consequently provided the major design constraint. A detailed structural assessment of the manipulator was carried out to demonstrate the ability to operate with payloads in excess of the largest camera weight of 13.6 kg. The manipulator finite element model was also used to determine static deflections, and, as a consequence, has provided data from which the control system is able to predict accurately the camera's position. Other computer aided design techniques have enabled the step by step sequences of manipulator deployment, in the restricted space available, to be successfully demonstrated. (author)

  19. Key Design Requirements for Long-Reach Manipulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional, kinematic, and performance requirements, an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented.

  20. Key design requirements for long-reach manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; March-Leuba, S.; Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.

    1993-09-01

    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional kinematic, and performance requirements an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented

  1. Key Design Requirements for Long-Reach Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional, kinematic, and performance requirements, an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented

  2. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. ADVERTISING AND LANGUAGE MANIPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Maria PRELIPCEANU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Research has revealed that much of what happens in our minds as a result of language use is still hidden from our conscious awareness. Advertisers know this phenomenon better. They use the manipulation of language to suggest something about their products without directly claiming it to be true. Although the advertisers use colours, symbols, and imagery in advertisements, “the most direct way to study ads is through an analysis of the language employed” as all the other aspects are meant to reinforce the language message. Ads are designed to have an effect on consumers while being laughed at, belittle and all but ignored. Some modern advertisements appear to be almost dissuading consumers from the product – but this is just a modern technique. This paper is going to analyze a series of language techniques used by advertisers to arrest our attention, to arouse our interest, to stimulate desire for a product and ultimately to motivate us to buy it. Once we become familiar with the language strategies used in advertising messages we will be more able to make our own buying decisions.

  4. Stud manipulating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyan, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    A device for inserting and removing studs from bores in a workpiece, for example a nuclear reactor vessel, comprises manipulating devices for operating on individual studs, each capable of tensioning a stud slackening a working nut on the stud, and subsequently removing the stud from the bore. A ring has dogs which can engage working nut recesses to interlock with the nut against relative rotation. Motors coupled to the ring rotate the working nut. A top nut is coupled to the motors to rotate the nut and screw it onto the stud. The top nut with other device parts can be raised and lowered on a tube by a hydraulic actuator. A hydraulic load cell between the top nut and a stool on the workpiece is pressurised to tension the stud by means of the top nut and thus facilitate rotation of the working nut when tightening or slackening. A dog clutch mechanism engages a stud end fitting against relative axial and rotational movement. The mechanism is raised and lowered on a guide member by an actuator. The mechanism has a tubular member and the drive coupling for the motors to the top nut includes a tubular member. Tubular members carry teeth which are engaged when the top nut is raised and the clutch mechanism is lowered, to provide a coupling between the motors and the mechanism for rotating the stud. (U.K.)

  5. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We demonstrate that nearest neighbors algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, are highly susceptible to manipulation and introduce new collaborative filtering algorithms that are relatively robust.

  6. Model Manipulation for End-User Modelers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acretoaie, Vlad

    , and transformations using their modeling notation and editor of choice. The VM* languages are implemented via a single execution engine, the VM* Runtime, built on top of the Henshin graph-based transformation engine. This approach combines the benefits of flexibility, maturity, and formality. To simplify model editor......End-user modelers are domain experts who create and use models as part of their work. They are typically not Software Engineers, and have little or no programming and meta-modeling experience. However, using model manipulation languages developed in the context of Model-Driven Engineering often...... requires such experience. These languages are therefore only used by a small subset of the modelers that could, in theory, benefit from them. The goals of this thesis are to substantiate this observation, introduce the concepts and tools required to overcome it, and provide empirical evidence in support...

  7. CLIMAN - a mobile manipulator concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noltingk, B.E.; Owen, C.K.V.

    With increasing age the integrity of more remote parts of reactors, such as the core restraints, is questioned so there is a need for a means of access to these places to carry out inspection, minor repairs and alterations. Conventional standpipe manipulators are about 20 m long so that extending them further presents difficulties of load capacity, rigidity, dexterity and control which must increase steeply with range. The proposal outlined here is for a mobile manipulator which can climb at the end of a cable (CLImbing MANipulator - CLIMAN) into a reactor and reach well beyond the range of a fixed base machine. In addition to virtually unlimited range such a mobile manipulator has twice as many degrees of freedom as a fixed base machine. Its body or base can be manoeuvred with six degrees of freedom so as to obtain the maximum coverage and obstacle avoidance for its manipulator. It is proposed that it should be manually controlled. (author)

  8. Reconfigurable optical manipulation by phase change material waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhang; Mei, Shengtao; Wang, Qian; Liu, Hong; Lim, Chwee Teck; Teng, Jinghua

    2017-05-25

    Optical manipulation by dielectric waveguides enables the transportation of particles and biomolecules beyond diffraction limits. However, traditional dielectric waveguides could only transport objects in the forward direction which does not fulfill the requirements of the next generation lab-on-chip system where the integrated manipulation system should be much more flexible and multifunctional. In this work, bidirectional transportation of objects on the nanoscale is demonstrated on a rectangular waveguide made of the phase change material Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (GST) by numerical simulations. Either continuous pushing forces or pulling forces are generated on the trapped particles when the GST is in the amorphous or crystalline phase. With the technique of a femtosecond laser induced phase transition on the GST, we further proposed a reconfigurable optical trap array on the same waveguide. This work demonstrates GST waveguide's potential of achieving multifunctional manipulation of multiple objects on the nanoscale with plausible optical setups.

  9. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    New control techniques for self contained, autonomous free flying space robots were developed and tested experimentally. Free flying robots are envisioned as a key element of any successful long term presence in space. These robots must be capable of performing the assembly, maintenance, and inspection, and repair tasks that currently require human extravehicular activity (EVA). A set of research projects were developed and carried out using lab models of satellite robots and a flexible manipulator. The second generation space robot models use air cushion vehicle (ACV) technology to simulate in 2-D the drag free, zero g conditions of space. The current work is divided into 5 major projects: Global Navigation and Control of a Free Floating Robot, Cooperative Manipulation from a Free Flying Robot, Multiple Robot Cooperation, Thrusterless Robotic Locomotion, and Dynamic Payload Manipulation. These projects are examined in detail.

  10. Polymer electronics a flexible technology

    CERN Document Server

    Technology, Rapra

    2009-01-01

    The worldwide market for polymer electronic products has been estimated to be worth up to £15 billion by 2015 and the opportunity for new markets could be as high as £125 billion by 2025.'The rapid development of polymer electronics has revealed the possibility for transforming the electronics market by offering lighter, flexible and more cost effective alternatives to conventional materials and products. With applications ranging from printed, flexible conductors and novel semiconductor components to intelligent labels and large area displays and solar panels, products that were previously un

  11. Manipulating Liquids With Acoustic Radiation Pressure Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    1999-01-01

    High-intensity ultrasound waves can produce the effects of "Acoustic Radiation Pressure" (ARP) and "acoustic streaming." These effects can be used to propel liquid flows and to apply forces that can be used to move or manipulate floating objects or liquid surfaces. NASA's interest in ARP includes the remote-control agitation of liquids and the manipulation of bubbles and drops in liquid experiments and propellant systems. A high level of flexibility is attained by using a high-power acoustic phased array to generate, steer, and focus a beam of acoustic waves. This is called an Acoustic Radiation Pressure Phased Array, or ARPPA. In this approach, many acoustic transducer elements emit wavelets that converge into a single beam of sound waves. Electronically coordinating the timing, or "phase shift," of the acoustic waves makes it possible to form a beam with a predefined direction and focus. Therefore, a user can direct the ARP force at almost any desired point within a liquid volume. ARPPA lets experimenters manipulate objects anywhere in a test volume. This flexibility allow it to be used for multiple purposes, such as to agitate liquids, deploy and manipulate drops or bubbles, and even suppress sloshing in spacecraft propellant tanks.

  12. Dexterous Manipulation: Making Remote Manipulators Easy to Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARRIGAN, RAYMOND W.; BENNETT, PHIL C.

    2001-01-01

    Perhaps the most basic barrier to the widespread deployment of remote manipulators is that they are very difficult to use. Remote manual operations are fatiguing and tedious, while fully autonomous systems are seldom able to function in changing and unstructured environments. An alternative approach to these extremes is to exploit computer control while leaving the operator in the loop to take advantage of the operator's perceptual and decision-making capabilities. This report describes research that is enabling gradual introduction of computer control and decision making into operator-supervised robotic manipulation systems, and its integration on a commercially available, manually controlled mobile manipulator

  13. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors's magnetic field and frequency

  14. Direct Manipulation in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.

  15. Flexible Carpooling: Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dorinson, Diana; Gay, Deanna; Minett, Paul; Shaheen, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Energy consumption could be reduced if more people shared rides rather than driving alone yet carpooling represents a small proportion of all potential carpoolers. Prior research has found that many who might carpool were concerned about reduced flexibility with carpooling. If flexibility is one of the barriers how could carpooling be organized to be more flexible? In Northern Virginia a flexible system has evolved where there are 3,500 single-use carpools per day. In another example there ...

  16. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  17. On-Demand Isolation and Manipulation of C. elegans by In Vitro Maskless Photopatterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ryan Oliver

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans is a model organism for understanding aging and studying animal behavior. Microfluidic assay techniques have brought widespread advances in C. elegans research; however, traditional microfluidic assays such as those based on soft lithography require time-consuming design and fabrication cycles and offer limited flexibility in changing the geometric environment during experimentation. We present a technique for maskless photopatterning of a biocompatible hydrogel on an NGM (Agar substrate, enabling dynamic manipulation of the C. elegans culture environment in vitro. Maskless photopatterning is performed using a projector-based microscope system largely built from off-the-shelf components. We demonstrate the capabilities of this technique by building micropillar arrays during C. elegans observation, by fabricating free-floating mechanisms that can be actuated by C. elegans motion, by using freehand drawing to isolate individual C. elegans in real time, and by patterning arrays of mazes for isolation and fitness testing of C. elegans populations. In vitro photopatterning enables rapid and flexible design of experiment geometry as well as real-time interaction between the researcher and the assay such as by sequential isolation of individual organisms. Future adoption of image analysis and machine learning techniques could be used to acquire large datasets and automatically adapt the assay geometry.

  18. Kinematic sensitivity of robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuskovic, Marko I.

    1989-01-01

    Kinematic sensitivity vectors and matrices for open-loop, n degrees-of-freedom manipulators are derived. First-order sensitivity vectors are defined as partial derivatives of the manipulator's position and orientation with respect to its geometrical parameters. The four-parameter kinematic model is considered, as well as the five-parameter model in case of nominally parallel joint axes. Sensitivity vectors are expressed in terms of coordinate axes of manipulator frames. Second-order sensitivity vectors, the partial derivatives of first-order sensitivity vectors, are also considered. It is shown that second-order sensitivity vectors can be expressed as vector products of the first-order sensitivity vectors.

  19. Modeling manipulation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Jason I

    2010-05-01

    As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and professional development. Yet manipulation need not be a skill necessary to practice medicine, and steps should be taken by both individuals and institutions to combat the view that the way medicine must be practiced "in the real world" is somehow different from what one's affective moral sense implores.

  20. Thin Flexible IMM Solar Array, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thin, flexible, and highly efficient solar arrays are needed that package compactly for launch and deploy into large, structurally stable high power generators....

  1. Can flexibility help you float?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, L. J.; Bush, J. W. M.

    2012-10-01

    We consider the role of flexibility in the weight-bearing characteristics of bodies floating at an interface. Specifically, we develop a theoretical model for a two-dimensional thin floating plate that yields the maximum stable plate load and optimal stiffness for weight support. Plates small relative to the capillary length are primarily supported by surface tension, and their weight-bearing potential does not benefit from flexibility. Above a critical size comparable to the capillary length, flexibility assists interfacial flotation. For plates on the order of and larger than the capillary length, deflection from an initially flat shape increases the force resulting from hydrostatic pressure, allowing the plate to support a greater load. In this large plate limit, the shape that bears the most weight is a semicircle, which displaces the most fluid above the plate for a fixed plate length. Exact results for maximum weight-bearing plate shapes are compared to analytic approximations made in the limits of large and small plate sizes. The value of flexibility for floating to a number of biological organisms is discussed in light of our study.

  2. Computational simulator of robotic manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, Alexandre S.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    1995-01-01

    Robotic application for industrial plants is discussed and a computational model for a mechanical manipulator of three links is presented. A neural network feed-forward type has been used to model the dynamic control of the manipulator. A graphic interface was developed in C programming language as a virtual world in order to visualize and simulate the arm movements handling radioactive waste environment. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs

  3. Can earnings manipulation create value?

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Miglo

    2008-01-01

    Existing literature usually considers earnings manipulation to be a negative social phenomenon. We argue that earnings manipulation can be a part of the equilibrium relationships between firm's insiders and outsiders. We consider an optimal contract between an entrepreneur and an investor where the entrepreneur is subject to a double moral hazard problem (one being the choice of production effort and the other being intertemporal substitution, which consists of transferring cash flows between...

  4. Development of 3 DOF manipulator using ER fluid clutches for reduction of collision force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boku, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Taro

    2009-01-01

    Abstract.With robots and users more commonly sharing space such as in the fields of medicine and home automation, the possibility of a physical collision has increased, even though many robots use actuators with high-ratio gear trains to minimize the effects of impact. We developed a 3-DOF manipulator having a smart flexible joint using an ER fluid and a sensor-equipped pneumatic cushion. Results of position control and collision experiments using the manipulator demonstrated its effectiveness.

  5. Development of 3 DOF manipulator using ER fluid clutches for reduction of collision force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boku, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Taro

    2009-02-01

    .With robots and users more commonly sharing space such as in the fields of medicine and home automation, the possibility of a physical collision has increased, even though many robots use actuators with high-ratio gear trains to minimize the effects of impact. We developed a 3-DOF manipulator having a smart flexible joint using an ER fluid and a sensor-equipped pneumatic cushion. Results of position control and collision experiments using the manipulator demonstrated its effectiveness.

  6. Development of 3 DOF manipulator using ER fluid clutches for reduction of collision force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boku, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Taro [Chuo University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Department of Precision Mechanics, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)], E-mail: k_boku@bio.mech.chuo-u.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    Abstract.With robots and users more commonly sharing space such as in the fields of medicine and home automation, the possibility of a physical collision has increased, even though many robots use actuators with high-ratio gear trains to minimize the effects of impact. We developed a 3-DOF manipulator having a smart flexible joint using an ER fluid and a sensor-equipped pneumatic cushion. Results of position control and collision experiments using the manipulator demonstrated its effectiveness.

  7. Sliding Mode Control of a Slewing Flexible Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G.; Parker, Gordon G.; Starr, Gregory P.; Robinett, Rush D., III

    1997-01-01

    An output feedback sliding mode controller (SMC) is proposed to minimize the effects of vibrations of slewing flexible manipulators. A spline trajectory is used to generate ideal position and velocity commands. Constrained nonlinear optimization techniques are used to both calibrate nonlinear models and determine optimized gains to produce a rest-to-rest, residual vibration-free maneuver. Vibration-free maneuvers are important for current and future NASA space missions. This study required the development of the nonlinear dynamic system equations of motion; robust control law design; numerical implementation; system identification; and verification using the Sandia National Laboratories flexible robot testbed. Results are shown for a slewing flexible beam.

  8. Space robots with flexible appendages: Dynamic modeling, coupling measurement, and vibration suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Deshan; Wang, Xueqian; Xu, Wenfu; Liang, Bin

    2017-05-01

    For a space robot with flexible appendages, vibrations of flexible structure can be easily excited during both orbit and/or attitude maneuvers of the base and the operation of the manipulators. Hence, the pose (position and attitude) of the manipulator's end-effector will greatly deviate from the desired values, and furthermore, the motion of the manipulator will trigger and exacerbate vibrations of flexible appendages. Given lack of the atmospheric damping in orbit, the vibrations will last for quite a while and cause the on-orbital tasks to fail. We derived the rigid-flexible coupling dynamics of a space robot system with flexible appendages and established a coupling model between the flexible base and the space manipulator. A specific index was defined to measure the coupling degree between the flexible motion of the appendages and the rigid motion of the end-effector. Then, we analyzed the dynamic coupling for different conditions, such as modal displacements, joint angles (manipulator configuration), and mass properties. Moreover, the coupling map was adopted and drawn to represent the coupling motion. Based on this map, a trajectory planning method was addressed to suppress structure vibration. Finally, simulation studies of typical cases were performed, which verified the proposed models and method. This work provides a theoretic basis for the system design, performance evaluation, trajectory planning, and control of such space robots.

  9. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-12-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  10. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.K.D.

    1998-01-01

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs

  11. Recent advances in flexible and wearable organic optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Shen, Yang; Li, Yanqing; Tang, Jianxin

    2018-01-01

    Flexible and wearable optoelectronic devices have been developing to a new stage due to their unique capacity for the possibility of a variety of wearable intelligent electronics, including bendable smartphones, foldable touch screens and antennas, paper-like displays, and curved and flexible solid-state lighting devices. Before extensive commercial applications, some issues still have to be solved for flexible and wearable optoelectronic devices. In this regard, this review concludes the newly emerging flexible substrate materials, transparent conductive electrodes, device architectures and light manipulation methods. Examples of these components applied for various kinds of devices are also summarized. Finally, perspectives about the bright future of flexible and wearable electronic devices are proposed. Project supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (No. 2016YFB0400700).

  12. Concept development of a tendon arm manipulator and anthropomorphic robotic hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, C. T.

    1987-01-01

    AMETEK/ORED inhouse research and development efforts leading toward a next-generation robotic manipulator arm and end-effector technology is summarized. Manipulator arm development has been directed toward a multiple-degree-of-freedom, flexible, tendon-driven concept referred to here as a Tendon Arm Manipulator (TAM). End-effector development has been directed toward a three-fingered, dextrous, tendon-driven, anthropomorphic configuration which is referred to as an Anthropomorphic Robotic Hand (ARH). Key technology issues are identified for both concepts.

  13. Office flexible cystoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoussi, L R; Clayman, R V

    1988-11-01

    Since the development of the first purpose-built flexible cystoscope in 1984, flexible cystoscopy has become an accepted diagnostic and therapeutic modality. Indeed, it is estimated that more than 10 per cent of practicing urologists are already familiar with this technology. The flexible cystoscope has markedly extended the urologist's ability to examine the bladder, and it has become a valuable adjunct to the rigid cystoscope. Although the operation of this instrument is vastly different from that of its rigid counterpart, with practice, the technique can be learned. After experience is obtained with diagnostic flexible cystoscopy, the urologist will likely prefer this new instrument for bladder inspection, as it provides for a more thorough yet less morbid and less expensive examination. In the future, the development of improved and smaller instrumentation will further extend the therapeutic indications for flexible cystoscopy. Indeed, advances in laser technology are already providing the urologist with 300- to 600-micron (0.9 to 1.8F) flexible probes capable of incision (KTP laser), fulguration (Nd:YAG laser), and stone disintegration (tunable dye laser). Lastly, the skills obtained in using the flexible cystoscope are all readily applicable to the development of dexterity with the already available flexible nephroscope and the more recently developed flexible ureteroscope.

  14. IEA EBC Annex 67 Energy Flexible Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Jensen, Søren Østergaard

    2016-01-01

    know ledge on and demonstration of the Energy Flexibility Buildings can provide for the energy grids as well of to identify critical aspects and possible solutions to manage this Energy Flexibility. The paper discusses the background, the aims and the work plan of IEA (International Energy Agency) EBC......The foreseen large deployment of renewable energy sources may seriously affect the stability of energy grids. It will be necessary to control energy consumption to match instantaneous energy production. The built-in Energy Flexibility in buildings may be utilized for stabilizing the energy grids......, allowing for a larger roll out of renewable technologies. The Energy Flexibility of a building is the ability to manage its energy demand and generation according to local climate conditions, user needs and grid requirements. Energy Flexibility of buildings will thus allow for demand side management...

  15. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper investiga......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper......; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry......) with a quick and gentle overview of AIMM. Furthermore, the paper identifies key open issues and promising research directions to realize real-world integration and maturation of the AIMM technology. Originality/value - This paper reviews the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile...

  16. Atmospheric spatial atomic-layer-deposition of Zn(O, S) buffer layer for flexible Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells: From lab-scale to large area roll to roll processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, C.H.; Bolt, P.J.; Poodt, P.W.G.; Knaapen, R.; Brink, J. van den; Ruth, M.; Bremaud, D.; Illiberi, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript we present the first successful application of a spatial atomic-layer-deposition process to thin film solar cells. Zn(O,S) has been grown by spatial atomic layer deposition (S-ALD) at atmospheric pressure and applied as buffer layer in rigid and flexible CIGS cells by a lab-scale

  17. Female directors and real activities manipulation: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-hui Luo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Unlike previous studies that focus on accrual-based earnings management, this study analyzes real activities manipulation and investigates whether female directors on boards of directors (BoDs affect managers’ real activities manipulation. Using a large sample of 11,831 firm-year observations from Chinese listed companies from the 2000 to 2011 period, we find that higher female participation on BoDs is associated with lower levels of real activities manipulation, and that this negative relationship is stronger when female directors have higher ownership. These results hold for a battery of robustness checks. Overall, our findings indicate that board gender diversity may serve as a substitute mechanism for corporate governance to curb real activities manipulation and thus provide interested stakeholders with higher quality earnings reports.

  18. A new approach to adaptive control of manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    An approach in which the manipulator inverse is used as a feedforward controller is employed in the adaptive control of manipulators in order to achieve trajectory tracking by the joint angles. The desired trajectory is applied as an input to the feedforward controller, and the controller output is used as the driving torque for the manipulator. An adaptive algorithm obtained from MRAC theory is used to update the controller gains to cope with variations in the manipulator inverse due to changes of the operating point. An adaptive feedback controller and an auxiliary signal enhance closed-loop stability and achieve faster adaptation. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme for different reference trajectories, and despite large variations in the payload.

  19. Understanding pharmaceutical research manipulation in the context of accounting manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The problem of the manipulation of data that arises when there is both opportunity and incentive to mislead is better accepted and studied - though by no means solved - in financial accounting than in medicine. This article analyzes pharmaceutical company manipulation of medical research as part of a broader problem of corporate manipulation of data in the creation of accounting profits. The article explores how our understanding of accounting fraud and misinformation helps us understand the risk of similar information manipulation in the medical sciences. This understanding provides a framework for considering how best to improve the quality of medical research and analysis in light of the current system of medical information production. I offer three possible responses: (1) use of the Dodd-Frank whistleblower provisions to encourage reporting of medical research fraud; (2) a two-step academic journal review process for clinical trials; and (3) publicly subsidized trial-failure insurance. These would improve the release of negative information about drugs, thereby increasing the reliability of positive information. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  20. Learning Area and Perimeter with Virtual Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily; Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Manipulatives are considered a best practice for educating students with disabilities, but little research exists which examines virtual manipulatives as tool for supporting students in mathematics. This project investigated the use of a virtual manipulative through the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives--polynominoes (i.e., tiles)--as a…

  1. A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is

  2. Manipulator vehicles and loading shovels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudermueller, G.; Krueger, W.

    1992-01-01

    Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH (KHG) is an institution jointly founded by electricity utilities, fuel cycle industries, and national research centers to provide specialist equipment for removing the consequences of accidents inside plants and recognizing damage in the immediate vicinity of such plants, maintain such equipment in an operational condition, and provide personnel instructed in work of this kind. The specialized technical equipment developed includes carriages, carrier vehicles for manipulators, grabs, TV cameras or measuring gear. In addition to manipulator vehicles, especially loading shovels are used. Radio-controlled vehicles are used where cable operation is either not reliable enough or has failed. (orig.) [de

  3. Workplace flexibility: from research to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, Ellen; Sakai, Kelly; Wigton, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Ellen Galinsky, Kelly Sakai, and Tyler Wigton explore the "time famine" among American workers-the continuing sense among employees of not having enough time to manage the multiple responsibilities of work and personal and family life. Noting that large shares of U.S. employees report feeling the need for greater workplace flexibility to enable them to take better care of family responsibilities, the authors examine a large-scale community-engagement initiative to increase workplace flexibility voluntarily. Using the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce as a primary source of data, the authors begin with an overview of the prevalence of flexibility in today's American workplace. They track which categories of employees have access to various flexibility options, as well as the extent to which employees with access to various types of flexibility use those options. Findings from the study indicate that the majority of employees want flexibility but that access to it varies, with more advantaged employees--those who are well educated, have high salaries, and work full time, for example--being doubly advantaged in having greater access to flexibility. A number of employers, say the authors, tend to be skeptical of the value of workplace flexibility and to fear that employees will abuse it if it is offered. But the study data reveal that most employees use flexibility quite conservatively. When the authors use their nationally representative data set to investigate correlations between access to workplace flexibility and a range of workplace outcomes especially valued by employers--employee engagement, job satisfaction, retention, and health--they find that employers as well as employees can benefit from flexibility. Finally, the authors discuss When Work Works, a large, national community-based initiative under way since 2003 to increase voluntary adoption of workplace flexibility. The authors detail the conceptual basis of the project's design, noting its

  4. Organizational flexibility estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Komarynets, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    By the help of parametric estimation the evaluation scale of organizational flexibility and its parameters was formed. Definite degrees of organizational flexibility and its parameters for the Lviv region enterprises were determined. Grouping of the enterprises under the existing scale was carried out. Special recommendations to correct the enterprises behaviour were given.

  5. Flexible magnetoimpidence sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho

    2015-05-01

    Recently, flexible electronic devices have attracted increasing interest, due to the opportunities they promise for new applications such as wearable devices, where the components are required to flex during normal use[1]. In this light, different magnetic sensors, like microcoil, spin valve, giant magnetoresistance (GMR), magnetoimpedance (MI), have been studied previously on flexible substrates.

  6. Flexibility within Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Philip C.; Gosch, Elizabeth; Furr, Jami M.; Sood, Erica

    2008-01-01

    The authors address concerns regarding manual-based treatments, highlighting the role of flexibility and creativity. A cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety called the Coping Cat program demonstrates the flexible application of manuals and emphasizes the importance of a child-centered, personalized approach that involves the child in the…

  7. Flexible position probe assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of a plurality of tubular transducer sections and a flexible supporting member extending through the tubular transducer sections forms a flexible elongated probe of a design suitable for monitoring the level of an element, such as a nuclear magnetically permeable control rod or liquid. 3 claims, 23 figures

  8. Leadership Manipulation and Ethics in Storytelling

    OpenAIRE

    Auvinen, Tommi; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Sintonen, Teppo; Takala, Tuomo

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on exerting influence in leadership, namely manipulation in storytelling. Manipulation is usually considered an unethical approach to leadership. We will argue that manipulation is a more complex phenomenon than just an unethical way of acting in leadership. We will demonstrate through an empirical qualitative study that there are various types of manipulation through storytelling. This article makes a contribution to the literature on manipulation through leadership stor...

  9. Dynamic Control of Kinematically Redundant Robotic Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Lunde

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for task space control of kinematically redundant manipulators have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods are based on a kinematic analysis of the manipulator. In this paper we propose a control algorithm in which we are especially concerned with the manipulator dynamics. The algorithm is particularly well suited for the class of redundant manipulators consisting of a relatively small manipulator mounted on a larger positioning part.

  10. Integrated engineering increases flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Integrated Engineering (IE) can be used to describe the best use of increasingly rare good engineering talent in an increasingly competive world. A number of organisations are now moving towards IE without any general agreement on a precise definition. The engineering division of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) is one such organisation. This feature covers the reasoning behind the decision, and our experience to date. BNFL engineering division is responsible primarily for the provision of major facilities on BNFL operational sites. This provision includes feasibility, front end and detailed design, procurement, installation and commissioning. Task force working has been used for some of the large projects. But the future workload is expected to comprise many more smaller projects. At the same time, equipment is becoming more complex and the need for mutual understanding and appreciation between disciplines is increasing. To meet this increasing need for flexibility, BNFL has decided to move to the matrix structure of project management and functional departments described in the article. (Author)

  11. Modeling and control of a hydraulically actuated flexible-prismatic link robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, L.; Kress, R.; Jansen, J.

    1996-12-01

    Most of the research related to flexible link manipulators to date has focused on single link, fixed length, single plane of vibration test beds. In addition, actuation has been predominantly based upon electromagnetic motors. Ironically, these elements are rarely found in the existing industrial long reach systems. This manuscript describes a new hydraulically actuated, long reach manipulator with a flexible prismatic link at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus is directed towards both modeling and control of hydraulic actuators as well as flexible links that have variable natural frequencies

  12. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    the higher costs (but decreased risk for value chain disruption) embedded in a more flexible global sourcing model that allows the firm to replicate and/or relocate activities across multiple locations. We develop a model and propositions on facilitating and constraining conditions of global sourcing...... sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy...... and operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...

  13. On-chip particle trapping and manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Kaelyn Danielle

    The ability to control and manipulate the world around us is human nature. Humans and our ancestors have used tools for millions of years. Only in recent years have we been able to control objects at such small levels. In order to understand the world around us it is frequently necessary to interact with the biological world. Optical trapping and manipulation offer a non-invasive way to move, sort and interact with particles and cells to see how they react to the world around them. Optical tweezers are ideal in their abilities but they require large, non-portable, and expensive setups limiting how and where we can use them. A cheap portable platform is required in order to have optical manipulation reach its full potential. On-chip technology offers a great solution to this challenge. We focused on the Liquid-Core Anti-Resonant Reflecting Optical Waveguide (liquid-core ARROW) for our work. The ARROW is an ideal platform, which has anti-resonant layers which allow light to be guided in liquids, allowing for particles to easily be manipulated. It is manufactured using standard silicon manufacturing techniques making it easy to produce. The planner design makes it easy to integrate with other technologies. Initially I worked to improve the ARROW chip by reducing the intersection losses and by reducing the fluorescence and background on the ARROW chip. The ARROW chip has already been used to trap and push particles along its channel but here I introduce several new methods of particle trapping and manipulation on the ARROW chip. Traditional two beam traps use two counter propagating beams. A trapping scheme that uses two orthogonal beams which counter to first instinct allow for trapping at their intersection is introduced. This scheme is thoroughly predicted and analyzed using realistic conditions. Simulations of this method were done using a program which looks at both the fluidics and optical sources to model complex situations. These simulations were also used to

  14. Manipulations to regenerate aspen ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative regeneration of aspen can be initiated through manipulations that provide hormonal stimulation, proper growth environment, and sucker protection - the three elements of the aspen regeneration triangle. The correct course of action depends upon a careful evaluation of the size, vigor, age, and successional status of the existing clone. Soils and site...

  15. Adaptive Control Of Remote Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    Robotic control system causes remote manipulator to follow closely reference trajectory in Cartesian reference frame in work space, without resort to computationally intensive mathematical model of robot dynamics and without knowledge of robot and load parameters. System, derived from linear multivariable theory, uses relatively simple feedforward and feedback controllers with model-reference adaptive control.

  16. Indicial tensor manipulation on MACSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, R.A.; Pavelle, R.

    1977-01-01

    A new computational tool for physical calculations is described. It is the first computer system capable of performing indicial tensor calculus (as opposed to component tensor calculus). It is now operational on the symbolic manipulation system MACSYMA. The authors outline the capabilities of the system and describe some of the physical problems considered as well as others being examined at this time. (Auth.)

  17. Manipulations of Totalitarian Nazi Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The paper takes under considerations controversies surrounding German architecture designed during Nazi period between 1933-45. This architecture is commonly criticized for being out of innovation, taste & elementary sense of beauty. Moreover, it has been consequently wiped out from architectural manuals, probably for its undoubted associations with the totalitarian system considered as the most maleficent in the whole history. But in the meantime the architecture of another totalitarian system which appeared to be not less sinister than Nazi one is not stigmatized with such verve. It is Socrealism architecture, developed especially in East Europe & reportedly containing lots of similarities with Nazi architecture. Socrealism totalitarian architecture was never condemned like Nazi one, probably due to politically manipulated propaganda that influenced postwar public opinion. This observation leads to reflection that maybe in the same propaganda way some values of Nazi architecture are still consciously dissembled in order to hide the fact that some rules used by Nazi German architects have been also consciously used after the war. Those are especially manipulations that allegedly Nazi architecture consisted of. The paper provides some definitions around totalitarian manipulations as well as ideological assumptions for their implementation. Finally, the register of confirmed manipulations is provided with use of photo case study.

  18. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  19. [The essence of Professor Wu Lian-Zhong's acupuncture manipulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Guo, Yi; Wu, Lian-Zhong

    2014-05-01

    The painless needle insertion technique, summarized by Professor WU Lian-zhong during his decades of acupuncture clinical practice is introduced in this article, which is characterized as soft, flexible, fast, plucking and activating antipathogenic qi. The Sancai (three layers) lifting and thrusting manipulation technique is adopted by Professor WU for getting the qi sensation. And features of 10 kinds of needling sensation such as soreness, numbness, heaviness, distension, pain, cold, hot, radiation, jumping and contracture are summarized. Finger force, amplitude, speed and time length are also taken as the basis of reinforcing and reducing manipulations. Moreover, examples are also given to explain the needling technique on some specific points which further embodies Professor WU's unique experiences and understandings on acupuncture.

  20. Case Study: Students’ Symbolic Manipulation in Calculus Among UTHM Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Maselan; Sufahani, Suliadi; Ahmad, Wan N. A. W.; Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Che-Him, Norziha

    2018-04-01

    Words are symbols representing certain aspects of mathematics. The main purpose of this study is to gain insight into students’ symbolic manipulation in calculus among UTHM students. This study make use the various methods in collecting data which are documentation, pilot study, written test and follow up individual interviews. Hence, the results analyzed and interpreted based on action-process-object-schema framework which is based on Piaget’s ideas of reflective abstraction, the concept of relational and instrumental understanding and the zone of proximal development idea. The students’ reply in the interview session is analyzed and then the overall performance is discussed briefly to relate with the students flexibility in symbolic manipulation in linking to the graphical idea, the students interpretation towards different symbolic structure in calculus and the problem that related to overgeneralization in their calculus problems solving.

  1. Task-space sensory feedback control of robot manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Cheah, Chien Chern

    2015-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in robot control theory on task space sensory feedback control of robot manipulators. By using sensory feedback information, the robot control systems are robust to various uncertainties in modelling and calibration errors of the sensors. Several sensory task space control methods that do not require exact knowledge of either kinematics or dynamics of robots, are presented. Some useful methods such as approximate Jacobian control, adaptive Jacobian control, region control and multiple task space regional feedback are included. These formulations and methods give robots a high degree of flexibility in dealing with unforeseen changes and uncertainties in its kinematics and dynamics, which is similar to human reaching movements and tool manipulation. It also leads to the solution of several long-standing problems and open issues in robot control, such as force control with constraint uncertainty, control of multi-fingered robot hand with uncertain contact points, singularity i...

  2. Application of identification techniques to remote manipulator system flight data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, G. D.; Lepanto, J. A.; Metzinger, R. W.; Fogel, E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of identification techniques to flight data from the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS). A description of the remote manipulator, including structural and control system characteristics, sensors, and actuators is given. A brief overview of system identification procedures is presented, and the practical aspects of implementing system identification algorithms are discussed. In particular, the problems posed by desampling rate, numerical error, and system nonlinearities are considered. Simulation predictions of damping, frequency, and system order are compared with values identified from flight data to support an evaluation of RMS structural and control system models. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding the application of identification techniques to flight data obtained from a flexible space structure.

  3. Social manipulation in nonhuman primates: Cognitive and motivational determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völter, C J; Rossano, F; Call, J

    2017-11-01

    Social interactions are the result of individuals' cooperative and competitive tendencies expressed over an extended period of time. Although social manipulation, i.e., using another individual to achieve one's own goals, is a crucial aspect of social interactions, there has been no comprehensive attempt to differentiate its various types and to map its cognitive and motivational determinants. For this purpose, we survey in this article the experimental literature on social interactions in nonhuman primates. We take social manipulation, illustrated by a case study with orangutans (Pongo abelii), as our starting point and move in two directions. First, we will focus on a flexibility/sociality axis that includes technical problem solving, social tool-use and communication. Second, we will focus on a motivational/prosociality axis that includes exploitation, cooperation, and helping. Combined, the two axes offer a way to capture a broad range of social interactions performed by human and nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Limited access: gender, occupational composition, and flexible work scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauber, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The current study draws on national data to explore differences in access to flexible work scheduling by the gender composition of women's and men's occupations. Results show that those who work in integrated occupations are more likely to have access to flexible scheduling. Women and men do not take jobs with lower pay in return for greater access to flexibility. Instead, jobs with higher pay offer greater flexibility. Integrated occupations tend to offer the greatest access to flexible scheduling because of their structural locations. Part-time work is negatively associated with men's access to flexible scheduling but positively associated with women's access. Women have greater flexibility when they work for large establishments, whereas men have greater flexibility when they work for small establishments.

  5. Haptic Manipulation of Deformable Objects in Hybrid Bilateral Teleoperation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ibarra-Zannatha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the integration of a virtual environment containing a deformable object, manipulated by an open kinematical chain virtual slave robot, to a bilateral teleoperation scheme based on a real haptic device. The virtual environment of this hybrid bilateral teleoperation system combines collision detection algorithms, dynamical, kinematical and geometrical models with a position–position and/or force–position bilateral control algorithm, to produce on the operator side the reflected forces corresponding to the virtual mechanical interactions, through a haptic device. Contact teleoperation task over the virtual environment with a flexible object is implemented and analysed.

  6. Hierarchical control system of advanced robot manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomichi, Takeo; Okino, Akihisa; Nishihara, Masatoshi; Sakamoto, Taizou; Matsuda, Koichi; Ohnishi, Ken

    1990-01-01

    We introduce a double arm with 4-finger's manipulator system which process the large volume of information at high speed. This is under research/development many type of works in the harsh condition. Namely, hierarchization of instruction unit in which motion control system as real time processing unit, and task planning unit as non-real time processing unit, interface with operation through the task planning unit has been made. Also, high speed processing of large volume information has been realized by decentralizing the motion control unit by function, hierarchizing the high speed processing unit, and developing high speed transmission, IC which does not depend on computer OS to avoid the delay in transmission. (author)

  7. Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papet, I.; Lune, P.; Pellerin, O.; Sapoval, M.; Brisse, H.; Clement, J.P.; Ribeiro, A.; Gomes, H.; Marcus, C.; Rehel, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    These two articles bring notions relative to the safety of procedures, specially in term of irradiation, they give information on different methods in order to reduce the radiation doses delivered to the patients, especially when the examinations concern children or young patients. (N.C.)

  8. Review conclusions by Ernst and Canter regarding spinal manipulation refuted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Roni

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the April 2006 issue of the Journal of Royal Society of Medicine, Ernst and Canter authored a review of the most recent systematic reviews on the effectiveness of spinal manipulation for any condition. The authors concluded that, except for back pain, spinal manipulation is not an effective intervention for any condition and, because of potential side effects, cannot be recommended for use at all in clinical practice. Based on a critical appraisal of their review, the authors of this commentary seriously challenge the conclusions by Ernst and Canter, who did not adhere to standard systematic review methodology, thus threatening the validity of their conclusions. There was no systematic assessment of the literature pertaining to the hazards of manipulation, including comparison to other therapies. Hence, their claim that the risks of manipulation outweigh the benefits, and thus spinal manipulation cannot be recommended as treatment for any condition, was not supported by the data analyzed. Their conclusions are misleading and not based on evidence that allow discrediting of a large body of professionals using spinal manipulation.

  9. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM) - Maturation, Exploitation and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Simon

    ) "Little Helper" is introduced, a manufacturing assistant inspired by the Walt Disney character. The main rationale of the AIMM concept is a compromise between traditional automation (efficiency) and manual labor (flexibility), which contributes to realizing transformable manufacturing systems. From...... a state-of-the-art review, it is observed that implementations of mobile manipulators in industry have been limited although the needs for flexible automation are present. The second topic is “Identifying skills for AIMM robots” and is dedicated to defining a unifying terminology for task......-level programming by means of skills with focus on the identification of skills for AIMM robots. The terminology is built as a hierarchy similar to that of human action modeling (e.g. actions and activities) or human language (e.g. words and sentences). Two approaches are applied for identifying relevant skills...

  10. A novel three-dimensional and high-definition flexible scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Kenichi; Natori, Yoshihiro; Oka, Kazunari

    2014-06-01

    Recent high-tech innovations in digital surgical technology have led to advances in three-dimensional (3D) and high-definition (HD) operating scopes. We introduce a novel 3D-HD flexible surgical scope called "3D-Eye-Flex" and evaluate its utility as an alternative to the operating microscope. The 3D-Eye-Flex has a 15 mm long 3D-HD scope-head with a 15 mm outer diameter, a focus distance of 18-100 mm and 80° angle of view. Attached to a 615-mm-long flexible bellows, 3D-Eye-Flex can be easily fixed to the operating table. Microsurgical dissection of wet brain tissue and drilling a skull base model were performed under the scope while using the 3D-HD video monitor. This scope system provided excellent illumination and image quality during the procedures. A large depth of field with stereoscopic vision had a greater advantage over using an operating microscope. 3D-Eye-Flex was easy to manipulate and provided an abundance of space above the operative field. Surgeons felt comfortable while working and could easily shift the position of the scope. This novel 3D-HD flexible scope is an effective alternative to the operating microscope as a new surgeon's eye and will be suitable for digital image-based surgery with further refinement.

  11. Fast Kicker for High Current Beam Manipulation in Large Aperture

    CERN Document Server

    Gambaryan, V

    2017-01-01

    The pulsed deflecting magnet (kicker) project was worked out in Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. The kicker design parameters are: impulsive force, 1 mT*m; pulse edge, 5 ns; impulse duration, 200 ns. The unconventional approach is that the plates must be replaced by a set of cylinders. The obtained magnet construction enables the field homogeneity to be controlled by changing current magnitudes in cylinders. Furthermore, we demonstrated the method of field optimization. In addition, measurement technique for the harmonic components was considered and the possibility of control harmonic components value was demonstrated.

  12. Modeling the manipulator and flipper pose effects on tip over stability of a tracked mobile manipulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile manipulators are used in a number of different applications such as bomb disposal, mining robotics, and search and rescue operations. These mobile manipulators are highly susceptible to tip over due to the motion of the manipulator...

  13. Rapid prototyping of an adaptive light-source for mobile manipulators with EasyKit and EasyLab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczyk, Martin; Barner, Simon; Geisinger, Michael; Knoll, Alois

    2008-08-01

    While still not common in day-to-day business, mobile robot platforms form a growing market in robotics. Mobile platforms equipped with a manipulator for increased flexibility have been used successfully in biotech laboratories for sample management as shown on the well-known ESACT meetings. Navigation and object recognition is carried out by the utilization of a mounted machine vision camera. To cope with the different illumination conditions in a large laboratory, development of an adaptive light source was indispensable. We present our approach of rapid developing a computer controlled, adaptive LED light within one single business day, by utilizing the hardware toolbox EasyKit and our appropriate software counterpart EasyLab.

  14. A control method for manipulators with redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusho, Junji; Usui, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    Redundant manipulators have more ability than nonredundant ones in many aspects such as avoiding obstacles, avoiding singular states, etc. In this paper, a control algorithm for redundant manipulators working under the circumstance in the presence of obstacles is presented. First, the measure of manipulability for robot manipulators under obstacle circumstances is defined. Then, the control algorithm for the obstacle avoidance is derived by using this measure of manipulability. The obstacle avoidance and the maintenance of good posture are simultaneously achieved by this algorithm. Lastly, an experiment and simulation results using an eight degree of freedom manipulator are shown. (author)

  15. Adaptive hybrid control of manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Simple methods for the design of adaptive force and position controllers for robot manipulators within the hybrid control architecuture is presented. The force controller is composed of an adaptive PID feedback controller, an auxiliary signal and a force feedforward term, and it achieves tracking of desired force setpoints in the constraint directions. The position controller consists of adaptive feedback and feedforward controllers and an auxiliary signal, and it accomplishes tracking of desired position trajectories in the free directions. The controllers are capable of compensating for dynamic cross-couplings that exist between the position and force control loops in the hybrid control architecture. The adaptive controllers do not require knowledge of the complex dynamic model or parameter values of the manipulator or the environment. The proposed control schemes are computationally fast and suitable for implementation in on-line control with high sampling rates.

  16. Master-slave type manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaker, L.W.; Jelatis, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    Remote control manipulator of the master-slave type for carrying out work on the other side of a shield wall. This appliance allows a Y movement relative displacement, the function of which is to extend the range of the manipulator towards the front and also to facilitate its installation, the lateral rotation or inclination of the slave arm in relation to the master arm, and the Z movement extension through which the length of the slave arm is increased in comparison with that of the master arm. Devices have been developed which transform the linear movements into rotational movements to enable these movements to be transmitted through rotational seal fittings capable of ensuring the safety of the separation between the operator's environment and that in the work area. Particular improvements have been made to the handles, handle seals, pincer mechanisms, etc [fr

  17. Genetic manipulation of Francisella tularensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhavit eZogaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease tularemia. F. tularensis subsp. tularensis causes the most severe disease in humans and has been classified as a select A agent and potential bioweapon. There is currently no vaccine approved for human use, making genetic manipulation of this organism critical to unraveling the genetic basis of pathogenesis and developing countermeasures against tularemia. The development of genetic techniques applicable to F. tularensis have lagged behind those routinely used for other bacteria, primarily due to lack of research and the restricted nature of the biocontainment required for studying this pathogen. However, in recent years, genetic techniques, such as transposon mutagenesis and targeted gene disruption, have been developed, that have had a dramatic impact on our understanding of the genetic basis of F. tularensis virulence. In this review, we describe some of the methods developed for genetic manipulation of F. tularensis.

  18. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  19. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent

  20. Flexibility in insulin prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication explores the concept of flexibility, a propos insulin preparations and insulin regimes used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The flexibility of an insulin regime or preparation is defined as their ability to be injected at variable times, with variable injection-meal time gaps, in a dose frequency and quantum determined by shared decision making, with a minimal requirement of glucose monitoring and health professional consultation, with no compromise on safety, efficiency and tolerability. The relative flexibility of various basal, prandial and dual action insulins, as well as intensive regimes, is compared. The biopsychosocial model of health is used to assess the utility of different insulins while encouraging a philosophy of flexible insulin usage.

  1. Using Integer Manipulatives: Representational Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Michael J.; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2016-01-01

    Teachers and students commonly use various concrete representations during mathematical instruction. These representations can be utilized to help students understand mathematical concepts and processes, increase flexibility of thinking, facilitate problem solving, and reduce anxiety while doing mathematics. Unfortunately, the manner in which some…

  2. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  3. Manipulating a stated choice experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Borjesson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the design of a stated choice experiment intended to measure the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) between cost and an attribute such as time using a conventional logit model. Focusing the experimental design on some target MRS will bias estimates towards that value....... The paper shows why this happens. The resulting estimated MRS can then be manipulated by adapting the target MRS in the experimental design. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. List manipulation in Turbo Prolog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Cotelea

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with list processing in Turbo Prolog language. It doesn't claim to be an exhaustive description of operations which can be performed upon lists. Nevertheless adduced programs are most representative, more or less known to specialists in logic programming domain. By means of examples are explained the list manipulation techniques, use of recursion, declarative comparison of predicates, analysis and fixation of acceptable prototypes and some problems of predicates' inconsistency. Index terms. Prolog, list, recursion.

  5. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs.......Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  6. Manipulation of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.C.; Palmer, R.J., Jr.; Zinn, M.; Smith, C.A.; Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Whitaker, K.W.; Kirkegaard, R.D.

    1998-08-15

    The biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms be generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desaturation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  7. [Flexibility and safety in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, G M; Barni, M

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the reasons according to which the newly-planned hospitals must adopt the concept of advanced flexibility (structural, technological, organizational, diagnostic and therapeutic), in order to avoid the risk of being already obsolete at the moment of their opening, and this due to the fact that too much time elapses in this Country between the moment of planning a new hospital and the moment of the start of its activity. Flexibility is needed at different levels: at low or medium levels for what concerns administrative spaces and also patient rooms (except, in this latter case, when differential intensity of care is adopted); at advanced levelfor what concerns diagnostic and therapeutic areas, which must be rapidly adaptable to new solutions offered by advances in technology and organization. From a different standpoint, flexibility applies also to the fact that hospital must increasingly become a node of a large net including territorial health services: the latter devoted to take care of chronicity, while hospitals should concentrate on acute pathology. Of course the territory surrounding the hospital, through its outpatient service and consultories, is in charge also for first level diagnosy and therapy, leaving the hospital to more sophisticated activities.

  8. Developing a mixture design specification for flexible base construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), flexible base producers typically generate large stockpiles of material exclusively for TxDOT projects. This large state-only inventory often maintained by producers, along with time requiremen...

  9. Conjugate-Gradient Algorithms For Dynamics Of Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Scheid, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Algorithms for serial and parallel computation of forward dynamics of multiple-link robotic manipulators by conjugate-gradient method developed. Parallel algorithms have potential for speedup of computations on multiple linked, specialized processors implemented in very-large-scale integrated circuits. Such processors used to stimulate dynamics, possibly faster than in real time, for purposes of planning and control.

  10. Analysis, reconstruction and manipulation using arterial snakes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guo

    2010-01-01

    Man-made objects often consist of detailed and interleaving structures, which are created using cane, coils, metal wires, rods, etc. The delicate structures, although manufactured using simple procedures, are challenging to scan and reconstruct. We observe that such structures are inherently 1D, and hence are naturally represented using an arrangement of generating curves. We refer to the resultant surfaces as arterial surfaces. In this paper we approach for analyzing, reconstructing, and manipulating such arterial surfaces. The core of the algorithm is a novel deformable model, called arterial snake, that simultaneously captures the topology and geometry of the arterial objects. The recovered snakes produce a natural decomposition of the raw scans, with the decomposed parts often capturing meaningful object sections. We demonstrate the robustness of our algorithm on a variety of arterial objects corrupted with noise, outliers, and with large parts missing. We present a range of applications including reconstruction, topology repairing, and manipulation of arterial surfaces by directly controlling the underlying curve network and the associated sectional profiles, which are otherwise challenging to perform. © 2010 ACM.

  11. Fungal Production and Manipulation of Plant Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Sandra; Radhakrishnan, Dhanya; Prasad, Kalika; Chini, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Living organisms are part of a highly interconnected web of interactions, characterised by species nurturing, competing, parasitizing and preying on one another. Plants have evolved cooperative as well as defensive strategies to interact with neighbour organisms. Among these, the plant-fungus associations are very diverse, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. Our current knowledge of plant-fungus interactions suggests a sophisticated coevolution to ensure dynamic plant responses to evolving fungal mutualistic/pathogenic strategies. The plant-fungus communication relies on a rich chemical language. To manipulate the plant defence mechanisms, fungi produce and secrete several classes of biomolecules, whose modeof- action is largely unknown. Upon perception of the fungi, plants produce phytohormones and a battery of secondary metabolites that serve as defence mechanism against invaders or to promote mutualistic associations. These mutualistic chemical signals can be co-opted by pathogenic fungi for their own benefit. Among the plant molecules regulating plant-fungus interaction, phytohormones play a critical role since they modulate various aspects of plant development, defences and stress responses. Intriguingly, fungi can also produce phytohormones, although the actual role of fungalproduced phytohormones in plant-fungus interactions is poorly understood. Here, we discuss the recent advances in fungal production of phytohormone, their putative role as endogenous fungal signals and how fungi manipulate plant hormone balance to their benefits. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Technology and control for hydraulic manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measson, Y.; David, O.; Louveau, F.; Friconneau, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Hydraulic manipulators are candidate for fusion reactor maintenance. Their main advantages are their large payload with respect to volume and mass, their reliability and their robustness. However, due to their force control limitations, they are disqualified for precise manipulation and are dangerous for the environment and themselves in case of unexpected collision. CEA, in collaboration with CYBERNETIX and IFREMER has developed the advanced hydraulic robot MAESTRO. Force and hybrid control has been developed in order to avoid the previous problems. Using 'pressure' control servo-valve instead of the standard 'flow' control servo-valve (standard configuration of the MAESTRO) makes a real simplification of the control loop. No more pressure sensors are needed for monitoring the hydraulic joint in force control mode and using this kind of valves makes big safety improvements. The French company IN-LHC, designed and manufactured a prototype of servo-valve that fits the performances and space constraints of the Maestro arm. A characterisation of this new product was made on a mock-up and a set of these prototypes integrated in the Maestro slave-arm. A comparison between the two actuating technologies was made and showed that the performances of the pressure servo-valves make it applicable to general application

  13. Particle Manipulation Methods in Droplet Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenje, Maria; Fornell, Anna; Ohlin, Mathias; Nilsson, Johan

    2018-02-06

    This Feature describes the different particle manipulation techniques available in the droplet microfluidics toolbox to handle particles encapsulated inside droplets and to manipulate whole droplets. We address the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques to guide new users.

  14. Physics Based Vision Systems for Robotic Manipulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the increase of robotic manipulation tasks (TA4.3), specifically dexterous manipulation tasks (TA4.3.2), more advanced computer vision algorithms will be...

  15. Cold plasma decontamination using flexible jet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konesky, Gregory

    2010-04-01

    Arrays of atmospheric discharge cold plasma jets have been used to decontaminate surfaces of a wide range of microorganisms quickly, yet not damage that surface. Its effectiveness in decomposing simulated chemical warfare agents has also been demonstrated, and may also find use in assisting in the cleanup of radiological weapons. Large area jet arrays, with short dwell times, are necessary for practical applications. Realistic situations will also require jet arrays that are flexible to adapt to contoured or irregular surfaces. Various large area jet array prototypes, both planar and flexible, are described, as is the application to atmospheric decontamination.

  16. An evolutionary resolution of manipulation conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Forero, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Individuals can manipulate the behavior of social partners. However, manipulation may conflict with the fitness interests of the manipulated individuals. Manipulated individuals can then be favored to resist manipulation, possibly reducing or eliminating the manipulated behavior in the long run. I use a mathematical model to show that conflicts where manipulation and resistance coevolve can disappear as a result of the coevolutionary process. I find that while manipulated individuals are selected to resist, they can simultaneously be favored to express the manipulated behavior at higher efficiency (i.e., providing increasing fitness effects to recipients of the manipulated behavior). Efficiency can increase to a point at which selection for resistance disappears. This process yields an efficient social behavior that is induced by social partners, and over which the inducing and induced individuals are no longer in conflict. A necessary factor is costly inefficiency. I develop the model to address the evolution of advanced eusociality via maternal manipulation (AEMM). The model predicts AEMM to be particularly likely in taxa with ancestrally imperfect resistance to maternal manipulation. Costly inefficiency occurs if the cost of delayed dispersal is larger than the benefit of exploiting the maternal patch. I discuss broader implications of the process. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Using Manipulatives to Teach Elementary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggan, Matthew; Harper, Sallie; Whitmire, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the importance and benefits of math manipulatives. For decades, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics has encouraged school districts nationwide to use manipulatives in mathematical instruction. The value of manipulatives has been recognized for many years, but some teachers are reluctant to use…

  18. Applications of optical manipulation in plant biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buer, Charles S.

    Measuring small forces in biology is important for determining basic physiological parameters of a cell. The plant cell wall provides a primary defense and presents a barrier to research. Magnitudes of small forces are impossible to measure with mechanical transducers, glass needles, atomic force microscopy, or micropipet-based force transduction due to the cell wall. Therefore, a noninvasive method of breaching the plant cell wall to access the symplastic region of the cell is required. Laser light provides sub-micrometer positioning, particle manipulation without mechanical contact, and piconewton force determination. Consequently, the extension of laser microsurgery to expand an experimental tool for plant biology encompassed the overall objective. A protocol was developed for precisely inserting microscopic objects into the periplasmic region of plant callus cells using laser microsurgery. Ginkgo biloba and Agrobacterium rhizogenes were used as the model system for developing the optical tweezers and scalpel techniques. Better than 95% survival was achieved after plasmolyzing G. biloba cells, ablating a 2-4 μm hole through the cell wall using a pulsed UV laser beam, trapping and manipulating bacteria into the periplasmic region, and deplasmolyzing the cells. Optical trapping experiments implied a difference existed between the bacteria models. Determining the optical trapping efficiency of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and A. tumefaciens strains indicated the A. rhizogenes strain, ATCC 11325, was significantly less efficiently trapped than strains A4 and ATCC 15834 and the A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Differences were also found in capsule generation, growth media viscosity, and transmission electron microscopy negative staining implying that a difference in surface structure exists. Calcofluor fluorescence suggests the difference involves an exopolysaccharide. Callus cell plasmolysis revealed Hechtian strands interconnecting the plasma membrane and the cell wall

  19. Subwavelength image manipulation through oblique and herringbone layered acoustic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chunhui; Jia, Han; Ke, Manzhu; Li, Yixiang; Liu, Zhengyou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an oblique and a herringbone layered acoustic structure are experimentally and theoretically demonstrated to manipulate acoustic subwavelength images. An imaging resolution of less than one tenth of a wavelength is achieved with both optimized systems, and lateral image shift has been realized by an oblique layered system. The thicknesses of both the oblique and the herringbone layered acoustic systems are largely reduced through utilizing the oblique or herringbone wave propagation path instead of the vertical wave propagation path in the rectangular layered planar acoustic system. With smaller size and subwavelength image manipulation, the acoustic systems are more favourable for practical application. (paper)

  20. Flexible transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  1. Education for Flexible Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomir Novak

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexible personality transforms both cultural environment and itself. Post-modern personality is both contemplative and active. On one hand, it is subject to inner imagination of a creative act, and on the other hand, to creation of a tangible product What is more, flexible personality is also autonomous, mature, healthy and well balanced, as well as stable and responsive to the demand for change. Due to ever quicker changes, flexible personality is a must. And it is a task. The impact of professional work of adults on the education of children, however, is being conditioned by the exrigid family and rigid enterprises or institutions in which adults are employed. Nevertheless, flexible educational style is not repressive, as it used to be, nor permissive and totally concentrated on the child. It is a choice between the two qualities. The educators' style is dependent on their attitude towards life (play and self-education and not only towards work. Nowadays, flexibility is a way towards quality management of social and personal changes.

  2. MEMS-based clamp with a passive hold function for precision position retaining of micro manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, D M; Van Dijk, J; Soemers, H M J R; De Jong, B R; De Boer, M J; Jansen, H V; Krijnen, G J M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the design, modeling and fabrication of a precision MEMS-based clamp with a relatively large clamping force are presented. The purpose of the clamp is to mechanically fix a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) MEMS-based sample manipulator (Brouwer et al J. Int. Soc. Precis. Eng. Nanotechnol. submitted) once the sample has been positioned in all DOFs. The clamping force is generated by a rotational electrostatic comb-drive actuator and can be latched passively by a parallel plate type electrostatically driven locking device. The clamp design is based on the principles of exact constraint design, resulting in a high actuation compliance (flexibility) combined with a high suspension stiffness. Therefore, a relatively large blocking force of 1.4 mN in relation to the used area of 1.8 mm 2 is obtained. The fabrication is based on silicon bulk micromachining technology and combines a high-aspect-ratio deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), conformal deposition of low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) silicon nitride and an anisotropic potassium hydroxide (KOH) backside etching technology. Special attention is given to void reduction of Si x N y trench isolation and reduction of heating phenomena during front-side release etching. Guidelines are given for the applied process. Measurements showed that the clamp was able to fix, hold and release a test actuator. The dynamic behavior was in good agreement with the modal analysis

  3. Beam Manipulation with an RF Dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, M.

    1999-01-01

    Coherent betatron motion adiabatically excited by an RF dipole has been successfully employed to overcome strong intrinsic spin depolarization resonances in the AGS, while a solenoid partial snake has been used to correct imperfection spin resonances. The experimental results showed that a full spin flip was obtained in passing through an intrinsic spin resonance when all the beam particles were forced to oscillate coherently at a large amplitude without diluting the beam emittance. With this method, they have successfully accelerated polarized beam up to 23.5 GeV/c. A new type of second order spin resonances was also discovered. As a non-destructive manipulation, this method can also be used for nonlinear beam dynamics studies and beam diagnosis such as measuring phase advance and betatron amplitude function

  4. Consistent Performance Differences between Children and Adults Despite Manipulation of Cue-Target Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie-Raye Bauer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Two behavioral experiments assessed the plasticity and short-term improvement of task switching in 215 children and adults. Specifically, we studied manipulations of cued attention to different features of a target stimulus as a way to assess the development of cognitive flexibility. Each experiment had multiple levels of difficulty via manipulation of number of cued features (2–4 and number of response options (2 or 4. Working memory demand was manipulated across the two experiments. Impact of memory demand and task level manipulations on task accuracy and response times were measured. There were three overall goals: First, these task manipulations (number of cued features, response choices, and working memory load were tested to assess the stability of group differences in performance between children ages 6–16 years and adults 18–27 years, with the goal of reducing age group differences. Second, age-related transitions to adult-level performance were examined within subgroups of the child sample. Third, short-term improvement from the beginning to the end of the study session was measured to probe whether children can improve with task experience. Attempts to use task manipulations to reduce age differences in cued task switching performance were unsuccessful: children performed consistently worse and were more susceptible to task manipulations than adults. However, across both studies, adult-like performance was observed around mid-adolescence, by ages 13-16 years. Certain task manipulations, especially increasing number of response options when working memory demand was low, produced differences from adults even in the oldest children. Interestingly, there was similar performance improvement with practice for both child and adult groups. The higher memory demand version of the task (Experiment 2 prompted greater short-term improvement in accuracy and response times than the lower memory demand version (Experiment 1. These results

  5. Chemically modified graphene based supercapacitors for flexible and miniature devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debasis; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-09-01

    Rapid progress in the portable and flexible electronic devises has stimulated supercapacitor research towards the design and fabrication of high performance flexible devices. Recent research efforts for flexible supercapacitor electrode materials are highly focusing on graphene and chemically modified graphene owing to the unique properties, including large surface area, high electrical and thermal conductivity, excellent mechanical flexibility, and outstanding chemical stability. This invited review article highlights current status of the flexible electrode material research based on chemically modified graphene for supercapacitor application. A variety of electrode architectures prepared from chemically modified graphene are summarized in terms of their structural dimensions. Novel prototypes for the supercapacitor aiming at flexible miniature devices, i.e. microsupercapacitor with high energy and power density are highlighted. Future challenges relevant to graphene-based flexible supercapacitors are also suggested. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. MANIPULATIVE COOPERATION POLITICS OF MLM COMPANIES IN SURABAYA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Andriati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies on multi-level marketing business from law, management, marketing economic and anthropology perspectives have been focused on its legality which is victims of MLM companies/fake MLM companies. Studies on market phenomenon and entrepreneurship of MLM large industry fromeconomy anthropology perspective are still rare especially in Indonesia. The study is intended to identify the underlying cooperation policy as well as manipulative conduct of MLM business in Surabaya.The study employs qualitative and ethnographic approaches. Qualitative data wereanalyzed using ethnographic approaches. The result of research suggests that MLM businesses have undertaken manipulative cooperation politics by establishing both international level direct selling association (WFDSA and national association (APLI in response to the MLM business controversy. APLI exploits andmanipulates non-member of APLI. Exploiting and manipulating MLM members through ideology doctrine and marketing plan of MLM business/corporate culture

  7. Approaches to probabilistic model learning for mobile manipulation robots

    CERN Document Server

    Sturm, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Mobile manipulation robots are envisioned to provide many useful services both in domestic environments as well as in the industrial context. Examples include domestic service robots that implement large parts of the housework, and versatile industrial assistants that provide automation, transportation, inspection, and monitoring services. The challenge in these applications is that the robots have to function under changing, real-world conditions, be able to deal with considerable amounts of noise and uncertainty, and operate without the supervision of an expert. This book presents novel learning techniques that enable mobile manipulation robots, i.e., mobile platforms with one or more robotic manipulators, to autonomously adapt to new or changing situations. The approaches presented in this book cover the following topics: (1) learning the robot's kinematic structure and properties using actuation and visual feedback, (2) learning about articulated objects in the environment in which the robot is operating,...

  8. "Little Helper" - An Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulator Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Hvilshoj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept "autonomous industrial mobile manipulation" (AIMM based on the mobile manipulator "Little Helper" - an ongoing research project at Aalborg University, Denmark, concerning the development of an autonomous and flexible manufacturing assistant. The paper focuses on the contextual aspects and the working principles of AIMM. Furthermore, the paper deals with the design principles and overall hardware and software architectures of "Little Helper" from a functional and modular mechatronics point of view, in order to create a generic AIMM platform. The design challenges faced in the project is to integrate commercial off‐the‐shelf (COTS and dedicated highly integrated systems into an autonomous mobile manipulator system with the ability to perform diverse tasks in industrial environments. We propose an action based domain specific communication language for AIMM for routine and task definition, in order to lower the entry barriers for the users of the technology. To demonstrate the "Little Helper" concept a full‐scale prototype has been built and different application examples carried out. Experiences and knowledge gained from this show promising results regarding industrial integration, exploitation and maturation of the AIMM technology.

  9. SETS, Boolean Manipulation for Network Analysis and Fault Tree Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Description of problem or function - SETS is used for symbolic manipulation of set (or Boolean) equations, particularly the reduction of set equations by the application of set identities. It is a flexible and efficient tool for performing probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), vital area analysis, and common cause analysis. The equation manipulation capabilities of SETS can also be used to analyze non-coherent fault trees and determine prime implicants of Boolean functions, to verify circuit design implementation, to determine minimum cost fire protection requirements for nuclear reactor plants, to obtain solutions to combinatorial optimization problems with Boolean constraints, and to determine the susceptibility of a facility to unauthorized access through nullification of sensors in its protection system. 4. Method of solution - The SETS program is used to read, interpret, and execute the statements of a SETS user program which is an algorithm that specifies the particular manipulations to be performed and the order in which they are to occur. 5. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Any properly formed set equation involving the set operations of union, intersection, and complement is acceptable for processing by the SETS program. Restrictions on the size of a set equation that can be processed are not absolute but rather are related to the number of terms in the disjunctive normal form of the equation, the number of literals in the equation, etc. Nevertheless, set equations involving thousands and even hundreds of thousands of terms can be processed successfully

  10. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-04

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Integration and Assessment of Multiple Mobile Manipulators in a Real-World Industrial Production Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Simon; Schou, Casper; Rühr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale research experiment carried out within the TAPAS project, where multiple mobile manipulators were integrated and assessed in an industrial context. We consider an industrial scenario in which mobile manipulators naturally extend automation of logistic tasks towar...

  12. Hydraulic manipulator design, analysis, and control at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Robotics and Process Systems Div.; Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Basher, A.M.H. [South Carolina State Univ., Orangeburg, SC (United States)

    1996-09-01

    To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned to hydraulics as a means of actuation. Hydraulics have always been the actuator of choice when designing heavy-life construction and mining equipment such as bulldozers, backhoes, and tunneling devices. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem) sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. To support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The hydraulics laboratory at ORNL has three different manipulators. First is a 6-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DoF), multi-planer, teleoperated, flexible controls test bed used for the development of waste tank clean-up manipulator controls, thermal studies, system characterization, and manipulator tracking. Finally, is a human amplifier test bed used for the development of an entire new class of teleoperated systems. To compliment the hardware in the hydraulics laboratory, ORNL has developed a hydraulics simulation capability including a custom package to model the hydraulic systems and manipulators for performance studies and control development. This paper outlines the history of hydraulic manipulator developments at ORNL, describes the hydraulics laboratory, discusses the use of the equipment within the laboratory, and presents some of the initial results from experiments and modeling associated with these hydraulic manipulators. Included are some of the results from the development of the human amplifier/de-amplifier concepts, the characterization of the thermal sensitivity of hydraulic systems, and end-point tracking accuracy studies. Experimental and analytical

  13. Hydraulic manipulator design, analysis, and control at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Basher, A.M.H.

    1996-09-01

    To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned to hydraulics as a means of actuation. Hydraulics have always been the actuator of choice when designing heavy-life construction and mining equipment such as bulldozers, backhoes, and tunneling devices. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem) sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. To support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The hydraulics laboratory at ORNL has three different manipulators. First is a 6-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DoF), multi-planer, teleoperated, flexible controls test bed used for the development of waste tank clean-up manipulator controls, thermal studies, system characterization, and manipulator tracking. Finally, is a human amplifier test bed used for the development of an entire new class of teleoperated systems. To compliment the hardware in the hydraulics laboratory, ORNL has developed a hydraulics simulation capability including a custom package to model the hydraulic systems and manipulators for performance studies and control development. This paper outlines the history of hydraulic manipulator developments at ORNL, describes the hydraulics laboratory, discusses the use of the equipment within the laboratory, and presents some of the initial results from experiments and modeling associated with these hydraulic manipulators. Included are some of the results from the development of the human amplifier/de-amplifier concepts, the characterization of the thermal sensitivity of hydraulic systems, and end-point tracking accuracy studies. Experimental and analytical

  14. Interpersonal relationship manipulation at a personal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Hribernik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation is not unknown or strange to any of us. We have all experienced it, or perhaps even practiced it. It is wrong not to recognize it, to find excuses for it, and, above all, it is wrong not to decide to change one’s behaviour. Long-lasting use of manipulation leaves consequences on all the parties involved: the victim, the observer and the perpetrator. Manipulation is a relation between persons which does not consider the needs of everybody involved. It means exploitation and misleading, inhumane and unethical behaviour on the part of the manipulator, which he uses in order gain success, self-confirmation and to achieve his goals. In the act of manipulation personal boundaries of the other person are violated since the manipulator enforces his dominance and subjectedness of the victim. The manipulator invades the victim’s personal integrity, limiting their potential. He isolates, controls and intimidates them; by devises a system to catch the victims, to entangle them in his net and suck them up like a spider. If the manipulation is very successful, the other person does not recognize it as such; they consider themselves happy to be cooperating with the manipulator, as they identify his goals as their own. Therefore, the manipulator can be said to have stolen the manipulated person’s soul.

  15. The senior pupils’ understanding of the essence of manipulative strategies in communicative sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валентина Григорівна Кучерявець

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of an adequate understanding of the manipulative strategy in educational process of the modern school by the high school aged pupils. The topicality of the problem is connected with inadequate spread of manipulative interaction in all life spheres. The deficiency of the skill of expedient use of manipulation in pedagogical process as well as fixing manipulation as the main way of relation construction are the unfavorable variants of human development. There were characterized the main influence strategies in communication. There were cited the results of techniques and creative tasks that allow to reveal the understanding of essence of manipulative strategy and to study its functioning in the senior pupils’ communicative plane. The special authors’ attention was concentrated on determination of pedagogical conditions of mastering the experience of manipulative communication by the high school aged pupils. In the process of research there were determined the certain threatening moments: the significant part of senior pupils does not understand their own manipulative actions, but see it in surrounding people and is ready to aggressive response. The ability to use the ways of flexible, adaptive countermanipulation that allow retain communicative connections between pupils and teachers is not sufficiently developed in the pupils of high school age

  16. The fiber-optic imaging and manipulation of neural activity during animal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Daisuke; Murayama, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    Recent progress with optogenetic probes for imaging and manipulating neural activity has further increased the relevance of fiber-optic systems for neural circuitry research. Optical fibers, which bi-directionally transmit light between separate sites (even at a distance of several meters), can be used for either optical imaging or manipulating neural activity relevant to behavioral circuitry mechanisms. The method's flexibility and the specifications of the light structure are well suited for following the behavior of freely moving animals. Furthermore, thin optical fibers allow researchers to monitor neural activity from not only the cortical surface but also deep brain regions, including the hippocampus and amygdala. Such regions are difficult to target with two-photon microscopes. Optogenetic manipulation of neural activity with an optical fiber has the advantage of being selective for both cell-types and projections as compared to conventional electrophysiological brain tissue stimulation. It is difficult to extract any data regarding changes in neural activity solely from a fiber-optic manipulation device; however, the readout of data is made possible by combining manipulation with electrophysiological recording, or the simultaneous application of optical imaging and manipulation using a bundle-fiber. The present review introduces recent progress in fiber-optic imaging and manipulation methods, while also discussing fiber-optic system designs that are suitable for a given experimental protocol. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Software industrial flexible

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Araya, Daniel; Muñoz, Leandro; Sirerol, Daniel; Oviedo, Sandra; Ibáñez, Francisco S.

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se pretende investigar y proponer técnicas, métodos y tecnologías que permitan el desarrollo de software flexible en ambientes industriales. El objetivo es generar métodos y técnicas para facilitar el desarrollo de software flexible en ambientes industriales. Las áreas de investigación son los sistemas de scheduling de producción, la generación de software para plataformas de hardware abiertas y la innovación.

  18. Production Flexibility and Hedging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Dionne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We extend the analysis on hedging with price and output uncertainty by endogenizing the output decision. Specifically, we consider the joint determination of output and hedging in the case of flexibility in production. We show that the risk-averse firm always maintains a short position in the futures market when the futures price is actuarially fair. Moreover, in the context of an example, we show that the presence of production flexibility reduces the incentive to hedge for all risk averse agents.

  19. The flexibility of flexicurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    2011-01-01

    by a special relation between flexibility, social security and active labour market policy, where a high level of social security is seen as a precondition for a labour market characterized by flexibility. In this article it is argued that the Danish labour market is characterized by having not just one model...... of flexicurity, but two. These two models cover different parts of the labour market and different segments of employees. The first model (the blue-collar flexicurity model) – the one that is often focused on in the literature – covers primarily skilled and unskilled workers on the labour market. The second...

  20. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  1. Covariance Manipulation for Conjunction Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    The manipulation of space object covariances to try to provide additional or improved information to conjunction risk assessment is not an uncommon practice. Types of manipulation include fabricating a covariance when it is missing or unreliable to force the probability of collision (Pc) to a maximum value ('PcMax'), scaling a covariance to try to improve its realism or see the effect of covariance volatility on the calculated Pc, and constructing the equivalent of an epoch covariance at a convenient future point in the event ('covariance forecasting'). In bringing these methods to bear for Conjunction Assessment (CA) operations, however, some do not remain fully consistent with best practices for conducting risk management, some seem to be of relatively low utility, and some require additional information before they can contribute fully to risk analysis. This study describes some basic principles of modern risk management (following the Kaplan construct) and then examines the PcMax and covariance forecasting paradigms for alignment with these principles; it then further examines the expected utility of these methods in the modern CA framework. Both paradigms are found to be not without utility, but only in situations that are somewhat carefully circumscribed.

  2. Graphics and control of the guide tube assembly reinforcement manipulators at Sizewell 'A'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, C.

    1996-01-01

    A method was devised to reinforce the lower lug welds of the Guide Tube Assemblies (GTA's) at Sizewell 'A'. A six degree of freedom manipulator was designed to place a clamp around the lugs and tighten it. The manipulator was fitted with the three fixed cameras but required another surveillance manipulator positioned in an adjacent standpipe to provide additional views. The need to prepare two standpipes limited the rate at which reinforcements could be made. Therefore an articulated two arm camera manipulator, which could be used on the existing manipulator mast was designed and built. The two manipulators were driven from separate desks and were controlled by the same supervisory computer linked to online graphics. The camera arm joints were driven on preplanned routes using a single joystick because of the complex moves and tight spaces involved. A large number of GTA sites have now been reinforced including a dropped GTA which had to be raised to carry out clamping. (Author)

  3. Integrality and separability of multitouch interaction techniques in 3D manipulation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Anthony; Casiez, Géry; Grisoni, Laurent

    2012-03-01

    Multitouch displays represent a promising technology for the display and manipulation of data. While the manipulation of 2D data has been widely explored, 3D manipulation with multitouch displays remains largely unexplored. Based on an analysis of the integration and separation of degrees of freedom, we propose a taxonomy for 3D manipulation techniques with multitouch displays. Using that taxonomy, we introduce Depth-Separated Screen-Space (DS3), a new 3D manipulation technique based on the separation of translation and rotation. In a controlled experiment, we compared DS3 with Sticky Tools and Screen-Space. Results show that separating the control of translation and rotation significantly affects performance for 3D manipulation, with DS3 performing faster than the two other techniques.

  4. Empowering Variable Renewables - Options for Flexible Electricity Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, Hugo [Renewable Energy Unit, International Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    A flexible electricity system is one that can respond reliably, and rapidly, to large fluctuations in supply and demand. Flexibility is already present in all power systems, in order to manage fluctuations in demand, and it is crucial for high performance and economic and reliable operation. This paper looks at measures to increase flexibility. but careful cost/benefit analysis is essential, and specific national and regional circumstances will influence the choice of option(s).

  5. A technical review of flexible endoscopic multitasking platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Baldwin Po Man; Gourlay, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Further development of advanced therapeutic endoscopic techniques and natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) requires a powerful flexible endoscopic multitasking platform. Medline search was performed to identify literature relating to flexible endoscopic multitasking platform from year 2004-2011 using keywords: Flexible endoscopic multitasking platform, NOTES, Instrumentation, Endoscopic robotic surgery, and specific names of various endoscopic multitasking platforms. Key articles from articles references were reviewed. Flexible multitasking platforms can be classified as either mechanical or robotic. Purely mechanical systems include the dual channel endoscope (DCE) (Olympus), R-Scope (Olympus), the EndoSamurai (Olympus), the ANUBIScope (Karl-Storz), Incisionless Operating Platform (IOP) (USGI), and DDES system (Boston Scientific). Robotic systems include the MASTER system (Nanyang University, Singapore) and the Viacath (Hansen Medical). The DCE, the R-Scope, the EndoSamurai and the ANUBIScope have integrated visual function and instrument manipulation function. The IOP and DDES systems rely on the conventional flexible endoscope for visualization, and instrument manipulation is integrated through the use of a flexible, often lockable, multichannel access device. The advantage of the access device concept is that it allows optics and instrument dissociation. Due to the anatomical constrains of the pharynx, systems are designed to have a diameter of less than 20 mm. All systems are controlled by traction cable system actuated either by hand or by robotic machinery. In a flexible system, this method of actuation inevitably leads to significant hysteresis. This problem will be accentuated with a long endoscope such as that required in performing colonic procedures. Systems often require multiple operators. To date, the DCE, the R-Scope, the IOP, and the Viacath system have data published relating to their application in human. Alternative forms of

  6. Flexible biochips for detection of biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, M.; Schüler, T.; Furthner, F.; Rensing, P.A.; Heck, G.T. van; Schoo, H.F.M.; Möllier, R.; Fritzsche, W.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Meinders, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Miniaturization of biosensors is envisaged by the development of biochips consisting of parallel microarray patterns of binding sites on rigid substrates, such as glass or silicon. Thin plastic substrates are promising flexible alternatives because of the possibility for large-area roll-to-roll

  7. Docking to flexible nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Tommy; Bruun, Anne T; Balle, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Computational docking to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and other members of the Cys-loop receptor family is complicated by the flexibility of the so-called C-loop. As observed in the large number of published crystal structures of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a structural...

  8. Biomass and biogas : potentials, efficiencies and flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Gert; Wouterse, Brian; Faber, Folkert; Nap, Jan Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the field of ‘renewable energy resources’ formation of biogas Biomass and biogas: potentials, efficiencies and flexibility is an important option. Biogas can be produced from biomass in a multistep process called anaerobic digestion (AD) and is usually performed in large digesters. Anaerobic

  9. Flexibility as a service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Adams, M.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Pesic, M.; Schonenberg, H.; Chen, L.; Liu, C.; Liu, Q.; Deng, K.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of flexibility is often seen as an inhibitor for the successful application of workflow technology. Many researchers have proposed different ways of addressing this problem and some of these ideas have been implemented in commercial systems. However, a "one size fits all" approach is likely

  10. Valuing Flexibility. Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    Quarterly (2): 38-49. Cormier, P., Olewnik, A., and Lewis, K. 2008. An Approach to Quantifying Design Flexibility for Mass Customization in Early...C. Clarkson, P., and Zanker, W. 2004. Change and customisation in complex engineering domains, Res Eng Des 15(1), 1–21. Ekstrom, M. and Bjornsson, H

  11. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2017, held in London, UK, in June 2017. The 21 full papers presented in this book together with 4 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions...

  12. Flexible metal bellows

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    A set of flexible metal bellows being fatigue-tested by repeated offset motion. Such bellows assemblies were used in the SPS vacuum system at places where , for instance, beam stoppers and collimators had to be moved frequently in and out of the beam path.

  13. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  14. A flexible WLAN receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible radio receivers are also called Software Defined Radios (SDRs) [1], [2]. The focus of our SDR project [3] is on designing the front end, from antenna to demodulation in bits, of a °exible, multi-standard WLAN receiver. We try to combine an instance of a (G)FSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an

  15. Controlling Flexible Robot Arms Using High Speed Dynamics Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A robot manipulator controller for a flexible manipulator arm having plural bodies connected at respective movable hinges and flexible in plural deformation modes corresponding to respective modal spatial influence vectors relating deformations of plural spaced nodes of respective bodies to the plural deformation modes, operates by computing articulated body quantities for each of the bodies from respective modal spatial influence vectors, obtaining specified body forces for each of the bodies, and computing modal deformation accelerations of the nodes and hinge accelerations of the hinges from the specified body forces, from the articulated body quantities and from the modal spatial influence vectors. In one embodiment of the invention, the controller further operates by comparing the accelerations thus computed to desired manipulator motion to determine a motion discrepancy, and correcting the specified body forces so as to reduce the motion discrepancy. The manipulator bodies and hinges are characterized by respective vectors of deformation and hinge configuration variables, and computing modal deformation accelerations and hinge accelerations is carried out for each one of the bodies beginning with the outermost body by computing a residual body force from a residual body force of a previous body and from the vector of deformation and hinge configuration variables, computing a resultant hinge acceleration from the body force, the residual body force and the articulated hinge inertia, and revising the residual body force modal body acceleration.

  16. Electrokinetic Phenomena in Chemically Manipulated Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery Azevedo, Rodrigo

    Suspended particles are integral part of many systems and engineering technologies. They can be found in the form of colloidal suspensions, emulsions, polymer precursor solutions, and in biological materials such as blood. The miniaturization of new technologies and the advent of microfludics has made the manipulation of suspended particles in the microscale particularly important for a variety of fields. The ability to easily impart complex chemical environments to suspensions in microfluidic devices enables us to characterize these systems, modify their properties and drive their motion. Nonetheless, precise manipulation of the chemistry surrounding suspended particles has been particularly difficult up until recently. This thesis dissertation shows how microfluidic devices integrated with hydrogel membranes can be used to control the chemical environment of suspended particles for a variety of studies and practical applications. First, I demonstrate how particles move diffusiophoretically under ionic surfactant gradients. Diffusiophoresis, the motion of particles under concentration gradients, has been known for several decades but it has rarely been studied experimentally outside the context of simple electrolytes. Here, we show that diffusiophoresis in ionic surfactants below the CMC can be understood in terms of the classic theory for electrolytes. Above the CMC, however, the drive for diffsuiophoresis is significantly diminished due to a large drop in the change in chemical potential with added solute. Next, I show that gradients of dipolar molecules such a zwitterions can drive diffusiophoresis. I derive the diffusiophoretic migration of particles under gradients of dipolar molecules. This theory is backed up by experiments which reveal that, in such systems, particle velocities are directly proportional to the imposed gradient but do not scale with the inverse of the local concentration, as occurs under electrolyte gradients. Furthermore, I show that the

  17. Controlled higher-order transverse mode conversion from a fiber laser by polarization manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Yi, Qian; Yang, Lingling; Zhao, Chujun; Wen, Shuangchun

    2018-02-01

    We report a vectorial fiber laser with controlled transverse mode conversion by intra-cavity polarization manipulation. By combining a q-plate and two quarter-wave plates (QWPs), we can generate a switchable polarization state output represented by the higher-order Poincaré sphere (l = +1, l = -1), and distinguish the fourfold degenerate LP11 mode. The four transverse vector modes can be obtained and switched in a flexible way, and the slope efficiency of the fiber laser can reach up to 39.4%. This compactness, high efficiency, and switchable operation potential will benefit a range of applications, such as materials processing, particle manipulation, etc.

  18. Wave Manipulation by Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders

    topology optimization can be used to design structures for manipulation of the electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The wave problems considered here fall within three classes. The first class concerns the design of cloaks, which when wrapped around an object will render the object undetectable...... for the cloak is to delay the waves in regions of higher permittivity than the background and subsequently phase match them to the waves outside. Directional acoustic cloaks can also be designed using the topology optimization method. Aluminum cylinders constitutes the design and their placement and size...... concerns the design of planar Fresnel zone plate lenses for focusing electromagnetic waves. The topology optimized zone plates improve the focusing performance compared to results known from the literature....

  19. Ion manipulation method and device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gordon A.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.

    2017-11-07

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

  20. Multidiscipline simulation of elastic manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rølvåg

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to multidiscipline simulation of elastic robot manipulators in FEDEM. All developments presented in this paper are based on the formulations in FEDEM, a simulation system developed by the authors which combines finite element, mechanism and control analysis. In order to establish this general simulation system as an efficient multidiscipline robot design tool a robot control system including a high level robot programming language, interpolation algorithms, path generation algorithms, forward and inverse kinematics, control systems, gear and transmission models are implemented. These new features provide a high level of integration between traditionally separate design disciplines from the very beginning of the design and optimization process. Several simulations have shown that high fidelity mathematical models can be derived and used as a basis for dynamic analysis and controller design in FEDEM.