Sample records for large employers participants

  1. Employment, social capital, and community participation among Israelis with disabilities. (United States)

    Araten-Bergman, Tal; Stein, Michael Ashley


    Employment, social capital, and community participation have emerged in recent years as significant concepts for realizing the human rights of individuals with disabilities. Yet the theoretical interrelationship of these concepts remains largely overlooked, as does the empirical basis for understanding the underlying connections. This study explores the relationship between employment status, social capital, community participation, and well-being among Israelis with disabilities. It also explores the unique contribution of social capital to the well-being and integration of individuals with disabilities. 274 participants with self-reported disabilities completed a questionnaire containing measures of individual social capital, community participation, well-being, and background data. Correlation and Univariate analysis were used to compare scores between employed (n=131) and non-employed (n=143) participants, and logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the unique contribution of employment to social inclusion and well-being. Employed participants reported significantly higher levels of social capital and were more integrated in leisure and civic activities than their non-employed counterparts. Moreover, employment status was found to have a significant contribution to the variance in the subjective well-being of participants. By more fully understanding the importance of social capital for community inclusion, practitioners can better address the importance of network-building during the rehabilitation process as a means of promoting social and vocational integration.

  2. Gender Differences in Rural Off-farm Employment Participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates gender differences in spatial mobility with respect to participation in off-farm employment in rural Tanzania. The mobility issue arises because the recent increase in women participation in off-farm employment is likely to saturate the local labor market/off-farm opportunities and dampen the rural ...

  3. Employment and paid work among participants in a randomized controlled trial comparing diacetylmorphine and hydromorphone. (United States)

    Nikoo, Mohammadali; Vogel, Marc; Choi, Fiona; Song, Michael J; Burghardt, Jensen; Zafari, Zafar; Tabi, Katarina; Frank, Anastasia; Barbic, Skye; Schütz, Christian; Jang, Kerry; Krausz, Michael


    Employment is one of the less studied but a significant outcome of medication-assisted treatment. Thus, we aimed to explore employment outcomes of medication-assisted treatment with hydromorphone (HDM) or diacetylmorphine (DAM). The secondary aim was to estimate characteristics of this population as well as treatment-related factors associated with these outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized, double blind controlled trial. A total of 102 and 100 participants were randomized to receive injectable DAM or HDM for 6 months respectively. In stage 2, 144 participants were randomized again to receive either oral or injectable forms of the medication they received for another 6 months. Participants were interviewed at 5 timepoints: before and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment assignment. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) with a logit link was fitted to determine factors related to paid work in the past 30 days. Mean age of participants was 44.3 (SD = 9.6) and 59 (29.2%) participants were men. At each timepoint, 6-8 (3.6%-4.1%) participants reported employment in the past 30 days and 40 to 52 (19.7%-26.7%) reported minimum 1 day of paid work. University or college education [OR = 2.12: 95% CI = (1.25, 3.62), P = 0.01] was significantly associated with paid work after adjustment for age, gender, treatment arms, timepoints, days receiving study treatment, physical health, psychological health and crack cocaine use in the past 30 days. The rate of employment was lower among participants of this study compared to similar studies on heroin-assisted treatment. Higher education was associated with increased odds of paid work. A large gap exists between employment rate and the proportion of participants who reported paid work. Supported employment and occupational therapy could optimize the employment outcomes of this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Education and Employment Participation in Young Adulthood: What Role Does Arthritis Play? (United States)

    Jetha, Arif; Theis, Kristina A; Boring, Michael A; Barbour, Kamil E


    To examine the association between arthritis diagnosis and education and employment participation among young adults, and to determine whether findings differ by self-rated health and age. Data from the National Health Interview Survey, in the years 2009-2015, were combined and analyzed. The study sample was restricted to those ages 18-29 years, either diagnosed with arthritis (n = 1,393) or not (n = 40,537). The prevalence and correlates of employment and education participation were compared by arthritis status. Demographic characteristics, social role participation restrictions, health factors, and health system use variables were included as covariates. Models were stratified for age (18-23 versus 24-29 years) and self-rated health. Weighted proportions and univariate and multivariate associations were calculated to examine the association between arthritis and education and employment participation. Respondents with arthritis were more likely to be female, married, and report having more social participation restrictions, fair/poor health, and more functional limitations than those without arthritis. In multivariate models, arthritis was significantly associated with lower education (prevalence ratio [PR] 0.75 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.57-0.98]) and higher employment participation (PR 1.07 [95% CI 1.03-1.13]). Additional stratified analyses indicated an association between arthritis diagnosis and greater employment participation in those ages 18-23 years and reporting higher self-rated health. Young adults with arthritis may be transitioning into employment at an earlier age than their peers without arthritis. To inform the design of interventions that promote employment participation, future research on the education and employment experiences of young adults with arthritis is needed. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. A Life Course Perspective to Spinal Cord Injury and Employment Participation in Canada (United States)

    Dumont, Frédéric S.; Noreau, Luc; Leblond, Jean


    Background: Few studies have examined life course differences in the employment of Canadians with spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective: To compare employment participation of young/middle-aged and older adults with SCI and to examine the association between employment and demographic and health factors, SCI-related needs, and social role participation at the 2 life phases. Methods: A sample of young/middle-aged (18-54 years; n = 959) and older adults (55-64 years; n = 364) with SCI was recruited as part of a larger Canadian community survey. Pre- and postinjury employment were compared. Demographic and health factors, number of unmet SCI needs, and social role participation were collected and compared by life phase and employment status. Two multivariable logistic regression models were conducted and compared for young/middle-aged and older adults. Results: Close to one-third of participants with SCI were working post injury (32%), a decline from the 62% of respondents working prior to their injury. Participants were more likely to work in less physically demanding job sectors including business/administration or health/science/teaching. An examination of life phase differences showed that young/middle-aged adults were more likely to be employed post injury (36%) when compared to older respondents (12% employed) who were more likely to report being retired (43%). Multivariable analyses revealed that for young/middle-aged adults, being married, attaining a postsecondary education, and having fewer unmet SCI needs were related to employment. Among older adults, having a traumatic injury was related to involvement in paid work. For both young/middle-aged and older adults, participating in more social roles was related to working. Conclusion: A life course perspective is important to understanding similarities and differences between young/middle-aged and older adults with SCI in their employment participation. Tailored programs and policies should be designed to

  6. Employment-based retirement plan participation: geographic differences and trends, 2010. (United States)

    Copeland, Craig


    LATEST DATA: This Issue Brief examines the level of participation by workers in public- and private-sector employment-based pension or retirement plans, based on the U.S. Census Bureau's March 2011 Current Population Survey (CPS), the most recent data currently available (for year-end 2010). SPONSORSHIP RATE: Among all working-age (21-64) wage and salary employees, 54.2 percent worked for an employer or union that sponsored a retirement plan in 2010. Among full-time, full-year wage and salary workers ages 21-64 (those with the strongest connection to the work force), 61.6 percent worked for an employer or union that sponsors a plan. PARTICIPATION LEVEL: Among full-time, full-year wage and salary workers ages 21-64, 54.5 percent participated in a retirement plan. TREND: This is virtually unchanged from 54.4 percent in 2009. Participation trends increased significantly in the late 1990s, and decreased in 2001 and 2002. In 2003 and 2004, the participation trend flattened out. The retirement plan participation level subsequently declined in 2005 and 2006, before a significant increase in 2007. Slight declines occurred in 2008 and 2009, followed by a flattening out of the trend in 2010. AGE: Participation increased with age (61.4 percent for wage and salary workers ages 55-64, compared with 29.2 percent for those ages 21-24). GENDER: Among wage and salary workers ages 21-64, men had a higher participation level than women, but among full-time, full-year workers, women had a higher percentage participating than men (55.5 percent for women, compared with 53.8 percent for men). Female workers' lower probability of participation among wage and salary workers results from their overall lower earnings and lower rates of full-time work in comparison with males. RACE: Hispanic wage and salary workers were significantly less likely than both white and black workers to participate in a retirement plan. The gap between the percentages of black and white plan participants that

  7. Self-Reported Employment Status and Social Participation After Successful Kidney Transplantation. (United States)

    Parajuli, Sandesh; Singh, Jagmeet; Sandal, Shaifali; Liebman, Scott E; Demme, Richard A


    Kidney transplantation (KTX) is considered the treatment of choice for most individuals with end-stage kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the employment status and social participation after successful KTX. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Eligible participants were patients who received a transplant ≥1 year ago and who were previously on hemodialysis (HD) for ≥1 year. Two hundred individuals participated in this study. A significant number (93.5%) of patients reported they were working prior to HD versus 35% while on HD. Only 14% reported receiving disability benefits prior to HD versus 75% receiving disability while on HD. Comparing transplant recipients with pre-HD patients, 35.5% versus 93.5% reported working, and 74.5% versus 14% reported receiving disability benefits, respectively. After transplant, patients were more likely to join recreational clubs, travel frequently, and participate in recreational/religious activities and social events than when they were on HD. Posttransplant, these individuals are more likely to participate in social and leisure activities, but the majority did not resume employment and continued to receive disability payments. Future studies could explore barriers to employment in patients who underwent successful transplantation and the causes and factors as to why these individuals continue to receive disability benefits. © 2016, NATCO.

  8. Participation in a US community-based cardiovascular health study: investigating nonrandom selection effects related to employment, perceived stress, work-related stress, and family caregiving. (United States)

    MacDonald, Leslie A; Fujishiro, Kaori; Howard, Virginia J; Landsbergis, Paul; Hein, Misty J


    Participation in health studies may be inversely associated with employment and stress. We investigated whether employment, perceived stress, work-related stress, and family caregiving were related to participation in a longitudinal US community-based health study of black and white men and women aged ≥45 years. Prevalence ratios and confidence intervals were estimated for completion of the second stage (S2) of a two-stage enrollment process by employment (status, type), and stress (perceived stress, work-related stress, caregiving), adjusting for age, sex, race, region, income, and education. Eligibility and consent for a follow-up occupational survey were similarly evaluated. Wage- but not self-employed participants were less likely than the unemployed to complete S2. Among the employed, S2 completion did not vary by stress; however, family caregivers with a short time burden of care (stress levels. Limited evidence of selection bias was seen by employment and stress within a large US community-based cohort, but findings suggest the need for enrollment procedures to consider possible barriers to participation among wage-employed individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. How Persons with a Neuromuscular Disease Perceive Employment Participation : A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baziel van Engelen; Yvonne Heerkens; Josephine Engels; Astrid Kinébanian; Ton Satink; Marie-Antoinette van Minis


    Introduction A qualitative study was carried out to understand how people with a slow progressive adult type neuromuscular disease (NMD) perceive employment participation. Methods 16 paid employed persons with NMD were interviewed in open, in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the constant

  10. Part-time Employment, Gender and Employee Participation in the Workplace: An Illawarra Reconnaissance


    Markey, R.; Kowalczyk, J.; Pomfret, S.


    The growth in non-standard forms of employment has major implications for the effectiveness of employee participation mechanisms in the workplace, whether direct or indirect (representative). This seems to be especially the case with representative forms, such as consultative committees, because they effectively assume permanent or long-term employment and are not as easily accessible to part-time employees. However, the literature on participation rarely addresses this major contextual aspec...

  11. 5 CFR 2635.605 - Waiver or authorization permitting participation while seeking employment. (United States)


    ... ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH Seeking Other... prospective employer only after receiving a written waiver issued under the authority of 18 U.S.C. 208(b)(1... such prospective employer. The employee may participate in such matters only where the agency designee...

  12. Employment of the Disabled in Large Corporations. (United States)

    Rabby, Rami


    Large corporations are in a unique position to employ the disabled, but they sometimes lack the motivation to do so. The author discusses elements of a corporate policy for the disabled, ways of formulating and disseminating it, assignment of responsibility, changes in management attitudes, and the special case of the multinational company.…

  13. 20 CFR 641.550 - What responsibility do grantees/subgrantees have to place participants in unsubsidized employment? (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What responsibility do grantees/subgrantees... EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Services to Participants § 641.550 What responsibility do grantees/subgrantees have to place participants in unsubsidized employment? Because one goal of the program is to foster economic...

  14. Relationship of Personality and Locus of Control With Employment Outcomes among Participants with Spinal Cord Injury (United States)

    Krause, James S.; Broderick, Lynne


    We investigated relationships among personality, locus of control, and current post-injury employment status for 1,391 participants with spinal cord injury. Participants with higher internality locus-of-control scores and activity scores (personality) reported more favorable employment outcomes. Higher scores on chance and powerful others (locus…

  15. Housing and Employment Outcomes for Mental Health Self-Direction Participants. (United States)

    Croft, Bevin; İsvan, Nilüfer; Parish, Susan L; Mahoney, Kevin J


    In self-direction, participants control individual budgets, allocating service dollars according to needs and preferences within program parameters to meet self-defined recovery goals. Mental health self-direction is associated with enhanced wellness and recovery outcomes at lower or similar cost than traditional service arrangements. This study compared outcomes of housing independence and employment between individuals who participated in self-direction and those who did not. This quasi-experimental study involved administrative data from 271 self-directing participants. Using coarsened exact matching with observed demographic, diagnostic, and other characteristics, the authors constructed a comparison group of non-self-directing individuals (N=1,099). The likelihood of achieving positive outcomes between first and last assessments during the approximately four-year study period was compared for self-directing and non-self-directing individuals. Self-directing participants were more likely than nonparticipants to increase days worked for pay or maintain days worked at 20 or more days in the past 30 days (number needed to treat [NNT]=18; small effect size) and maintain or attain independent housing (NNT=16; small effect size), when analyses controlled, to the extent possible, for observed individual characteristics. Based on data from the nation's largest and longest-standing program of its kind, results suggest that mental health self-direction is associated with modest improvements or maintenance of positive outcomes in employment and housing independence. This research adds to the literature examining self-direction in the context of mental health and begins to fill the need for a greater understanding of self-direction's relationship to outcomes of interest to service users and families, providers, and system administrators.

  16. Employment after childbearing and women's subsequent labour force participation: evidence from the British 1958 birth cohort. (United States)

    Joshi, H; Macran, S; Dex, S


    "Data on women from the British 1958 Cohort Study is used as evidence on the determinants of their labour force participation at age 33. A conventional cross-sectional model of full or part-time employment makes use of some longitudinal material not normally included in such models. Whether the woman made the hitherto customary break from employment at the time of the first maternity is included in recognition that this cohort was among the first generation to be offered Statutory Maternity Leave. Results suggest that the presence of children (still) inhibits full-time employment and raises the probability of part-time employment; that income effects on participation have continued to weaken while wage elasticity for full-time employment is high. Continuity of employment straight after childbearing raises the chances of subsequent full-time employment, but by no means guarantees it. Gains from maternity leave and other family friendly employment policies have been far from uniform." excerpt

  17. 20 CFR 645.265 - What safeguards are there to ensure that participants in Welfare-to-Work employment activities do... (United States)


    ... participants in Welfare-to-Work employment activities do not displace other employees? 645.265 Section 645.265 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE... ensure that participants in Welfare-to-Work employment activities do not displace other employees? (a) An...

  18. Active recruitment and limited participant-load related to high participation in large population-based biobank studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Scholtens, Salome; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Smidt, Nynke; Bultmann, Ute


    Objectives: Insight into baseline participation rates and their determinants is crucial for designing future population-based biobank studies. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of baseline participation rates and their determinants in large longitudinal population-based

  19. Automatic Voltage Control System with Market Price Employing Large Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth; Abildgaard, Hans


    of the voltage control service provided by the power plant owners. The benefit of employing the large offshore wind farms in this AVC system is investigated. The simulation based on the measurement data from the Danish electricity control center demonstrates the superiority of the proposed approach in terms...... of the cost minimization. The gained profit by employing the wind farms can be an argument to purchase the voltage control service provided by these wind farms....

  20. Employment status, employment functioning, and barriers to employment among VA primary care patients. (United States)

    Zivin, Kara; Yosef, Matheos; Levine, Debra S; Abraham, Kristen M; Miller, Erin M; Henry, Jennifer; Nelson, C Beau; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Sripada, Rebecca K; Harrod, Molly; Valenstein, Marcia


    Prior research found lower employment rates among working-aged patients who use the VA than among non-Veterans or Veterans who do not use the VA, with the lowest reported employment rates among VA patients with mental disorders. This study assessed employment status, employment functioning, and barriers to employment among VA patients treated in primary care settings, and examined how depression and anxiety were associated with these outcomes. The sample included 287 VA patients treated in primary care in a large Midwestern VA Medical Center. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted examining associations between socio-demographic and clinical predictors of six employment domains, including: employment status, job search self-efficacy, work performance, concerns about job loss among employed Veterans, and employment barriers and likelihood of job seeking among not employed Veterans. 54% of respondents were employed, 36% were not employed, and 10% were economically inactive. In adjusted analyses, participants with depression or anxiety (43%) were less likely to be employed, had lower job search self-efficacy, had lower levels of work performance, and reported more employment barriers. Depression and anxiety were not associated with perceived likelihood of job loss among employed or likelihood of job seeking among not employed. Single VA primary care clinic; cross-sectional study. Employment rates are low among working-aged VA primary care patients, particularly those with mental health conditions. Offering primary care interventions to patients that address mental health issues, job search self-efficacy, and work performance may be important in improving health, work, and economic outcomes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Education and employment prospects in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Uldall, Peter; Kejs, Anne Mette T


    information was obtained from Denmark's unique registries. Of the participants with CP, 33% vs 77% of controls, had education beyond lower secondary school (i.e. after age 15-16y), 29% were competitively employed (vs 82% of controls), 5% were studying, and 5% had specially created jobs. Excluding participants......Parents and paediatric neurologists need information on the long-term social prognosis of children with cerebral palsy (CP). No large population-based study has been performed on this topic. On 31 December 1999, to find predictors in childhood of subsequent education and employment, 819...... with epilepsy versus those without epilepsy. The severity of motor impairment among participants with CP able to walk had just a minor influence. Only half the participants with CP who had attended mainstream schooling were employed. In conclusion several childhood characteristics seemed to predict long...

  2. Examining the Sensory Profiles of At-Risk Youth Participating in a Pre-employment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Kwan Shea Ph.D., OTR/L


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to use Dunn’s model of sensory processing to investigate the sensory profiles of youth participating in a community-based occupational therapy pre-employment program. The youth participants had been involved in the juvenile justice system and were placed on probation. The studyanalyzed data from the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP questionnaires (Brown & Dunn, 2002 completed by 79 youth participants. Analysis of the participants’ scores on the AASP showed statistically significant differences from the norm in two quadrants; the delinquent youth scored lower in Sensation Seeking and higher in Sensation Avoiding. The delinquent youth participants demonstrated a high prevalence of atypical sensory processing patterns. Implications for further investigation and practice are discussed.

  3. “I Just Don't Think There's any other Image that Tells the Story like [This] Picture Does”: Researcher and Participant Reflections on the Use of Participant-Employed Photography in Social Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meridith Burles PhD


    Full Text Available The incorporation of visual forms of expression has become common in qualitative research over the past two decades, with participant-employed photography being most prevalent. Visual methods such as photovoice have been used in community-based studies and with individuals to explore their lived experiences, particularly because of their participatory nature. Despite widespread support for visual approaches in existing research, there has been insufficient attention paid to how photography can enhance understanding of the phenomenon under study. Additionally, the existing literature is somewhat bereft of discussion of what individuals think about their participation in studies that incorporate participant-employed photography, or researchers' perspectives of carrying out this type of research. In this article, we describe a photovoice study carried out with young adult women affected by serious illness and provide examples of participants' photographs to illustrate how participant-employed photography can enhance the depth of research data. Specifically, the examples highlight how the photographs enriched participants' verbal descriptions of their lived experiences, which generated a better understanding of their personal embodied realities. We also discuss the young adult women's inclusion of previously taken photographs and reflections on their participation in the study. Finally, we examine the need to consider the intended audience of photographs, and specific ethical and methodological considerations for researchers contemplating the incorporation of participant-employed photography. In doing so, we provide insight into the advantages and challenges of photo-methods, which can inform other researchers contemplating the incorporation of participant-employed photography into social research.

  4. Large-scale inverse model analyses employing fast randomized data reduction (United States)

    Lin, Youzuo; Le, Ellen B.; O'Malley, Daniel; Vesselinov, Velimir V.; Bui-Thanh, Tan


    When the number of observations is large, it is computationally challenging to apply classical inverse modeling techniques. We have developed a new computationally efficient technique for solving inverse problems with a large number of observations (e.g., on the order of 107 or greater). Our method, which we call the randomized geostatistical approach (RGA), is built upon the principal component geostatistical approach (PCGA). We employ a data reduction technique combined with the PCGA to improve the computational efficiency and reduce the memory usage. Specifically, we employ a randomized numerical linear algebra technique based on a so-called "sketching" matrix to effectively reduce the dimension of the observations without losing the information content needed for the inverse analysis. In this way, the computational and memory costs for RGA scale with the information content rather than the size of the calibration data. Our algorithm is coded in Julia and implemented in the MADS open-source high-performance computational framework ( We apply our new inverse modeling method to invert for a synthetic transmissivity field. Compared to a standard geostatistical approach (GA), our method is more efficient when the number of observations is large. Most importantly, our method is capable of solving larger inverse problems than the standard GA and PCGA approaches. Therefore, our new model inversion method is a powerful tool for solving large-scale inverse problems. The method can be applied in any field and is not limited to hydrogeological applications such as the characterization of aquifer heterogeneity.

  5. 78 FR 54996 - Information Reporting by Applicable Large Employers on Health Insurance Coverage Offered Under... (United States)


    ... Information Reporting by Applicable Large Employers on Health Insurance Coverage Offered Under Employer... credit to help individuals and families afford health insurance coverage purchased through an Affordable... or group health insurance coverage offered by an employer to the employee that is (1) a governmental...

  6. Education and employment prospects in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Uldall, Peter; Kejs, Anne Mette T


    information was obtained from Denmark's unique registries. Of the participants with CP, 33% vs 77% of controls, had education beyond lower secondary school (i.e. after age 15-16y), 29% were competitively employed (vs 82% of controls), 5% were studying, and 5% had specially created jobs. Excluding participants......Parents and paediatric neurologists need information on the long-term social prognosis of children with cerebral palsy (CP). No large population-based study has been performed on this topic. On 31 December 1999, to find predictors in childhood of subsequent education and employment, 819...

  7. Cable tray ultimate strength test employing a large shaker table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, K.; Myojin, K.; Imai, K. [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan); Fuyama, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd, Takasago (Japan); Kokubo, E. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industdries Ltd, Kobe (Japan)


    Ultimate behaviors of cable trays, used in nuclear plants, have not been well studied since cable trays are designed based on conservative design criteria. In this study, by employing a large shaker table, an ultimate strength test was conducted for cable trays used in nuclear power plants. This report describes the results of shaker table test. The following results were obtained. First, in an S{sub 2} earthquake, the damping ratio was so large - more than 30% due to the rubbing of cables - that a large response was not present and the strains in the support were within the elastic limits. Secondly, the support was strong enough to sustain the cable trays even when the strain in the support was 20 times larger than the elastic limit. (authors)

  8. Employment participation and work experience of male cancer survivors: a NOCWO study. (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Holmfridur K; Vidarsdottir, Halldora; Rafnsdottir, Gudbjorg Linda; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Olafsdottir, Elinborg J; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa


    To investigate whether employment status and work experiences, assessed in terms of job resources (organizational culture and superiors' and co-workers' support), commitment to organization, work motives, and experiences of discrimination, differ between survivors of prostate or testicular cancer or lymphoma and cancer-free reference subjects. Questionnaires were sent to 1349 male cancer survivors and 2666 referents in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway. Valid responses were 59% and 45%, respectively. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with logistic regression models. Compared to the referents, survivors of lymphoma and prostate cancer were less likely to be employed (OR=0.53; CI: 0.30-0.95 and OR=0.50; CI: 0.35-0.73, respectively), but decreased employment was not evident among testicular cancer survivors. Testicular cancer survivors experienced less discrimination at work than did the referents, for example, testicular cancer survivors were less likely to report that their colleagues doubted their ability to carry out their work tasks (OR=0.38; CI: 0.17-0.83). Lymphoma survivors were less likely than the referents to praise their workplace as an enjoyable place to work (OR=0.48; CI: 0.26-0.88). The prostate cancer survivors were more likely than the referents to find the organizational climate competitive, distrustful, and suspicious. Employment participation and work experiences of male cancer survivors varied substantially according to type of cancer. Occupational therapists and other health care personnel should keep this in mind when assisting cancer survivors in identifying their strengths and limitations at work.

  9. Musical taste, employment, education, and global region. (United States)

    North, Adrian C; Davidson, Jane W


    Sociologists have argued that musical taste should vary between social groups, but have not considered whether the effect extends beyond taste into uses of music and also emotional reactions to music. Moreover, previous research has ignored the culture in which participants are located. The present research employed a large sample from five post-industrial global regions and showed that musical taste differed between regions but not according to education and employment; and that there were three-way interactions between education, employment, and region in the uses to which participants put music and also their typical emotional reactions. In addition to providing partial support for existing sociological theory, the findings highlight the potential of culture as a variable in future quantitative research on taste. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  10. [Impact of the labour market on vocational retraining centre participants' return to work: a study on employment agencies level]. (United States)

    Hetzel, C; Flach, T; Schmidt, C


    This paper is aimed at identifying labour market factors impacting vocational retraining centre participants' return to work on Employment Agencies level and at comparing results to unemployed people's return to work (Social Code Book III). Databases are regional return to work rates of 2006 graduates, selected labour market indicators 2007, and the 2007 labour market classification of the Institute for Employment Research (IAB). The n = 75 Employment Agency districts where 74.5 % of the participants followed-up lived were analyzed using analyses of variance and multiple loglinear regression. Compared to the unemployment context (Social Code Book III), the impact of the labour market is much lower and less complex. In the multiple model, the regional unemployment rate and the regional tertiarization rate (size of the service sector) are found to be significant and superior to the IAB-classification. Hence, participants' return to work is less dependent on labour market conditions than unemployed people's return to work (Social Code Book III). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. The relationship between spoken English proficiency and participation in higher education, employment and income from two Australian censuses. (United States)

    Blake, Helen L; Mcleod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Fuller, Gail


    Proficiency in the language of the country of residence has implications for an individual's level of education, employability, income and social integration. This paper explores the relationship between the spoken English proficiency of residents of Australia on census day and their educational level, employment and income to provide insight into multilingual speakers' ability to participate in Australia as an English-dominant society. Data presented are derived from two Australian censuses i.e. 2006 and 2011 of over 19 million people. The proportion of Australians who reported speaking a language other than English at home was 21.5% in the 2006 census and 23.2% in the 2011 census. Multilingual speakers who also spoke English very well were more likely to have post-graduate qualifications, full-time employment and high income than monolingual English-speaking Australians. However, multilingual speakers who reported speaking English not well were much less likely to have post-graduate qualifications or full-time employment than monolingual English-speaking Australians. These findings provide insight into the socioeconomic and educational profiles of multilingual speakers, which will inform the understanding of people such as speech-language pathologists who provide them with support. The results indicate spoken English proficiency may impact participation in Australian society. These findings challenge the "monolingual mindset" by demonstrating that outcomes for multilingual speakers in education, employment and income are higher than for monolingual speakers.

  12. Employment Trajectories: Exploring Gender Differences and Impacts of Drug Use (United States)

    Huang, David Y. C.; Evans, Elizabeth; Hara, Motoaki; Weiss, Robert E.; Hser, Yih-Ing


    This study investigated the impact of drug use on employment over 20 years among men and women, utilizing data on 7661 participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Growth mixture modeling was applied, and five distinct employment trajectory groups were identified for both men and women. The identified patterns were largely similar…

  13. Labor-force participation patterns of older self-employed workers. (United States)

    Quinn, J F


    Self-employed persons work in a less constrained environment than do most wage-and-salary employees. Generally they are not subject to compulsory retirement nor are they affected by institutional rules concerning labor supply. Data from the 1969 and 1971 interviews of the Retirement History Study show that the labor supply and retirement patterns of the self-employed are distinct from those of other workers. The self-employed (espeically "career" self-employed) nearing retirement age are less likely to be out of the labor force, and those who continue in the labor force have a wider variation in the number of hours worked per year. Downward flexibility in hours (the option for gradual retirement) may be an extremely valuable aspect of self-employed status, and one wonders whether other older workers would also choose this pattern if more flexible opportunities were available. Despite these differences, labor-supply decisions of the self-employed are found to be influenced by many of the same factors that affect the rest of the workforce--health, eligibility for social security and pension benefits, the wage rate, and the flow of asset.

  14. Urbanisation, poverty and employment: the large metropolis in the third world. (United States)

    Singh, A


    "The main purpose of this paper is to provide an overall review of the chief analytical as well as economic policy issues in relation to Third World cities in the light of the available theoretical and empirical studies on urbanisation, poverty and employment in the developing countries.... Part I...provides basic information on urbanisation in the Third World...[and] outlines the nature and extent of urban poverty in these large cities and considers the impact of the world economic crisis on the urban poor. Part II of the paper discusses the most important structural features of urbanisation in relation to economic development....Finally, Part III briefly examines policy issues in relation to urbanisation and poverty in the Third World's large cities." excerpt

  15. Gender and Youth Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa : A Review of Constraints and Effective Interventions


    Chakravarty, Shubha; Das, Smita; Vaillant, Julia


    Although the ratio of female to male labor force participation rates is higher in Sub-Saharan Africa than in any other region, these high rates of female labor force participation mask underlying challenges for women. A large majority of employed women work in vulnerable employment. In addition, youth unemployment rates in Sub-Saharan Africa are double those of adult unemployment, and unem...

  16. Is the Ability to Ambulate Associated with Better Employment Outcomes in Participants with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury? (United States)

    Krause, James S.


    The author compares current employment status after spinal cord injury between participants who were independent in ambulation (required no assistance from others) and those who were dependent in ambulation (required assistance from at least one other person to ambulate). Those who were independent of assistance from others in ambulation were…

  17. Do not Lose Your Students in Large Lectures: A Five-Step Paper-Based Model to Foster Students’ Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hassan Aburahma


    Full Text Available Like most of the pharmacy colleges in developing countries with high population growth, public pharmacy colleges in Egypt are experiencing a significant increase in students’ enrollment annually due to the large youth population, accompanied with the keenness of students to join pharmacy colleges as a step to a better future career. In this context, large lectures represent a popular approach for teaching the students as economic and logistic constraints prevent splitting them into smaller groups. Nevertheless, the impact of large lectures in relation to student learning has been widely questioned due to their educational limitations, which are related to the passive role the students maintain in lectures. Despite the reported feebleness underlying large lectures and lecturing in general, large lectures will likely continue to be taught in the same format in these countries. Accordingly, to soften the negative impacts of large lectures, this article describes a simple and feasible 5-step paper-based model to transform lectures from a passive information delivery space into an active learning environment. This model mainly suits educational establishments with financial constraints, nevertheless, it can be applied in lectures presented in any educational environment to improve active participation of students. The components and the expected advantages of employing the 5-step paper-based model in large lectures as well as its limitations and ways to overcome them are presented briefly. The impact of applying this model on students’ engagement and learning is currently being investigated.

  18. Educational, employment, and social participation of young adult graduates from the paediatric Southern Cochlear Implant Programme, New Zealand. (United States)

    Goh, Terence; Bird, Philip; Pearson, John; Mustard, Jill


    The purpose of this study is to observe the education and vocational achievements and social participation of cochlear implant recipients as they graduate from a paediatric cochlear implant programme and identify any significant associations that might exist. This study identified 56 patients from the Southern Cochlear Implant Programme (SCIP) who received cochlear implants before the age of 19 (paediatric) and are now over the age of 19 (adult). A questionnaire investigated their education, employment, and identity with the hearing and deaf communities. Also included were the satisfaction with life scale and Hearing Participation Scale (HPS). Subjects ranged in age from 19 to 32. Twenty-six patients responded to the questionnaire, including one non-user. Twenty identified strongly or very strongly with the hearing community. There was weak evidence of a linear association between strong identity with the hearing community and a higher HPS score. No other statistically significant associations were detected. Interestingly, 12 out of 26 participants found employment through family. Positive outcome trends in education and employment were seen in this study although no statistical significance was achieved. There is a strong bias for those who use their cochlear implants regularly, and there are no data available for those who do not use their cochlear implants for comparison as only one non-user completed the survey, despite efforts to include this group. This study shows that there is perceived benefit in implantation for patients who use it regularly but further research is needed with a more diverse group of cochlear implant recipients.

  19. Restrictions of physical activity participation in older adults with disability: employing keyword network analysis. (United States)

    Koo, Kyo-Man; Kim, Chun-Jong; Park, Chae-Hee; Byeun, Jung-Kyun; Seo, Geon-Woo


    Older adults with disability might have been increasing due to the rapid aging of society. Many studies showed that physical activity is an essential part for improving quality of life in later lives. Regular physical activity is an efficient means that has roles of primary prevention and secondary prevention. However, there were few studies regarding older adults with disability and physical activity participation. The purpose of this current study was to investigate restriction factors to regularly participate older adults with disability in physical activity by employing keyword network analysis. Two hundred twenty-nine older adults with disability who were over 65 including aging with disability and disability with aging in type of physical disability and brain lesions defined by disabled person welfare law partook in the open questionnaire assessing barriers to participate in physical activity. The results showed that the keyword the most often used was 'Traffic' which was total of 21 times (3.47%) and the same proportion as in the 'personal' and 'economical'. Exercise was considered the most central keyword for participating in physical activity and keywords such as facility, physical activity, disabled, program, transportation, gym, discomfort, opportunity, and leisure activity were associated with exercise. In conclusion, it is necessary to educate older persons with disability about a true meaning of physical activity and providing more physical activity opportunities and decreasing inconvenience should be systematically structured in Korea.

  20. Achieving online consent to participation in large-scale gene-environment studies: a tangible destination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, F.; Kowalczuk, J.; Elwyn, G.; Mitchell, C.; Gallacher, J.


    BACKGROUND: Population based genetics studies are dependent on large numbers of individuals in the pursuit of small effect sizes. Recruiting and consenting a large number of participants is both costly and time consuming. We explored whether an online consent process for large-scale genetics studies

  1. Reducing Employment Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lebert


    Full Text Available The perception of job insecurity is known to be a stressful condition for employees. Less is known about employment insecurity and the ways employees and their families deal with it. This study investigates whether participation in further training is a strategy that employees adopt to reduce perceived employment insecurity. As participation in further training is often costly and time-consuming, we assume that the family context is of importance for the decision to take part in further training. To take account of possible self-selection, we apply a propensity score matching procedure on longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (2004-2013. Three main findings can be emphasized: first, participation in further training is not a strategy adopted particularly by employees who perceive high employment insecurity as they are less likely to train than their secure counterparts. Second, even though further training is not a strategy that is actively adopted, employees who train subsequently report lower levels of perceived employment insecurity. Third, the family context indeed influences the likelihood to train: partnered employees are more likely to train and preschool-aged children act as a constraint on women’s but enhance men’s participation in further training. Yet, in the context of high perceived employment insecurity, children generally reduce their parents’ likelihood to train as the parents may turn to other strategies that reduce perceived employment insecurity.

  2. Tracking and tracing of participants in two large cancer screening trials. (United States)

    Marcus, Pamela M; Childs, Jeffery; Gahagan, Betsy; Gren, Lisa H


    Many clinical trials rely on participant report to first learn about study events. It is therefore important to have current contact information and the ability to locate participants should information become outdated. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) and the Lung Screening Study (LSS) component of the National Lung Screening Trial, two large randomized cancer screening trials, enrolled almost 190,000 participants on whom annual contact was necessary. Ten screening centers participated in both trials. Centers developed methods to track participants and trace them when necessary. We describe the methods used to keep track of participants and trace them when lost, and the extent to which each method was used. Screening center coordinators were asked, using a self-administered paper questionnaire, to rate the extent to which specific tracking and tracing methods were used. Many methods were used by the screening centers, including telephone calls, mail, and internet searches. The most extensively used methods involved telephoning the participant on his or her home or cell phone, or telephoning a person identified by the participant as someone who would know about the participant's whereabouts. Internet searches were used extensively as well; these included searches on names, reverse-lookup searches (on addresses or telephone numbers) and searches of the Social Security Death Index. Over time, the percentage of participants requiring tracing decreased. Telephone communication and internet services were useful in keeping track of PLCO and LSS participants and tracing them when contact information was no longer valid. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The perceived employability of ex-prisoners and offenders. (United States)

    Graffam, Joseph; Shinkfield, Alison J; Hardcastle, Lesley


    A large-scale study was conducted to examine the perceived employability of ex-prisoners and offenders. Four participant groups comprising 596 (50.4%) employers, 234 (19.8%) employment service workers, 176 (14.9%) corrections workers, and 175 (14.8%) prisoners and offenders completed a questionnaire assessing the likelihood of a hypothetical job seeker's both obtaining and maintaining employment; the importance of specific skills and characteristics to employability; and the likelihood that ex-prisoners, offenders, and the general workforce exhibit these skills and characteristics. Apart from people with an intellectual or psychiatric disability, those with a criminal background were rated as being less likely than other disadvantaged groups to obtain and maintain employment. In addition, ex-prisoners were rated as being less likely than offenders and the general workforce to exhibit the skills and characteristics relevant to employability. Implications for the preparation and support of ex-prisoners and offenders into employment are discussed, together with broader community-wide initiatives to promote reintegration.

  4. Building Participation in Large-scale Conservation: Lessons from Belize and Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Guite Hastings


    Full Text Available Motivated by biogeography and a desire for alignment with the funding priorities of donors, the twenty-first century has seen big international NGOs shifting towards a large-scale conservation approach. This shift has meant that even before stakeholders at the national and local scale are involved, conservation programmes often have their objectives defined and funding allocated. This paper uses the experiences of Conservation International′s Marine Management Area Science (MMAS programme in Belize and Panama to explore how to build participation at the national and local scale while working within the bounds of the current conservation paradigm. Qualitative data about MMAS was gathered through a multi-sited ethnographic research process, utilising document review, direct observation, and semi-structured interviews with 82 informants in Belize, Panama, and the United States of America. Results indicate that while a large-scale approach to conservation disadvantages early national and local stakeholder participation, this effect can be mediated through focusing engagement efforts, paying attention to context, building horizontal and vertical partnerships, and using deliberative processes that promote learning. While explicit consideration of geopolitics and local complexity alongside biogeography in the planning phase of a large-scale conservation programme is ideal, actions taken by programme managers during implementation can still have a substantial impact on conservation outcomes.

  5. Employee to employer communication skills: balancing cancer treatment and employment. (United States)

    Brown, Richard F; Owens, Myra; Bradley, Cathy


    Cancer patients face difficulties in accessing legally mandated benefits and accommodations when they return to the workplace. Poor employer-employee communication inflates these difficulties. Although proven methods to facilitate physician-patient communication exist, these have not been applied to the workplace. Thus, we aimed to assess the feasibility and utility of applying these methods to educate patients about their workplace rights and provide them with communication skills training to aid their conversations with their employers. A DVD was produced to educate patients and facilitate workplace communication. Participants consisted of 28 solid tumor cancer patients (14 women and 14 men) who completed primary cancer treatment in the past 12 months and were employed at the time of diagnosis. Participants watched a communication skills training DVD and completed a telephone interview. The interview elicited information about workplace experiences and evaluation of the DVD training program. The physician-patient communication skills training model utilized was successfully translated to the employer-employee setting. All but one participant found the DVD useful and easy to understand and indicated a high degree of confidence in using the communication skills to help them ask for workplace accommodations. All participants agreed that it would help newly diagnosed patients in discussions with their employers. Our data provides promising preliminary evidence that patient communication skills training can be applied to the workplace setting and is a welcomed aid to newly diagnosed cancer patients in their discussions with employers regarding the impact of treatment on their work performance and needs for accommodations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Structural problems of public participation in large-scale projects with environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechmann, G.


    Four items are discussed showing that the problems involved through participation of the public in large-scale projects with environmental impact cannot be solved satisfactorily without suitable modification of the existing legal framework. The problematic items are: the status of the electric utilities as a quasi public enterprise; informal preliminary negotiations; the penetration of scientific argumentation into administrative decisions; the procedural concept. The paper discusses the fundamental issue of the problem-adequate design of the procedure and develops suggestions for a cooperative participation design. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. Participant profiles according to recruitment source in a large Web-based prospective study: experience from the Nutrinet-Santé study. (United States)

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina; Castetbon, Katia; Vernay, Michel; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Julia, Chantal; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge


    Interest in Internet-based epidemiologic research is growing given the logistic and cost advantages. Cohort recruitment to maximally diversify the sociodemographic profiles of participants, however, remains a contentious issue. The aim of the study was to characterize the sociodemographic profiles according to the recruitment mode of adult volunteers enrolled in a Web-based cohort. The French NutriNet-Santé Web-based cohort was launched in 2009. Recruitment is ongoing and largely relies on recurrent multimedia campaigns. One month after enrollment, participants are asked how they learned about the study (eg, general newscast or a health program on television, radio newscast, newspaper articles, Internet, personal advice, leaflet/flyers) The sociodemographic profiles of participants recruited through operative communication channels (radio, print media, Internet, advice) were compared with the profiles of those informed through television by using polytomous logistic regression. Among the 88,238 participants enrolled through the end of 2011, 30,401 (34.45%), 16,751 (18.98%), and 14,309 (16.22%) learned about the study from television, Internet, and radio newscasts, respectively. Sociodemographic profiles were various, with 14,541 (16.5%) aged ≥60 years, 20,166 (22.9%) aged income income €3700/month. Compared to employed individuals, unemployed and retired participants were less likely to be informed about the study through other sources than through television (adjusted ORs 0.56-0.83, Pbased studies regarding the development of promising targeted or general population recruitment strategies.

  8. Legal aspects of public participation in the planning/licensing of environmentally related large-scale projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, A.


    A variety of legal problems arise in the planning/licensing of environmentally related large-scale projects associated with the control and evaluation of technical conditions and the ramifications in social and legal policy of the acceptance of, and resistance to, such projects. On the basis of a number of partial studies e.g. of the licensing procedure of a nuclear power plant (Neckar-2 reactor) the author examines the legal aspects of public participation in the administrative procedures of licensing/plans approval. The dichotomy of law and technology is covered, and public participation in administrative procedures is derived legally from the basic constitutional rights and the principle of fair hearing. After an outline of specific administrative procedures, public participation as part of administrative procedures is included in the broad legal framework of licensing/plans approval of environmentally related large-scale projects. The author concludes that public participation, within the framework of the basic decisions established by legislature, is not a tool to be used in deciding basic political conflicts. Instead, public participations in the application of law serves to protect the rights of the individual by ensuring fair proceedings paying attention to the subjective rights of the individual. As it is unable to decide political conflicts, it is also an unsuitable means of establishing of basic societal consensus, or of seeking acceptance of large-scale projects. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Are ethnic minorities disadvantaged? The employment participation and occupational status of Moroccan and Turkish second generation migrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, P.; Vazquez, L.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.


    We use data from the 2009/10 Wave of the Netherlands Longitudinal Lifecourse Study to analyze the employment participation and occupational status of Moroccan and Turkish Second Generation Migrants (SGM) in the Netherlands. By considering measures of family background (i.e. parental education,

  10. Availability and Use of Workplace Supports for Health Promotion Among Employees of Small and Large Businesses. (United States)

    Dale, Ann Marie; Enke, Chris; Buckner-Petty, Skye; Hipp, James Aaron; Marx, Christine; Strickland, Jaime; Evanoff, Bradley


    To explore the availability and utilization of workplace health supports by employees of small and large-sized employers. Cross-sectional, telephone-based interviews collected on 16 workplace health supports for physical activity and diet. Participants selected by random-digit-dialing from 4 metropolitan areas of Missouri employees from 2012 to 2013. Two thousand fifteen working adults. We explored the availability and use of supports by employer size (employees vs ≥100 employees), accounting for industry and personal factors. We examined distributions and Poisson regression models of availability for supports by employer size and by industry and use of supports by employer size and personal factors. One-fifth of the 1796 employees were employed by small-sized employers. Large employers offered more supports than small (mean: 6 vs 3), but a higher proportion of employees of small-sized employers used supports when available (59% vs 47%). The differences in offered supports between industries were not due to size alone. In regard to the determinants of participation, the personal factors of gender, age, weight, and income were associated with participation in 10 of the supports. Employer size was also associated with participation in 10 supports. No associations were found between personal factors or workplace size and participation for 3 supports. A higher proportion of employees working for smaller businesses use available supports than employees of larger businesses. Supports offered by employers should target the needs and interests of the workforce, particularly for the higher risk low-income employees.

  11. Legal aspects of public participation in the planning/licensing of environmentally related large-scale projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, A.


    A variety of legal problems arise in the planning/licensing of environmentally related large-scale projects associated with the control and evaluation of technical conditions and the ramifications in social and legal policy of the acceptance of, and resistance to, such projects. On the basis of a number of partial studies e.g. of the licensing procedure of a nuclear power plant (Neckar-2 reactor), the author examines the legal aspects of public participation in the administrative procedure of licensing/plans approval. The dichotomy of law and technology is covered, and public participation in administrative procedures is derived legally from the basic constitutional rights and the principle of fair hearing. After an outline of specific administrative procedures, public participation as part of administrative procedures is included in the broad legal framework of licensing/plans approval of environmentally related large-scale projects. The author concludes that public participation, within the framework of the basic decisions established by legislature, is not a tool to be used in deciding basic political conflicts. Instead, public participations in the application of law serves to protect the rights of the individual by ensuring fair proceedings paying attention to the subjective rights of the individual. As it is unable to decide political conflicts, it is also an unsuitable means of establishing of basic societal consensus, or of seeking acceptance of large-scale projects. This is reflected also in studies of the legal functions of public participation, according to which the lawfulness of procedures is observed without, however, the legitimacy of the project being achieved. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Sustainable Employability & Participation in Health Promotion Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Rongen (Anne)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Western population ages as a result of fewer births and an increase in life expectancy. Therefore, many Western countries have developed policies to increase labor force participation such as raising the statutory retirement age. In the Netherlands, the age at

  13. Understanding the Relationship Between Incentive Design and Participation in U.S. Workplace Wellness Programs. (United States)

    Batorsky, Benjamin; Taylor, Erin; Huang, Crystal; Liu, Hangsheng; Mattke, Soeren


    We aimed to understand how employer characteristics relate to the use of incentives to promote participation in wellness programs and to explore the relationship between incentive type and participation rates. A cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative survey data combined with an administrative business database was employed. Random sampling of U.S. companies within strata based on industry and number of employees was used to determine a final sample of 3000 companies. Of these, 19% returned completed surveys. The survey asked about employee participation rate, incentive type, and gender composition of employees. Incentive types included any incentives, high-value rewards, and rewards plus penalties. Logistic regressions of incentive type on employer characteristics were used to determine what types of employers are more likely to offer which type of incentives. A generalized linear model of participation rate was used to determine the relationship between incentive type and participation. Employers located in the Northeast were 5 to 10 times more likely to offer incentives. Employers with a large number of employees, particularly female employees, were up to 1.25 times more likely to use penalties. Penalty and high-value incentives were associated with participation rates of 68% and 52%, respectively. Industry or regional characteristics are likely determinants of incentive use for wellness programs. Penalties appear to be effective, but attention should be paid to what types of employees they affect.

  14. Health benefits in 2013: moderate premium increases in employer-sponsored plans. (United States)

    Claxton, Gary; Rae, Matthew; Panchal, Nirmita; Damico, Anthony; Whitmore, Heidi; Bostick, Nathan; Kenward, Kevin


    Employer-sponsored health insurance premiums rose moderately in 2013, the annual Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust (Kaiser/HRET) Employer Health Benefits Survey found. In 2013 single coverage premiums rose 5 percent to $5,884, and family coverage premiums rose 4 percent to $16,351. The percentage of firms offering health benefits (57 percent) was similar to that in 2012, as was the percentage of workers at offering firms who were covered by their firm's health benefits (62 percent). The share of workers with a deductible for single coverage increased significantly from 2012, as did the share of workers in small firms with annual deductibles of $1,000 or more. Most firms (77 percent), including nearly all large employers, continued to offer wellness programs, but relatively few used incentives to encourage employees to participate. More than half of large employers offering health risk appraisals to workers offered financial incentives for completing the appraisal.

  15. Public participation in the licensing of large-scale projects with environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    As a rule, public participation in licensing and planning procedures for large-scale projects with environmental impact is as controversial as the projects themselves. Against this background, an interdisciplinary examination of several 'cases' of public participation in administrative procedures with varying legal forms is being conducted in a joint research project run by the Department for Applied Systems Analysis (Karlsruher Nuclear Centre) and the Research Institute for Public Administration at the College for Administrative Sciences in Speyer. The actual course of events and the practical experience of the groups involved (authorities, applicants, objectors, experts) are related to the applicable legal arrangements for public participation. The question to be answered is: which expected and unexpected functions do the procedures actually fulfill and which not. Proposals for the amendment of legal policy could be developed upon the foundation of such a diagnosis. The report contains the results of the 'pilot study' on public participation in the licensing of the nuclear power plant GKN-2 in Neckarwestheim and further contributions on the issue of 'public participation', presented within the framework of a research colloquium at the School for Nuclear Technology/Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre. (orig.) [de

  16. Effects of Housing First on Employment and Income of Homeless Individuals: Results of a Randomized Trial. (United States)

    Poremski, Daniel; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Braithwaite, Erika; Distasio, Jino; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Latimer, Eric


    Housing First is emerging as an evidence-based practice for housing and supporting people who are homeless and have a mental illness. The objective of this study was to determine whether Housing First increases the odds of obtaining competitive employment in this population and affects income, including income from informal and illegal sources. A total of 2,148 people with a mental illness were recruited from five Canadian cities while they were homeless, classified as having moderate or high needs, and randomly assigned to Housing First or usual care. Housing First participants with high needs received assertive community treatment (ACT), and those with moderate needs received intensive case management (ICM). Every three months, participants were interviewed about employment and earnings in the previous months (median follow-up=745 days). Regression models were estimated via generalized estimating equations. ICM recipients had lower odds of obtaining employment compared with the control group with moderate needs. The odds of obtaining employment among ICM recipients increased but their employment rate never exceeded that of the control group. For ACT recipients, the odds of obtaining employment were not significantly different from those of the control group. Among Housing First participants, persons employed at baseline, men, and younger participants had greater odds of employment compared with control participants. Housing First did not appear to significantly increase income. This was the first large-scale randomized controlled study of Housing First's effects on employment. Further research is needed to determine how Housing First may be enhanced to increase odds of obtaining employment.

  17. Implementation of a disability management policy in a large healthcare employer: a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods evaluation. (United States)

    Mustard, Cameron A; Skivington, Kathryn; Lay, Morgan; Lifshen, Marni; Etches, Jacob; Chambers, Andrea


    This study describes the process and outcomes of the implementation of a strengthened disability management policy in a large Canadian healthcare employer. Key elements of the strengthened policy included an emphasis on early contact, the training of supervisors and the integration of union representatives in return-to-work (RTW) planning. The study applied mixed methods, combining a process evaluation within the employer and a quasi-experimental outcome evaluation between employers for a 3-year period prior to and following policy implementation in January 2012. Staff in the implementation organisation (n=4000) and staff in a peer group of 29 large hospitals (n=1 19 000). Work disability episode incidence and duration. Both qualitative and quantitative measures of the implementation process were predominantly positive. Over the 6-year observation period, there were 624 work disability episodes in the organisation and 8604 in the comparison group of 29 large hospitals. The annual per cent change in episode incidence in the organisation was -5.6 (95% CI -9.9 to -1.1) comparable to the annual per cent change in the comparison group: -6.2 (-7.2 to -5.3). Disability episode durations also declined in the organisation, from a mean of 19.4 days (16.5, 22.3) in the preintervention period to 10.9 days (8.7, 13.2) in the postintervention period. Reductions in disability durations were also observed in the comparison group: from a mean of 13.5 days (12.9, 14.1) in the 2009-2011 period to 10.5 days (9.9, 11.1) in the 2012-2014 period. The incidence of work disability episodes and the durations of work disability declined strongly in this hospital sector over the 6-year observation period. The implementation of the organisation's RTW policy was associated with larger reductions in disability durations than observed in the comparison group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  18. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal. (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Goedele; Maertens, Miet


    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  19. An analysis of the procedural components of supported employment programs associated with employment outcomes.


    McDonnell, J; Nofs, D; Hardman, M; Chambless, C


    This study examined the relation between the procedural components of supported employment programs and employment outcomes for 120 individuals with disabilities. These individuals were involved in supported employment programs established through the Utah Supported Employment Project. The results suggest that successful implementation of supported employment services led to ongoing employment of study participants in community work sites, increased wages, and ongoing opportunities for worker...

  20. Building Employer Capacity to Support Meaningful Employment for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: A Grounded Theory Study of Employment Support Perspectives. (United States)

    Rashid, Marghalara; Hodgetts, Sandra; Nicholas, David


    To explore strategies to build employer capacity to support people with DD in meaningful employment from perspective of employment support workers. A grounded theory study was conducted with 34 employment support individuals. A theoretical sampling approach was used to identify and recruit participants from multiple sites in Ontario and Alberta. Three main themes, with seven sub-themes, emerged: (1) experiences of supporting employment finding for people with DD, (2) institutional influences on employee experiences, and (3) attitudes, assumptions and stigma. Several recommendations related to building employer capacity were offered. Our findings provide insight on specific elements and strategies that can support building employer capacity for persons with DD.

  1. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Van den Broeck

    Full Text Available Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  2. 42 CFR 54.6 - Employment practices. (United States)


    ... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE... participant from employing individuals of a particular religion to perform work connected with the carrying on... participant must certify: that it sincerely believes that employing individuals of a particular religion is...

  3. The influence of participation in extracurricular activities to the employability of Industrial Engineering graduates of one Private University in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Joy E. Chua


    Full Text Available Filipinos have been regarding education as the leading avenue of success. Having the system patterned from the American Education structure, education in the country provides basic learning needs and a foundation on which successive learning can be based on. Aside from traditional learning inside the classroom, extracurricular activities (ECAs are also provided for students, which basically have the same goal as that of courses in a curriculum. These activities however, let the students have experiences not included in formal education. Moreover, ECAs are being promoted in some college institutions considering that it benefits students in ways that would prepare them for their future. Certain companies focus on investing on leadership development of their employees to make them globally competitive. This paper focused on determining the degree or extent of influence of ECAs to the employability of the University of Santo Tomas (UST Industrial Engineering graduates of Batches 2013, 2014, and 2015. A survey was administered to 43 sampled graduates. Logistic regression was used in determining the influence of participation in ECAs to the employability of the graduates. Correlational analysis showed that there exists a significant relationship between and among independent variables of number of jobs, number of initial interview, level of participation and soft skills developed through ECAs. Meanwhile, Paired Sample Means Test exhibited that at 95% level of significance, there exists no relationship between the soft skills possessed by the graduates and as expected by the company with which they are employed. Recommendations were provided to enhance the activities offered in UST towards increasing employability rate of graduate students.

  4. Education and employment status of adults with autism spectrum disorders in Germany - a cross-sectional-survey. (United States)

    Frank, Fabian; Jablotschkin, Martina; Arthen, Tobias; Riedel, Andreas; Fangmeier, Thomas; Hölzel, Lars P; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger


    .3% in relation to their current occupation. This is significantly higher than the percentage of overeducation in the general population. Despite largely high formal qualifications, the clinically mostly late-diagnosed adults with ASD represented in our sample are disadvantaged regarding their participation in the German labour market, especially with respect to rates of unemployment, early retirement and overeducation. Employment support programs should be developed to improve employment outcomes.

  5. Participation and Collaborative Learning in Large Class Sizes: Wiki, Can You Help Me? (United States)

    de Arriba, Raúl


    Collaborative learning has a long tradition within higher education. However, its application in classes with a large number of students is complicated, since it is a teaching method that requires a high level of participation from the students and careful monitoring of the process by the educator. This article presents an experience in…

  6. Mobile Phone Voting for Participation and Engagement in a Large Compulsory Law Course (United States)

    Habel, Chad; Stubbs, Matthew


    This article reports on an action-research project designed to investigate the effect of a technological intervention on the complex interactions between student engagement, participation, attendance and preparation in a large lecture delivered as part of a compulsory first-year law course, a discipline which has not been the focus of any previous…

  7. Association between change in employment participation and quality of life in middle-aged colorectal cancer survivors compared with general population controls. (United States)

    Beesley, Vanessa L; Vallance, Jeff K; Mihala, Gabor; Lynch, Brigid M; Gordon, Louisa G


    This study aimed to examine the association between change in employment participation for a 12-month period and quality of life among individuals with colorectal cancer compared with general population controls. This was a prospective, registry-based study that enrolled middle-aged (45-64 years) residents of Queensland, Australia, who were in the paid workforce, and newly diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Participants completed structured telephone interviews at 6 and 12 months after diagnosis assessing quality of life and employment status ("retired/ceased work," "increased work," "decreased work," and "maintained work"). Survivors were matched on demographic and occupation characteristics in a 1:2 ratio with individuals from the general population who had participated in both Wave 10 (2010) and 11 (2011) of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. Almost half (66/148, 45%) of colorectal cancer survivors ceased or decreased work during the study period, compared with 27% in the control group (79/295, P = .001). Physical and mental well-being did not fluctuate over time in the general population. However, there were significant improvements in physical well-being, functional well-being, and overall quality of life during the study period for participants with colorectal cancer. At 12 months postdiagnosis, participants with colorectal cancer who maintained or increased work had significantly better functional well-being and overall quality of life compared with those who decreased work or retired. A diagnosis of colorectal cancer often impairs the ability of a person to maintain work. The impairments are predominantly physical and functional. Interventions to assist with occupational rehabilitation should be trialed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey (VERS) was conducted to determine the factors that impact veterans' employability resulting from participation in the...

  9. 32 CFR 1656.7 - Employer responsibilities. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer responsibilities. 1656.7 Section 1656.7... SERVICE § 1656.7 Employer responsibilities. Employers participating in the Alternative Service Program are responsible for: (a) Complying with the employment agreement with Selective Service; (b) Providing a clear...

  10. The molecular genetic architecture of self-employment. (United States)

    van der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Eklund, Niina; Koellinger, Philipp D; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Ankra-Badu, Georgina A; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Benjamin, Daniel J; Biffar, Reiner; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cesarini, David; Cucca, Francesco; de Geus, Eco J C; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Eiriksdottir, Guðny; Eriksson, Johan; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Höhne, Birgit; Holle, Rolf; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Isaacs, Aaron; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johannesson, Magnus; Kaakinen, Marika; Kähönen, Mika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Laaksonen, Maarit A; Lahti, Jari; Launer, Lenore J; Lehtimäki, Terho; Loitfelder, Marisa; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Naitza, Silvia; Oostra, Ben A; Perola, Markus; Petrovic, Katja; Quaye, Lydia; Raitakari, Olli; Ripatti, Samuli; Scheet, Paul; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Carsten O; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Senft, Andrea; Smith, Albert V; Spector, Timothy D; Surakka, Ida; Svento, Rauli; Terracciano, Antonio; Tikkanen, Emmi; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Viikari, Jorma; Völzke, Henry; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wild, Philipp S; Willems, Sara M; Willemsen, Gonneke; van Rooij, Frank J A; Groenen, Patrick J F; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Thurik, A Roy


    Economic variables such as income, education, and occupation are known to affect mortality and morbidity, such as cardiovascular disease, and have also been shown to be partly heritable. However, very little is known about which genes influence economic variables, although these genes may have both a direct and an indirect effect on health. We report results from the first large-scale collaboration that studies the molecular genetic architecture of an economic variable-entrepreneurship-that was operationalized using self-employment, a widely-available proxy. Our results suggest that common SNPs when considered jointly explain about half of the narrow-sense heritability of self-employment estimated in twin data (σ(g)(2)/σ(P)(2) = 25%, h(2) = 55%). However, a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies across sixteen studies comprising 50,627 participants did not identify genome-wide significant SNPs. 58 SNPs with pself-employment in an independent sample (p≥0.039). Our results are consistent with a highly polygenic molecular genetic architecture of self-employment, with many genetic variants of small effect. Although self-employment is a multi-faceted, heavily environmentally influenced, and biologically distal trait, our results are similar to those for other genetically complex and biologically more proximate outcomes, such as height, intelligence, personality, and several diseases.

  11. Factors Influencing Employment and Employability for Persons with Disability: Insights from a City in South India. (United States)

    Ramachandra, Srikrishna S; Murthy, G V S; Shamanna, B R; Allagh, Komal P; Pant, Hira B; John, Neena


    There is a lack of evidence on barriers faced by persons with disability in accessing employment opportunities in India. This study was undertaken to ascertain both employee and employer perceptions on barriers existing among Information Technology (IT) and IT-enabled sectors to employ persons with disabilities. Two hundred participants from six IT/IT-enabled sector organizations were included in the study; study was conducted at Hyderabad, India. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the participants. Physical access to and within the worksite was highlighted as a concern by 95% of respondents. Majority perceived that communication, attitude of people, discrimination, harassment at work place, and information were critical barriers. Only 3.8% of employers were aware that their company had a written policy on employing persons with disabilities. Employers stated that commitment and perseverance were important facilitators among persons with disabilities. Evidence from this study will help in planning need-based employment for persons with disabilities.

  12. Health assessment of self-employed in the food service industry. (United States)

    Grégoris, Marina; Deschamps, Frédéric; Salles, Julie; Sanchez, Stéphane


    Objectives This study's objective was to assess the morbidity of self-employed workers in the food service industry, an industry with a large amount of occupational health risks. Methods A cross-sectional study, consisting of 437 participants, was conducted between 2011 and 2013 in Champagne-Ardenne, France. The health questionnaire included an interview, a clinical examination, and medical investigations. Results The study population consisted of 146 self-employed workers (not working for an employer) and 291 employees (working with employment contracts for an employer). Logistic regression analysis revealed that self-employed workers had a higher morbidity than employees, after adjusting for age (OR: 3.45; 95% CI: 1.28 to 9.25). Main adverse health conditions were joint pain (71.2% self-employed vs. 38.1% employees, p < 0.001), ear disorders (54.1% self-employed vs. 33.7%, employees, p < 0.001), and cardiovascular diseases (47.3% self-employed vs. 21% employees, p < 0.001). Conclusions The study highlights the need for occupational health services for self-employed workers in France so that they may benefit from prevention of occupational risks and health surveillance. Results were presented to the self-employed healthcare insurance fund in order to establish an occupational health risks prevention system.

  13. [Trends in participation in nonformal education in the second half of life : Increasing educational participation in retirement]. (United States)

    Wiest, Maja; Hoffmann, Madlain; Widany, Sarah; Kaufmann, Katrin


    Research on nonformal education often focuses on participation within employment. Participation of workers decreases with age; however, recent studies show an increase in participation in nonformal education of older workers. It remains, however, unclear if this trend spills over to retirement. In the context of social change processes, trends in nonformal educational participation are analyzed. The study addresses employment and retirement as opportunity structures and investigates their impact on educational participation in the second half of life. Predictors of educational participation are modeled in logistic regression, including interaction effects. Analyses are based on cross-sectional data of the German Ageing Survey and covers 20,129 respondents aged 40-85 years (T 1 : 1996 n = 4838; T 2 : 2002 n = 3084; T 3 : 2008 n = 6205; T 4 : 2014 n = 6002). Educational level, age, gender, employment status, region, social integration, and subjective health predict participation in nonformal education for people aged 40 to 85 years. Employment as an opportunity structure has a constant impact on participation, whereas retirees' participation increases over the course of time. The increase of retirees' participation in nonformal education is discussed in the context of social change processes and connected to theoretical und empirical research gaps with regard to educational participation in the second half of life.

  14. 32 CFR 196.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 196.500 Section 196.500 National... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 196.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  15. 13 CFR 113.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 113.500 Section 113... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs Or Activities Prohibited § 113.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  16. 34 CFR 106.51 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 106.51 Section 106.51 Education Regulations... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 106.51 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  17. 36 CFR 1211.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 1211.500 Section... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1211.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  18. 18 CFR 1317.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 1317.500... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  19. 45 CFR 2555.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 2555.500 Section 2555.500 Public... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 2555.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  20. 38 CFR 23.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 23.500... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 23.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  1. Employer-Supported Training in Australia: Participation, Demand and Supply. NCVER Technical Report (United States)

    Shah, Chandra


    This report provides an analysis of employer-supported training in Australia. Employer-supported training is the largest share of adult education and training in all Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. It has benefits for individuals, firms, and society. Cross-country studies have shown a positive association…

  2. 24 CFR 3.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 3.500 Section 3.500... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 3.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Internet Addiction Among Employed Adults in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Tsumura


    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of Internet addiction (IA among employed adults has not been reported using a large sample. To clarify the actual status of addictive Internet use among employed adults, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and the risk factors of IA and at-risk IA among employed adults in Japan. Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed all junior and senior high school personnel in Shimane Prefecture, a rural area in Japan. Eligible participants included 3,211 junior and senior high school personnel (1,259 men and 1,952 women. Participants completed a questionnaire on their activities and factors related to Internet use. Results: The prevalence of IA and at-risk IA was 0.03% and 4.82%, respectively. Furthermore, game playing was shown to be the Internet activity most closely associated with at-risk IA. Conclusions: This study showed that around 5% of school personnel in a rural area in Japan are at risk for developing addiction to the Internet and that using the Internet for game playing is related to at-risk IA. Our results suggest that employed adults should be instructed to use the Internet properly.

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Internet Addiction Among Employed Adults in Japan. (United States)

    Tsumura, Hideki; Kanda, Hideyuki; Sugaya, Nagisa; Tsuboi, Satoshi; Takahashi, Kenzo


    The prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) among employed adults has not been reported using a large sample. To clarify the actual status of addictive Internet use among employed adults, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and the risk factors of IA and at-risk IA among employed adults in Japan. This cross-sectional study surveyed all junior and senior high school personnel in Shimane Prefecture, a rural area in Japan. Eligible participants included 3,211 junior and senior high school personnel (1,259 men and 1,952 women). Participants completed a questionnaire on their activities and factors related to Internet use. The prevalence of IA and at-risk IA was 0.03% and 4.82%, respectively. Furthermore, game playing was shown to be the Internet activity most closely associated with at-risk IA. This study showed that around 5% of school personnel in a rural area in Japan are at risk for developing addiction to the Internet and that using the Internet for game playing is related to at-risk IA. Our results suggest that employed adults should be instructed to use the Internet properly.

  5. Effective Strategies To Improve the Employment of SSI/SSDI Participants. (United States)

    Radtke, Jean, Ed.

    This document is for administrators, rehabilitation counselors, and other professionals who support the employment of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients with disabilities. It contains strategies for vocational rehabilitation (VR) programs to improve an SSI or SSDI…

  6. School-Based Supported Employment: A Comprehensive Supported Employment Program for Mildly Mentally Retarded Youth. (United States)

    Morgan, Valda B.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Supported employment opportunities can help to meet the transition needs of individuals enrolled in special education programs. A review of related literature discusses characteristics of supported employment program participants, the need for individual transition planning, the school's role and responsibility, vocational planning, benefits,…

  7. Embedding Employability Skills into the Marketing Curriculum; A Rationale & Description


    Graham, C; FitzGerald, F; Peleg, A


    London South Bank University is a large metropolitan institution with a broadly\\ud diverse undergraduate intake and an active widening participation policy. Teaching\\ud and learning strategies focus on employability, often through creative and innovative\\ud techniques. This paper reports the findings of three strands of research and the\\ud subsequent development of a new first-year undergraduate unit, A Practical\\ud Introduction to Marketing. Faced with broad diversity amongst new marketing\\u...

  8. Participatory Bluetooth Sensing: A Method for Acquiring Spatio-Temporal Data about Participant Mobility and Interactions at Large Scale Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann


    for collecting spatio-temporal data about participant mobility and social interactions uses the capabilities of Bluetooth capable smartphones carried by participants. As a proof-of-concept we present a field study with deployment of the method in a large music festival with 130 000 participants where a small...

  9. Breastfeeding and employment: an assessment of employer attitudes. (United States)

    Libbus, M Kay; Bullock, Linda F C


    Both research and anecdotal reports suggest that maternal employment is associated with failure to initiate breastfeeding and early breastfeeding attrition. The objective of this study was to describe the experience with and attitudes toward breastfeeding of a sample of employers in a small Midwestern city in the United States. Based on an analysis of 85 mail-out questionnaires, we found that less than half of the employers had personal experience with breastfeeding. A large percentage of the sample, however, indicated that they would be willing to facilitate women who wished to breastfeed or express milk in the workplace. However, these employers also stated that they saw little value to their business of supporting breastfeeding in the work environment. Thus, enhancement of breastfeeding opportunity in the work environment may come as a result of public and employer education but, more likely, will require some type of directive from official sources.

  10. Employing the Gini coefficient to measure participation inequality in treatment-focused Digital Health Social Networks. (United States)

    van Mierlo, Trevor; Hyatt, Douglas; Ching, Andrew T


    Digital Health Social Networks (DHSNs) are common; however, there are few metrics that can be used to identify participation inequality. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the Gini coefficient, an economic measure of statistical dispersion traditionally used to measure income inequality, could be employed to measure DHSN inequality. Quarterly Gini coefficients were derived from four long-standing DHSNs. The combined data set included 625,736 posts that were generated from 15,181 actors over 18,671 days. The range of actors (8-2323), posts (29-28,684), and Gini coefficients (0.15-0.37) varied. Pearson correlations indicated statistically significant associations between number of actors and number of posts (0.527-0.835, p  addiction networks (0.619 and 0.276, p  networks ( t  = -4.305 and -5.934, p  network engagement. Further, mixed-methods research investigating quantitative performance metrics is required.

  11. Building professionalism and employability skills: embedding employer engagement within first-year computing modules (United States)

    Hanna, Philip; Allen, Angela; Kane, Russell; Anderson, Neil; McGowan, Aidan; Collins, Matthew; Hutchison, Malcolm


    This paper outlines a means of improving the employability skills of first-year university students through a closely integrated model of employer engagement within computer science modules. The outlined approach illustrates how employability skills, including communication, teamwork and time management skills, can be contextualised in a manner that directly relates to student learning but can still be linked forward into employment. The paper tests the premise that developing employability skills early within the curriculum will result in improved student engagement and learning within later modules. The paper concludes that embedding employer participation within first-year models can help relate a distant notion of employability into something of more immediate relevance in terms of how students can best approach learning. Further, by enhancing employability skills early within the curriculum, it becomes possible to improve academic attainment within later modules.

  12. Student Employment and Persistence: Evidence of Effect Heterogeneity of Student Employment on College Dropout (United States)

    Choi, Yool


    This study explores how student employment affects college persistence and how these effects differ by individual likelihood of participating in student employment. I analyze data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 using propensity score matching and stratification-multilevel analysis. This study finds that engaging in intense…

  13. Are “voluntary” self-employed better prepared for retirement than “forced” self-employed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hershey, D.A.; van Dalen, Harry; Conen, Wieteke; Henkens, Kene


    When it comes to financial preparation for retirement, self-employed workers in many European countries face unique challenges not encountered by traditional wage earners. This is particularly true for self-employed workers because many self-employed individuals do not have large-scale access to

  14. Are “Voluntary” Self-Employed Better Prepared for Retirement Than “Forced” Self-Employed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hershey, D.; van Dalen, H.P.; Conen, W.S.; Henkens, K.


    When it comes to financial preparation for retirement, self-employed workers in many European countries face unique challenges not encountered by traditional wage earners. This is particularly true for self-employed workers because many self-employed individuals do not have large-scale access to

  15. Predictors of employment for young adults with developmental motor disabilities. (United States)

    Magill-Evans, Joyce; Galambos, Nancy; Darrah, Johanna; Nickerson, Christy


    To identify the personal, family, and community factors that facilitate or hinder employment for young adults with developmental motor disabilities. Quantitative methods with an embedded qualitative component were used. Seventy-six persons between the ages of 20 and 30 years of age (Mean = 25, SD = 3.1) with a diagnosis of either cerebral palsy or spina bifida completed questionnaires addressing factors such as depression, and participated in a semi-structured interview that allowed participants to describe their experiences with education, employment, transportation, and other services. Almost half of the participants (n = 35) were not currently employed. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that gender (females were less likely to be employed), IQ (lower IQ associated with unemployment), and transportation dependence accounted for 42% of the variance in employment. Themes emerging from content analysis of the interviews supported the findings related to transportation barriers. Social reactions to disability limited employment opportunities, and participants often felt stuck in terms of employment options with limited opportunities for advancement. Transportation is a significant barrier to employment and innovative solutions are needed. Issues related to gender need to be considered when addressing employment inequities for persons with primarily motor disabilities.

  16. Workforce Characteristics and Attitudes Regarding Participation in Worksite Wellness Programs. (United States)

    Hall, Jennifer L; Kelly, Kevin M; Burmeister, Leon F; Merchant, James A


    To estimate workforce participation characteristics and employees' attitudes regarding participation in workplace wellness programs. Data from a statewide stratified random sample were used to compare small (workplaces to estimate participation in screening programs and likelihood of participation in workplace wellness programs. A telephone survey of employed Iowans registered to vote. Surveyed were 1171 employed Iowans registered to vote, ages 18 to 65. Among questionnaire survey modules were items from the Wellness Council of America Employee Needs and Interest Survey, the U.S. Census Bureau for employment documentation, and the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire for assessment of sickness absenteeism and presenteeism. Prevalence of participation in screening and wellness programs was analyzed by employment size and levels of likeliness to participate, and multivariable analyses of employee baseline characteristics regarding participation in screening programs and likelihood of participation in wellness programs was presented as top and bottom quartiles. Those employed in smaller workplaces participated less often in screening programs. Multivariable models identified male gender and those with an abnormal body mass index were associated with nonparticipation, while having a primary care physician was associated with participation. Very few items showed significant statistical difference in willingness to participate. Workforce characteristics and access to health care may influence participation in screening and wellness programs. Employment size is not a determining factor for willingness to participate in wellness programs.

  17. The association of smoking with medical treatment adherence in the workforce of a large employer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman BW


    Full Text Available Bruce W Sherman,1–3 Wendy D Lynch4,5 1Employers Health Coalition, Inc., Canton, OH, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Sherman Consulting Services, LLC, Burlington, MA, USA; 4Lynch Consulting, Ltd, Steamboat Springs, CO, USA; 5Altarum Institute, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Purpose: Prior descriptive epidemiology studies have shown that smokers have lower compliance rates with preventive care services and lower chronic medication adherence rates for preventive care services in separate studies. The goal of this study was to perform a more detailed analysis to validate both of these findings for current smokers versus nonsmokers within the benefit-covered population of a large US employer. Patients and methods: This study involved the analysis of incurred medical and pharmacy claims for employee and spouse health plan enrollees of a single US-based employer during 2010. Multivariate regression models were used to compare data by active or never-smoker status for preventive care services and medication adherence for chronic conditions. Analysis controlled for demographic variables, chronic condition prevalence, and depression. Results: Controlling for demographic variables and comorbid conditions, smokers had significantly lower cancer screening rates, with absolute reductions of 6%–13%. Adherence to chronic medication use for hypertension was also significantly lower among smokers, with nearly 7% fewer smokers having a medication possession ratio of ≥80%. Smokers were less adherent to depression medications (relative risk =0.79 than nonsmokers (P=0.10. While not statistically significant, smokers were consistently less adherent to all other medications than nonsmokers. Conclusion: Current smokers are less compliant with recommended preventive care and medication use than nonsmokers, likely contributing to smoking-related employer costs. Awareness of these care gaps among smokers and

  18. Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance: Are Employers Good Agents for Their Employees?


    Peele, Pamela B.; Lave, Judith R.; Black, Jeanne T.; Evans III, John H.


    Employers in the United States provide many welfare-type benefits, such as life insurance, disability insurance, health insurance, and pensions, to their employees. Employers can be viewed as performing an agency role in purchasing pension, health, and other welfare benefits for their employees. An exploration of their competence in this role as agents for their employees indicates that large employers are very helpful to their employees in this arena. They seem to contribute to individual em...

  19. Chronic diseases as predictors of labour market attachment after participation in subsidised re-employment programme: a 6-year follow-up study. (United States)

    Nwaru, Chioma A; Peutere, Laura; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Pekka J


    Little is known about the work patterns of re-employed people. We investigated the labour market attachment trajectories of re-employed people and assessed the influence of chronic diseases on these trajectories. The study was based on register data of 18 944 people (aged 18-60 years) who participated in a subsidised re-employment programme in Finland. Latent class growth analysis with zero-inflated Poisson was used to model the labour market attachment trajectories over a 6-year follow-up time. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between chronic diseases and labour market attachment trajectories, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, size of town and calendar year in subsidised re-employment programme. We identified four distinct labour market attachment trajectories, namely: strengthening (a relatively stable attachment throughout the follow-up time; 77%), delayed (initial weak attachment increasing later; 6%), leavers (attachment declined with time; 10%) and none-attached (weak attachment throughout the study period; 7%). We found that severe mental problems strongly increased the likelihood of belonging in the leavers (OR 3.61; 95% CI 2.23 to 5.37) and none-attached (OR 3.41; 95% CI 1.91 to 6.10) trajectories, while chronic hypertension was associated with none-attached (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.77) trajectory. The associations between other chronic diseases (diabetes, heart disease, asthma and arthritics) and labour market attachment trajectories were less evident. Re-employed people appear to follow distinct labour market attachment trajectories over time. Having chronic diseases, especially mental disorders appear to increase the risk for relatively poor labour market attachment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. The Molecular Genetic Architecture of Self-Employment (United States)

    van der Loos, Matthijs J. H. M.; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Eklund, Niina; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Ankra-Badu, Georgina A.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Biffar, Reiner; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Cesarini, David; Cucca, Francesco; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Eiriksdottir, Guðny; Eriksson, Johan; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Höhne, Birgit; Holle, Rolf; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Isaacs, Aaron; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johannesson, Magnus; Kaakinen, Marika; Kähönen, Mika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Laaksonen, Maarit A.; Lahti, Jari; Launer, Lenore J.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Loitfelder, Marisa; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Naitza, Silvia; Oostra, Ben A.; Perola, Markus; Petrovic, Katja; Quaye, Lydia; Raitakari, Olli; Ripatti, Samuli; Scheet, Paul; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Senft, Andrea; Smith, Albert V.; Spector, Timothy D.; Surakka, Ida; Svento, Rauli; Terracciano, Antonio; Tikkanen, Emmi; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Viikari, Jorma; Völzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Wild, Philipp S.; Willems, Sara M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Thurik, A. Roy


    Economic variables such as income, education, and occupation are known to affect mortality and morbidity, such as cardiovascular disease, and have also been shown to be partly heritable. However, very little is known about which genes influence economic variables, although these genes may have both a direct and an indirect effect on health. We report results from the first large-scale collaboration that studies the molecular genetic architecture of an economic variable–entrepreneurship–that was operationalized using self-employment, a widely-available proxy. Our results suggest that common SNPs when considered jointly explain about half of the narrow-sense heritability of self-employment estimated in twin data (σg 2/σP 2 = 25%, h 2 = 55%). However, a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies across sixteen studies comprising 50,627 participants did not identify genome-wide significant SNPs. 58 SNPs with pentrepreneurship reveal significant associations. Finally, SNP-based genetic scores that use results from the meta-analysis capture less than 0.2% of the variance in self-employment in an independent sample (p≥0.039). Our results are consistent with a highly polygenic molecular genetic architecture of self-employment, with many genetic variants of small effect. Although self-employment is a multi-faceted, heavily environmentally influenced, and biologically distal trait, our results are similar to those for other genetically complex and biologically more proximate outcomes, such as height, intelligence, personality, and several diseases. PMID:23593239

  1. On Preferences for Being Self-Employed


    Nicola Fuchs-Schuendeln


    higher job satisfaction than the employed, even after controlling for income and hours worked. However, there is a large amount of heterogeneity in this effect: while “independent types” experience a large increase in job satisfaction from being self-employed, “hierarchical types” even experience a decrease.

  2. Closing the gap: Longitudinal changes in employment for Australians with multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Van Dijk, Pieter A; Kirk-Brown, Andrea K; Taylor, Bruce; van der Mei, Ingrid


    Previous studies have documented far lower employment participation rates for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) compared to the general population. In a large national sample of PwMS, we examined employment status, longitudinal changes in employment and the provision of modifications to work role/environment from 2010 to 2013. Employment data were collected through the Australian MS Longitudinal Study from 2010 to 2013, with 1260 people responding to all four surveys. Employment rates were compared with the Australian general population. The survey included questions on the provision of modifications to employees' work role and work environment. Employment (full- and part-time) increased from 48.8% in 2010 to 57.8% in 2013, mainly due to increases in male full-time employment. The employment gap between PwMS and the general population fell from 14.3% in 2010 to 3.5% in 2013. Male employment rates, however, remain significantly lower than the general population. The majority of PwMS who required adjustments to either their work role or environment received them. The gap in employment between PwMS and the general population has substantially reduced from 2010 to 2013, with organisations responding positively to requests for work role/environment adjustments.

  3. Exploring the handshake in employment interviews. (United States)

    Stewart, Greg L; Dustin, Susan L; Barrick, Murray R; Darnold, Todd C


    The authors examined how an applicant's handshake influences hiring recommendations formed during the employment interview. A sample of 98 undergraduate students provided personality measures and participated in mock interviews during which the students received ratings of employment suitability. Five trained raters independently evaluated the quality of the handshake for each participant. Quality of handshake was related to interviewer hiring recommendations. Path analysis supported the handshake as mediating the effect of applicant extraversion on interviewer hiring recommendations, even after controlling for differences in candidate physical appearance and dress. Although women received lower ratings for the handshake, they did not on average receive lower assessments of employment suitability. Exploratory analysis suggested that the relationship between a firm handshake and interview ratings may be stronger for women than for men.

  4. Blended Work and Employment Participation of Older Workers: A Further Discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, M.


    In the context of population aging and related policy aims to prolong working lives, it is highly important to get a better understanding of factors that may stimulate or rather inhibit prolonged employment. Dropkin and colleagues (Dropkin, J., Moline, J., Kim, H., & Gold, J. E. (2016). Blended work

  5. Working to Reduce Poverty: A National Subsidized Employment Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indivar Dutta-Gupta


    Full Text Available Subsidized employment programs that increase labor supply and demand are a proven, underutilized strategy for reducing poverty in the short and long term. These programs use public and private funds to provide workers wage-paying jobs, training, and wraparound services to foster greater labor force attachment while offsetting employers’ cost for wages, on-the-job training, and overhead. This article proposes two new separate but harmonized federal funding streams for subsidized employment that would expand automatically when and where economic conditions deteriorate. Participating states and local organizations would be offered generous matching funds to target adult workers most in need and to secure employer participation. The proposal would effectively reduce poverty among workers during work placements, and improve long-term unsubsidized employment and other outcomes for participants and their families.

  6. Awareness of United States' Law for Nursing Mothers among Employers in New Orleans, Louisiana. (United States)

    Alb, Caitrin H; Theall, Katherine; Jacobs, Marni B; Bales, Ana

    The U.S. Federal Reasonable Break Time for Nursing Mothers Law to support breastfeeding employees was passed in 2010, as part of the Affordable Care Act. However, few data are available assessing employers' awareness of the law or its implementation. The study aims were to 1) describe New Orleans employers' awareness of the law, 2) determine the extent of the law implementation within workplaces, and 3) determine the associations between workplace characteristics and employers' awareness and implementation. A cross-sectional survey was mailed to 652 workplaces with more than 50 employees in New Orleans, Louisiana, in the fall of 2013. A random sample of those who did not respond was called. The survey included questions about the industry category, number and type of employees, the employers' awareness of the law, if they had begun to implement the law, and their perceptions of barriers to implementation. The final sample included 182 workplaces (27.9% response rate). Eighty-seven participants (47.8%) reported having heard of the law. However, 52.7% of the participants (n = 96) responded that they had begun to implement the law. Large workplaces (≥100 employees) were more than four times as likely to be aware of the law compared with smaller workplaces (odds ratio, 4.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-10.59). The results were similar for beginning implementation. The proportion of large workplaces who are aware of the law remains lower than it should be, even 3 years after the institution of the Affordable Care Act. Outreach to all workplaces, including smaller ones, is needed to inform employers about the law and give them tools for implementation. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Student employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Marita; Gerth, Maria; Weiss, Felix


    , according to social origins, in student employment from first-year students through graduating students. We show that inequality in job quality exists and is partly attributable to the need for students from lower social origins to work to finance their studies. We hypothesise that initial inequalities......In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality...

  8. Japan’s Supreme Court Discourse and Lifetime Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.; Sato, Toyoko

    to employee participation in managerial prerogative. The comparative social policy aim is to examine and account for observed employment relations variance in the U.S. and Japan, given their similar labor legislation. Japan’s Supreme Court recognizes lifetime employment as an institutionalized practice and we......Our study explores cultural cognition in comparative U.S. – Japan employment relations through interdisciplinary analysis of Japanese Supreme Court regulation of the post-World War II lifetime employment system and the latest data available on Japan's collective bargaining-based approach...... on the Court's discourse. Causally related to this recognition, management councils (a form of employee participation in managerial prerogative) are also a defining feature of Japanese employment relations at the enterprise level. Despite unionization rate declines in both nations, the persistence of Japan...

  9. 20 CFR 663.245 - What is the individual employment plan? (United States)


    ....245 Section 663.245 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... jointly developed by the participant and the case manager that identifies the participant's employment goals, the appropriate achievement objectives, and the appropriate combination of services for the...

  10. Mental illness and employment discrimination. (United States)

    Stuart, Heather


    Work is a major determinant of mental health and a socially integrating force. To be excluded from the workforce creates material deprivation, erodes self-confidence, creates a sense of isolation and marginalization and is a key risk factor for mental disability. This review summarizes recent evidence pertaining to employment-related stigma and discrimination experienced by people with mental disabilities. A broad understanding of the stigmatization process is adopted, which includes cognitive, attitudinal, behavioural and structural disadvantages. Stigma is both a proximate and a distal cause of employment inequity for people with a mental disability who experience direct discrimination because of prejudicial attitudes from employers and workmates and indirect discrimination owing to historical patterns of disadvantage, structural disincentives against competitive employment and generalized policy neglect. Against this background, modern mental health rehabilitation models and legislative philosophies, which focus on citizenship rights and full social participation, are to be welcomed. Yet, recent findings demonstrate that the legislation remains vulnerable to the very prejudicial attitudes they are intended to abate. Research conducted during the past year continues to highlight multiple attitudinal and structural barriers that prevent people with mental disabilities from becoming active participants in the competitive labour market.

  11. Perceptions of journalists on women access, employment and participation in news production: A case study of Uganda's print media-The New Vision


    Anyango, Jane


    Abstract The thesis, “Perceptions of journalists on women access, employment and participation in news production” constitutes an assessment of the situation of female journalists in one of Uganda’s print media, The New Vision. The study connects the problematic relationship that women have with news media, both as subjects and sources of news stories as well as their experiences and status as practitioners within the news industries. The study was concerned over what in this profession...

  12. Employer perceptions of the employability of workers in a social business. (United States)

    Krupa, Terry; Howell-Moneta, Angela; Lysaght, Rosemary; Kirsh, Bonnie


    This study examined employer perceptions of employability of job candidates working in a social business for people with mental illnesses. Using an analogue research design, 99 employers participated in a simulated job hiring process, rating 2 applicants on potential to do the job, fit with workplace culture and likelihood of hiring. One job applicant worked in a social business, and the second was either (a) working in a conventional business, (b) with employment lapse attributable to mental health issues, or (c) with an unexplained employment lapse. Paired samples t tests were used to compare ratings. Qualitative data were collected regarding the rationale for rankings and a content analysis was conducted. Employer rankings were significantly higher for the applicant working in a social business compared to either applicant with an employment lapse. Employers rated the candidate working in a conventional business significantly higher compared with the candidate in a social business only on ratings of likelihood to hire. Employers valued the recency of work experience in the social business, citing concerns about risks associated with employment lapses. Their comments suggested a lack of understanding of the nature of social business. Experience in a social business appears to lessen the disadvantage of unemployment in the job hiring process, but does not appear to be ranked on par with experience in the conventional workforce. The social business sector could benefit from considering ways to publically portray these work opportunities to enhance acceptance and inclusion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The ʽDiverse Economies’ of Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Udall


    Full Text Available This article begins to construct a theory of participation in architecture, urban design and urban planning as a range of practices undertaken across a landscape of economies that largely exists outside of the capitalist economy. These practices themselves overlap in terms of their material forms, bodily and mental activities with the practices undertaken by labour employed to produce the built environment within the capitalist marketplace.With respect to participation, our aim in articulating practices is to move away from a discussion of levels of participation and legitimacy within individual projects and towards an understanding of the organising, productive and reproductive work that is done in participating in the production of the built environment as part of an ongoing process of social change. They proliferate through multiple instances of performance and those who undertake them act as carriers of these practices, including forms of knowhow, understanding, motivational and emotional knowledge, creating resources through these acts of performance.The article contends that participatory practices are liable to be exploited re-presented or co-opted as commodified resources and this fragility limits the socially transformative potential of participation. Drawing on J.K Gibson-Graham’s conception of ‘diverse economies’, an alternative representation is developed to recognize the landscape of practices constructing alternative economic systems, and exploring means and methods of resistance to co-option or enclosure.

  14. Added Value of Employee Financial Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutsma, F.; Kaarsemaker, E.C.A.; Andresen, M.; Nowak, C.


    This chapter broadens our understanding of the added value of employee financial participation. Financial participation is a generic term for the participation of employees in profit and enterprise results including equity of their employing firm. In general, there are two forms of employee

  15. Job Endings and Work Trajectories of Persons Receiving Supported Employment and Cognitive Remediation. (United States)

    Teixeira, Carina; Mueser, Kim T; Rogers, E Sally; McGurk, Susan R


    This study examined job endings and work trajectories among participants in a study comparing the effects of adding cognitive remediation to supported employment among individuals who had not benefited from supported employment. Data were from a controlled trial of 107 persons with serious mental illness enrolled in supported employment but who had not obtained or sustained competitive work. Participants were randomly assigned to enhanced supported employment only (with employment specialists trained to recognize cognitive difficulties and teach coping strategies) or to the Thinking Skills for Work program (enhanced supported employment plus cognitive remediation). For the 52 participants who worked, the two groups were compared on types of job endings, reasons for job endings, successful versus unsuccessful jobs, and work trajectories over the two-year study period. The two groups did not differ in types of job ending, although participants in Thinking Skills for Work were less likely than those in enhanced supported employment only to cite dissatisfaction with the job as a reason for the job ending. Participants in Thinking Skills for Work were also less likely to have an overall unsuccessful work trajectory, more likely to have only successful jobs, and more likely to be employed at the end of the study. The Thinking Skills for Work program appeared to help participants who had not benefited from supported employment stick with and master their jobs more effectively than those in enhanced supported employment only, resulting in better work trajectories over the course of the study.

  16. Participation of rural Zimbabwean female students in mathematics: The influence of perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gudyanga


    Full Text Available The study was premised on the influence of perceptions on the participation of Ordinary Level rural African Zimbabwean female students in mathematics. Qualitative research design grounded in the interpretive paradigm was employed. Eighteen Ordinary Level female students and six teachers purposively selected from three rural co-educational secondary schools participated in the study. Data were generated through lesson observations and semi-structured question type interview guide. Findings revealed that rural female students perceived mathematics as a difficult subject, masculine and irrelevant to their future aspirations. Participants outlined that their perceptions were rooted in the prevailing cultural belief that mathematics is a masculine subject and negative stereotypes about girls’ maths abilities. Further findings indicate that female students’ participation in mathematics was highly influenced by their perception towards the subject. These perceptions result in the development of a general negative attitude to the subject that caused fewer female students to participate in mathematics in large numbers. We recommended parents and teachers to work hard to eliminate the negative gender and cultural stereotypes in order to enhance female students’ confidence in mathematics abilities. Schools should employ female mathematics teachers and expose female students to female role models who have succeeded in life in order to encourage more participation of female students in mathematics. Schools are made responsible for smoothing out difficulties generated by the prevailing culture. There is a gap in knowledge base pertaining to the Zimbabwean rural girls’ participation in Mathematics.

  17. Page Gender Differences in Rural Off-farm Employment Pa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    off-farm employment plays in the reduction of poverty in Asia (Sanchez 1991), Africa ( ... the rate at which women participate in off-farm employment increased faster than ...... Rural poverty and non-farm employment in India: evidence from.

  18. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation (United States)

    Reichert, Frank


    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  19. 20 CFR 627.225 - Employment generating activities. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment generating activities. 627.225 Section 627.225 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL... chambers of commerce); JTPA staff participation on economic development boards and commissions, and work...

  20. Texas Employer 1996 Dependent Care Survey. (United States)

    Ruggiere, Paul; Glass, James

    Many employers have enacted "family-friendly benefits" in response to demands placed on their employees by the stress of caring for children or aging parents. The Employer Dependent Care Survey measured the prevalence of flexible work arrangements and child care and elder care benefits in Texas. Participating were 1,331 out of 6,500…

  1. Did Government Intervention on Firm’s Employment Policies Have an Effect on the Employment of Elderly Workers?


    Nishimura, Yoshinori


    This paper analyzes whether government intervention on firms’ employment policies have an effect on the employment of the elderly. As a result of the pensionable age increasing in Japan, this policy makes a di↵erence between the mandatory retirement age and the pensionable age. The Japanese government has obliged firms to employ elderly workers until they reach the pensionable age. According to literature, the labor force participation rate of elderly male workers increased after the implemen...

  2. Adult Workers in Theory or Practice? : Lone Mothers’ Participation in Active Labour Market Programmes in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordula Zabel


    Full Text Available This paper examines lone mothers’ participation in active labour market programmes in Germany. Since the 2005 Hartz IV employment and welfare policy reforms, expectations that non-em- ployed parents receiving means-tested benefits should be ready for employment or labour market programme participation have grown stronger. However, discretion for programme assignments is left to individual caseworkers. As a consequence, it is not clear to what extent the formal policy orientation towards an adult worker model of the family is reflected in practical policy implemen- tations. Thus, lone mothers’ participation in active labour market programmes is studied empiri- cally here on the basis of large-scale administrative data, using event-history analysis. Findings are that lone mothers are treated as adult workers with respect to workfare and training pro- grammes even when their children are still quite young. As soon as their youngest child is 3 - 5 years old, lone mothers’ transition rates into these programmes are as high as for childless single women. In the case of programmes that provide more direct pathways into regular employment, like job subsidies and in-firm training programmes, however, participation rates for lone mothers of young children are substantially lower than for childless single women.

  3. Effectiveness of individual placement and support supported employment for young adults. (United States)

    Bond, Gary R; Drake, Robert E; Campbell, Kikuko


    The individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment was first developed in community mental health centres for adults with severe mental illness. While IPS is an established evidence-based practice in this broad population, evidence on its effectiveness focused specifically on young adults has been limited. The current study aimed to address this gap. To investigate the effects of IPS on young adults, the authors conducted a secondary analysis on a pooled sample of 109 unemployed young adults (under age 30) from four randomized controlled trials employing a common research protocol that included a standardized measurement battery and rigorous fidelity monitoring. Researchers assessed these participants over 18 months on nine competitive employment outcome measures. On all measures, the IPS group had significantly better employment outcomes. Overall, 40 (82%) of IPS participants obtained employment during follow-up compared with 25 (42%) of control participants, χ(2) = 17.9, P < .001. IPS participants averaged 25.0 weeks of employment, compared with 7.0 weeks for control participants, t = 4.50, P < .001. The current analysis supports a small number of previous studies in showing that IPS is highly effective in helping young adults with severe mental illness to attain competitive employment. When young adults acquire competitive jobs and initiate a path towards normal adult roles, they may avoid the cycle of disability and psychiatric patient roles that are demeaning and demoralizing. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Psychological variables associated with employment following spinal cord injury: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Kent, M L; Dorstyn, D S


    Spinal cord injury (SCI) research has highlighted links between psychological variables and employment outcome; however, there remains a need to consolidate the available heterogenous data. Meta-analytic techniques were used to examine and quantify differences in psychological functioning and employment status among adults with an acquired SCI. Fourteen observational studies (N = 9, 868 participants) were identified from an electronic database search. Standardised mean difference scores between employed and unemployed groups were calculated using Cohen's d effect sizes. Additionally, 95% confidence intervals, fail-safe Ns, percentage overlap scores and heterogeneity statistics were used to determine the significance of d . Moderate to large and positive weighted effects were noted across three broad psychological constructs: affective experience or feelings (dw = 3.16), quality of life (dw = 1.06) and life satisfaction (dw = 0.70). However, the most compelling non-heterogeneous finding was associated with life satisfaction, a finding that was also not subject to publication bias. Inconsistent and weak associations between employment and individual measures of vocational attitude, self-efficacy, locus of control, adjustment and personality were also noted. Psychological factors and attributes are linked to employment post-SCI; however, the available data are limited in quantity. Longitudinal research is also needed to determine whether these variables can help to preserve employment over time.

  5. Optimum survey methods when interviewing employed women. (United States)

    Dunning, Kari; LeMasters, Grace K


    While survey studies have examined bias much is unknown regarding specific subpopulations, especially women workers. A population based phone, Internet, and mail survey of workplace falls during pregnancy was undertaken. Participation by industry and occupation and survey approach and bias, reliability, and incomplete data were examined. Of the 3,997 women surveyed, 71% were employed during their pregnancy. Internet responders were most likely to be employed while pregnant and to report a workplace fall at 8.8% compared to 5.8% and 6.1% for mail and phone respondents. Internet responders had the most missing employment data with company name missing for 17.9% compared to 1.3% for phone responders. Mail surveys were best for recruiting those employed in eight of nine industries, and this was especially true for service occupations. To decrease bias and increase participation, mixed approaches may be useful with particular attention for collecting occupational data. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:105-112, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Developing inclusive employment: lessons from Telenor Open Mind. (United States)

    Kalef, Laura; Barrera, Magda; Heymann, Jody


    Despite significant gains in legal rights for people with disabilities, the employment rate for individuals with disabilities in many countries remains extremely low. Programs to promote the inclusion of people with disabilities in the workforce can have an important impact on individuals' economic and social prospects, as well as societal benefits. This article aims to explore Telenor Open Mind, a job training program at Norway's largest telecommunications company with financial support from Norway's Labor and Welfare Organization (NAV), which acts as a springboard for individuals with disabilities into the workplace. A qualitative case study design was utilized to explore the Telenor Open Mind Program. Drawing on field research conducted in Oslo during 2011, this article explores subjective experiences of individuals involved with the program, through interviews and program observations. Telenor Open Mind's two-year program is comprised of a three month training period, in which individuals participate in computer and self-development courses followed by a 21-month paid internship where participants gain hands-on experience. The program has an average 75% rate of employment upon completion and a high rate of participant satisfaction. Participation in the program led to increased self-confidence and social development. The company experienced benefits from greater workplace satisfaction and reductions in sick leave rates. The Telenor Open Mind program has provided benefits for participants, the company, and society as a whole. Participants gain training, work experience, and increased employability. Telenor gains dedicated and trained employees, in addition to reducing sick leave absences among all employees. Finally, society benefits from the Open Mind program as the individuals who gain employment become tax-payers, and no longer need to receive benefits from the government.

  7. [Women's participation in the Egyptian economy: trends and evolution]. (United States)

    Khouri-dagher, N


    poorest women because of increased competition and higher standards for existing jobs, the decline in opportunities for employment as domestics because of increasing economic pressure on some parts of the population, increasing mechanization and replacement of female workers by machines, and lack of time for gainful employment because of the increasing temporal demands just for completion of basic household tasks in congested urban areas. Despite these difficulties, sociocultural factors still account in large part for the weak labor force participation of women and the high female unemployment rate. Modes of participation of women in economic life are still subject to strict social control.

  8. Active Aging for Individuals with Intellectual Disability: Meaningful Community Participation through Employment, Retirement, Service, and Volunteerism (United States)

    Fesko, Sheila Lynch; Hall, Allison Cohen; Quinlan, Jerrilyn; Jockell, Catherine


    As individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities become more engaged in community employment, it will be critical to consider how their employment experience changes as they age. Similar to other seniors, individuals will need to consider whether they want to maintain their employment, reduce their work commitment, or retire…

  9. Retirees' motivational orientations and bridge employment: Testing the moderating role of gender. (United States)

    Zhan, Yujie; Wang, Mo; Shi, Junqi


    Bridge employment refers to the labor force participation after people retire from career jobs. It is becoming a prevalent phenomenon for retirees transitioning from employment to complete work withdrawal. Building on existing literature on retirement transition and older adults' work motivation, the present study examined the effects of 3 motivational orientations (i.e., status striving, communion striving, and generativity striving) in relating to retirees' bridge employment participation (i.e., bridge employment status and bridge employment work hours). This study also applied the social gender role theory to examine the effect of gender in moderating the effects of motivational orientations. Data from 507 Chinese retirees in Beijing revealed that communion striving and generativity striving were positively related to bridge employment participation. Further, gender moderated the effect of status striving such that status striving was positively related to bridge employment participation for male retirees but not for female retirees. In addition, exploratory analysis was conducted to examine the effects of the same set of motivational orientations on postretirement volunteering activities. Results showed that status striving was negatively related to volunteering after retirement. The findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical implications for the bridge employment literature and practical implications for recruiting and retaining older workers. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HA Koloba


    Full Text Available The on-going changes in the workplace demand that the current andfuturegeneration of workers should be well trained since their knowledge, skills andpositive attitude are essential to cope with the demands of the modern world. Forthis reason, university students, who are the future generation of the labour force,need to gear themselves up for a tough journey in the prevailing economicconditions. Previous research has revealed that the possession of employabilityskills has the potential to ascertain successful careers for students, as they will bemore employable during their working life. Therefore, this study aimed toinvestigate the relationship between employability skills of university studentsand their perceptions of employability. A quantitative research approach wasadopted. A self-administered questionnairewas distributed among universitystudents at four universities in South Africa and data were analysed from 485participants. Exploratory factor analysis was used to establish the factors.Correlation analysis was used to establish whether there is any relationshipbetween employability skills and perceived employability among universitystudents in South Africa. The majority of students regard themselves aspossessing employability skills. Furthermore, the findings revealed that there is apositive relationship between students’ employability skills and their perceptionsof employability. The conclusion drawn from this finding is that universitystudents, with the appropriate knowledge and skills acquired from different fieldsof study, are likely to have higher self-confidence and may, therefore, influencethe state of the labour market. It is recommended that employability skills shouldbe incorporated into the curriculum in order to enhance employability of students

  11. Employers' views on the fit note. (United States)

    Kotze, E


    The fit note replaced the sick note in 2010. The statement of fitness for work (fit note) is expected to benefit the British economy by helping more people stay in work and prevent long-term sickness absence. Understanding and responding to employers' views on the fit note is key, in order for this goal to be achieved. To explore employers' views on the fit note. A qualitative study was undertaken and face-to-face interviews were conducted with participants representing employers from a variety of industries. There were 21 participants who were mainly human resources officers and line managers. Employers welcomed the introduction of the fit note and felt that it was an improvement on the sick note. The majority of employers felt the fit note had the potential to promote an earlier return to work, if used properly. The main problems reported were the completion of the fit notes and quality of advice received from general practitioners. Employers felt that the most helpful advice came from fit notes with information on the functional effects of the medical condition. Some employers found return to work decisions problematic. The fit note has the potential to promote an earlier return to work. In order for the fit note to achieve its aim, further understanding of the difficulties employers are having when making return to work decisions is important, in order to develop guidance to enable them to provide the practical support employees need to return to work sooner. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  12. Age and gender differential relationship between employment status and body mass index among middle-aged and elderly adults : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae


    Objective: To determine the influence of age and gender, respectively, on the association between employment status and body mass index (BMI) in Korean adults using a large, nationally representative sample. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: South Korea. Participants: 7228 from fourth wave of

  13. The body participating:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Hanne; Lund, Lone Blak; Jensen, Marianne


    -based analyses. The results were theoretically stated and supported. Results: In an effort to achieve patient participation, the following four themes seemed to be significant: 1) consciously encountering the patient in the moment, 2) the employment of concepts surrounding the interaction between body...

  14. 5 CFR 2635.604 - Disqualification while seeking employment. (United States)


    ... Veterans Affairs is participating in the audit of a contract for laboratory support services. Before... himself from participation in the audit. Since he cannot withdraw from participation in the contract audit... is employed by the National Science Foundation as a special Government employee to serve on a panel...

  15. Experiences of Cultural Activities provided by the Employer in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka Tuisku


    Full Text Available The increasing mental demands of healthcare work call for developing complementary health promotion strategies. Cultural leisure activities have long been recognized as a source of wellbeing and coping for employees. Yet, little is known about implementation of employer-provided cultural activities—how they are encountered and experienced. In this study, a public sector hospital department offered monthly cultural events for personnel: Theater, concerts, musicals, dance-performances, museum visits and sight-seeing. A digital questionnaire was sent to hospital staff (N = 769 to ask about their participation in employer-provided cultural activities during the past 6 months. The motives and obstacles for participation, and the quality of experience of the cultural events, were explored quantitatively and qualitatively. The main motives for participation were related to well-being, content of cultural events and invitations from employer or colleagues. For some, the participation was hampered by work-shifts and missing information. The participants experienced recreation, relaxation and psychological detachment from strain, which is essential for recovery. Community participation was more common than individual participation. Shared cultural experiences among employees may increase the social capital at workplace, but equal access for all employees should be guaranteed.

  16. Policies for full employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Koning, Jaap; Layard, Richard; Nickel, Stephen

    European unemployment is too high, and employment is too low. Over 7½ per cent of Europe's workforce is unemployed, and only two thirds of people aged 15-64 are in work. At the Lisbon summit two years ago the heads of government set the target that by 2010 the employment rate should rise from 64...... per cent to at least 70 per cent. And for older workers between 55 and 64 the employment rate should rise from 38 per cent to at least one half. These are ambitious targets. They will require two big changes: more people must seek work, and among those seeking work a higher proportion must get a job....... So we need higher participation, and (for full employment) we need a much lower unemployment rate. Can it be done? A mere glance at the experience of different European countries shows that it can. As Table 1 shows, four E.U. countries already exceed the overall target for 2010 (Britain, Denmark...

  17. Job Offers to Individuals With Severe Mental Illness After Participation in Virtual Reality Job Interview Training. (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Fleming, Michael F; Wright, Michael A; Jordan, Neil; Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D


    Individuals with severe mental illness have low employment rates, and the job interview presents a critical barrier for them to obtain competitive employment. Prior randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicated that virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT) improved job interviewing skills among trainees. This study assessed whether VR-JIT participation was associated with greater odds of receiving job offers in the six-months after completion of training. To assess the efficacy of VR-JIT, trainees (N=39) in the method and a comparison group (N=12) completed a brief survey approximately six months after participating in the RCTs. Primary vocational outcome measures included receiving a job offer and number of weeks searching for employment. A larger proportion of trainees than comparison participants received a job offer (51% versus 25%, respectively). Trainees were more likely to receive a job offer than comparison participants (odds ratio=9.64, p=.02) after analyses accounted for cognition, recency of last job, and diagnosis. Trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer for each completed VR-JIT trial (odds ratio=1.41, p=.04), and a greater number of completed VR-JIT trials predicted fewer weeks of searching for employment (β=-.74, p=.02). Results provide preliminary support that VR-JIT is a promising intervention associated with enhanced vocational outcomes among individuals with severe mental illness. Given that participants had minimal access to standardized vocational services, future research could evaluate the effectiveness of VR-JIT among individuals with and without access to standardized vocational services as well as evaluate strategies to implement VR-JIT within a large community mental health service provider.

  18. Trends in Biometric Health Indices Within an Employer-Sponsored Wellness Program With Outcome-Based Incentives. (United States)

    Fu, Patricia Lin; Bradley, Kent L; Viswanathan, Sheila; Chan, June M; Stampfer, Meir


    To evaluate changes in employees' biometrics over time relative to outcome-based incentive thresholds. Retrospective cohort analysis of biometric screening participants (n = 26 388). Large employer primarily in Western United States. Office, retail, and distribution workforce. A voluntary outcome-based biometric screening program, incentivized with health insurance premium discounts. Body mass index (BMI), cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure, and nicotine. Followed were participants from their first year of participation, evaluating changes in measures. On average, participants who did not meet the incentive threshold at baseline decreased their BMI (1%), glucose (8%), blood pressure (systolic 9%, diastolic 8%), and total cholesterol (8%) by year 2 with improvements generally sustained or continued during each additional year of participation. On average, individuals at high health risk who participated in a financially incentivized biometric assessment program improved their health indices over time. Further research is needed to understand key determinants that drive health improvement indicated here. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Mobile phone voting for participation and engagement in a large compulsory law course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Habel


    Full Text Available This article reports on an action-research project designed to investigate the effect of a technological intervention on the complex interactions between student engagement, participation, attendance and preparation in a large lecture delivered as part of a compulsory first-year law course, a discipline which has not been the focus of any previous study. The technology used was VotApedia, a form of mobile phone voting, and it was implemented in tandem with constructivist pedagogies such as explicit pre-reading and a prior context of interactive lecturing. Data were collected through observation, via mobile phone voting in class and by an online survey designed to specifically explore the relationship between attendance at VotApedia lectures and factors such as self-reported engagement, attendance and preparation. The findings indicated that student response systems (SRSs are just as applicable to more Humanities-style disciplines which require divergent questioning, and supported complex interactions between engagement, attendance and preparation. Preliminary findings indicated that, although more work needs to be done, especially on the types of students who prefer to use these systems, there is a clear potential to increase student engagement in large law lectures through the use of SRSs.

  20. Australian dentists: characteristics of those who employ or are willing to employ oral health therapists. (United States)

    Kempster, C; Luzzi, L; Roberts-Thomson, K


    There has been an increase in the availability of oral health therapists (OHTs) in the oral health workforce in the last decade. The impact these clinicians will have on the oral health of the general public is dependent on access pathways and utilization. This study aimed to profile Australian dentists who employ or are willing to employ OHTs and to explore the degree of association between dentist characteristics and employment decisions. This cross-sectional study used a random sample of Australian dentists (n = 1169) from the Federal Australian Dental Association register in 2009. Participants were sent a postal questionnaire capturing dentist characteristics and oral health practitioner employment information. An adjusted response rate of 55% was obtained. Dentists willing to employ OHTs included non-metropolitan dentists, dentists in multiple surgery practices and those considering practice expansion. Age, gender and sector of practice were not significantly associated with retrospective employment decisions or willingness to employ in the future. Certain characteristics of dentists or of their practice are associated with their history of employment and willingness to employ OHTs. Employment decisions are more commonly related to entrepreneurial aspirations (expressed as a willingness to expand), sector of practice, surgery capacity and regionality over gender and age. Understanding the factors that influence the employment of OHTs is important in enhancing access pathways to the services provided by OHTs. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  1. Employment and self-employment in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. (United States)

    Zissimopoulos, Julie; Karoly, Lynn A


    We use data from the monthly Current Population Survey to examine the short- and longer-term effects of Hurricane Katrina on the labor market outcomes of prime-age individuals in the most affected states--Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi--and for evacuees in any state. We focus on rates of labor force participation, employment, and unemployment, and we extend prior research by also examining rates of self-employment. With the exception of Mississippi, employment and unemployment one year after the hurricane were at similar rates as the end of 2003. This aggregate pattern of labor market shock and recovery has been observed for other disasters but masks important differences among subgroups. Those evacuated from their residences, even temporarily, were a harder-hit group, and evacuees who had yet to return to their pre-Katrina state up to one year later were hit especially hard; these findings hold even after controlling for differences in observable characteristics. We also find evidence of an important role for self-employment as part of post-disaster labor market recovery, especially for evacuees who did not return. This may result from poor job prospects in the wage and salary sector or new opportunities for starting businesses in the wake of Katrina.

  2. Return-to-Work Program for Injured Workers: Factors of Successful Return to Employment. (United States)

    Awang, Halimah; Shahabudin, Sharifah Muhairah; Mansor, Norma


    This study examined the factors of successful return to employment among participants in the return to work program (RTW) following work-related injury. Data were obtained from the Social Security Organization database containing 9850 injured workers who underwent RTW in 2010 to 2013. About 65% had successfully returned to employment. Significant factors of successful return include gender, employer interest, motivation, age, intervention duration, and type of injury. Male and motivated employees were more likely to return to employment compared with female and unmotivated employees, respectively. Participants from interested employers were 23.22 times more likely to return to work than those from uninterested employers, whereas participants whose intervention period exceeded 5 months were 41% less likely to return to work compared with those whose intervention period was within 3 months. Appropriate strategy and enhanced collaboration between the stakeholders would improve the proportion of successful return to employment. © 2016 APJPH.

  3. Implementing Experiential Learning Activities in a Large Enrollment Introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition Course (United States)

    Bohn, Dawn M.; Schmidt, Shelly J.


    Experiential learning activities are often viewed as impractical, and potentially unfeasible, instructional tools to employ in a large enrollment course. Research has shown, though, that the metacognitive skills that students utilize while participating in experiential learning activities enable them to assess their true level of understanding and…

  4. The significance of employee biographics in explaining employability attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Anne Botha


    Full Text Available Background: Employability is the capacity of employees to acquire transferable competencies and individual capacities that enable them to adapt to, be innovative in and steer their own careers in a dynamic work environment. It is clear that employers would thus look for employees who are capable of proactive adjustment and action-oriented behaviours. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine whether significant differences exist in the employability attributes of individuals from different gender, race and age groups and if so, how should such a diverse workforce should be managed. Setting: This study was conducted at a distance education institution. The sample of respondents consisted of adult learners who are pursuing further distance learning studies in the economic and management sciences field in South Africa. Methods: Correlational and inferential statistical analyses were used. A stratified random sample of 1102 mainly black and female adult learners participated in the study. Results: The employability attributes framework identified three categories of employability: interpersonal, intrapersonal and career attributes. The research indicated that significant differences exist between gender, race and age groups with regard to employability. Male and female participants differed significantly with regard to entrepreneurial orientation, proactivity and career resilience. The various race groups differed considerably regarding cultural competence and sociability of individuals. Participants older than 50 years scored the highest on self-efficacy. Conclusion and implications: The findings of this research could ensure that previously disadvantaged individuals are not further marginalised because of a lack of employability attributes and that the required employability attributes can be cultivated to ensure advancement and success in the work place.

  5. The economic impact of GERD and PUD: examination of direct and indirect costs using a large integrated employer claims database. (United States)

    Joish, Vijay N; Donaldson, Gary; Stockdale, William; Oderda, Gary M; Crawley, Joseph; Sasane, Rahul; Joshua-Gotlib, Sandra; Brixner, Diana I


    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of work loss associated with gastro- the relationship of work loss associated with gastro- the relationship of work loss associated with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and peptic ulcer disease (GERD) and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in a large population of employed individuals in the United States (US) and quantify the individuals in the United States (US) and quantify the economic impact of these diseases to the employer. A proprietary database that contained work place absence, disability and workers' compensation data in addition to prescription drug and medical claims was used to answer the objectives. Employees with a medical claim with an ICD-9 code for GERD or PUD were identified from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2000. A cohort of controls was identified for the same time period using the method of frequency matching on age, gender, industry type, occupational status, and employment status. Work absence rates and health care costs were compared between the groups after adjusting for demo graphic, and employment differences using analysis of covariance models. There were significantly lower (p rate of adjusted all-cause absenteeism and sickness-related absenteeism were observed between the disease groups versus the controls. In particular, controls had an average of 1.2 to 1.6 days and 0.4 to 0.6 lower all-cause and sickness-related absenteeism compared to the disease groups. The incremental economic impact projected to a hypothetical employed population was estimated to be $3441 for GERD, $1374 for PUD, and $4803 for GERD + PUD per employee per year compared to employees without these diseases. Direct medical cost and work absence in employees with GERD, PUD and GERD + PUD represent a significant burden to employees and employers.

  6. Employment effects of active labor market measures for sick-listed workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette

    We use unique and rich register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers to investigate the effect of active labor market measures on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over-time variation in 98...... job centers’ use of active labor market measures. We find that ordinary education and especially subsidized job training have statistically significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, statistically significant positive effect on the transition into employment...... but no effect on the subsequent employment duration. In contrast, ordinary education has a statistically significant positive effect on employment duration but no effect on the transition to employment. This null effect consists of a large positive effect of having completed education and a large negative lock...

  7. The Link Between Daycare Experience and Attitudes Toward Daycare and Maternal Employment (United States)

    Shpancer, Noam; Bennett-Murphy, Laura


    Participants (n = 308; mean age = 20 years) completed questionnaires about their history, attitudes, and expectations regarding childcare, maternal employment and future parenting. Participants who experienced non-parental care as children had more favorable attitudes toward such care and toward maternal employment than did home-reared…

  8. Social participation after successful kidney transplantation. (United States)

    van der Mei, Sijrike F; van Sonderen, Eric L P; van Son, Willem J; de Jong, Paul E; Groothoff, Johan W; van den Heuvel, Wim J A


    To explore and describe the degree of social participation after kidney transplantation and to examine associated factors. A cross-sectional study on 239 adult patients 1-7.3 years after kidney transplantation was performed via in-home interviews on participation in obligatory activities (i.e., employment, education, household tasks) and leisure activities (volunteer work, assisting others, recreation, sports, clubs/associations, socializing, going out). Kidney transplantation patients had a lower educational level, spent less time on obligatory activities, had part-time jobs more often, and participated less in sports compared to a control group from the general population. No difference was found in socializing, church attendance, volunteer work and going out. Multivariate regression analysis showed a negative association of age and a positive association of educational status and time since transplantation with obligatory participation. Multivariate logistic regression showed positive associations of education and time since transplantation with volunteer work; age was negatively and education positively associated with sports and going out, whereas living arrangement was also associated with going out. Although kidney transplantation patients participate less in employment and sports, they do participate in household tasks, volunteer work, going out, socializing and other leisure activities. Participation is associated with factors as age, educational status and time since transplantation.

  9. Employability of genetic counselors with a PhD in genetic counseling. (United States)

    Wallace, Jody P; Myers, Melanie F; Huether, Carl A; Bedard, Angela C; Warren, Nancy Steinberg


    The development of a PhD in genetic counseling has been discussed for more than 20 years, yet the perspectives of employers have not been assessed. The goal of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of the employability of genetic counselors with a PhD in genetic counseling by conducting interviews with United States employers of genetic counselors. Study participants were categorized according to one of the following practice areas: academic, clinical, government, industry, laboratory, or research. All participants were responsible for hiring genetic counselors in their institutions. Of the 30 employers interviewed, 23 envisioned opportunities for individuals with a PhD degree in genetic counseling, particularly in academic and research settings. Performing research and having the ability to be a principal investigator on a grant was the primary role envisioned for these individuals by 22/30 participants. Employers expect individuals with a PhD in genetic counseling to perform different roles than MS genetic counselors with a master's degree. This study suggests there is an employment niche for individuals who have a PhD in genetic counseling that complements, and does not compete with, master's prepared genetic counselors.

  10. Employee participation in decision-making in architectural firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedapo Oluwatayo


    Full Text Available In this study, the participation of employee architects in decision-making in architectural firms is investigated. This is with a view to identifying the organisational contexts that enhance employee participation in decision making. The impact of such participation on the performances of the firms was also assessed. This study was carried out through a questionnaire survey of employers of architects in Nigeria. In agreement with findings of previous studies, participation of the employees of the architectural firms in the study in decision making is low. Employee participation in decision making in the firms was dependent on the staffing strategy and proportion of junior staff in many cases. The positive impact of employee participation in decision making on firm performance varied with the nature of the decision. This study concludes that there is need for employers in architectural firms to identify the categories of decision that employees should be involved in and to modify their firm contexts to encourage participation where desired.

  11. Comparative research on women's employment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippe, T. van der; Dijk, L. van


    Women's employment has been widely studied in both Western countries and Eastern Europe. In this article, the most frequently used measurements and descriptions of women's paid work are given, namely, participation rate, number of hours worked, gender segregation, and the gender gap in earnings.

  12. A reappraisal of the virtues of private sector employment programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Graversen, Brian Krogh

    In this paper, we evaluate the employment effects of Danish active labour market programmes aimed at welfare benefit recipients. We estimate an econometric model with treatment effects and discrete outcomes and we allow the responses to treatment to vary among observationally identical persons. T...... significant mean effects of participation in private sector employment programmes compared to participation in other programmes, but we find evidence of heterogeneity in the treatment effects....

  13. The Impact of Contingent Employment on Organizational Citizenship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the impact of contingent employment on organizational citizenship behaviour. Seven hundred and fifteen (715) participants, drawn from a commercial bank and an oil company in southwest, Nigeria, participated in the study. Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) was assessed with a 21-item ...

  14. Supporting the Health of Low Socioeconomic Status Employees: Qualitative Perspectives from Employees and Large Companies. (United States)

    Parrish, Amanda T; Hammerback, Kristen; Hannon, Peggy A; Mason, Caitlin; Wilkie, Michelle N; Harris, Jeffrey R


    The aim of this study was to identify alignments between wellness offerings low socioeconomic status (SES) employees need and those large companies can provide. Focus groups (employees); telephone interviews (large companies). Employees were low-SES, insured through their employers, and employed by large Washington State companies. Focus groups covered perceived barriers to healthy behaviors at work and potential support from companies. Interviews focused on priorities for employee health and challenges reaching low-SES employees. Seventy-seven employees participated in eight focus groups; 12 companies completed interviews. Employees identified facilitators and barriers to healthier work environments; companies expressed care for employees, concerns about employee obesity, and reluctance to discuss SES. Our findings combine low-SES employee and large company perspectives and indicate three ways workplaces could most effectively support low-SES employee health: create healthier workplace food environments; prioritize onsite physical activity facilities; use clearer health communications.

  15. Diversity in work: The heterogeneity of women's labour market participation patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yerkes, M.


    Employment patterns are gender-driven, yet analyses of women’s employment often fail to recognize the heterogeneous patterns evident within women’s labour market participation itself. This article examines the variation in women’s labour market participation in light of Hakim’s heterogeneity

  16. Single versus Dual Paycheck: Married Parents' Attitudes about Maternal Employment. (United States)

    Ryckebusch, Jenna-Lyn; Miller, Heather; Fulmer, Kimberly; Fontanez, Mary; Ellis, Trisha; DiBlasi, Francis Paul; Carey, Brandi; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study examines attitudes about maternal employment by comparing the responses of married parents from single versus two-paycheck families. Participants in this study were 138 mothers and 120 fathers given the Beliefs About the Consequences of Maternal Employment for Children Scale (BACMEC), which assesses views about maternal employment.…

  17. Employment effects of active labor market programs for sick-listed workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette


    We use register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers in Denmark over the period 2008–2011 to investigate the effect of active labor market programs on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over......-time variation in the use of active labor market programs in 98 job centers and time-to- event. We find that ordinary education and subsidized job training have significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, positive effect on the transition into employment but no effect...... on the subsequent employment duration. In contrast, ordinary education has a positive effect on employment duration but no effect on the transition into employment. The latter effect is the result of two opposing effects, a large positive effect of having completed education and a large negative lock-in effect...

  18. Factors affecting employment among people with mobility disabilities in South Korea. (United States)

    Park, Soo-Kyung; Yoon, Jae-Young; Henderson, Terrence


    Employment provides not only income but also opportunities for social participation. This is especially important for people with disabilities, but the employment of disabled people in many countries is subject to significant barriers. This study examines the actual state of employment of people with mobility disabilities in Korea and which characteristics affect employment among people with mobility disabilities. Analysis of responses to the Community Integration Questionnaire and independent variables among the study participants showed that the rate of employment among people with mobility disabilities (34.2%) is much lower than that of the general population (60.3%), with only 13.2% in full-time positions. Gender appeared to be a statistically significant factor influencing employment. Other demographic characteristics such as age, level of education and cohabitation did not influence employment in this study, but people with less severe disability had a higher probability of being employed. Disability acceptance appeared to be a vital factor in the process of vocational rehabilitation. The use of vocational rehabilitation services did not have a significant effect on employment. These results suggest that the role of the formal services system in the employment process of disabled people is insufficient.

  19. Interviews, Disclosures, and Misperceptions: Autistic Adults' Perspectives on Employment Related Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Sarrett


    Full Text Available As increasing numbers of autistic adults are seeking and gaining employment, the experiences of autistic adults in the workplace is critical to consider. Autistic adults encounter a range of challenges in obtaining and keeping employment and often report a range of negative experiences in the workplace. The current research reports the results from a large, national exploratory study on the experiences of autistic adults in the workplace as well as their thoughts on how to improve these experiences for the autism community. In particular, participants reported challenges with the interviewing process, which requires very specific and consistent social behaviors, as well as with feeling comfortable disclosing one's autistic status at work. These challenges are often connected with public misperceptions about autism. The article discusses these challenges as well as strategies to improve autism-related understanding and awareness in the workplace. This work is critical to conversations about diversity in the workplace.

  20. Women's employment transitions around child bearing. (United States)

    Dex, S; Joshi, H; Macran, S; Mcculloch, A


    Women's increasing participation in the labor force since the 1950s demands that knowledge about their labor supply needs to keep pace with the changing world. One important change has occurred among mothers of small children, they are increasingly working for pay in successive generations, as the break in their employment has become increasingly shorter. Legislation was enacted in the UK to outlaw unequal pay and discrimination in employment on the basis of gender, while statutory maternity leave was introduced in 1976 and extended in 1986. The proportion of mothers taking maternity leave has since increased, as has full-time employment among mothers. The authors examine the transitions into and out of paid work which women make after childbirth, helping to determine whether recent generations of mothers have benefitted from the policy changes, whether all have benefitted equally, and whether any effects persist beyond the period around the first childbirth. Study data are drawn from the fifth sweep of the National Child Development Study (NCDS) 1958 birth cohort at age 33. The experiences of mothers in the 1958 generation suggests that women have begun to benefit from the equal opportunities provisions enacted in Britain during the 1970s. The age of the youngest child is the most important determinant of women's participation over the preschool years, and relatively better educated women have the highest degree of continuity in employment across childbirth.

  1. What will happen to retirement income for 401(k) participants after the market decline? (United States)

    VanDerhei, Jack


    This paper uses administrative data from millions of 401(k) participants dating back to 1996 as well as several simulation models to determine 401(k) plans' susceptibility to several alleged limitations as well as its potential for significant retirement wealth accumulation for employees working for employers who have chosen to sponsor these plans. What will happen to 401(k) participants after the 2008 market decline will be largely determined by the extent to which the features of automatic enrollment, automatic escalation of contributions, and automatic investment are allowed to play out. Simulation results suggest that the first two features will significantly improve retirement wealth for the lowest-income quartiles going forward, and the third feature (primarily target-date funds) suggest that a large percentage of those on the verge of retirement would benefit significantly by a reduction of equity concentrations to a more age-appropriate level.

  2. Employed Mexican women as mothers and partners: valued, empowered and overloaded. (United States)

    Meleis, A I; Douglas, M K; Eribes, C; Shih, F; Messias, D K


    This study was designed to explore the daily lived experiences of a group of employed, low-income Mexican women in their maternal and spousal roles. The participants were 41 auxiliary nurses recruited from two large urban hospitals in Mexico. Data were collected through the Women's Roles Interview Protocol (WRIP), which solicited the participants' perceptions of the satisfaction and stresses they experienced in their roles as mothers and spouses, and their descriptions of the coping strategies and the resources they used to deal with stressful life experiences related to these roles. Data analysis consisted of a qualitative thematic analysis of the narrative responses to open-ended questions in the WRIP. Satisfying aspects of the maternal and spousal roles, as identified by the participants, included giving to and receiving from their children and being valued and supported by their partners. Spousal approval of their work was also satisfying. These employed mothers, however, experienced many stressful aspects of functioning in multiple roles, including lack of resources, being absent from their children, self-doubt about their maternal role functioning, role overload and spousal absences. The women coped by juggling priorities and utilizing family resources. From the data analysis, the investigators developed a conceptual framework for understanding these women's experiences with parenting and marriage. The centrality of the family, a sense of value and empowerment as women in maternal and spousal roles, and the reality of role overload are discussed within the Mexican culture context of machismo, its female counterpart hembrismo, and family life. Implications for women's health are framed within a context of family and work.

  3. Employment protection in Dutch collective labour agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, T.


    The Dutch system of employment protection is often perceived as too strict for workers on permanent contracts, because of the large procedural inconveniences, difficulty of dismissal and high severance pay. It is suggested that the system of employment protection lowers labour market flexibility by

  4. Participative management in health care services. (United States)

    Muller, M


    The need and demand for the highest-quality management of all health care delivery activities requires a participative management approach. The purpose with this article is to explore the process of participative management, to generate and describe a model for such management, focusing mainly on the process of participative management, and to formulate guidelines for operationalization of the procedure. An exploratory, descriptive and theory-generating research design is pursued. After a brief literature review, inductive reasoning is mainly employed to identify and define central concepts, followed by the formulation of a few applicable statements and guidelines. Participative management is viewed as a process of that constitutes the elements of dynamic interactive decision-making and problem-solving, shared governance, empowerment, organisational transformation, and dynamic communication within the health care organisation. The scientific method of assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation is utilised throughout the process of participative management. A continuum of interactive decision-making and problem-solving is described, the different role-players involved, as well as the levels of interactive decision-making and problem-solving. The most appropriate decision-making strategy should be employed in pro-active and reactive decision-making. Applicable principles and assumptions in each element of participative management is described. It is recommended that this proposed model for participative management be refined by means of a literature control, interactive dialogue with experts and a model case description or participative management, to ensure the trustworthiness of this research.

  5. Using Mechanical Turk to recruit participants for internet intervention research: experience from recruitment for four trials targeting hazardous alcohol consumption. (United States)

    Cunningham, John A; Godinho, Alexandra; Kushnir, Vladyslav


    Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is an online portal operated by Amazon where 'requesters' (individuals or businesses) can submit jobs for 'workers.' MTurk is used extensively by academics as a quick and cheap means of collecting questionnaire data, including information on alcohol consumption, from a diverse sample of participants. We tested the feasibility of recruiting for alcohol Internet intervention trials through MTurk. Participants, 18 years or older, who drank at least weekly were recruited for four intervention trials (combined sample size, N = 11,107). The same basic recruitment strategy was employed for each trial - invite participants to complete a survey about alcohol consumption (less than 15 min in length, US$1.50 payment), identify eligible participants who drank in a hazardous fashion, invite those eligible to complete a follow-up survey ($10 payment), randomize participants to be sent or not sent information to access an online intervention for hazardous alcohol use. Procedures where put in place to optimize the chances that participants could only complete the baseline survey once. There was a substantially slower rate of recruitment by the fourth trial compared to the earlier trials. Demographic characteristics also varied across trials (age, sex, employment and marital status). Patterns of alcohol consumption, while displaying some differences, did not appear to vary in a linear fashion between trials. It is possible to recruit large (but not inexhaustible) numbers of people who drink in a hazardous fashion. Issues for online intervention research when employing this sample are discussed.

  6. Leisure Education in Supported Employment. (United States)

    Employment Opportunities, Inc., Raleigh, NC.

    This manual provides a leisure education program for individuals with disabilities, to facilitate leisure functioning in their homes and communities. The program is first introduced to participants and families upon admission into supported employment and is designed to be facilitated by a training specialist or job coach. The program can be…

  7. Employer-sponsored pension plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac-Antić Tatjana N.


    Full Text Available Apart from pension plans within social insurance, in developed pension systems there are also available to individuals schemes which may to a large extent ensure a significant part of their total pension. Among them are the following: employer-sponsored pension plans or individual pension plans. The most widely used employer-sponsored pension plan in the USA is 401(k, in which both the employer and the employee contribute to the financing of the pension. These contributions as well as the return to their investment have a preferential tax treatment, i.e. do not enter a tax base. The funds are taxed only when drawn from the account in the form of a pension. This paper aims to present the functioning of 401(k pension plan as the most widely used employer sponsored pension plan in the USA, which is likely, in a modified form, to have an important place within our future reformed pension insurance system.

  8. Participation of the public in the licensing of large-scale projects with environmental impact - theoretical framework and project conceptual outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechmann, G.; Gloede, F.


    The paper discusses the dimensions and environmental impacts of large-scale projects, and public participation as an element of institutionalized problem management. The legal protection functions, the administrative and socio-political functions are subsumed under a concept of function which defines a function as a synthesis of a variety of possibilities, so that different 'achievements' are expected from public participation, depending on the reference system chosen for comparison. The paper explains the purpose of the examination of public participation and its functions, the design of analytical procedure which covers the three main stages of 'input, legal procedure, output', and instruments and aspects such as interdisciplinarity, representativity, comparison, relation between empirical research and the principles of the law. (HSCH) [de

  9. Clinical and cognitive correlates of employment among patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radzi Rozhan SM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gainful employment is one major area of functioning which is becoming an important goal in psychiatric rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia. Studies in western countries are pointing to evidence that certain sociodemographic and clinical factors may contribute to employment outcomes in this group of people. However, the area is still largely unexplored in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to examine the sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive correlates of employment status among patients with Schizophrenia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. All participants who fulfilled the requirements of the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled. Study instruments included a demographic data questionnaire, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, Trail Making Tests, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and Digit Span. Bivariate analyses were done using chi-square for categorical data and t-test for continuous data and multiple logistic regression analysis was done to identify predictors of employment status. Results A total of 95 participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled into the study. Among the sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive variables studied marital status, educational level, mean scores of negative symptoms, Digit Span and RAVLT and Trail Making Tests were found to show significant association with employment status on bivariate analyses. However, when entered into a logistic regression model, only cognitive variables ie. Trail A and B, Digit Span and RAVLT were significant predictors of employment status. Conclusions The results from this study support the role of cognitive function, particularly, attention, working memory and executive functioning on attaining and maintaining employment in persons with schizophrenia as measured by the RAVLT, Digit Span and Trail Making Tests. These findings may act as preliminary evidence suggesting the

  10. Self-employment among male immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    This paper investigates whether or not the self-employment choice is different among ethnic Danish men and male immigrants from less developed countries. The main issue is to determine whether or not the large incidence of self-employment among immigrants can be explained by past difficulties...

  11. Impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (United States)

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila


    Objective To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers’ employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. Setting The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Participants Mothers of infants employment compromises infant feeding and care’, ‘caregivers’ inability to substitute mothers’ care’, ‘compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA’ and ‘employment as disempowering’. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. Conclusions This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers’ employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers’ employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions. PMID:24694624

  12. The role of work related self-efficacy in supported employment for people living with serious mental illnesses. (United States)

    Waynor, William R; Gill, Kenneth J; Gao, Ni


    This study tested whether higher work-related self-efficacy would predict the achievement of competitive employment in supported employment (SE) programs. N = 105 individuals were recruited from 5 state-funded SE programs in a Northeastern state. Participants were required to be unemployed and seeking employment to be eligible to enter the study. Research staff met with the individuals at baseline and collected demographic information and data on self-efficacy and psychiatric symptoms. For the follow-up assessment at 6 months, data were collected on participants, self-efficacy, psychiatric symptoms, and employment activity. Thirty-eight percent of the participants achieved competitive employment at the 6-month follow-up. However, self-efficacy was not a positive predictor of competitive employment. Surprisingly, 1 of the subscales, work-related social skills self-efficacy, was negatively associated with employment. These findings suggest that self-efficacy is not a predictor of competitive employment for individuals living with serious mental illness and receiving supported employment services. It appears that SE can be helpful for participants with a range of self-efficacy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Prevalence and incidence of memory complaints in employed compared to non-employed aged 55-64 years and the role of employment characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Rijs

    Full Text Available To examine the association of employment status and characteristics with prevalent and incident memory complaints (MC in 55-64-year-olds.Subjects were participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA. Respondents with baseline data were selected to examine the association of employment status (n = 1525 and employment characteristics (n = 1071 with prevalent MC (i.e., MC at baseline. Respondents without MC at baseline were selected to examine the association of employment (n = 526 and employment characteristics (n = 379; working hours, job prestige, job level, psychological job demands, iso-strain with incident MC (i.e., no MC at baseline and MC at three-year follow-up. Associations were adjusted for relevant covariates (demographics, memory performance, physical health, mental health, personality traits. Logistic regression was applied. Data were weighed according to gender and age of the Dutch population.At baseline 20.5% reported MC. At three-year follow-up, 15.4% had incident MC. No associations were found between employment status and MC. Adjusted analysis revealed that individuals with high occupational cognitive demands were more likely to have prevalent MC.Middle-aged workers are equally as likely to experience MC as non-working age-peers. Among workers, those with cognitively demanding work were more likely to experience MC, independent of memory performance. Memory decline due to ageing may be noticed sooner in 55-64-year-olds performing cognitively demanding work.

  14. 5 CFR 6701.106 - Prior approval for outside employment. (United States)


    ... STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION § 6701.106 Prior approval... to be performed; (4) The name and address of the prospective outside employer for which work will be... affects the outside employer and will disqualify himself from future participation in matters that could...

  15. Practices participating in a dental PBRN have substantial and advantageous diversity even though as a group they have much in common with dentists at large

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Rindal, D Brad


    , their importance is even further elevated. Our objective was to determine whether we met a key objective for The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN): to recruit a diverse range of practitioner-investigators interested in doing DPBRN studies. METHODS: DPBRN participants completed an enrollment...... DPBRN-participating dentists, their practices, and their patient populations. CONCLUSION: Although as a group, participants have much in common with practices at large; their substantial diversity offers important advantages, such as being able to evaluate how practice differences may affect treatment...... outcomes, while simultaneously offering generalizability to dentists at large. This should help foster knowledge transfer in both the research-to-practice and practice-to-research directions....

  16. Employer-sponsored long-term care insurance: best practices for increasing sponsorship. (United States)

    Pincus, J


    Behind the enthusiasm of policymakers for long-term care (LTC) insurance is the belief that increased ownership of private LTC insurance will reduce the government's future liability for financing the nation's LTC needs, currently projected by the Congressional Budget Office to increase by 2.6 percent annually between 2000 and 2040. Some observers say that sustained economic growth could keep these increased expenditures at the same share of total GDP; others argue that current federal expenditure trends will become unsustainable without large tax increases. The potential of the employer-sponsored group LTC market to stave off a national LTC financing crisis has recently started to receive popular notice in the news media. However, for the potential of the group LTC market to be realized, there must be widespread employer sponsorship of group LTC plans and significant participation levels among eligible employees in these plans. The present analysis of industry data estimates the LTC plan sponsorship rate for all U.S. employers with 10 or more employees at 0.2 percent. The sponsorship rate among large employers is significantly higher (8.7 percent). The greatest growth opportunities are projected to lie in the smaller employer market, because it is enormous and virtually untapped. Nonsponsors cite a variety of barriers to employer sponsorship of LTC plans. For many nonsponsors, the most important obstacles are the intrinsic characteristics of their work forces: employees are too young, transient, part-time, and/or low-income to be suitable for LTC insurance. For many others, lack of awareness and low priority are the primary obstacles. Because group LTC insurance has been widely available for only 10 years, many benefits managers view it as "too new and untested." Prior to the passage of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), in August 1996, the tax treatment of long-term care insurance premiums was unclear because Congress had not

  17. Small employers and the challenge of sponsoring a retirement plan: results of the 1998 Small Employer Retirement Survey. (United States)

    Yakoboski, P; Ostuw, P


    Forty-two million individuals work for small employers; 9 million are participating in an employment-based retirement plan, while 33 million are not participating in a plan. This Issue Brief examines the barriers that prevent small employers from sponsoring a retirement plan, their level of knowledge about plans, and changes that might lead to plan sponsorship. It also examines the motivations of small employers that sponsor retirement plans. Small employers identify three main reasons for not offering a plan: employees' preferences for wages and/or other benefits, administrative costs, and uncertain revenue that makes it difficult to commit to a plan. Small employers without plans report being familiar with 401(k) and profit-sharing plans, but little else. Forty-seven percent report never having heard of the savings incentive match plan for employees (SIMPLE), and 55 percent report never having heard of simplified employee pensions (SEPs). There is apparent misunderstanding about retirement plans among small employers that do not sponsor one, especially with regard to costs. For example, 35 percent do not know that a plan can be set up for less than $2,000. What changes would lead to serious consideration of retirement plan sponsorship? In order of reported importance: increased company profits (66 percent), a business tax credit (64 percent), reduced administrative requirements (50 percent), demand from employees (49 percent), allowing key executives to save more in the plan (49 percent), and easing, i.e., lengthening, of vesting requirements (40 percent). Many small employers that sponsor a retirement plan cite business reasons among their motivations. Sixty-eight percent cite a "positive effect on employee attitude and performance" as a major reason for offering a plan. Fifty-six percent cite a "competitive advantage in employee recruitment and retention" as a major reason. Small employers with a retirement plan report direct benefits from sponsorship, but many

  18. Off-Farm Employment and Economic Crisis: Evidence from Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Giannakis


    Full Text Available Off-farm employment is an important strategy for complementing farm household income and maintaining rural livelihoods. A multilevel logistic regression model was applied to investigate the effect of farm-level and regional-level factors on off-farm employment in Cyprus during the recent economic crisis period. The performance of nonfarm sectors positively affects off-farm employment; a one-percent increase in the share of the secondary and tertiary sector employment increases the likelihood of off-farm work by 9.5 times. The importance of location was also identified. Farm households located in rural areas are 70% less likely to engage in off-farm work than households located in urban areas. The positive effect of educational attainment and the negative effect of farm training confirmed the importance of human capital characteristics on off-farm labour participation. Farm structural factors are also significant determinants of off-farm employment. A one-hectare increase in the farm size decreases the odds of off-farm labour participation by 50%. Operators of crop farming holdings are 4.2 times more likely to work off the farm than operators of livestock and mixed-farming holdings. The results reveal the importance of adopting a multilevel and integrated approach for the analysis of off-farm employment.

  19. A New Concept of Full Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.


    The target of full employment depends upon the goals regarding labour force participation rates, the length of the work week and frictional unemployment. Although nearly all social groups agree that stronger economic growth would contribute most to solving the unemployment problem, the prospects for

  20. 10 CFR 1040.14 - Covered employment. (United States)


    ..., upgrading, demotion or transfer, training, participation in upward mobility projects, rates of pay or other...) To reduce the unemployment of individuals or to help them through employment to meet subsistence... absorbed in the competitive labor market. The requirements applicable to construction under any such...

  1. Employment Maintenance and Intimate Partner Violence. (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea; Lee, Rebecca C; Martsolf, Donna S; Maler, Jeff


    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the United States. Negative outcomes of IPV affect women's attainment and maintenance of employment. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical framework that described and explained the process by which women who have experienced IPV attain and maintain employment. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze interviews of 34 women who had experienced IPV. Analysis suggested that women who had experienced IPV could attain employment; however, they had difficulty maintaining employment. Entanglement of work and IPV was experienced by all 34 participants because of the perpetrator controlling their appearance, sabotaging their work, interfering with their work, or controlling their finances. Some women described ways in which they disentangled work from IPV through a dynamic unraveling process, with periods of re-entanglement, resulting in job security and satisfaction. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Employment-Based Abstinence Reinforcement as a Maintenance Intervention for the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence: A Randomized Controlled Trial (United States)

    DeFulio, Anthony; Donlin, Wendy D.; Wong, Conrad J.; Silverman, Kenneth


    Context: Due to the chronic nature of cocaine dependence, long-term maintenance treatments may be required to sustain abstinence. Abstinence reinforcement is among the most effective means of initiating cocaine abstinence. Practical and effective means of maintaining abstinence reinforcement programs over time are needed. Objective: Determine whether employment-based abstinence reinforcement can be an effective long-term maintenance intervention for cocaine dependence. Design: Participants (N=128) were enrolled in a 6-month job skills training and abstinence initiation program. Participants who initiated abstinence, attended regularly, and developed needed job skills during the first six months were hired as operators in a data entry business and randomly assigned to an employment only (Control, n = 24) or abstinence-contingent employment (n = 27) group. Setting: A nonprofit data entry business. Participants: Unemployed welfare recipients who persistently used cocaine while enrolled in methadone treatment in Baltimore. Intervention: Abstinence-contingent employment participants received one year of employment-based contingency management, in which access to employment was contingent on provision drug-free urine samples under routine and then random drug testing. If a participant provided drug-positive urine or failed to provide a mandatory sample, then that participant received a temporary reduction in pay and could not work until urinalysis confirmed recent abstinence. Main Outcome Measure: Cocaine-negative urine samples at monthly assessments across one year of employment. Results: During the one-year of employment, abstinence-contingent employment participants provided significantly more cocaine-negative urine samples than employment only participants (79.3% and 50.7%, respectively; p = 0.004, OR = 3.73, 95% CI = 1.60 – 8.69). Conclusions: Employment-based abstinence reinforcement that includes random drug testing is effective as a long-term maintenance

  3. Women's experiences of developing musculoskeletal diseases: employment challenges and policy recommendations. (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A


    To answer three specific questions: (i) How do women experience the workplace after the onset of a musculoskeletal disease; (ii) What employment policy and programme suggestions can they offer for ways to better support chronically ill women in their abilities to maintain workforce participation; and (iii) How are these women's employment policy and programme recommendations informed by their own lived experiences and desires? In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 women who had developed musculoskeletal diseases while involved in the labour market. Data were coded and analysed thematically. Participants identified three common workplace barriers experienced and three types of workplace accommodations commonly requested. They offered four specific employment policy and programme recommendations for ways to better support women who develop musculoskeletal diseases in maintaining labour market participation. It is found that their employment policy and programme recommendations are informed by their own experiences in the workplace and desires for being supported in maintaining involvement in paid labour. Creating employment programmes and policies that support chronically ill women in their attempts to remain involved in the workforce based on how much paid labour they are able to perform and where they are best able to work is of the utmost importance.

  4. Temporary employment in Russia: why mostly men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Karabchuk


    Full Text Available The paper deals with temporary employment in the Russian labour market. The main focus is the gender difference regarding determinants of temporary employment. Unlike most European countries, where women are more likely to have temporary work, in Russia men predominantly have this status, comparable to the situation in many developing countries. This paper seeks to understand why this is the case. The household survey of NOBUS (held in 2003 by State Statistical Centre with World Bank participation is used to answer this question: the results suggest that gender differences in temporary employment do exist, and that the main factors that explain these differences are education, and marital status.

  5. Financial Incentives, Workplace Wellness Program Participation, and Utilization of Health Care Services and Spending. (United States)

    Fronstin, Paul; Roebuck, M Christopher


    This paper analyzes data from a large employer that enhanced financial incentives to encourage participation in its workplace wellness programs. It examines, first, the effect of financial incentives on wellness program participation, and second, it estimates the impact of wellness program participation on utilization of health care services and spending. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA) allows employers to provide financial incentives of as much as 30 percent of the total cost of coverage when tied to participation in a wellness program. Participation in health risk assessments (HRAs) increased by 50 percentage points among members of unions that bargained in the incentive, and increased 22 percentage points among non-union employees. Participation in the biometric screening program increased 55 percentage points when financial incentives were provided. Biometric screenings led to an average increase of 0.31 annual prescription drug fills, with related spending higher by $56 per member per year. Otherwise, no significant effects of participation in HRAs or biometric screenings on utilization of health care services and spending were found. The largest increase in medication utilization as a result of biometric screening was for statins, which are widely used to treat high cholesterol. This therapeutic class accounted for one-sixth of the overall increase in prescription drug utilization. Second were antidepressants, followed by ACE inhibitors (for hypertension), and thyroid hormones (for hypothyroidism). Biometric screening also led to significantly higher utilization of biologic response modifiers and immunosuppressants. These specialty medications are used to treat autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, and are relatively expensive compared with non-specialty medications. The added spending associated with the combined increase in fills of 0.02 was $27 per member per year--about one-half of the

  6. Minding Their Business: What Employers Look for in School-to-Career Programs. (United States)

    Kazis, Richard


    Besides providing work experiences, employers can help educators improve student performance by influencing public-policy decisions and changing their own employment policies. Employers' reasons for participating in work-based-learning programs include philanthropic interest, particular labor needs, and desire to improve a community's labor…

  7. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany]. (United States)

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M


    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" ( investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the

  8. Employer`s contributions to the training of professional statisticians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustagi, J.S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Statistics Dept.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section]|[Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC (United States)


    Statistical science provides important techniques for decision making in a large variety of fields of human endeavor mainly through statistical practice. According to Deming (1965), ``Statistical practice is mostly a collaborative venture between (professional) statisticians and experts in subject-matter (area).`` The professional statistician must be properly trained in areas of statistical science most suited to the discipline in which the applications are made. Due to a large variety of applications. The education of a professional statistician by universities can only be very general. Higher education provides the theoretical basis of statistical science whereas the specific expertise needed by the professional statistician is given by the application areas. In this paper, the authors review the approach of academic programs which are geared towards applications and discuss some of the innovative strategies for preparing statisticians as consultants in industry and business. A survey (census) of statisticians at the national laboratories of the US Department of Energy was made to assess their training by universities and to get a broad view of additional training which has brought them to their present professional status. A particular interest is the extent to which employers have contributed to the training of statisticians. A few recommendations are made which may serve to improve the future training of statisticians for applied collaborative work by universities and employers.

  9. Digital Nomads: Employment in the Online Gig Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly Yuen Thompson


    Full Text Available In 1997, Tsugio Makimoto and David Manners published their future-looking manifesto Digital Nomad that, decades later, would present as a manifesto for a lifestyle movement. At the time, businesses and the US government were interested in looking at tele-commuting, productivity, and work-family balance. Critiques of a neoliberal economy provide insight into understanding the context of freelance and online, piecemeal employment. This article examines the types of employment that digital nomads engage in, based on in-depth interviews with thirty-eight self-identified digital nomads. The participants mostly originate from wealthy, industrialized nations, and have many class privileges, but are underemployed compared to what their socio-economic status would historically suggest. As most participants are in the Millennial Generation, an overview of the shifting socio-economic status of this age-cohort is examined in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and the European Union – notably their high educational achievements and increasingly precarious employment status. Many of the nomads were working part-time with their own micro-business, with few able to maintain full-time employment. Few have benefits such as healthcare, retirement, unemployment insurance, or family leave. While “freedom” is touted as the benefit of gig-work, by both industry management and digital nomad enthusiasts, this lifestyle marks a shift towards precarious employment – itself not a basis for economic freedom, nor security.

  10. Using Mechanical Turk to recruit participants for internet intervention research: experience from recruitment for four trials targeting hazardous alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Cunningham


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical Turk (MTurk is an online portal operated by Amazon where ‘requesters’ (individuals or businesses can submit jobs for ‘workers.’ MTurk is used extensively by academics as a quick and cheap means of collecting questionnaire data, including information on alcohol consumption, from a diverse sample of participants. We tested the feasibility of recruiting for alcohol Internet intervention trials through MTurk. Methods Participants, 18 years or older, who drank at least weekly were recruited for four intervention trials (combined sample size, N = 11,107. The same basic recruitment strategy was employed for each trial – invite participants to complete a survey about alcohol consumption (less than 15 min in length, US$1.50 payment, identify eligible participants who drank in a hazardous fashion, invite those eligible to complete a follow-up survey ($10 payment, randomize participants to be sent or not sent information to access an online intervention for hazardous alcohol use. Procedures where put in place to optimize the chances that participants could only complete the baseline survey once. Results There was a substantially slower rate of recruitment by the fourth trial compared to the earlier trials. Demographic characteristics also varied across trials (age, sex, employment and marital status. Patterns of alcohol consumption, while displaying some differences, did not appear to vary in a linear fashion between trials. Conclusions It is possible to recruit large (but not inexhaustible numbers of people who drink in a hazardous fashion. Issues for online intervention research when employing this sample are discussed.

  11. Educational level and employment status in adults with congenital heart disease. (United States)

    Pfitzer, Constanze; Helm, Paul C; Rosenthal, Lisa-Maria; Walker, Christoph; Ferentzi, Hannah; Bauer, Ulrike M M; Berger, Felix; Schmitt, Katharina R L


    Purpose Through this study we aimed to assess the educational level and employment status of adults with CHD in Germany. Data were acquired from an online survey carried out in 2015 by the German National Register for Congenital Heart Defects. A total of 1458 adults with CHD participated in the survey (response rate: 37.6%). For 1198 participants, detailed medical information, such as main cardiac diagnosis and information from medical reports, was available. Of the participants surveyed (n=1198), 54.5% (n=653) were female, and the mean age was 30 years. The majority of respondents (59.4%) stated that they had high education levels and that they were currently employed (51.1%). Patients with simple CHD had significantly higher levels of education (peducation levels and the majority were employed. The association between CHD and its severity and individuals' educational attainment should be investigated more closely in future studies.

  12. Behavioral factors predicting response to employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence in methadone patients


    Holtyn, August F.; Washington, Wendy Donlin; Knealing, Todd W.; Wong, Conrad J.; Kolodner, Ken; Silverman, Kenneth


    We sought to identify behavioral factors associated with response to an employment-based intervention, in which participants had to provide drug-free urine samples to gain access to paid employment. The present secondary analysis included data from a randomized clinical trial. The trial evaluated whether employment-based reinforcement could decrease cocaine use in community methadone patients. Participants (N=56) in the trial worked in a model workplace for 4 hr every weekday and earned about...

  13. Supported Employment in Connecticut: An Examination of Integration and Wage Outcomes. (United States)

    Helms, Barbara L.; And Others


    Study of a sample of 93 individuals with disabilities participating in supported employment programs in Connecticut found that monthly wages and levels of integration increased significantly when compared to working situations prior to supported employment placement. (JDD)

  14. Family Perspectives on Integrated Employment for Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (United States)

    Gilson, Carly B.; Carter, Erik W.; Bumble, Jennifer L.; McMillan, Elise D.


    Families are essential partners in efforts to elevate the employment outcomes of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). We examined the employment-related expectations, preferences, and concerns of 673 parents and other family members of adults with IDD. Participants prioritized paid integrated employment over sheltered…

  15. Solving employment problems in the European Union: The role of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, V.


    This paper is based on a project funded under the European Commission's SAVE (Specific Actions for Vigorous Energy Efficiency) program. The project is looking at the employment implications of energy efficiency programs, using a large number of case studies throughout the nine European Union (EU) countries participating in the project. Various modeling techniques are being used to investigate policy scenarios. The EU is particularly interested in looking at employment potential of energy efficiency at the present time. Traditionally, jobs in the environmental sector have only been seen as occurring in end-of-pipe type industries, such as pollution control; but a large potential for employment opportunities has now been recognized in the energy efficiency sector. Included in the study will be a detailed discussion of the quality, as well as the quantity, of jobs created, i.e. what skill levels will be required and the types of people who would wish to undertake the work. The qualitative aspect of jobs will be looked at for their suitability for solving EU and country specific problems, such as long term unemployment of unskilled workers. This paper will present some initial results from the study and discuss the issues raised by it and by other recent work in this area. Such issues include not only the types and numbers of jobs directly created through the programs, but also indirect effects on the local, national and international economies. The negative effects, such as the reduced energy usage effect on the supply industry will also be examined

  16. Individual Placement and Support in Spinal Cord Injury: A Longitudinal Observational Study of Employment Outcomes. (United States)

    Ottomanelli, Lisa; Goetz, Lance L; Barnett, Scott D; Njoh, Eni; Dixon, Thomas M; Holmes, Sally Ann; LePage, James P; Ota, Doug; Sabharwal, Sunil; White, Kevin T


    To determine the effects of a 24-month program of Individual Placement and Support (IPS) supported employment (SE) on employment outcomes for veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI). Longitudinal, observational multisite study of a single-arm, nonrandomized cohort. SCI centers in the Veterans Health Administration (n=7). Veterans with SCI (N=213) enrolled during an episode of either inpatient hospital care (24.4%) or outpatient care (75.6%). More than half the sample (59.2%) had a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). IPS SE for 24 months. Competitive employment. Over the 24-month period, 92 of 213 IPS participants obtained competitive jobs for an overall employment rate of 43.2%. For the subsample of participants without TBI enrolled as outpatients (n=69), 36 obtained competitive jobs for an overall employment rate of 52.2%. Overall, employed participants averaged 38.2±29.7 weeks of employment, with an average time to first employment of 348.3±220.0 days. Nearly 25% of first jobs occurred within 4 to 6 months of beginning the program. Similar employment characteristics were observed in the subsample without TBI history enrolled as outpatients. Almost half of the veterans with SCI participating in the 24-month IPS program as part of their ongoing SCI care achieved competitive employment, consistent with their expressed preferences at the start of the study. Among a subsample of veterans without TBI history enrolled as outpatients, employment rates were >50%. Time to first employment was highly variable, but quite long in many instances. These findings support offering continued IPS services as part of ongoing SCI care to achieve positive employment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychological distress in Canada: the role of employment and reasons of non-employment. (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Drapeau, Aline; Beaulieu-Prévost, Dominic


    This study investigated variations in psychological distress in a large sample of the Canadian population according to employment status, occupation, work organization conditions, reasons for non-employment, stress and support outside the work environment, family situation and individual characteristics. Data came from cycle 4 (2000-1) of the Canadian National Population Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada. Multiple regression analyses, adjusted for the family situation, the level of support from the social network and the individual characteristics, were carried out on a sample of 7258 individuals aged from 18 to 65 years. Occupation, social support at work, age, self-esteem, presence of children aged five and under and social support outside of the workplace were associated with lower levels of psychological distress, while permanent and temporary disability, psychological demands in the workplace, job insecurity, female gender, and stressful financial, marital and parental situations were related to higher levels of psychological distress. Findings from this study suggest that, in terms of psychological distress, having a job is not always better than non-employment, and that specific non-employment situations associate differently with psychological distress.

  18. Behavioral factors predicting response to employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence in methadone patients. (United States)

    Holtyn, August F; Washington, Wendy Donlin; Knealing, Todd W; Wong, Conrad J; Kolodner, Ken; Silverman, Kenneth


    We sought to identify behavioral factors associated with response to an employment-based intervention, in which participants had to provide drug-free urine samples to gain access to paid employment. The present secondary analysis included data from a randomized clinical trial. The trial evaluated whether employment-based reinforcement could decrease cocaine use in community methadone patients. Participants (N=56) in the trial worked in a model workplace for 4 hr every weekday and earned about $10 per hr. After a 4-week baseline, participants were randomly assigned to an Abstinence & Work (n = 28) or Work Only (n = 28) condition and could work for an additional 26 weeks. Abstinence & Work participants had to provide cocaine-negative urine samples to work and maintain maximum pay. Work Only participants only had to work to earn pay. For Work Only participants, cocaine abstinence during baseline and the intervention period were significantly ( r s = .72, p workplace attendance was marginally correlated ( r s = .32, p = .098) with cocaine abstinence during the intervention period. Furthermore, participants who provided over 60% cocaine-negative urine samples during the intervention period (i.e., responders) had significantly higher baseline rates of opiate abstinence ( p workplace attendance ( p = .042) than non-responders. Employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence may be improved by increasing opiate abstinence and workplace attendance prior to initiating the cocaine-abstinence intervention.

  19. Arthritis and employment: an examination of behavioral coping efforts to manage workplace activity limitations. (United States)

    Gignac, Monique A M


    To examine ways in which individuals with arthritis manage their employment and health by focusing on the type and determinants of diverse behavioral coping strategies used to manage activity limitations, and to examine the relationship between coping behaviors and participation in employment. The study group comprised 492 patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. All participants were employed, and all participants were administered an in-depth, structured questionnaire. The study used an inductive approach and distinguished among 4 categories of coping behaviors as follows: adjustments to time spent on activities; receipt of help; modification of behaviors; and anticipatory coping. Fewer coping behaviors were reported at the workplace than outside of the workplace. Anticipatory coping was used most often in the workplace. Workplace activity limitations were related to increased reports of all types of coping. Women, those with more joints affected, and people expecting to remain employed reported more anticipatory coping. Expectations of continued employment were also related to modifications of activities, as was longer disease duration and discussing arthritis with one's employer. Help from others was associated with talking to an employer and positive job perceptions. Compared with work, reports of a greater number of coping behaviors used at home were associated with changes in overall work participation (e.g., absenteeism). These results expand our understanding of the experience of having a chronic illness and working and highlight the ways in which people accommodate to workplace limitations by using a variety of different behavioral coping efforts to remain employed.

  20. Mechanisms of public participation in siting and licensing of large industrial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymond, J.F.


    When we look at nuclear facilities in the perspective of the public participation we search for common points with other industrial plants of great risks. In most of countries nuclear facilities are treated in the perspective of public participation, this participation supposes a previous sufficient information; the public reaction is an inverse function of confidence in the authorities to manage that kind of problems

  1. Employment and Training for America's Homeless: Best Practices Guide. (United States)

    Beck, Susan Kessler; Trutko, John W.; Isbell, Kellie; Rothstein, Frances; Barnow, Burt S.

    This document is a how-to guide to help employment and training agencies tailor their delivery systems to be more effective in training, placing, and retaining homeless individuals in gainful employment. The guide is written from the perspective of an employment and training agency and based largely on the experiences of 63 organizations from…

  2. Recruiting Black Americans in a Large Cohort Study: The Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) Design, Methods and Participant Characteristics (United States)

    Herring, R. Patti; Butler, Terry; Hall, Sonja; Montgomery, Susanne B.; Fraser, Gary E.


    Objective The goal of the prospective Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) was to examine the relationship between diet and risk of breast, prostate and colon cancers in Black and White participants. This paper describes the study design, recruitment methods, response rates, and characteristics of Blacks in the AHS-2, thus providing insights about effective strategies to recruit Blacks to participate in research studies. Design We designed a church-based recruitment model and trained local recruiters who used various strategies to recruit participants in their churches. Participants completed a 50-page self-administered dietary and lifestyle questionnaire. Participants Participants are Black Seventh-day Adventists, aged 30–109 years, and members of 1,209 Black churches throughout the United States and Canada. Results Approximately 48,328 Blacks from an estimated target group of over 90,000 signed up for the study and 25,087 completed the questionnaire, comprising about 26% of the larger 97,000 AHS-2-member cohort. Participants were diverse in age, geographic location, education, and income. Seventy percent were female with a median age of 59 years. Conclusion In spite of many recruitment challenges and barriers, we successfully recruited a large cohort whose data should provide some answers as to why Blacks have poorer health outcomes than several other ethnic groups, and help explain existing health disparities. PMID:21305834

  3. Low-wage maternal employment and parenting style. (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P; Bentler, Peter M; Franke, Todd M


    This three-year longitudinal study investigated whether low-wage employment was associated with improved psychological and parenting outcomes in a sample of 178 single mothers who were employed and unemployed current and former welfare recipients both before and subsequent to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. Participation in employment predicted fewer depressive symptoms and less negative parenting style over time. Employment at time 1 was associated with a reduced likelihood of receiving welfare in the interim between times 1 and 2, less financial strain at time 2, and (through these) a decrease in mothers' depressive symptoms at time 2. Fewer depressive symptoms at time 2, in turn, predicted less negative parenting style, net of the mothers' earlier demographic, mental health, and parenting characteristics. Mothers with higher education attainment were more likely to be employed (and to earn more) at both time points. Implications of these findings for welfare policies are discussed.

  4. The impact of microcredit on self-employment profits in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Pham, T.T.T.


    This study examines the impact of microcredit on household self-employment profits in Vietnam. For two indicators of credit participation – a dichotomous participation dummy and the accumulated amount of microcredit received per household – the analysis reveals a positive effect on household

  5. The impact of microcredit on self-employment profits in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Robert; Thi Thu Tra Pham, [No Value


    This study examines the impact of microcredit on household self-employment profits in Vietnam. For two indicators of credit participation a dichotomous participation dummy and the accumulated amount of microcredit received per household the analysis reveals a positive effect on household profits.

  6. Recruiting black Americans in a large cohort study: the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) design, methods and participant characteristics. (United States)

    Herring, R Patti; Butler, Terry; Hall, Sonja; Montgomery, Susanne B; Fraser, Gary E


    The goal of the prospective Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) was to examine the relationship between diet and risk of breast, prostate and colon cancers in Black and White participants. This paper describes the study design, recruitment methods, response rates, and characteristics of Blacks in the AHS-2, thus providing insights about effective strategies to recruit Blacks to participate in research studies. We designed a church-based recruitment model and trained local recruiters who used various strategies to recruit participants in their churches. Participants completed a 50-page self-administered dietary and lifestyle questionnaire. Participants are Black Seventh-day Adventists, aged 30-109 years, and members of 1,209 Black churches throughout the United States and Canada. Approximately 48,328 Blacks from an estimated target group of over 90,000 signed up for the study and 25,087 completed the questionnaire, comprising about 26% of the larger 97,000 AHS-2-member cohort. Participants were diverse in age, geographic location, education, and income. Seventy percent were female with a median age of 59 years. In spite of many recruitment challenges and barriers, we successfully recruited a large cohort whose data should provide some answers as to why Blacks have poorer health outcomes than several other ethnic groups, and help explain existing health disparities.

  7. Commitment to an Entrepreneurship Training Programme for Self-Employed Entrepreneurs, and Learning from Participation (United States)

    Nieminen, Lenita; Hytti, Ulla


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how self-employed entrepreneurs commit themselves to an entrepreneurship training programme and how such commitment relates to their perceptions of learning. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected through qualitative, inductive methods by interviewing and observing six entrepreneurs…

  8. Financial Participation of Employees in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darskuviené, Valdoné; Hanisch, Stefan; Mygind, Niels


    Participation of employees in decision-making in Lithuanian companies has its roots in trade union movement as well as in the practice of managing companies under Soviet rule. After Lithuania regained independence, employee ownership was used to facilitate privatization. A notable success...... as participation in decision-making - is not well developed and does not provide for stronger incentives. The solution of current employment and social problems by the Government, ruling parties as well as social partners is not associated with a higher level of participation of employees. Financial participation...... is viewed mainly as a way of employee motivation as initiated by managers and current owners of companies....

  9. Patriarchy, religion and women's political participation in Kwara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the relationship between patriarchy and religion and how they impact on women's political participation in Kwara State. The Gender and Development (GAD) approach is employed to examine the impact of social construct on women's political participation. Primary and secondary data were utilized for ...

  10. Social participation after successful kidney transplantation


    Van der Mei, Sijrike F.; Van Sonderen, Eric L. P.; Van Son, Willem J.; De Jong, Paul E.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.


    Purpose. To explore and describe the degree of social participation after kidney transplantation and to examine associated factors. Method. A cross-sectional study on 239 adult patients 1-7.3 years after kidney transplantation was performed via in-home interviews on participation in obligatory activities (i.e., employment, education, household tasks) and leisure activities (avolunteer work, assisting others, recreation, sports, clubs/associations, socializing, going out). Results. Kidney tran...

  11. Duality of female employment in Pakistan. (United States)

    Kazi, S; Raza, B


    The trends in the level and pattern of women's employment in Pakistan in terms of supply and demand factors which influence women's participation in the labor market are discussed. Women's labor participation is underestimated in official sources such as the Labor Force Survey (LFS) and the Population Census. Figures which were obtained from micro level surveys and the Agricultural Census, show the duality of employment at the top and bottom socioeconomically. LFS data show the female share of the professional work force to have risen from 15.5% to 18.3% between 1984-95 and 1987-88, which translates to 33% of teachers and 25% of physicians being women. Urban female participation rates have increased only slightly from 3 to 5% between 1971 and 72 and 1987-88, based on LFS data, while informal sector surveys have shown an increase of workers who are women who have never worked before in the formal sector. In manufacturing, the female work force remains low at 5% in factories in the Punjab and Sindh, but only 20% were in regular employment compared with 50% of men. Agricultural work on the family farm has increased from 35% in 1972 and 42% in 1980. Increases are also shown in more recent LF surveys. Constraints on both male and female employment are the recent (1978-79 and 1986-87) shift to capital investment in agriculture with tubewells and tractors and in manufacturing. Women's movement into agriculture may be precipitated by men's out migration to urban areas or the Gulf region into other nonfarm occupations. In manufacturing there is exploitation of workers through low overhead costs of temporary or part time help. Supply constraints for women involve cultural restrictions, household responsibilities, and low levels of education and skills. Women enter the work force out of financial need. Data on female-headed households are scarce, but a Karachi survey finds that most female-headed households belong to the poorest strata and women work when family size

  12. Seeking and securing work: Individual-level predictors of employment of psychiatric survivors. (United States)

    Hall, Peter V; Montgomery, Phyllis; Davie, Samantha; Dickins, Kevin; Forchuk, Cheryl; Jeng, Momodou S; Kersey, Melissa; Meier, Amanda; Lahey, Pam; Rudnick, Abraham; Solomon, Michelle; Warner, Laura


    For people with mental illness (psychiatric survivors), seeking and securing employment involves personal, social, and environmental factors. In Canada, psychiatric survivors are under-represented in the workforce, and services can help by tailoring their supports to help make the most gains in employment. Determine whether individual socio-demographic and health factors predict seeking and securing employment among psychiatric survivors. A community sample of psychiatric survivors from a Southwestern Ontario region participated in this study. Stepwise logistic regression was used to analyze data from 363 participants who had completed a variety of questionnaires to ascertain individual characteristics and employment outcomes. Health service utilization, living circumstances, homelessness, substance use issues, general health, social integration, ethnicity, having children under 18, and being a student emerged as significant predictors of seeking and securing work. Other commonly accepted human capital indicators, such as education and age, were not predictive of employment search behavior and outcomes. Individual characteristics that predict employment search and success outcomes for psychiatric survivors include aspects related to treatment and living circumstances, which stands in contrast to predictors of employment for the general population, suggesting that employment support services may need to be tailored to psychiatric survivors specifically.

  13. The Impact of Employer Branding on Employees: The Role of Employment Offering in the Prediction of Their Affective Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothée Hanin


    Full Text Available Most studies dedicated to the examination of employer branding in industrial/ organisational psychology investigated it using samples of applicants. The objective of the present research was to study the influence of the employer branding of a company on its employees’ attitudes. More precisely, we examined the interactive effect of the employment offering as portrayed by organisational communications and the employment experience as lived by employees on their affective commitment (AC. Furthermore, we analysed the mechanisms underlying these relationships, i.e. perceived organisational support (POS and psychological contract violation (PCV. One-hundred eighty-six department managers of a large multinational retailing company involved in employer branding practices were surveyed. Results indicated that employment offering and lived employment experience interact in the prediction of both POS and PCV and this interactive effect carries over to AC. Implications of these findings for both researchers and practitioners are discussed.

  14. 22 CFR 139.7 - Qualifications for participation as an employer in the United States. (United States)


    .... employers must: (a) Provide job/training opportunities that: (1) Correspond to one of the occupational areas... assignment rotations, and/or training opportunities, which offer promotion potential if job performance is... same or similar work. (d) Agree not to petition for a change of immigration status or non-immigrant...



    Yusoff, Norhayati Mat; Zahari, Mohd Salehuddin Mohd; Ahmad, Zamri; Isa, Nina Farisha; Ghani, Fatimah Abd


    The increasing participating rates of disable youth in hospitality higher career educationcan clearly be seen in many countries including Malaysia. This group has been identified as a key equity group for several years on the basis of their overall participating level, progression rates and the employments outcomes they achieve after completion their special education. This study empirically compares the barriers and constraints of employment among the young male and female hearing impaired g...

  16. Caring, Employment, and Quality of Life: Comparison of Employed and Nonemployed Mothers of Adults with Intellectual Disability (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Pu, Cheng-Yun; Kroger, Teppo; Fu, Li-yeh


    The effects of caregiving on mothers of adults with intellectual disability was examined by determining whether there are differences in quality of life and related factors between mothers with different employment status. Study participants were 302 working-age mothers who had adult children with intellectual disability based on the 2008 census…

  17. Intersections on the Road to Self-Employment: Gender, Family and Occupational Class (United States)

    Budig, Michelle J.


    Are gender differences in the effects of family structure on self-employment participation robust across different forms of self-employment? Using event history analyses of competing risks and data spanning 20 years, the author finds that women enter non-professional and non-managerial self-employment to balance work and family demands. In…

  18. Employment and Growth | Page 37 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Emploi et croissance. Language English. Read more about Can Small and Medium Enterprises Participate in Greener Production? Language English. Read more about Toward Establishing an Arab Youth Policy Research Initiative. Language English. Read more about Courts, Networks, and ...

  19. Evaluation of Stress Experienced by Emergency Telecommunications Personnel Employed in a Large Metropolitan Police Department. (United States)

    Ramey, Sandra L; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Hein, Maria; Chung, Sophia J; Anderson, Amanda A


    Emergency telecommunications personnel (ETCP) form the hub of police agencies and persistently deal with distressing situations on a daily basis, making them highly susceptible to psychological and physiological ailments. To date, few studies have examined the necessity or feasibility of implementing a resilience training intervention for ETCP. In this study, the authors assessed baseline psychological data from the ETCP of a large police department to determine the differences in baseline measures for ETCP and police officers. Participants included ETCP ages 29 to 64 years ( n = 19). Results showed that ETCP self-reported greater levels of psychological stress compared with police officers ( p < .05) for the majority of measures; ETCP experience excessive levels of stress and greater prevalence of chronic disease. Consideration should be given to piloting resilience interventions within this group to manage stress; improve health, performance, and decision making; and decrease the prevalence of chronic disease.


    Rietveld, Cornelius A; van Kippersluis, Hans; Thurik, A Roy


    The self-employed are often reported to be healthier than wageworkers; however, the cause of this health difference is largely unknown. The longitudinal nature of the US Health and Retirement Study allows us to gauge the plausibility of two competing explanations for this difference: a contextual effect of self-employment on health (benefit effect), or a health-related selection of individuals into self-employment (barrier effect). Our main finding is that the selection of comparatively healthier individuals into self-employment accounts for the positive cross-sectional difference. The results rule out a positive contextual effect of self-employment on health, and we present tentative evidence that, if anything, engaging in self-employment is bad for one's health. Given the importance of the self-employed in the economy, these findings contribute to our understanding of the vitality of the labor force. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Effect of personalised citizen assistance for social participation (APIC) on older adults' health and social participation: study protocol for a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT). (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Dubois, Marie-France; Filliatrault, Johanne; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lacasse-Bédard, Joanie; Tourigny, André; Levert, Marie-Josée; Gabaude, Catherine; Lefebvre, Hélène; Berger, Valérie; Eymard, Chantal


    The challenges of global ageing and the growing burden of chronic diseases require innovative interventions acting on health determinants like social participation. Many older adults do not have equitable opportunities to achieve full social participation, and interventions might underempower their personal and environmental resources and only reach a minority. To optimise current practices, the Accompagnement-citoyen Personnalisé d'Intégration Communautaire (APIC), an intervention demonstrated as being feasible and having positive impacts, needs further evaluation. A pragmatic multicentre, prospective, two-armed, randomised controlled trial will evaluate: (1) the short-term and long-term effects of the APIC on older adults' health, social participation, life satisfaction and healthcare services utilisation and (2) its cost-effectiveness. A total of 376 participants restricted in at least one instrumental activity of daily living and living in three large cities in the province of Quebec, Canada, will be randomly assigned to the experimental or control group using a centralised computer-generated random number sequence procedure. The experimental group will receive weekly 3-hour personalised stimulation sessions given by a trained volunteer over the first 12 months. Sessions will encourage empowerment, gradual mobilisation of personal and environmental resources and community integration. The control group will receive the publicly funded universal healthcare services available to all Quebecers. Over 2 years (baseline and 12, 18 and 24 months later), self-administered questionnaires will assess physical and mental health (primary outcome; version 2 of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, converted to SF-6D utility scores for quality-adjusted life years), social participation (Social Participation Scale) and life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Index-Z). Healthcare services utilisation will be recorded and costs of each intervention calculated. The Research

  2. Working hours, work-life conflict and health in precarious and "permanent" employment. (United States)

    Bohle, Philip; Quinlan, Michael; Kennedy, David; Williamson, Ann


    The expansion of precarious employment in OECD countries has been widely associated with negative health and safety effects. Although many shiftworkers are precariously employed, shiftwork research has concentrated on full-time workers in continuing employment. This paper examines the impact of precarious employment on working hours, work-life conflict and health by comparing casual employees to full-time, "permanent" employees working in the same occupations and workplaces. Thirty-nine convergent interviews were conducted in two five-star hotels. The participants included 26 full-time and 13 casual (temporary) employees. They ranged in age from 19 to 61 years and included 17 females and 22 males. Working hours ranged from zero to 73 hours per week. Marked differences emerged between the reports of casual and full-time employees about working hours, work-life conflict and health. Casuals were more likely to work highly irregular hours over which they had little control. Their daily and weekly working hours ranged from very long to very short according to organisational requirements. Long working hours, combined with low predictability and control, produced greater disruption to family and social lives and poorer work-life balance for casuals. Uncoordinated hours across multiple jobs exacerbated these problems in some cases. Health-related issues reported to arise from work-life conflict included sleep disturbance, fatigue and disrupted exercise and dietary regimes. This study identified significant disadvantages of casual employment. In the same hotels, and doing largely the same jobs, casual employees had less desirable and predictable work schedules, greater work-life conflict and more associated health complaints than "permanent" workers.

  3. An employee total health management-based survey of Iowa employers. (United States)

    Merchant, James A; Lind, David P; Kelly, Kevin M; Hall, Jennifer L


    To implement an Employee Total Health Management (ETHM) model-based questionnaire and provide estimates of model program elements among a statewide sample of Iowa employers. Survey a stratified random sample of Iowa employers, and characterize and estimate employer participation in ETHM program elements. Iowa employers are implementing less than 30% of all 12 components of ETHM, with the exception of occupational safety and health (46.6%) and workers' compensation insurance coverage (89.2%), but intend modest expansion of all components in the coming year. The ETHM questionnaire-based survey provides estimates of progress Iowa employers are making toward implementing components of Total Worker Health programs.

  4. Literature review on employment impacts of GHG reduction policies for transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, S.; Brinke, L.; Kampman, B.; Koopman, M.


    Recently a large number of studies have been published that claim accelerated uptake of electrical vehicles (EVs) and fuel efficient cars in the market for automotive transport may have positive employment benefits. A literature review on this issue has been undertaken by CE Delft, to investigate if it is possible to determine whether a large-scale switch to advanced powertrains would yield positive employment benefits. The key conclusion from the study is that employment benefits are likely to result from CO2 regulations.

  5. Employment after heart transplantation among adults with congenital heart disease. (United States)

    Tumin, Dmitry; Chou, Helen; Hayes, Don; Tobias, Joseph D; Galantowicz, Mark; McConnell, Patrick I


    Adults with congenital heart disease may require heart transplantation for end-stage heart failure. Whereas heart transplantation potentially allows adults with congenital heart disease to resume their usual activities, employment outcomes in this population are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence and predictors of work participation after heart transplantation for congenital heart disease. Retrospective review of a prospective registry. United Network for Organ Sharing registry of transplant recipients in the United States. Adult recipients of first-time heart transplantation with a primary diagnosis of congenital heart disease, performed between 2004 and 2015. None. Employment status reported by transplant centers at required follow-up intervals up to 5 y posttransplant. Among 470 patients included in the analysis (mean follow-up: 5 ± 3 y), 127 (27%) worked after transplant, 69 (15%) died before beginning or returning to work, and 274 (58%) survived until censoring, but did not participate in paid work. Multivariable competing-risks regression analysis examined characteristics associated with posttransplant employment, accounting for mortality as a competing outcome. In descriptive and multivariable analysis, pretransplant work participation was associated with a greater likelihood of posttransplant employment, while the use of Medicaid insurance at the time of transplant was associated with a significantly lower likelihood of working after transplant (subhazard ratio compared to private insurance: 0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.95; P = .032). Employment was rare after heart transplantation for congenital heart disease, and was significantly less common than in the broader population of adults with congenital heart disease. Differences in return to work were primarily related to pretransplant employment and the use of public insurance, rather than clinical characteristics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Effect of Integration Policies on the Time until Regular Employment of Newly Arrived Immigrants:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Heinesen, Eskil; Hummelgaard, Hans

    We analyse the effect of active labour-market programmes on the hazard rate into regular employment for newly arrived immigrants using the timing-of-events duration model. We take account of language course participation and progression in destination country language skills. We use rich...... administrative data from Denmark. We find substantial lock-in effects of participation in active labour-market programmes. Post programme effects on the hazard rate to regular employment are significantly positive for wage subsidy programmes, but not for other types of programmes. For language course...... participants, improvement in language proficiency has significant and substantial positive effects on the hazard rate to employment....

  7. Profile of job coaches in supported employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study analyzes the figure of the job coach in various Supported Employment services in Spain. A quality-oriented study carried out, based on the case study. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews held with professionals, along with thirtysix participant observations at different stages of Supported Employment. The results show disparity in the profiles associated with various areas of knowledge, as well as a diversity of functions related to the roles performed by the job coach depending on the number of staff taken on. The most significant competencies combined with personal skills and communicative abilities. It recommended that employment programs improve vocational retraining programs to make up for training deficiencies and provide professional skills for intervention in each service.

  8. Large N Scalars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco


    We construct effective Lagrangians, and corresponding counting schemes, valid to describe the dynamics of the lowest lying large N stable massive composite state emerging in strongly coupled theories. The large N counting rules can now be employed when computing quantum corrections via an effective...

  9. Citizen participation and citizen initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthoefer, H.


    Contents: Social conditions for citizen initiatives - technical change and employment - crisis behaviour - socio-psychological analysis of political planning; legitimation - presentation and criticism - conditions for citizen initiatives coming into being within the field of tension citizen : administration - legal problems of citizen initiatives - environmental protection in the energy discussion; participation; models. (HP) [de

  10. Network governance of active employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil; Torfing, Jacob


    The recent reform of the Danish governance system in the field of active employment policy has been subject to fierce criticism, as many commentators fear that it is the beginning of the end of the Danish Model of active stakeholder involvement. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data, ......, the tight metagovernance of the LECs does not seem to straightjacket the LECs as there is a considerable scope for local policy making which makes it worthwhile for the social partners to participate in the local networks.......The recent reform of the Danish governance system in the field of active employment policy has been subject to fierce criticism, as many commentators fear that it is the beginning of the end of the Danish Model of active stakeholder involvement. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data......, this study aims to analyse the impact of the governance reform by assessing the initial experiences with the Local Employment Councils (LECs). The analysis shows that the LECs are relatively well-functioning and contribute to an effective and democratic governance of local employment policy. Furthermore...

  11. Self-Employment for People with Psychiatric Disabilities: Advantages and Strategies. (United States)

    Ostrow, Laysha; Nemec, Patricia B; Smith, Carina


    Self-employment is an alternative to wage employment and an opportunity to increase labor force participation by people with psychiatric disabilities. Self-employment refers to individuals who work for themselves, either as an unincorporated sole proprietor or through ownership of a business. Advantages of self-employment for people with psychiatric disabilities, who may have disrupted educational and employment histories, include opportunities for self-care, additional earning, and career choice. Self-employment fits within a recovery paradigm because of the value placed on individual preferences, and the role of resilience and perseverance in business ownership. Self-employment creates many new US jobs, but remains only a small percentage of employment closures for people with psychiatric disabilities, despite vocational rehabilitation and Social Security disability policies that encourage it. This commentary elucidates the positive aspects of self-employment in the context of employment challenges experienced by individuals with psychiatric disabilities and provides recommendations based on larger trends in entrepreneurship.

  12. Precarious employment and the risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Park, Shin-Goo; Hwang, Sang Hee; Min, Jin-Young


    Although the effect of occupation or employment status on suicide risk is notable, there are few studies on the effect of precarious employment on suicide. We compared suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in precarious workers and their non-precarious counterparts using a representative sample from South Korea. The 2008 Korean Community Health Survey data were used for this study. Information was obtained on 52,161 participants (41,063 employees with non-precarious work and 11,098 employees with precarious work). The outcome of the logistic regression model was the presence of suicidal thoughts and attempts, and the independent variables were the demographics, socioeconomic status, and health status. Employees with precarious work were more likely to exhibit suicidal ideation (OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.28-1.55) and suicide attempts (OR=1.52; 95% CI, 1.02-2.27) than employees with non-precarious work. After controlling for income and education (Model 2) depressive feelings (Model 6), compared with unadjusted model, remained significant but the odds ratio was largely attenuated, indicating a strong association between suicidal risk and socioeconomic and feelings of depression. Precarious workers had a higher risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts than non-precarious workers. Our study suggests that precarious employment is an important risk for suicide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Transitions that matter: life course differences in the employment of adults with arthritis. (United States)

    Jetha, Arif; Bowring, Julie; Tucker, Sean; Connelly, Catherine E; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Proulx, Laurie; Gignac, Monique A M


    To understand the similarities and differences in the employment participation of people living with arthritis across the life course. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with young (ages 18-34 years, n = 7), middle-aged (ages 35-54 years, n = 13) and older adults (>55 years, n = 25) with arthritis. Participants were asked about the impact of arthritis on employment, experiences with health-related changes, career progression and social role involvement. A modified grounded theory approach was used to inductively analyze the data. Young adults indicated the school-to-work transition as being influential in their employment and described the need to direct their time and energy toward finding work that accommodated health and met career aspirations. Middle-aged adults described how the transition from good health to an arthritis diagnosis disrupted involvement in diverse social roles. However, they often downplayed the impact of arthritis on employment. Older adults described the work-to-retirement transition and their decline in physical functioning as contributing to changing involvement in the labor market. Transitions related to health, career progression and social role involvement shaped employment experiences, and represent opportunities for future research and practice that is tailored to life course issues. Implications for rehabilitation Little is known about the work experiences of young- and middle-aged adults with arthritis and how they compare to their older counterparts. Life course theory offers an important framework for research and practice by providing a perspective to enhance our understanding of how employment participation differs across phases of life. Salient and diverse changes related to health, career and social role involvement were identified at each life phase and shaped employment. Rehabilitation practitioners should pay special attention to a client's age, life phase and work history as a strategy to enhance

  14. Incentives and other factors associated with employee participation in health risk assessments. (United States)

    Taitel, Michael S; Haufle, Vincent; Heck, Debi; Loeppke, Ronald; Fetterolf, Donald


    Investigate factors associated with employee participation rates in health risk assessments. This cross-sectional study using multiple regression analyzed data from 124 employers with 882,275 eligible employees who completed 344,825 health and productivity assessments (HPAs). Incentive value and Communications and Organizational Commitment Level (Com/Org Level) were the strongest predictors of HPA completion rates. Employer size and a Gateway Model were also significant predictors. In addition, a correlation of variables showed other important relationships. To achieve a 50% HPA completion rate, employers with a low Com/Org Level will need an incentive value of approximately $120 whereas employers with a high Com/Org Level only need approximately $40--a difference of $80 dollars. This applied study offers empirical evidence to help employers increase their employees' participation in health risk assessments.

  15. Employment outcome and predictors of competitive employment at 2-year follow-up of a vocational rehabilitation programme for individuals with schizophrenia in a high-income welfare society. (United States)

    Evensen, Stig; Ueland, Torill; Lystad, June Ullevoldsæter; Bull, Helen; Klungsøyr, Ole; Martinsen, Egil W; Falkum, Erik


    Employment is an important part of recovery for individuals with schizophrenia. The employment rate for this group is as low as 10% in Norway, and major system related barriers to employment are evident. This study reports the competitive employment outcome at 2-year follow-up of a vocational rehabilitation study augmented with cognitive remediation (CR) or elements from cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. It also investigates if global functioning, self-esteem, and depression at baseline predicts employment outcome, and if change in these variables during the intervention period is associated with employment outcome. One hundred and forty-eight participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in six Norwegian counties received 10 months vocational rehabilitation augmented with either CBT (n = 84) or CR (n = 64). Both competitive and sheltered workplaces were used. Participants were assessed at baseline, at the end of the intervention period, and at 2-year follow-up. At 2-year follow-up, 21.2% had obtained competitive employment. A further 25.3% had work placements in competitive workplaces. Significant improvements were found in global functioning, self-esteem, and depression during the intervention period, but no significant differences between the two intervention groups. High baseline global functioning and self-esteem, as well as positive change in these variables during the intervention period, were significantly associated with higher competitive employment outcome at 2-year follow-up. The results add to existing evidence that competitive employment is attainable for individuals with schizophrenia. High global functioning and self-esteem were strongly associated with competitive employment outcome.

  16. Social Policy Trends: International Trends in Female Employment Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Kneebone


    Full Text Available Women are playing a larger role in the workforce than ever before, but not in the U.S. The employment rate measures the percentage of the adult population of working age (15-64 years that is an active participant in the labour force (full-time or part-time. A high employment rate enables countries to finance government programs with moderate rates of taxation, and in high employment countries there tends to be less pressure on social programs. Countries with low employment rates are less able to fund services and face greater social pressures.The employment rate provides a better measure of economic performance than the unemployment rate because it considers not only individuals who are unemployed but also those who have been discouraged to look for work.

  17. The Transformation of Employee Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni; Knudsen, Herman; Lind, Jens


    -model. However, more recent research into psychosocial work environment problems questions the model’s assumption of high job control compensating for high job demands. Taking its point of departure in a `deconstruction´ of the concept of participation based on research on employee participation from the past......This article reviews the research literature on the relationship between employee participation, influence and the work environment. The main part of the literature points to a positive connection in line with how it has been almost institutionalised in Karasek and Theorell´s demand control...... few decades, the article discuss what factors and changes have resulted in that increased employee participation does not seem to result in a healthy work environment. The article concludes on the limitations of the demand control-model in modern working life given contextual changes in the employer...

  18. An Employee Total Health Management–Based Survey of Iowa Employers (United States)

    Merchant, James A.; Lind, David P.; Kelly, Kevin M.; Hall, Jennifer L.


    Objective To implement an Employee Total Health Management (ETHM) model-based questionnaire and provide estimates of model program elements among a statewide sample of Iowa employers. Methods Survey a stratified random sample of Iowa employers, characterize and estimate employer participation in ETHM program elements Results Iowa employers are implementing under 30% of all 12 components of ETHM, with the exception of occupational safety and health (46.6%) and worker compensation insurance coverage (89.2%), but intend modest expansion of all components in the coming year. Conclusions The Employee Total Health Management questionnaire-based survey provides estimates of progress Iowa employers are making toward implementing components of total worker health programs. PMID:24284757

  19. Trends in China’s gender employment and pay gap: estimating gender pay gaps with employment selection


    Chi, Wei; Li, Bo


    In contrast to the United States and European countries, China has witnessed a widening gender pay gap in the past two decades. Nevertheless, the size of the gender pay gap could still be underestimated as a result of not accounting for the low-wage women who have dropped out of the labor force. As shown by a large and representative set of household survey data in China, since the 1980s the female employment rate has been falling and the gap between male and female employment rates has been ...

  20. Is Temporary Agency Employment a Stepping Stone for Immigrants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Rosholm, Michael


    We investigate whether agency employment is a bridge into regular employment for immigrants using the timing-of-events approach. We provide evidence of large positive in-treatment effects for all immigrants. Post-treatment effects are fairly high for male non-western and Eastern European immigrants....

  1. Experience with Health Coach-Mediated Physician Referral in an Employed Insured Population (United States)

    Rao, Sowmya R.; Rogers, Robert S.; Mailhot, Johanna R.; Galvin, Robert


    BACKGROUND Given increasing interest in helping consumers choose high-performing (higher quality, lower cost) physicians, one approach chosen by several large employers is to provide assistance in the form of a telephonic “health coach” — a registered nurse who assists with identifying appropriate and available providers. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the health coach’s influence on provider choice and the quality of the user experience in the early introduction of this service. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey of 3490 employees and covered dependents of a large national firm that offered health coach services to all employees and covered dependents. The survey began in September 2007 with proportionate stratified sampling of 1750 employees and covered dependents who used the services between October 2007 and February 2008, and 1740 non-users. PARTICIPANTS Insured adults (ages 21–64) employed by a large national firm or covered dependents of employees. MEASUREMENTS Awareness of the service, reason for using service, visits to providers recommended by service, use of health advice provided by service, user satisfaction. MAIN RESULTS The primary reason for using the service was to obtain provider referrals (73%). Fifty-two percent of users sought a specialist referral, 33% a PCP referral and 9% a hospital referral. Eighty-nine percent of users seeking a provider referral were referred in-network; 81% of those referred visited the referred provider. Measures of satisfaction with both the service and the care delivered by recommended providers were over 70%. CONCLUSIONS Customers largely follow the provider recommendation of the health coach. Users express general satisfaction with existing health coach services, but differences in performance between vendors highlight the need for the services to be well implemented. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-010-1428-4) contains supplementary material, which is available

  2. A randomized trial of employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence in injection drug users. (United States)

    Silverman, Kenneth; Wong, Conrad J; Needham, Mick; Diemer, Karly N; Knealing, Todd; Crone-Todd, Darlene; Fingerhood, Michael; Nuzzo, Paul; Kolodner, Kenneth


    High-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement can promote drug abstinence but can be difficult to finance. Employment may be a vehicle for arranging high-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement. This study determined if employment-based abstinence reinforcement could increase cocaine abstinence in adults who inject drugs and use cocaine during methadone treatment. Participants could work 4 hr every weekday in a workplace where they could earn about $10.00 per hour in vouchers; they were required to provide routine urine samples. Participants who attended the workplace and provided cocaine-positive urine samples during the initial 4 weeks were invited to work 26 weeks and were randomly assigned to an abstinence-and-work (n = 28) or work-only (n = 28) group. Abstinence-and-work participants had to provide urine samples showing cocaine abstinence to work and maintain maximum pay. Work-only participants could work independent of their urinalysis results. Abstinence-and-work participants provided more (p = .004; OR = 5.80, 95% CI = 2.03-16.56) cocaine-negative urine samples (29%) than did work-only participants (10%). Employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase cocaine abstinence.

  3. Program participation, labor force dynamics, and accepted wage rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skipper, Lars


    We apply a recently suggested econometric approach to measure the effects of active labor market programs on employment, unemployment, and wage histories among participants. We find that participation in most of these training programs produces an initial locking-in effect and for some even a lower...

  4. New Forms of Youth Participation and Work in Sweden. (United States)

    Hartmann, Jurgen


    Surveys past and current youth employment and social participation programs in Sweden. Maintains that while these were effective in giving Sweden one of the lowest youth unemployment rates among market-economy nations, more must be done to ensure meaningful social participation of youth in the community. (JDH)

  5. The experience of seeking, gaining and maintaining employment after traumatic spinal cord injury and the vocational pathways involved. (United States)

    Hilton, Gillean; Unsworth, Carolyn A; Stuckey, Ruth; Murphy, Gregory C


    Vocational potential in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) are unrealised with rates of employment substantially lower than in the labour force participation of the general population and the pre-injury employment rates. To understand the experience and pathway of people achieving employment outcome after traumatic spinal cord injury by; classifying participants into employment outcome groups of stable, unstable and without employment; identifying pre and post-injury pathways for participants in each group and, exploring the experiences of people of seeking, gaining and maintaining employment. Thirty-one participants were interviewed. Mixed methods approach including interpretive phenomenological analysis and vocational pathway mapping of quantitative data. The most common pathway identified was from study and work pre-injury to stable employment post-injury. Four super-ordinate themes were identified from the interpretive phenomenological analysis; expectations of work, system impacts, worker identity and social supports. Implications for clinical practice include fostering cultural change, strategies for system navigation, promotion of worker identity and optimal use of social supports. The findings increase insight and understanding of the complex experience of employment after spinal cord injury. There is opportunity to guide experimental research, policy development and education concerning the complexity of the return to work experience and factors that influence pathways.

  6. Spatial dependence in agricultural employment | Korter | Agrosearch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This suggests employment distribution in crop farming is relatively clustered for male farmers and strongly clustered for female farmers. This study advocates for increased female labour force participation to be addressed as a key component of pro-poor agricultural growth which could translate to higher productivity and ...

  7. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan


    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  8. Employment status, difficulties at work and quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease patients. (United States)

    De Boer, Angela G E M; Bennebroek Evertsz', Floor; Stokkers, Pieter C; Bockting, Claudia L; Sanderman, Robert; Hommes, Daniel W; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W


    To assess employment status, difficulties at work and sick leave in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and their relation with sociodemographic and clinical factors, quality of life (QoL), and anxiety and depression. IBD patients attending an IBD outpatients' clinic received self-report questionnaires on employment status, IBD-related difficulties at work and sick leave (Trimbos/iMTA questionnaire for Costs associated with Psychiatric Illness), sociodemographic factors, QoL (Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire and 12-item Short-form Health Survey) and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Disease activity was assessed by their gastroenterologist. Associations between paid employment and sick leave with sociodemographic and clinical factors, QoL and anxiety and depression were assessed by regression analyses. In total, 202 IBD patients of working age, with a mean age of 41 years, participated; 63% had Crohn's disease and 37% had ulcerative colitis, and 57% were women and 19% had active disease. In all, 123 (61%) patients were in paid employment, of whom 31 (25%) were on sick leave, whereas 46 (23%) received a disability pension. Concentration problems (72%), low working pace (78%) and delayed work production (50%) were the most prevalent IBD-related work difficulties. IBD patients without paid employment were older and more often women, with active disease, lower QoL and higher anxiety and depression rates. Sick leave was associated with lower QoL and higher anxiety and depression rates. More than half of IBD patients were in paid employment, whereas almost a quarter was receiving a disability pension. A large majority experienced work difficulties. Having no paid employment was associated with poorer QoL and more anxiety and depression symptomatology.

  9. Employment Shifts in the Technical and Further Education Workforce in Victoria. (United States)

    Shah, Chandra


    Analyzes changes in Technical and Further Education (TAFE) work force in Victoria, Australia, that occurred during the period 1993-98. Main changes include increased participation of women, significant growth in part-time employment, decline in full-time (mainly male) employment, and an increased use of seasonal teachers. (Includes 10 figures and…

  10. The Role of Perceived Workplace Development Opportunities in Enhancing Individual Employability (United States)

    Martini, Mattia; Cavenago, Dario


    This paper explores the effects on workers' employability of workplace development opportunities during employment as perceived by the workers themselves. Data was collected through a survey conducted in 2012 in Italy using a sample of 558 workers. The aim was to test the effects of participation in training courses, workplace learning…

  11. Experiences and psychological distress of fertility treatment and employment. (United States)

    Payne, Nicola; Seenan, Susan; van den Akker, Olga


    This study examined experiences and psychological distress about fertility treatment in people combining work and treatment. Five hundred and sixty-three participants in the UK completed an online survey asking about difficulties in combining work and treatment; workplace disclosure, support, absence and policy; and psychological distress about treatment. Absence from work and perceptions that treatment has an impact on work and career prospects were reported by the majority of participants and this was related to the psychological distress of treatment. Around three quarters of participants disclosed to their employer and colleagues. The key reason for disclosure was needing to ask for absence from work and the main reason for non-disclosure was privacy. Workplace policy relating to managing fertility treatment and support from colleagues and their employer was related to reduced psychological distress but workplace policy was reported by less than one quarter of participants. Difficulties experienced in combining work and treatment suggest that support is needed. Specific workplace policy, guidance for supervisors and flexibility in fertility clinic times should help support employees during treatment and reduce psychological distress, thereby potentially influencing physical health and treatment outcomes.

  12. Individual resilience as a strategy to counter employment barriers for people with epilepsy in Zimbabwe. (United States)

    Mugumbate, Jacob; Gray, Mel


    Understanding individual resilience helps to improve employment opportunities of people with epilepsy. This is significant because, in Zimbabwe, as in many other countries in the Global South, people with epilepsy encounter several barriers in a context of less-than-ideal public services. Despite this disadvantage, some people with epilepsy have better employment outcomes for reasons including level of seizure control, social background, employment support services, and individual resilience. This article reports on data from participants (n=8), who were part of a larger study (n=30) on employment experiences of people with epilepsy in Harare. The study used in-depth interviews with the participants, who were all service users and members of the Epilepsy Support Foundation (ESF) in Harare. The eight resilient participants comprised four males and four females aged between 26-48years, who were selected because, unlike the remaining 22 participants, they had overcome chronic unemployment. Seven of the eight participants were employed, while one had recently become unemployed. Views of service providers (n=7) were sought on the experiences of people with epilepsy through a focus group discussion. The service providers included two health workers, three social service workers, and two disability advocacy workers. Data were analysed using NVivo, a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis package. The study found that participants experienced barriers, such as a lack of medical treatment, yet this was important for education and training, lack of finances for training, and negative attitudes at workplaces. Despite these barriers, participants had overcome chronic unemployment due to their individual resilience characterised by: (i) a 'fighting spirit', (ii) being their own advocates, and (iii) having a mastery over, and acceptance of, their epilepsy. The research concluded that, where people with epilepsy faced barriers, as in Zimbabwe, individual resilience acted as

  13. Issues confronting women participation in the construction industry


    Aulin, Radhlinah; Jingmond, Monika


    This paper raises the issues confronting the minority cohort’s participation in the construction industry. Women in construction are seen as the wrong gender to be around for the construction occupations require not only manual dexterity but physical strength. Currently, the industry is employing less than 10% of the female in the workforce with even lower participation in crafts and trade. This paper discussed about the current women participation in construction focusing on the European Uni...

  14. Factors associated with breastfeeding duration and exclusivity in mothers returning to paid employment postpartum. (United States)

    Bai, Dorothy Li; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Tarrant, Marie


    Mothers who are employed postpartum are less likely to continue breastfeeding than mothers who are not formally employed. However, as postpartum employment is increasingly necessary for the majority of new mothers, it is important to investigate factors that influence the continuation of breastfeeding in employed mothers. A sample of 1,738 mothers who returned to paid employment postpartum were recruited from the obstetric units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong, and prospectively followed for 12 months or until their infant was weaned. More than 85 % of participants returned to formal employment within 10 weeks postpartum, with over 90 % of these employed full-time. About one-third of the participants (32 %) were able to combine breastfeeding and employment, with breastfeeding defined as continuing for more than 2 weeks after returning to work postpartum. Later return to work and higher maternal education were associated with new mothers being able to combine breastfeeding and employment. Later return to work, shorter working hours, parental childcare, and higher maternal education were also associated with less likelihood of weaning from any or exclusive breastfeeding. Improvements in employment-related conditions for mothers and additional support for lower educated mothers may be effective strategies to enable employed women to continue breastfeeding after their return to work.

  15. Employers' Perspective on Childcare Services for Hired Farm Workers. (United States)

    Lee, Barbara C; Salzwedel, Marsha A; Chyou, Po-Huang; Liebman, Amy K


    The goal of this project was to protect children while parents work in agriculture by improving off-farm services for children of migrant and seasonal farm workers. Large agricultural enterprises have policies forbidding children in the worksite. At the same time, their employees, who are trying to generate income, seek as many work hours as possible but often lack viable options for childcare services. As employers strive to increase their labor pool, and workers seek off-farm childcare, there is mutual interest in improving access to childcare services in agricultural regions dependent on large numbers of full-time and seasonal workers. This report describes the employers' perspectives on childcare needs of hired farm workers' families and their barriers and motivators to facilitating off-farm childcare services. Using descriptive survey research methodology, data were collected from a convenience sample of 102 agribusiness owners and Human Resource directors attending an agricultural conference regarding labor laws or personnel management. Results revealed significant differences for those companies employing more than 25 workers compared to their counterparts. Primary motivators for offering childcare as an employment benefit were improved employee morale, enhanced company reputation, and a more stable workforce. A major barrier was that half of large-scale enterprises lack guidance on how to provide childcare options for their workers. Survey results are being used to facilitate collaboration among employers, farm workers, and childcare providers to offer a safe, nurturing environment for children while their parents work in agriculture.

  16. Advancing intercultural competency: Canadian engineering employers' experiences with immigrant engineers (United States)

    Friesen, Marcia; Ingram, Sandra


    This paper explores Canadian engineering employers' perceptions of and experiences with internationally educated engineers (recent immigrants to Canada) employed in their organisations for varying lengths of time. Qualitative data were collected from employers using focus group methodology. Findings reflected employers' observations of culturally different behaviours and characteristics in their internationally educated employees, employers' reactions to cultural differences ranging from negative attributions to tolerance, and the implementation of largely ad hoc intra-organisational strategies for managing cultural differences in employer-employee relationships. Findings exposed the lack of corporate intercultural competency in the Canadian engineering profession. Equity and gatekeeping implications are discussed.

  17. Work-related discrimination and change in self-stigma among people with mental illness during supported employment. (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Nordt, Carlos; Kawohl, Wolfram; Brantschen, Elisabeth; Bärtsch, Bettina; Müller, Mario; Corrigan, Patrick W; Rössler, Wulf


    The relationship of work-related discrimination to the change in self-stigma and stigma stress was assessed among supported employment participants in Switzerland. Self-stigma and the cognitive appraisal of mental illness stigma as a stressor were measured at baseline among supported employment participants (N=116). These variables and work-related discrimination in the past year were assessed one year later (N=96). Compared with participants who did not find employment (N=30), those who worked without experiencing discrimination (N=25) had lower levels of self-stigma and stigma stress at one year. Among those who worked and reported work-related discrimination (N=38), these measures did not decrease significantly. Experiencing discrimination at work may determine whether employment has positive effects in terms of self-stigma and stigma stress among individuals with mental illness. Interventions to reduce discrimination in work settings and to improve coping resources of these individuals could augment the positive effects of supported employment.

  18. Employment status and working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Andries, F.


    In the 1990s an increasing number of employees were engaged in non-permanent contract work in the European Union. This can, to a large extent, be explained by an active labour market policy where job creation was the focus, and this type of employment provided a way of meeting the increased demand

  19. Project SEARCH UK--Evaluating Its Employment Outcomes (United States)

    Kaehne, Axel


    Background: The study reports the findings of an evaluation of Project SEARCH UK. The programme develops internships for young people with intellectual disabilities who are about to leave school or college. The aim of the evaluation was to investigate at what rate Project SEARCH provided employment opportunities to participants. Methods: The…

  20. Evaluation of participant recruitment methods to a rare disease online registry. (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Mueller, Nancy L; Williams, Katherine; Gutmann, David H


    Internet communication advances provide new opportunities to assemble individuals with rare diseases to online patient registries from wide geographic areas for research. However, there is little published information on the efficacy of different recruitment methods. Here we describe recruitment patterns and the characteristics of individuals with the self-identified autosomal dominant genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) who participated in an online patient registry during the 1-year period from 1/1/2012 to 12/31/2012. We employed four main mechanisms to alert potential participants to the registry: (1) Facebook and Google advertising, (2) government and academic websites, (3) patient advocacy groups, and (4) healthcare providers. Participants reported how they first heard about the registry through an online questionnaire. During the 1-year period, 880 individuals participated in the registry from all 50 U.S. States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and 39 countries. Facebook and Google were reported as referral sources by the highest number of participants (n=550, 72% Facebook), followed by healthcare providers (n=74), and government and academic websites (n=71). The mean participant age was 29±18 years and most participants reported White race (73%) and female sex (62%) irrespective of reported referral source. Internet advertising, especially through Facebook, resulted in efficient enrollment of large numbers of individuals with NF1. Our study demonstrates the potential utility of this approach to assemble individuals with a rare disease from across the world for research studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Employment after Spinal Cord Injury in Norway: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling F. Solheim


    Full Text Available Two research questions are addressed: 1 What predicts employment among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI in Norway? 2 How do the employed compare with the non-employed in their job motivation, labour discrimination, quality of life, everyday coping, health and pain suffering? We use a cross-sectional survey from 2012. With a 51% response rate, 320 Norwegians aged 21–66 years with SCI participated. After injury, 69.5% were employed, and 44.5% remained employed at the time of the interview. There was no gender difference in employment. Among men and women, age at onset of SCI, ability to continue working in the same organisation and education was associated with employment. For men paraplegia and vocational rehabilitation were also significant. Occupational class was non-significant among both men and women. Job motivation and work ability could have affected past employment, and both the employed and non-employed supported the statement that employers discriminate against wheelchair users.

  2. Soldiers’ employment attitude and employability: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao


    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays it is very difficult for Chinese retired soldiers to find proper jobs, and the primary reason is the significant gap between job requirements and soldiers owned job skills. Therefore, it is very important to improve the soldiers’ job skills and enhance their understanding of employment.Design/methodology/approach: This paper expands the study scope from the soldiers’ job skills to the employability, initiatively introduces the employment attitude which has obvious impact on the employment of soldiers, and analyses the influence that employment attitude can play on employability. At last, this paper develops statistical method to find the relationship between soldiers’ employment attitude and employability.Findings: The empirical analysis shows that soldiers’ employment attitude has the positive linkage with employability, which makes the employment attitude a measurable variable for the employability rather than an absolute standard.Research limitations/implications: According to the research purpose, more variables should be considered in the model, consequently, there are only three indicators to describe solders’ employment attitude and four indicators to describe solders’ employability.Originality/value: This paper takes research on soldiers’ employability in a new perspective. The soldiers’ employment attitude is served as the entry point, showing the influence that soldiers’ employment attitude has on employability.

  3. Parental perspectives on consent for participation in large-scale, non-biological data repositories. (United States)

    Manhas, Kiran Pohar; Page, Stacey; Dodd, Shawn X; Letourneau, Nicole; Ambrose, Aleta; Cui, Xinjie; Tough, Suzanne C


    Data sharing presents several challenges to the informed consent process. Unique challenges emerge when sharing pediatric or pregnancy-related data. Here, parent preferences for sharing non-biological data are examined. Groups (n = 4 groups, 18 participants) and individual interviews (n = 19 participants) were conducted with participants from two provincial, longitudinal pregnancy cohorts (AOB and APrON). Qualitative content analysis was applied to transcripts of semi-structured interviews. Participants were supportive of a broad, one-time consent model or a tiered consent model. These preferences were grounded in the perceived obligations for reciprocity and accuracy. Parents want reciprocity among participants, repositories and researchers regarding respect and trust. Furthermore, parents' worry about the interrelationships between the validity of the consent processes and secondary data use. Though parent participants agree that their research data should be made available for secondary use, they believe their consent is still required. Given their understanding that obtaining and informed consent can be challenging in the case of secondary use, parents agreed that a broad, one-time consent model was acceptable, reducing the logistical burden while maintaining respect for their contribution. This broad model also maintained participant trust in the research and secondary use of their data. The broad, one-time model also reflected parents' perspectives surrounding child involvement in the consent process. The majority of parents felt decision made during childhood were the parents responsibility and should remain in parental purview until the child reaches the age of majority.

  4. Flexible employment policies and working conditions: the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, D.J.; Miedema, E.; Goudswaard, A.; Kraan, K.O.


    The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions has commissioned a research project to analyse the impact of flexible employment policies and human resources management on working conditions at the corporate level. Research institutes of seven countries participate in

  5. Should Student Employment Be Subsidized? Conditional Counterfactuals and the Outcomes of Work-Study Participation. A CAPSEE Working Paper (United States)

    Scott-Clayton, Judith; Minaya, Veronica


    Student employment subsidies are one of the largest types of federal employment subsidies, and one of the oldest forms of student aid. Yet it is unclear whether they help or harm students' long term outcomes. We present a framework that decomposes overall effects into a weighted average of effects for marginal and inframarginal workers. We then…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria ZAMFIR


    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse characteristics of the labour market participation in Romania in order to highlight the existing inequalities in employment opportunities. Official statistics are analysed for providing an in-depth overview of the recent evolutions of the Romanian labour market. Special attention will be given to gender, rural-urban and age inequalities. The results show significant gaps in labour market participation for specific groups such as people living in rural areas, women and youth and high level of regional heterogeneity regarding the existing employment opportunities. The findings of the article are useful for policy makers and institutions with responsibilities in labour market and education fields.

  7. Improving Work Participation of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities


    Verhoef, J.A.C.


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the support they need to achieve suitable employment is needed. Interventions to improve the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities were lacking. The...

  8. 75 FR 2068 - Definition of “Plan Assets”-Participant Contributions (United States)


    ... permitted to pre-fund contributions. The commenter indicated that an employer may wish to deposit the... would allow most employers with small plans to take advantage of the safe harbor and, thereby, benefit... should be balanced against any additional income and security the plan and plan participants would...

  9. Adolescent mental health and behavioural predictors of being NEET: a prospective study of young adults not in employment, education, or training. (United States)

    Rodwell, L; Romaniuk, H; Nilsen, W; Carlin, J B; Lee, K J; Patton, G C


    Young adults who are not in employment, education, or training (NEET) are at risk of long-term economic disadvantage and social exclusion. Knowledge about risk factors for being NEET largely comes from cross-sectional studies of vulnerable individuals. Using data collected over a 10-year period, we examined adolescent predictors of being NEET in young adulthood. We used data on 1938 participants from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study, a community-based longitudinal study of adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Associations between common mental disorders, disruptive behaviour, cannabis use and drinking behaviour in adolescence, and NEET status at two waves of follow-up in young adulthood (mean ages of 20.7 and 24.1 years) were investigated using logistic regression, with generalised estimating equations used to account for the repeated outcome measure. Overall, 8.5% of the participants were NEET at age 20.7 years and 8.2% at 24.1 years. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found evidence of increased risk of being NEET among frequent adolescent cannabis users [adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) = 1.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.75] and those who reported repeated disruptive behaviours (ORadj = 1.71; 95% CI 1.15-2.55) or persistent common mental disorders in adolescence (ORadj = 1.60; 95% CI 1.07-2.40). Similar associations were present when participants with children were included in the same category as those in employment, education, or training. Young people with an early onset of mental health and behavioural problems are at risk of failing to make the transition from school to employment. This finding reinforces the importance of integrated employment and mental health support programmes.

  10. The misleading of public participation in environmental assessment - exploring four infrastructure cases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Bo; Nielsen, Helle Nedergaard


    The article analyses the recent development of public participation in environmental assessment and indicates some unfortunate and unintended results. A number of Danish cases show how the tools involved are employed for a kind of ‘acceptance planning’, instead of actual environmental protection......, and that the legitimacy which public inclusion was supposed to bring to environmental assessment has instead been replaced by considerations of legality, which frees entrepreneurs and authorities from including real environmental considerations in their planning. Thus, the undesirable handling of public participation...... that the article analyses is not only due to the actual difficulties of practising inclusion and the indisputable complexity of the environmental issues but also to a very large extent due to considerations of economic efficiency and an unwillingness among investors – public as well as private – to take account...

  11. Depressed mood, usual activity level, and continued employment after starting dialysis. (United States)

    Kutner, Nancy G; Zhang, Rebecca; Huang, Yijian; Johansen, Kirsten L


    When patients start dialysis, their employment rate declines and disability benefits are an option. With patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics including disability income status controlled, we investigated the significance of depressed mood and usual activity level as predictors of patients' continued employment after dialysis start. Incident patients from 296 randomly selected dialysis clinics were surveyed in the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS). Participants provided information about employment status, disability income status, education, depressive symptoms measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), and usual activity level/energy expenditure measured by the Human Activity Profile. Age, gender, race, insurance, diabetes, inability to ambulate or transfer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular conditions, and hemoglobin and serum albumin values at treatment start were obtained from US Renal Data System files. Dialysis modality was defined at time of interview. Among 585 CDS participants who worked in the previous year, 191 (32.6%) continued working after dialysis start. On the basis of the PHQ-2 cutoff score ≥3, 12.1% of patients who remained employed had possible or probable depression, compared with 32.8% of patients who were no longer employed. In adjusted analyses, higher Human Activity Profile scores were associated with increased likelihood of continued employment, and there was a borderline association between lower PHQ-2 scores and continued employment. Screening and management of depressive symptoms and support for increased activity level may facilitate patients' opportunity for continued employment after dialysis start, along with generally improving their overall quality of life.

  12. A Contextual Analysis of Black Self-Employment in Large Metropolitan Areas, 1970-1980. (United States)

    Boyd, Robert L.


    In 1970, urban African-American self-employment depended upon niches created by racial disadvantage, but by 1980 increased educational attainment and occupational status of African-American workers enabled them to move beyond traditional niches and become entrepreneurs supported by a sizable middle class African-American community. Contains 53…

  13. Participation in Sex Work: Students' Views (United States)

    Roberts, Ron; Sanders, Teela; Myers, Ellie; Smith, Debbie


    Increasing evidence points to student involvement in the sex industry. The current study comprised a cross-sectional sample of 315 undergraduates at a London university. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, data were gathered on students' financial and employment circumstances and their views on participation in sex work. Results suggested…

  14. Transition to Work: Effects of Preparedness and Goal Construction on Employment and Depressive Symptoms (United States)

    Koivisto, Petri; Vuori, Jukka; Vinokur, Amiram D.


    This study examines the mediating role of employment preparedness in improving employment, mental health, and construction of work-life goals among young vocational school graduates who participated in the School-to-Work effectiveness trial. The trial included a 1-week intervention program that focused on enhancing employment preparedness. In this…

  15. Employer Demand for Welfare Recipients by Race. Discussion Paper. (United States)

    Holzer, Harry J.; Stoll, Michael A.

    This paper uses new survey data on employers in four large metropolitan areas to examine the determinants of employer demand for welfare recipients. Data come from a telephone survey of approximately 750 establishments. Results suggest a high level of demand for welfare recipients, although such demand appears fairly sensitive to business cycle…

  16. Participative management in health care services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muller


    Full Text Available The need and demand for the highest-quality management of all health care delivery activities requires a participative management approach. The purpose with this article is to explore the process of participative management, to generate and describe a model for such management, focusing mainly on the process of participative management, and to formulate guidelines for operationalisation of the procedure. An exploratory, descriptive and theory-generating research design is pursued. After a brief literature review, inductive reasoning is mainly employed to identify and define central concepts, followed by the formulation of a few applicable statements and guidelines. Participative management is viewed as a process of that constitutes the elements of dynamic interactive decision-making and problem-solving, shared governance, empowerment, organisational transformation, and dynamic communication within the health care organisation. The scientific method of assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation is utilised throughout the process of participative management.

  17. Access to Bridge Employment: Who Finds and Who Does Not Find Work After Retirement? (United States)

    Dingemans, Ellen; Henkens, Kène; Solinge, Hanna van


    Empirical studies on the determinants of bridge employment have often neglected the fact that some retirees may be unsuccessful in finding a bridge job. We present an integrative framework that emphasizes socioeconomic factors, health status, social context, and psychological factors to explain why some people fully retired after career exit, some participated in bridge jobs, while others unsuccessfully searched for one. Using Dutch panel data for 1,221 retirees, we estimated a multinomial logit model to explain participation in, and unsuccessful searches for, bridge employment. About 1 in 4 retirees participated in bridge employment after retirement, while 7% searched unsuccessfully for such work. Particularly those who experienced involuntary career exit were found to have a higher probability of being unsuccessful at finding bridge employment. The current study provides evidence for the impact of the social context on postretirement work and suggests a cumulative disadvantage in the work domain in later life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  18. A Response to Proposed Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Regulations on Employer-Sponsored Health, Safety, and Well-Being Initiatives. (United States)


    The aim of this study was to identify areas of consensus in response to proposed Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 regulations on employer-sponsored health, safety, and well-being initiatives. The consensus process included review of existing and proposed regulations, identification of key areas where consensus is needed, and a methodical consensus-building process. Stakeholders representing employees, employers, consulting organizations, and wellness providers reached consensus around five areas, including adequate privacy notice on how medical data are collected, used, and protected; effective, equitable use of inducements that influence participation in programs; observance of reasonable alternative standards; what constitutes reasonably designed programs; and the need for greater congruence between federal agency regulations. Employee health and well-being initiatives that are in accord with federal regulations are comprehensive, evidence-based, and are construed as voluntary by employees and regulators alike.

  19. Assistance received by employed caregivers and their care recipients: who helps care recipients when caregivers work full time? (United States)

    Scharlach, Andrew E; Gustavson, Kristen; Dal Santo, Teresa S


    This study examined the association among caregiver labor force participation, employees' caregiving activities, and the amount and quality of care received by care recipients. Telephone interviews were conducted with 478 adults who were employed full time and 705 nonemployed adults who provided care to a family member or friend aged 50 or older, identified through random sampling of California households. We assessed care recipient impairment and service problems; the amounts and types of assistance received from caregivers, family and friends, and paid providers; and caregiver utilization of support services. Care recipients of caregivers employed full time were less likely to receive large amounts of care from their caregivers, more likely to receive personal care from paid care providers, more likely to use community services, and more likely to experience service problems than were care recipients of nonemployed caregivers. Employed caregivers were more likely to use caregiver support services than were nonemployed caregivers. Accommodation to caregiver full-time employment involves selective supplementation by caregivers and their care recipients, reflecting increased reliance on formal support services as well as increased vulnerability to service problems and unmet care recipient needs. These findings suggest the need for greater attention to the well-being of disabled elders whose caregivers are employed full time.

  20. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL" longitudinal survey - Protocol and baseline data for a prospective cohort study of Australian doctors' workforce participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt Julia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is considerable research on medical workforce supply trends, there is little research examining the determinants of labour supply decisions for the medical workforce. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL" study investigates workforce participation patterns and their determinants using a longitudinal survey of Australian doctors. It aims to generate evidence to support developing effective policy responses to workforce issues such as shortages and maldistribution. This paper describes the study protocol and baseline cohort, including an analysis of response rates and response bias. Methods/Design MABEL is a prospective cohort study. All Australian doctors undertaking clinical work in 2008 (n = 54,750 were invited to participate, and annual waves of data collections will be undertaken until at least 2011. Data are collected by paper or optional online version of a questionnaire, with content tailored to four sub-groups of clinicians: general practitioners, specialists, specialists in training, and hospital non-specialists. In the baseline wave, data were collected on: job satisfaction, attitudes to work and intentions to quit or change hours worked; a discrete choice experiment examining preferences and trade-offs for different types of jobs; work setting; workload; finances; geographic location; demographics; and family circumstances. Discussion The baseline cohort includes 10,498 Australian doctors, representing an overall response rate of 19.36%. This includes 3,906 general practitioners, 4,596 specialists, 1,072 specialists in training, and 924 hospital non-specialists. Respondents were more likely to be younger, female, and to come from non-metropolitan areas, the latter partly reflecting the effect of a financial incentive on response for doctors in remote and rural areas. Specialists and specialists in training were more likely to respond, whilst hospital non-specialists were less

  1. Foreign ownership and its effects on employment and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännlund, Runar; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Stage, Jesper


    In this paper, we study how foreign ownership of Swedish companies affects employment and wages. To study these effects, we specify a model based on the assumption that the Swedish labour market can be described as one where trade unions and employers bargain over employment and wages. Our...... hypothesis is that bargaining power is affected by institutional settings and the ownership of the firm. To test our hypothesis, we used a panel data set of 242 large Swedish manufacturing firms over the period 1980–2005. The results indicate no significant impact of foreign ownership on employment or wages...

  2. Accident rates and types among self-employed private forest owners. (United States)

    Lindroos, Ola; Burström, Lage


    Half of all Swedish forests are owned by private individuals, and at least 215,000 people work in these privately owned forest holdings. However, only lethal accidents are systematically monitored among self-employed forest workers. Therefore, data from the registries of the Swedish Work Environment Authority, the Labor Insurance Organization and the regional University Hospital in Umeå were gathered to allow us to perform a more in-depth assessment of the rate and types of accidents that occurred among private forest owners. We found large differences between the registries in the type and number of accidents that were reported. We encountered difficulties in defining "self-employed forest worker" and also in determining whether the accidents that did occur happened during work or leisure time. Consequently, the estimates for the accident rate that we obtained varied from 32 to > or = 4300 injured persons per year in Sweden, depending on the registry that was consulted, the definition of the sample population that was used, and the accident severity definition that was employed. Nevertheless, the different registries gave a consistent picture of the types of accidents that occur while individuals are participating in self-employed forestry work. Severe accidents were relatively common, as self-employed forestry work fatalities constituted 7% of the total number of fatalities in the work authority registry. Falling trees were associated with many of these fatal accidents as well as with accidents that resulted in severe non-fatal injuries. Thus, unsafe work methods appeared more related to the occurrence of an accident than the equipment that was being used at the time of the accident (e.g., a chainsaw). Improvement of the workers' skills should therefore be considered to be an important prevention measure that should be undertaken in this field. The challenges in improving the safety in these smallest of companies, which fall somewhere between the purview of

  3. Employability in Online Higher Education: A Case Study (United States)

    Silva, Ana Paula; Lourtie, Pedro; Aires, Luisa


    Over the past 15 years, learning in distance education universities has become more interactive, flexible, collaborative, and participative. Nevertheless, some accounts have highlighted the importance of developing more instrumental and standardized educational practices to answer the challenges of employability. In fact, the choice of skills that…

  4. Student Employment as a Model for Experiential Learning (United States)

    Fede, Jacquelyn H.; Gorman, Kathleen S.; Cimini, Maria E.


    Background: Evidence suggests experiential learning promotes the development of a range of transferrable skills including communication, responsibility, and social skills. However, many students are unable to participate in internships or other common forms of experiential education because they need to work for pay. University employment has been…

  5. Employment trends during preschool years among mothers of term singletons born with low birth weight. (United States)

    Hauge, Lars Johan; Kornstad, Tom; Nes, Ragnhild Bang; Kristensen, Petter; Irgens, Lorentz M; Landolt, Markus A; Eskedal, Leif T; Vollrath, Margarete E


    Children born at term with low birth weight (LBW) are regarded growth restricted and are at particular risk of adverse health outcomes requiring a high degree of parental participation in the day-to-day care. This study examined whether their increased risk of special health care needs compared to other children may influence mothers' opportunities for participation in the labor market at different times after delivery. Data from 32,938 participants in the population-based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study with singleton children born at term in 2004-2006 were linked to national registers in order to investigate the mothers' employment status when their children were 1-3 years in 2007 and 4-6 years in 2010. Children weighing less than two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean were defined as LBW children. Although not significantly different from mothers of children in the normal weight range, mothers of LBW children had the overall highest level of non-employment when the children were 1-3 years. At child age 4-6 years on the other hand, LBW was associated with an increased risk of non-employment (RR 1.39: 95 % CI 1.11-1.75) also after adjustment for factors associated with employment in general. In accordance with employment trends in the general population, our findings show that while mothers of normal birth weight children re-enter the labor market as their children grow older, mothers of LBW children born at term participate to a lesser extent in paid employment and remain at levels similar to those of mothers with younger children.

  6. Supported employment and education in comprehensive, integrated care for first episode psychosis: Effects on work, school, and disability income. (United States)

    Rosenheck, Robert; Mueser, Kim T; Sint, Kyaw; Lin, Haiqun; Lynde, David W; Glynn, Shirley M; Robinson, Delbert G; Schooler, Nina R; Marcy, Patricia; Mohamed, Somaia; Kane, John M


    Participation in work and school are central objectives for first episode psychosis (FEP) programs, but evidence effectiveness has been mixed in studies not focused exclusively on supported employment and education (SEE). Requirements for current motivation to work or go to school limit the generalizability of such studies. FEP participants (N=404) at thirty-four community treatment clinics participated in a cluster randomized trial that compared usual Community Care (CC) to NAVIGATE, a comprehensive, team-based treatment program that included ≥5h of SEE services per week, , grounded in many of the principles of the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment combined with supported education services. All study participants were offered SEE regardless of their initial interest in work or school. Monthly assessments over 24months recorded days of employment and attendance at school, days of participation in SEE, and both employment and public support income (including disability income). General Estimation Equation models were used to compare CC and NAVIGATE on work and school participation, employment and public support income, and the mediating effect of receiving ≥3 SEE visits on these outcomes. NAVIGATE treatment was associated with a greater increase in participation in work or school (p=0.0486) and this difference appeared to be mediated by SEE. No group differences were observed in earnings or public support payments. A comprehensive, team-based FEP treatment approach was associated with greater improvement in work or school participation, and this effect appears to be mediated, in part, by participation in SEE. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Self-employment in an equilibrium model of the labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Bradley


    Full Text Available Abstract Self-employed workers account for between 8 and 30 % of participants in the labor markets of OECD countries (Blanchower, Self-employment: more may not be better, 2004. This paper develops and estimates a general equilibrium model of the labor market that accounts for this sizable proportion. The model incorporates self-employed workers, some of whom hire paid employees in the market. Employment rates and earnings distributions are determined endogenously and are estimated to match their empirical counterparts. The model is estimated using the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS. The model is able to estimate nonpecuniary amenities associated with employment in different labor market states, accounting for both different employment dynamics within state and the misreporting of earnings by self-employed workers. Structural parameter estimates are then used to assess the impact of an increase in the generosity of unemployment benefits on the aggregate employment rate. Findings suggest that modeling the self-employed, some of whom hire paid employees implies that small increases in unemployment benefits leads to an expansion in aggregate employment. JEL Classification J21, J24, J28, J64

  8. Breastfeeding works: the role of employers in supporting women who wish to breastfeed and work in four organizations in England. (United States)

    Kosmala-Anderson, Joanna; Wallace, Louise M


    An important factor influencing duration of breastfeeding is mother's employment status. The main aim of this study was to determine the experience and views of employees (n = 46) in four large public sector organizations concerning breastfeeding support at work. Participants were recruited if they were employed by one of four public service employers and if they were planning to go on maternity leave in the next 6 months, on maternity leave or within 6 months of return from maternity leave. They completed a questionnaire anonymously. Almost 80% of women wanted to continue breastfeeding after returning to work. However, 90% of all respondents were not aware of any employer policy nor offered any information concerning support to enable breastfeeding after returning to work, despite two organizations having a range of maternity- and breastfeeding-related policies in development and some facilities in place. Almost 90% of respondents stated the employers should do more to support breastfeeding. This should include providing pregnant staff with information about breastfeeding support that they should expect and could therefore plan to use, including access to facilities to express and to store breast milk, to enable them to work flexible hours and to take rest breaks during working hours. Recommendations are made for employers.

  9. Employment as a Price or a Prize of Equality: A Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Barth


    Full Text Available To put Scandinavian employment in perspective, we ask whether wage compression hampers employment rates, or not. We answer by reviewing the most important theoretical arguments and the most informative regularities across countries with different wage distributions. The pattern seems to be that countries with compressed wage distributions tend to have higher employment, and countries with higher wage inequality tend to have lower employment. This also holds when we consider the rate of labor force participation. In line with the theoretical arguments, coordination in wage bargaining seems to contribute to both employment expansion and wage compression. There is a clear positive correlation between coordination and employment even when we control for inequality, country, and year-specific effects.

  10. The impact of diabetes on employment in Mexico. (United States)

    Seuring, Till; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc


    This study explores the impact of diabetes on employment in Mexico using data from the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS) (2005), taking into account the possible endogeneity of diabetes via an instrumental variable estimation strategy. We find that diabetes significantly decreases employment probabilities for men by about 10 percentage points (pdiabetes being endogenous. Further analysis shows that diabetes mainly affects the employment probabilities of men and women above the age of 44 and also has stronger effects on the poor than on the rich, particularly for men. We also find some indication for more adverse effects of diabetes on those in the large informal labour market compared to those in formal employment. Our results highlight--for the first time--the detrimental employment impact of diabetes in a developing country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    McCann, Bernard; Azzone, Vanessa; Merrick, Elizabeth L; Hiatt, Deirdre; Hodgkin, Dominic; Horgan, Constance M


    In today's complex private healthcare market, employers have varied preferences for particular features of behavioral health products such as Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs). Factors which may influence these preferences include: establishment size, type of organization, industry, workplace substance abuse regulations, and structure of health insurance benefits. This study of 103 large employer purchasers from a single managed behavioral healthcare organization investigated the impact of such variables on the EAP features that employers select to provide to workers and their families. Our findings indicate that for this group of employers, preferences for the type and delivery mode of EAP counseling services are fairly universal, while number of sessions provided and choices for EAP-provided worksite activities are much more varied, and may be more reflective of the diverse characteristics, organizational missions and workplace culture found among larger employers in the US.

  12. Is Temporary Agency Employment a Stepping Stone for Immigrants?


    Jahn, Elke J.; Rosholm, Michael


    We investigate whether agency employment is a bridge into regular employment for immigrants to Denmark using the timing-of-events approach. We provide evidence of large positive in-treatment effects, particularly for non-western immigrants and immigrants arriving during childhood. Post-treatment effects are fairly high for male non-western immigrants and immigrants from Eastern Europe.

  13. Do Creditor Rights Increase Employment Risk? Evidence from Loan Covenants


    Liang, J. Nellie; Falato, Antonio


    Using a regression discontinuity design, we provide evidence that incentive conflicts between firms and their creditors have a large impact on employees. There are sharp and substantial employment cuts following loan covenant violations, when creditors exercise their ex post control rights. The negative impact of violations on employment is stronger for firms that face more severe agency and financing frictions and those whose employees have weaker bargaining power. Employment cuts following ...

  14. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions (United States)

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine


    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  15. Productivity Gains from Training: The Views of Employers and Stakeholders (United States)

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou


    The paper investigates the views of employers and stakeholders in Cyprus regarding the effect of training on productivity in their organisation. Qualitative research was used to collect information from 26 individuals who represented different types of employers (public sector institutions, semi-government institutions, small and large private…

  16. Female labour force participation and fertility. (United States)

    Concepcion, M B


    The levels of labor force participation by women in selected Asian countries were recorded in a series of censuses taken over a period of years. These levels were less influenced than male employment levels by economic conditions and more influenced by cultural traits of the country. Postwar trends seem to have fallen in Korea, risen in Singapore and the Philippines, and remained steady in Japan, Malaya, and Thailand. The limitations of these data are mentioned. In Thailand and West Malaysia greater percentages of women worked in agricultural than non-agricultural employment; in the Philippines, where women did not work so much in agricultural pursuits, their jobs were still in traditional rather than in development industries. In the cities of Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur, fertility was lower for working than for non-working women. In rural agricultural areas, the fertility of working women was minimally higher, probably due to economic need of lar ger families. It is concluded that urban life separates the employment and the family roles of working women, leading to lowered fertility; this does not occur in rural areas. The creation of new roles for women alternative or supplementary to marriage and motherhood would result in lowered fertility. In high fertility Asian countries, policies directed toward greater participation of women in non-agricultural work and great er exposure to an urban lifestyle might achieve fertility reductions.

  17. Do childcare policies increase maternal employment?


    Vuri, Daniela


    Women’s labor force participation has rapidly increased in most countries, but mothers still struggle to achieve a satisfactory work−life balance. Childcare allows the primary caregiver, usually the mother, to take time away from childrearing for employment. Family policies that subsidize childcare and increase its availability have different effects on female labor supply across countries. For policymakers to determine how well these policies work, they should consider that policy effectiven...

  18. Social firms: sustainable employment for people with mental illness. (United States)

    Williams, Anne; Fossey, Ellie; Harvey, Carol


    Social firms or enterprises aim to offer sustainable employment in supportive workplaces for people who are disadvantaged in the labour market. Therefore, this study sought to explore employees' views in one social firm about the features of their workplace that they found supportive. Seven employees were recruited, all of whom experienced persistent mental illness, and had worked in this social firm for between eleven months and six years. A semi-structured interview, the Work Environment Impact Scale (version 2.0), was used to explore participants' views of their workplace and to rate how its physical and social characteristics impacted them. Participants also rated their job satisfaction with a modified Indiana Job Satisfaction Scale. Features of the social firm workplace identified by these employees as contributing to their sustained employment and satisfaction were the rewards, task demands, work schedule, and workplace interactions with supervisors and other co-workers. From their views, guiding principles for the development of supportive workplaces and evaluation of their capacity to afford sustainable employment were derived. This study adds to current knowledge about workplace supports from an employee perspective, and is of relevance for informing future social firm development, workplace design and evaluation.

  19. Are physiotherapy students adequately prepared to successfully gain employment? (United States)

    Jones, Mandy; McIntyre, Judith; Naylor, Sandra


    To explore the preparedness of final-year physiotherapy students for their progression into employment, and identify what universities can do to facilitate a smooth transition. A single-cohort study, utilising a qualitative design incorporating a survey followed by transcribed and coded semi-structured interviews. Interviews were held in the Placement and Careers Centre at Brunel University, London. Sixty final-year full- and part-time students participated in the survey, and 12 final-year full- and part-time students participated in the semi-structured interviews. Sixty students completed a questionnaire which explored their preparedness for employment. Questions related to the current job situation, the application process and the student's ideal first post. Responses from the questionnaire were analysed and discussed further through a digitally recorded interview. Twelve students were interviewed by an experienced interviewer from a non-physiotherapy background. Students felt unprepared for employment. Forty-seven per cent wanted a rotational post, but 26% would only spend 6 months and 39% would only spend 1 year looking for a job. Seventy-one percent would change career and 99% would work abroad if they were unable to secure a post in the UK. Most importantly, students could not identify transferable skills required by potential employers; only 25% cited effective communications, and 10% cited flexible working as a transferable skill. Self-management skills (e.g. prioritisation, time management and documentation) were not perceived as essential for employment. The job market requires physiotherapy graduates to possess transferable skills which can be applied to any situation. Many are integral to the profession and the undergraduate curriculum; however, analysis and assimilation of these skills cannot be assumed. Universities should reflect on their curriculum delivery to produce graduates who meet employers' expectations and make a smooth transition into the

  20. Informal care, employment and quality of life: Barriers and facilitators to combining informal care and work participation for healthcare professionals. (United States)

    Heitink, Eveline; Heerkens, Yvonne; Engels, Josephine


    In The Netherlands, one out of six Dutch employees has informal care tasks; in the hospital and healthcare sector, this ratio is one out of four workers. Informal carers experience problems with the combination of work and informal care. In particular, they have problems with the burden of responsibility, a lack of independence and their health. These problems can reveal themselves in a variety of mental and physical symptoms that can result in absenteeism, reduction or loss of (work) participation, reduction of income, and even social isolation. The aim of the study was to describe the factors that informal carers who are employed in healthcare organizations identify as affecting their quality of life, labour participation and health. We conducted an exploratory study in 2013-2014 that included desk research and a qualitative study. Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with healthcare employees who combine work and informal care. Data were analyzed with Atlas-TI. We identified five themes: 1. Fear and responsibility; 2. Sense that one's own needs are not being met; 3. Work as an escape from home; 4. Health: a lack of balance; and 5. The role of colleagues and managers: giving support and understanding. Respondents combine work and informal care because they have no other solution. The top three reasons for working are: income, escape from home and satisfaction. The biggest problems informal carers experience are a lack of time and energy. They are all tired and are often or always exhausted at the end of the day. They give up activities for themselves, their social networks become smaller and they have less interest in social activities. Their managers are usually aware of the situation, but informal care is not a topic of informal conversation or in performance appraisals. Respondents solve their problems with colleagues and expect little from the organization.

  1. Trapped Between Ableism And Neoliberalism : Critical Reflections On Disability And Employment In India


    Kumar, Arun; Sonpal, Deepa; Hiranandani, Vanmala


    Despite affirmative actions such as reservations in government employment, incentives and subsidies to employers, tax exemptions to persons with disabilities, skill-development trainings etc, employment for persons with disabilities continues to be characterised by lower work-force participation, lower wages, lack of career advancement opportunities, and discrimination at the workplace. Simultaneously, social security benefits have been declining due to shrinking state role. With the ratifica...

  2. The Hidden Social Costs of Precarious Employment: Parental Co-Residence, Marriage Timing, and Political Participation During Young Adulthood


    Kofman, Yelizavetta


    Precarious employment—that is, jobs that entail a nonstandard contract, are short term, and/or do not provide fringe benefits like health insurance and retirement savings—has become a widely discussed topic in the media and a key research topic among scholars. Despite increasing scholarly and public interest in precarious employment, however, few studies have considered the effects of such employment beyond typical work and career outcomes. Using longitudinal panel data from the National Lon...

  3. Green fiscal reform and employment. A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majocchi, A.


    In the European debate an increase in employment is generally regarded as an important extra-dividend - in addition to improved environmental quality - from environmental taxes. The scope of this paper is to evaluate, going through the existing empirical literature, if - and to what degree - this result could be achieved through a green fiscal reform. A further goal of this paper is to assess which taxes are more efficient in terms of employment-creation when they are utilized for recycling back to the economy the revenue flowing from environmental taxes. This kind of exercise is largely different from the theoretical analysis of the double dividend issue. A large quantity of literature has grown during the recent years according to this approach, but this version of the double dividend theory will be disregarded in this paper. 8 tabs., 38 refs

  4. Part-Time Employment and Problem Behaviors: Evidence From Adolescents in South Korea. (United States)

    Lee, Moosung; Oi-Yeung Lam, Beatrice; Ju, Eunsu; Dean, Jenny


    This study explores the impact of adolescent part-time work experience on problem behaviors in the South Korean context. To achieve this, propensity score matching (PSM) analyses were employed based on data from the Korean Education Employment Panel (KEEP). Results indicate that adolescents' part-time employment during their secondary school years had significantly undesirable effects on drinking and smoking, even after preexisting differences between the two groups (i.e., those adolescents who participated in part-time work and those who did not) were controlled by PSM. However, an insignificant difference was detected in the likelihood of running away from home. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of changes in the meanings of adolescence and of participating in part-time work in South Korea. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  5. The impact of arthritis on the early employment experiences of young adults: A literature review. (United States)

    Jetha, Arif


    Young adulthood is an important transitional life phase that can determine a person's career trajectory. To date, little research has examined the influence of arthritis on early work experiences. This literature review aims at examining the impact of arthritis on the early career phase of young adults and identifying the barriers to employment. Two independent reviewers searched bibliographic databases for arthritis conditions and a series of employment-related keywords and subject headings. Information on authors, publication year; study design, sample characteristics (e.g., number of participants, age, gender, arthritis type); work outcomes measured; and specific barriers to employment was recorded. Nine studies were uncovered in the review. All studies examined young people with juvenile arthritis (9 of 9 studies) and consisted of sample sizes with less then 150 participants (6 of 9 studies) who were primarily recruited from clinics (7 of 9 studies). All were cross-sectional designs. Employment status was primarily examined and ranged from 11% to 71%. Although not always statistically significant, young adults with arthritis were less likely to be employed when compared to their healthy peers. Greater disease severity, less educational attainment and being female were related to not participating in paid work. This review brings to light the paucity of studies examining the early employment experiences of young adults with arthritis. There is a need to expand research to contribute to recommendations for sustained and productive employment across the working life course. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Periodontitis is an independent risk indicator for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases among 60 174 participants in a large dental school in the Netherlands. (United States)

    Beukers, Nicky G F M; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; van Wijk, Arjen J; Loos, Bruno G


    The association between periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ACVD) has been established in some modestly sized studies (periodontitis has been studied directly; often tooth loss or self-reported periodontitis has been used as a proxy measure for periodontitis. Our aim is to investigate the adjusted association between periodontitis and ACVD among all individuals registered in a large dental school in the Netherlands (Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA)). Anonymised data were extracted from the electronic health records for all registered patients aged >35 years (period 1998-2013). A participant was recorded as having periodontitis based on diagnostic and treatment codes. Any affirmative answer for cerebrovascular accidents, angina pectoris and/or myocardial infarction labelled a participant as having ACVD. Other risk factors for ACVD, notably age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and social economic status, were also extracted. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the adjusted associations between periodontitis and ACVD. 60 174 individuals were identified; 4.7% of the periodontitis participants (455/9730) and 1.9% of the non-periodontitis participants (962/50 444) reported ACVD; periodontitis showed a significant association with ACVD (OR 2.52; 95% CI 2.3 to 2.8). After adjustment for the confounders, periodontitis remained independently associated with ACVD (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.39 to 1.81). With subsequent stratification for age and sex, periodontitis remained independently associated with ACVD. This cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort in the Netherlands of 60 174 participants shows the independent association of periodontitis with ACVD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  7. The Impact of Women's Labour Force Participation on Domestic Violence in Jordan


    Lenze, Jana; Klasen, Stephan


    Enhancing women’s participation in the labour force has been seen as a way to promote their empowerment which in turn is believed to enhance their well-being and well-being of their children. However, the empirical literature on the relationship between women’s employment status and domestic violence is less clear-cut. Motivated by this ambiguity, this study explores the effect of women’s employment measured by their participation in paid work outside the home on reported spousal violence, ba...

  8. Women Scientists and Engineers: Trends in Participation. (United States)

    Vetter, Betty M.


    Examines trends in participation of women in science and engineering over the past decade and estimates changes during the 1980s. Focuses on educational attainment, employment status and sector, and salaries, and indicates a gap in salaries and career opportunities between men and women. (JN)

  9. Female labor force participation in developing countries


    Verick, Sher


    While women’s labor force participation tends to increase with economic development, the relationship is not straightforward or consistent at the country level. There is considerably more variation across developing countries in labor force participation by women than by men. This variation is driven by a wide variety of economic and social factors, which include economic growth, education, and social norms. Looking more broadly at improving women’s access to quality employment, a critica...

  10. The influence of living arrangements, marital patterns and family configuration on employment rates among the 1945-1954 birth cohort: evidence from ten European countries. (United States)

    Ogg, Jim; Renaut, Sylvie


    As they approach retirement, Europeans in mid-life display a range of living arrangements and marital patterns. These configurations influence labour force participation for men and women in different ways and these differences are accentuated between countries. Using data from the first Wave (2004) of the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), the paper examines the relationship between living arrangements, marital patterns, family configurations and participation in the labour force for the birth cohort of 1945-1954. The data show that the probability of being in paid employment was higher for respondents living in a couple in northern Europe than in southern Europe. In all countries, men in a couple had significantly higher employment rates than women in a couple, but employment rates of women in a couple differed significantly between countries. Multivariate analysis with country effects confirmed the negative influence of age, poor health, lower levels of education and household income on the probability of being in paid employment, but the effect of variables concerning living arrangements, marital patterns and family configurations varied according to country. A multilevel analysis showed that the between country variance of being in paid employment could not be explained by individual characteristics alone, that a large part of the country variance could be explained by the country specific effect of women in a couple, and that the level of 'modern' life styles in each country (rates of cohabitation outside marriage, divorce or separation and recomposed families) had a significant effect on employment rates, especially for women in a couple.

  11. Employment and Growth | Page 33 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Youth are central to Bangladesh's shift from a rural to urban economy. The country's booming garment industry has created urban employment for large ... held before the meetings of G-20 labour and finance ministers in Ankara, focused on ...

  12. Physician assistant wages and employment, 2000-2025. (United States)

    Quella, Alicia; Brock, Douglas M; Hooker, Roderick S


    This study sought to assess physician assistant (PA) wages, make comparisons with other healthcare professionals, and project their earnings to 2025. The Bureau of Labor Statistics PA employment datasets were probed, and 2013 wages were used to explore median wage differences between large employer categories and 14 years of historical data (2000-2013). Median wages of PAs, family physicians and general practitioners, pharmacists, registered nurses, advanced practice nurses, and physical therapists were compared. Linear regression was used to project the PA median wage to 2025. In 2013, the median hourly wage for a PA employed in a clinical role was $44.70. From 2000 to 2013, PA wages increased by 40% compared with the cumulative inflation rate of 35.3%. This suggests that demand exceeds supply, a finding consistent with similar clinicians such as family physicians. A predictive model suggests that PA employment opportunities and remuneration will remain high through 2025.

  13. Early retirement and non-employment after breast cancer. (United States)

    Lindbohm, M-L; Kuosma, E; Taskila, T; Hietanen, P; Carlsen, K; Gudbergsson, S; Gunnarsdottir, H


    This study examined whether workplace support, sociodemographic factors and co-morbidity are associated with early retirement or non-employment due to other reasons among breast cancer survivors. We also compared quality of life and chronic symptoms (pain, fatigue, anxiety and depression) among employed, retired and other non-employed breast cancer survivors. We identified breast cancer survivors diagnosed between 1997 and 2002 from either a hospital or a cancer registry in Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway (NOCWO study). All patients had been treated with curative intent. Information on employment, co-morbidity and support was collected via a questionnaire. The sample included 1111 working-aged cancer-free survivors who had been employed at the time of diagnosis. We used multinomial logistic regression models to analyse the association of various determinants with early retirement and other non-employment (due to unemployment, subsidized employment or being a homemaker). Low education, low physical quality of life, co-morbidity and pain were associated with both early retirement and other non-employment after cancer. Other non-employed survivors also rated their mental quality of life as lower and experienced anxiety and fatigue more often than all the other survivors. Moreover, they reported a lower level of supervisor support after their diagnosis than the employed survivors. Retired survivors more often reported weak support from colleagues. Differences in ill health and functional status between various groups of non-employed cancer survivors need to be considered when planning policy measures for improving the labour market participation of this population and preventing their early withdrawal from working life. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Employment and insurance outcomes and factors associated with employment among long-term thyroid cancer survivors: a population-based study from the PROFILES registry. (United States)

    Tamminga, S J; Bültmann, U; Husson, O; Kuijpens, J L P; Frings-Dresen, M H W; de Boer, A G E M


    To obtain insight into employment and insurance outcomes of thyroid cancer survivors and to examine the association between not having employment and other factors including quality of life. In this cross-sectional population-based study, long-term thyroid cancer survivors from the Netherlands participated. Clinical data were collected from the cancer registry. Information on employment, insurance, socio-demographic characteristics, long-term side effects, and quality of life was collected with questionnaires. Of the 223 cancer survivors (response rate 87 %), 71 % were employed. Of the cancer survivors who tried to obtain insurance, 6 % reported problems with obtaining health care insurance, 62 % with life insurance, and 16 % with a mortgage. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (OR 1.07, CI 1.02-1.11), higher level of fatigue (OR 1.07, CI 1.01-1.14), and lower educational level (OR 3.22, CI 1.46-7.09) were associated with not having employment. Employment was associated with higher quality of life. Many thyroid cancer survivors face problems when obtaining a life insurance, and older, fatigued, and lower educated thyroid cancer survivors may be at risk for not having employment.

  15. Can Student Teachers Acquire Core Skills for Teaching from Part-Time Employment? (United States)

    Wylie, Ken; Cummins, Brian


    Part-time employment among university students has become commonplace internationally. Research has largely focused on the impact of part-time employment on academic performance. This research takes an original approach in that it poses the question whether students can acquire core skills relevant to teaching from their part-time employment. The…

  16. The changing face of employment relations: equality and diversity


    Moore, Sian; Tailby, Stephanie


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore what has happened to the notion and reality of equal pay over the past 50 years, a period in which women have become the majority of trade union members in the UK. It does so in the context of record employment levels based upon women’s increased labour market participation albeit reflecting their continued over-representation in part-time employment, locating the narrowed but persistent overall gender pay gap in the broader picture of pay ine...

  17. Predictors of work participation of young adults with mild intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among

  18. Predictors of work participation in young adults with mild intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, A.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; Brouwer, S.


    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among

  19. Internships, employment opportunities, and research grants (United States)



    As an unbiased, multidisciplinary science organization, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is dedicated to the timely, relevant, and impartial study of the health of our ecosystems and environment, our natural resources, the impacts of climate and land-use change, and the natural hazards that threaten us. Opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students and faculty to participate in USGS science are available in the selected programs described below. Please note: U.S. citizenship is required for all government positions.This publication has been superseded by USGS General Information Product 165 Grant Opportunities for Academic Research and Training and USGS General Information Product 166 Student and Recent Graduate Employment Opportunities.This publication is proceeded by USGS General Information Product 80 Internships, Employment Opportunities, and Research Grants published in 2008.

  20. The Action under the EU´s Employment Programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Laura; Nygaard Madsen, Jeanette; Rasmussen, Britt

    -2000 the Danish National Institute of Social Research has evaluated the action under two of these program­mes: Objective 3 and Employ­ment (Denmark). The concluding part of this evaluation is presented in this report. The report represents a review of the programmes, the participants, and the effects...

  1. The Therapeutic Utility of Employment in Treating Drug Addiction: Science to Application. (United States)

    Silverman, Kenneth; Holtyn, August F; Morrison, Reed


    Research on a model Therapeutic Workplace has allowed for evaluation of the use of employment in the treatment of drug addiction. Under the Therapeutic Workplace intervention, adults with histories of drug addiction are hired and paid to work. To promote drug abstinence or adherence to addiction medications, participants are required to provide drug-free urine samples or take prescribed addiction medications, respectively, to gain access to the workplace and/or to maintain their maximum rate of pay. Research has shown that the Therapeutic Workplace intervention is effective in promoting and maintaining abstinence from heroin, cocaine and alcohol and in promoting adherence to naltrexone. Three models could be used to implement and maintain employment-based reinforcement in the treatment of drug addiction: A Social Business model, a Cooperative Employer model, and a Wage Supplement model. Under all models, participants initiate abstinence in a training and abstinence initiation phase (Phase 1). Under the Social Business model, Phase 1 graduates are hired as employees in a social business and required to maintain abstinence to maintain employment and/or maximum pay. Under the Cooperative Employer model, cooperating community employers hire graduates of Phase 1 and require them to maintain abstinence to maintain employment and/or maximum pay. Under the Wage Supplement Model, graduates of Phase 1 are offered abstinence-contingent wage supplements if they maintain competitive employment in a community job. Given the severity and persistence of the problem of drug addiction and the lack of treatments that can produce lasting effects, continued development of the Therapeutic Workplace is warranted.

  2. 75 FR 78939 - Senior Community Service Employment Program; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, Additional Indicator... (United States)


    ... Community Service Employment Program; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, Additional Indicator on Volunteer Work... Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP), Additional Indicator on Volunteer Work that was... number of exiting participants who enter volunteer work. The relevant Office of Management and Budget...

  3. Editorial: Enterprise Participation (January 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Smith


    Full Text Available In The Role of Participation Architecture in Growing Sponsored Open Source Communities, Joel West and Siobhan O'Mahony argue that "to some extent, firms and technical communities have always collaborated to create standards, shared infrastructure, and innovation outcomes that are bigger than any one firm can achieve." and that "there is increasing evidence that path breaking innovations cannot occur without a community to interpret, support, extend and diffuse them". When considered in this light, it should not be surprising that more enterprises, both large and small, are increasing their participation in open source communities to drive innovation. The theme for this month's issue of the OSBR is enterprise participation and the authors provide practical advice for effective enterprise/community collaboration. Their experiences provide perspectives on: i the Eclipse Foundation, which maintains an ecosystem of over 150 enterprises that participate in Eclipse open source projects; ii an independent software vendor that sells closed source solutions constructed on top of an open source platform to large enterprise customers; iii the impact of major players collaborating on a common open source platform for the mobile industry; iv the role users can play in the very large (over 14 million GNOME community; and v the lessons a scientist from the National Research Council of Canada learned when he released software and started a small open source community.

  4. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement following inpatient detoxification in HIV-positive opioid and/or cocaine-dependent patients


    Dunn, Kelly; Fingerhood, Michael; Wong, Conrad J.; Svikis, Dace S.; Nuzzo, Paul; Silverman, Kenneth


    Employment-based reinforcement interventions have been used to promote abstinence from drugs among chronically unemployed injection drug users. The current study utilized an employment-based reinforcement intervention to promote opiate and cocaine abstinence among opioid-dependent, HIV-positive participants who had recently completed a brief inpatient detoxification. Participants (n=46) were randomly assigned to an Abstinence & Work group that was required to provide negative urine samples in...


    Cunradi, Carol B; Ames, Genevieve M; Xiao, Hong


    This study analyzed the role of women's labor force participation in relation to binge drinking, smoking and marijuana use among employment age married/cohabiting women. The sample consisted of 956 women who were employed as construction workers (n=104), or were unemployed (n=101), homemakers (n=227) or employed in non-physically demanding occupations (n=524). Results of multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that women construction workers were at elevated risk for smoking and monthly binge drinking; unemployed women were more likely to use marijuana. Women in both categories were at risk for polysubstance use. Additional research is needed to explicate how labor force participation influences women's substance use.

  6. Employment and educational outcomes in early intervention programmes for early psychosis: a systematic review. (United States)

    Bond, G R; Drake, R E; Luciano, A


    Young adults with early psychosis want to pursue normal roles - education and employment. This paper summarises the empirical literature on the effectiveness of early intervention programmes for employment and education outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of employment/education outcomes for early intervention programmes, distinguishing three programme types: (1) those providing supported employment, (2) those providing unspecified vocational services and (3) those without vocational services. We summarised findings for 28 studies. Eleven studies evaluated early intervention programmes providing supported employment. In eight studies that reported employment outcomes separately from education outcomes, the employment rate during follow-up for supported employment patients was 49%, compared with 29% for patients receiving usual services. The two groups did not differ on enrolment in education. In four controlled studies, meta-analysis showed that the employment rate for supported employment participants was significantly higher than for control participants, odds ratio = 3.66 [1.93-6.93], p < 0.0001. Five studies (four descriptive and one quasi-experimental) of early intervention programmes evaluating unspecified vocational services were inconclusive. Twelve studies of early intervention programmes without vocational services were methodologically heterogeneous, using diverse methods for evaluating vocational/educational outcomes and precluding a satisfactory meta-analytic synthesis. Among studies with comparison groups, 7 of 11 (64%) reported significant vocational/education outcomes favouring early intervention over usual services. In early intervention programmes, supported employment moderately increases employment rates but not rates of enrolment in education. These improvements are in addition to the modest effects early programmes alone have on vocational/educational outcomes compared with usual services.

  7. Employment and absenteeism in working-age persons with multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Salter, Amber; Thomas, Nina; Tyry, Tuula; Cutter, Gary; Marrie, Ruth Ann


    To better understand the impact of the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) and disability on employment, absenteeism, and related factors. This study included respondents to the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis Registry spring 2015 update survey who were US or Canadian residents, aged 18-65 years and reported having relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), secondary progressive MS (SPMS), or primary progressive MS (PPMS). The RRMS and SPMS participants were combined to form the relapsing-onset MS (RMS) group and compared with the PPMS group regarding employment status, absenteeism, and disability. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between employment-related outcomes and factors that may affect these relationships. Of the 8004 survey respondents, 5887 (73.6%) were 18-65 years of age. The PPMS group (n = 344) had a higher proportion of males and older mean age at the time of the survey and at time of diagnosis than the RMS group (n = 4829). Female sex, age, age at diagnosis, cognitive and hand function impairment, fatigue, higher disability levels, ≥3 comorbidities, and a diagnosis of PPMS were associated with not working. After adjustment for disability, the employed PPMS sub-group reported similar levels of absenteeism to the employed RMS sub-group. Limitations of the study include self-report of information and the possibility that participants may not fully represent the working-age MS population. In MS, employment status and absenteeism are negatively affected by disability, cognitive impairment, and fatigue. These findings underscore the need for therapies that prevent disability progression and other symptoms that negatively affect productivity in persons with MS to enable them to persist in the workforce.

  8. 77 FR 27252 - Veterans' Employment and Training; Veterans Workforce Investment Program (United States)


    ... service delivery systems that will address the complex employability problems facing eligible veterans; and (c) to increase the skills and competency level of veteran participants through longer-term...

  9. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Maternal Employment during Early Childhood and the Elementary School Years. (United States)

    Gambone, Kirsten; Gelband, Amy; Farrell, Debi; Black, Aimee; Szuchyt, Jamie; Aivazian, Casey; Lang, Allison; Nyce, Susan; Johnson, Lisa; Thomas, Amy; Arena, Jordan; Weiner, Stacie; Zohe, Dorothoy; Cane, Susan; Chambliss, Catherine

    Noting the lack of research into the effects of maternal employment on the cognitions of a young adult sample, this study examined the relationship between maternal employment and college students' beliefs about the consequences of maternal employment and their own plans for future workplace involvement. Participating in the study were 635…

  10. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers: performance and prospects. (United States)

    Wicks, E K; Hall, M A


    Health insurance purchasing cooperatives were established in the early to mid-1990s for the purpose of making health insurance more affordable and accessible for small employers. Extensive interviews at six cooperatives reveal that while some cooperatives enrolled large numbers of small employers, most have won only small market shares and a number have struggled for survival, not always successfully. They have allowed small employers to offer individual employees choice of health plans, but none has been able to sustain lower prices than are available in the conventional market. Among the important impediments to their success are limited support from health plans and conflicts over the role of insurance agents.


    Lee, Chin Chin; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph


    An increasingly aging workforce and advances in technology are changing work environments and structures. The continued employability of older adults, particularly those of lower socioeconomic status (SES), requires them to participate in training programs to ensure their competence in today's workplace. Focus groups with 37 unemployed adults (51-76 years old) were conducted to gather information about barriers and obstacles for returning to work, training needs and formats, work experiences, and perceptions of the characteristics of an ideal job. Overall, results indicated that participants experienced age discrimination and lack of technology skills. They also expressed a desire to receive additional training on technology and a preference for classroom training.

  12. Predictors of sustainable work participation of young adults with developmental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    For individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) work participation is a challenge, as shown by their low employment rates. The aim of this study was to investigate which factors predict work participation, finding work as well as maintaining

  13. Employability in Online Higher Education: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva


    Full Text Available Over the past 15 years, learning in distance education universities has become more interactive, flexible, collaborative, and participative. Nevertheless, some accounts have highlighted the importance of developing more instrumental and standardized educational practices to answer the challenges of employability. In fact, the choice of skills that are important to learning communities and the labour market has been the subject of controversy because it involves heterogeneous motives among different groups.This paper compares the perceptions of employability skills in a sample of teachers from the Universidade Aberta and a sample of students who attend a local learning centre at this University. The research focused on the following dimensions: a the most important employability skills, and b the employability skills to be developed in online undergraduate degrees. To collect the required data, a questionnaire was prepared and applied to students and teachers, taking the theoretical model of Knight and Yorke (2006 as its main reference. In spite of the specificity of each group, the results revealed some similarities between students and teachers with regard to employability. The conclusions also highlighted the need to promote research on this matter in online education.

  14. Analysis of approaches to classification of forms of non-standard employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Dorokhova


    Full Text Available Currently becoming more widespread non-standard forms of employment. If this is not clear approach to the definition and maintenance of non-standard employment. In the article the analysis of diverse interpretations of the concept, on what basis, the author makes a conclusion about the complexity and contradictory nature of precarious employment as an economic category. It examines different approaches to classification of forms of precarious employment. The main forms of precarious employment such as flexible working year, flexible working week, flexible working hours, remote work, employees on call, shift forwarding; Agency employment, self-employment, negotiator, underemployment, over employment, employment on the basis of fixed-term contracts employment based on contract of civil-legal nature, one-time employment, casual employment, temporary employment, secondary employment and part-time. The author’s approach to classification of non-standard forms of employment, based on identifying the impact of atypical employment on the development of human potential. For the purpose of classification of non-standard employment forms from the standpoint of their impact on human development as the criteria of classification proposed in the following: working conditions, wages and social guarantees, possibility of workers ' participation in management, personal development and self-employment stability. Depending on what value each of these criteria, some form of non-standard employment can be attributed to the progressive or regressive. Classification of non-standard forms of employment should be the basis of the state policy of employment management.

  15. It can work: Open employment for people with experience of mental illness. (United States)

    Peterson, Debbie; Gordon, Sarah; Neale, Jenny


    Previous research has tended to focus on the barriers to employment for people with mental illness and the extra support they may need. This research contributes to the knowledge base pertaining to this population by looking at successful employment relationships in New Zealand. To describe factors enabling and/or sustaining the open employment of people with experience of mental illness. Fifteen pairs of employers and employees were interviewed individually but consecutively (using a semi-structured interview schedule) about their perceptions of the critical factors that enabled and sustained the employee's employment. Employee participants were recruited by advertisement, with employers approached through their employees. Transcripts were analysed using a thematic analysis. Themes raised in the interviews included the meaning of work, disclosure of mental illness, the benefits of working, special arrangements or accommodations, the work environment and key things employers and employees do to sustain successful employment. Four critical success factors were identified relating to disclosure, the employment relationship, freedom from discrimination and workplace flexibility.

  16. Proposed purchasing, employment and training policies for northern projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Manitoba Hydro is about to embark on a major construction project in the northern part of the province. Important considerations involved in this project include purchasing the necessary materials, products, and services, and employing a suitable work force. An outline is presented of draft policies being considered by Manitoba Hydro to enhance northern-aboriginal and northern participation in its future development projects in northern Manitoba. The policies are presented in four sections: purchasing for northern construction and operation activities; training and employment for construction of a generation station and expansion of a converter station; training and employment for construction of a major north-south transmission line; and training and employment for northern operations and maintenance work at existing facilities. Aspects of these policies include giving preference in purchasing to northern and aboriginal businesses, training initiatives and employee counselling for aboriginal employees, and hiring preferences directed toward northern aboriginals and northern residents

  17. The Association between Maternal Employment and Young Adults' Subsequent Relationships with Their Parents. (United States)

    Guth, Christine M.; Chambliss, Catherine

    Noting that few studies have assessed the long-term correlates of maternal employment during infancy, this study assessed the quality of college-age students' current relationships with their parents as a function of the employment status of their parents during the respondents' childhood. Participating in the research were 822 college students…

  18. Married Parents' Perceptions of the Specific Costs and Benefits Associated with Maternal Employment. (United States)

    DiBlasi, Francis Paul; Fronheiser, April; Baker, Kathleen; Fontanez, Mary; Fulmer, Kim; Ryckebusch, Jenna; Ellis, Trisha; Miller, Heather; Carey, Brandi; Gorton, Laura; Chambliss, Catherine

    This investigation explored parents' attitudes about the risks and benefits associated with maternal employment. The responses of husbands and wives from single paycheck versus dual paycheck families were compared. Participants in this study were 109 mothers and 96 fathers given a survey assessing their views on maternal employment. This study…

  19. 76 FR 68808 - Exchange Visitor Program-Cap on Current Participant Levels and Moratorium on New Sponsor... (United States)


    ... participants for whom sponsors are responsible and the third parties that sponsors rely upon to assist them in administering their programs (i.e., U.S. employers and foreign agents); (b) requires that participants from non... sponsors to fully vet employers and all SWT job offers; and, (d) requires sponsors to contact current...

  20. Broward County Employers' Training Needs Assessment. (United States)

    Mehallis, Mantha Vlahos

    An assessment of the training needs of Broward County, Florida, employers was conducted: (1) to determine the existing training needs of large businesses, industrial firms, and local units of government; (2) to determine which educational agencies in the county could fulfill these needs; and (3) to inform the companies of the results in order to…

  1. Environment, employment and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, A.S.


    It is generally recognised that the question of sustainable development is a global problem, emphasizing the increasingly interdependent nature of relationships among nations. Solutions to the problem are as much political as they are economic and technological. Notwithstanding the deepening and widening of the debate on sustainable development, its implications for employment - a major concern of the ILO under its World Employment Programme - have remained largely unexplored. This volume, therefore, has a very modest objective, namely to place the employment question on the policy agenda in the context of the current debate on environment and development. The design of environmental policies should allow for the differences that exist between countries with a high level of development and technological dynamism and those with a low level of development and low technological capability. One must also recognize the costs imposed by adjustment and the consequent distributional impact. In the long term, technology choice plays a crucial role in promoting sustainable development in both industrialized and developing countries. It is not only environment-friendly technologies that need to be developed and diffused; in the case of the least developed countries, technological transformation needs to be accelerated in order to minimise their dependence on natural resources for economic growth. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Work participation among young adults with spina bifida in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mechelen, M. C.; Verhoef, M.; van Asbeck, F. W. A.; Post, M. W. M.


    The aim of this study was to: (1) assess work participation among young adults with spina bifida, (2) identify problems perceived in finding employment, and (3) examine which determinants are related to work participation. This cross-sectional study was a follow-up study to the Adolescents with

  3. Commitment language and homework completion in a behavioral employment program for gang-affiliated youth. (United States)

    Smith, Caitlin; Huey, Stanley J; McDaniel, Dawn D


    Research with substance-abusing samples suggests that eliciting commitment language during treatment may improve motivation to change, increase treatment engagement, and promote positive treatment outcomes. However, the relationship between in-session client language and treatment success is not well-understood for youth offender populations. This study evaluated the relationship between commitment language, treatment engagement (i.e., homework completion), and weekly employment outcomes for six gang-affiliated juvenile offenders participating in an employment counseling intervention. Weekly counseling sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded for commitment language strength. Multilevel models were fit to the data to examine the relationship between commitment language and counseling homework or employment outcomes within participants over time. Commitment language strength predicted subsequent homework completion but not weekly employment. These findings imply that gang-affiliated delinquent youth who express motivation to change during employment counseling will be more likely to comply with counselor-initiated homework. Further research on counselor techniques for promoting commitment language among juvenile gang offenders is needed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Gender, Poverty and Employment in India


    V. Gayathri


    Development theories recognise that employment is central to the alleviation of poverty and the enhancement of well-being. This means that at the practical level, it is understood that labour-intensive growth and greater labour-force participation by women are necessary elements for poverty reduction. At the level of discursive practice, the gender and poverty debates treat labour as an abstract category. In recognition of this lacuna, this paper attempts to address two principal questions: a...

  5. Employ a Mobile Agent for Making a Payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang


    Full Text Available The mobile agent paradigm offers flexibility and autonomy to e-commerce applications. But it is challenging to employ a mobile agent to make a payment due to the security consideration. In this paper, we propose a new agent-assisted secure payment protocol, which is based on SET payment protocol and aims at enabling the dispatched consumer-agent to autonomously sign contracts and make the payment on behalf of the cardholder after having found the best merchant, without the possibility of disclosing any secret to any participant. This is realized by adopting the Signature-Share scheme, and employing a Trusted Third Party (TTP. In the proposed protocol, the principle that each participant knows what is strictly necessary for his/her role is followed as in SET. In addition, mechanisms have been devised for preventing and detecting double payment, overspending and overpayment attacks. Finally the security properties of the proposed protocol are studied analytically. In comparison with other existing models, the proposed protocol is more efficient and can detect more attacks.

  6. Incentivi al lavoro permanente e contratto a tutele crescenti: un approccio controfattuale alla stima dell’impatto sulle assunzioni a tempo indeterminato nel 2015 (Bonuses to Permanent Employment and the New Italian Employment Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bendinelli


    Full Text Available Using a large dataset representative of the Italian labour market, the article evaluates the recent structural reforms in Italy, especially the so-called Jobs Act and a large-scale scheme of employment subsidies. Using difference-in-difference techniques, the author shows that the reforms had a positive impact on the number of "standard" open-ended employment contracts as a share of new employment contracts. However, disentangling the impact of the various reforms will not be possible before several years.

  7. Weighting the Benefits of Part-Time Employment in College: Perspectives from Indigenous Undergraduates (United States)

    Wang, Chin-Fah; Chen, Shan-Hua


    Although many scholars assert that students' job involvement is beneficial, there is no consensus on the effect of part-time employment taken by term-time undergraduates. Since more and more indigenous students are participating in part-time employment, and most of them are involved in disadvantaged jobs-longer hours, heavier workload, and smaller…

  8. Empowered Diabetes Management: Life Coaching and Pharmacist Counseling for Employed Adults with Diabetes (United States)

    Nishita, Christy; Cardazone, Gina; Uehara, Denise Lea; Tom, Tammy


    The Hawai'i Demonstration to Maintain Independence and Employment was a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of a participant-driven, multicomponent intervention on 190 employed adults with diabetes, 36% of whom were Asian and 35% of whom were Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander. A no treatment concurrent control group was used, and…

  9. 20 CFR 667.262 - Are employment generating activities, or similar activities, allowable under WIA title I? (United States)


    ... enterprise zone vouchering services, (4) Active participation in local business resource centers (incubators... employers for the purpose of placement of WIA participants; (2) Participation in business associations (such as chambers of commerce); joint labor management committees, labor associations, and resource centers...

  10. Paid parental leave supports breastfeeding and mother-infant relationship: a prospective investigation of maternal postpartum employment. (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W


    To investigate the association between the mother-infant relationship, defined as maternal-infant emotional attachment, maternal separation anxiety and breastfeeding, and maternal employment status at 10 months following first childbirth. Samples of employed, pregnant women, over 18 years of age and with sufficient English literacy were recruited systematically from one public and one private maternity hospital in Victoria. Data were collected by structured interview and self-report questionnaire in the third trimester, and at 3 and 10 months postpartum. Socio-demographic, employment, and breastfeeding information was collected. Participants completed standardised assessments of maternal separation anxiety and mother-to-infant emotional attachment. Of 205 eligible women, 165 (81%) agreed to participate and 129 (78%) provided complete data. A reduced odds of employment participation was independently associated with continuing to breastfeed at 10 months (OR=0.22, p=0.004) and reporting higher maternal separation anxiety (OR=0.23, p=0.01) when maternal age, education, occupational status and use of paid maternity leave and occupational status were adjusted for in analyses. Employment participation in the first 10 months postpartum is associated with lower maternal separation anxiety, and shorter breastfeeding duration. Paid parental leave has public health implications for mothers and infants. These include permitting sufficient time to protect sustained breastfeeding, and the development of optimal maternal infant attachment, reflected in confidence about separation from her infant. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.


    Smith, Thomas; Humensky, Jennifer; Scodes, Jennifer; Wall, Melanie; Nossel, Ilana; Dixon, Lisa


    Abstract Background Comprehensive early treatment programs for individuals with early psychosis have demonstrated success internationally, spurring rapid expansion of the model in the United States. Between 2014–2016, U.S. federal funding to states to support Coordinated Specialty Care (CSC) for individuals with early psychosis increased to $50 million annually (Dixon, 2017). New York State (NYS) was an early adopter and has rapidly expanded CSC across the state. This study prospectively evaluated education and employment outcomes over time within NYS’s CSC program, OnTrackNY. Methods Employment and education trajectories were assessed for individuals with early psychosis who had at least one three-month follow-up assessment, from the program’s inception in October 2013, through September 2016 (N=325). Rates of Social Security Administration (SSA) disability enrollment were assessed for individuals enrolled from October 2013 to June 2017 (n=679). Education and employment status was estimated using longitudinal logistic models utilizing generalized estimating equations with an autoregressive covariance structure to account for within-subject correlations over time. To test how education/employment changed over time, pre-specified contrasts were tested from the longitudinal model for the mean change in sequential follow-up visits. A Kaplan-Meier estimator with discrete time to event and censoring at last observed follow-up month with no event was used to estimate the probability of any education/employment by one year after admission and to estimate the risk of disability by two years after admission. Results Approximately 40% of individuals with early psychosis were engaged in school or work upon enrollment in a CSC program; engagement increased to 80% after 6 months of care. The estimated probability of being employed or in school at some time during the year after admission was 87.9% (95% Confidence Interval (CI)= [82.9, 92.0]). Relative to women, men had

  12. Employment, Pay and Discrimination in the Tourism Industry


    Luís Delfim Santos; José Varejão


    Using a large administrative matched employer-employee dataset we analyse the gender wage gap in the Portuguese tourism labour market. As background, employment and pay in the tourism industry is thoroughly characterized. Using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of the gender wage gap, we find that 45 percent of the gap is due to differences in attributes of male and female workers in tourism. Our estimate of the coefficient of discrimination in the tourism industry (8.4 percent) puts it well b...

  13. Risk Aversion and Sorting into Public Sector Employment


    Pfeifer, Christian


    This research note uses two German data sets – the large-scale German Socio-Economic Panel and unique data from own student questionnaires – to analyse the relationship between risk aversion and the choice for public sector employment. Main results are: (1) more risk averse individuals sort into public sector employment, (2) the impact of career specific and unemployment risk attitudes is larger than the impact of general risk attitudes, and (3) risk taking is rewarded with higher wages in th...

  14. The Business Case for Women's Employment in Agribusiness


    International Finance Corporation


    This publication aims to fill existing gaps in the literature regarding women’s paid employment in agribusiness, especially with respect to emerging economies. Women workers’ contribution to agribusiness is neither fully understood nor fully valued. The majority of research on women’s participation in agribusiness in emerging economies focuses on small-holder farming contexts, rather than direct ...

  15. Self-employment and Health: Barriers or Benefits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Rietveld (Niels); J.L.W. van Kippersluis (Hans); A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractThe self-employed are often reported to be healthier than wage workers; however, the cause of this health difference is largely unknown. The longitudinal nature of the US Health and Retirement Study allows us to gauge the plausibility of two competing explanations for this difference: a

  16. The results of the Survey of Employment in the South Moravian Region in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Konečný


    Full Text Available In the second half of 2008, significant impacts of the world economic crisis became evident in the Czech labour market. In 2009, employment and the number of vacancies gradually declined and the number of the unemployed continually increased. This paper aims to show the impact of the crisis on the development (2008–2009 of the structure of employment according to industries and sectors of national economy in South Moravia as revealed by the unique “Survey of Employment in the South Moravian Region on the date of 31 December 2009”. This paper is a presentation of the general parameters of this survey – the number of companies participating in this survey, the number of their employees and regional differences of these characteristics are evaluated. Brief attention is also paid to the expected development of employment in 2010, which is compiled on the basis of the assumed recruitment/release of employees of businesses participating in the survey.

  17. Employed men and women substance abusers: job troubles and treatment outcomes. (United States)

    Slaymaker, Valerie J; Owen, Patricia L


    The majority of U.S. adults with substance abuse or dependence are gainfully employed. However, little is known about outcomes among stably employed people in treatment for substance dependence. Participants (N = 212) entering a residential treatment program completed the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) at intake and 6 and 12 months follow-up. Significant improvements were seen in absenteeism, number of employment problem days, and whether their job was in jeopardy 12 months later. Overall, 65% were retained by their original employer. ASI composite alcohol, drug, legal, family, and psychiatric scores also improved significantly. Continuous abstinence was achieved by 65% and 51% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Although less likely to be referred to treatment by their employer, women responded to treatment as well as men, reporting similar abstinence rates and overall quality of life during the year following discharge from treatment.

  18. Organizations, managers, and the employment of older workers after retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Mulders, J.


    Population aging and the resulting retirement-related policy reforms are leading to higher rates of labor market participation among older workers and later retirement ages. In addition, working beyond traditional retirement ages, thereby combining employment with retirement, is also increasingly

  19. Why (and how) they decide to leave: A grounded theory analysis of STEM attrition at a large public research university (United States)

    Minutello, Michael F.

    A grounded theory investigation of STEM attrition was conducted that describes and explains why undergraduates at a large Mid-Atlantic research university decided to leave their initial STEM majors to pursue non-STEM courses of study. Participants ultimately decided to leave their initial STEM majors because they were able to locate preferable non-STEM courses of study that did not present the same kinds of obstacles they had encountered in their original STEM majors. Grounded theory data analysis revealed participants initially enrolled in STEM majors with tenuous motivation that did not withstand the various obstacles that were present in introductory STEM coursework. Obstacles that acted as demotivating influences and prompted participants to locate alternative academic pathways include the following: (1.) disengaging curricula; (2.) competitive culture; (3.) disappointing grades; (4.) demanding time commitments; and (5.) unappealing career options. Once discouraged from continuing along their initial STEM pathways, participants then employed various strategies to discover suitable non-STEM majors that would allow them to realize their intrinsic interests and extrinsic goals. Participants were largely satisfied with their decisions to leave STEM and have achieved measures of personal satisfaction and professional success.

  20. Employer and Promoter Perspectives on the Quality of Health Promotion Within the Healthy Workplace Accreditation. (United States)

    Tung, Chen-Yin; Yin, Yun-Wen; Liu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chia-Chen; Zhou, Yi-Ping


    To explore the employers' and promoters' perspective of health promotion quality according to the healthy workplace accreditation. We assessed the perspectives of 85 employers and 81 health promoters regarding the quality of health promotion at their workplaces. The method of measurement referenced the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (ENWHP) quality criteria. In the large workplaces, the accredited corporation employers had a higher impression (P health promoters from different sized workplaces with or without accreditation (P > 0.05). It seems that employers' perspectives of healthy workplace accreditation surpassed employers from non-accredited workplaces. Specifically, large accredited corporations could share their successful experiences to encourage a more involved workplace in small-medium workplaces.

  1. Predictors of Work Participation of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra


    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among young adults with ID is lacking altogether.…

  2. On the convergence in female participation rates


    Abe, Yukiko


    Large regional differences exist in female participation across regions within Japan. This paper uses two datasets to show that a significant convergence in female participation took place from 1940 to 2010. Historically, urban areas have had low participation, whereas non-urban areas have had high participation. The participation rate rose steadily and significantly in urban areas and, to a lesser extent in non-urban areas, and as a result, regional differences shrank over time. The microdat...

  3. Association of Wage With Employee Participation in Health Assessments and Biometric Screening. (United States)

    Sherman, Bruce W; Addy, Carol


    To understand differences in health risk assessment (HRA) and biometric screening participation rates among benefits-enrolled employees in association with wage category. Cross-sectional analysis of employee eligibility file and health benefits (wellness and claims) data. Data from self-insured employers participating in the RightOpt private exchange (Conduent HR Services) during 2014. Active employees from 4 companies continuously enrolled in health insurance for which wage data were available. Measures included HRA and biometric screening participation rates and wage status, with employee age, sex, employer, job tenure, household income, geographic location, and health benefits deductible as a percentage of total wages serving as covariates. Employees were separated into 5 groups based on wage status. Logistic regression analysis incorporated other measures as covariates to adjust for differences between groups, with HRA and biometric screening participation rates determined as binary outcomes. Participation rates for HRA and biometric screening were 90% and 87%, respectively, in the highest wage category, decreasing to 67% and 60%, respectively, among the lowest wage category. Employee wage status is associated with significant differences in HRA and biometric participation rates. Generalizing the results generated by modest participation in these offerings to entire populations may risk misinterpretation of results based on variable participation rates across wage categories.

  4. The Employer Perspective on Sustainable Employability in the Construction Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnon, Susanne C; van der Veen, Rozan; Westerman, Marjan J; Robroek, Suzan J W; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Proper, Karin I.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the measures employers in the construction industry take to promote sustainable employability, the barriers and facilitators that influence implementation and employer needs. METHODS: Questionnaire among 499 employers and interviews with 17 employers. RESULTS: Employers

  5. Employing Conjoint Analysis in Making Compensation Decisions. (United States)

    Kienast, Philip; And Others


    Describes a method employing conjoint analysis that generates utility/cost ratios for various elements of the compensation package. Its superiority to simple preference surveys is examined. Results of a study of the use of this method in fringe benefit planning in a large financial institution are reported. (Author/JAC)

  6. Factors Influencing the Acquisition of Employability Skills by Students of Selected Technical Secondary School in Malaysia (United States)

    Dania, Jovinia; Bakar, Ab Rahim; Mohamed, Shamsiah


    The main purpose of the study was to assess the acquisition of employability skills by vocational students in Malaysia. A total of 214 students participated in the study. We used the SCANS instrument to assess vocational students' employability skills. The overall mean of vocational secondary students' employability skills was 3.81 (SD = 0.34).…

  7. Exploring example models of cross-sector, sessional employment of pharmacists to improve medication management and pharmacy support in rural hospitals. (United States)

    Tan, Amy Cw; Emmerton, Lynne M; Hattingh, Laetitia; La Caze, Adam


    Many rural hospitals in Australia are not large enough to sustain employment of a full-time pharmacist, or are unable to recruit or retain a full-time pharmacist. The absence of a pharmacist may result in hospital nurses undertaking medication-related roles outside their scope of practice. A potential solution to address rural hospitals' medication management needs is contracted part-time ('sessional') employment of a local pharmacist external to the hospital ('cross-sector'). The aim of this study was to explore the roles and experiences of pharmacists in their provision of sessional services to rural hospitals with no on-site pharmacist and explore how these roles could potentially address shortfalls in medication management in rural hospitals. A qualitative study was conducted to explore models with pharmacists who had provided sessional services to a rural hospital. A semi-structured interview guide was informed by a literature review, preliminary research and stakeholder consultation. Participants were recruited via advertisement and personal contacts. Consenting pharmacists were interviewed between August 2012 and January 2013 via telephone or Skype for 40-55 minutes. Thirteen pharmacists with previous or ongoing hospital sessional contracts in rural communities across Australia and New Zealand participated. Most commonly, the pharmacists provided weekly services to rural hospitals. All believed the sessional model was a practical solution to increase hospital access to pharmacist-mediated support and to address medication management gaps. Roles perceived to promote quality use of medicines were inpatient consultation services, medicines information/education to hospital staff, assistance with accreditation matters and system reviews, and input into pharmaceutical distribution activities. This study is the first to explore the concept of sessional rural hospital employment undertaken by pharmacists in Australia and New Zealand. Insights from participants



    Holtyn, August F.; Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Strain, Eric C.; Schwartz, Robert P.; Silverman, Kenneth


    We examined the use of employment-based abstinence reinforcement in out-of-treatment injection drug users, in this secondary analysis of a previously reported trial. Participants (N = 33) could work in the therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based program for drug addiction, for 30 weeks and could earn approximately $10 per hr. During a 4-week induction, participants only had to work to earn pay. After induction, access to the workplace was contingent on enrollment in methadone treatmen...

  9. Employment among schoolchildren and its associations with adult substance use, psychological well-being, and academic achievement. (United States)

    Iosua, Ella E; Gray, Andrew R; McGee, Rob; Landhuis, C Erik; Keane, Raewyn; Hancox, Robert J


    To examine the association between paid part-time employment among schoolchildren, and adult substance use, psychological well-being, and academic achievement. Longitudinal data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study were used to evaluate the association between employment at each of 11, 13, and 15 years and adult smoking, regular alcohol binge drinking, regular cannabis use, sense of coherence, social participation, positive coping style, prosociality, no formal qualifications, and university degree. Associations were initially assessed using unadjusted regression analyses and then adjusted for the potential childhood confounders intelligence quotient, reading development, Student's Perception of Ability Scale, socioeconomic disadvantage, family climate, harsh parent-child interaction, parental opinion of their child's attitude to school, and child's personal attitude to school. Employment at 11 years of age was associated with a lower odds of adult smoking; the odds of subsequent regular alcohol binge drinking were greater for those who were employed at age 13; and higher adult rates of social participation and prosociality were identified for adolescents who were employed at 15 years of age. When the potential confounders were controlled, employment at age 13 was predictive of both adult smoking and regular binge drinking, and working at 15 years of age was protective against regular cannabis use and associated with greater social participation. There is no consistent evidence that exposing schoolchildren to part-time employment compromised subsequent health, well-being, and education in a developed country. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. From placement to employment: Career preferences of Jordanian nursing students. (United States)

    Shoqirat, Noordeen; Abu-Qamar, Ma'en Zaid


    This study examined employment planning and career preferences of final year nursing students in Jordan. Focus group discussions (n = 4) were conducted by the first author with a convenience sample of 27 nursing students. N-Vivo 9 was used to analyze the qualitative data. The analysis revealed two themes. The first theme focused on "moving from study to work", and comprised two sub-themes: being uncertain and hesitant and being a real nurse. The second theme was "the place where I want to be", and referred to participants' preferences concerning their future career. Participants showed interest in critical care units but they were not optimistic about their future career prospects due to the possibility of being jobless and the perceived low public image of nurses. In addition to the nature of placement atmosphere, gender, family and cultural issues were found to shape participants' preferences. It is therefore important to periodically review the considerations of employment planning and career preferences of nursing students, otherwise devising interventions for sound recruitment of nurses in the future will be flawed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of women's employment on children's quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Ghanbari


    Full Text Available Quality of life in adolescence period determines individual's future. The effect of maternal employment on children's quality of life is important and undeniable issue. This study aimed to investigate and compare the quality of life among children of employed and housewife women. In this study, the participants included selected school children's employed and housewife mothers. The tools for data collection consisted of a questionnaire which was distributed among 671 middle-high school and high school students (304 have employed mothers and 367 have housewives mothers. In this study, the level of significance was considered. Results showed that the life quality of children of employed mothers and housewife mothers in the two groups is statistically significant. Quality of life in employed mothers in the mental, physical, social relations, emotional, religious, achieve life goals, leisure time and economic dimension were higher than housewife mothers but there was not any significant different among employed mothers' children and housewife mothers' children in dimensions of relationships with parents. Girls' quality of Life was more than boys, in the teacher mothers was higher than other occupations and in the exceptional talents school was more than other schools. This study found that maternal employment has effect on children's quality of life, so employed mothers' children have high quality of life.

  12. The impact of ill health on exit from paid employment in Europe among older workers. (United States)

    van den Berg, Tilja; Schuring, Merel; Avendano, Mauricio; Mackenbach, Johan; Burdorf, Alex


    To determine the impact of ill health on exit from paid employment in Europe among older workers. Participants of the Survey on Health and Ageing in Europe (SHARE) in 11 European countries in 2004 and 2006 were selected when 50-63 years old and in paid employment at baseline (n=4611). Data were collected on self-rated health, chronic diseases, mobility limitations, obesity, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity and work characteristics. Participants were classified into employed, retired, unemployed and disabled at the end of the 2-year follow-up. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of different measures of ill health on exit from paid employment. During the 2-year follow-up, 17% of employed workers left paid employment, mainly because of early retirement. Controlling for individual and work related characteristics, poor self-perceived health was strongly associated with exit from paid employment due to retirement, unemployment or disability (ORs from 1.32 to 4.24). Adjustment for working conditions and lifestyle reduced the significant associations between ill health and exit from paid employment by 0-18.7%. Low education, obesity, low job control and effort-reward imbalance were associated with measures of ill health, but also risk factors for exit from paid employment after adjustment for ill health. Poor self-perceived health was strongly associated with exit from paid employment among European workers aged 50-63 years. This study suggests that the influence of ill health on exit from paid employment could be lessened by measures targeting obesity, problematic alcohol use, job control and effort-reward balance.

  13. Burnout among Volunteers in the Social Services: The Impact of Gender and Employment Status (United States)

    Kulik, Liat


    This study examines whether gender and employment status affect burnout, motives for volunteering, and difficulties associated with volunteer activity in social and community services in Israel. The sample included 375 men and women aged 16 through 80. Participants were divided into four groups by employment status: high school students, employed…

  14. Employment-based health benefits and public-sector coverage: opportunity for leadership. (United States)

    Darling, Helen


    In this commentary, Helen Darling, speaking from the large-employer perspective, responds to James Robinson's paper on the mature health insurance industry, which faces declining opportunities with employer-based health benefits and growing but less appealing public-sector opportunities for management and other services. The similar needs of public and private employers and payers provide an opportunity for leadership, accelerating innovation and using value-added services to improve safety, quality, and efficiency of health care for all.

  15. Employment, Marriage, and Inequality in Health Insurance for Mexican-Origin Women (United States)

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Angel, Jacqueline L.; Angel, Ronald J.


    In the United States, a woman's health insurance coverage is largely determined by her employment and marital roles. This research evaluates competing hypotheses regarding how the combination of employment and marital roles shapes insurance coverage among Mexican-origin, non-Hispanic white, and African American women. We use data from the 2004 and…

  16. Investing in Women’s Employment : Good for Business, Good for Development


    International Finance Corporation


    Economic growth is more robust and sustainable when women and men alike participate fully in the labor market. Better jobs for women, employment that leads to higher wages and greater decision-making, also have a positive influence on the ways households spend money on children s nutrition, health, and education. Meanwhile, companies that invest in women s employment gain an important competitive advantage. Yet despite the persuasive evidence that gender equality has a transformative effect o...

  17. Inclusive HRM and employment security for disabled people: An interdisciplinary approach


    Borghouts - van de Pas, Irmgard; Freese, Charissa


    Many countries struggle with non-participation of vulnerable groups. Countries give priority to Active Labour Market Policies (ALMP) to help unemployed and disabled people get back to work, preferably in regular employment. In recent years, some innovative policies have tried to involve employers. There seems to be a paradox between desired social policy outcomes, such as getting people out of social security into regular jobs, and preferred Strategic HRM outcomes, such as being a highly prod...

  18. Motivating students' participation in a computer networks course by means of magic, drama and games. (United States)

    Hilas, Constantinos S; Politis, Anastasios


    The recent economic crisis has forced many universities to cut down expenses by packing students into large lecture groups. The problem with large auditoria is that they discourage dialogue between students and faculty and they burden participation. Adding to this, students in computer science courses usually find the field to be full of theoretical and technical concepts. Lack of understanding leads them to lose interest and / or motivation. Classroom experience shows that the lecturer could employ alternative teaching methods, especially for early-year undergraduate students, in order to grasp their interest and introduce basic concepts. This paper describes some of the approaches that may be used to keep students interested and make them feel comfortable as they comprehend basic concepts in computer networks. The lecturing procedure was enriched with games, magic tricks and dramatic representations. This approach was used experimentally for two semesters and the results were more than encouraging.

  19. African Mining, Gender and Local Employment (United States)

    Tolonen, A.; Kotsadam, A.


    Access to employment improves women's lives and is listed among the top five priorities for promoting gender equality in the 2012 World Development Report. This paper addresses this issue by exploring women's labor market opportunities in Africa within one very important and growing sector: extractive industries. Africa's opportunities are being transformed by new discoveries of natural resources and their rising prices, and the mining sector is the main recipient of foreign direct investment in Sub-Saharan Africa. Whether the discovery of natural resources is a blessing or a curse to a country's citizens is a contentious issue, and natural resource dependence has been linked to negative outcomes at the national level such as environmental degradation, conflict, elite capture of rents and low female labor force participation. Natural resource extraction has been argued to be a hindrance to women's labor market participation by increasing reservation wages and by decreasing market demand for female labor. We perform the first cross-national study testing these hypotheses with micro-data. To do this we combine survey data on 500,000 women in Sub-Saharan Africa with geo-coded data on 900 large-scale mines (see Figure 1). We treat mine openings and mine closings as natural experiments to explore local labor market changes. Industrial mines generate local structural shifts. Subsistence farming becomes less important for both men and women. However, men shift to skilled manual labor, and women shift to service sector jobs. This contradicts the hypothesis that natural resource extraction is detrimental to women, by not providing them with new job opportunities. However, in support of the hypothesis, women decrease their labor market participation more than men do. A back-of-the-envelope calculation estimates that 90,000 women across Africa benefit from service sector jobs as a direct result of industrial mining in their communities, but 280,000 women leave the labor force

  20. Is Self-Employment Really a Bad Experience? The Effects of Previous Self-Employment on Subsequent Wage-Employment Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj


    of self-employment is associated with lower hourly wages compared to workers who were consecutively wage-employed. We also show, however, that this effect disappears—and even becomes positive in some settings—for formerly self-employed who find dependent employment in the same sector as their self......-employment sector. Hence, the on average negative effect of self-employment is rather caused by sector switching than by the self-employment experience per se. Moreover, formerly self-employed who either enjoyed a high income or hired at least one worker during their self-employment spell receive wages...... in subsequent dependent employment that are at least as high as for individuals who have been consecutively wage-employed....

  1. Neighbourhood walkability and incidence of hypertension: Findings from the study of 429,334 UK Biobank participants. (United States)

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Webster, Chris; Gallacher, John


    With an estimated one billion hypertension cases worldwide, the role of the built environment in its prevention and control is still uncertain. The present study aims to examine the associations between neighbourhood walkability and hypertension in a large and diverse population-based cohort. We examined the association between neighbourhood walkability and blood pressure outcomes for N = 429,334 participants drawn from the UK Biobank and aged 38-73 years. Neighbourhood walkability was objectively modelled from detailed building footprint-level data within multi-scale functional neighbourhoods (1.0-, 1.5- and 2.0-kilometer street catchments of geocoded dwelling). A series of linear and modified Poisson regression models were employed to examine the association between walkability and outcomes of diastolic blood pressure (DBP in mmHg), systolic blood pressure (SBP in mmHg) and prevalent hypertension adjusting for socio-demographic, lifestyle and related physical environmental covariates. We also examined the relationship between walkability and change in blood pressure for a sub-sample of participants with follow-up data and tested for interaction effects of age, sex, employment status, neighbourhood SES, residential density and green exposure. Neighbourhood walkability within one-kilometer street catchment was beneficially associated with all the three blood pressure outcomes, independent of all other factors. Each interquartile increment in walkability was associated with the lower blood pressure outcomes of DBP (β = -0.358, 95% CI: -0.42, -0.29 mmHg), SBP (β = -0.833, 95% CI: -0.95, -0.72 mmHg) as well as reduced hypertension risk (RR = 0.970, 95% CI: 0.96, 0.98). The results remained consistent across spatial and temporal scales and were sensitive to sub-groups, with pronounced protective effects among female participants, those aged between 50 and 60 years, in employment, residing in deprived, high density and greener areas. This large

  2. Investigation of Participation in Adult Education in Turkey: AES Data Analysis (United States)

    Dincer, N. Nergiz; Tekin-Koru, Ayca; Askar, Petek


    The aim of this study is to identify the determinants of participation in adult education in Turkey. The analysis is conducted using the Adult Education Survey (AES), conducted by TurkStat. The results indicate that economic growth in the sector of employment significantly and positively affects the odds for adult education participation. The data…

  3. Factors affecting the employability in people with epilepsy. (United States)

    Wo, Monica Chen Mun; Lim, Kheng Seang; Choo, Wan Yuen; Tan, Chong Tin


    People with epilepsy (PWE) are negatively prejudiced in their ability to work. This study aimed to examine demographic, clinical and psychological factors associated with employability in PWE. This study recruited epilepsy patients from a neurology clinic in Malaysia. Employability was measured using employment ratio, with a ratio ≥90% (ER90) classified as high employability. Basic demographic data such as age, gender, marital status, religion, education level and household income was collected. Clinical measures consisted of age of seizure onset, seizure frequency, type of epilepsy, aura, polytherapy, nocturnal seizures and seizure control. Psychological measures included Work Self-Determination Index (WSDI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Of 146 PWE, 64.4% had high employability. The participants were predominantly female (52%), Chinese (50.7%), single (50%), having tertiary education (55.5%) and focal epilepsy (72.6%). Clinically, only type of epilepsy was significantly correlated to employability of PWE. Employability of PWE was associated with ability to work (indicated by education level, work performance affected by seizures, ability to travel independently and ability to cope with stress at work) and family overprotection. The high employability group was found to have lower self-perceived stigma (ESS), higher self-determined motivation (WSDI), self-esteem (SES) and perceived social support (MSPSS), than the low employability group. Logistic regression analysis showed that tertiary education level (AOR 3.42, CI: 1.46-8.00), higher self-determination (WSDI, AOR 1.09, CI: 1.012-1.17), lower family overprotection (AOR 0.76, CI: 0.61-0.95), and generalised epilepsy (AOR 4.17, CI: 1.37-12.70) were significant predictors for higher employability in PWE. Ability to work (education level), clinical factor (type of epilepsy) and psychological factor (self-determined motivation and family

  4. Employing Model-Based Reasoning in Interdisciplinary Research Teams: Evidence-Based Practices for Integrating Knowledge Across Systems (United States)

    Pennington, D. D.; Vincent, S.


    The NSF-funded project "Employing Model-Based Reasoning in Socio-Environmental Synthesis (EMBeRS)" has developed a generic model for exchanging knowledge across disciplines that is based on findings from the cognitive, learning, social, and organizational sciences addressing teamwork in complex problem solving situations. Two ten-day summer workshops for PhD students from large, NSF-funded interdisciplinary projects working on a variety of water issues were conducted in 2016 and 2017, testing the model by collecting a variety of data, including surveys, interviews, audio/video recordings, material artifacts and documents, and photographs. This presentation will introduce the EMBeRS model, the design of workshop activities based on the model, and results from surveys and interviews with the participating students. Findings suggest that this approach is very effective for developing a shared, integrated research vision across disciplines, compared with activities typically provided by most large research projects, and that students believe the skills developed in the EMBeRS workshops are unique and highly desireable.

  5. Non-standard Employment in the Nordics – towards precarious work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine; Nätti, Jouko; Larsen, Trine Pernille


    This article examines non-standard employment and precariousness in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway). Drawing on data from the Labour Force Survey from 1995-2015, the article investigates and compares recent developments of non-standard employment in the countries and w...... to be largely integrated in the Nordic labour markets, it still entails precarious elements in certain countries. Norway and Denmark stand out as less insecure labour markets, while Finland and Sweden have more precariousness associated with non-standard employment.......This article examines non-standard employment and precariousness in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway). Drawing on data from the Labour Force Survey from 1995-2015, the article investigates and compares recent developments of non-standard employment in the countries...... and whether fixed-term contracts, temporary agency work, marginal part-time work and solo self-employment have precarious elements (income or job insecurity). We conclude that non-standard employment has remained rather stable in all four countries over time. However, although non-standard employment seems...

  6. Gender and Self-Employment: The Role of Mini-Companies (United States)

    Johansen, Vegard


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate to what degree participation in mini-companies impact young women and men with regard to the perceived desirability and perceived feasibility of self-employment. The Company Programme (CP) is the largest mini-company scheme in European secondary school. Design/methodology/approach: The data derived…

  7. Rate and predictors of employment among formerly polysubstance dependent urban individuals in recovery. (United States)

    Laudet, Alexandre B


    Employment is a key functioning index in addiction services and consistently emerges as a goal among individuals in recovery. Research on the employment status in the addiction field has focused on treatment populations or welfare recipients; little is known of employment rates or their predictors among individuals in recovery. This study seeks to fill this gap, capitalizing on a sample (N = 311) of urban individuals at various stages of recovery. Fewer than half (44.5%) of participants were employed; in logistic regressions, male gender and Caucasian race enhanced the odds of employment, whereas having a comorbid chronic physical or mental health condition decreased the odds by half. Implications center on the need to identify effective strategies to enhance employability among women and minorities and for integrated care for individuals with multiple chronic conditions.

  8. Medical cost savings for participants and nonparticipants in health risk assessments, lifestyle management, disease management, depression management, and nurseline in a large financial services corporation. (United States)

    Serxner, Seth; Alberti, Angela; Weinberger, Sarah


    To compare changes in medical costs between participants and nonparticipants in five different health and productivity management (HPM) programs. Quasi-experimental pre/post intervention study. A large financial services corporation. A cohort population of employees enrolled in medical plans (n  =  49,723) [corrected]. A comprehensive HPM program, which addressed health risks, acute and chronic conditions, and psychosocial disorders from 2005 to 2007. Incentives were used to encourage health risk assessment participation in years 2 and 3. Program participation and medical claims data were collected for members at the end of each program year to assess the change in total costs from the baseline period. Analysis . Multivariate analyses for participation categories were conducted comparing baseline versus program year cost differences, controlling for demographics. All participation categories yielded a lower cost increase compared to nonparticipation and a positive return on investment (ROI) for years 2 and 3, resulting in a 2.45∶1 ROI for the combined program years. Medical cost savings exceeded program costs in a wide variety of health and productivity management programs by the second year.

  9. Active Labour Market Programme Participation for Unemployment Insurance Recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Smedslund, Geir; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint


    Objective: This review evaluates the effectiveness of Active Labour Market Programme (ALMP) participation on employment status for unemployment insurance recipients. Methods and Analysis: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review. Results: A total of 73 studies...

  10. How needs and preferences of employees influence participation in health promotion programs: a six-month follow-up study. (United States)

    Rongen, Anne; Robroek, Suzan J W; van Ginkel, Wouter; Lindeboom, Dennis; Pet, Martin; Burdorf, Alex


    Low participation in health promotion programs (HPPs) might hamper their effectiveness. A potential reason for low participation is disagreement between needs and preferences of potential participants and the actual HPPs offered. This study aimed to investigate employees' need and preferences for HPPs, whether these are matched by what their employers provide, and whether a higher agreement enhanced participation. Employees of two organizations participated in a six-month follow-up study (n = 738). At baseline, information was collected on employees' needs and preferences for the topic of the HPP (i.e. physical activity, healthy nutrition, smoking cessation, stress management, general health), whether they favored a HPP via their employer or at their own discretion, and their preferred HPP regarding three components with each two alternatives: mode of delivery (individual vs. group), intensity (single vs. multiple meetings), and content (assignments vs. information). Participation in HPPs was assessed at six-month follow-up. In consultation with occupational health managers (n = 2), information was gathered on the HPPs the employers provided. The level of agreement between preferred and provided HPPs was calculated (range: 0-1) and its influence on participation was studied using logistic regression analyses. Most employees reported needing a HPP addressing physical activity (55%) and most employees preferred HPPs organized via their employer. The mean level of agreement between the preferred and offered HPPs ranged from 0.71 for mode of delivery to 0.84 for intensity, and was 0.47 for all three HPP components within a topic combined. Employees with a higher agreement on mode of delivery (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 0.87-3.39) and all HPP components combined (OR: 2.36, 95% CI: 0.68-8.17) seemed to be more likely to participate in HPPs, but due to low participation these associations were not statistically significant. HPPs aimed at physical activity were most needed by

  11. The influence of prices on market participation decisions of poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Naivasha, P.O Box 25, Naivasha. 2 ... study also investigates the probability of market participation by employing a binary logistic ..... Diseases, Socio Economics, Production and Biodiversity Unit, FAO.

  12. A Within-Industry Comparison of Employed Mothers' Experiences in Small and Large Workplaces. (United States)

    MacDermid, Shelley M.; Williams, Margaret L.


    Focuses on links among mothers' (N=71) perceptions of their parenting practices, their parenting values, their children's behavior, and the work conditions they experience in small and large workplaces. Results found significant relationships between work conditions and parenting, and significant differences between small and large workplaces.…

  13. Pathways to Employment and Quality of Life for Apprenticeship and Traineeship Graduates with Disabilities (United States)

    Cocks, Errol; Thoresen, Stian H.; Lee, Elinda Ai Lim


    People with disabilities have low participation rates in employment and vocational education and training. Thirty adults with disabilities were sampled from an Australian longitudinal study of economic and social outcomes achieved by graduate apprentices and trainees. Participants were surveyed and interviewed to identify pathways from high school…

  14. Mother employment status and nutritional patterns in Japanese junior high schoolchildren. (United States)

    Gaina, A; Sekine, M; Chandola, T; Marmot, M; Kagamimori, S


    To investigate associations between mothers' employment (full, part time and no employment) and nutrition habits (regularity of breakfast, snack, dinner, meal speed and portion size) in a sample of Japanese junior high schoolchildren, 12-13 years of age. A total of 10 453 children aged 12-13 years from the Toyama birth cohort study (fourth phase) participated, of whom 8906 children (89% response rate) responded to all questions related to the examined variables. Nutrition habits consisted of breakfast, snack, dinner, meal speed and meal portion. Children's obesity/overweight was measured by body mass index (BMI). Fathers' employment had no effect on their children's nutrition patterns. Children of full-time employed mothers were the most likely to snack and to skip dinner. Children of part-time employed mothers ate larger meal portions, and those of non-employed mothers reported faster meal speeds. BMI was significantly (P<0.001) higher among children of full-time employed mothers (19.3), and lowest among non-employed mothers (19.00). Children of full-time employed mothers are more likely to be overweight, but not obese compared with other children. There was a strong relationship between mother's employment and nutrition patterns in this cohort of Japanese schoolchildren; special programs focused on children's nutrition patterns should take into account the mothers' employment status.

  15. The Employment Situation of the Disabled People in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Greve, Jane

    The main aim of this paper is to provide relevant information about the labour market situation of disabled people in Denmark. The paper is based on combined survey and register information about approximately 8,000 disabled and non-disabled persons. The paper presents a descriptive analysis...... of disabled peoples’ labour market participation. The findings suggest that the employment ratio of the disabled people is significantly lower than for non-disabled. When it comes to persons in employment only minor differences can be noted between jobs held by the disabled and non-disabled. In conclusion......, it is argued that there seem to be a potential for an improvement of the employment rate of disabled people that may be enhanced through more emphasis on education and vocational rehabilitation measures as well as more flexible working conditions for disabled people....

  16. Employment Status and Mental Health: Mediating Roles of Social Support and Coping Strategies. (United States)

    Perreault, Michel; Touré, El Hadj; Perreault, Nicole; Caron, Jean


    Although it has been established that unemployment and underemployment increase distress and depression, the psychological mechanisms involved are not very clear. This study examines the roles of social support and coping strategies as mediators of the association between employment status and mental health, as well as gender and age differences as moderators. Residents from the epidemiological catchment area of south-west Montreal responded to a randomized household survey for adults in 2009. A follow-up was conducted based on participants' employment status 2 and 4 years later. ANOVAs tests were computed with SPSS to evaluate group differences, and structural equation modeling was performed with AMOS to test mediation effects. At baseline, among participants between 18 and 64 years old (n = 2325), 14.3 % were unemployed/not studying, 14.4 % worked part-time, and 56.5 % worked full-time. Employment status was found to significantly affect depression among those under 45 years old (chi-square = 23.4, p employment with depression, which was fully mediated by social support, less coping with drugs/medication, and less distress. A negative association with full-time employment was also noted with distress, which was partially mediated by increased social support, coping with alcohol, and less coping with drugs/medication. The total indirect effect suggests that full-time employees generally have more resources and do not tend to use avoidance strategies like coping with drugs/medication, resulting in less distress (β = -0.05; p employment, namely full-time employment, in communities.

  17. Consequences of fathers' participation in family work: parents' role strain and well-being. (United States)

    Baruch, G K; Barnett, R C


    The relation of fathers' participation in family work (child care and home chores) to parents' role strain and well-being was examined in an interview study of 160 Caucasian middle-class fathers and mothers of kindergarten and fourth-grade children. In half of the families, mothers were employed. Four forms of paternal participation were examined. Role-strain items referred to immediate and specific problems such as time and energy constraints and role conflicts. Well-being measures assessed self-esteem, life satisfaction, and quality of experience in the parental and marital roles. Regression analyses, carried out separately for fathers and for mothers, indicated that, contrary to expectation, when the level of fathers' participation was controlled maternal employment did not condition the relation between participation and the outcome variables. Findings varied for the different forms of participation. For fathers, higher levels of participation were associated with feeling more involved and competent as a parent and with being more critical of wives' patterns and parenting. For mothers, those whose husbands were more participant praised their husbands' parenting, but they were lower in life satisfaction and were more self-critical about their balance of work and family responsibilities.

  18. The Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of a Rural Employer-Based Wellness Program (United States)

    Saleh, Shadi S.; Alameddine, Mohamad S.; Hill, Dan; Darney-Beuhler, Jessica; Morgan, Ann


    Context: The cost-effectiveness of employer-based wellness programs has been previously investigated with favorable financial and nonfinancial outcomes being detected. However, these investigations have mainly focused on large employers in urban settings. Very few studies examined wellness programs offered in rural settings. Purpose: This paper…

  19. The Gender Wage Gap in Paid and Self-Employment in Australia


    Kristy Eastough; Paul W. Miller


    This paper presents an analysis of the gender wage gap in the highly regulated Australian labour market. It compares wage outcomes in the wage and salary sector with those for the self-employed. Comparisons with the United States are provided. The large gender pay gap in self-employment suggests that the aggregate gender wage differential will not be eliminated solely through wage determination for wage and salary earners. The greater gender wage gap in the self-employed sector may reflect li...

  20. Managing age discrimination: an examination of the techniques used when seeking employment. (United States)

    Berger, Ellie D


    This article examines the age-related management techniques used by older workers in their search for employment. Data are drawn from interviews with individuals aged 45-65 years (N = 30). Findings indicate that participants develop "counteractions" and "concealments" to manage perceived age discrimination. Individuals counteract employers' ageist stereotypes by maintaining their skills and changing their work-related expectations and conceal age by altering their résumés, physical appearance, and language used. This research suggests that there is a need to reexamine the hiring practices of employers and to improve legislation in relation to their accountability.

  1. Will Raising the Participation Age in England Solve the NEET Problem? (United States)

    Maguire, Sue


    This paper considers the rationale for introducing the raising of the participation age (RPA) in learning in England from 2013 and assesses how, if fully implemented, it could contribute to improving the outcomes for young people who do not participate in any form of post-16 education, employment or training, and are currently defined as not in…

  2. Graduate Employability: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Employers' Perceptions (United States)

    Cai, Yuzhuo


    This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding what employers think about the value of graduates with similar educational credentials in the workplace (their employability), using insights from the new institutionalism. In this framework, the development of employers' beliefs about graduates' employability is broken into a number of…

  3. Employing Discourse: Universities and Graduate "Employability" (United States)

    Boden, Rebecca; Nedeva, Maria


    What constitutes graduate employability is discursively framed. In this paper we argue that whilst universities in the UK have long had an involvement in producing useful and productive citizens, the ongoing neoliberalisation of higher education has engendered a discursive shift in definitions of employability. Traditionally, universities regarded…

  4. Self-reported bullying in childhood: relationships with employment in adulthood. (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Leung, Justin S; Wiederman, Michael W


    To our knowledge, relationships between being bullied in childhood and employment functioning in adulthood have not been previously studied-hence the focus of the present study. Using a cross-sectional approach and a self-report survey methodology in a consecutive sample of 328 internal medicine outpatients, we examined relationships between being bullied (i.e., have you ever been bullied, how many years, how many bullies) and history of employment (i.e., since age 18, number of full-time jobs, percentage of time employed, ever paid "under the table," and ever fired). Participants reporting a history of having been bullied reported a relatively greater number of different jobs as well as a greater likelihood of having been "paid under the table" and having been fired. While the number of years bullied evidenced no statistically significant correlations with employment variables, the number of different bullies was statistically significantly correlated with the number of different jobs held and ever having been fired. Findings indicate a relationship between being bullied in childhood and experiencing reduced employment viability in adulthood.

  5. Predicting the effect of disability on employment status and income. (United States)

    Randolph, Diane Smith


    Research shows that participation in employment contributes to life satisfaction for persons with disabilities [18]. Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) sought to prohibit discrimination against persons with disabilities in the workplace, however, the ADA's effectiveness remains controversial. This research utilizes data from the disability supplement of the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine the impact of disability status on predicting employment status and income. Confounding variables such as gender, age, educational level, race and marital/parental status are examined regarding their influence on results. Results from analysis utilizing zero-order correlation, linear and logistic regression analysis techniques revealed that disability status has a significant predictive effect on inability to work. Furthermore, results continue to show that despite legislation, the higher the level of disability, the lower the employment status (those employed for wages) and income. Finally, disability status, coupled with being female or decreased educational level, consistently shows significance in predicting lower employment status and income than men or non-minorities with disabilities. Future research opportunities and policy implications are discussed with regard to the results presented.

  6. Public appraisal of government efforts and participation intent in medico-ethical policymaking in Japan: a large scale national survey concerning brain death and organ transplant (United States)

    Sato, Hajime; Akabayashi, Akira; Kai, Ichiro


    Background Public satisfaction with policy process influences the legitimacy and acceptance of policies, and conditions the future political process, especially when contending ethical value judgments are involved. On the other hand, public involvement is required if effective policy is to be developed and accepted. Methods Using the data from a large-scale national opinion survey, this study evaluates public appraisal of past government efforts to legalize organ transplant from brain-dead bodies in Japan, and examines the public's intent to participate in future policy. Results A relatively large percentage of people became aware of the issue when government actions were initiated, and many increasingly formed their own opinions on the policy in question. However, a significant number (43.3%) remained unaware of any legislative efforts, and only 26.3% of those who were aware provided positive appraisals of the policymaking process. Furthermore, a majority of respondents (61.8%) indicated unwillingness to participate in future policy discussions of bioethical issues. Multivariate analysis revealed the following factors are associated with positive appraisals of policy development: greater age; earlier opinion formation; and familiarity with donor cards. Factors associated with likelihood of future participation in policy discussion include younger age, earlier attention to the issue, and knowledge of past government efforts. Those unwilling to participate cited as their reasons that experts are more knowledgeable and that the issues are too complex. Conclusions Results of an opinion survey in Japan were presented, and a set of factors statistically associated with them were discussed. Further efforts to improve policy making process on bioethical issues are desirable. PMID:15661080

  7. Employment insecurity, workplace justice and employees' burnout in Taiwanese employees: a validation study. (United States)

    Cheng, Yawen; Huang, Hsun-Yin; Li, Pei-Rong; Hsu, Jin-Huei


    Employment insecurity and workplace injustice are important psychosocial hazards. However, few studies of these associations have been conducted in Chinese-speaking populations. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of employment insecurity and workplace justice scales, and examined their associations with the levels of workers' burnout status in Taiwanese workers. Study subjects were participants in a national survey of employees in Taiwan, consisting of 9,636 men and 7,406 women. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess employment insecurity (six items) and workplace justice (nine items), as well as other psychosocial work characteristics. After the survey was completed, in-depth interviews with 10 employees were conducted for a qualitative evaluation. Cronbach's α was 0.87 or greater for the workplace justice scale and 0.76 or greater for the employment insecurity scale, indicating satisfactory internal consistencies. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a factor pattern consistent with the theoretically assumed structure, except that the items with statements in reversed direction were loaded on separated factors. Higher levels of employment insecurity and lower levels of workplace justice were associated with higher burnout scores. However, results from the qualitative interviews suggested that some questionnaire items contained double-barreled questions, and some questions were misinterpreted or considered irrelevant by participants. The Chinese version of employment insecurity and workplace justice scales were found to have satisfactory reliability and validity. However, improvement of these scales is still needed.

  8. Public attitudes in Japan toward participation in whole genome sequencing studies. (United States)

    Okita, Taketoshi; Ohashi, Noriko; Kabata, Daijiro; Shintani, Ayumi; Kato, Kazuto


    Recent innovations in gene analysis technology have allowed for rapid and inexpensive sequencing of entire genomes. Thus, both conducting a study using whole genome sequencing (WGS) in a large population and the clinical application of research findings from such studies are currently feasible. However, to promote WGS studies, understanding and voluntary participation by the general public is needed. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the general public's attitude toward and understanding of WGS studies. The primary goal of our research is to investigate these issues and to discover how they relate to research participation in WGS studies. A survey of awareness regarding WGS and studies using WGS was conducted with a sample of 2000 or more participants using a self-administered questionnaire posted on the Internet between February 20 and 21, 2015. Prior to the survey, we briefly explained WGS and WGS study-related issues to the respondents in order to provide them with the minimum knowledge required to answer the questionnaire. We then conducted an analysis, including cross-classification. For the question regarding interest in WGS, 46.6% of participants responded "Yes." 70.7% of all respondents said that they were interested in some kinds of findings that could be obtained from WGS studies. Regarding participation in WGS studies, 29.0% were interested in participating. The demographic factors significantly related to attitudes toward research participation were age, level of education, and employment status. The results also suggest that concerns about WGS have a positive effect on people's willingness to participate. Furthermore, it was shown that for people who were not interested in their gene-related information, concerns about WGS negatively impacted their willingness to participate. However, for people who were interested in their gene-related information, their concerns might not have impacted their willingness to participate. This research has shown

  9. Rehabilitation-Related Research on Disability and Employer Practices Using Individual-Based National and Administrative Data Sets (United States)

    Nazarov, Zafar E.; Erickson, William A.; Bruyère, Susanne M.


    Objective: It is useful to examine workplace factors influencing employment outcomes of individuals with disabilities and the interplay of disability, employment-related, and employer characteristics to inform rehabilitation practice. Design: A number of large national survey and administrative data sets provide information on employers and can…

  10. Political Participation and Power Relations in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shehata, Mostafa


    The political use of media in Egypt post-2011 revolution brought about drastic transformations in political activism and power structures. In the context of communication power theory, this article investigates the effects of newspapers and social network sites on political participation...... and political power relations. The research employed a mixed methodology, comprised of a survey of 527 Egyptian youth and semi-structured interviews of 12 political activists and journalists. The results showed a significant relationship between reading newspapers and youth’s political participation......, but not between using social network sites and political participation. In addition, newspapers and social network sites were platforms for a series of conflicts and coalitions that emerged between pro- and anti-revolution actors. Despite the importance of social network sites as key tools for informing...

  11. Loss of permanent employment and its association with suicidal ideation: a cohort study in South Korea. (United States)

    Yoon, Seohyun; Kim, Ja Young; Park, Jooyoung; Kim, Seung-Sup


    Objective Precarious employment is associated with worse mental health, but it is unclear whether changes in employment status are related to suicidal behaviors. This study examined the association between change in employment status and suicidal ideation among workers in South Korea. Methods To maximize power of the analysis, we combined data from the ongoing Korean Welfare Panel Study. We analyzed 3793 participants who were permanent workers at baseline (2011-2014) and who either: (i) maintained permanent employment; (ii) became a full-time precarious worker; (iii) became a part-time precarious worker; or (iv) became unemployed in the following year (2012-2015). Suicidal ideation was assessed annually by asking participants, "Have you ever seriously thought about dying by suicide in the past year?" Logistic regression was applied to examine associations between change in employment status and suicidal ideation, adjusting for potential confounders such as lifetime suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms at baseline. Results Participants who became part-time precarious workers were more likely to have suicidal ideation [odd ratio (OR) 2.37, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.07-5.25, P=0.033] compared to those who remained permanent workers. In analysis restricted to workers who never previously thought about dying by suicide, suicidal ideation was more common among those who became either full-time (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.09-4.99, P=0.029) or part-time (OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.46-10.64, P=0.007) precarious workers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that change in employment status from permanent to precarious employment may increase suicidal ideation among workers in South Korea.

  12. Frequency tripling of convergent beam employing crystals tiling in large-aperture high-energy laser facilities (United States)

    Wang, Junhua; Li, Dazhen; Wang, Bo; Yang, Jing; Yang, Houwen; Wang, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Wenyong


    In inertial confinement fusion, ultraviolet laser damage of the fused silica lens is an important limiting factor for load capability of the laser driver. To solve this problem, a new configuration of frequency tripling is proposed in this paper. The frequency tripling crystal is placed on downstream of the focusing lens, thus sum frequency generation of fundamental frequency light and doubling frequency light occurs in the beam convergence path. The focusing lens is only irradiated by fundamental light and doubling frequency lights. Thus, its damage threshold will increase. LiB3O5 (LBO) crystals are employed as frequency tripling crystals for its larger acceptance angle and higher damage threshold than KDP/DKDP crystals'. With the limitation of acceptance angle and crystal growth size are taken into account, the tiling scheme of LBO crystals is proposed and designed optimally to adopt to the total convergence angle of 36.0 mrad. Theoretical results indicate that 3 LBO crystals titling with different cutting angles in θ direction can meet the phase matching condition. Compared with frequency tripling of parallel beam using one LBO crystal, 83.8% (93.1% with 5 LBO crystals tiling) of the frequency tripling conversion efficiency can be obtained employing this new configuration. The results of a principle experiment also support this scheme. By employing this new design, not only the load capacity of a laser driver will be significantly improved, but also the fused silica lens can be changed to K9 glass lens which has the mature technology and low cost.

  13. Examination of employment in the atomic energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.G.


    This study, which focuses on the years 1968--1975, singles out important employment trends in the atomic energy field and develops causal explanations for these trends. The study also provides a descriptive profile of employment in the field. Employment in the atomic energy field has grown from 138,519 in 1963 to 197,466 in 1975, an annual rate of 3.0 percent. The deployment of scientists, engineers, and technicians in the government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) sector changed little from 1968 to 1975. Private sector deployment altered considerably, with a large increase. Within the scientist group, the GOCO sector employment by field has changed little from 1968 to 1975. Private sector scientists have seen considerable alteration of their employment. There has been little change in the employment shares of engineering fields in the GOCO sector for the 1968 to 1975 period. Private sector engineers have seen much greater change, with civil engineers increasing their share 6% to 11%. Of all GOCO technicians, physical science technicians have increased their employment share from 12% to 17%. Of all private sector technicians, draftsmen have increased their share from 29% to 37% and reactor operators from 4% to 7%. Total employment in the field is shifting toward smaller firms. Employment by region has changed considerably in the private sector from 1968 to 1975. GOCO regional employment has also changed. The percentage of scientists and engineers involved in research and development has declined from 68% in 1968 to 39% in 1975. Three private sector industrial segments--reactor design and manufacturing, nuclear facilities design and engineering, and operation and maintenance of reactors--have experienced tremendous growth from 1968 to 1975. 8 figures, 32 tables

  14. Work accommodations and natural supports for maintaining employment. (United States)

    Corbière, Marc; Villotti, Patrizia; Lecomte, Tania; Bond, Gary R; Lesage, Alain; Goldner, Elliot M


    Job tenure for people with severe mental disorders, even for those enrolled in supported employment programs, is typically brief. Few studies to date have investigated the relationship between accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace, and job tenure for this population. The main objectives of this study were to develop and to validate a new measure to describe work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace and to determine which of them are significantly related to job tenure for participants enrolled in supported employment services. In total, 124 people with a severe mental disorder enrolled in supported employment programs and who obtained only one competitive employment at the 9-month follow-up answered the Work Accommodation and Natural Support Scale (WANSS). They also provided information regarding their disclosure (or non-) of mental disorders in the workplace and the length of their job tenure. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted on the WANSS showed 40 items distributed on 6 dimensions (e.g., Schedule flexibility). Correlation results showed that disclosure was significantly related to the number of work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace. Survival analyses indicated that one WANSS dimension was more salient in predicting job tenure: Supervisor and coworker supports. The WANSS is a valid and useful tool to assess work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace that employment specialists could use in their practice.

  15. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement as a maintenance intervention for the treatment of cocaine dependence: post-intervention outcomes (United States)

    DeFulio, Anthony; Silverman, Kenneth


    Aims Due to the chronicity of cocaine dependence, practical and effective maintenance interventions are needed to sustain long-term abstinence. We sought to assess the effects of long-term employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence after discontinuation of the intervention. Design Participants who initiated sustained opiate and cocaine abstinence during a 6-month abstinence reinforcement and training program worked as data entry operators and were randomly assigned to a group that could work independent of drug use (Control, n = 24), or an abstinence-contingent employment (n = 27) group that was required to provide cocaine- and opiate-negative urine samples to work and maintain maximum rate of pay. Setting A nonprofit data entry business. Participants Unemployed welfare recipients who persistently used cocaine while in methadone treatment. Measurements Urine samples and self-reports were collected every six months for 30 months. Findings During the employment year, abstinence-contingent employment participants provided significantly more cocaine-negative samples than controls (82.7% and 54.2%; P = .01, OR = 4.61). During the follow-up year, the groups had similar rates of cocaine-negative samples (44.2% and 50.0%; P = .93), and HIV-risk behaviors. Participants’ social, employment, economic, and legal conditions were similar in the two groups across all phases of the study. Conclusions Employment-based reinforcement effectively maintains long-term cocaine abstinence, but many patients relapse to use when the abstinence contingency is discontinued, even after a year of abstinence-contingent employment. Relapse could be prevented in many patients by leaving employment-based abstinence reinforcement in place indefinitely, which could be facilitated by integrating it into typical workplaces. PMID:21226886

  16. Organization-level predictors of sustained social movement participation. (United States)

    Tesdahl, Eric A; Speer, Paul W


    Long-term sustained participation represents one of the most important resources available to community organizations and social movement organizations (SMOs). The participatory literature on community and SMOs has identified a host of individual-level factors that influence participation beyond initial engagement, and has more recently identified contextual factors that influence participation. This study builds upon current understandings of participation in SMOs by examining how sustained participation in movement activities is affected by two qualities of SMO settings: repertoire of organizational activity, and equality of staff contact with organization members to cultivate and facilitate individual participation. To this end, we employ multi-level regression techniques to examine longitudinal data on participation within 50 local chapters of a national congregation-based community organizing federation. We find that the conduct of organizational activities previously shown to increase levels of participation among individual persons does not necessarily lead to increases in aggregate or organization-level participation. Further, we find that conditions of unequal staff contact among organization members represent a notable drag on organization-level participation over time. Our findings suggest that organizers and organizational leaders may well see greater levels of participation in their organizations by simply re-distributing resources and opportunities more equitably within their organizations.

  17. Employment of persons with spinal cord lesions injured more than 20 years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidal, Ingeborg Beate; Hjeltnes, Nils; Røislien, Jo


    PURPOSE: The primary objective was to study factors influencing post-injury employment and withdrawal from work in persons who sustained traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) more than 20 years ago. A secondary objective was to study life satisfaction in the same patients. METHOD: A cross...... before, and a history of pre-injury medical condition(s). Life satisfaction was better for currently employed participants. CONCLUSION: The study indicates a low employment-rate in persons with SCI, even several years after injury. From the results, we suggest more support, especially to persons of older...

  18. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement promotes opiate and cocaine abstinence in out-of-treatment injection drug users. (United States)

    Holtyn, August F; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Strain, Eric C; Schwartz, Robert P; Silverman, Kenneth


    We examined the use of employment-based abstinence reinforcement in out-of-treatment injection drug users, in this secondary analysis of a previously reported trial. Participants (N = 33) could work in the therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based program for drug addiction, for 30 weeks and could earn approximately $10 per hr. During a 4-week induction, participants only had to work to earn pay. After induction, access to the workplace was contingent on enrollment in methadone treatment. After participants met the methadone contingency for 3 weeks, they had to provide opiate-negative urine samples to maintain maximum pay. After participants met those contingencies for 3 weeks, they had to provide opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples to maintain maximum pay. The percentage of drug-negative urine samples remained stable until the abstinence reinforcement contingency for each drug was applied. The percentage of opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples increased abruptly and significantly after the opiate- and cocaine-abstinence contingencies, respectively, were applied. These results demonstrate that the sequential administration of employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase opiate and cocaine abstinence among out-of-treatment injection drug users. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  19. 75 FR 58277 - National Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve Week, 2010 (United States)


    ... special tribute to the employers of our Guardsmen and Reservists, whose support and flexibility bolster... encourage National Guard and Reserve participation, and by bearing financial and organizational...

  20. Understanding the situated conditions for participation in lifelong formal education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    and participation and the relation among these. I argue for the necessity of analyzing motivation as historical and social phenomena and hereby increase the awareness of the specific subjective, historical and social conditions for motivation and participation. By outlining and analyzing the work life story...... of Martin I discuss the fruitfulness of employing a concept of experience, informed by critical theory, in order to understand the ‘potential participant’ as a specific social and historical subject with certain conditions for perceiving needs and opportunities for participation in formal education...

  1. Individual differences influence two-digit number processing, but not their analog magnitude processing: a large-scale online study. (United States)

    Huber, Stefan; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Soltanlou, Mojtaba


    Symbolic magnitude comparison is one of the most well-studied cognitive processes in research on numerical cognition. However, while the cognitive mechanisms of symbolic magnitude processing have been intensively studied, previous studies have paid less attention to individual differences influencing symbolic magnitude comparison. Employing a two-digit number comparison task in an online setting, we replicated previous effects, including the distance effect, the unit-decade compatibility effect, and the effect of cognitive control on the adaptation to filler items, in a large-scale study in 452 adults. Additionally, we observed that the most influential individual differences were participants' first language, time spent playing computer games and gender, followed by reported alcohol consumption, age and mathematical ability. Participants who used a first language with a left-to-right reading/writing direction were faster than those who read and wrote in the right-to-left direction. Reported playing time for computer games was correlated with faster reaction times. Female participants showed slower reaction times and a larger unit-decade compatibility effect than male participants. Participants who reported never consuming alcohol showed overall slower response times than others. Older participants were slower, but more accurate. Finally, higher grades in mathematics were associated with faster reaction times. We conclude that typical experiments on numerical cognition that employ a keyboard as an input device can also be run in an online setting. Moreover, while individual differences have no influence on domain-specific magnitude processing-apart from age, which increases the decade distance effect-they generally influence performance on a two-digit number comparison task.

  2. Does Employment Promote Recovery? Meanings from Work Experience in People Diagnosed with Serious Mental Illness. (United States)

    Saavedra, Javier; López, Marcelino; Gonzáles, Sergio; Cubero, Rosario


    Employment has been highlighted as a determinant of health and as an essential milestone in the recovery process of people with serious mental illness. Different types of programs and public services have been designed to improve the employability of this population. However, there has not been much interest in the meanings attributed to these experiences and the negative aspects of work experience. In this research, we explored the meanings that participants attributed to their work experience and the impact of work on their recovery process. Research participants lived in Andalusia (Spain), a region in southern Europe with a high unemployment rate. Two versions of a semi-structured interview were designed: one for people who were working, and one for unemployed people. Participants' narratives were categorized according to grounded theory and the analyses were validated in group sessions. Apart from several positive effects for recovery, the analysis of the narratives about work experience outlined certain obstacles to recovery. For example, participants mentioned personal conflicts and stress, job insecurity and meaningless jobs. While valid, the idea that employment is beneficial for recovery must be qualified by the personal meanings attributed to these experiences, and the specific cultural and economic factors of each context.

  3. Japan's silver human resource centers and participant well-being. (United States)

    Weiss, Robert S; Bass, Scott A; Heimovitz, Harley K; Oka, Masato


    Japan's Silver Human Resource Center (SHRC) program provides part-time, paid employment to retirement-aged men and women. We studied 393 new program participants and examined whether part-time work influenced their well-being or "ikigai." The participants were divided into those who had worked in SHRC-provided jobs in the preceding year, and those who had not. Gender-stratified regression models were fitted to determine whether SHRC employment was associated with increased well-being. For men, actively working at a SHRC job was associated with greater well-being, compared to inactive members. And men with SHRC jobs and previous volunteering experience had the greatest increase in well-being. Women SHRC job holders did not experience increased well-being at the year's end. The study concludes that there is justification for exploring the usefulness of a similar program for American retirees who desire post-retirement part-time work.

  4. The role of work ability and health on sustaining employability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja)


    textabstractThis thesis aimed to contribute to the understanding of the role of decreased work ability and ill health on work participation and work performance of older workers. The longitudinal study on the role of four different health measures on exit from paid employment among workers aged 50

  5. ``How am I going to work?'' Barriers to employment for immigrant Latinos and Latinas living with HIV in Toronto. (United States)

    Serrano, Angel


    For individuals with HIV positive status, multiple barriers exist to accessing and re-entering employment. Studies on employment for people living with HIV lack a detailed consideration of race and ethnicity. This is the first article that focuses on barriers to employment for the HIV positive Latino community in the Canadian context. To document the barriers that a sample of HIV positive Latinos and Latinas encounter in finding and maintaining employment in Toronto. A non-probability sample of immigrant and refugee Latino men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Toronto participated in in-depth interviews concerning their experiences in the labor market, emphasizing the barriers that they have faced in access to employment. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and later analysed with NVivo 9. Two sets of barriers emerged from the analysis: structural barriers that immigrants encounter in access to employment, such as language difficulties, lack of Canadian work experience and anti-immigrant feelings and barriers to employment for HIV positive individuals, principally HIV related stigma and health related issues. Due to their intersectional identities as immigrants/refugees and HIV positive individuals, participants face compounded barriers to employment: Language difficulties, lack of migrant status and Canadian work experience, anti-immigrant sentiments in the labor market, ageism, HIV related stigma and side effects of medications among other barriers related with an HIV positive condition. Such barriers locate participants in a marginalized position in Canadian society.

  6. Feasibility and desirability of employing the thorium fuel cycle for power generation - 254

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.


    Thorium fuel cycle for nuclear power generation has been considered since the very start of the nuclear power era. In spite of a very large amount of research, experimentation, pilot scale and prototypic scale installations, the thorium fuel was not adopted for large scale power generation [1,2]. This paper reviews the developments over the years on the front and the back-end of the thorium fuel cycle and describes the pros and cons of employing the thorium fuel cycle for large generation of nuclear power. It examines the feasibility and desirability of employing the thorium fuel cycle in concert with the uranium fuel cycle for power generation. (authors)

  7. How Different Forms of Health Matter to Political Participation (United States)

    Burden, Barry C.; Fletcher, Jason M.; Herd, Pamela; Jones, Bradley M.; Moynihan, Donald P.


    Physical and mental health is known to have wide influence over most aspects of social life—be it schooling and employment or marriage and broader social engagement—but has received limited attention in explaining different forms of political participation. We analyze a unique dataset with a rich array of objective measures of cognitive and physical well-being and two objective measures of political participation, voting and contributing money to campaigns and parties. For voting, each aspect of health has a powerful effect on par with traditional predictors of participation such as education. In contrast, health has little to no effect on making campaign contributions. We recommend additional attention to the multifaceted affects of health on different forms of political participation. PMID:29503463

  8. Risk assessment: An employer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.C.


    There is no question that a careful assessment of risk is essential for safe industrial operations. For that reason, a thoughtful analysis of the effectiveness of available risk assessment technologies is prerequisite for responsible corporate decision making. An 'employer's' perspective on risk assessment cannot be constrained by any artificial restrictions which that term may imply. In reality, all those who are involved in the execution of an industrial enterprise: managers, regulators, the affected public, and especially those employees exposed to hazards, are necessarily partners in assessment of risk. The perspective of this paper is that of the oil and gas industry, in which the author's organization, Exxon Company, International, participates. The paper addresses what Exxon requires to assess and manage risk in its worldwide operations. The author is aware, however, through contacts with industry colleagues, that some of Exxon's initiatives are representative of similar actions being taken by others. 1992 is the European Year of Safety, Health and Hygiene, coinciding with the United Kingdom's Presidency of the European Council. It is also the year in which new 'goal-setting' regulations covering safety in the U.K. offshore oil industry were put forward by the Health and Safety Commission. These regulations, based largely on Lord Cullen's recommendations following the Piper Alpha tragedy, set the pace for safety in the British North Sea and will significantly impact the safety of offshore oil installations worldwide. The requirement for risk assessment, using a systematic process of analysing and evaluating risk, is a key component of this safety regime

  9. Risk assessment: An employer's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K C [Exxon International (United States)


    There is no question that a careful assessment of risk is essential for safe industrial operations. For that reason, a thoughtful analysis of the effectiveness of available risk assessment technologies is prerequisite for responsible corporate decision making. An 'employer's' perspective on risk assessment cannot be constrained by any artificial restrictions which that term may imply. In reality, all those who are involved in the execution of an industrial enterprise: managers, regulators, the affected public, and especially those employees exposed to hazards, are necessarily partners in assessment of risk. The perspective of this paper is that of the oil and gas industry, in which the author's organization, Exxon Company, International, participates. The paper addresses what Exxon requires to assess and manage risk in its worldwide operations. The author is aware, however, through contacts with industry colleagues, that some of Exxon's initiatives are representative of similar actions being taken by others. 1992 is the European Year of Safety, Health and Hygiene, coinciding with the United Kingdom's Presidency of the European Council. It is also the year in which new 'goal-setting' regulations covering safety in the U.K. offshore oil industry were put forward by the Health and Safety Commission. These regulations, based largely on Lord Cullen's recommendations following the Piper Alpha tragedy, set the pace for safety in the British North Sea and will significantly impact the safety of offshore oil installations worldwide. The requirement for risk assessment, using a systematic process of analysing and evaluating risk, is a key component of this safety regime.

  10. female participation in the labour market of botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    labour market in Botswana is male-dominated, despite the fact that females in .... Labour force participation rate measures how many persons are ... the private sector is the largest employer, accounting for 56 percent of the total .... of enterprises owned at least 50 percent by the government, either profit making or non-profit.

  11. Photonic Crystals with Large Complete Bandgap Composed of an Approximately Ordered Array of Laurel-Crown-Like Structures Fabricated by Employing Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template (United States)

    Chan, Der-Sheng; Chau, Yuan-Fong


    An innovative fabrication processes of a photonic crystal composed of an approximately ordered array of laurel-crown-like structures by employing an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template is presented. We found that the intensity of the electric field is affected by the microstructure and surface morphology of aluminum foil after etching the scalloped barrier oxide layer (BOL). In addition, the electric current is strongly dependent on the electric field distribution in the scalloped BOL at the pore bottoms. By using a different step potential (DSP) of 30-60 V in series, the proposed photonic crystal is fabricated and possesses a large complete photonic bandgap.

  12. The Employed Neurosurgeon: Essential Lessons. (United States)

    Benzil, Deborah L; Zusman, Edie E


    Neurosurgeons are highly specialized surgeons whose pride is mastery of the complexity of form and function that is the nervous system and then knowing when and how these require surgical intervention. Following years of arduous postgraduate education, neurosurgeons enter the world of practice that is not only daunting in its intricacies of regulations, mandates, and unknown business practices, but also changing at a meteoric pace. Overwhelmingly, graduating residents and fellows are choosing to practice as employed physicians, a trend that is new in its magnitude and also changed because of the rapid evolution of large health systems. Case studies of challenges other employed surgical specialists have faced can provide critical and important education for any neurosurgeon in this arena. As with the lessons of all case studies, the teachings are remarkably universal, but how those lessons apply to an individual's specific situation will require personalized adaptation. Copyright © 2016 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  13. Between unemployment and employment: experience of unemployed long-term pain sufferers. (United States)

    Glavare, Maria; Löfgren, Monika; Schult, Marie-Louise


    This study explored and analysed how patients experienced possibilities for, and barriers to, work return after participation in a multi-professional pain-rehabilitation program followed by a coached work-training program (CWT). Eleven informants (8 women/3 men) with long-term musculoskeletal pain who had participated in the CWT program for 4-21 months (mean=11) comprised the study. A qualitative emergent design was used. Data collected with interviews were analysed using the constant comparison method of grounded theory. Triangulation in researchers were used. The analyses of the interviews resulted in the development of a three-category theoretical model, which was named "a way back to work". The main category "Experience of a way back to work" consisted of the informants' experience during the process between unemployment and employment. The category "Support" describes the help the informants received from various actors, and the category "Negative response" describes negative responses from the actors involved, which was an important barrier in the process between unemployment and employment. Professional individualised support, participants feeling involved in their rehabilitation process, coaching at real workplaces and multi-professional team including health care personnel, were valuable during the process towards work.

  14. Off-the-job training for VATS employing anatomically correct lung models. (United States)

    Obuchi, Toshiro; Imakiire, Takayuki; Miyahara, Sou; Nakashima, Hiroyasu; Hamanaka, Wakako; Yanagisawa, Jun; Hamatake, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Moriyama, Shigeharu; Iwasaki, Akinori


    We evaluated our simulated major lung resection employing anatomically correct lung models as "off-the-job training" for video-assisted thoracic surgery trainees. A total of 76 surgeons voluntarily participated in our study. They performed video-assisted thoracic surgical lobectomy employing anatomically correct lung models, which are made of sponges so that vessels and bronchi can be cut using usual surgical techniques with typical forceps. After the simulation surgery, participants answered questionnaires on a visual analogue scale, in terms of their level of interest and the reality of our training method as off-the-job training for trainees. We considered that the closer a score was to 10, the more useful our method would be for training new surgeons. Regarding the appeal or level of interest in this simulation surgery, the mean score was 8.3 of 10, and regarding reality, it was 7.0. The participants could feel some of the real sensations of the surgery and seemed to be satisfied to perform the simulation lobectomy. Our training method is considered to be suitable as an appropriate type of surgical off-the-job training.

  15. Older Workers and Federal Work Programs: The Korean Senior Employment Program (KSEP). (United States)

    Choi, Eunhee


    Federal older worker programs are attracting attention due to the growing number of older workers across the world. They are uniquely situated to provide out-of-market work opportunities to older job seekers, who often find their age a barrier to securing desirable jobs. In 2004, the Korean government established its own program, the Korean Senior Employment Program (KSEP); however, literature for international readers on this innovative program is lacking. Thus, this article aims to provide an in-depth description of KSEP and a brief comparison between the Senior Community Service Employment Program in the U.S. and KSEP. The unique characteristics of KSEP include having the dual program foci on supplemental income and social participation; expanding work opportunities in the private sector beyond community-based jobs; accepting participants who are financially disadvantaged as well as those with a high desire for social participation regardless of their income; and broadening work opportunities for those with professional skills beyond repetitive, simple, and temporary jobs. This article may offer helpful insights to older worker advocates from various countries in creating or modifying their programs.

  16. 75 FR 3168 - Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Program-Self-Employment (United States)


    ... Employment Program--Self-Employment AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document amends the vocational rehabilitation and employment regulations of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) concerning self-employment for individuals with qualifying disabilities. We are making...

  17. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research (United States)

    Pinter, Annamaria


    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…

  18. Employment specialist competencies for supported employment programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbière, M.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Lanctôt, N.; van Weeghel, J.


    Purpose Supported employment (SE) programs are evidence-based programs offered to people with severe mental illness to facilitate obtaining and keeping competitive work. However, significant variations in individuals’ vocational success may be partly explained by differences in their employment

  19. STEM employment in the new economy: A labor market segmentation approach (United States)

    Torres-Olave, Blanca M.

    The present study examined the extent to which the U.S. STEM labor market is stratified in terms of quality of employment. Through a series of cluster analyses and Chi-square tests on data drawn from the 2008 Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP), the study found evidence of segmentation in the highly-skilled STEM and non-STEM samples, which included workers with a subbaccalaureate diploma or above. The cluster analyses show a pattern consistent with Labor Market Segmentation theory: Higher wages are associated with other primary employment characteristics, including health insurance and pension benefits, as well as full-time employment. In turn, lower wages showed a tendency to cluster with secondary employment characteristics, such as part-time employment, multiple employment, and restricted access to health insurance and pension benefits. The findings also suggest that women have a higher likelihood of being employed in STEM jobs with secondary characteristics. The findings reveal a far more variegated employment landscape than is usually presented in national reports of the STEM workforce. There is evidence that, while STEM employment may be more resilient than non-STEM employment to labor restructuring trends in the new economy, the former is far from immune to secondary labor characteristics. There is a need for ongoing dialogue between STEM education (at all levels), employers, policymakers, and other stakeholders to truly understand not only the barriers to equity in employment relations, but also the mechanisms that create and maintain segmentation and how they may impact women, underrepresented minorities, and the foreign-born.

  20. Employer support for innovative work and employees' job satisfaction and job-related stress. (United States)

    Raykov, Milosh


    There are high levels of global and national underemployment, but limited information is available on the impact of this phenomenon on the quality of employees' working lives. This study examines the relations among perceived employer support for creative work, different forms of underemployment and employee quality of life, including job satisfaction, perceived job security and job satisfaction. The study was performed using cross-sectional data from the Canadian 2010 Work and Lifelong Learning Survey (WALL), which included 1,042 randomly selected currently employed participants between the ages of 18 and 64 years of age. The study found a significant inverse association between employer support for innovative work and different forms of underemployment. It also suggested a strong relationship between support for such work and participation in work-related informal learning. The results from this study confirmed the hypothesis that employer support for creative work is significantly associated with the quality of employees' working lives, as manifested through increased job security and job satisfaction. Employees experiencing greater support for workplace creativity report less job-related stress. The present study identified relatively low employer support for creative work and significant differences in the perception of support among managers and workers. The results of this study indicate that employer support for innovative work can mitigate significant underutilization of employee knowledge and skills. Such support can contribute to the reduction of job-related stress, increased job satisfaction and perceived job security. This kind of support can also improve the quality of life of employees and facilitate creativity and overall organizational and social development.

  1. Women and higher education in Iran: What are the implications for employment and the ``marriage market''? (United States)

    Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.; Moghadam, Valentine M.


    In contemporary Iran, women with higher education face both gender discrimination and an unfavourable economic system, one that is not conducive to employment-generation for women. This paper provides an analysis of women's access to higher education in Iran, which has varied over the last 30 years, and their continuously limited participation in the job market. Based on qualitative field research, this paper includes the voices of individual women, discussing their experience of higher education and factors they think are contributing to their limited choice of employment. The paper suggests that while the recent trend in negotiating mehrieh (a nuptial gift which is payable by the groom to the bride) has been a strategy employed by Iranian women to overcome some of the discriminatory laws they are subject to, this trend cannot actually be explained by the fact that women's employment opportunities are limited. The paper concludes by asserting that limited labour force participation for educated women is a consequence of both political economy and gender ideology.

  2. Who benefits from supported employment: a meta-analytic study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Campbell, Kikuko


    AIMS: This meta-analysis sought to identify which subgroups of clients with severe mental illness (SMI) benefited from evidence-based supported employment. METHODS: We used meta-analysis to pool the samples from 4 randomized controlled trials comparing the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model of supported employment to well-regarded vocational approaches using stepwise models and brokered services. Meta-analysis was used to determine the magnitude of effects for IPS\\/control group differences within specific client subgroups (defined by 2 work history, 7 sociodemographic, and 8 clinical variables) on 3 competitive employment outcomes (obtaining a job, total weeks worked, and job tenure). RESULTS: The findings strongly favored IPS, with large effect sizes across all outcomes: 0.96 for job acquisition, 0.79 for total weeks worked, and 0.74 for job tenure. Overall, 90 (77%) of the 117 effect sizes calculated for the 39 subgroups exceeded 0.70, and all 117 favored IPS. CONCLUSIONS: IPS produces better competitive employment outcomes for persons with SMI than alternative vocational programs regardless of background demographic, clinical, and employment characteristics.

  3. Employment Status of the Members of Tehran Deaf Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrooz nemati


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Regarding the importance of employment in social and emotional status of individuals, it would be important for the deaf. The purpose of the present study was to assess the employment status of the members of Tehran deaf community.Methods: This descriptive study was performed on all members of Tehran deaf community. A researchers-made questionnaire which had three parts (demographic information, employment status of the deaf members and their attitudes regarding employment was used in this study. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive methods.Results: Majority of deaf community members were adult (ages ranging between 18 and 30. Sixty-eight of them (52.5% were female and 53 (47.5% were male, from our participants, 56.2% were unemployed and 43.8% were employed. Main problems were: having no access to facilities regarding their disability (14.5%, communication problems (9.4%, lower salaries because of their disability (12.4%, being far from the working place (15.4%, disproportion of working environment to their disability (11.4%, maltreatment of their coworkers (13.2%, maltreatment of their employer (12.5% and discrimination because of their disability (11.2%, the attitudes of the deaf members were positive regarding the employment in all areas: 90% of them considered it as an essential part of life versus 10% of them mentioned not very important issue.Conclusion: Our findings showed that most of the deaf were supported by their family members, but not by the social facilities or their past education. The social policies should be reformed to support employment of the deaf.

  4. Transitioning to employment with a rheumatic disease: the role of independence, overprotection, and social support. (United States)

    Jetha, Arif; Badley, Elizabeth; Beaton, Dorcas; Fortin, Paul R; Shiff, Natalie J; Rosenberg, Alan M; Tucker, Lori B; Mosher, Dianne P; Gignac, Monique A M


    To examine perceived independence, overprotection, and support, and their association with the employment participation of young adults with rheumatic disease. One hundred and forty-three young adults, ages 18 to 30 years, with systemic lupus erythematosus (54.5%) and juvenile arthritis (45.5%) completed a 30-min online questionnaire of their work and education experiences. Information collected was demographic, health (e.g., pain, fatigue, disease activity), work context (e.g., career satisfaction, helpfulness of job accommodation/benefits, and workplace activity limitations), and psychosocial (e.g., independence, social support, and overprotection). Log-Poisson regression analysis examined factors associated with employment status. Over half of respondents were employed (59%) and 26% were enrolled in school. Respondents reported moderate to high perceptions of independence and social support. However, 27% reported that "quite a bit" to "a great deal" of overprotection characterized their relationships with those closest to them. At the bivariate level, employed participants and those indicating greater perceived independence reported greater social support and less overprotection. Multivariable analysis revealed that being employed was associated with older age, more job accommodations/benefits perceived as being helpful, and greater perceived independence. This is one of the first studies examining the employment of young adults with rheumatic diseases. Findings highlight the importance of psychosocial perceptions such as independence and overprotection, in addition to support related to working. Additional research is needed to better understand the role of those close to young adults with rheumatic diseases in supporting independence and encouraging employment.

  5. Employment barriers, skills, and aspirations among unemployed job seekers with and without social anxiety disorder. (United States)

    Himle, Joseph A; Weaver, Addie; Bybee, Deborah; O'Donnell, Lisa; Vlnka, Sarah; Laviolette, Wayne; Steinberger, Edward; Golenberg, Zipora; Levine, Debra Siegel


    The literature has consistently demonstrated that social anxiety disorder has substantial negative impacts on occupational functioning. However, to date, no empirical work has focused on understanding the specific nature of vocational problems among persons with social anxiety disorder. This study examined the association between perceived barriers to employment, employment skills, and job aspirations and social anxiety among adults seeking vocational rehabilitation services. Data from intake assessments (June 2010-December 2011) of 265 low-income, unemployed adults who initiated vocational rehabilitation services in urban Michigan were examined to assess perceived barriers to employment, employment skills, job aspirations, and demographic characteristics among participants who did or did not screen positive for social anxiety disorder. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. After adjustment for other factors, the multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that perceiving more employment barriers involving experience and skills, reporting fewer skills related to occupations requiring social skills, and having less education were significantly associated with social anxiety disorder. Participants who screened positive for social anxiety disorder were significantly less likely to aspire to social jobs. Employment-related characteristics that were likely to have an impact on occupational functioning were significantly different between persons with and without social anxiety problems. Identifying these differences in employment barriers, skills, and job aspirations revealed important information for designing psychosocial interventions for treatment of social anxiety disorder. The findings underscored the need for vocational services professionals to assess and address social anxiety among their clients.

  6. Epistemic Beliefs about Justification Employed by Physics Students and Faculty in Two Different Problem Contexts (United States)

    Çağlayan Mercan, Fatih


    This study examines the epistemic beliefs about justification employed by physics undergraduate and graduate students and faculty in the context of solving a standard classical physics problem and a frontier physics problem. Data were collected by a think-aloud problem solving session followed by a semi-structured interview conducted with 50 participants, 10 participants at freshmen, seniors, masters, PhD, and faculty levels. Seven modes of justification were identified and used for exploring the relationships between each justification mode and problem context, and expertise level. The data showed that justification modes were not mutually exclusive and many respondents combined different modes in their responses in both problem contexts. Success on solving the standard classical physics problem was not related to any of the justification modes and was independent of expertise level. The strength of the association across the problem contexts for the authoritative, rational, and empirical justification modes fell in the medium range and for the modeling justification mode fell in the large range of practical significance. Expertise level was not related with the empirical and religious justification modes. The strength of the association between the expertise level and the authoritative, rational, experiential, and relativistic justification modes fell in the medium range, and the modeling justification mode fell in the large range of practical significance. The results provide support for the importance of context for the epistemic beliefs about justification and are discussed in terms of the implications for teaching and learning science.

  7. Effect of components of a workplace lactation program on breastfeeding duration among employees of a public-sector employer. (United States)

    Balkam, Jane A Johnston; Cadwell, Karin; Fein, Sara B


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the individual services offered via a workplace lactation program of one large public-sector employer on the duration of any breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding was defined as exclusive feeding of human milk for the milk feeding. A cross-sectional mailed survey approach was used. The sample (n = 128) consisted of women who had used at least one component of the lactation program in the past 3 years and who were still employed at the same organization when data were collected. Descriptive statistics included frequency distributions and contingency table analysis. Chi-square analysis was used for comparison of groups, and both analysis of variance (ANOVA) and univariate analysis of variance from a general linear model were used for comparison of means. The survey respondents were primarily older, white, married, well-educated, high-income women. More of the women who received each lactation program service were exclusively breastfeeding at 6 months of infant age in all categories of services, with significant differences in the categories of telephone support and return to work consultation. After adjusting for race and work status, logistic regression analysis showed the number of services received was positively related to exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months and participation in a return to work consultation was positively related to any breastfeeding at 6 months. The study demonstrated that the workplace lactation program had a positive impact on duration of breastfeeding for the women who participated. Participation in the telephone support and return to work consultation services, and the total number of services used were related to longer duration of exclusive and/or any breastfeeding.

  8. Implementing an interprofessional patient safety learning initiative: insights from participants, project leads and steering committee members. (United States)

    Jeffs, Lianne; Abramovich, Ilona Alex; Hayes, Chris; Smith, Orla; Tregunno, Deborah; Chan, Wai-Hin; Reeves, Scott


    Effective teamwork and interprofessional collaboration are vital for healthcare quality and safety; however, challenges persist in creating interprofessional teamwork and resilient professional teams. A study was undertaken to delineate perceptions of individuals involved with the implementation of an interprofessional patient safety competency-based intervention and intervention participants. The study employed a qualitative study design that triangulated data from interviews with six steering committee members and five members of the project team who developed and monitored the intervention and six focus groups with clinical team members who participated in the intervention and implemented local patient safety projects within a large teaching hospital in Canada. Our study findings reveal that healthcare professionals and support staff acquired patient safety competencies in an interprofessional context that can result in improved patient and work flow processes. However, key challenges exist including managing projects amidst competing priorities, lacking physician engagement and sustaining projects. Our findings point to leaders to provide opportunities for healthcare teams to engage in interprofessional teamwork and patient safety projects to improve quality of patient care. Further research efforts should examine the sustainability of interprofessional safety projects and how leaders can more fully engage the participation of all professions, specifically physicians.

  9. Influence Factor of Tertiary Students’ Employability Awareness Adjust Industry 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Mei Chou


    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the correlation (N=621 among tertiary students’ career planning, erecruiting adoption acceptance, and employability awareness in Taiwan. Tertiary students’ perceived career planning includes four factors, namely, self-appraisal, job expectancy, goal selection, and problem solving. E-recruiting adoption acceptance includes four factors, namely, playfulness, ease of use, effectiveness, and usefulness. Employability awareness includes four factors, namely, personal adaptability, employability ambition, career identity, and labour market. Participants responded to a 5-point Likert-type scale for each factor. Analysis was conducted using the structural equation modeling (SEM, and a good model fit was found for both the measurement and structural models. Research findings demonstrate that tertiary students’ career planning significantly and directly influences employability awareness. Career planning significantly and indirectly influences employability awareness by e-recruiting adoption acceptance. Tertiary students’ career planning and e-recruiting adoption acceptance fit the influence model and empirical data of employability awareness. Implications of this study, including the value of student self-assessment of their skills and utility of the e-recruiting to underpin personal career development planning and inform graduate recruitment processes, are discussed and recommendations made.

  10. Quality Qualification of the Self-Employed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neva Maher


    Full Text Available A topical issue nowadays is how to increase direct and indirect efficiency of education of the unemployed in view of the relatively high funds available. Along with the swing of the enterprises the quality and quantity of educating and qualifying people increased. But quality does not mean only a higher level of professional knowledge. The goal is clear: to offer the self-employed functional knowledge needed. Such knowledge, offered in a suitably transformed didactic form and considering the specific situation of the unemployed should help them reach the optimal goal: find and make good use of entrepreneurial chance. In addition to the principles of the andragogic process and specific technological needs teacher plays an extremely important role in this process. Who is the one offering knowledge to the self­ employed? Who is the one explaining the economic principles of the environment and providing the leamers with knowledge at the time when they crit­ically Jack motivation? Is this a lecturer, teacher, tutor, counsellor, trainer or stimulator? The teacher has to be fully aware of the specific needs of the unemployed adults in educational process, thus he/she has to combine theoretical knowledge and practice with personal and emotional developmental stage of the participants.This it is only possible to influence the attitudes and strategies, as the quality of knowledge will take precedence over the quantity. But teachers should not be alone in their endeavours. They need to be additionally equipped with appropriate knowledge. As teaching a group of adults means total responsibility of the teacher, he/she should master the methods and techniques of recognizing the participants (their personal characteristics, their cognitive abilities. They should be able to estimate their previous knowledge and experiences as well as to evaluate and supplement their newly acquired knowledge. Relationship between participants and teachers shall be balanced

  11. The effectiveness of skills training for improving outcomes in supported employment. (United States)

    Mueser, Kim T; Aalto, Steve; Becker, Deborah R; Ogden, John S; Wolfe, Rosemarie S; Schiavo, Diane; Wallace, Charles J; Xie, Haiyi


    This study evaluated whether a supplementary skills training program improved work outcomes for clients enrolled in supported employment programs. Thirty-five recently employed clients with severe mental illness who were receiving supported employment services at a free-standing agency were randomly assigned to participate in either the workplace fundamentals program, a skills training program designed to make work more "successful and satisfying," or treatment as usual. Knowledge of workplace fundamentals (for example, identifying workplace stressors, problem solving, and improving job performance) was assessed at baseline and at nine months; employment outcomes and use of additional vocational services were tracked for 18 months. Clients in the workplace fundamentals group (N=17) improved more in knowledge of workplace fundamentals than those in the control group (N=18) at the nine-month follow-up, but the two groups did not differ in the number of hours or days worked, salary earned, or receipt of additional vocational services over the 18-month period. In general, clients in this study had higher educational levels and better employment outcomes than clients in most previous studies of supported employment, making it difficult to detect possible effects of the skills training intervention on work. Supplementary skills training did not improve work outcomes for clients who were receiving supported employment.

  12. [Changes in labor market participation of older employees in Germany: the perspective of labor market research]. (United States)

    Brussig, M


    For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna ZHGUR


    Full Text Available Introduction: People with intellectual disabilities (ID are often excluded from the labour market and face many obstacles on their way to employment. Aim: The main aim is giving the persons with ID a possibility to participate in occasional employment, providing them suitable work skills, sustainable knowledge and competencies, as well as suitable skills for more active life. Materials and methods: We analysed 90 evaluation questionnaires (filled out by students, mentors, parents and craftsmen, during a 3-year project (September 2013 - October 2015. The Spearman Correlation Coefficient and Chi-square test were used for statistical data analysis. Results: We determined the level of satisfaction expressed by parents, mentors and students, related to guided employment (χ2 = 1,07; p > 0,05; χ2 = 0,04; p > 0,05;χ2 = 0,04; p > 0,05. Workshops were balanced with theoretical and practical content (χ2 = 16,58; p 0,05, craftsmen (ϱ = 0,79; p 0,05. Conclusion: Implementation of selected workshops, related to guided employment showed that employment of people with ID is possible under professional guidance of mentors.

  14. Digital Storytelling and Employer Branding. An Exploratory Connection


    Camelia CRIȘAN; Dumitru BORȚUN


    Our paper aims at explaining what is digital storytelling and its particular methodology, and how its use in the organizational settings could influence the employer branding. For such purpose, the authors have conducted an exploratory research, where a group of participants has been asked to rate their interest in a company, after viewing solely the online commercial communication (website and Facebook account), while another group has viewed two digital stories produced by two employees of ...

  15. Institutional and Demographic Explanations of Women's Employment in 18 OECD Countries, 1975-1999 (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Rense; Need, Ariana; Van Der Kolk, Henk


    This study combined demographic and institutional explanations of women's employment, describing and explaining the degree to which mothers in industrialized societies are less likely to be employed than women without children. A large number of cross-sectional surveys were pooled, covering 18 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development…

  16. Energy investments and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A study was conducted to assess the effect that different energy options would have on provincial and regional employment prospects in British Columbia. Current and future economic and employment patterns were examined to develop a more detailed understanding of the skills, age, gender, location, and other characteristics of British Columbia workers. Over 40 previous studies examining the energy/employment relationship were also reviewed. Based on this review and an analysis of the province's economic and labor conditions, the following conclusions are drawn. Investment in non-energy sectors offers better prospects for reducing unemployment than investment in the energy sector, whether for new supply or improving efficiency. Investments in the energy sector provide fewer jobs than investments in most other sectors of the economy. Among the available electricity supply options, large hydroelectric projects tend to produce the fewest jobs per investment dollar. Smaller thermal projects such as wood residue plants produce the most jobs. If and when more energy is needed in British Columbia, the most cost-effective combination of energy supply and efficiency options will also create the most jobs. Compared to traditional energy supply options, investments in energy efficiency would create about twice as many total jobs, create jobs that better match the skills of the province's unemployed and its population distribution, and create jobs that last longer on the average. Construction-related measures such as improved insulation tend to produce more jobs per investment dollar than the substitution of more energy-efficient equipment. 69 refs., 9 tabs

  17. Using Private Employment Agencies to Place Public Assistance Clients in Jobs. (United States)

    Carcagno, George J.; And Others


    This paper presents the results of an experiment in which private employment agencies were used to place public assistance clients in jobs. Contains brief descriptions of the experiment and the AFDC clients who participated in it. Key experimental findings are outlined and policy implications are discussed. (CT)

  18. Longitudinal employment outcomes of an early intervention vocational rehabilitation service for people admitted to rehabilitation with a traumatic spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Hilton, G; Unsworth, C A; Murphy, G C; Browne, M; Olver, J


    Longitudinal cohort design. First, to explore the longitudinal outcomes for people who received early intervention vocational rehabilitation (EIVR); second, to examine the nature and extent of relationships between contextual factors and employment outcomes over time. Both inpatient and community-based clients of a Spinal Community Integration Service (SCIS). People of workforce age undergoing inpatient rehabilitation for traumatic spinal cord injury were invited to participate in EIVR as part of SCIS. Data were collected at the following three time points: discharge and at 1 year and 2+ years post discharge. Measures included the spinal cord independence measure, hospital anxiety and depression scale, impact on participation and autonomy scale, numerical pain-rating scale and personal wellbeing index. A range of chi square, correlation and regression tests were undertaken to look for relationships between employment outcomes and demographic, emotional and physical characteristics. Ninety-seven participants were recruited and 60 were available at the final time point where 33% (95% confidence interval (CI): 24-42%) had achieved an employment outcome. Greater social participation was strongly correlated with wellbeing (ρ=0.692), and reduced anxiety (ρ=-0.522), depression (ρ=-0.643) and pain (ρ=-0.427) at the final time point. In a generalised linear mixed effect model, education status, relationship status and subjective wellbeing increased significantly the odds of being employed at the final time point. Tertiary education prior to injury was associated with eight times increased odds of being in employment at the final time point; being in a relationship at the time of injury was associated with increased odds of being in employment of more than 3.5; subjective wellbeing, while being the least powerful predictor was still associated with increased odds (1.8 times) of being employed at the final time point. EIVR shows promise in delivering similar return

  19. Temporary Employment and Perceived Employability: Mediation by Impression Management (United States)

    De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans


    Perceived employability (PE) has been advanced as the upcoming resource for career development, particularly for temporary workers. The question is how temporary workers become employable. Our hypothesis is that temporary workers more than permanent workers use impression management to become employable, both on the internal and the external labor…

  20. A descriptive evaluation of CDC's LEAN Works! Leading employees to activity and nutrition--a Web-based employer tool for workplace obesity management. (United States)

    Roemer, Enid C; Liss-Levinson, Rivka C; Samoly, Daniel K; Guy, Gery P; Tabrizi, Maryam J; Beckowski, Meghan S; Pei, Xiaofei; Goetzel, Ron Z


    The study aim was to determine the utility of and satisfaction with a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Web-based employer tool, CDC's LEAN Works!, which provides evidence-based recommendations and promising practices for obesity prevention and control at worksites. This study examined employers' natural usage (i.e., without any study parameters on how, when, or how much to use the Web site and its resources) and impressions of the Web site. Employers of varying sizes, industry types, and levels of maturity in offering obesity management programs and from both private and public sectors were recruited to participate in the study. A convenience sample of 29 employers enrolled to participate. Participants were followed over a 12-month period. First impressions, bimonthly use of the Web site, and final assessments were collected using self-report surveys and individual interviews. Descriptive analyses were conducted. Almost all (96%) of participants reported a positive experience with the Web site, noting it provided a wealth of information. Most reported they planned to continue to use the Web site to develop (77%), implement (92%), and evaluate (85%) their obesity management programs. Aspects of the Web site that employers found valuable included a step-by-step implementation process, templates and toolkits, specific recommendations, and promising practices. CDC's LEAN Works! is a useful resource for employers wishing to develop and implement evidence-based workplace obesity prevention programs.

  1. Exploring the challenges experienced by people with disabilities in the employment sector in Australia: Advocating for inclusive practice- a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Ruhindwa


    Full Text Available People with disabilities are generally not considered as able participants in the workforce (paid or volunteer work and therefore, they often experience exclusion from participating in mainstream employment opportunities. People with disabilities experience various barriers to employment, such as discrimination in the workplace, stigma, prejudice and stereotypes. However, some people with disabilities participate in the workforce and make valuable contributions towards economic development, social capital and wider society. This literature review summarises published research findings about the challenges that people with disabilities experience in pursuing employment opportunities, including volunteering and paid positions; and in undertaking these roles. Furthermore, it explores possible interventions to improve employment outcomes that are effective from the perspectives of people with disabilities. Findings indicate that effective practice takes an inclusive approach and allows clients to take ownership of solutions in relation to addressing the challenges they experience in the employment sector. For this reason, two different community development projects, which particularly focused on employment challenges for people with disabilities, as well as outlining strategies and solutions that promote client ownership were reviewed. Additionally, employment support techniques and strategies, as well as human rights’ principles on work and employment for people with disabilities will be debated. Finally, implications for research and practice for the rehabilitation counselling profession and the disability employment services sector are discussed. Keywords: disability, employment barriers, challenges, vocational rehabilitation, community development, labour market, social inclusion, human rights, strategies & interventions

  2. Education and employment outcomes of young adults with a history of developmental language disorder (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew


    Abstract Background Developmental language disorder (DLD) presents a considerable barrier for young adults to engage in further education and training. Early studies with young adults with DLD revealed poor educational achievement and lack of opportunities to progress in education. More recent studies have provided more positive findings. Relatively sparse data exist, however, on current cohorts and the factors that predict outcomes. Aims To examine educational and employment outcomes in young adulthood in a sample of people with histories of DLD compared with an age‐matched peer group without DLD. We ask: How do educational pathways and early jobs compare between those with and without DLD? Are young adults with DLD receiving similar levels of income as their peers? To what extent are language and literacy abilities associated with outcomes? Methods & Procedures Participants included 84 individuals with DLD (67% males) and 88 age‐matched peers without DLD (56% males). Participants were on average 24 years of age. They completed a battery of psycholinguistic, literacy and nonverbal skills assessments. Data were also collected on educational qualifications, current educational status, extent of educational support received, employment status, history and support, as well as current income. Outcomes & Results Those with DLD obtained lower academic and vocational qualifications. Higher educational/vocational qualifications were associated with better language, better reading and higher performance IQ (PIQ). There were few differences between the two groups in terms of engagement with education, but the mean age at leaving education was significantly earlier in the participants with DLD. Substantially more participants with DLD reported receiving support or dispensation from their educational institution. There was no significant difference between groups in the proportion of young people currently employed, though a higher proportion of the age‐matched peers was

  3. Education and employment outcomes of young adults with a history of developmental language disorder. (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew


    Developmental language disorder (DLD) presents a considerable barrier for young adults to engage in further education and training. Early studies with young adults with DLD revealed poor educational achievement and lack of opportunities to progress in education. More recent studies have provided more positive findings. Relatively sparse data exist, however, on current cohorts and the factors that predict outcomes. To examine educational and employment outcomes in young adulthood in a sample of people with histories of DLD compared with an age-matched peer group without DLD. We ask: How do educational pathways and early jobs compare between those with and without DLD? Are young adults with DLD receiving similar levels of income as their peers? To what extent are language and literacy abilities associated with outcomes? Participants included 84 individuals with DLD (67% males) and 88 age-matched peers without DLD (56% males). Participants were on average 24 years of age. They completed a battery of psycholinguistic, literacy and nonverbal skills assessments. Data were also collected on educational qualifications, current educational status, extent of educational support received, employment status, history and support, as well as current income. Those with DLD obtained lower academic and vocational qualifications. Higher educational/vocational qualifications were associated with better language, better reading and higher performance IQ (PIQ). There were few differences between the two groups in terms of engagement with education, but the mean age at leaving education was significantly earlier in the participants with DLD. Substantially more participants with DLD reported receiving support or dispensation from their educational institution. There was no significant difference between groups in the proportion of young people currently employed, though a higher proportion of the age-matched peers was in work full time. Participants with DLD were much more likely to be

  4. Smallholder participation in large forestry programs: The camellia program in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Bluemling, B.; Dries, L.K.E.; Feng, S.


    In recent years, many forestry projects have been implemented in developing countries. In China, a variety of large-scale afforestation and reforestation programmes have been carried out with multiple objectives, such as livelihood improvement and carbon sequestration. As in many developing

  5. Retirement plan participation and features and standard of living of Americans 55 or older. (United States)

    Copeland, Craig


    This Issue Brief is the third in a series of Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) publications based on data collected in 1998 and released in 2002 as the Retirement and Pension Plan Coverage Topical Module of the 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). This report completes the series by examining the survey's more detailed questions concerning workers' employment-based retirement plans. Specifically, it examines the percentage of workers who are participating in a plan, and also workers' reasons for not participating in a plan when working in a job where a plan is sponsored; the features of, or decisions made concerning salary reduction plans; historical participation in employment-based retirement plans; and a comparison of the standard of living of individuals age 55 or older with their living standard in their early 50s. As of June 1998, 64.3 percent of wage and salary workers age 16 or older worked for an employer or union that sponsored any type of retirement plan (defined contribution or defined benefit) for any of its employees or members (the "sponsorship rate"). Almost 47 percent of these wage and salary workers participated in a plan (the "participation rate"), with 43.2 percent being entitled to a benefit or eligible to receive a lump-sum distribution from a plan if their job terminated at the time of survey (the "vested rate"). The predominant reason for choosing not to participate in a retirement plan was that doing so was unaffordable. The eligible participation rate for salary reduction plans was 81.4 percent. Fifty-six percent of all workers have participated in some type of retirement plan sometime during their work life through 1998. For those ages 51-60, almost 72 percent have ever participated in a plan. The median account balance in salary reduction plans in 1998 was $14,000. In 1998, 12.9 percent of salary reduction plan participants eligible to take a loan had done so, and the average outstanding loan balance was $5

  6. Exercising choice: the economic determinants of physical activity behaviour of an employed population. (United States)

    Brown, Heather; Roberts, Jennifer


    Lack of physical activity is a major contributing factor to the worldwide obesity epidemic, and to the overall burden of disease. The deindustrialisation of developed economies and move to more sedentary employment has impacted on the opportunities of working individuals to participate in physical activity. This can have negative effects on productivity and worker health potentially influencing economic growth. Thus, it is important to determine the factors influencing the frequency of participation in physical activity for employed individuals. This paper uses a modified time allocation framework to explore this issue. We use data from the first six waves of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics of Australia survey (HILDA). The analysis examines frequency of participation in physical activity using a generalised random effects ordered probit model. We control for non-parallel cut-points between the physical activity categories and individual heterogeneity, as well as exploring differences across gender. The results indicate that there is a time trade-off between non-market work, market work, and the frequency of physical activity participation. This effect is moderated by gender. For example, dependent children have a larger negative effect on the frequency of physical activity participation for women. Education and marriage have a larger negative effect on the frequency of participation for men. The findings suggests that policies which make exercise more convenient, and hence decrease the opportunity cost of exercise, will help to encourage more frequent participation in physical activity for working adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to address facilitators and barriers to participation at work. (United States)

    Martins, Anabela Correia


    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was approved by the World Health Assembly in 2001. Ten years later, strong arguments have arisen regarding the added value of ICF to the policies on employment and the outcomes at the workplace. As a conceptual framework, ICF has universality because of its inclusive and comprehensive view of human functioning. At a practical level ICF can be used to quantify the impact of impairment on an individual's ability to act in his/her environment and to assess interventions to minimize the impact of disability and maximize functioning. To explore key indicators of social participation (life habits) of persons with disabilities, particularly related to work, among environmental and personal factors. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires from a convenience sample of 149 working-age persons with disabilities. Social participation is a construct composed by multiple components and employment domain is the strongest indicator of participation. Correlations between social participation and personal factors, such as self-efficacy and attitudes towards disability were moderate. Those who are employed scored higher quality of life in terms of satisfaction with life, more positive attitudes toward disabilities and higher self-efficacy than the ones who are retired or unemployed. Persons using adapted wheelchair and those who were involved in wheelchair selection scored higher in social participation in general, performance at work, and quality of life. Age and disability duration were not associated with participants' employment status. These findings suggest that rehabilitation and vocational agents, like physiotherapists and other professionals, should have knowledge and understanding of the multiple factors that influence persons with disabilities' participation at work. Programs should provide appropriate wheelchairs, skills training, empowerment and problem-solving strategies in

  8. Voluntary Participation in Community Economic Development in Canada: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lamb


    Full Text Available This article is an empirical analysis of an individual's decision to participate in community economic development (CED initiatives in Canada. The objective of the analysis is to better understand how individuals make decisions to volunteer time toward CED initiatives and to determine whether the determinants of participation in CED are unique when compared to those of participation in volunteer activities in general. The dataset employed is Statistics Canada's 2004 Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating (CSGVP. To date, there has been no prior econometric analysis of the decision to participate in community economic development initiatives in Canada. Results suggest a role for both public policymakers and practitioners in influencing participation in CED. / Cet article constitue une analyse empirique du processus de prise de décision chez les individus en ce qui a trait à la participation aux initiatives canadiennes de développement économique communautaire (DÉC. Le but de l'analyse est de mieux comprendre la façon dont les individus prennent la décision de consacrer du temps au bénévolat dans les initiatives de DÉC. Elle sert aussi à trancher la question de savoir si les facteurs de participation aux initiatives de développement économique communautaire sont uniques ou communs à la participation à des activités bénévoles en général. Les données employées dans le cadre de cette analyse sont puisées de l'Enquête canadienne sur le don, le bénévolat et la participation effectuée par Statistique Canada en 2004. À ce jour, aucune analyse économétrique n'a été menée sur la décision de participer aux initiatives canadiennes de DÉC. Les résultats suggèrent que les responsables de l'élaboration des politiques ainsi que les praticiens influencent tous deux la participation aux initiatives de DÉC.

  9. Young Women's Political Participation in Kenya | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They will analyze the historical and current political participation of young women in local and national politics; the strategies women employ in seeking political office; the role of men, civil society organizations and community leadership in advancing young women in politics; and the role of ... Date butoir. 22 mars 2013 ...

  10. Work Conditions and the Food Choice Coping Strategies of Employed Parents (United States)

    Devine, Carol M.; Farrell, Tracy J.; Blake, Christine E.; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A.


    Objective: How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Design: Pilot telephone survey. Setting: City in the northeastern United States (US). Participants: Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible…

  11. Formulating Employability Skills for Graduates of Public Health Study Program (United States)

    Qomariyah, Nurul; Savitri, Titi; Hadianto, Tridjoko; Claramita, Mora


    Employability skills (ES) are important for effective and successful individual participation in the workplace. The main aims of the research were to identify important ES needed by graduates of Public Health Study Program Universitas Ahmad Dahlan (PHSP UAD) and to assess the achievement of the ES development that has been carried out by PHSP UAD.…

  12. Perceptions of Young Adult Central Nervous System Cancer Survivors and Their Parents Regarding Career Development and Employment (United States)

    Strauser, David R.; Wagner, Stacia; Chan, Fong; Wong, Alex W. K.


    Purpose: Identify barriers to career development and employment from both the survivor and parent perspective. Method: Young adult survivors (N = 43) and their parents participated in focus groups to elicit information regarding perceptions regarding career development and employment. Results: Perceptions of both the young adults and parents…

  13. Protocol for a mixed-methods longitudinal study to identify factors influencing return to work in the over 50s participating in the UK Work Programme: Supporting Older People into Employment (SOPIE). (United States)

    Brown, Judith; Neary, Joanne; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Thomson, Hilary; McQuaid, Ronald W; Leyland, Alastair H; Frank, John; Jeavons, Luke; de Pellette, Paul; Kiran, Sibel; Macdonald, Ewan B


    Increasing employment among older workers is a policy priority given the increase in life expectancy and the drop in labour force participation after the age of 50. Reasons for this drop are complex but include poor health, age discrimination, inadequate skills/qualifications and caring roles; however, limited evidence exists on how best to support this group back to work. The Work Programme is the UK Government's flagship policy to facilitate return to work (RTW) among those at risk of long-term unemployment. 'Supporting Older People Into Employment' (SOPIE) is a mixed-methods longitudinal study involving a collaboration between academics and a major Work Programme provider (Ingeus). The study will investigate the relationship between health, worklessness and the RTW process for the over 50s. There are three main study components. Embedded fieldwork will document the data routinely collected by Ingeus and the key interventions/activities delivered. The quantitative study investigates approximately 14,000 individuals (aged 16-64 years, with 20% aged over 50) who entered the Ingeus Work Programme (referred to as 'clients') in a 16-month period in Scotland and were followed up for 2 years. Employment outcomes (including progression towards work) and how they differ by client characteristics (including health), intervention components received and external factors will be investigated. The qualitative component will explore the experiences of clients and Ingeus staff, to better understand the interactions between health and (un)employment, Work Programme delivery, and how employment services can be better tailored to the needs of the over 50s. Ethical approval was received from the University of Glasgow College of Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee (application number 400140186). Results will be disseminated through journal articles, national and international conferences. Findings will inform current and future welfare-to-work and job retention initiatives to

  14. Upper Limb Absence: Predictors of Work Participation and Work Productivity. (United States)

    Postema, Sietke G; Bongers, Raoul M; Brouwers, Michael A; Burger, Helena; Norling-Hermansson, Liselotte M; Reneman, Michiel F; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van der Sluis, Corry K


    To analyze work participation, work productivity, contributing factors, and physical work demands of individuals with upper limb absence (ULA). Cross-sectional study: postal survey (response rate, 45%). Twelve rehabilitation centers and orthopedic workshops. Individuals (n=207) with unilateral transverse upper limb reduction deficiency (RD) or acquired amputation (AA), at or proximal to the carpal level, between the ages of 18 and 65 years, and a convenience sample of control subjects (n=90) matched on age and sex. Not applicable. Employment status, self-reported work productivity measured with the Quality-Quantity method, and self-reported upper extremity work demands measured with the Upper Extremity Work Demands scale. Seventy-four percent of the individuals with RD and 57% of the individuals with AA were employed (vs 82% of the control group and 66% of the general population). Male sex, younger age, a medium or higher level of education, prosthesis use, and good general health were predictors of work participation. Work productivity was similar to that of the control group. Higher work productivity was inversely related to musculoskeletal complaint-related pain. When having predominantly mentally demanding work, individuals with ULA perceived higher upper extremity work demands compared with controls. Work participation of individuals with RD was slightly higher compared with that of the general population, whereas employment rates of individuals with AA were slightly lower. Furthermore, work productivity did not differ between individuals with RD, AA, and controls. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Is there an occupational therapy employment crisis within Australia? An investigation into two consecutive cohorts of occupational therapy graduates from a single Victorian University identifying trends in employment. (United States)

    Fay, Pearse; Adamson, Lynne


    Within the context of growing concerns about a potential oversupply of occupational therapist, this research examines when, where and how long new graduates take to gain employment and identifies influences upon the health and university systems. A mixed method research design, using an online survey was adopted to investigate the topic. Two consecutive cohorts of graduates from a single university program were invited to participate. Seventy-five (58%) responses were received, with 63 (84%) currently employed in an occupational therapy role. Of the 12 (16%) not employed, only 3 (4%) described themselves as actively seeking employment in an occupational therapy role. A wide spread of employment settings and scope of practice areas was reported. Findings suggest that occupational therapy graduates are gaining employment in a range of settings and practice areas, relatively quickly. This research adds evidence to the conversation around graduate employment within a region of Australia. The Australian population, health system and university changes are possible factors influencing employment. The research reveals the difficulties in understanding the current situation with limitations in data collected, varied terminology and an ever changing job seeking environment. The research provides a starting point for the occupational therapy profession to further understand the directions the profession is taking. University programs may also benefit by using the research to tailor course content to assist graduates in gaining employment or to present students with the prospects of new employment opportunities. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  16. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye


    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  17. Consumer participation in housing: reflecting on consumer preferences. (United States)

    Browne, Graeme; Hemsley, Martin


    Historically, people living with mental illness have had limited chance to participate in mental health services other than as patients. Following on from a recent review focusing on consumer participation in mental health services, this paper looks at consumer participation in housing. Housing is a critical element in recovery from mental illness. Without suitable housing, people have little chance of maintaining other resources in their lives, such as supportive social relationships and meaningful activities. Consumer participation is not a common topic in the recent literature, despite the significant public policy push to promote it. The importance of appropriate housing to the recovery of people living with mental illness cannot be underestimated. Even well-meaning and well-resourced housing initiatives can fall short of meeting consumers' recovery goals when they do not incorporate the expressed needs of consumers. These expressed needs include keeping units small in size and employing drop-in support models.

  18. The association between employee obesity and employer costs: evidence from a panel of U.S. employers. (United States)

    Van Nuys, Karen; Globe, Denise; Ng-Mak, Daisy; Cheung, Hoiwan; Sullivan, Jeff; Goldman, Dana


    To estimate the employer costs associated with employee obesity. The study used cross-sectional analysis of employee health-risk assessment, disability, workers' compensation, and medical claims data from 2006 to 2008. The study took place in the United States from 2006 to 2008. A panel database with 29,699 employees drawn from a panel of employers and observed for 3 years each (N = 89,097) was used. Workdays lost owing to illness and disability; the cost of medical, short-term disability, and workers' compensation claims; and employees' adjusted body mass indices (BMI) were measured. We model the number and probability of workdays lost from illness, short-term disability, and workers' compensation events; short-term disability and workers' compensation payments; and health care spending as a function of BMI. We estimate spline regression models and fit results using a third-degree fractional polynomial. Probability of disability, workers' compensation claims, and number of days missed owing to any cause increase with BMI above 25, as do total employer costs. The probability of a short-term disability claim increases faster for employees with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes. Normal weight employees cost on average $3830 per year in covered medical, sick day, short-term disability, and workers' compensation claims combined; morbidly obese employees cost more than twice that amount, or $8067, in 2011 dollars. Obesity is associated with large employer costs from direct health care and insurance claims and indirect costs from lost productivity owing to workdays lost because of illness and disability.

  19. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.


    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Khan


    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills

  1. Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment program--self-employment. Final rule. (United States)


    This document amends the vocational rehabilitation and employment regulations of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) concerning self-employment for individuals with qualifying disabilities. We are making changes to conform VA's regulations for self-employment programs for veterans, and for servicemembers awaiting discharge, to statutory provisions, including provisions limiting eligibility for certain supplies, equipment, stock, and license fees to individuals with the most severe service-connected disabilities. We are also making related changes in VA's regulations affecting eligibility for such assistance for certain veterans' children with birth defects in self-employment programs. In addition, we are amending our regulations regarding the approval authority for self-employment plans to make certain requirements less restrictive and less burdensome, to remove a vague and overly broad requirement, to make changes to reflect longstanding VA policy, and to make nonsubstantive clarifying changes.

  2. Becoming Self-Employed. (United States)

    Lee, Grant; Cochran, Larry


    Explored how persons become self-employed. In critical incident interviews with five self-employed persons the critical events that assisted or hindered progress toward self-employment were listed in chronological order. In general, becoming self-employed involved establishing conditions of action that enhanced a sense of agency, thus enabling…

  3. Does health differ between participants and non-participants in the MRI-HUNT study, a population based neuroimaging study? The Nord-Trøndelag health studies 1984–2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honningsvåg, Lasse-Marius; Linde, Mattias; Håberg, Asta; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Hagen, Knut


    Bias with regard to participation in epidemiological studies can have a large impact on the generalizability of results. Our aim was to investigate the direction and magnitude of potential bias by comparing health-related factors among participants and non-participants in a MRI-study based on HUNT, a large Norwegian health survey. Of 14,033 individuals aged 50–65, who had participated in all three large public health surveys within the Norwegian county of Nord-Trøndelag (HUNT 1, 2 and 3), 1,560 who lived within 45 minutes of travel from the city of Levanger were invited to a MRI study (MRI-HUNT). The sample of participants in MRI-HUNT (n = 1,006) were compared with those who were invited but did not participate (n = 554) and with those who were eligible but not invited (n = 12,473), using univariate analyses and logistic regression analyses adjusting for age and education level. Self-reported health did not differ between the three groups, but participants had a higher education level and were somewhat younger than the two other groups. In the adjusted multivariate analyses, obesity was consistently less prevalent among participants. Significant differences in blood pressure and cholesterol were also found. This is the first large population-based study comparing participants and non-participants in an MRI study with regard to general health. The groups were not widely different, but participants had a higher level of education, and were less likely to be obese and have hypertension, and were slightly younger than non-participants. The observed differences between participants and non-invited individuals are probably partly explained by the inclusion criterion that participants had to live within 45 minutes of transport to where the MRI examination took place. One will expect that the participants have somewhat less brain morphological changes related to cardiovascular risk factors than the general population. Such consequences underline the crucial importance

  4. Employer's Manual on Affirmative Action in Employment. (United States)

    Kentucky State Commission on Human Rights, Frankfort.

    The express purpose of this manual is for its use by business and industry in Kentucky as an aid to eliminate discrimination. Affirmative action is defined here as a comprehensive effort by an employer designed to: employ women and minority persons where they are under-utilized; include minority persons and women in all facets of the company's…

  5. The Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI): A Community of Practice Study (United States)

    Grajo, Lenin C.; Candler, Catherine


    We employed a community of practice to expand the application of the Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) and build the capacity of practitioners to support children with reading difficulties. Twelve pediatric practitioners participated in a community of practice for 7 months. We used a one…

  6. The Post-Recession Employment Situation: A Comparative Perspective (United States)

    Couch, Kenneth A.


    Slow economic growth since the end of the U.S. recession in June of 2009 has not yet translated into increases in employment large enough to meaningfully reduce the rate of unemployment. Because expansionary macroeconomic policy has been pursued on both the fiscal and monetary fronts, it appears at first glance that the hands of government at this…

  7. Good job, bad job: The employment experiences of women in recovery from substance abuse. (United States)

    Sinakhone, Joyce K; Hunter, Bronwyn A; Jason, Leonard A


    Women in metropolitan areas have lower employment participation and employment rates than men. Although women face multiple challenges in the labor market, those who have a history of substance use and are abstinent may have a greater disadvantage in obtaining viable employment opportunities due to factors associated with substance use. No research to date has examined employment experiences among women in recovery from substance use. This study examined employment characteristics and experiences of women who had a history of substance use and lived in sober-living environments in urban areas. Data were collected through telephone interviews to sober living homes that were located in 20 urban areas. Themes identified through thematic analysis included employment challenges, the importance of work to substance abuse recovery, job satisfaction, employment aspirations, and employment support in the sober living home. Employment is important to women in substance abuse recovery, not only as a means for financial support, but also as a life priority. The results highlight how employer scheduling practices, low-level positions, and lack of employment supports impact recovery. Findings provide insight into the need for employment support services, including employer education and flexible policies for women in recovery.

  8. Cyclical absenteeism among private sector, public sector and self-employed workers. (United States)

    Pfeifer, Christian


    This research note analyzes differences in the number of absent working days and doctor visits and in their cyclicality between private sector, public sector and self-employed workers. For this purpose, I used large-scale German survey data for the years 1995 to 2007 to estimate random effects negative binomial (count data) models. The main findings are as follows. (i) Public sector workers have on average more absent working days than private sector and self-employed workers. Self-employed workers have fewer absent working days and doctor visits than dependent employed workers. (ii) The regional unemployment rate is on average negatively correlated with the number of absent working days among private and public sector workers as well as among self-employed men. The correlations between regional unemployment rate and doctor visits are only significantly negative among private sector workers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Young people's participation in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Frydendal; Ottesen, Laila; Thing, Lone Friis

    regarding physical activity. 469 students participated in the survey. It is carried out through the online program SurveyXact. The data is processed in SPSS, and subsequently discussed. The primary results reveal that spare time jobs have a large impact on young people’s participation in physical activity......; Shame has an immense influence on the girls’ participation in physical activity; The offers regarding physical activity, provided by the school, appeal more to the boys and the students who are already physically active. Consequently, the students express a wish to have more influence on physical...... of young people today. This means that participation in physical activity cannot be discussed independently, but must always be viewed within the context of the lives of young people today....

  10. A vocational rehabilitation intervention for young adults with physical disabilities: participants' perception of beneficial atributes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, M.I.; Sattoe, J.N.T.; Schaardenburgh, N.R. van


    Background: Finding and maintaining employment is a major challenge for young adults with physical disabilities and their work participation rate is lower than that of healthy peers. This paper is about a program that supports work participation amongst young adults with chronic physical

  11. Employability Skills, Personal Qualities, and Early Employment Problems of Entry-Level Auditors: Perspectives from Employers, Lecturers, Auditors, and Students (United States)

    Lim, Yet-Mee; Lee, Teck Heang; Yap, Ching Seng; Ling, Chui Ching


    The authors examine the issue of employability of university accounting students from the perspectives of accounting firm employers, junior auditors, accounting lecturers, and accounting students. Areas of investigation include perceived importance of employability skills and desirable personal qualities; and early employment problems encountered…

  12. Employer and Promoter Perspectives on the Quality of Health Promotion Within the Healthy Workplace Accreditation (United States)

    Tung, Chen-Yin; Yin, Yun-Wen; Liu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chia-Chen; Zhou, Yi-Ping


    Objectives: To explore the employers’ and promoters’ perspective of health promotion quality according to the healthy workplace accreditation. Methods: We assessed the perspectives of 85 employers and 81 health promoters regarding the quality of health promotion at their workplaces. The method of measurement referenced the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (ENWHP) quality criteria. Results: In the large workplaces, the accredited corporation employers had a higher impression (P workplace employers had a slightly higher perspective than non-accredited ones. Nevertheless, there were no differences between the perspectives of health promoters from different sized workplaces with or without accreditation (P > 0.05). Conclusions: It seems that employers’ perspectives of healthy workplace accreditation surpassed employers from non-accredited workplaces. Specifically, large accredited corporations could share their successful experiences to encourage a more involved workplace in small–medium workplaces. PMID:28691998


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnanna Mba Agwu


    Full Text Available The general objective of the study was to determine the factors that influenced youth participation in agricultural labour in Abia state, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to; identify the types and composition of farm labour engaged by the respondents in the study area, determine the factors that influence participation of the youths in agricultural labour; and make recommendations based on the findings. This study employed a multi-stage sampling technique in the selection of the respondents; where 4 local government areas (LGAs were selected from each of the agricultural zone, 10 communities randomly selected from each of these local government areas and finally, 10 youth farmers were chosen from the 10 communities. In all, a total number of 100 farmers were used for the study. The source of data was primary and so used questionnaire to solicit information from the respondents. Descriptive statistics and probit model were employed in the analysis of the data. Apart from bush clearing and mound making where males participated majorly, female’s percentage in the participation of all other farm operations outnumbered those of men. Estimates of the determinants of agricultural labour participation among youths in the study area showed that the coefficients of education of the respondents, income from nonagricultural sources, occupation of the parents, education of the father, farm size and the rate of mechanization influenced agricultural labour participation among the youths in Abia State, Nigeria. Apart from the coefficient of farm size that had a positive sign, the other variables had negative relationship. The study recommended that the cost of mechanization should be made affordable amongst other things to attract youths in agricultural participation.

  14. Disability, gender, and employment relationships in Africa: The case of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustina Naami


    Full Text Available The exploratory quantitative study sought to develop an understanding about the relationships among disability, gender and employment in Northern Ghana. A total of 110 individuals with disabilities (20–60 years from various disability groups participated in the study. The results indicate that many persons with disabilities are unemployed, the majority being women. Discrimination is cited as the greatest barrier to the employment of persons with disabilities, particularly women. The majority of persons with disabilities, typically women, live in poverty; given that some are unemployed and those who are employed worked mostly in marginal, seasonal and menial jobs. Persons with disabilities also experience several challenges on the job, including negative perceptions about their capabilities, discrimination and exclusion, irrespective of the employment sector and disability type. Educational interventions such as workshops, documenting and showcasing success stories of persons with disabilities could be helpful to reduce negative perceptions about their capabilities as well as discrimination against them. Government intervention to support persons with disabilities with start-up capital and funding for formal education is also recommended as these two elements were identified respectively as barriers to self-employment and employment in the public/private sectors. Government interventions to create educational opportunities for persons with disabilities are essential given that lower educational attainment affect their employment.

  15. Employment-based reinforcement of adherence to depot naltrexone in unemployed opioid-dependent adults: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Everly, Jeffrey J; DeFulio, Anthony; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Donlin, Wendy D; Aklin, Will M; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E; Silverman, Kenneth


    Naltrexone can be used to treat opioid dependence, but patients refuse to take it. Extended-release depot formulations may improve adherence, but long-term adherence rates to depot naltrexone are not known. This study determined long-term rates of adherence to depot naltrexone and whether employment-based reinforcement can improve adherence. Participants who were inducted onto oral naltrexone were assigned randomly to contingency (n = 18) or prescription (n = 17) groups. Participants were offered six depot naltrexone injections and invited to work at the therapeutic workplace on week days for 26 weeks, where they earned stipends for participating in job skills training. Contingency participants were required to accept naltrexone injections to maintain workplace access and to maintain maximum pay. Prescription participants could work independently of whether they accepted injections. The therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based intervention for drug addiction and unemployment. Opioid-dependent unemployed adults. Depot naltrexone injections accepted and opiate-negative urine samples. Contingency participants accepted significantly more naltrexone injections than prescription participants (81% versus 42%), and were more likely to accept all injections (66% versus 35%). At monthly assessments (with missing urine samples imputed as positive), the groups provided similar percentages of samples negative for opiates (74% versus 62%) and for cocaine (56% versus 54%). Opiate-positive samples were more likely when samples were also positive for cocaine. Employment-based reinforcement can maintain adherence to depot naltrexone. Future research should determine whether persistent cocaine use compromises naltrexone's effect on opiate use. Workplaces may be useful for promoting sustained adherence to depot naltrexone. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Do better communication skills promote sheltered employment in schizophrenia? (United States)

    Adamczyk, Przemysław; Daren, Artur; Sułecka, Aleksandra; Błądziński, Piotr; Cichocki, Łukasz; Kalisz, Aneta; Gawęda, Łukasz; Cechnicki, Andrzej


    Alongside various psychopathological symptoms and neurocognitive dysfunctions, communication skill impairments may be considered core feature of schizophrenia. Although many studies examined the relation between employment status and neurocognition in schizophrenia, we still know very little about the role of communication skills in vocational status among people with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study is to identify the most characteristic communication, neurocognitive and social cognition differences which separate the employed schizophrenia outpatients from those who do not work. The study included three groups: 33 schizophrenia outpatients employed in social firms, 29 unemployed schizophrenia outpatients participating in occupational therapy and sex & age matched 31 healthy controls. We assessed communication skills, global cognitive functioning, executive functions, memory, social cognition as well as severity of psychopathology. Our results indicate that the most characteristic differences between employed and unemployed schizophrenia outpatients are associated with selective language and communication skills, i.e. paralinguistic aspects of communication, understanding of discrete meaning of linguistic context and figurative meaning of language. We find no significant differences between both clinical groups with regard to neurocognition and social cognition. Moreover, unemployed group had more severe psychopathology than the employed group, so we re-analyzed results controlling for symptom severity. The only differences that endured were related to general communication skills and explanation of pictured metaphors, but only when controlling solely for positive or negative syndrome. In conclusion, the present study indicates that employment in schizophrenia is associated with better symptomatic remission and communication skills, but not with better neurocognition and social cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Health Benefits In 2015: Stable Trends In The Employer Market. (United States)

    Claxton, Gary; Rae, Matthew; Panchal, Nirmita; Whitmore, Heidi; Damico, Anthony; Kenward, Kevin; Long, Michelle


    The annual Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust Employer Health Benefits Survey found that in 2015, average annual premiums (employer and worker contributions combined) were $6,251 for single coverage and $17,545 for family coverage. Both premiums rose 4 percent from 2014, continuing several years of modest growth. The percentage of firms offering health benefits and the percentage of workers covered by their employers' plans remained statistically unchanged from 2014. Eighty-one percent of covered workers were enrolled in a plan with a general annual deductible. Among those workers, the average deductible for single coverage was $1,318. Half of large employers either offered employees the opportunity or required them to complete biometric screening. Of firms that offer an incentive for completing the screening, 20 percent provide employees with incentives or penalties that are tied to meeting those biometric outcomes. The 2015 survey included new questions on financial incentives to complete wellness programs and meet specified biometric outcomes as well as questions about narrow networks and employers' strategies related to the high-cost plan tax and the employer shared-responsibility provisions of the Affordable Care Act. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. The Prevalence of HIV Risk Behaviors among Felony Drug Court Participants. (United States)

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Metzger, David S; Marlowe, Douglas B


    A small percentage of participants in a large metropolitan felony Drug Court engaged in high-risk injection drug use, but a large percentage engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. HIV risk behaviors were associated with being male, African-American, and younger. A large proportion of Drug Court participants resided in areas of the city with a high prevalence of persons living with HIV/AIDS, thus heightening the probability of exposure to the virus.

  19. Employment growth, human capital and educational levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars


    human capital in understanding regional growth. We examine to what extent different labour competences and capabilities relate to municipal employment growth using nine stratified, educational categories as proxies for different levels of human capital. Dividing municipalities into four spatial...... categories ranging from the urban to the peripheral, we conclude that there is a strong spatial distinction of educational structures with an urban bias, and that educational categories other than academic human capital can make an important contribution to our understanding of what drives employment growth......Contemporary studies in urban and regional development stress the importance of large city-regions as key places in modern capitalism taking the form of agglomerations of economic activities by industries, firms and highly skilled people. In this article, we challenge the strong focus on academic...

  20. Developing a Sustainable Practical Model of Graduate Employability for Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Umar Rufai


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evolve a sustainable practical model of employability skills that is sure to capture relevant learning aspects of a particular occupational discipline to be used as framework for Undergraduate students to develop their employability potentials. The study was conducted in three Universities and Polytechnics each with three multi-national companies. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Using purposeful sampling 18 academic staff and 3 professionals representing company employers were selected as the study participants. The study evolved a model that is work-based, explicit in its outcome, fully articulated and realistic in terms of employability skill experiences. The proposed model can be used to establish a common higher education programme or curricula that is work-based and skill experience oriented, that can encourage students in higher education to think about work place learning more explicitly and reflectively, that will in turn help them to develop a broad range of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values, each of which ultimately contribute in some manner to graduate employability.  The paper is considered a contribution to the evolution and growth of knowledge on the linkage between higher education and workplace, through which the ‘skill gap’ occurring between the demand of employment and the level of educational preparation of graduates can be bridged. Keywords: Employability, Higher Education, Graduates, Model/Framework,   academic staff, Employers/Professionals