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  1. The cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka: an annotated provisional catalogue, regional checklist and bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Elizabeth Louise; Marathe, Kiran; Sarkar, Vivek; Simon, Chris; Kunte, Krushnamegh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The cicadas of the Indian subcontinent, like many other insects in the region, have remained understudied since the early part of the 20th Century, and await modern taxonomic, systematic and phylogenetic treatment. This paper presents an updated systematic catalogue of cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka, the first in over a century. New information This paper treats 281 species, including: India and Bangladesh (189 species), Bhutan (19 species), Myanmar (81 species), Nepal (46 species) and Sri Lanka (22 species). For each species all recognized junior synonyms are included with information on the type material and additional specimens where relevant. The global distributional range and notes on the taxonomy of each species are included where appropriate. Two lists are provided: (1) species known to occur in India and Bangladesh (treated as a geographic unit), Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka; and (2) species previously listed from these countries in error. A bibliography of species descriptions is provided, with the papers containing the original descriptions provided where copyright allows. PMID:27660527

  2. The Development of Distributed Learning Techniques in Bhutan and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Rennie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses research and development work currently being conducted with universities in Bhutan and Nepal to design appropriate systems for distance and distributed learning courses among a network of campus sites. Although working from a high level of awareness of pedagogic skills, staff in the region face two significant impediments in the adoption of a more open culture of learning. Firstly, Internet access is improving rapidly, but is still generally too weak and inconsistent to allow any reliance on net-based learning solutions. Secondly, the academic culture is resistant to the recognition of the value of open-learning degrees, with subsequent difficulties in re-designing course materials for a more educationally flexible, student-centred learning environment. Some current pilot initiatives in distributed learning are described. Methods for addressing these two impediments are discussed.

  3. Project on Training of Non-Formal Education Personnel: National Workshops in Bhutan, Nepal, and India cum Study Visits Undertaken by Teams of China, Lao PDR and Viet Nam (June 17-July 5, 1998) (APPEAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report is a summary of study visits plus workshops that took place in Bhutan, Nepal, and India in 1998 within the framework of UNESCO's Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL). Three educators each from China, Lao PDR, and Vietnam and educators from the host countries participated. The project aimed to promote literacy and…

  4. Anthropometric studies on medical students of Nepal and Sri Lanka:height and weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar; Sivakanesan Ramiah

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of a population or an individual could be assessed by clinical,biochemical and anthropomet-ric means.It is widely used in the monitoring of growth and assessment of the nutritional status of children and adults.Even though a large number of anthropometric studies is done in Nepal and Sri Lanka,on various pro-jects related to the nutritional aspects,but only few have been done on anthropometry and due to lack of infor-mation on anthropometric data of Nepalese and Sri Lankan medical students,the present study was initiated at Nepal Medical college and Faculty of Medicine,University of Peradeniya,Sri Lanka.The aim of the study was to measure height and weight of medical students of Nepal Medical College and Faculty of Medicine,University of Peradeniya.A total of 1228 (males 681;females 547)medical students participated in the study.The ratio of male to female was 1.24:1.The height was measured,to the nearest 0.1 cm without shoes,using a measur-ing tape affixed to the wall.The weight was recorded using weighing scale,with minimum clothes and without shoes to the nearest 0.1kg.Two tail unpaired 't'test was performed to compare mean values.The percentile val-ues were obtained using Microsoft excel for Windows 98.The age of the students varied from 18-26 years with a mean ±SD of 20.77 ±1.17 and 20.90 ±1.10 in males and females respectively.The heights of the male and female medical students were1.65 ±0.08 and 1.61 ±0.08 and the weight was 59.70 ±9.26 and 55.54 ± 9.16 respectively.The percentile values obtained for height and weight were compared with National Centre for Health statistics (NCHS)standards.The 50th percentile value of male's height and weight corresponded to the 20th percentile and below the 20th percentile values respectively of the NCHS standard.The 50th percentile value of female's height and weight corresponded to less than 10th and 15th percentiles respectively.The height and weight of only 9 males and 8 females were above the

  5. Determinants of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Nepal and Sri Lanka: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M. A.; Goh, Kim-Leng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate tobacco use behaviours and their correlates among secondary school students in Nepal and Sri Lanka together with cross-country comparisons. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods and Settings: The data were obtained from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), 2007. Current tobacco use was considered as…

  6. Institutional and Regulatory Economics of Electricity Market Reforms: the Evidence from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bipulendu

    Five South Asian countries-- India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka -- embarked on electricity market reforms in the 1990's. The dissertation uses the framework of New Institutional Economics to assess the effects on electricity sector performance of both observables elements of reform (i.e. privatization, unbundling, establishment of independent regulatory agencies etc.) as well as the unobservable elements (informal beliefs, habit, norms and culture of the actors involved in reforms). The first part of the dissertation -- econometric analysis of the relationship between observable electricity market reform measures and performance indicators -- finds that for the most part electricity market reforms in South Asia are having a positive impact on the performance of the sector. This is particularly the case for reforms that have increased private sector participation in generation and distribution and have vertically unbundled utilities into generation, transmission and distribution entities. Many of the reforms are positively correlated with higher tariffs, indicating a cost to the consumers from the reforms. The relationship between independent regulation and performance indicators , however, is not established. The second part of the dissertation - analytical narrative of the reform experiences of Gujarat and Nepal -- examines the informal elements (such as beliefs, norms, culture) that motivate behavior and explains how and why reform outcomes differed in these two places. The dissertation finds that the strength of formal institutions rules and the nature of social norms and customs have a significant influence on the outcome of reforms. Aided by the strength of its formal institutional framework and more evolved social norms and customs that encouraged people to follow formal rules, reforms in the Indian state of Gujarat were a success. The weakness of the formal institutional framework and the predominance of relation-based norms and customs in

  7. Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Focus in this discussion of Nepal is on the following: geography; the people; history; the government; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Nepal and the US. In 1986 the population was estimated to be 17 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The Nepalese are descendants of 3 major migrations from India, Tibet, and Central Asia. About 1/3 of the population lives in the Terai -- about 20% of the land area -- while 2/3 live in the central or hilly region. Officially, Nepal is a Hindu kingdom, but Hinduism has been influenced by and has had an influence on a large Buddhist minority. The result is a synthesis of the 2 religions. Modern Nepal was created in the latter half of the 18th century when Prithvi Narayan Shah, the ruler of the small principality of Gorkha, formed a unified country from a number of independent hill states. Efforts were made throughout the 1950s to frame a constitution for Nepal which would establish a representative form of government, patterned on a modified British model. Such a constitution was issued by King Mahendra in early 1959, and the 1st democratic elections were held for a national assembly shortly thereafter. According to the constitution, the king (chief of state) is the sole source of authority for all government institutions, exercising broad powers over the country's partyless "panchayat" (councils) system of government. In April 1986, Prime Minister Chand and his cabinet resigned in order to contest the elections for the second 5-year term of the directly elected National Panchayat, and an interim cabinet was appointed to oversee the Mah elections. The election brought the defeat of a majority of the incumbents seeking relations. Despite the 1980 referendum confirming the partyless panchayat system, the role of the banned parties continues to be an important political issue. Nepal, which ranks among the world's poorest countries, has a per capita income of about $160. Due to

  8. Bhutan at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On Tuesday 12 March, CERN received an extraordinary visitor, a very great representative of a very tiny country. His Royal Highness, Dasho Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk, Crown Prince of Bhutan, visited the assembly site of CMS. For those whose geographical knowledge is weak, Bhutan is a tiny bhuddist kingdom, nestled in the Himalayas and surrounded by two giants, India and China.

  9. Sex-trafficking, violence, negotiating skill, and HIV infection in brothel-based sex workers of eastern India, adjoining Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Kamalesh; Bal, Baishali; Mukherjee, Rita; Chakraborty, Sekhar; Saha, Suman; Ghosh, Arundhuti; Parsons, Scott

    2008-06-01

    A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based sex workers of West Bengal, eastern India, to understand sex-trafficking, violence, negotiating skills, and HIV infection in them. In total, 580 sex workers from brothels of four districts participated in the study. A pretested questionnaire was introduced to study their sociodemography, sex-trafficking, violence, and negotiating skills. Blood sample of 4-5 mL was collected from each sex worker using an unlinked anonymous method to study their HIV status. Data were edited and entered into a computer using the Epi Info software (6.04d version). Both univariate and multivariate analyses were done to find out any association between HIV and relevant risk factors. Results of the study revealed that a sizeable number of the participants were from Nepal (9%) and Bangladesh (7%). The seroprevalence of HIV was strikingly higher among Nepalese (43%) than among Bangladeshis (7%) and Indians (9%). Almost one in every four sex workers (24%) had joined the profession by being trafficked. Violence at the beginning of this profession was more among the trafficked victims, including those sold by their family members (57%) compared to those who joined the profession voluntarily (15%). The overall condom negotiation rate with most recent two clients was 38%. By multivariate analysis, HIV was significantly associated with sexual violence (odds ratio=2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.5). The study has documented that the trafficked victims faced violence, including sexual violence, to a greater magnitude, and sexual violence was associated with acquiring HIV in them. There is a need for an in-depth study to understand the problem of trafficking and its consequences.

  10. Chikungunya fever outbreak, Bhutan, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Sonam; Chinnawirotpisan, Piyawan; Dorji, Tshering; Tobgay, Tashi; Dorji, Tandin; Yoon, In-Kyu; Fernandez, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    In 2012, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was reported for the first time in Bhutan. IgM ELISA results were positive for 36/210 patient samples; PCR was positive for 32/81. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that Bhutan CHIKV belongs to the East/Central/South African genotype. Appropriate responses to future outbreaks require a system of surveillance and improved laboratory capacity.

  11. Call to Conserve the Wild Water Buffalo (Bubalus Arnee in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut ARYAL

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild water buffaloes (Bubalus arnee are categorized as endangered on the IUCN Red List. With a global population of less than 4,000, the species has a very limited distribution spanning over less than 20,000 km2 in Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand and Bhutan. In Nepal, Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve was designated for wild Asian buffalo; this reserve contains approximately 219 individuals, although there is no precise information on the number of pure-bred wild buffalo. The conservation of wild buffalo is of global concern; there are numerous threats due to habitat fragmentation, as well as competition, hybridization, habitat overlap, disease and parasites transmitted by domestic livestock. The reserve provides an area of only 0.80 km2 per buffalo, which is insufficient maintaining a viable population of wild buffalo. It is therefore important to identify further potential habitat and to begin translocation of some of the individuals. A Wild Buffalo Conservation Alliance can play a key role in influencing conservation strategies by conducting detailed research including feasibility studies on translocation, developing awareness, holding workshops and preparing a conservation action plan. In this way the alliance can help to increase the number of wild buffaloes and to maintain a viable population of the species.

  12. Free Education in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yezer, Yezer; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    ’. It focuses on the interplay of education expenditures and international development assistance in the light of macro-economic performance. Expenditures for the growing outlay of social services are impinging on the government budget and the future sustainability of ‘free education’ in Bhutan is questionable......Paper for the International Workshop “Development Challenges in Bhutan”, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, 29-30 May, 2013. Abstract This paper attempts to give insight into the dilemma faced by the government in terms of rising costs and growing demand for social services especially ‘free education...

  13. Talking to the Enemy: Track Two Diplomacy in the Middle East and South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    states: Bangladesh, Bhutan , India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Afghanistan joined SAARC in 2005. On SAARC, see Rizvi (1993...avian influenza, or bird flu (Search for Common Ground, 2003). Another cooperative regional security project, the Middle East Chemical Risks...traditionally defined through the regional members of SAARC: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan , the Maldives, and, as of December

  14. First paleoseismic evidence for great surface-rupturing earthquakes in the Bhutan Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux-Mallouf, Romain; Ferry, Matthieu; Ritz, Jean-François; Berthet, Théo.; Cattin, Rodolphe; Drukpa, Dowchu

    2016-10-01

    The seismic behavior of the Himalayan arc between central Nepal and Arunachal Pradesh remains poorly understood due to the lack of observations concerning the timing and size of past major and great earthquakes in Bhutan. We present here the first paleoseismic study along the Himalayan topographic front conducted at two sites in southern central Bhutan. Paleoseismological excavations and related OxCal modeling reveal that Bhutan experienced at least two great earthquakes in the last millennium: one between the seventeenth and eighteenth century and one during medieval times, producing a total cumulative vertical offset greater than 10 m. Along with previous studies that reported similar medieval events in Central Nepal, Sikkim, and Assam, our investigations support the occurrence of either (i) a series of great earthquakes between A.D. 1025 and A.D. 1520 or (ii) a single giant earthquake between A.D. 1090 and A.D. 1145. In the latter case, the surface rupture may have reached a total length of 800 km and could be associated with an earthquake of magnitude Mw = 8.7-9.1.

  15. Moist temperate forest butterflies of western Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun P. Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Random surveys were carried out in moist temperate forests (1,860–3,116 m around Bunakha Village and Dochula Pass, near Thimphu in western Bhutan, recording 65 species of butterflies.  Of these, 11 species, viz., Straightwing Blue Orthomiella pontis pontis Elwes, Slate Royal Maneca bhotea bhotea Moore, Dull Green Hairstreak Esakiozephyrus icana Moore, Yellow Woodbrown Lethe nicetas Hewitson, Small Silverfork Zophoessa jalaurida elwesi Moore, Scarce Labyrinth, Neope pulahina (Evans, Chumbi Wall Chonala masoni Elwes, Pale Hockeystick Sailer Neptis manasa manasa Moore and White Commodore Parasarpa dudu dudu Westwood, are restricted to the eastern Himalaya, northeastern India and Myanmar.  Two other species, Tawny Mime Chiasa agestor agestor (Gray and Himalayan Spotted Flat Celaenorrhinus munda Moore have been only rarely recorded from Bhutan and a few individuals of the rare Bhutan Glory Bhutanitis lidderdalei Atkinson were also recorded near Bunakha.  

  16. Assessment of solar energy programmes in Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthan, B.; Monga, P. [UNIDO, Vienna (Austria); Giri, S. [UNDP, United Nation Building, Thimphu (Bhutan); Adhikari, R.N. [Norlha Associates, Thimphu (Bhutan)

    2004-07-01

    The paper reports on the renewable energy and solar electrification programmes in Bhutan. Findings from a field survey of PV systems have been presented and lessons identified. A discussion of the key results from the assessments are also presented and conclusions drawn. The paper provides direct feedback on the performance of PV systems in difficult geographical conditions such as those prevailing in Bhutan. The results and findings of this paper are relevant to PV industry targeting rural electrification markets and policy makers and aid-planners involved in PV rural electrification initiatives. (authors)

  17. Schooling for Happiness: Bhutan's Big Dream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, Kent

    2012-01-01

    In December 2009, the author traveled to the Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan for a week-long workshop, "Educating for Gross National Happiness." At the invitation of the royal government, international participants joined with local teachers, principals, and students to discover ways that Bhutanese schools could better support the country's…

  18. Market Performance of Potato Auctions in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilburg, van A.; Kuiper, W.E.; Swinkels, R.

    2008-01-01

    Market performance with respect to a main horticultural export commodity in Bhutan is the subject of this paper. Imperfections in (market) infrastructure and market structure and conduct may prevent an optimal price for farmers. Market performance is assessed by testing the law of one price for this

  19. Cordyceps collected from Bhutan, an appropriate alternative of Cordyceps sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Ding-Tao Wu; Guang-Ping Lv; Jian Zheng; Qian Li; Shuang-Cheng Ma; Shao-Ping Li; Jing Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed t...

  20. Cordyceps collected from Bhutan, an appropriate alternative of Cordyceps sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Ding-Tao Wu; Guang-Ping Lv; Jian Zheng; Qian Li; Shuang-Cheng Ma; Shao-Ping Li; Jing Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed t...

  1. Bhutan: Educational Challenges in the Land of the Thunder Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, June A.

    2013-01-01

    The Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan, where images of magical splendor obscure its challenges, provides a viewpoint from which to understand the contradictions that emerging economies face as they move towards mass education. Isolated from the outside world in every sense except for the mythologies that surround it, Bhutan is attempting to move from a…

  2. Bhutan: Educational Challenges in the Land of the Thunder Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, June A.

    2013-01-01

    The Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan, where images of magical splendor obscure its challenges, provides a viewpoint from which to understand the contradictions that emerging economies face as they move towards mass education. Isolated from the outside world in every sense except for the mythologies that surround it, Bhutan is attempting to move from a…

  3. Bibliography and checklist of the dragonflies and damselflies of Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gyeltshen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given of literature containing distribution records of dragonflies and damselflies in Bhutan.  Based on this an annotated checklist is presented which contains 92 species.  Camacinia gigantea (Brauer, 1867 and Libellago lineata (Burmeister, 1839 are listed as new to Bhutan

  4. The GANSSER seismological network in Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, G.

    2013-12-01

    Our project investigates the Geodynamics ANd Seismic Structure of the Eastern-Himalaya Region (GANSSER). It aims to reveal the first seismological images beneath Bhutan and as such is a tribute to the late Augusto Gansser, geological discoverer of Bhutan [1]. Project GANSSER builds on the deployment of a temporary broadband seismometer network. This consists of 38 stations deployed across the Kingdom of Bhutan. Two south-north segments in the western and eastern part of the country constitute densely spaced lines of ca. 7 km inter-station distance with respectively 16 and 14 stations. The main technique to apply is receiver functions in order to image the Moho as it deepens from India to Tibet, thus revealing how the crust thickens in the Eastern Himalayas. Further 8 stations are located in-between these lines, in the central part of the country. The main purpose here is to characterize the seismicity of the country in a homogeneous manner. Altogether, the station network will allow the application of different classical seismological techniques, such as teleseismic, local earthquake, ambient noise and attenuation tomography. The dataset will also be exploited to try to locate landslides that cause a significant hazard, especially in and after the summer monsoon season. The station network described above has been deployed in January 2013 and is planned to operate until spring 2014. A first visit to the stations in April 2013 found operational conditions better than the average for temporary seismological networks. Data recovery in this time period exceeded 90%. Power spectral density diagrams indicate that the noise levels at our station sites are within the bounds of the Peterson Noise Model bounds [2] and in some cases are significantly less than the high-noise model. Starting April 2013 remote communications pathways with one third of the stations are tested. The scientific goals of Project GANSSER include: the determination of the structure and physical

  5. Ethnic fermented and preserved fish products of India and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Thapa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The people of the Eastern Himalayan regions of Nepal, Bhutan; and Darjeeling hills, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, and Manipur in North East India prepare and consume different types of traditionally processed smoked/sun-dried/fermented/salted fish products. Suka ko maacha and gnuchi are ethnic smoked and dried fish products; sidra and sukuti are sun-dried fish products; ngari, hentak, tungtap, and shidal are fermented fish products; and karati, bordia, and lashim are sun-dried and salted fish products. No fish sauce or shrimp products are prepared and used as condiments in the local diet in the Eastern Himalayan regions.

  6. Science Education in Bhutan: Issues and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Ann; Tenzin, Wangpo; Johnson, David; Ramachandran, Kiran

    2012-02-01

    Science education in a developing country is pivotal in the developmental process. Bhutan, like other developing countries, places great importance in institutionalising a relevant and challenging science curriculum for all of its school-aged children. A number of factors have made the review of the science curriculum in Bhutan a priority including international debates about scientific literacy and the changing time and needs of Bhutanese society and its students. This article reports on the findings of a study to investigate the present status and challenges of the current science curriculum from interviews with teachers, students, and other key stakeholders such as higher education lecturers and employers. The study also draws on observations of science classes and key curriculum documents. This study was conducted as a prelude to the major science curriculum reform prioritised in the government's 10th Five Year Plan (2008-2012) in order to provide a research informed perspective for science curriculum development. The findings from the research are reported here and show a number of positive issues in science education including good student motivation in lower classes. Challenges are identified including issues of teacher development, resourcing, and fragmentation and discontinuity in the current curriculum. These issues and challenges are discussed in the light of literature on science education in developing countries.

  7. Happy Environments: Bhutan, Interdependence and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend to understand economic and environmental policies in terms of multiple dimensions and “interdependence.” Bhutan is increasingly seen as an operational model with its Gross National Happiness (GNH strategy. GNH, which is rooted in Mahayana Buddhism, is a framework and set of policy tools that conceptualizes sustainability as interdependent ecological, economic, social, cultural and good governance concerns. Bhutan’s practical GNH experience illustrates a significant ability to positively couple economic growth with a healthy environment. Can the “West”—with its legacy of either/or economics—learn anything from Bhutan’s multidimensional policy experiment? At first, it would seem not. It is questionable whether the West can replicate Bhutan’s unorthodox policy tools as we do not have a balancing set of Buddhist values rooted in mainstream culture. We are not equipped to respond to the many unintended consequences of interdependent policy because we do not yet understand what “interdependence” actually entails. There is hope, but much of it exists in the grey literature of ecological economics. This literature is in urgent need of greater exposure if we are to imagine and enact sustainability policy tools that are truly sensitive to interdependence, and thus follow Bhutan on its perilous but necessary journey.

  8. Opening doors to knowledge in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    School girls, teachers, and health school students were surveyed, using 3 different questionnaires, in January 1993. Catherine Payne, former research associate of the Family Planning Council of Southeastern Pennsylvania, visited Bhutan from August 18 through September 4, 1993, to assist with the interpretation of results and to interview teachers in schools where the new curriculum would be introduced and officials who were writing it. Results were released in October 1993. 160 young women (10-20 years of age) from 5 schools were surveyed and another 60 were interviewed by Payne. 25% of the surveyed girls understood the connection between menstruation and reproduction. Of those who had heard of menstruation, 60% had heard about it from their friends; 30%, from siblings; 27%, from mothers; and 10%, from schools. Teachers in the survey were supportive of the study and recognized the importance of reproductive health education. Also, officials of the education and health ministries, epidemiologists, experts in information, education, and communication (IEC), and district health officers attended a 2-day workshop directed at local data collection and analysis of this type. Although teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are increasing in Bhutan, family planning services are not reaching youth, particularly those who do not attend school or do not have children. Hospitals provide contraceptives mainly to those over 21, and outreach clinics are not catering to the family planning needs of minors. One of the recommendations of this survey/workshop was to provide correct information on reproductive health to youth.

  9. Malaria prevention and control in Bhutan: successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobgay, Tashi; Torres, Cristina E; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2011-03-01

    This paper highlights on the current malaria situations in Bhutan and its challenges for future prevention and control strategies. In Bhutan, malaria affects more than half of the entire population, mostly residing in the southern districts bordering with Indian states of Assam and West Bengal. Over the past ten years, due to concerted efforts, the morbidity and mortality due to malaria has significantly declined. These preventive and control measures focused on the mass distribution of long lasting insecticidal treated nets, focal indoor residual spray and use of artemisinin-based combination therapies. However, considerable challenge lies ahead and research is needed to generate local evidence for sustainable elimination of malaria from Bhutan. The article should be of value and interest to planners, malaria programs and for future researchers on malaria in Bhutan.

  10. Potential for Development of Solar and Wind Resource in Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P.; Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2009-09-01

    With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced maps and data of the wind and solar resources in Bhutan. The solar resource data show that Bhutan has an adequate resource for flat-plate collectors, with annual average values of global horizontal solar radiation ranging from 4.0 to 5.5 kWh/m2-day (4.0 to 5.5 peak sun hours per day). The information provided in this report may be of use to energy planners in Bhutan involved in developing energy policy or planning wind and solar projects, and to energy analysts around the world interested in gaining an understanding of Bhutan's wind and solar energy potential.

  11. Bhutan tõrjus India oma asjade ajamiselt / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Bhutani kuningas Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk ja India president Abdul Kalam allkirjastasid lepingu, mille kohaselt saab Bhutan endale suuremad õigused ja vabadused iseseisvamalt välis- ja kaitsepoliitikat ajada

  12. Bhutan tõrjus India oma asjade ajamiselt / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Bhutani kuningas Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk ja India president Abdul Kalam allkirjastasid lepingu, mille kohaselt saab Bhutan endale suuremad õigused ja vabadused iseseisvamalt välis- ja kaitsepoliitikat ajada

  13. Taxonomic review of the superfamily Pyraloidea in Bhutan (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatishwor Singh Irungbam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The result of an investigation of the lepidopteran fauna of Central and Southern Bhutan (Bumthang, Dagana, Trongsa, Tsirang, and Sarpang districts is presented in this study. The investigation was the part of the Invertebrate Documentation Project of Bhutan initiated by the National Biodiversity Center, Thimphu, funded by the Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation, Thimphu. The checklist was based on the systematic collections by light trapping at nine locations and the occasional collections from native forest and gardens within the five districts of Central and Southern Bhutan. The specimens were photographed and collected as specimens for future identification and reference. A list of 182 species belonging to families Crambidae and Pyralidae is presented, including 92 species as new records for the country. All the studied specimens are deposited at “Invertebrate Referral Collection Center” at the National Biodiversity Center, Thimphu.

  14. CERN visit of His Excellency Mr.Kinga Singye / Bhutan

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    CERN visit of His Excellency Mr Kinga Singye Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bhutan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  15. Cordyceps collected from Bhutan, an appropriate alternative of Cordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Lv, Guang-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Li, Qian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2016-11-22

    Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed that the fungus of Cordyceps from Bhutan was C. sinensis and the host insect belonged to Hepialidae sp. In addition, nucleosides and their bases such as guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, thymidine, adenine, and adenosine, as well as compositional monosaccharides, partial acid or enzymatic hydrolysates, molecular weights and contents of polysaccharides in Cordyceps from Bhutan were all similar to those of natural C. sinensis. All data suggest that Cordyceps from Bhutan is a rational alternative of natural C. sinensis, which is beneficial for the improvement of their performance in health and medicinal food areas.

  16. Current Status and Future Possibilities of Higher Education in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka%南亚区域合作联盟各成员国高等教育发展历程的简要回顾与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. P. S. 乔汉; 刘伟

    2014-01-01

    本文从高等教育结构、高等学校入学资格、高等教育质量、高等教育资金、民营企业办学等概述南亚区域合作联盟(South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation)各成员国高等教育发展状况。

  17. Decadal land cover change dynamics in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Hammad; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Phuntso, Phuntso; Pradhan, Sudip; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta

    2015-01-15

    Land cover (LC) is one of the most important and easily detectable indicators of change in ecosystem services and livelihood support systems. This paper describes the decadal dynamics in LC changes at national and sub-national level in Bhutan derived by applying object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques to 1990, 2000, and 2010 Landsat (30 m spatial resolution) data. Ten LC classes were defined in order to give a harmonized legend land cover classification system (LCCS). An accuracy of 83% was achieved for LC-2010 as determined from spot analysis using very high resolution satellite data from Google Earth Pro and limited field verification. At the national level, overall forest increased from 25,558 to 26,732 km(2) between 1990 and 2010, equivalent to an average annual growth rate of 59 km(2)/year (0.22%). There was an overall reduction in grassland, shrubland, and barren area, but the observations were highly dependent on time of acquisition of the satellite data and climatic conditions. The greatest change from non-forest to forest (277 km(2)) was in Bumthang district, followed by Wangdue Phodrang and Trashigang, with the least (1 km(2)) in Tsirang. Forest and scrub forest covers close to 75% of the land area of Bhutan, and just over half of the total area (51%) has some form of conservation status. This study indicates that numerous applications and analyses can be carried out to support improved land cover and land use (LCLU) management. It will be possible to replicate this study in the future as comparable new satellite data is scheduled to become available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nepal Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Technical Assistance courses have many functions apart from disseminating knowledge and information, one such function is to engender networks. During the course period, participants meet and establish contact and some of these contacts remain connections between alumni for many years after...... that their personal networks engage not only their families, but also their home communities and by extension Nepal. The two women constitute weak links between their country and other countries and as such they function as bridges or channels for transmission of practices, ideas, knowledge, and artefacts. However...... the courses are finished. The alumni networks depend on the uses they are put to by the individual alumni and the support they get from alumni and host countries. The United Nations initiated technical assistance courses in the late 1940s in order to train nationals from developing countries as a means...

  19. Nepal Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Technical Assistance courses have many functions apart from disseminating knowledge and information, one such function is to engender networks. During the course period, participants meet and establish contact and some of these contacts remain connections between alumni for many years after...... to prepare public civil servants from the whole membership to function as international staff at the United Nations. The Colombo Plan as well as private foundations such as the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations, and from the early 1960s also many bilateral foreign aid programs have financed overseas fellow...... that their personal networks engage not only their families, but also their home communities and by extension Nepal. The two women constitute weak links between their country and other countries and as such they function as bridges or channels for transmission of practices, ideas, knowledge, and artefacts. However...

  20. Analysis of River Profiles in northwestern Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Palézieux, Larissa; Leith, Kerry; Loew, Simon

    2017-04-01

    With large alluvial plains, narrow gorges, prominent knick points, and chains of terraces or cut-off ridges, the deeply-incised valleys in Bhutan reflect an environment of diverse erosional activity. Topography ranges from 97 m to 7570 m, with characteristic postglacial landscapes typically located above ca 4200 m. The lower latitudes below ca 3000 m show high relief and terraced or linear hillslopes indicative of a fluvial origin. Although full channel analyses in the region suggest significant local tectonic contributions to longitudinal river profiles (Adams et al., 2016), we develop a method to isolate rivers in an apparently homogeneous tectonic block in the mid- to upper- elevations. Profiles of rivers in this region show a consistent pattern with a marked topographic step covering 2000 m of elevation change within 10 km. Field observations of knick points, terraces and cut-off ridges associated with the step suggest a regionally consistent signal resulting from changes in relative uplift or erosion rate. Chi plots correlate well for all channels when the base level is chosen to isolate rivers below the main alluvial plain, suggesting similar fluvial erosion histories in upstream regions. Employing third order topographic derivatives (Minár et al., 2013), we identify low angle slope sections/plateaus corresponding to terraces and/or extrapolated ridges that project onto former valley floor levels. Employing similar methods as those used to correlate fluvial knickpoints, these will be used to test for regionally consistent changes in fluvial and hillslope activity that may be tied to major tectonic or climatic changes. REFERENCES Adams, B., Whipple, K. X., Hodges, K. V. & Heimsath, A. M. 2016: In situ development of high-elevation, low-relief landscapes via duplex deformation in the Eastern Himalayan hinterland, Bhutan, in Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 925-938. Minár, J., Jenčo, M., Evans, I. S., Minár, J., Kadlec, M., Krcho, J., Pacina

  1. Quantum Information and Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Adam; Chapagain, Nirdosh; Simkhada, Prashanna

    2011-10-01

    Quantum Information (QI) is a relatively young science with exciting research opportunities. Nepal has an untapped reserve of motivated students with scientific research potential. Based on our educational experience in Nepal and in the US and based on our exposure to QI, we explore the possibility of developing QI research in Nepal. In this poster we lay out basic facts on physics and physics education in Nepal, report on an introductory QI class experiment at BYU, and use what we have learned to envision a QI future in Nepal.

  2. World Culture and ICT use – a Study from Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär-Ola Mikael; Choeda, Choeda; Dukpa, Dorji

    2015-01-01

    understanding in international projects and global appropriation of technology may be larger than the current theorizing implies. In this paper we investigate the ICT use, with emphasis on World Culture, within Higher Education in Bhutan. We find a remarkably strong presence of World Culture among faculty...

  3. Lessons from Bhutan: Embrace Cultural Differences to Effect Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laurie; Telsey, Alison; McCormack, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Nestled in the Himalayan Mountains, Bhutan, a Buddhist country, is one of the most isolated nations in the world. After spending a month there, the authors all agreed it deserved its title of "The Last Shangri-La." Their team of professional development specialists spent the summer of 2010 providing professional development in the basic…

  4. Kingdom of Bhutan VIP visit at CERN / CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Yeshey Zimba Member of Parliament and His Excellency Daw Penjo Ambassador and Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bhutan visiting at CERN the LHC tunnel and the CMS experiment. Further guests were : Mrs Daw Zam, Mrs Thuji Zangmo, Mr. Rinchen Dorji, Mrs Dechen Wangmo, Ms Choni Ome Guided by R. Voss, Michael Hoch, Tiziano Camporesi

  5. Sri Lanka. Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M N

    1985-01-01

    Sri Lanka, an island country off the southeastern coast of India, populated by an estimated 16.1 million inhabitants, was one of the 1st developing countries to adopt a population policy aimed at reducing population growth and redistributing the population more equitably throughout the country. Population density is high. There are 636 persons/square mile, and 2/3 of the population lives in the southwestern and central regions of the country. Government redistribution policies seek to increase internal migration flows to the drier and less populated areas. The country's birth rate was 27 in 1982, the death rate was 6 in 1981, and the infant mortality rate was 34.4 in 1980. The rate of natural increase in 1982 was 2.1%, and the population growth rate declined from 2.5% prior to 1970 to 1.7% in 1980. The total fertility rate declined between 1963-74 from 5.0-3.4 and then increased to 3.7 in recent years. Given the age structure of the population, the population is expected to continue growing at a high rate in the coming years; however, the age at marriage is increasing and the proportion of young married women in the population is declining, and these trends will have an impact on population growth. These trends are due in part to increased educational and employment opportunities for women. The delay in marriage may also be linked to the dowry system. Given the high rate of poverty, it is difficult for parents to accummulate sufficient resources to provide dowries for their daughters. Sri lanka's economy is predominantly agricultural, with only 15% of the gross national product derived from manufacturing. Approximately 22% of thepopulation lives in urban areas. In 1981 exports totaled US$1.1 billion, and major export items were tea and rubber. In the same year, imports totaled US$1.8 billion and consisted primarily of food, petroleum, and fertilizers. The per capita gross national product was US$320 in 1982. Sri Lanka receives considerable foreign aid, and the

  6. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in asymptomatic schoolchildren in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangda, Sonam; Richter, James M; Kuenzang, Pema; Wangchuk, Kinley; Choden, Tashi; Tenzin, Karma; Malaty, Hoda M

    2017-09-22

    Bhutan is a small mountainous country between Tibet and India with relatively homogenous population. According to the World Health Organization, gastric cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in Bhutan. This study examined the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among children in Bhutan with emphasis on water source and living conditions. A cross-sectional sero-epidemiologic study was conducted among schoolchildren who attended public schools in Thimphu, Bhutan. Between 2015 and 2016, blood samples from schoolchildren were collected after obtaining an informed consent from the school management and the children's parents. Demographic information, parents' education, family size living in the same household, and aspects of household environment including type of latrines, boiling drinking water were collected. All serum samples were tested for H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) by commercial ELISA kits. There were 327 children between 4 and 19 years of age participated, 44% boys, mean age = 13.6 ± 3 years. The overall prevalence of H. pylori was 66% with no difference between boys and girls (66 vs 64%, respectively), P = .42. H. pylori prevalence was 75% among both 4-7 and 15-19 years and not statically different from that of the 8-10 or 11-14 age groups (59% and 63%, respectively), P = .1. H. pylori prevalence was inversely correlated with the level of mother's education (70% vs 55%) for those without and with a college education, respectively (OR = 2.3; 95%CI = 0.9-1.7), P = .08. The total number of people living in the same household did not correlate with H. pylori sero-prevalence, but households had less than 3 children had lower prevalence than those with 3 or more children (62% vs 71%, respectively OR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.0-2.6], P = .05). H. pylori infection is prevalent among all age group children in Bhutan. The results suggest that transmission of H. pylori is related to personal care practices that directly correlate with

  7. Sri Lanka Development Update, Fall 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The Sri Lanka development update report talks about the recent economic developments in Sri Lanka for the year 2015-2016. With no exception, Sri Lanka also faced the challenges of a trying global environment in 2015. Uncertainties in an election year that saw a major political transition contributed to elevate the risks stemming from global context. The accommodative policy choices supported ...

  8. Health and Gross National Happiness: review of current status in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres CE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tashi Tobgay1, Ugen Dophu1, Cristina E Torres2, Kesara Na-Bangchang31Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kawajangsa, Bhutan; 2Forum for Ethical Review Committees in Asian and Western Pacific Region, Clinical Coordination and Training Center, 3Thailand Center of Excellence on Drug Discovery and Development (TCEDDD, Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, ThailandAbstract: Worldwide, contemporary measures of the success of health development programs have been mostly in terms of the reduction of mortality and morbidity as well as increasing longevity. While these goals have yielded much-needed health improvements, the subjective outcomes of these improvements, as experienced by individuals and the communities, have not been considered. Bhutan, under the overarching policy of Gross National Happiness, has provided due consideration to these subjective indicators. Here, we report on the current status of health and happiness in Bhutan as revealed by conventional objective indicators and subjective Gross National Happiness indicators. The current literature on health in Bhutan in relation to the Gross National Happiness Survey conducted by the Centre of Bhutan Studies has been reviewed. Bhutan has made great strides within a short period of modernization, as shown by both objective and subjective indicators. Tremendous challenges lie ahead to achieve the ultimate goal of health and happiness, and how Bhutan articulates its path to modernization may be a lesson for the rest of the world.Keywords: Bhutan, happiness, health, indicators

  9. Investigation and control of anthrax outbreak at the human-animal interface, Bhutan, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Nirmal K; Tenzin; Wangdi, Karma; Dorji, Tshering; Migma; Dorjee, Jambay; Marston, Chung K; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2014-09-01

    In 2010, we investigated anthrax outbreak in Bhutan. A total of 43 domestic animals died, and cutaneous anthrax developed in 9 persons, and 1 died. All affected persons had contact with the carcasses of infected animals. Comprehensive preparedness and response guidelines are needed to increase public awareness of anthrax in Bhutan.

  10. On the Middle Path, The Social Basis for Sustainable Development in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinzin, C.

    2006-01-01

    Religion, culture and polity have largely influenced what is unique about Bhutan today. As a Mahayana Buddhist Kingdom, Bhutan has inherited a philosophy of life that is deeply rooted in religious traditions and institutions. Basic values such as compassion, faith, respect for all life forms and

  11. Secondary Education in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lucius

    1973-01-01

    This article describes the development of education in Nepal from its beginnings in indigenous education associated with Hindu and Buddhist religions to the present democratic period, which began in 1971 and entails a reform in curriculum and school organization. (JH)

  12. New mosquito records for Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S P; Darsie, R F

    1989-03-01

    Thirteen mosquito species of the genera Aedes, Culex, Mimoyia and Uranotaenia are reported from Nepal for the first time. Taking into account taxonomic changes, 70 species of culicine (i.e., non-anopheline) mosquitoes are now known from Nepal.

  13. Shock Safe Nepal: team one

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, A.J.; Düzgün, B.C.; Spelt, C.J.; De Stoppelaar, A.O.; Van Wijnbergen, E.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    As a response to the 2015 Nepal earthquakes Shock Safe Nepal was founded to function as platform intended to contribute to the development of knowledge on earthquake safe housing. The project started on initiative of the Consul General of Nepal to The Netherlands Cas de Stoppelaar and the faculty of

  14. An assessment of fiscal space for health in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jayendra

    2016-07-01

    Several factors are expected to put a strain on health financing in Bhutan. In a predominantly public-financed healthcare, ensuring that the health system gains sufficient fiscal space to ensure the sustainability of its financing is a critical policy concern. This fiscal space assessment bases its analysis on national surveys and statistics, international databases and review of official documents and reports. Assuming that the government health spending will continue to respond in the same way to growth as in the period 2002-2012, Bhutan can expect to see a robust increase in government investments in health. If elasticity of health expenditure with respect to GDP does not change significantly, projections indicate that per-capita government spending for health could more than double in the period 2012 to 2019. This increase from Ngultrum 2632 in 2012 to Ngultrum 6724 in 2019 could correspond to government health spending from 2.65% of GDP to 3.98% of GDP in the respective years. The country, however, needs to closely monitor and ensure that government investment in healthcare keeps pace with the growth of the national economy. Along with this, supplementary resources for healthcare could be explored through earmarked taxes and by generating efficiency gains. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Exploring the patterns of alpine vegetation of Eastern Bhutan: a case study from the Merak Himalaya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jamtsho, Karma; Sridith, Kitichate

    2015-01-01

    ... and the patterns of alpine vegetation of Eastern Bhutan. The vegetation of the sampled plots is classified into five types of communities based on the hierarchical cluster analysis at similarity index 63% viz., (1) Riverine Community; (2) Abies...

  16. Habitat Correlates of the Red Panda in the Temperate Forests of Bhutan: e26483

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sangay Dorji; Karl Vernes; Rajanathan Rajaratnam

    2011-01-01

    ...) is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations...

  17. Education reform in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carney, Stephen; Rappleye, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses various reports published within the issue, including papers on various aspects of Nepal's education policy dynamic, a study on young people's experiences of education, especially the faith in schooling as a means to social and economic betterment, and a more radical critique...... of modernity and its relation to education in the South....

  18. Nepal: Quest for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-02

    remains obscure. However, Nepal was mentioned in the Hindu mythological epic the Ramayana, the to * 4 Mahabharats, the Puranai, Buddhacarita, and other...Narendra-deva’s successor established matrimonial alliance with the Indian princess. The Licchavis rule in Kathmandu is thus something of a bridge

  19. A Survey of Communication/Journalism Education in South Asian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanilam, John V.

    In South Asia (the land mass that includes Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the island nation Sri Lanka), college-level programs in journalism and communication, which can help developing nations to promote social change and to improve societal living standards, have not progressed with media growth. The reasons for…

  20. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-09

    states, even bogey in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan or Israel. playing up Pakistan against India. In this context, the On Friday the IAEA headed...Singapore, which set course private firm named Sea Bird and sailed under a British for Bombay. flag for more than a decade until July this year. It

  1. The Training and Employment of Area Specialists in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Syria, United Arab Emerates, Yeman Arab Republic ITO YLG South Asia Afghanistan. sh, Bhutan , India, Nepal. Pakistan, Sri Lanka ITH OYLH...i.e., survive in the country using the language, know military terms, etc. We spent too much time learning bird names, parts of the car. etc. 161

  2. 2012 Nepal-China Friendship Week Held in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao; Weimin; Gan; Qianyi

    2013-01-01

    <正>The year of 2012 was designated the "China-Nepal Friendship Exchange Year" by the Chinese and Nepalese governments,and,as one of the important cultural exchange programs, the 2012 Nepal-China Friendship Week, co-sponsored by the CPAFFC and the World Culture Net(WCN) of Nepal,was held from November 30 to December 6. The CPAFFC organized an 18-member Delegation of government

  3. Water balance in the complex mountainous terrain of Bhutan and linkages to land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorji, Ugyen; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig

    2016-01-01

    Bhutan is located in the Himalayas with extreme variation in elevation, climatic conditions and land use. The high dependency of the economy on agriculture and natural resources emphasizes the importance of understanding inter- and intra-seasonal variation in water balance linked to monsoonal pre...... types dominate, whereas an either small or negative water balance in the east-west belt of central Bhutan cause dry conditions in this region, which is dominated by coniferous forests....

  4. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Phuntsholing City, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste problem is a major concern in major cities in Bhutan. Despite the lack of reliable data on both waste composition and quantity, no studies have been conducted to identify problems and alternatives to improve the current system. The study objectives are: 1 to determine solid waste composition and generation rate; and 2 to investigate current solid waste management system. Six waste samples were selected in Phuntsholing city from three designated collection spots and from three collection vehicles and analyzed for their composition. Waste generation rate was computed from waste collected by collection vehicles. The investigation was carried out through interviews with municipal authorities, existing document reviews, and field observations. The organic fraction of solid waste composition comprised about 71 percent. The waste generation rate was estimated to 0.40 kg/capita.day. The current management system is inefficient, and recommendations are given to improve the current situation.

  5. World Culture and ICT use – a Study from Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär-Ola Mikael; Choeda, Choeda; Dukpa, Dorji

    2015-01-01

    understanding in international projects and global appropriation of technology may be larger than the current theorizing implies. In this paper we investigate the ICT use, with emphasis on World Culture, within Higher Education in Bhutan. We find a remarkably strong presence of World Culture among faculty......The HCI community has recognized the importance of culture and to be culturally sensitive when designing interaction. Local culture should not be overlooked when designing. On the other hand, recent advances in theorizing of cultural patterns have reported that in some sectors, World Cultures has...... permeated institutions across the world. Such cultures can be said to consist of a dynamic system of values, beliefs, behaviours, norms, rules, tools and technologies, and show similar patterns across the world. If such a culture is present to the degree argued by World Culturalists, the scope for mutual...

  6. Bhutan Rivers Runoff Sensitivity to Changes in Precipitation and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonessa, M. Y.; Richey, J. E.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Kingdom of Bhutan harnesses its water resources mostly for hydropower generation. Hydroelectricity represents 96% of the country's electricity generating capacity and 99.9% of its electricity generation. About 87% of the electricity generated within Bhutan is exported to India. Assessment of this crucial resource is vital for its proper usage and management especially in the light of potential land use and climate changes. A land surface hydrologic model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC), was used to assess the hydrology of the country. The model was forced using data obtained from three sources: NCEP/NCAR, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and ERA Interim. The NCEP/NCAR forcing resulted in better flow simulation for most of the stations than WRF and ERA forcings. Thus, NCEP/NCAR forcing data was used to evaluate the runoff sensitivity to temperature and precipitation changes. In both steps, VIC was run at 1/24° latitude-longitude resolution. The modeled mean annual runoff elasticity which measures fractional change in annual runoff divided by fractional change in annual precipitation ranges from 1.08 to 2.16. The elasticity value is lower for higher reference precipitations and vice versa. The runoff sensitivity to temperature change computed as percentage change in annual runoff per 1°C change in temperature are all declines and ranges from -1.38 to -1.54. Spatially, both higher elasticity and sensitivity (big negatives) are towards the northern part the country where elevation is more than 5000 m above sea level.

  7. Journey through Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Nepal is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of bio-diversity due to its unique geographical position and altitude variation. The elevation of the country ranges from 60 meters above sea level to the highest point on earth, Mt. Everest at8,848 meters, all within a distance of 150 kilometers resulting in climatic conditions from Sub-tropical to Arctic.

  8. Development of deforestation and land cover database for Bhutan (1930-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C Sudhakar; Satish, K V; Jha, C S; Diwakar, P G; Murthy, Y V N Krishna; Dadhwal, V K

    2016-12-01

    Bhutan is a mountainous country located in the Himalayan biodiversity hotspot. This study has quantified the total area under land cover types, estimated the rate of forest cover change, analyzed the changes across forest types, and modeled forest cover change hotpots in Bhutan. The topographical maps and satellite remote sensing images were analyzed to get the spatial patterns of forest and associated land cover changes over the past eight decades (1930-1977-1987-1995-2005-2014). Forest is the largest land cover in Bhutan and constitutes 68.3% of the total geographical area in 2014. Subtropical broad leaved hill forest is predominant type occupies 34.1% of forest area in Bhutan, followed by montane dry temperate (20.9%), montane wet temperate (18.9%), Himalayan moist temperate (10%), and tropical moist sal (8.1%) in 2014. The major forest cover loss is observed in subtropical broad leaved hill forest (64.5 km(2)) and moist sal forest (9.9 km(2)) from 1977 to 2014. The deforested areas have mainly been converted into agriculture and contributed for 60.9% of forest loss from 1930 to 2014. In spite of major decline of forest cover in time interval of 1930-1977, there is no net rate of deforestation is recorded in Bhutan since 1995. Forest cover change analysis has been carried out to evaluate the conservation effectiveness in "Protected Areas" of Bhutan. Hotspots that have undergone high transformation in forest cover for afforestation and deforestation were highlighted in the study for conservation prioritisation. Forest conservation policies in Bhutan are highly effective in controlling deforestation as compared to neighboring Asian countries and such service would help in mitigating climate change.

  9. Development in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Koirala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the existing industries involved in the production of components of hydropower to the Francis turbine manufacturer up to 5 MW unit size has been recognized as one of the most promising business models in Nepal. Given the current fact that the development of Francis turbines with the manufacturers of Nepal has not been done yet, due to lack of designing expertise and limitations in the available technology, this paper presents the use of different available manufacturing technologies, which is suitable in the Nepalese hydropower market. This is an experience based paper, in which the advanced manufacturing process implementing Computer Aided Simulation (CAS, Computer Aided Design (CAD, and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM is introduced for turbine manufacturing. Moreover, CAD from Solidworks, 3D printing from Rapid Prototyping Machine (RPM, and manufacturing of three designs by three different methods, dye casting, lost wax casting, and forging in a local workshop, have been described. The outcome of this work is the identification of suitable Francis turbine development methodologies in context of Nepal, incorporating industrial revolution through research based products.

  10. Adult Learning Opportunities in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Krishna; Regmi, Sharada

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the initial findings from a study of education system in Nepal. This paper examines the adult learning opportunities within the educational and cultural contexts by reviewing available literature relevant to Nepal. Findings show that there are wider opportunities for adult learning than those considered from education and…

  11. A participatory framework to identify Gross National Happiness Issues for the development of smallholder mixed farming systems in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samdup, T.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a participatory methodological framework to identify Gross National Happiness (GNH) issues at the smallholder level in Bhutan. GNH is a development paradigm of Bhutan that has increasingly drawn international attention. Its four pillars are sustainable and equitable socioeconomic

  12. A participatory framework to identify Gross National Happiness Issues for the development of smallholder mixed farming systems in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samdup, T.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a participatory methodological framework to identify Gross National Happiness (GNH) issues at the smallholder level in Bhutan. GNH is a development paradigm of Bhutan that has increasingly drawn international attention. Its four pillars are sustainable and equitable socioeconomic

  13. Sri Lanka drops leading condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend

  14. Lowland forest butterflies of the Sankosh River catchment, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Singh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information on butterflies of the lowland forests of Bhutan for the first time. As a part of the biodiversity impact assessment for the proposed Sankosh hydroelectric power project, a survey was carried out along the Sankosh River catchment to study the butterfly diversity. The aim of the study was to identify species of conservation priority, their seasonality and to know the butterfly diversity potential of the area. Surveys were carried out during five different seasons (winter, spring, pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon lasting 18 days from January 2009 to March 2010. Pollard walk method was used to assess the diversity on four-line transects within 10-12 km radius of the proposed dam site. Two hundred and thirteen species, including 22 papilionids, were thus sampled. Eleven species amongst these are listed in Schedules I and II of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972, of which 10 taxa (Pareronia avatar avatar, Nacaduba pactolus continentalis, Porostas aluta coelestis, Elymnias vasudeva vasudeva, Mycalesis mestra retus, Melanitis zitenius zitenius, Charaxes marmax, Athyma ranga ranga, Neptis manasa manasa and Neptis soma soma are of conservation priority as they are ‘rare’ in occurrence across their distribution range in the region. The maximum number of species (128 were recorded during the spring season (March and lowest (66 during July (monsoon. The seasonal pattern of variation in diversity was very typical of the pattern found in other areas of the lower foothills and adjoining plains of the Himalaya. Relative abundances of butterflies during spring varied significantly (p<0.05 as compared to winter, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. However, species composition changed with every season as Sorensen’s similarity index varied between 0.3076 to 0.5656. All these findings suggest that the lowland forests of Bhutan hold a rich and unique diversity of butterflies during every season of the year thus having

  15. Chronic folliculitis in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasinghe S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic folliculitis (CF is a chronic infection of hair follicles leading to atrophy and loss of the affected hairs. This study was done on 51 patients with CF presenting at the Dermatology Clinic at General Hospital Matara, Sri Lanka, to identify specific clinical features and aetiological factors, and to study histopathology. Pus cultures were done on 25 cases. Biopsies were done on 6 patients. CF was commoner in males (59%; 76% were under 34 years, and 39% had occupational exposure to possible irritants. Thirty five precent admitted of scrubbing legs with rough objects. Ichthyosis vulgaris was evident in 47%. All pus cultures revealed Staphylococcus aureus. Clinical features and histopathological features were similar to those described by Harman (1968. Rough scrubbing, ichthyosis and occupational exposure to irritants may be aetiologically relevant.

  16. Leptospirosis in rural Sri Lanka:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellung Schønning, Marie; Agampodi, Suneth; Phelps, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka has one of the highest incidences of human leptospirosis worldwide. Outbreaks of this zoonotic infection are related to the monsoons and flooding. The present study investigates risks associated with environmental, animal and occupational exposure. Data was obtained from structured.......213-93.582). Leptospirosis in paddy workers was associated with environmental factors linked to contamination and wetness in paddy fields. Interestingly abandoned paddy fields were found to have a protective effect against transmission to paddy workers (OR=0.421, 95% CI 0.237-0.748). Keeping animals on these dryer fields...... may act as a boundary for contamination of paddy fields with infectious animal urine. This finding could be considered in public health interventions targeting leptospirosis among paddy workers....

  17. Leprosy control in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewapura, D R

    1994-01-01

    Even though health workers have treated all registered cases of leprosy in Sri Lanka with multiple drug therapy since 1982, it continues to be transmitted. The government has launched a social marketing and social mobilization campaign to reduce the incidence of leprosy. It has expanded the network of leprosy services. A national advertising program included mass media ads, posters, stickers on buses, and radio and television serials to create awareness of the early signs of leprosy and to reduce fear to leprosy. Health workers distributed leaflets and booklets to the general public and to new patients. The Anti-Leprosy Campaign of Sri Lanka organized 1-week health education programs for administrative officer, village leaders, religious leaders, teachers, and voluntary workers. Skin camps were set up to detect leprosy cases and to treat minor skin disorders. Teachers received flip charts on leprosy to help them teach colleagues and children about leprosy. All primary level staff, medical officers in hospital staff, and estate medical and paramedical staff have undergone special training on diagnosing leprosy and on reducing their fear of it. Almost every district has at least 1 leprosy control specialist. 2 leprosy control specialists work in those districts where leprosy is endemic Each district has a trained medical laboratory technician, who stains and interprets leprosy smears. In 1992, school, contact, and mass surveys have found 31, 149, and 225 new cases, respectively. Active case findings methods found 16.5% of new cases. 50% of new cases are self- reported, compared to less than 10% in 1989, suggesting increased awareness of early signs of leprosy and a reduced fear of it. 25 more clinics opened in 1991 to meet the demand for leprosy services.

  18. Prospects of Organic Farming in Bhutan: A SWOT Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Tashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the prospects of organic agriculture (OA in Bhutan from the experts’ perspective, particularly the SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat aspect. Thirty-five Bhutanese experts were interviewed. The strengths of OA were (i good alignment of the principles of OA with Bhutan’s development philosophy, (ii strong policy and political support, (iii pristine environment, (iv OA practices similar to traditional farming, and (v compatibility of OA with the local farming knowledge. The major weaknesses were (i a lack of awareness of the benefits of OA, (ii lack of incentives, (iii shortage of farm labor, (iv small and irregular supply of organic product, (v lack of clarity in policy, (vi limited plant protection materials, and (vii a lack of coordination between agencies. Opportunities were (i a huge regional and global organic market, (ii promoting healthy lifestyle, (iii sustainable use of resources, (iv lowering dependence on food and input imports, (v development of local organic manure suppliers, (vi creating seed sovereignty, (vii conserving local crops, (viii building soil fertility, (ix introducing premium price for organic products, and (x addressing unemployment. Threats included (i increasing incidences of pests and diseases, (ii decline in sources of organic manure, and (iii limited sources of organic manures and fertilizers.

  19. Characterization of limes (Citrus aurantifolia) grown in Bhutan and Indonesia using high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjor, Tshering; Mimura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Yamamoto, Masashi; Nagano, Yukio

    2014-04-30

    Lime [Citrus aurantifolia (Cristm.) Swingle] is a Citrus species that is a popular ingredient in many cuisines. Some citrus plants are known to originate in the area ranging from northeastern India to southwestern China. In the current study, we characterized and compared limes grown in Bhutan (n = 5 accessions) and Indonesia (n = 3 accessions). The limes were separated into two groups based on their morphology. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) separated the eight accessions into two clusters. One cluster contained four accessions from Bhutan, whereas the other cluster contained one accession from Bhutan and the three accessions from Indonesia. This genetic classification supported the morphological classification of limes. The analysis suggests that the properties associated with asexual reproduction, and somatic homologous recombination, have contributed to the genetic diversification of limes.

  20. The ICT-Integrated Pedagogy in the Colleges of Royal University of Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choeda, Par-Ola Zander; Penjor, Tandin; Dukpa, Dorji

    2014-01-01

    lecturers who actually attained training. The status of ICT integrated pedagogy in higher education in Bhutan is at an early stage being affected by low speed internet connectivity and lack of adequate resource as well as training in ICT integrated pedagogy. However, lecturers are highly motivated......This paper reports a research study on the integration of ICT and pedagogy in the colleges of the Royal University of Bhutan. It investigates whether ICT is integrated into the pedagogy, and if so, in what way. The samples (Faculty members) of the study were picked up randomly from ten colleges...... under Royal University of Bhutan. The study identifies the use of Virtual Learning Environments (VLE), used as part of ICT-integrated pedagogy. However, the use of VLE has been found to be confined to be a platform where activities such as work plan, module descriptors, uploading assignments have been...

  1. Collection for Nepal

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    You are wonderful, thank you! On 25 April 2015, Nepal and neighboring countries suffered a violent earthquake, which killed thousands. On 28 April CERN Staff Association and CERN Management appealed to your generosity to help those affected, and opened an account to be able to receive your donations. We are now pleased to announce that the amount raised is CHF 34'800, and was donated to the NGO Live to Love of His Holiness the Gyalwang Drukpa. We thank everyone who contributed to this important cause.

  2. Collection for Nepal

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Following the violent earthquake in Nepal and neighbouring countries, a collection of money to help the victims was organized at CERN. A sum of 34 800 CHF was collected, and transferred to the NGO Live to Love. On July 22, the NGO sent a letter to CERN thanking for the support (see below). You can also find more information concerning this NGO and how they use their funds on our website: http://staff-association.web.cern.ch/sites/staff-association.web.cern.ch/files/Docs/Live_to_Love.pdf

  3. Introduction and establishment of fluoroquinolone-resistant Shigella sonnei into Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung The, Hao; Rabaa, Maia A.; Thanh, Duy Pham; Ruekit, Sirigade; Wangchuk, Sonam; Dorji, Tshering; Tshering, Kinzang Pem; Nguyen, To Nguyen Thi; Vinh, Phat Voong; Thanh, Tuyen Ha; Minh, Chau Nguyen Ngoc; Turner, Paul; Sar, Poda; Thwaites, Guy; Holt, Kathryn E.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Jeffries Mason, Carl; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Shigella sonnei is a major contributor to the global burden of diarrhoeal disease, generally associated with dysenteric diarrhoea in developed countries but also emerging in developing countries. The reason for the recent success of S. sonnei is unknown, but is likely catalysed by its ability to acquire resistance against multiple antimicrobials. Between 2011 and 2013, S. sonnei exhibiting resistance to fluoroquinolones, the first-line treatment recommended for shigellosis, emerged in Bhutan. Aiming to reconstruct the introduction and establishment of fluoroquinolone-resistant S. sonnei populations in Bhutan, we performed whole-genome sequencing on 71 S. sonnei samples isolated in Bhutan between 2011 and 2013.We found that these strains represented an expansion of a clade within the previously described lineage III, found specifically in Central Asia. Temporal phylogenetic reconstruction demonstrated that all of the sequenced Bhutanese S. sonnei diverged from a single ancestor that was introduced into Bhutan around 2006. Our data additionally predicted that fluoroquinolone resistance, conferred by mutations in gyrA and parC, arose prior to the introduction of the founder strain into Bhutan. Once established in Bhutan, these S. sonnei had access to a broad gene pool, as indicated by the acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-encoding plasmids and genes encoding type IV pili. The data presented here outline a model for the introduction and maintenance of fluoroquinolone-resistant S. sonnei in a new setting. Given the current circulation of fluoroquinolone-resistant S. sonnei in Asia, we speculate that this pattern of introduction is being recapitulated across the region and beyond.

  4. Habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangay Dorji

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the Himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. Detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculative, and there is virtually no ecological information available on this species in Bhutan. Between 2007 and 2009, we established 615 presence/absence plots in a systematic sampling of resident habitat types within Jigme Dorji and Thrumshingla National Parks, Bhutan, to investigate broad and fine-scale red panda habitat associations. Additional locality records of red pandas were obtained from interviewing 664 park residents. Red pandas were generally confined to cool broadleaf and conifer forests from 2,110-4,389 m above sea level (asl, with the majority of records between 2,400-3,700 m asl on south and east-facing slopes. At a finer scale, multivariate analysis revealed that red pandas were strongly associated with old growth Bhutan Fir (Abies densa forest dominated by a dense cover of Yushania and Arundanaria bamboo with a high density of fallen logs and tree stumps at ground level; a high density of trees, dead snags, and rhododendron shrubs in the mid-storey; and locations that were close to water. Because Bhutan's temperate forests that encompass prime red panda habitat are also integral to human subsistence and socio-economic development, there exists an inadvertent conflict between the needs of people and red pandas. As such, careful sustainable management of Bhutan's temperate forests is necessary if a balance is to be met between the socioeconomic needs of people and the conservation goals for red pandas.

  5. Dog bites in humans and estimating human rabies mortality in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenzin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dog bites in humans are a public health problem worldwide. The issues of increasing stray dog populations, rabies outbreaks, and the risk of dogs biting humans have been frequently reported by the media in Bhutan. This study aimed to estimate the bite incidence and identify the risk factors for dog bites in humans, and to estimate human deaths from rabies in rabies endemic south Bhutan. METHODS: A hospital-based questionnaire survey was conducted during 2009-2010 among dog bites victims who visited three hospitals in Bhutan for anti-rabies vaccine injection. Decision tree modeling was used to estimate human deaths from rabies following dog bite injuries in two rabies endemic areas of south Bhutan. RESULTS: Three hundred and twenty four dog bite victims were interviewed. The annual incidence of dog bites differed between the hospital catchment areas: 869.8 (95% CI: 722.8-1022.5, 293.8 (240-358.2 and 284.8 (251.2-323 per 100,000 people in Gelephu, Phuentsholing and Thimphu, respectively. Males (62% were more at risk than females (P<0.001. Children aged 5-9 years were bitten more than other age groups. The majority of victims (71% were bitten by stray dogs. No direct fatal injury was reported. In two hospital areas (Gelephu and Phuentsholing in south Bhutan the annual incidence of death from rabies was 3.14 (95% CI: 1.57-6.29 per 100,000 population. The decision tree model predicted an equivalent annual incidence of 4.67 (95% CI: 2.53-7.53 deaths/100,000 population at risk. In the absence of post exposure prophylaxis, the model predicted 19.24 (95% CI: 13.69-25.14 deaths/year in these two areas. CONCLUSIONS: Increased educational awareness of people about the risk of dog bites and rabies is necessary, particularly for children in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan.

  6. Status of Asiatic Golden Cat Catopuma temminckii Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 (Carnivora: Felidae in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashi Dhendup

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asiatic Golden Cat is a Near Threatened wild cat species as listed by the IUCN. Being a lesser studied species, there is a general paucity of data and hence, global assessment of its true status has been very difficult. In Bhutan, available information on this species is mainly from biodiversity surveys on big mammals such as Tiger and Snow Leopard. A modest attempt has been made to review all available literature on Asiatic Golden Cat in Bhutan and abroad to describe the current status of the species in the country and the need for further studies. 

  7. Predicted Attenuation Relation and Observed Ground Motion of Gorkha Nepal Earthquake of 25 April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Ahmad, R.

    2015-12-01

    A comparison of recent observed ground motion parameters of recent Gorkha Nepal earthquake of 25 April 2015 (Mw 7.8) with the predicted ground motion parameters using exitsing attenuation relation of the Himalayan region will be presented. The recent earthquake took about 8000 lives and destroyed thousands of poor quality of buildings and the earthquake was felt by millions of people living in Nepal, China, India, Bangladesh, and Bhutan. The knowledge of ground parameters are very important in developing seismic code of seismic prone regions like Himalaya for better design of buildings. The ground parameters recorded in recent earthquake event and aftershocks are compared with attenuation relations for the Himalayan region, the predicted ground motion parameters show good correlation with the observed ground parameters. The results will be of great use to Civil engineers in updating existing building codes in the Himlayan and surrounding regions and also for the evaluation of seismic hazards. The results clearly show that the attenuation relation developed for the Himalayan region should be only used, other attenuation relations based on other regions fail to provide good estimate of observed ground motion parameters.

  8. New climatic classification of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Ramchandra; Talchabhadel, Rocky; Aalto, Juha; Baidya, Saraju Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Although it is evident that Nepal has an extremely wide range of climates within a short latitudinal distance, there is a lack of comprehensive research in this field. The climatic zoning in a topographically complex country like Nepal has important implications for the selection of scientific station network design and climate model verification, as well as for studies examining the effects of climate change in terms of shifting climatic boundaries and vegetation in highly sensitive environments. This study presents a new high-resolution climate map of Nepal on the basis of long-term (1981-2010) monthly precipitation data for 240 stations and mean air temperature data for 74 stations, using original and modified Köppen-Geiger climate classification systems. Climatic variables used in Köppen-Geiger system were calculated (i) at each station and (ii) interpolated to 1-km spatial resolution using kriging which accounted for latitude, longitude, and elevation. The original Köppen-Geiger scheme could not identify all five types of climate (including tropical) observed in Nepal. Hence, the original scheme was slightly modified by changing the boundary of coldest month mean air temperature value from 18 °C to 14.5 °C in order to delineate the realistic climatic condition of Nepal. With this modification, all five types of climate (including tropical) were identified. The most common dominant type of climate for Nepal is temperate with dry winter and hot summer (Cwa).

  9. Road Expansion and Its Influence on Trail Sustainability in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiichi Ito

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bhutan was an inhabited wilderness until 1961, when road construction started after the closure of the Tibetan border. Since then, the road network has expanded from the Indian boarder, often tracing traditional trails. This has accelerated commerce as well as movement of people from India, benefitting both the Bhutanese and foreign tourists. At the same time, dependence on imported automobiles and fossil fuel has risen, and roadless areas have begun to shrink. This brought an inevitable loss of traditional environmental knowledge, such as the care of mules for packing, and reduction in physical and mental health among the Bhutanese. People who lost jobs as horsemen moved into towns to find jobs. Road extension is also a double-edged sword for visitors. It has resulted in shrinking trekking areas and loss of traditional culture, both of which have been sacrificed for easy access. Protected areas often function as fortifications against mechanical civilization. However, protected-area status or its zoning does not guarantee that an area will remain roadless where there is considerable resident population. An analysis in Jigme Dorji National Park showed the gradual retreat of trailheads and increasing dependence on automobiles among residents and trekkers. B. MacKaye, a regional planner in the Eastern United States, proposed using trails as a tool to control such mechanical civilization. His philosophy of regional planning suggests two measures; one is consolidated trailheads as dams, and the other is confinement of roads by levees, consisting of new trails and wilderness belts. According to case studies, the author proposed six options for coexistence of trails with roads.

  10. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.

    2011-05-15

    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  11. NGA Nepal Earthquake Support Data Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Geospatial Intelligence Agency — In support of the Spring 2015 Nepal earthquake response, NGA is providing to the public and humanitarian disaster response community these Nepal data services. They...

  12. Nepal as a Business Hub for Hydropower Industry : Introduction to Hydropower Industry of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shahi, Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Nepal at present is suffering from the energy crisis due to the lack of enough production of electricity in the country. The main purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the present situation of electricity crisis in Nepal and provide the information to the foreign investors about the investment opportunities in hydropower sector in Nepal. The theoretical section gives the details about Nepal and electricity production scenario in Nepal. It also gives the detail about the demand and supply of e...

  13. Soil development on Late Quaternary river terraces in a high montane valley in Bhutan, Eastern Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tshering Dorji,; Caspari, T.; Bäumler, R.; Veldkamp, A.; Jongmans, A.G.; Kado Tshering,; Tsheten Dorji,; Baillie, I.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the geochemistry and micromorphology of the soils on a suite of morphologically well-defined and visually distinct fluvial terraces, up to 40 m elevation above the current riverbed, at Thangbi in the upper Bumthang Valley, Bhutan. The alluvia forming each of the terraces are lithological

  14. The Paradox of Happiness: Health and Human Rights in the Kingdom of Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason Meier, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Averi

    2016-06-01

    The Kingdom of Bhutan is seeking to progressively realize the human right to health without addressing the cross-cutting human rights principles essential to a rights-based approach to health. Through a landscape analysis of the Bhutanese health system, documentary review of Bhutanese reporting to the United Nations human rights system, and semi-structured interviews with health policymakers in Bhutan, this study examines the normative foundations of Bhutan's focus on "a more meaningful purpose for development than just mere material satisfaction." Under this development paradigm of Gross National Happiness, the Bhutanese health system meets select normative foundations of the right to health, seeking to guarantee the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of health care and underlying determinants of health. However, where Bhutan continues to restrict the rights of minority populations-failing to address the ways in which human rights are indivisible, interdependent, and interrelated-additional reforms will be necessary to realize the right to health. Given the continuing prevalence of minority rights violations in the region, this study raises research questions for comparative studies in other rights-denying national contexts and advocacy approaches to advance principles of non-discrimination, participation, and accountability through health policy.

  15. Tracking Poverty Reduction in Bhutan: Income Deprivation Alongside Deprivation in Other Sources of Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses poverty reduction in Bhutan between two points in time--2003 and 2007--from a multidimensional perspective. The measures estimated include consumption expenditure as well as other indicators which are directly (when possible) or indirectly associated to valuable functionings, namely, health, education, access to electricity,…

  16. A new range record of Comostola hauensteini Smetacek, 2004 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae from Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irungbam Jatishwor Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Comostola hauensteini was described by Smetacek in 2004 on the basis of a holotype and paratype from Bhimtal, Uttarakhand (the western Himalaya. There seems to be no further record and description of this species. The present record extends the known distribution of C. hauensteini to Tsirang District of Bhutan (the eastern Himalaya. 

  17. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of important pig viral diseases in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monger, V. R.; Stegeman, J. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137144040; Koop, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314130241; Dukpa, K.; Tenzin, T.; Loeffen, W. L A

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional serological study was conducted in Bhutan between October 2011 and February 2012 to determine the prevalence of antibodies to classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus

  18. Crossbreeding and intensification of smallholder crop-cattle farming systems in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samdup, T.; Udo, H.M.J.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of livestock intensification through crossbreeding for dairying in Bhutan, where crossbreeding policies aim to improve smallholder livelihoods. It is also expected that crossbreeding will reduce dairy imports, and will reduce the environmental impact on forests and ot

  19. Water balance in the complex mountainous terrain of Bhutan and linkages to land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugyen Dorji

    2016-09-01

    Study Focus: Located in the Himalayas with elevation ranging 100–7550 m and with an area equivalent to Switzerland, Bhutan has great biodiversity despite its small area. A monsoon-dominated climate causes generally wet summer and dry winter. Bhutan is highly dependent of climatic conditions for its developmental activities. Using multiple regression analysis we have established models to predict the evapotranspiration (ETo and water balance and test the linkage to vegetation and land cover using meteorological data from 70 weather stations across Bhutan. Temperature-based ETo equations were evaluated in reference to the Penman-Monteith (PM method and a calibrated Hargreaves (H equation was used for computing the ETo. New Hydrological Insights for the Region. The calibrated Hargreaves equation gave good estimates of average daily ETo comparable to the PM ETo. The spatial variation in PM ETo is linked to variation in sunshine hours in summer and temperature in other seasons. Seasonal and annual ETo was mainly affected by elevation and latitude, which is linked to temperature and sunshine duration. Precipitation and water balance correlated positively with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI while ETo correlated negatively. Our models for predicting ETo and water balances performed clearly better than the global CRU gridded data for Bhutan. A positive water balance is found in broadleaf forest areas and small or negative water balance for coniferous forests.

  20. The ICT-Integrated Pedagogy in the Colleges of Royal University of Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choeda, Par-Ola Zander; Penjor, Tandin; Dukpa, Dorji

    2014-01-01

    lecturers who actually attained training. The status of ICT integrated pedagogy in higher education in Bhutan is at an early stage being affected by low speed internet connectivity and lack of adequate resource as well as training in ICT integrated pedagogy. However, lecturers are highly motivated...

  1. Medical adventure in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, D A

    1980-12-01

    In 1977 a request for teaching of otologic surgery from a Nepalese doctor to a Canadian colleague resulted in Doctor David Boon and his wife, Joan, travelling to Nepal in February, 1979, as volunteers. They participated in the "Lions Club of Kathmandu First Free Ear Camp" sponsored jointly by the International Sound Foundation Society and the Lions Club of Kathmandu. Fifteen hundred patients were seen and otosclerosis was one of the commonest ear diseases encountered. Adhesive otitis media with attic cholesteatoma was prevalent and a few cases of childhood serous otitis media were diagnosed. Severe sensorineural hearing loss was also prevalent and related to heredity, post febrile illness, and ototoxic drugs. Seventy surgical procedures were performed consisting of mastoidectomy, stapes reconstruction, tympanoplasty and myringotomy.

  2. Malaria control in Bhutan: case study of a country embarking on elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzom Thinley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bhutan has achieved a major reduction in malaria incidence amid multiple challenges. This case study seeks to characterize the Bhutan malaria control programme over the last 10 years. Methods A review of the malaria epidemiology, control strategies, and elimination strategies employed in Bhutan was carried out through a literature review of peer-reviewed and grey national and international literature with the addition of reviewing the surveillance and vector control records of the Bhutan Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (VDCP. Data triangulation was used to identify trends in epidemiology and key strategies and interventions through analysis of the VDCP surveillance and programme records and the literature review. Enabling and challenging factors were identified through analysis of socio-economic and health indicators, corroborated through a review of national and international reports and peer-review articles. Findings Confirmed malaria cases in Bhutan declined by 98.7% from 1994 to 2010. The majority of indigenous cases were due to Plasmodium vivax (59.9% and adult males are most at-risk of malaria. Imported cases, or those in foreign nationals, varied over the years, reaching 21.8% of all confirmed cases in 2006. Strategies implemented by the VDCP are likely to be related to the decline in cases over the last 10 years. Access to malaria diagnosis in treatment was expanded throughout the country and evidence-based case management, including the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for P. falciparum, increasing coverage of high risk areas with Indoor Residual Spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, and long-lasting insecticidal nets are likely to have contributed to the decline alongside enabling factors such as economic development and increasing access to health services. Conclusion Bhutan has made significant strides towards elimination and has adopted a goal of national elimination. A major

  3. A new critical habitat for conservation of the White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis Hume, 1878 (Aves: Ardeidae from Bhutan

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    Karma Wangdi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to its extremely small and rapidly dwindling population. Bhutan is home to the highest number of White-bellied Heron and the species is distributed patchily across 11 different sites in central and south-west Bhutan. In this note, we present the first evidence of the species in eastern Bhutan, on the Drangmechhu River in Trashi Yangtse district. The finding extends the distribution of the species in Bhutan and recognizes one more potentially critical habitat for immediate conservation attention. As elsewhere, the new site is found to be primarily threatened by hydropower development. The need for conservation initiatives for the species is immediate and highly recommended.

  4. URBAN GROWTH AND WATER QUALITY IN THIMPHU, BHUTAN

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    Nandu Giri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed study was undertaken in 2008 and 2009 on assessment of water quality of River Wang Chhu which flows through Thimphu urban area, the capital city of Bhutan. The water samples were examined at upstream of urban area, within the urban area and its downstream. The water samples were analyzed by studying the physico-chemical, biological and benthic macro-invertebrates. The water quality data obtained during present study are discussed in relation to land use/land cover changes(LULC and various ongoing human activities at upstream, within the each activity areas and it’s downstream. Analyses of satellite imagery of 1990 and 2008 using GIS revealed that over a period of eighteen years the forest, scrub and agricultural areas have decreased whereas urban area and road network have increased considerably. The forest cover, agriculture area and scrub decreased from 43.3% to 42.57%, 6.88% to 5.33% and 42.55% to 29.42%, respectively. The LULC changes effect water quality in many ways. The water temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, total coliform, and biological oxygen demand were lower at upstream and higher in urban area. On the other hand dissolved oxygen was found higher at upstream and lower in urban area. The pollution sensitive benthic macro-invertebrates population were dominant at upstream sampling sites whereas pollution tolerant benthic macro-invertebrates were found abundant in urban area and its immediate downstream. The rapid development of urban infrastructure in Thimphu city may be posing serious threats to water regime in terms of its quality. Though the deterioration of water quality is restricted to a few localized areas, the trend is serious and needs proper attention of policy planners and decision makers. Proper treatment of effluents from urban areas is urgently needed to reduce water pollution in such affected areas to check further deterioration of water quality

  5. URBAN GROWTH AND WATER QUALITY IN THIMPHU, BHUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu Giri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed study was undertaken in 2008 and 2009 on assessment of water quality of River Wang Chhu which flows through Thimphu urban area, the capital city of Bhutan. The water samples were examined at upstream of urban area, within the urban area and its downstream. The water quality was analyzed by studying the physico-chemical, biological and benthic macro-invertebrates. The water quality data obtained during present study are discussed in relation to land use/land cover changes (LULC and various ongoing human activities at upstream, within the each activity areas and it’s downstream. Analyses of satellite imagery of 1990 and 2008 using GIS revealed that over a period of eighteen years the forest, scrub and agricultural areas have decreased whereas urban area and road network have increased considerably. The forest cover, agriculture area and scrub decreased from 43.3% to 42.57%, 6.88% to 5.33% and 42.55% to 29.42%, respectively. The LULC changes effect water quality in many ways. The water temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, total coliform, and biological oxygen demand were lower at upstream and higher in urban area. On the other hand dissolved oxygen was found higher at upstream and lower in urban area. The pollution sensitive benthic macro- invertebrates population were dominant at upstream sampling sites whereas pollution tolerant benthic macro-invertebrates were found abundant in urban area and its immediate downstream. The rapid development of urban infrastructure in Thimphu city may be posing serious threats to water regime in terms of its quality. Though the deterioration of water quality is restricted to a few localized areas, the trend is serious and needs proper attention of policy planners and decision makers. Proper treatment of effluents from urban areas is urgently needed to reduce water pollution in such affected areas to check further deterioration of water quality

  6. Towards midwifery education and regulation in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Asha

    2015-09-01

    This is a short reflection of four wonderful weeks spent in Nepal supporting, advocating and strengthening the existing work of the Midwifery Society of Nepal and the Global midwifery twinning project (GMTP) with the Royal College of Midwives. Although Nepal is on target to achieve reduction in its maternal mortality rate for millennium goal 5 there is still no registered protected title of 'midwife' In order to establish a strong midwifery workforce in Nepal, the three pillars that need to be highlighted are: midwifery education, midwifery regulation and professional midwifery association. The four-week programme led by GMTP volunteers helped towards building capacity in leadership, advocacy and campaigning skills in Nepal.

  7. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Sri Lanka. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it....

  8. Progress and delivery of health care in Bhutan, the Land of the Thunder Dragon and Gross National Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobgay, Tashi; Dorji, Tandin; Pelzom, Dorji; Gibbons, Robert V

    2011-06-01

    The Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan is rapidly changing, but it remains relatively isolated, and it tenaciously embraces its rich cultural heritage. Despite very limited resources, Bhutan is making a concerted effort to update its health care and deliver it to all of its citizens. Healthcare services are delivered through 31 hospitals, 178 basic health unit clinics and 654 outreach clinics that provide maternal and child health services in remote communities in the mountains. Physical access to primary health care is now well sustained for more than 90% of the population. Bhutan has made progress in key health indicators. In the past 50 years, life expectancy increased by 18 years and infant mortality dropped from 102.8 to 49.3 per 1000 live births between 1984 and 2008. Bhutan has a rich medical history. One of the ancient names for Bhutan was 'Land of Medicinal Herbs' because of the diverse medicinal plants it exported to neighbouring countries. In 1967, traditional medicine was included in the National Health System, and in 1971, formal training for Drungtshos (traditional doctors) and sMenpas (traditional compounders) began. In 1982, Bhutan established the Pharmaceutical and Research Unit, which manufactures, develops and researches traditional herbal medicines. Despite commendable achievements, considerable challenges lie ahead, but the advances of the past few decades bode well for the future. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Epidemiological and Molecular Characterization of Dengue Virus Circulating in Bhutan, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangmo, Sangay; Klungthong, Chonticha; Chinnawirotpisan, Piyawan; Tantimavanich, Srisurang; Kosoltanapiwat, Nathamon; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Phuntsho, Kelzang; Wangchuk, Sonam; Yoon, In-Kyu; Fernandez, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most significant public health problems in tropical and subtropical countries, and is increasingly being detected in traditionally non-endemic areas. In Bhutan, dengue virus (DENV) has only recently been detected and limited information is available. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of DENV in two southern districts in Bhutan from 2013-2014. During this period, 379 patients were clinically diagnosed with suspected dengue, of whom 119 (31.4%) were positive for DENV infection by NS1 ELISA and/or nested RT-PCR. DENV serotypes 1, 2 and 3 were detected with DENV-1 being predominant. Phylogenetic analysis of DENV-1 using envelope gene demonstrated genotype V, closely related to strains from northern India.

  10. Studying municipal solid waste generation and composition in the urban areas of Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Dulal, Ichharam; Yangden, Dechen; Tenzin, Ugyen M; Herat, Sunil; Shon, Hokyong; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2010-06-01

    Bhutan lacks the solid waste data which are essential parameters for planning and scheduling of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems. The first ever large-scale research survey on solid waste generation and characterization in the urban areas of Bhutan was conducted between November 2007 and January 2008 using the method of waste sampling at source. The MSW generation rates in the urban centres were 0.53 kg capita(-1) day(- 1), which consists predominantly of organic waste materials of up to 58% indicating a great opportunity for composting. Domestic waste from the households contributed the maximum (47%) component of the total MSW generated from the urban centres followed by wastes from the commercial establishments. Attempt to study the correlation between household monthly income and the waste per capita generation rates did not yield any conclusive result.

  11. Epidemiological and Molecular Characterization of Dengue Virus Circulating in Bhutan, 2013-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangay Zangmo

    Full Text Available Dengue is one of the most significant public health problems in tropical and subtropical countries, and is increasingly being detected in traditionally non-endemic areas. In Bhutan, dengue virus (DENV has only recently been detected and limited information is available. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of DENV in two southern districts in Bhutan from 2013-2014. During this period, 379 patients were clinically diagnosed with suspected dengue, of whom 119 (31.4% were positive for DENV infection by NS1 ELISA and/or nested RT-PCR. DENV serotypes 1, 2 and 3 were detected with DENV-1 being predominant. Phylogenetic analysis of DENV-1 using envelope gene demonstrated genotype V, closely related to strains from northern India.

  12. The voice conveys emotion in ten globalized cultures and one remote village in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, Daniel T; Keltner, Dacher; Tshering, Sumjay; Wangchuk, Dorji; Flynn, Lisa M

    2016-02-01

    With data from 10 different globalized cultures and 1 remote, isolated village in Bhutan, we examined universals and cultural variations in the recognition of 16 nonverbal emotional vocalizations. College students in 10 nations (Study 1) and villagers in remote Bhutan (Study 2) were asked to match emotional vocalizations to 1-sentence stories of the same valence. Guided by previous conceptualizations of recognition accuracy, across both studies, 7 of the 16 vocal burst stimuli were found to have strong or very strong recognition in all 11 cultures, 6 vocal bursts were found to have moderate recognition, and 4 were not universally recognized. All vocal burst stimuli varied significantly in terms of the degree to which they were recognized across the 11 cultures. Our discussion focuses on the implications of these results for current debates concerning the emotion conveyed in the voice.

  13. Sri Lanka: sterilization bonus announced in Sri Lanka; new CBD experiments in Sri Lanka; orchids and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The government of Sri Lanka will give a minimum bonus of SRs 100 ($US6.00) to anyone voluntarily being sterilized. Women will be given 7 days leave and men 3. Many public and private corporations pay sterilization bonuses; the new bonus was set to compete with generous maternity benefits. The average daily wage is about SRs 120. Currently the demand for sterilization is greater than the health services' ability to meet it. Depo-provera is becoming increasingly popular in Sri Lanka, especially among the Muslim communities. The Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka is to test new forms of social marketing of contraceptives to provide wider coverage through community-based distribution. One system will use the route of a commercial firm, Reckitt and Coleman Ltd., and another system will use a network of provincial organizers, commission agents, and local retailers. To create an awareness in young people of their responsibility toward society the Family Planning Association organized an orchid cultivation and family planning propaganda project. 40 young boys are being taught orchid culture and the benefits of family planning. Orchids can be grown in the back yard without any capital investment. There is a steady market for the orchids, and the training program lasts 6 months for each cohort of boys.

  14. Notes on the occurrence of Chitoria sordida sordida (Moore, 1866 (Nymphalidae: Apaturinae in Tsirang District, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatishwor Singh Irungbam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the distribution of Nymphalid butterfly, Sordid Emperor (Chitoria sordida sordida (Moore, 1866 in southern Bhutan are presented in this paper.  The confirmation is based on four years of observation of species in the warm broadleaf forest of Tsirang during July to October.  The species is legally protected under Schedule II of the Indian (Wildlife Protection Act, 1997. 

  15. A preliminary checklist of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhophalocera) of Mendrelgang, Tsirang District, Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    I. J. Singh; M. Chib

    2014-01-01

    The survey was conducted to prepare a preliminary checklist of butterflies of Mendrelgang, Bhutan. Butterflies were sampled from February 2012 to February 2013 to assess the species richness in a degraded forest patch of a sub-tropical broadleaf forest. This short-term study recorded 125 species of butterflies in 78 genera from five families. Of these, Sordid Emperor Apatura sordida Moore, Black-veined Sergeant Athyma ranga ranga Moore, Sullied Sailor Neptis soma soma Linnaeus, Blue Duke Euth...

  16. Rising Precipitation Extremes across Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchandra Karki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a mountainous country, Nepal is most susceptible to precipitation extremes and related hazards, including severe floods, landslides and droughts that cause huge losses of life and property, impact the Himalayan environment, and hinder the socioeconomic development of the country. Given that the countrywide assessment of such extremes is still lacking, we present a comprehensive picture of prevailing precipitation extremes observed across Nepal. First, we present the spatial distribution of daily extreme precipitation indices as defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection, Monitoring and Indices (ETCCDMI from 210 stations over the period of 1981–2010. Then, we analyze the temporal changes in the computed extremes from 76 stations, featuring long-term continuous records for the period of 1970–2012, by applying a non-parametric Mann−Kendall test to identify the existence of a trend and Sen’s slope method to calculate the true magnitude of this trend. Further, the local trends in precipitation extremes have been tested for their field significance over the distinct physio-geographical regions of Nepal, such as the lowlands, middle mountains and hills and high mountains in the west (WL, WM and WH, respectively, and likewise, in central (CL, CM and CH and eastern (EL, EM and EH Nepal. Our results suggest that the spatial patterns of high-intensity precipitation extremes are quite different to that of annual or monsoonal precipitation. Lowlands (Terai and Siwaliks that feature relatively low precipitation and less wet days (rainy days are exposed to high-intensity precipitation extremes. Our trend analysis suggests that the pre-monsoonal precipitation is significantly increasing over the lowlands and CH, while monsoonal precipitation is increasing in WM and CH and decreasing in CM, CL and EL. On the other hand, post-monsoonal precipitation is significantly decreasing across all of Nepal while winter precipitation is decreasing

  17. Emergency satellite observation and assessment of a glacier lake outburst flood in Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hiroto; Tadono, Takeo; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-04-01

    Following a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) on Jun. 28, 2015, in western Bhutan, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency performed an emergency observation on Jul. 2, 2015 using the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2, "DAICHI-2"). Based on a dataset generated from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) imagery, "The Glacial Lake Inventory of Bhutan using ALOS Data", the glacier lake that potentially contributed to this GLOF were identified at 28°4'7.7"N, 89°34'50.0"E, in a headwater of the Mo Chu river basin, western Bhutan. A post-event lake outline was delineated manually using the acquired PALSAR-2 image. Pre-event outlines were delineated from previously acquired PALSAR-2 images (Apr. 23, 2015), Landsat 8 (Mar. 8, 2015), and ALOS (Dec. 22, 2010). The differences between these outlines reveal a remarkable expansion (+48.0%) from Mar. 8 to Apr. 23, 2015, followed by a remarkable shrinkage (-52.9%) from Apr. 23 to Jul. 2, 2015. This result indicates the lake to be a highly likely source of the flood. Topographically, it is located at a glacier terminus, surrounded by a moraine. Differing backscatter patterns between successive PALSAR-2 images in a certain part of the moraine suggest that it underwent some collapse, possibly as a result of the GLOF. More detailed investigations, including field surveys, are necessary to fully reveal and understand this event.

  18. Southwest-facing slopes control the formation of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya

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    H. Nagai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand the formation conditions of debris-covered glaciers, we examined the dimension and shape of debris-covered areas and potential debris-supply (PDS slopes of 213 glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya. This was undertaken using satellite images with 2.5 m spatial resolution for manual delineation of debris-covered areas and PDS slopes. The most significant correlation exists between surface area of southwest-facing PDS slopes and debris-covered area. This result suggests that the southwest-facing PDS slopes supply the largest quantity of debris mantle. The shape of debris-covered areas is also an important variable, quantitatively defined using a geometric index. Elongate or stripe-like debris-covered areas on north-flowing glaciers are common throughout the Bhutan Himalaya. In contrast, south-flowing glaciers have large ablation zones, entirely covered by debris. Our findings suggest that this difference is caused by effective diurnal freeze–thaw cycles rather than seasonal freeze–thaw cycles, permafrost degradation, or snow avalanches. In terms of geographic setting, local topography also contributes to glacier debris supply and the proportion of debris cover on the studied glaciers is suppressed by the arid Tibetan climate, whereas the north-to-south asymmetric topography of the Bhutan Himalaya has less influence on the proportion of debris cover.

  19. Suicide in Sri Lanka 1975-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knipe, Duleeka W; Metcalfe, Chris; Fernando, Ravindra

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka has experienced major changes in its suicide rates since the 1970s, and in 1995 it had one of the highest rates in the world. Subsequent reductions in Sri Lanka's suicide rates have been attributed to the introduction of restrictions on the availability of highly toxic...... pesticides. We investigate these changes in suicide rates in relation to age, gender, method specific trends and birth-cohort and period effects, with the aim of informing preventative strategies. METHODS: Secular trends of suicide in relation to age, sex, method, birth-cohort and period effects were...... investigated graphically using police data (1975-2012). Poisoning case-fatality was investigated using national hospital admission data (2004-2010). RESULTS: There were marked changes to the age-, gender- and method-specific incidence of suicide over the study period. Year on year declines in rates began in 17...

  20. Suicide in Sri Lanka 1975-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knipe, Duleeka W; Metcalfe, Chris; Fernando, Ravindra;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka has experienced major changes in its suicide rates since the 1970s, and in 1995 it had one of the highest rates in the world. Subsequent reductions in Sri Lanka's suicide rates have been attributed to the introduction of restrictions on the availability of highly toxic...... pesticides. We investigate these changes in suicide rates in relation to age, gender, method specific trends and birth-cohort and period effects, with the aim of informing preventative strategies. METHODS: Secular trends of suicide in relation to age, sex, method, birth-cohort and period effects were......; by the 2000s, this pattern had reversed with a stepwise increase in male rates with increasing age. Throughout the study period female rates were highest in 17-25 year olds. There has been a rise in suicide by hanging, though this rise is relatively small in relation to the marked decline in self...

  1. Smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L C Somatunga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. Results: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT use among the youth and adolescents is a cause for concern in Sri Lanka. There were evidences of diverse benign, premalignant, and malignant oral diseases due to smokeless tobacco use in the country. The level of awareness about health risks related to the consumption of smokeless tobacco products was low, particularly among the people with low socio-economic status. In Sri Lanka various forms of smokeless tobacco products, some of them imported, are used. At the national level, 15.8% used smokeless tobacco products and its use is three-fold higher among men compared to women. Betel quid is by far the traditional form in which tobacco is a general component. Other manufactured tobacco products include pan parag/pan masala, Mawa, Red tooth powder, Khaini, tobacco powder, and Zarda. Some 8.6% of the youth are current users of smokeless tobacco. There are studies demonstrating the harmful effects of smokeless tobacco use, especially on the oral mucosa, however, the level of awareness of this aspect is low. The highest mean expenditure on betel quid alone in rural areas for those earning Rs. 5,000/month was Rs. 952. The core issue is the easy availability of these products. To combat the smokeless tobacco problem, public health programs need to be intensified and targeted to vulnerable younger age groups. Another vital approach should be to levy higher taxation.

  2. Forecasts of Agricultural Drought in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    As the most frequent natural disaster in Sri Lanka, drought greatly affects crop production and livelihoods. Over half of all agricultural crop damage in Sri Lanka is currently due to drought; the frequency and severity of drought in the country is only expected to increase with the changing climate. Previous work indicates that the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) are capable of capturing agricultural drought patterns (between 1881-2010) in the island nation. In this work, PDSI and SPI from 13 long-term meteorological stations will be projected into the future using a combination of artificial neural network and autoregressive integrated moving average models. The impacts of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (such as the Niño 3.4 index, a measure of sea surface temperature) and lead times on projection accuracy will also be explored. Model projections will be compared to weather data since 2010 to determine if the 2014 drought could have been forecasted using these methods. Since agricultural systems are strongly influenced by both natural and human systems, it is important to frame these physical findings within a social context. This work is part of an interdisciplinary project that assesses the perceptions of and adaptations to drought by rice farmers in Sri Lanka; disciplines represented in the group include hydrology, social psychology, ethnography, policy, and behavioral economics. Insights from the diverse research perspectives within the group will be drawn upon to highlight the social implications of the physical results.

  3. Deforestation in eastern and central nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Shuji; Miyamoto, Shinji; Kariya, Yoshihiko

    1996-01-01

    Dated charcoal and humic materials in soil, both of which are evidence of forest fire and vegetation changes, as well as pollen analysis of soil indicate occurrence of past deforestation in the Nepal Himalayas. In Sirubari, central Nepal, human impact such as population growth and cultural change may have accelerated an environmental change during the 14-15th centuries. In Junbesi and Phaplu, the Solu area of eastern Nepal, temporary deforestation caused by hunting and grazing is evident of h...

  4. The Nepal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikobad, N F

    1977-01-01

    Nepal's panchayat system of partyless democracy with 5 class organizations of peasants, youth, women, labor, and ex-servicemen, is an effort in community development. Panchayat training centers train panchayat secretaries and women workers. The government tried out the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) methodology to train panchayat training center instructors in 1974-75 when 5 courses were given for 76 participants. The MTS methodology included several new assumptions: the necessity of knowing the field situation, a realistic problem solving orientation, learning by actual field experience, and interdependence rather than teacher dependence. The multipurpose role of the panchayat secretary was studied and clarified. Role performance led to the development of a realistic job description from which a task-focused curriculum could be developed. Field work tools included maintaining a daily diary, collecting information and developing a present and past project history, and compiling a village profile. The trainees played the roles of front line workers in the field when they returned from the villages played the roles of supervisors and trainers. The key concept in the multipurpose role of the panchayat secretary was collaboration. The panchayat secretary-trainee had to understand the social roles in the community, and work within the social context to get cooperation from other agencies, village and informal organizations, in order to fulfill their role. Tutorial and team teaching methods were used to provide partnership in learning; the old roles of lecturer and lectured were seen as ineffective when actual field experience was the criteria. The role performing and role analysis group analyzed the front line workers' roles and evolved job descriptions which led to course outlines. The teaching methods and materials group produced indigenous teaching materials for classroom use based on problems faced in the field. The action research and technical collaboration groups

  5. Nepal CRS project incorporates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project, 5 years after lauching product sales in June 1978, incorporated as a private, nonprofit company under Nepalese management. The transition was finalized in August 1983. The Company will work through a cooperative agreement with USAID/Kathmandu to complement the national family planning goals as the program continues to provide comtraceptives through retail channels at subsidized prices. Company objectives include: increase contraceptive sales by at least 15% per year; make CRS cost effective and move towards self sufficiency; and explore the possibility of marketing noncontraceptive health products to improve primary health care. After only5 years the program can point to some impressive successes. The number of retial shops selling family planning products increased from 100 in 1978 to over 8000, extending CRS product availability to 66 of the country's 75 districts. Retail sales have climbed dramatically in the 5-year period, from Rs 46,817 in 1978 to Rs 271,039 in 1982. Sales in terms of couple year protection CYP) have grown to 24,451 CYP(1982), a 36% increase over 1980 CYP. Since the beginning of the CRS marketing program, total distribution of contraceptives--through both CRS and the Family Planning Maternal and Child Haelth (FP/MCH) Project--has been increasing. While the FP/MCH program remains the largest distributor,contribution of CRS Products is increasing, indicating that CRS is creating new product acceptors. CRS market share in 1982 was 43% for condoms and 16% for oral contraceptives (OCs). CRS markets 5 products which are subsidized in order to be affordable to consumers as well as attractive to sellers. The initial products launched in June 1978 were Gulaf standard dose OCs and Dhaal lubricated colored condoms. A less expensive lubricates, plain Suki-Dhaal condom was introduced in June 1980 in an attempt to reach poorer rural populations, but rural distribution costs are excessive and Suki

  6. Non-economic gains of Sri Lanka's FTAs with neighbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandara, Jayatilleke S.; Yu, Wusheng

    2012-01-01

    were not explicitly outlined in Sri Lanka's two FTAs with its big rival neighbours (India and Pakistan), the FTAs helped Sri Lanka to successfully execute the war against the LTTE (the Tamil Tigers) by neutralising India on the one hand and gaining military assistance from Pakistan on the other...

  7. Contextualizing Social Science in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Raj Dahal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Social science informs about the ideals and trains experts to deal with the complex social realities. It has a public purpose rooted in what we call dharma (professional and institutional responsibility as opposed to the arrogance of reason, self-will and self-rationalization intrinsic to contemporary rational choice and modernity. Learning has a synergy - establishing connection between the world of social science theories and the drama of social life. A lack of mutual learning between Nepal's traditional faith intellectuals and modern reason-based social scientists has created a big hiatus and contradiction. The academic life of social scientists in Nepal is completely outside of spiritual, moral and ethical influence experienced by ordinary public. The spiritual blindness of modern social scientists has thus opened multiple gaps between their worldview and those of the citizens on various frontiers--theoretical knowledge and practical experience, technical understanding and composite knowledge and secularity of social science and the vitality of the Hindu-Buddhist scriptures in the popular mind, culture, behavior and practices. This has reinforced a division between the system of knowledge of social scientists and the life-world of people. The proponents of new social movements in Nepal, such as women, Dalits, Janajatis, Madhesis, youths and marginalized population are seeking a structural shift in reason-based knowledge to both reason and feeling in social science knowledge discovery. This movement can open the "captive mind" to social learning of contextual knowledge, conduct research with the citizens, provide inputs to the policy makers and reverse their linear, structure-bound, rationalist and disciplinary thinking into the one that represents what the Nepal mandala, the Nepali space, is really like and how to improve it for the better. The renewal and indigenization of qualitative social science research is important to overcome the

  8. Sri Lanka: In peace or in pieces? A critical approach to peace education in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to explore the 'two faces of education' through a critical analysis of peace education in Sri Lanka. It aims to contribute to the wider debate on the complex role of education in situations of conflict. The article starts with an overview of what peace education is, or should be.

  9. Ethnobotany in the Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous knowledge has become recognized worldwide not only because of its intrinsic value but also because it has a potential instrumental value to science and conservation. In Nepal, the indigenous knowledge of useful and medicinal plants has roots in the remote past. Methods The present study reviews the indigenous knowledge and use of plant resources of the Nepal Himalayas along the altitudinal and longitudinal gradient. A total of 264 studies focusing on ethnobotany, ethnomedicine and diversity of medicinal and aromatic plants, carried out between 1979 and 2006 were consulted for the present analysis. In order to cross check and verify the data, seven districts of west Nepal were visited in four field campaigns. Results In contrast to an average of 21–28% ethnobotanically/ethnomedicinally important plants reported for Nepal, the present study found that up to about 55% of the flora of the study region had medicinal value. This indicates a vast amount of undocumented knowledge about important plant species that needs to be explored and documented. The richness of medicinal plants decreased with increasing altitude but the percentage of plants used as medicine steadily increased with increasing altitude. This was due to preferences given to herbal remedies in high altitude areas and a combination of having no alternative choices, poverty and trust in the effectiveness of folklore herbal remedies. Conclusion Indigenous knowledge systems are culturally valued and scientifically important. Strengthening the wise use and conservation of indigenous knowledge of useful plants may benefit and improve the living standard of poor people.

  10. The Indian Air Force. Trends and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    national bor- ders but a strategic defensive region that includes its smaller neigh- bors, especially Nepal and Bhutan but also Sri Lanka and the...simulators. 4 The air force has opted for either the British Hawk or the German-French Alpha Jet, but the civilians have yet to decide. 5 Birds are also a... birds around airfields. In many cases, slaugh- terhouses near the air bases attract flocks of large birds , and the gov- ernment appears to have had

  11. Leptographium bhutanense sp. nov., associated with the root collar weevil Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii on Pinus wallichiana in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X D; Jacobs, K; Kirisits, T; Chhetri, D B; Wingfield, M J

    2008-12-01

    Leptographium spp. are commonly associated with bark beetles and weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and some are important tree pathogens. In a recent survey of diseases and insect pests of conifer trees in Bhutan, the root collar weevil, Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii was found girdling young Himalayan blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) trees in Central Bhutan. Intensive wood staining and a Leptographium sp. were associated with damage by this insect. The fungus was also isolated from individuals of H. chenkupdorjii. It was tentatively identified based on morphology and then compared with other Leptographium spp. using DNA sequences for three gene regions. Morphological characteristics showed that the Leptographium sp. from H. chenkupdorjii is similar to, but distinct from L. procerum and L. profanum. DNA sequence comparisons revealed that the isolates from Bhutan resided in a distinct well-supported clade and confirmed that they represent an undescribed taxon for which the name Leptographium bhutanense sp. nov. is provided.

  12. Increasing Science Literacy in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Jeevan

    2016-07-01

    Nepal, a small landlocked and one of the least developed countries in south Asia is curious with its neighbor's giant space missions. As for now, space mission is not imminent to Nepal at least for decade. Due to lack of proper education and the resources; space education is also not very effective. In the curriculum of Nepal, basic astronomy is included in the science book of middle school which consist only 5% of the total course and 10% in high school. However the total course has been mostly theoretical which has made this subject uninteresting and difficult among the students. The examinations in all education levels are practiced on the rote memorization of contents. Pokhara Astronomical Society (PAS) introduced new techniques in teaching with more practical approach. We helped students to construct bamboo telescopes and observe the night sky which brought tremendous interest in studying astronomy in middle school. Similarly in high schools we organized different kinds of webinar with renowned scientist from different parts of the world. We screened documentaries of space activities; we helped them to use online robotic telescopes by using internet. This eventually is creating more interest in students to study science and particularly astronomy in their higher studies. The use of mobile Apps and different satellite tracking website helped students determine the location of space objects and created more interest for detail study of them. We are now reaching thousands of students with different proceedings to popularize astronomy and generating interest to pursue higher education in this subject. As well as creating the scientific awareness and understanding among others who are not choosing science in their higher studies. This paper highlights the comparative study of advanced and practical approach of teaching over traditional approach. The results of survey suggest most students are interested in choosing science in their higher studies where practical

  13. Preliminary assessment of active rock slope instabilities in the high Himalaya of Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Benedetta; Manconi, Andrea; Leith, Kerry; Loew, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The small kingdom of Bhutan, nested between India and Tibet (between 88° and 92° east and 26° and 28° north), is characterised by markedly different landscapes and climatic zones. V-shaped, forest-covered valleys in the south, affected by the monsoonal rains, give gradually way to steep, barren slopes of U-shaped valleys in the drier north, host of the highest peaks, a large number of glaciers and glacial lakes. A transition zone of vegetated, elevated plateaus collects the towns in which most of the population lives. Landslides in the high Himalaya of Bhutan have not been extensively studied despite the primary and secondary hazards related to them. The regulations and restrictions to travel to and within Bhutan imposed by the government, as well as the extremely rugged terrain hinder the accessibility to remote slopes and valleys, both of which have resulted in lack of data and investigations. In this work, we aim at producing an inventory of large rock slope instabilities (> 1 million m3) across the high Himalaya of Bhutan, identifying types of failure, assessing the activity and analysing the distribution of landslides in combination with predisposing and preparatory factors, such as lithology, tectonic structures, hypsometry, deglaciation, fluvial erosive power and climate. At this stage, we rely on the information retrieved through satellite remote sensing data, i.e. medium and high resolution DEMs, optical images and space borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. An initial inventory was compiled based on the identification of geomorphological features associated with slope instabilities using the available Google Earth images. Moreover, we assessed the SAR data coverage and the expected geometrical distortions by assuming different sensors (ERS, Envisat, and ALOS Palsar-1). As we are mainly interested in detecting the surface deformation related to large unstable slopes by applying Differential SAR, we also computed the percentage of potentially

  14. New records of petiolate potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshering Nidup

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of seven species from five genera, Delta de Saussure, 1855, Eumenes Latreille, 1802, Pareumenes (de Saussure, 1855, Labus de Saussure, 1867, and Zethus Fabricius, 1804, belonging to the subfamily Eumeninae of the family Vespidae are documented. Pareumenes quadrispinosus acutus Liu, 1941, Delta esuriens (Fabricius, 1787, D. conoideum (Gmelin, 1790, E. gibbosus Nguyen, 2015, Labus pusillus van der Vecht, 1963 and Zethus dolosus Bingham, 1897, including the subspecies P. q. acutus Liu, 1941, are new records for Bhutan

  15. Coastal environmental degradation in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patabendi, P. [Partners for Sustainable Development, Hewagama, Kaduwela (Sri Lanka)

    2000-07-01

    The economic importance of Sri Lanka's coastal area has increased with rapid urbanization and the development of commercial harbours. The growth on this small island has resulted in unmistakable signs of environmental stress which manifests itself in the loss of natural forest cover, water pollution, degradation of rural lands and increased levels of air, water and solid waste pollution. The population is projected to reach 25 million by 2030. This will create an unprecedented demand for food, fibre energy, developable land and other natural resources. Pollution and competition for resources has already degraded about half of the shoreline which put sustainable economic development and environmental values at risk. It is estimated that 25,000 metric tonnes of waste is thrown into the oceanic waters each year. The pollutants include oil, garbage and chemicals from industries. In addition, 60 per cent of the sewage from the city of Colombo is dumped into the sea. Coral mining which supplies 90 per cent of the lime for the construction industry is leading to the destruction of reefs serving as natural barriers against tidal waves. In 1996, the government of Sri Lanka began a plan for coast erosion management in which community participation plays a vital role. A coastal conservation education project for school children is set to begin in the near future. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Shamanistic practice in Northern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Schmid

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sherpas—in Tibetan śar-pa or "men of the east"—live mainly in Northern Nepal, in the Darjeeling district, in India and Northern Sikkim, in the regions bordering on Tibet, and on the southern slopes of the Himalayas. The Sherpas are of Tibetan stock. Among the Tibetan racial groups two religions can be broadly distinguished. One is a form of Buddhism, usually called Lamaism. The other religion is called in the Lhasa pronunciation Bon. Among the Sherpas both the religion and its priests are called "bombo", spelt: bongo.

  17. Leptographium bhutanense sp. nov., associated with the root collar weevil Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii on Pinus wallichiana in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.D.; Jacobs, K.; Kirisits, T.; Chhetri, D.B.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Leptographium spp. are commonly associated with bark beetles and weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and some are important tree pathogens. In a recent survey of diseases and insect pests of conifer trees in Bhutan, the root collar weevil, Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii was found girdling young Himalaya

  18. The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors in Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar Is Related to Gastric Cancer Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Huyen Trang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is a significant health problem in Asia. Although the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is similar in Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar, the incidence of gastric cancer is highest in Bhutan, followed by Vietnam and Myanmar. We hypothesized that H. pylori virulence factors contribute to the differences. The status of cagA, vacA, jhp0562, and β-(1,3galT(jhp0563 was examined in 371 H. pylori-infected patients from Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar. Each virulence factor could not explain the difference of the incidence of gastric cancer. However, the prevalence of quadruple-positive for cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1, and jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3galT-negative was significantly higher in Bhutan than in Vietnam and Myanmar and correlated with gastric cancer incidence. Moreover, gastritis-staging scores measured by histology of gastric mucosa were significantly higher in quadruple-positive strains. We suggest that the cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1, and jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3galT-negative genotype may play a role in the development of gastric cancer.

  19. Leptographium bhutanense sp. nov., associated with the root collar weevil Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii on Pinus wallichiana in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.D.; Jacobs, K.; Kirisits, T.; Chhetri, D.B.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Leptographium spp. are commonly associated with bark beetles and weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and some are important tree pathogens. In a recent survey of diseases and insect pests of conifer trees in Bhutan, the root collar weevil, Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii was found girdling young Himalaya

  20. The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors in Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar Is Related to Gastric Cancer Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Shiota, Seiji; Matsuda, Miyuki; Binh, Tran Thanh; Suzuki, Rumiko; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Mahachai, Varocha; Tshering, Lotay; Dung, Ho D Q; Uchida, Tomohisa; Matsunari, Osamu; Myint, Thein; Khien, Vu Van; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a significant health problem in Asia. Although the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is similar in Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar, the incidence of gastric cancer is highest in Bhutan, followed by Vietnam and Myanmar. We hypothesized that H. pylori virulence factors contribute to the differences. The status of cagA, vacA, jhp0562, and β-(1,3)galT(jhp0563) was examined in 371 H. pylori-infected patients from Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar. Each virulence factor could not explain the difference of the incidence of gastric cancer. However, the prevalence of quadruple-positive for cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1, and jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3)galT-negative was significantly higher in Bhutan than in Vietnam and Myanmar and correlated with gastric cancer incidence. Moreover, gastritis-staging scores measured by histology of gastric mucosa were significantly higher in quadruple-positive strains. We suggest that the cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1, and jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3)galT-negative genotype may play a role in the development of gastric cancer.

  1. Seismic Vulnerability and Mitigation on Non-Engineered Traditional Buildings of Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake is one of the most deadly phenomena which disturb the harmonious living among human beings and claimed large number of lives without any notice and warning. However one should always be ready to learn, how to live with seismic hazard and minimize its adverse effect on built environment, as its happening can’t be prevented. The 6.1magnitute Earthquake of 21st September, 2009 caused huge damage in the eastern part of Bhutan and adjoining areas like Indian states and Bangladesh. This incident has now exposed to the seismic vulnerability and raised concerns over the safety of the built environment in Bhutan – particularly, the traditional stone and timber houses, some of which were badly affected during the earthquake. This paper presents an overview of damages observed in the region and its causes and performances of building during earthquake. It also describes, the seismic performance of those structures can be improved from life safety point of view, by adopting simple low-cost modifications to the existing construction practices and material selection with alternative solutions to make building earthquake resistant

  2. Spatial Variation of Temperature and Precipitation in Bhutan and Links to Vegetation and Land Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugyen Dorji

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bhutan, located in the Himalayas in the South Asian monsoon region, has extremely high variation in elevation, climatic conditions, and land cover despite its small geographical area, as well as great biodiversity. This paper provides the first comprehensive description of climatic conditions in Bhutan. It assesses the spatial variation of temperature and precipitation across the country and evaluates the causes for this variation based on daily data from 70 meteorological stations that have been recording data for time spans ranging from 3 to 21 years. Temperature and precipitation show contrasting spatial variation, with temperature primarily affected by elevation and precipitation by latitude. Models were developed using mixed linear regression models to predict seasonal and annual mean temperature and precipitation based on geographical location. Using linear regression we found that temperatures changed by about 0.5°C for every 100 m of change in elevation, with lapse rates being highest in February, March, and November and lowest from June to August. The lapse rate was highest for minimum temperatures and lowest for maximum temperatures, with the greatest difference during winter. The spatial distribution of precipitation was mainly controlled by latitude, having a quadratic relationship, with the highest rates in the southern foothills of the Himalayan range and the lowest at midlatitudes. The land cover is affected by topography and local climate, with variations in temperature being a main deciding factor for vegetation types; most human settlements and associated land uses are concentrated at lower elevations.

  3. Implementation of External Quality Assessment Scheme in Clinical Chemistry for District Laboratories in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamtsho, Rixin; Nuchpramool, Wilairat

    2012-07-01

    External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) involves evaluation of a number of laboratories by an outside agency on the performance of a number of laboratories based on their analytical performance of tests on samples supplied by the external agency. In developing countries, establishment of national EQAS by preparing homemade quality control material is a useful scheme in terms of resources and time to monitor the laboratory performance. The objective of this study is to implement an EQAS to monitor the analytical performance of the district laboratories in Bhutan. Baseline information was collected through questionnaires. Lyophilized human serum including normal and abnormal levels were prepared and distributed to 19 participating laboratories. Nine routine analytes were included for the study. Their results were evaluated using Variance index scores (VIS) and Coefficient of variations (CV) was compared with Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act (CLIA) Proficiency Testing Criteria (PT) for each analyte. There was significant decrease in CV at the end of the study. The percentages of results in acceptable VIS as 'A' were 63, 60, 66, 69, 73 and 74, 75, 76 and 79 % in November 2009-July 2010 respectively. From our results, we concluded that, establishment of EQAS through distribution of home-made quality control material could be the useful scheme to monitor the laboratory performance in clinical chemistry in Bhutan.

  4. Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambewela, L S R; Arawwawala, L D A M; Kumaratunga, K G; Dissanayake, D S; Ratnasooriya, W D; Kumarasingha, S P

    2011-07-01

    Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka.

  5. Plantation Patriarchy and Structural Violence: Women Workers in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kurian (Rachel); K. Jayawardena (Kumari)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Plantation production began in Sri Lanka in the early 19th century under British colonial rule, when the government provided financial incentives and infrastructural support for the commercialisation and export of agricultural crops in line with promoting

  6. Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S.R Arambewela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka.

  7. The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arun, Thankom; Borooah, Vani Kant

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates an earnings function for Sri Lanka, followed by a decomposition analysis of male-female earnings suggest that the gender disparity in earnings largely represents ‘discrimination’ against women...

  8. Challenges of collective humanitarian response in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firzan Hashim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Grappling with how to respond to both conflict and tsunami-induced displacement, Sri Lanka is an ideal testing groundfor the principles of humanitarian partnership which areat the heart of the Global Humanitarian Platform (GHP.

  9. Turning Sri Lanka's Urban Vision into Policy and Action

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Sri Lanka's country vision is to become a global hub between the East and the West and an upper middle-income country by 2016. Sri Lanka's urban vision, as defined in the government's development policy framework is to develop a system of competitive, environmentally sustainable, well-linked cities clustered in five metro regions and nine metro cities and to provide every family with affor...

  10. Financial Inclusion, Regulation, and Education in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Kelegama, Saman; Tilakaratna, Ganga

    2014-01-01

    Sri Lanka has achieved a high level of financial inclusion compared to other South Asian countries. Its financial sector comprises a wide range of financial institutions providing financial services such as loans, savings, pawning, leasing and finance, and remittance and money transfer facilities. There is also evidence that a larger share of households in Sri Lanka accesses multiple financial institutions for their credit and savings needs. However, the use of insurance services, ATM facilit...

  11. Host susceptibility of the papaya mosaic virus in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, R H; Herath, H M

    1981-01-01

    75 plant species from 11 families were tested in Sri Lanka for their susceptibility to transferring the papaya mosaic virus. After inoculation with this virus, six species, Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis sativus, Nicotiana tabacum, Chenopodium amaranticolor, Gomphrena globosa and Lycopersicum esculentum, developed such symptoms, and after re-isolation from the host plant the virus again infected papaya plants. Thus these species are possible alternate hosts of papaya mosaic virus in Sri Lanka.

  12. Model for the Adoption of Telemedicine in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayani Jayasinghe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of the study that explored the factors characterizing the introduction of telemedicine to the rural areas of Sri Lanka. A model was developed from the analysis of the literature, expert review, and a field study conducted in three districts of Sri Lanka, which involved clinicians, hospital staff, and the general public from both rural and urban areas. Health ministry officials, medical directors, and consultants from urban areas were also consulted. Quantitative data from the questionnaires, and qualitative data from the interviews, were analyzed to investigate the impact on culture, technology, and infrastructure when adopting a telemedicine system in rural areas of Sri Lanka. The TeleMedicine in Sri Lanka (TMSL model is presented, which expresses the factors that hinder the acceptance of telemedicine in Sri Lanka. The key findings are that an understanding of the culture of Sri Lanka and additional computing skills are essential when implementing a telemedicine system in the rural areas of the country.

  13. Solar home systems in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henryson, Jessica; Haakansson, Teresa

    1999-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is a clean and environmentally friendly technology that does not require any fuels. The high reliability of operation and little need for maintenance makes it ideally suited for rural areas. Today PV systems are used in Nepal to power telecommunications centres, navigational aids, in pumping systems for irrigation and drinking water, and for household electrification. A solar home system consists of a PV module, a battery, a charge controller and 3-4 fluorescent light bulbs with fixture. The system provides power for lighting and operation of household appliances for several hours. The success of donor supported programs have shown that solar home systems can be a practical solution for many rural households. In 1996 the Government of Nepal launched a subsidy program for solar home systems, which dramatically has increased the demand for solar home systems among rural customers. This report includes a survey of 52 households with solar home systems in two villages. The field-study shows that the villagers are very happy with their systems and the technical performance of the systems in both villages is satisfactory. The study also shows the positive impact electricity has on education, health, income generation and quality of life. The beneficiaries of introducing electricity in remote areas are the children and the women 39 refs, 18 tabs. Examination paper

  14. Cost of malaria control in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, F; Steele, P; Perera, D

    1999-01-01

    The study provides estimates of the cost of various malaria control measures in an area of North-Central Province of Sri Lanka where the disease is endemic. We assumed that each measure was equally effective. In these terms, impregnating privately purchased bednets with insecticide was estimated...... to cost Rs 48 (US(40.87) per individual protected per year, less than half the cost of spraying houses with residual insecticides. Larviciding of vector breeding sites and especially the elimination of breeding habitats by flushing streams through seasonal release of water from upstream reservoirs...... was estimated to be cheaper than other preventive measures (Rs 27 (US$ 0.49) and Rs 13 (US$ 0.24) per individual protected, respectively). Inclusion of both operational and capital costs of treatment indicates that the most cost-effective intervention for the government was a centrally located hospital...

  15. Culture and Internal Security of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    in Tibet. The Newars, the earliest known arrivals and most accomplished artisans and merchants in Nepal, have been living mostly in the Kathmandu...article, “Social Change in Conflict–Affected Areas of Nepal,” in Social Development Notes of the World Bank points out that the main root of the...January 2012, the local people in the Banke district closed down Nepalgunj- based customs office demanding endorsement of a bill from the Parliament to

  16. Sex trafficking in Nepal: context and process

    OpenAIRE

    Hennink, Monique; Simkhada, Padam

    2004-01-01

    This study has developed a conceptual framework to provide a clearer understanding of the process and context of sex trafficking from Nepal. Quantitative data were analysed from case records of 202 sex-trafficked women at rehabilitation centres in Nepal. In-depth interviews with 42 sex trafficked women, mostly residing at rehabilitation centres in Kathmandu, provide contextual information on the process and circumstances of sex trafficking. The results of this study provide a clearer understa...

  17. Space Education and Public awareness in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Jeevan; Wagle, Suman

    Nepalese students are curious with space missions of China and India. The possibility of space mission is not imminent to Nepal for the next few decades. To develop space activities and to industrialize astronomy, base of space education in the high schools must be very effective. This paper highlights the present scenario of space education and discusses the syllabus of astronomy in the different education level of Nepal. Astronomy is included in the syllabus of science book of middle school and high school which contains very few contents of solar system, constellations, galaxy, black holes and formation of stars. There is no any degree for higher studies in astronomy as a separate department in any university of Nepal. This paper also highlights the space activities and national level programs conducting in Nepal. With the rise of many astronomical clubs and societies in the different regions of Nepal, astronomy outreach has been more effective in the recent time. Methods of astronomy outreach and public awareness that are being used in Nepal will be discussed in brief and how these programs have affected to create interest of students and public in astronomy will be mentioned in brief.

  18. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma.

  19. Evidence for Along-Strike Variations in the Crustal Deformation beneath the Bhutan Himalaya from Receiver Function Imaging and Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, J.; Kissling, E. H.; Diehl, T.; Hetényi, G.

    2015-12-01

    In the Bhutan Himalaya seismicity and geologic surface features like the Kuru Chu Spur (an embayment of the Main Central Thrust) or the Paro window indicate along-strike variations in the collisional structure. The deeper structure of the orogenic wedge and associated deformation processes, however, are poorly understood partly due to the lack of seismic images of the crust. To better understand these differences in structure and deformation, we use data of a temporary seismic broadband network in Bhutan to image the crustal structure with receiver functions (RF). We apply an iterative 3D wave-based migration scheme including a high-frequency ray approximation, which satisfies Snell's law for dipping interfaces. With this approach we image variably dipping intra-crustal interfaces and the Moho topography across the Bhutan Himalaya, and identify lateral variations in the orogenic structure, which we interpret jointly with a new local earthquake catalog. In West Bhutan, RF imaging depicts a northward dipping Moho at ~50 km depth. The low-angle dip steepens north of ~27.6°N which matches well observations by wide-angle seismics in South Tibet and the hypocenter of a deep crustal earthquake recorded by our network. We also identify the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) at ~14 km depth in West Bhutan with a ramp-like structure north of ~27.6°N. The ramp is characterized by a negative impedance contrast in the RF signals and coincides with a concentration of seismicity. In the East, the Moho appears to be almost flat at a depth of ~50 km without clear indications of steepening towards north. Beneath the Kuru Chu Spur in East Bhutan, we observe listric-shaped structures reaching from the upper crust beneath the Lesser Himalaya down to the Moho beneath the Greater Himalaya, which we interpret as a stack of crustal material typical for an accretionary wedge. While these structures appear aseismic, a horizontal alignment of seismicity at ~12 km depth suggests an active MHT in

  20. Species composition of the vegetation along the Sherichhu River, lower montane area of Eastern Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenzin Jamtsho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the riparian vegetation along the Sherichhu River, lower montane area of Eastern Bhutan was conducted from April to December 2015 to explore the plant communities in terms of species composition. A total number of 18 plots were placed within the remnant patches of the vegetation on either side of the river. In total, 172 species of vascular plant has been recorded. The cluster analysis suggested four types of plant communities in the study area viz., the MallotusDesmodium-Rhus shrubland and the Syzygium venosum woodland communities, which are located in V-shaped valleys and the Albizia-Flueggea woodland and Quercus glauca woodland communities located in U-shaped valleys. In broad-spectrum, the topographic features and environmental variables i.e. litter accumulation and flooding condition might also have some impact on the species composition of the plant communities of this vegetation.

  1. Companion Modeling, Conflict Resolution, and Institution Building: Sharing Irrigation Water in the Lingmuteychu Watershed, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayan Raj. Gurung

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We used multi-agent systems (MAS, following the companion modeling method, to facilitate water management negotiations in Bhutan. We show how this methodology helped resolve a conflict over the sharing of water resources by establishing a concrete agreement and creating an institution for collective watershed management. The conceptual model begins with a role-playing game (RPG. The stakeholders play the game, thus validating the proposed environment, the behavioral rules, and the emergent properties of the game. It is then relatively easy to translate the RPG into computerized MAS that allow different scenarios to be explored. After this first step in the MAS model, stakeholders then create an institution. A second model is developed to facilitate this process. We conclude by discussing the relationship between the models and reality, as well as the use of MAS as a mediation tool and the social process.

  2. A preliminary checklist of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhophalocera of Mendrelgang, Tsirang District, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The survey was conducted to prepare a preliminary checklist of butterflies of Mendrelgang, Bhutan. Butterflies were sampled from February 2012 to February 2013 to assess the species richness in a degraded forest patch of a sub-tropical broadleaf forest. This short-term study recorded 125 species of butterflies in 78 genera from five families. Of these, Sordid Emperor Apatura sordida Moore, Black-veined Sergeant Athyma ranga ranga Moore, Sullied Sailor Neptis soma soma Linnaeus, Blue Duke Euthalia durga durga Moore, Pea Blue Lampides boeticus Linnaeus and Chocolate Albatross Appias lyncida Cramer are listed in Schedule II of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act (IWPA 1972. This study provides the baseline data of butterfly species richness of Mendrelgang.

  3. Recovery of nitrogen fertilizer by traditional and improved rice cultivars in the Bhutan Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, Bhim Bahadur; Høgh-Jensen, Henning; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2010-01-01

    The recovery of soil derived nitrogen (NDFS) and fertilizer N (NDFF) was investigated in highland rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Bhutan, characterized by high inputs of farmyard manure (FYM). The effect of 60 kg N ha-1 (60 N) applied in two splits to a traditional and an improved cultivar...... greater harvest index (HI). The mean percentage recovery of fertilizer N (REN) applied at 45 days after transplanting (DAT) was 34% compared to 22% at 7 DAT, resulting in 56% greater uptake of NDFF at 45 DAT. The overall REN for both the improved and the traditional cultivars were 25.7% and 30......% respectively, with no difference between cultivars, but REN decreased with increasing FYM inputs. Fertilizer N recommendations that allow for previous FYM inputs combined with applications timed to coincide with maximum crop demand (45 DAT), and the use of improved cultivars, could enhance N fertilizer...

  4. Contributions of medicinal plants to the Gross National Happiness and Biodiscovery in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Tobgay, Tashi

    2015-06-03

    The medicinal plants and the associated Bhutanese traditional medicine (BTM) are protected by the country's constitution and receive both government support and acceptance by the wider public. More than 1000 medicinal plants are described in the BTM but currently collects only 300 species for daily formulations of BTM. These medicinal plants have been one of the drivers of the 'Gross National Happiness (GNH)' and biodiscovery projects in Bhutan. However, no review covering the systematic evaluations of the contributions of medicinal plants and the BTM to the GNH and biodiscovery exist till date. This paper, therefore addresses this information gap. It is based on the review of the existing traditional and scientific literature, government websites and policy documents. The descriptions and discussions of the paper is straightened, authenticated and enhanced by the data collected through the informal discussions with the BTM practitioners and also through the authors' many years of practical observations of the impact of the medicinal plants programs and the BTM practices in Bhutan. This paper found the following: a) the medicinal plants generates income to the farmers elevating their living standard and the economic status, b) it serves as the bulk ingredients of the BTM facilitating the provision of free traditional health care services to the patients, c) helps the conservation of medicinal plants and their pristine environment through recognition of their spiritual, social and economic values, d) preserves the rich BTM cultural heritage, and e) guides the biodiscovery projects based on their ethnobotanical information. The paper also identified the challenges and research gaps, and recommends appropriate strategies that can help secure the sustainable future of the medicinal plants, the BTM and the biodiscovery projects. The medicinal plants play significant role in the country's biodiscovery projects and the internationally renowned development policy of 'Gross

  5. Nepal

    CERN Multimedia

    Hubert,N

    1984-01-01

    Nadine Hubert essaie de nous faire connaître ce pays fascinant qu'elle aime tant. Présentation d'un film commenté par Alain Hubert qui nous fait partager avec beaucoup d'émotion et passion ses impressions qu'il a vécu à l'ascension avec André Georges.

  6. Anemia among school children in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Saroj; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Tamang, Man Kumar; Shakya, Prem Raj; Lamsal, Madhab; Baral, Nirmal

    2015-06-01

    Anemia is one of the most common public health problems in developing countries like Nepal. This study was done to find the prevalence of anemia among the children aged 4-13 years in eastern Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in four districts (Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam) of eastern Nepal to find the prevalence of anemia among the school children of eastern Nepal. Children aged 4-13 years were selected randomly from different schools of above districts and 618 venous blood samples were collected. Hemoglobin level was estimated by using cyanmethemoglobin method. The mean hemoglobin level was 12.2 ± 1.82 gm/dl. About 37.9% (n = 234) children were found anemic. Anemia prevalence was 42.4% (n = 78), 31.6% (n = 60), 45.3% (n = 48) and 34.8% (n = 48) among school children of Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam district, respectively. The study finds anemia as a significant health problem among the school children of eastern Nepal.

  7. Child Abuse in Northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiadas, M G; Mayoorathy, S; Varuni, K; Ranganathan, Shalini Sri

    2017-02-01

    To identify areas of deficiencies and gaps in child protection services in Northern Sri Lanka. Also, to help in recommending strategies, programmes of interventions for addressing issues of child abuse and advice the legal system. A retrospective study was done to determine the socio-demographic details, type of abuse, clinical profile, relationship of the perpetrator and nature of abuse among children admitted to a tertiary care centre from 2009 through 2014, a period after cessation of a 60-y conflict. Data were obtained from hospital based records and records maintained at the district probation office. Seven hundred twenty cases were referred to the tertiary care centre with abuse. Majority of the children were from the Jaffna district, the northern city of the war affected area and mean age of the children affected was 14.5 ± 2.6 y. Females were affected more than the males and 352 children were seen following sexual abuse. The clinical examination showed penetrative injury in 15 %. The perpetrator was known in 70 % of the situations and the victim was coerced into a relationship for abuse. Attempted suicide was seen in significant numbers during the immediate post war period and school dropout and delinquent behaviour was seen in later years. The problem of child abuse is considerable in this region and there is an urgent need to strengthen the services offered to the victims. Urgent steps are needed to safeguard these children, especially in the war affected areas.

  8. Pesticide poisoning: a major health problem in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K

    1998-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka. In several agricultural districts, it precedes all other causes of death in government hospitals. Most of the acute poisoning cases are intentional (suicide) and occur among young adults, mainly males. Poisoning due to occup......Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka. In several agricultural districts, it precedes all other causes of death in government hospitals. Most of the acute poisoning cases are intentional (suicide) and occur among young adults, mainly males. Poisoning due...... to occupational exposure is also common, but less well documented. In an irrigation area in Sri Lanka a very high incidence of serious pesticide poisoning was observed, with 68% due to intentional ingestion of liquid pesticides. It is argued that the easy availability and widespread use of highly hazardous...

  9. Political Economy of Epidemic Kidney Disease in Sri Lanka

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    Asoka Bandarage

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD, taking the lives of thousands in poor farming communities in Sri Lanka, is commonly seen as a problem peculiar to the island’s north central dry zone agricultural region. The prevailing bio-medical focus is on identifying one or more “environmental nephrotoxins.” While delineating important controversies on the etiology of the disease, this article seeks to broaden the discourse on the hitherto neglected political economy of CKD in Sri Lanka. In so doing, it seeks to bring together the bio-medical debate on the impact of widespread and unregulated use of agrochemicals on public health and kidney disease with broader global interdisciplinary perspectives on the industrialization of agriculture and the consolidation of food production by transnational agribusiness corporations. The article concludes pointing out environmentally sustainable and socially equitable development and organic agriculture as the long-term solutions to CKD in Sri Lanka and elsewhere.

  10. The development of micro-catchments in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawattage, U. D. S.

    1985-10-01

    This paper gives an informatory account of the development of micro-catchments in Sri Lanka for irrigation. Information for the paper comes from the experience of detailed investigation and preparation of technical proposals for the improvement of 170 existing micro-scale reservoir schemes in the Puttalam and Kurunegala districts, over a period of three years (January, 1982 through December, 1984), under a World Bank-financed project called "Integrated Rural Development (IRD) Project". Investigations were carried out by a private body called Planning Consultancy, a professional staff comprising a team of eight engineers from the Resources Development Consultants Ltd., Sir Lanka, under a contract with the Ministry of Plan Implementation and under the supervision of the Irrigation Department of Sri Lanka and a World Bank-recommended body called Supervisory Consultancy. The writer is a member of the Planning Consultancy team who personally investigated and designed 30 of these schemes.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from India, Pakistan and Bhutan in 2007–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge on antimicrobial drug resistance and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates circulating in India, Pakistan, and Bhutan is sorely lacking. In this paper, we describe the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and molecular characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae isolates from India, Pakistan, and Bhutan in 2007–2011. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility and β-lactamase production were tested for 65 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from India (n=40, Pakistan (n=18 and Bhutan (n=7 using Etest methodology (eight antimicrobials and nitrocefin solution, respectively. Resistance determinants, i.e. penA, mtrR, porB1b, gyrA, and parC, were sequenced. N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST was performed for molecular epidemiology. Results The highest resistance level was observed for ciprofloxacin (94%, followed by penicillin G (68%, erythromycin (62%, tetracycline (55%, and azithromycin (7.7%. All the isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, cefixime, and spectinomycin. Thirty-four (52% of the isolates were producing β-lactamase. No penA mosaic alleles or A501-altered alleles of penicillin-binding protein 2 were identified. Forty-nine NG-MAST STs were identified, of which 42 STs have not been previously described worldwide. Conclusions Based on this study, ceftriaxone, cefixime, and spectinomycin can be used as an empirical first-line therapy for gonorrhoea in India, Pakistan, and Bhutan, whereas ciprofloxacin, penicillin G, tetracycline, erythromycin, and azithromycin should not be. It is imperative to strengthen the laboratory infrastructure in this region, as well as to expand the phenotypic and genetic surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, emergence of new resistance, particularly, to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and molecular epidemiology.

  12. Differences in interleukin 8 expression in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa tissues from patients in Bhutan and the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Iwatani, Shun; Cruz, Modesto; Jiménez Abreu, José A; Tronilo, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Disla, Mildre; Terao, Hideo; Uchida, Tomohisa; Mahachai, Varocha; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Tshering, Lotay; Mitsui, Takahiro; Shiota, Seiji; Graham, David Y; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of Helicobacter pylori infection vary geographically. H pylori strains, disease presentation, and environments differ markedly in Bhutan and Dominican Republic. The aims were to compare the strains, histology, and expression of interleukin (IL) 8 and IL-10 from gastric mucosa from the 2 countries. H pylori status was assessed by the combination of rapid urease test, culture, and histology. Histology was evaluated using the updated Sydney System, and cytokines in gastric biopsies were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There were 138 subjects from Bhutan and 155 from Dominican Republic. The prevalence of H pylori infection was 65% and 59%, respectively. The genotype of cagA was predominantly East Asian type in Bhutan versus Western type in Dominican Republic. Gastritis severity was significantly higher in H pylori-infected subjects from Bhutan than those from Dominican Republic. IL-8 expression by H pylori infection was 5.5-fold increased in Bhutan versus 3-fold in Dominican Republic (P < .001); IL-10 expression was similar. IL-8 expression levels among H pylori-infected cases tended to be positively correlated with polymorphonuclear leucocyte and monocyte infiltration scores in both countries. IL-8 expression among those with grade 2 and 3 polymorphonuclear leucocyte and monocyte infiltration was significantly higher in Bhutan than in Dominican Republic. The difference in IL-8 expression in the 2 countries is reflected in the different disease pattern between them. Whether the dominant factor is differences in H pylori virulence, in host-H pylori-environmental interactions, genetic factors or all remains unclear. However, severity of inflammation appears to be a critical factor in disease pathogenesis. We compared IL-8 messenger RNA levels between the high gastric cancer risk country, Bhutan (mainly East Asian-type H pylori), and the lower gastric cancer risk country, Dominican Republic (mainly Western-type H pylori).

  13. Teaching Physiology in integrated basic medical sciences – sharing experiences from Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan AK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Physiology is the basis of the medical profession [1]. Clear understanding of the mechanisms of the body functions always requires a high level of integration, apart from a descriptive approach [2, 3]. I worked as Professor in the Manipal College of Medical Sciences (MCOMS, Pokhara in the year 2009 -2010. Although my stay in Nepal was relatively short period, but the medical education system in Nepal influenced me. In Nepal, a traditional way of teaching pattern which is lecture-based, teacher-centered, discipline-based, examination-driven, and hospital-oriented is followed. Basic sciences and clinical sciences are the two main part of the medical curriculum in Nepal. The Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degree is a four and half year's program, which is followed by one year internship. A large number of new medical colleges are coming up under Nepal Medical Council guidelines. There is a growing demand of Physicians in Nepal. Currently there are 18 medical colleges under Nepal Medical Council [4]. Manipal College of Medical Sciences is under Kathmandu University, one of the best and leading medical institutes in the country. This medical college is located in Pokhara. Students hailing from Nepal, India, Sri Lanka and other countries attend the four and a half year undergraduate medical (MBBS course. The MBBS course in Nepal is divided into nine semesters. Basic science subjects include Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Pathology, Pharmacology and Community Medicine which are taught in an integrated manner during the first four semesters (two years period. Community Medicine continues as a part of syllabus till the seventh semester and the clinical subjects like Medicine, Surgery, OBG, Ophthalmology, Orthopedics, Dermatology etc. are taught during the last five semesters of the MBBS course. At present Tribhuvan University (TU, Kathmandu University (KU, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS and NAMS (National

  14. It’s a Dog’s Life: International Tourists’ Perceptions of the Stray Dog Population of Bhutan.

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    Paul C Strickland

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the international tourists’ perception of the stray dog population of Bhutan as little or no mention of the increasing stray dog population and their impact on tourism has been documented. After personally visiting the Kingdom on many occasions, it is evident that the stray dog population is increasing in dog numbers in major cities. The problems arising are negative comments by tourists relating to the stray dog population that are starting to appear in social media that may impact the visitor experience and the perception of Bhutan’s tourism industry. Veterinary science is aware of both increasing dog populations and the control of diseases such as Rabies however the author can find no evidence regarding challenges for the tourism industry. The problem is aided by no local veterinary clinics, no laws regarding dog governance, little funding for sterilization programs and being predominately a Buddhist country that cannot ‘cull’ animals. Using qualitative analysis from international tourist focus groups who were visiting Bhutan, this study highlights the perceptions of tourists regarding the stray dog population and how it may impact on visitor expectations. The paper suggests options that local government, Bhutanese nationals and visitors can do to assist the issue based on visitor feedback. Future research may include comparisons with other cities or countries to examine if it is a global issue or unique to Bhutan.

  15. Nepal moves mountains with literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanford, H

    1992-01-01

    Women's literacy in Nepal is 13% compared with 38% for men. 70% of children, primarily girls, enrolled in school drop out. Many girls are never enrolled. Nepal is a country with rapid population growth, poverty, and an eroding resource base. A description is given of the effective Chili Beti, a women's literacy program operated by the Nepalese government and UNICEF. The target is girl's not enrolled in the formal school system. Classes are conveniently arranged so as not to interfere with household life in a traditional, rural society. Classes begin in November and last for 6 months at a time of day agreeable to students and parents; this avoids a conflict with field work and household chores. The program began in 1983 in a few remote areas and has expanded to include 75 districts. 5000 girls have completed the course. Attendance rates are 86%, and 25% graduate into the primary school system. The goal is to reach 1.7 million out-of-school children by the year 2000, and to expand the program to include boys as well. Success is attributed to course material which is made relevant to girls' daily lives and builds simultaneously practical knowledge and self-confidence, i.e., building latrines or halting rat infestation. Songs and group activities (planting gardens) are used to reinforce classroom presentations. A unique feature of the program is the use of the cartoon character, Kamali, who is a young village girl engaging students while gradually acquiring skills and becoming a Chili Beti teacher herself. Kamali also mobilizes her community to fight soil erosion. After a year of lessons, a secret is revealed: that Kamali is a member of the lower caste; this instills hope that changes is possible. Teachers are also role models and are selected from the local area. There is a month long teacher training program involving recruitment of girls for the program and teaching in and out of a classroom setting. The program challenges attitudes about the appropriateness of

  16. The first intermediate host of Paragonimus westermani in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Moritoshi; Rajapakse, R P V Jayanthe; Yatawara, Lalani; Kano, Shigeyuki; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Freshwater snails (family Paludomidae, genus Paludomus) were collected from streams in Hedeniya and Peradeniya (the campus of Peradeniya University), Kandy district, Central Province, Sri Lanka, and found to harbor rediae and cercariae of a Paragonimus sp. These larvae were identified as Paragonimus westermani by using ITS2 DNA sequences. The infection rates of P. westermani in Paludomus sp. in Hedeniya and Peradeniya were 0.1% (one of 1014) and 0.2% (two of 1006), respectively. The snail has not been identified to species in the present study. This is the first report of the snail host of Paragonimus in Sri Lanka.

  17. Self, other, and astrology: esoteric therapy in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinbanayagam, R S

    1981-02-01

    HARRY STACK SULLIVAN'S argument that anxiety as a fundamental human experience is alleviated by the use of various procedures that he called "security operations" is used in this paper to examine the meaning of astrology in Sri Lanka. Astrology and the doctrine of karma provide the relevant framework in which various forms of misfortune are understood and handled. An examination of cases in Sri Lanka reveals that astrology and the doctrine of karma enable a person of that culture to create a number of structures which have a therapeutic effect.

  18. Changing Rainfall and its Impact on Landslides in Sri Lanka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uditha Ratnayake; Srikantha Herath

    2005-01-01

    During the recent past the rainfall pattern in Sri Lanka has shown a noticeable change. This paper describes the effect of this change on the occurrence of landslides and their impacts to eco systems. This study shows that most of the landslides occurring in Sri Lanka during northeast monsoons,southwest monsoons and second inter-monsoon were located in three distinctively separated areas. Analysis of rainfall time series shows a trend of increased lengths of dry periods along with an increasing trend of rainfall intensity, especially after the late seventies.A strong relation is obtained between the location of landslides and the spatial distribution of areas where rainfall intensity is increased.

  19. Legal aspects of motor traffic trauma in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford Perera

    2016-01-01

    Motor traffic trauma has become a significant denominator of morbidity and mortality statistics in modern Sri Lanka. In 2010, 26,847 were seriously injured, and 2721 people died as a result of road traffic trauma. In 2014, nearly 38,500 road traffic accidents were reported of which 36% were categorized as “critical” with nearly 7% fatalities. Road traffic crashes have increased by 249% between 1977 and 2004. On average, road traffic trauma kills one person in Sri Lanka every 4.5 h. In the 30 ...

  20. The state of Nepal birds 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Inskipp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The national status of Nepal birds was determined using the IUCN Red List criteria and following IUCN regional guidelines. Records of all species identified as potentially at high risk were extracted from all relevant references in a comprehensive, up-to-date Nepal bird bibliography. In addition, numerous previously undocumented records were obtained from observers in Nepal. The initial list of potentially threatened species was revised as records were accumulated. Literature reviews were made of current pressures on Nepal birds, responses to these pressures and recommendations for the future. Finally a comprehensive summary table was compiled for all nationally threatened species, including their world distribution, global threat status, national threat status, occurrence, habitat, main altitudinal range, population, key threats, research needs, and key conservation interventions needed. In 2010, 149 bird species (17% of the total recorded of Nepal birds were considered nationally threatened: 53 Critically Endangered species, 48 Endangered and 47 Vulnerable. Near Threatened species were not assessed due to lack of time available for the necessary research. An additional 16 species were considered threatened in 2010 compared with 2004; no species assessed as threatened in 2004 was considered non-threatened in 2010. When habitat types are considered wetland species are the most threatened (35% of the total wetland species, followed by grassland species (23%. When altitudinal preferences are considered lowland species are the most threatened (36% of all lowland species, followed by species only occurring in the middle hills (17%. Human activities leading to habitat loss and damage are the major threats, with agriculture the root cause; hunting and trapping are other important threats. Effective responses for conservation include Nepal protected areas network, community forestry, designation of Ramsar sites, National Wetland Policy implementation

  1. Levels and trends of smokeless tobacco use among youth in countries of the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region

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    D N Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: At least two rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS have been completed in most of the countries in the World Health Organization South-East Asia region. Comparing findings from these two rounds provides trend data on smokeless tobacco (SLT use for the first time. Methods: This study uses GYTS data from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Timor-Leste during 2006-2013. GYTS is a nationally representative survey of 13-15-year-old students using a consistent and standard protocol. Current SLT use is defined as using any kind of SLT products, such as chewing betel quid or nonbetel quid or snuffing any other products orally or through the nasal route, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were computed using SAS/SUDAAN software. Results: According to most recent GYTS data available in each country, the prevalence of current use of SLT among youth varied from 5.7% in Thailand to 23.2% in Bhutan; among boys, from 7.1% in Bangladesh to 27.2% in Bhutan; and among girls, from 3.7% in Bangladesh to 19.8% in Bhutan. Prevalence of SLT was reported significantly higher among boys than girls in Bhutan (boys 27.2%; girls 19.8%, India (boys 11.1%; girls 6.0%, Maldives (boys 9.2%; girls 2.9%, Myanmar (boys 15.2%; girls 4.0%, and Sri Lanka (boys 13.0%; girls 4.1%. Prevalence of current SLT use increased in Bhutan from 9.4% in 2009 to 23.2% in 2013, and in Nepal from 6.1% in 2007 to 16.2% in 2011. Conclusion: The findings call for countries to implement corrective measures through strengthened policy and enforcement.

  2. NASA Response to Nepal Quake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, E.; Webb, F.; Green, D. S.; Stough, T.; Kirschbaum, D.; Goodman, H. M.; Molthan, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the hours following the magnitude 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake on April 25, 2015, NASA and its partners began the process of assessing their ability to provide actionable data from a variety of space resources and scientific capabiltiies in order to provide responders with actionable information to assist in the relief and humanitarian operations. Working with the USGS, NGA, ASI, and JAXA, in the hours and days following the event, the team generated a number of scientific data products that were distributed to organizations responding to the event. Data included, ground based geodetic observations, optical and radar data from international and domestic partners, to compile a variety of products, including "vulnerability maps," used to determine risks that may be present, and "damage proxy maps," used to determine the type and extent of existing damage. This talk will focus on the response process, highlighting some of the products generated and distributed and lessons learned that would be useful for responding to future events that would improve the effectiveness of such a broad, agency wide response.

  3. Everyday practices of humanitarian aid: tsunami response in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernando, U.; Hilhorst, D.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article underlines the importance of grounding the analysis of humanitarian aid in an understanding of everyday practice. It presents ethnographic vignettes illustrating three aspects of aid response in Sri Lanka following the tsunami disaster in 2004. The first deals with the nature of humanit

  4. The Labour Market Experience of University Graduates in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasiri, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    Graduate unemployment has been a major socio-politico-economic problem in the small open economy of Sri Lanka for the past 35 years. The nature of the problem, causal factors and policy responses are examined in this paper with a special focus on the role of higher education within a highly competitive and knowledge-based economic environment. The…

  5. Potential of Biomass Based Electricity Generation in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KP Ariyadasa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass has attracted much attention as a primary energy source for electricity generation due to its potential to supply low cost fuel source with considerable environmental and socio-economic benefits. Despite having favorable climatic conditions to grow and use biomass for electricity generation, biomass based electricity generation in Sri Lanka is lagging behind due to many reasons. Many countries rely on the agricultural or forestry by-products or residuals as the main source of biomass for electricity generation mainly due to the comparatively low cost and sustainable supply of these by-products. Sri Lanka does not have this advantage and has to rely mainly on purposely grown biomass for electricity generation. Development of short rotation energy plantations seems to be the best option available for Sri Lanka to produce biomass for commercial scale electricity generation. The highly favorable growing conditions, availability of promising tree species and a variety of plantation management options and significant environmental and socio-economic benefits associated with energy plantation development greatly favor this option. This paper examines the potential of using plantation grown biomass as a fuel source for electricity generation in Sri Lanka.

  6. The impact of pesticide regulations on suicide in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnell, D; Fernando, R; Hewagama, M;

    2007-01-01

    in 1998, coincided with reductions in suicide in both men and women of all ages. 19,769 fewer suicides occurred in 1996-2005 as compared with 1986-95. Secular trends in unemployment, alcohol misuse, divorce, pesticide use and the years associated with Sri Lanka's Civil war did not appear to be associated...

  7. Learning Organization Dimensions of the Sri Lanka Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahanayake, Nishada Dhananjaya; Gamlath, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study intends to investigate the extent to which the Sri Lanka Army can be described as a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: The main tool of analysis used was the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) developed by Marsick and Watkins, with the exclusion of the sections on financial and…

  8. Feeding Hungry Minds: Grassroots Library Services in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Ishvari

    1991-01-01

    Describes three specific programs developed in Sri Lanka to provide library services to urban and rural poor people. Providing reading material to children to help raise literacy levels is emphasized, resources required for these extension services are examined, and the responsibility for the administration of the projects is considered. (LRW)

  9. Practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandra, A Thambirajah; Vadysinghe, Amal N; William, Anita L

    2011-02-01

    The practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka is based on the British model. Medical students during their third and fourth years receive approximately 50 hours of lectures and tutorials in forensic medicine and pathology and then undergo an examination. After completing an internship, these doctors are sent to various hospitals throughout Sri Lanka where they may be asked to perform medicolegal examinations on victims and suspects in rape cases, persons suspected of being under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol, and, injured live patients. As well, they may be asked to perform medicolegal autopsies. Depending upon their experience, some medical officers may be designated as judicial medical officers and appointed full time to do medicolegal work. Up until 1980, judicial medical officers with at least 2 years of work experience were allowed to obtain their postgraduate qualifications in the United Kingdom. However, since 1981 and the establishment of its own Postgraduate Institute of Medicine in Colombo, Sri Lanka, medical officers are offered 2 postgraduate programs in forensic medicine and pathology, a diploma in legal medicine and a doctorate in medicine (forensic medicine). After completing the doctorate in forensic medicine, doctors are allowed to train abroad for a further year in an approved center. Upon return they can then be appointed as consultant judicial medical officers. The practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka is unique and vibrant. However, due to the country's prevailing civil war, the practice of forensic medicine and pathology is suboptimal.

  10. Road rage in Sri Lanka: prevalence and psychiatric distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, A; Perera, D; Eranga, V P; Peris, M U; Pathmeswaran, A

    2015-09-01

    Road traffic accidents are a major public health concern in Sri Lanka. Aggressive and reckless driving is an important contributor to the high rate of road traffic accidents. We studied prevalence, nature, determinants and associated psychiatric morbidity of road rage among motorists in Sri Lanka. Methods Data were gathered from 238 randomly selected motorists in Sri Lanka using a modified questionnaire regarding road rage and the 6-item version of Kessler's psychological distress scale. While 98.7% participants reported being victims of road rage, 85.3% were involved in offending behaviour. However actual physical assault (0.8%) and damage to vehicles (2.5%) were rare. Male gender, young age, increased traffic density and driving a three-wheeler or bus were associated with daily road rage victimisation and perpetration. Psychiatric distress was associated with being a victim of road rage. High prevalence of road rage in Sri Lanka and significant psychiatric distress associated with it indicate the necessity of interventions at least for target groups.

  11. Plantation Patriarchy and Structural Violence: Women Workers in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kurian (Rachel); K. Jayawardena (Kumari)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Plantation production began in Sri Lanka in the early 19th century under British colonial rule, when the government provided financial incentives and infrastructural support for the commercialisation and export of agricultural crops in line with promoting laissez-faire

  12. An American Montessori Teacher's Experience in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Irene

    2006-01-01

    What can Montessorians learn from teaching in a war-torn country, and what can they hope to share with others in the process? These questions were much on the author's mind when she went to Sri Lanka in the summer of 2003. This article contains excerpts from e-mails the author sent home, chronicling her experience teaching two high school English…

  13. Misoprostol and the politics of abortion in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramya

    2012-12-01

    Misoprostol, a WHO essential medicine indicated for labour induction, management of miscarriage and post-partum haemorrhage, as well as for induced abortion and treatment of post-abortion complications, came up for registration in Sri Lanka in December 2010. The decision on registration was postponed, indefinitely. This has wide-ranging implications, as misoprostol is widely available and used, including by health professionals in Sri Lanka, without guidance or training in its use. This paper attempts to situate the failure to register misoprostol within the broader context of unsafe abortion, drawing on data from interviews with physicians and health policymakers in Sri Lanka. It demonstrates how personal opposition to abortion infiltrates policy decisions and prevents the issue of unsafe abortion being resolved. Any move to reform abortion law and policy in Sri Lanka will require a concerted effort, spearheaded by civil society. Women and communities affected by the consequences of unsafe abortion need to be involved in these efforts. Regardless of the law, women will access abortion services if they need them, and providers will provide them. Decriminalizing abortion and registering abortion medications will make provision of abortion services safer, less expensive and more equitable. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Soil bioengineering application and practices in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Yam Prasad; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Shi, Jiancheng

    2013-02-01

    The small mountainous country Nepal is situated in the central part of the Himalayas. Its climate varies from tropical in the south to arctic in the north; and natural vegetation follows the pattern of climate and altitude. Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape. Soil erosion is the most important driving force for the degradation of upland and mountain ecosystems. Soil bioengineering has been used in Nepal for nearly 30 years to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. The main soil bioengineering techniques used in Nepal are brush layering, palisades, live check dams, fascines and vegetative stone pitching. This study is based on the geology, climate and vegetation of Nepal and briefly summarizes the application of soil bioengineering on slopes and stream banks, with especial attention to the role of vegetation on slope and stream bank stabilization. Furthermore, this paper addresses the role of community participation and responsibility for successful application of vegetation-based techniques in management, maintenance and utility aspects for the future. In recent years, soil bioengineering techniques are extensively used due to their cost-effectiveness, using locally available materials and low-cost labour in comparison to more elaborate civil engineering works. However, scientific implementation and record-keeping and evaluation of the work are indeed essential.

  15. China-Nepal Friendship Association Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The China-Nepal Friendship Association (CNFA) initiated by the CPAFFC and cared and supported by people of various circles was formally founded on August 16,2004. Sun Fuling, former vice chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative

  16. Girls Trafficked from Nepal into Indian Brothels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Arati

    1996-01-01

    Account of the underground culture of sexual slavery of young girls. Children from Nepal are being lured in large numbers into the sex industry in Bombay, India. Describes the process by which children are seduced and coerced into this bondage with active support from political and law enforcement leaders. (LSR)

  17. Primary Education and Dropout in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Shree Prasad; Bagale, Shiba

    2015-01-01

    This article tries to highlight the dropout rate of primary education of Nepal. The main essence of the article is to explore the situation of dropout of primary education. There are several programs and policies to reduce the dropout, out of the school children and so on but still there are several issues that are left behind. Educational budget…

  18. Comparative Education and Development: Reflections from Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Mahesh Nath; Wagley, Mana Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Relation between education and development has been recognized in Nepal since the beginning of planned development efforts and the modern schooling at mass level. Both were initiated during 1950s. Beginning of Development Studies in MPhil and PhD in Education in School of Education, Kathmandu University focused exploring such relationships in a…

  19. Issues in Nursing Education in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Data from questionnaires and interviews indicated that nursing education in Nepal faces issues similar to those faced in Canada. These include changing student attitudes, getting men into the profession, maintaining standards, and coping with changed nurses' roles as economic changes transform health care. (SK)

  20. Soil Bioengineering Application and Practices in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Yam Prasad; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Shi, Jiancheng

    2013-02-01

    The small mountainous country Nepal is situated in the central part of the Himalayas. Its climate varies from tropical in the south to arctic in the north; and natural vegetation follows the pattern of climate and altitude. Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape. Soil erosion is the most important driving force for the degradation of upland and mountain ecosystems. Soil bioengineering has been used in Nepal for nearly 30 years to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. The main soil bioengineering techniques used in Nepal are brush layering, palisades, live check dams, fascines and vegetative stone pitching. This study is based on the geology, climate and vegetation of Nepal and briefly summarizes the application of soil bioengineering on slopes and stream banks, with especial attention to the role of vegetation on slope and stream bank stabilization. Furthermore, this paper addresses the role of community participation and responsibility for successful application of vegetation-based techniques in management, maintenance and utility aspects for the future. In recent years, soil bioengineering techniques are extensively used due to their cost-effectiveness, using locally available materials and low-cost labour in comparison to more elaborate civil engineering works. However, scientific implementation and record-keeping and evaluation of the work are indeed essential.

  1. Nepal: Vocational Educator's Role in Elementary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Thomas R.

    1974-01-01

    The innovative vocational education program of the elementary grades in the developing country of Nepal focuses on "self-help" within the "practical arts" (agriculture, trade and industrial, and home science fields) and emphasizes application of subject matter to students' daily lives, integration of skills into the curriculum, and occupational…

  2. Nepal: "a problem of governance".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, B

    1993-01-01

    Nepal faces the choice between sustainable development in a fragile mountain environment in balance with a growing population or the continuation of stagnation and inertia. The political change of April 1990 created new optimism for the country's 18.5 million people, 70% of who live in abject poverty despite international aid making up 60% of the development budget. The maternal mortality rate stands at an exorbitant 850 deaths/100,000. The life expectancy of women is lower than that of men, and there is only 1 doctor for every 30,000 people, while 90% of births are not attended by a trained practitioner. The annual population growth rate amounts to 2.1%, which could double population in 30 years. This rate had outstripped crop production on a limited supply of land, resulting in the addition of another 250,000 poor people every year to the total. Government policies are skewed; a major hydroelectric project is planned to be constructed in 1994 despite talk about poverty alleviation. The National Conservation Plan of 1988 is in its 3rd phase of implementation, with plans in forestry, irrigation, livestock, and horticulture also being implemented at the request of the World Bank. Family planning lapsed as the vertical delivery system was replaced by a horizontal one encouraging villages to build sub-health posts providing family planning and primary health care. 700 such village health posts exist among 4000 villages, and another 600 are scheduled to open in 1994. Positive signs of meaningful development efforts include the budgetary shift to education, health care, and clean drinking water provision. Decentralization laws passed in 1992 and subsequent local elections aimed at handing over to local people the responsibility for their development assisted by government funds and technical support. The poor and often illiterate people have the manpower to dig irrigation canals and stabilize hillside terraces; therefore, the ruling party's central policy is to mobilize

  3. Avoiding the Limits to Growth: Gross National Happiness in Bhutan as a Model for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. Brooks

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In their 30-year update to Limits to Growth, Meadows et al. call for a vision of sustainable development that includes systemic change brought on by new perspectives on the purpose of development, new ways of measuring progress, and changes in social norms. Here, I discuss Meadows et al.’s work in the context of the literature on sustainable development and well-being as well as the development trajectory of Bhutan. I suggest that Bhutan’s development approach mirrors Meadows et al.’s recommendations and provides one model for sustainable development. The ideal of maximizing Gross National Happiness (GNH exemplifies Bhutan’s commitment to holistic development and dovetails with arguments about the shortcomings of approaches that emphasize economic growth. I provide examples of how GNH has been put into practice, describe how happiness is being measured, and discuss the emergence of social norms and a shared Bhutanese identity that may contribute to sustainable development. Bhutan’s development success suggests that an alternative to growth-centric development is viable. However, while Bhutan’s standard of living has increased, the country faces challenges, the most important of which may be their ability to manage rising consumption levels. Importantly, other nations have begun measuring well-being and considering similar development approaches.

  4. A NOVEL STRAIN OF SHIGELLA SPECIES OUTBREAK IN A RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL IN PEMAGATSHEL, BHUTAN, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsheten

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A cluster of suspected shigellosis was reported from health center in Pemagatshel district to Royal Center for Disease Control on 14th May 2012. The investigation was done to determine the cause and risk factor for the outbreak so that appropriate control and prevention measures can be implemented. Methods: A descriptive study was used for the outbreak investigation. The food items and drinks served to boarding students were collected from the mess in-charge in order to assess their risk for the outbreak. The kitchen and its premises were inspected to study the likely contamination by rodents and other animals. The water and stool specimens were tested in the laboratory to identify all possible enteric pathogens. Results: 82 boarding students were affected with an overall attack rate of 28% (82/294. Diarrhea was the predominant symptom followed by abdominal pain and headache. The onset date of the cases varied between 11th and 18th May, 2012. Shigella species was isolated from stool specimens that showed resistant to amoxicillin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole. Water specimen collected from source, distribution reservoir and tap water at school were found grossly contaminated. Conclusion: The outbreak was caused by novel strain of Shigella species which was not detected earlier in Bhutan. The promotion and provision of boiled water will greatly reduce the incidence of shigellosis especially in boarding facility.

  5. Construction Claim Types and Causes for a Large-Scale Hydropower Project in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventura H.W. Hadikusumo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower construction projects are complex and uncertain, have long gestational periods and involve several parties. Furthermore, they require the integration of different components (Civil, Mechanical and Electrical to work together as a single unit. These projects require highly specialised designs, detailed plans and specifications, high-risk construction methods, effective management, skilful supervision and close coordination. Thus, claims are common in such projects. These claims are undesirable because they require significant time and resources to resolve and cause adversarial relationships among the parties involved. Therefore, it is in the common interest of all involved parties to prevent, minimise, or resolve claims as amicably as possible. Identifying common claim types and their causes is essential in devising techniques to minimise and avoid them in future projects. This report details a case study performed on a large-scale hydropower project in Bhutan. The findings of this case study indicate that differing site conditions are the major contributor of impact and change claims and 95% of total claims can be settled by negotiation, whereas 5% of claims can be settled by arbitration.

  6. Habitat preferences and conservation threats to Black-necked Cranes wintering in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgay, Rinchen; Wangchuk, Sangay

    2016-01-01

    Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) is a vulnerable Red list species whose populations are declining. However, little is known about Black-necked Cranes' habitat requirements or the causes of their population decline. We identified Black-necked Cranes' winter roost and foraging preferences of Black-necked Cranes in Bhutan during the winter of 2013-2014. Black-necked Cranes' roosts were recorded using Garmin GPSmap 60CSx, while foraging preferences and threats to the birds were identified based on a survey of household heads (n = 107) residing within a 3 km radius of roost sites. We grouped the threats identified by the communities into four major categories, viz. biological, social, political and natural threats based on the relevance. Of the four major threats, communities residing within the roosting and foraging habitat of the Black-necked Crane reported biological threat as major. Biological threats as reported by communities include loss of habitat, food shortage and competition from other animals. We recommend the present roosting areas be designated as part of the conservation areas for Black-necked Crane wintering in Bumthang district. In addition to preserving these areas, government should also encourage farming in foraging habitats of Black-necked Crane, because they mainly feed on barley, wheat, paddy, potatoes and buckwheat, besides roots, tubers and insects in the wetlands.

  7. Joint approach combining damage and paleoseismology observations constrains the 1714 A.D. Bhutan earthquake at magnitude 8 ± 0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, György; Le Roux-Mallouf, Romain; Berthet, Théo.; Cattin, Rodolphe; Cauzzi, Carlo; Phuntsho, Karma; Grolimund, Remo

    2016-10-01

    The region of Bhutan is thought to be the only segment of the Himalayas not having experienced a major earthquake over the past half millennium. A proposed explanation for this apparent seismic gap is partial accommodation of the India-Asia convergence further south across the Shillong Plateau, yet the seismic behavior of the Himalayan megathrust in Bhutan is unknown. Here we present historical documents from the region reporting on an earthquake in 1714 A.D. and geological evidence of surface rupture to constrain the latest large event in this area. We compute various earthquake scenarios using empirical scaling relationships relating magnitude with intensity, source location and rupture geometry. Our results constrain the 1714 A.D. earthquake to have ruptured the megathrust in Bhutan, most likely during a M7.5-8.5 event. This finding reclassifies the apparent seismic gap to a former information gap and implies that the entire Himalayan arc has a high level of earthquake potential.

  8. Mithuri users surveyed in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Family Planning Association (FPA) of Sri Lanka completed a survey of Mithuri (oral contraceptive) users to determine consumer characteristics. The survey addressed issues such as purchasing habits, user patterns, dealer consumer relationships, levels of consumer satisfaction and motivation, prevalence of side effects, degree and level of medical consultations, and attitudes toward mass media product advertising. A mail survey was used to conduct this quantitative research to reduce the cost of collecting the data. Mail surveys offer the advantage of being able to reach a large number of respondents at a very reasonable cost, but they also require an accurate list of respondents who are representative of the population to be examined. Of the 681 questionnaires delivered, 442 were completed and returned. The majority of those surveyed (86%) purchased Mithuri at pharmacies that are within 5 miles of their residence. 73.2% of the women asked their husbands to make the purchase, and 67.6% purchased 2 cycles at a time. Most respondents reported experiencing no side effects from Mithuri. The majority of the few who experienced side effects considered them to be very slight. 2.7% of the respondents reported becoming pregnant while using Mithuri, 11 of whom ascribed the pregnancy to their failure to take the pill regularly. Most respondents said that they never missed a day. Husbands or "Western" medical practitioners were most often cited as the motivators to use Mithuri. Of the 82% of the respondents who had read the Mithuri newspaper advertisements, 87% indicated they approved of mass media advertising about contraceptives, primarily because they felt that making such information available was an urgent matter. Although advertisements and package circulars urged 1st time users to consult a physician before using Mithuri, less than half the respondents reported consulting any medical person, nurses, and midwives included. They also reported that the dealer gave no

  9. Chinese Policy Toward South Asia: Implications and Prospects for Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    endowed with legendary fighters of world fame.36 Nepal is the melting pot where two important religions, Hinduism and Buddhism are being practiced...It is believed that Hinduism exists since 1200 BC37 and Buddhism since 520 BC.38 Buddha was born in Nepal, enlightened in India, and Buddhism spread...are competing for resources, control of sea lanes, power and influence in the regional and global level. Nepal has been a melting pot for Hinduism

  10. Study on Achievements and Problems of Bhutan Tourism Industry%试析不丹旅游产业的成就与问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁

    2014-01-01

    Bhutan tourism is an important part of tourism in the world. As our territory bordering Bhutan is tourist destination for Chinese tourists. In recent years, relationship of China and Bhutan, including economic relations and political relations, constantly im-proves. Because of special resources and development of high-end tourism products, Bhutan tourism is growing. It has become an impor-tant research content for experts and scholars. Bhutan ’s tourism industry also faces many development issues, part of the problem is de-termined by Bhutan tourism characteristics resources, and another part of the problem is made in its tourism product development pro-cess due to policy issues, financial problems caused by man-made problems. To solve their travel part of the problem in the industry, the Government of Bhutan and the business work together to promote the sustainable development of tourism in Bhutan.%不丹与我国领土接壤,是中国旅客旅游目的地国之一。近年来,中不关系包括经济关系与政治关系不断增进,尤其是旅游业因特色旅游资源和高端旅游产品快速发展,成为我国专家学者关注的重要研究内容。但不丹旅游业也面临诸多发展问题,这是由其旅游资源本身特点,旅游产品发展过程中因政策问题、资金问题造成的人为困难等决定的。为解决本国旅游业发展中的问题,不丹政府应与企业界通力合作,推动不丹旅游业的可持续发展。

  11. Strategic Role of Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora in Promoting Separatism in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Tamil Eelam and the Tamil genocide in Sri Lanka. This campaign tries to achieve its objectives through the boycott of Sri Lankan tourism and products...Lanka campaign.157 The boycott Sri Lanka campaign is not limited to tourism or products. The Tamil Youth Organization (TYO) is conducting a “Boycott...Sri Lankan sports are not accepted in international fora as they 155Tamils Against Genocide

  12. Adaptive COIN in Sri Lanka: What Contributed to the Demise of the LTTE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Lanka,” conflict theorist Johan Galtung explains that in the process of state formation, “the problem is, to whom does the state belong?”46 This...and English-speaking groups. As Galtung explains, because of the sheer complexity of State formation, usually a nationalistic view is taken: “State...45 De Silva, A History of Sri Lanka, 613. 46 Johan Galtung , "Power Sharing As Peace Structure: The Case of Sri Lanka" (IICP working paper

  13. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Vos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS configured to the study region and forced with ECMWF interim data. The model was run for 2 yr to examine the seasonal and shorter term (∼10 days variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC during the Southwest (SW monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast. During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast and is shown to be due to flow convergence and divergence associated with offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE monsoon the flow

  14. Size and demography pattern of the domestic dog population in Bhutan: Implications for dog population management and disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinzin, Karma; Tenzin, Tenzin; Robertson, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the demography of domestic dogs is essential to plan the dog population management and rabies control program. In this study, we estimated the owned and stray dog population and the proportion of owned dogs that are free-roaming in Bhutan. For this, a cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in six districts (both urban and rural areas) and two border towns in southern Bhutan. The population estimation was done by extrapolation of the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person, whilst mark-resight survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of owned dogs that were free-roaming. A total of 1,301 (rural:585; urban:716) respondents (one per household) were interviewed of which 173 households (24.4%) in urban areas owned 237 dogs whilst 238 households (40.8%) in rural areas owned 353 dogs. The mean number of dogs per dog owning household was estimated to be 1.44 (urban:1.37 dogs; rural:1.48 dogs) and dogs per household was estimated to be 0.45 (urban:0.33; rural:0.60). The dog: human ratio was 1:16.30 (0.06 dogs per person) in urban areas and 1:8.43 (0.12 dogs per person) in rural areas. The total owned dog population based on the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person were estimated to be 65,312 and 71,245 in the country, respectively. The male: female ratio of the owned dog was 1.31:1 in urban areas and 2.05:1 in rural areas. Majority of the dogs were local non-descript breeds in both urban (60.8%) and rural (78%) areas, and the most common source was acquisition from friends or family (44.7%). The stray dog population in Bhutan was estimated to be 48,379 (urban:22,772; rural:25,607). Of the total estimated owned dog population in the two border towns, the proportion that were found free-roaming was estimated to be 31%. The different dog population estimation methods were compared and discussed in this paper. This study generated baseline data on the demographic patterns of the owned and stray dogs in Bhutan which

  15. Risk factors for acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of patients with acute pesticide poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka and, for intentional self-poisoning cases, explores the relative importance of the different determinants. Data were collected for 239 acute pesticide-poisoning cases, which were...... admitted to two rural hospitals in Sri Lanka. Sociodemographic characteristics, negative life events and agricultural practices of the intentional self-poisoning cases were compared with a control group. Most cases occurred among young adults and the large majority (84%) was because of intentional self-poisoning....... Case fatality was 18% with extremely high case fatality for poisoning with the insecticide endosulfan and the herbicide paraquat. Cases were generally younger than controls, of lower educational status and were more often unemployed. No agricultural risk factors were found but a family history...

  16. Soil CO2 efflux from two mountain forests in the eastern Himalayas, Bhutan: components and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangdi, Norbu; Mayer, Mathias; Prasad Nirola, Mani; Zangmo, Norbu; Orong, Karma; Uddin Ahmed, Iftekhar; Darabant, Andras; Jandl, Robert; Gratzer, Georg; Schindlbacher, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The biogeochemistry of mountain forests in the Hindu Kush Himalaya range is poorly studied, although climate change is expected to disproportionally affect the region. We measured the soil CO2 efflux (Rs) at a high-elevation (3260 m) mixed forest and a lower-elevation (2460 m) broadleaf forest in Bhutan, eastern Himalayas, during 2015. Trenching was applied to estimate the contribution of autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic (Rh) soil respiration. The temperature (Q10) and the moisture sensitivities of Rh were determined under controlled laboratory conditions and were used to model Rh in the field. The higher-elevation mixed forest had a higher standing tree stock, reflected in higher soil C stocks and basal soil respiration. Annual Rs was similar between the two forest sites (14.5 ± 1.2 t C ha-1 for broadleaf; 12.8 ± 1.0 t C ha-1 for mixed). Modelled annual contribution of Rh was ˜ 65 % of Rs at both sites with a higher heterotrophic contribution during winter and lower contribution during the monsoon season. Rh, estimated from trenching, was in the range of modelled Rh but showed higher temporal variability. The measured temperature sensitivity of Rh was similar at the mixed and broadleaf forest sites (Q10 2.2-2.3) under intermediate soil moisture but decreased (Q10 1.5 at both sites) in dry soil. Rs closely followed the annual course of field soil temperature at both sites. Covariation between soil temperature and moisture (cold dry winters and warm wet summers) was likely the main cause for this close relationship. Under the prevailing weather conditions, a simple temperature-driven model was able to explain more than 90 % of the temporal variation in Rs. A longer time series and/or experimental climate manipulations are required to understand the effects of eventually occurring climate extremes such as monsoon failures.

  17. PACS for Bhutan: a cost effective open source architecture for emerging countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ratib

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports the design and implementation of an innovative and cost-effective imaging management infrastructure suitable for radiology centres in emerging countries. It was implemented in the main referring hospital of Bhutan equipped with a CT, an MRI, digital radiology, and a suite of several ultrasound units. They lacked the necessary informatics infrastructure for image archiving and interpretation and needed a system for distribution of images to clinical wards. The solution developed for this project combines several open source software platforms in a robust and versatile archiving and communication system connected to analysis workstations equipped with a FDA-certified version of the highly popular Open-Source software. The whole system was implemented on standard off-the-shelf hardware. The system was installed in three days, and training of the radiologists as well as the technical and IT staff was provided onsite to ensure full ownership of the system by the local team. Radiologists were rapidly capable of reading and interpreting studies on the diagnostic workstations, which had a significant benefit on their workflow and ability to perform diagnostic tasks more efficiently. Furthermore, images were also made available to several clinical units on standard desktop computers through a web-based viewer. Messages/teaching points • Open source imaging informatics platforms can provide cost-effective alternatives for PACS • Robust and cost-effective open architecture can provide adequate solutions for emerging countries • Imaging informatics is often lacking in hospitals equipped with digital modalities

  18. Status of chemistry lab safety in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Krishna Prasad; Neupane, Bhanu Bhakta; Giri, Basant

    2017-01-01

    Chemistry labs can become a dangerous environment for students as the lab exercises involve hazardous chemicals, glassware, and equipment. Approximately one hundred thousand students take chemistry laboratory classes annually in Nepal. We conducted a survey on chemical lab safety issues across Nepal. In this paper, we assess the safety policy and equipment, protocols and procedures followed, and waste disposal in chemistry teaching labs. Significant population of the respondents believed that there is no monitoring of the lab safety in their lab (p<0.001). Even though many labs do not allow food and beverages inside lab and have first aid kits, they lack some basic safety equipment. There is no institutional mechanism to dispose lab waste and chemical waste is disposed haphazardly. Majority of the respondents believed that the safety training should be a part of educational training (p = 0.001) and they would benefit from short course and/or workshop on lab safety (p<0.001).

  19. Geoid of Nepal from airborne gravity survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Einarsson, Indriði

    2011-01-01

    An airborne gravity survey of Nepal was carried out December 2010 in a cooperation between DTU-Space, Nepal Survey Department, and NGA, USA. The entire country was flown with survey lines spaced 6 nm with a King Air aircraft, with a varying flight altitude from 4 to 10 km. The survey operations...... were a major challenge due to excessive jet streams at altitude as well as occasional excessive mountain waves. Despite the large 400 mGal+ range of gravity anomaly changes from the Indian plains to the Tibetan Plateau, results appear accurate to a few mGal, with proper evaluation from cross...... as well as recent GPS-heights of Mt. Everest. The new airborne data also provide an independent validation of GOCE gravity field results at the local ~100 km resolution scale....

  20. Nepal’s Strategic Future: Following India, or China, or Middle Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    to Nepal. The Asian Defence News and Nepal-based news media, Republica , writes “India, which has decided to resume military aid to Nepal, is likely...training. Republica further writes, “The Nepal Army has also enquired whether India can raise the supply of military hardware to the level prevalent nine...

  1. Insurgency in a Small Country, Ethnic Revolt in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Sri Lanka Army was captured by the LTTE. 21 Mostly located in Mullaitivu. 22 Most of the food is forcibly taken over by the LTTE cadres, yet the...government dispatches food to the uncontrolled areas. 23 Location of the famous one four base. IPKF had two companies massacred in location. 24 Mostly...Ministry of Defense suggest that propaganda should (a)sympathize with the plight of the Tamil community (b)highlight the criminal wastage of Tamil lives

  2. Assessing medication packaging and labelling appropriateness in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Athuraliya, N.; Walkom, E. J.; Dharmaratne, S.; Robertson, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence of poor dispensing practices with inadequate packaging and labelling of medicines, and limited advice on their usage in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). We examined the labelling and packaging of medicines identified during a survey of 1322 households in six regions of Sri Lanka between 2010 and 2013 conducted using the World Health Organization (WHO) methodology for household surveys. We compared medicines obtained from public and private sour...

  3. Interest Rate Pass-through in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Amarasekara, Chandranath

    2005-01-01

    The Central Bank of Sri Lanka has increasingly been relying on interest rates as the instrument for conducting monetary policy. Changes to the key monetary policy variables, the Repo and the Reverse Repo rates, are initially expected to be reflected in the OMO rates and the call money market rates, before being passedthrough to commercial bank retail interest rates. It is important to obtain a good understanding of the speed and magnitude of the interest rate pass-through to make timely monet...

  4. Multidisciplinary study on anthropogenic landslides in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Christopher; Derron, Marc-Henri; Nicolet, Pierrick; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Devkota, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    Nepal is a country in which shallow landslide is a frequent phenomenon. Monsoon is the main triggering factor but anthropogenic influence is often significant too. Indeed, many infrastructures, such as roads or water pipes, are not built in a rigorous way because of a lack of funds and knowledge. In the present study we examine the technical, social and economic issues of landslide management for two sites in Nepal. The first site is located in Sanusiruwari VDC (Sindhupalchock district, central Nepal) and the second one in Namadi VDC (Ramecchap district, central Nepal). Both sites are affected by landslides induced by the construction of hydropower plants. These landslides may threaten the viability of the hydropower plants. At both sites the problems are quite similar, but the first site project is a private one and the second one is a public one implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). For both sites, bioengineering methods using Vetiver (Vetyveria zizanioides) plantations is the main stabilization measure. To follow the progression of both landslides, fieldwork observations were conducted before and after the 2012 rainy season, including photogrammetric and distancemeter acquisitions. Main issues were discussed with communities and stakeholders of the hydropower projects through interviews and participatory risk mapping. Main issues include: lack of communication between the project managers and communities leading to conflict and the lack of maintenance of the bio-engineering sites, leading to less effective Vetiver growth and slope stabilization. Comparing the landslide management (technical, social and economic) of the two projects allows to point out some specific issues within an integrated risk perspective.

  5. Ancient divergence of Paragonimus westermani in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Moritoshi; Rajapakse, R P V J; Paranagama, Wijithe; Okada, Teruhiko; Kano, Shigeyuki; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2008-04-01

    Adult flukes of Paragonimus species were obtained from lungs of experimental animals infected with metacercariae found in field-collected freshwater crabs in Sri Lanka. Morphological studies of adult worms under a scanning electron microscope as well as a ordinary microscope were performed in the present study. All of morphological features observed clearly indicated that this species is P. westermani. On the other hand, the shapes of metacercariae were found to be mainly oval, but semioval and spherical ones also coexisted. In spite of the variety of their morphology of the metacercariae, there is no correlation between their shapes of metacercariae and the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences. Molecular phylogenetic analyses using two DNA regions (partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and second internal transcribed spacer of the nuclear ribosomal gene repeat) placed the adult flukes of P. westermani from Sri Lanka basal in a tree including all specimens of P. westermani from various areas in Asia and P. siamensis from Thailand. The present study showed that P. westermani from Sri Lanka is an ancestral form.

  6. GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR PALEO-TSUNAMIS IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayomi Kulasena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami inundation event, thin sediment films of fining up sequences were located in several topographic depressions of the southern coastal belt of Sri Lanka. The films consisting of silty fine sand with particular microfossil assemblages were located also in closed containers, bottles and kitchen tables. Well preserved microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolarians as well as spicules of sponges were noted in these recent tsunami sediments.Random augur holes were drilled into some selected depressions in the southern coastal villages of Peraliya and Denuwala situated at locations separated by about 50km. In several such holes, at least two fining up sequences were located below the surface in soil horizons separated from each other by 35cm to 1m. These soil profiles were overlying older coral reefs developed on lateritic formations. The microscopic observations on particular size fractions of the soil horizons showed microfossil assemblages with textures, color and organic C contents strikingly comparable to those observed in the recent tsunami sediments of Sri Lanka. Our findings imply the occurrence of at least two paleo- tsunami events of different ages in Sri Lanka originating apparently from a common source.

  7. Zoonotic aspects of cryptosporidiosis in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Paudyal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews cryptosporidiosis, a common protozoan disease in humans and animals in Nepal, acquired by ingestion of oocysts that were excreted in the feces of infected individuals. Contaminated water represents the major source of Cryptosporidium infections for humans and can be transmitted from person-to-person, from animal-to-person, animal-to-animal, by ingestion of contaminated water and food or by contact with contaminated surfaces. Being highly resistant to environmental and chemical processes and representing the only group of pathogen surviving chlorination, it has no effective chemotherapy identified for the treatment which makes cryptosporidiosis a debilitating and persistent disease with high potential of transmission among immune-compromised ones like children and AIDS patients. Various reports have been documented for potential transmission of the oocyst among humans and animals in Nepal through common niche like river water, tap water sources and also from wild animals through the interaction on buffer zones. Literatures reported prevalence rate of 16 % in Children, 11% in HIV infected patients in case of human; whereas, 14% in Calves, 19% in buffaloes and 12.5% in swamp deer in case of animals in Nepal. In conclusion, the persistent shedding of oocysts by reservoir hosts like calves, kids, poultry and wild animals like deer and monkeys possess great threat to the transmission to general public. The epidemiological studies of cryptosporidium and the knowledge of the pattern of the disease outbreak can guide therapy and effective preventive measures against this disease.

  8. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabina Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury is a major trauma, with its short and long term effects and consequences to the patient, his friends and family. Spinal cord injury is addressed in the developed countries with standard trauma care system commencing immediately after injury and continuing to the specialized rehabilitation units. Rehabilitation is important to those with spinal injury for both functional and psychosocial reintegration. It has been an emerging concept in Nepal, which has been evident with the establishment of the various hospitals with rehabilitation units, rehabilitation centres and physical therapy units in different institutions. However, the spinal cord injury rehabilitation setting and scenario is different in Nepal from those in the developed countries since spinal cord injury rehabilitation care has not been adequately incorporated into the health care delivery system nor its importance has been realized within the medical community of Nepal. To name few, lack of human resource for the rehabilitation care, awareness among the medical personnel and general population, adequate scientific research evidence regarding situation of spinal injury and exorbitant health care policy are the important hurdles that has led to the current situation. Hence, it is our responsibility to address these apparent barriers to successful implementation and functioning of rehabilitation so that those with spinal injury would benefit from enhanced quality of life. Keywords: rehabilitation; spinal injury.

  9. Using a Policy of "Gross National Happiness" to Guide the Development of Sustainable Early Learning Programs in the Kingdom of Bhutan: Aspirations and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Jessica; Wangchuk, Karma Chimi

    2015-01-01

    A national study on demand for early childhood care and development programs in Bhutan found strong support for development of a new early childhood care and development (ECCD) sector. A wide range of stakeholders participating in the study, including ministries of education and health, post-secondary institutions, private preschool providers,…

  10. Digital Storytelling in Bhutan: A Qualitative Examination of New Media Tools Used to Bridge the Digital Divide in a Rural Community School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyabak, Khendum; Godina, Heriberto

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the use of digital storytelling as an instructional intervention for bridging the digital divide among public school students in rural Bhutan. Primary participants for the study included elementary school children who had never been previously exposed to computer technology and were recipients of a donated classroom…

  11. The State of Integration of the Virtual Learning Environment and ICT into the Pedagogy of the Royal University of Bhutan: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choeda; Penjor, Tandin; Dupka, Dorji; Zander, Pär-Ola

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a descriptive research study on the integration of ICT and pedagogy in the colleges of the Royal University of Bhutan. It investigates whether ICT is integrated into the pedagogy and, if so, in what way. The study identifies the use of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) as the key technology, which is used as part of…

  12. Emergency surveillance for novel influenza A(H7N9) virus in domestic poultry, feral pigeons and other wild birds in Bhutan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tenzin, T; Tenzin, S; Tshering, D; Lhamo, K; Rai, P B; Dahal, N; Dukpa, K

    2015-01-01

    ... through the poultry value chain linking to a number of bordering countries. For this reason, a rapid emergency surveillance exercise took place in Bhutan between May and July 2013 with the objective of determining whether influenza A(H7N9...

  13. Education and Conflict in Nepal: Possibilities for Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pherali, Tejendra J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the nexus of the "People's War" and education in Nepal and argues that education was one of the main causes of the violent conflict. Despite "modernisation" efforts and increased participation, schools in Nepal continued to embody socially and culturally prejudiced values and institutionally legitimised the…

  14. Universal Primary Education in Nepal: Fulfilling the Right to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohani, Shiva; Singh, Ram Balak; Lohani, Jeevan

    2010-01-01

    With the net enrollment ratio in primary education in Nepal at 94%, most children are in the school system, but the system fails to ensure that all enrolled children will continue in school cycle and complete primary education of acceptable quality. Given the system's poor internal efficiency, Nepal is not likely to achieve the MDG and EFA goals…

  15. Promoting Lifelong Learning in Multilingual Context: A Case from Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2011-01-01

    Nepal is a multilingual country with low adult literacy rate (about 57% in 2008). Through different policy documents and motivation from some of the transnational organizations such as UNESCO, Nepal is on the process of adopting lifelong learning perspective as a major educational policy. In this context the article raises two issues: how to…

  16. Some Technological Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Dahi and Datshi, Naturally Fermented Milk Products of Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangpliang, H. N. J.; Sharma, Sharmila; Rai, Ranjita; Tamang, Jyoti P.

    2017-01-01

    Dahi and datshi are common naturally fermented milk (NFM) products of Bhutan. Population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in dahi (pH 3.7) and datshi (pH 5.2) was 1.4 × 107 and 3.9 × 108 cfu/ml, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing isolates of LAB from dahi and datshi were identified as Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. LAB strains were tested for some technological properties. All LAB strains except E. faecalis CH2:17 caused coagulation of milk at both 30°C for 48 h. Only E. faecium DH4:05 strain was resistant to pH 3. No significant difference (P > 0.05) of viable counts was observed in MRS broth with and without lysozyme. All LAB strains grew well in 0.3% bile showing their ability to tolerate bile salt. None of the LAB strains showed >70% hydrophobicity. This study, being the first of its microbiological analysis of the NFM of Bhutan, has opened up to an extent of research work that gives a new insight to the products. PMID:28203227

  17. The Taming of the Press in Sri Lanka. Journalism Monographs Number 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Shelton A.

    This issue of "Journalism Monographs" deals specifically with the state of newspaper journalism in Sri Lanka, formerly the Dominion of Ceylon. The country's literacy rate is about 81 percent. The first section of this article is a general discussion of newspaper journalism in Sri Lanka, examining historical background and such press…

  18. How Old Is Old? Employing Elderly Teachers in the Private Sector Schools in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhuwanthi, L. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore why private sector schools in Sri Lanka employ elderly teachers (ETs). This paper used semi-structured in-depth interviews with 9 employers/principals in the private sector schools in Sri Lanka. The study found that the reasons for employing ETs in the private sector schools were shortfall of English medium…

  19. Completed Suicide among Sinhalese in Sri Lanka: A Psychological Autopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaraweera, Sudath; Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sivayogan, S.; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2008-01-01

    Sri Lanka has the one of highest rates of suicide. Important factors associated with suicide were determined via the psychological autopsy approach (which had not been carried out previously in Sri Lanka). Over a 3-month period, in a catchment area, 31 suicides among Sinhalese were identified and 27 were investigated. Males were more likely to…

  20. Using Climate Information for Disaster Risk Identification in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, L.

    2004-12-01

    We have engaged in a concerted attempt to undertake research and apply earth science information for development in Sri Lanka, with a focus on climate sciences. Here, we provide details of an ongoing attempt to harness science for disaster identification as a prelude to informed disaster management. Natural disasters not only result in death and destruction but also undermine decades of development gains as highlighted by recent examples from Sri Lanka. First, in May 2003, flooding and landslides in the South-West led to 260 deaths, damage to 120,000 homes and destruction of schools, infrastructure and agricultural land. Second, on December 26, 2000, a cyclone in the North-Central region left 8 dead, 55,000 displaced, with severe damage to fishing, agriculture, infrastructure and cultural sites. Third, an extended island-wide drought in 2001 and 2002 resulted in a 2% drop in GDP. In the aftermath of these disasters, improved disaster management has been deemed to be urgent by the Government of Sri Lanka. In the past the primary policy response to disasters was to provide emergency relief. It is increasingly recognized that appropriate disaster risk management, including risk assessment, preventive measures to reduce losses and improved preparedness, can help reduce death, destruction and socio-economic disruption. The overwhelming majority of hazards in Sri Lanka - droughts, floods, cyclones and landslides -have hydro-meteorological antecedents. Little systematic advantage has, however, been taken of hydro-meteorological information and advances in climate prediction for disaster management. Disaster risks are created by the interaction between hazard events and vulnerabilities of communities, infrastructure and economically important activities. A comprehensive disaster risk management system encompasses risk identification, risk reduction and risk transfer. We undertook an identification of risks for Sri Lanka at fine scale with the support of the Global Disaster

  1. Delineation of Tsunami Risk Zones for Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijetunge, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    The coastal belts of several Indian Ocean countries including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand suffered massive loss of life and damage to property due to the tsunami unleashed by the great earthquake of moment magnitude 9.1-9.3 in the Andaman-Sunda subduction zone on December 26, 2004. In Sri Lanka, 13 of the 14 administrative districts lying along the coastal belt were affected: the death toll was over 35,000 with 20,000 injured and about 100,000 dwellings and other buildings either completely or partially damaged leaving half a million people homeless and causing massive disruption to livelihoods. However, it was clear in the immediate aftermath of the tsunami that the degree of damage along the coastal belt of Sri Lanka was not uniform: some areas suffered more damage, some less, and in certain other areas, often not far away, there was no damage at all. This suggests that the level of risk for coastal communities from future events of tsunami exhibits considerable variation even along a short stretch of the shoreline. The high cost and the scarcity of coastal lands in many areas demand an accurate assessment of the tsunami risk rather than arbitrary conservative zonation. Moreover, information relating to the spatial distribution of tsunami risk is essential in formulating post-tsunami coastal land use plans as well as in planning of evacuation of people during tsunami warnings. However, neither comprehensive probabilistic assessments of the tsunami hazard nor detailed information pertaining to the vulnerability of coastal communities are available at present for the coastal zone of Sri Lanka. Consequently, the methodology adopted in the present paper is to use field observations and numerical simulations of the December 2004 tsunami, which may be considered a worst-case scenario, in order to obtain the variation along the coastline of three parameters that quantify the tsunami impact. These three parameters are the tsunami height, the horizontal

  2. An annotated checklist and a family key to the pseudoscorpion fauna (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones) of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batuwita, Sudesh; Benjamin, Suresh P

    2014-06-06

    Sri Lanka is part of the Western Ghats & Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot. Thus, the conservation of Sri Lanka's unique biodiversity is crucial. The current study is part of an ongoing survey of pseudoscorpion fauna of Sri Lanka. We carried out an island-wide survey of pseudoscorpions using a range of collection methods to sample a diverse set of habitats around the country. This produced 32 species, four of which might be new to science, belonging to 25 genera. The family Cheiridiidae was discovered on the island for the first time. One new combination, Indogarypus ceylonicus (Beier, 1973) comb. nov., is proposed. Out of the 47 species now recorded, 20 (43 %) are potentially endemic to Sri Lanka. We provide a checklist of all known species, document their distribution and give a key to the families.

  3. 26 August 2016 - K. Singye Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bhutan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing the CERN Guest book with Adviser P. Fassnacht

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Kinga Singye Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bhutan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva Friday 26 August 2016

  4. Semiquantitative multi-hazard risk assessment concepts for a himalayan watershed in NW-Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, M.; Leber, D.; Haeusler, H.; Agner, P.; Payer, T.; Tobgay, T.; Wangda, D.

    2003-04-01

    In the Pho Chhu watershed in NW-Bhutan, settlement activity concentrates on broad and pro-duc-tive valley areas, 50 to 80 kilometres downstream of glacial flood sources. Despite an time lag of 5 to 7 hours between initiation and arrival of the breach flood, the low reliability of telecommunication line results in a short pre-warning time. Upstreams, at the main Himalayan ridge, several glaciers coalescence at the valley end, forming a glacial environment with highly inter-linked, possibly hazardous glacial and gravitational processes, which also endanger small isolated settlements nearby the glaciers. Here glacial lake outbursts may be triggered by glacier surges out of water pockets, surge waves due to ice or rock fall and inherent in-stability of the moraines themselves. During flood propagation lateral gravitational processes in loose sediments and tills may result in temporal blockage. Therefore a three stage risk management concept is proposed, dividing into: (1) Local, quickly to establish countermeasures, such as technical measures with low maintenance expenditure and low failure risk, manual monitoring and improved manual telecommunication line. (2) Regional hazard zone delineation to enable hazard awareness and preparedness, and limited relocation activity. (3) And finally regional implementation of an technical early warning system. Hazard risk assessment is carried out by means of qualitative mapping of gravitative processes and quantitative process simulation of dam stability, dam breaching and flood propagation. As time series for identification of accurate time-magnitude relations are not available or questionable due to the changing environmental con-ditions, scenario modelling of the governing processes is utilised to account for process magnitude relation and process inter-linkage. Based on these procedures a semi-quantitative hazard zonation concept, taking into account quantitative process influence zones and qualitative frequency estimation has

  5. Snow/ice melt precipitation runoff modelling of glaciers in the Bhutan himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, T.; Leber, D.; Haeusler, H.; Brauner, M.; Wangda, D.

    2003-04-01

    After the 1994 outburst of the Luggye glacier lake in Northern Bhutan, the Royal Bhutanese Government initiated a project on GLOF risk reduction and mitigation measures in the Pho River headwaters. The approach to model snow/ice melt and precipitation of this high mountain system with few measured data only was a request of this integrated geoscientific project. The size of the test area for runoff modelling is about 50 km2 and comprises an interlinked glacier system of 3 glaciers and moraine dammed glacier lakes. The model proposed for the Luggye catchment area is based on records from a nearby weather station at Thanza (4150 m altitude) available for the years 2000-2001, a high resolution digital elevation model and the total surface discharge of the Luggye test area, calculated from the Luggye outlet hydrograph. Using the digital elevation model, the catchment area and the surface of the glaciers, up to 7000 m altitude, was divided into 100-meter elevation layers. Precipitation and mean air temperature from Thanza were extrapolated according to the best fitting results. Prominent single temperature and precipitation “events” recorded at Thanza can be related to discharge “events” in the Luggye hydrograph and allow for calculation of time lag and lapse rates. The modelled discharge is calculated as the total of the three simulated components, namely base flow, melt water from snow and ice, and precipitation. The model proposed can be interactively evaluated by best fitting of the model hydrograph to the measured hydrograph. This simulation was achieved using temperature lapse rates of -0.4 to -0.45 °C/100 m during the summer monsoon period, a degree/day factor of 6 to 8 l/(m2*day*°C), and the decrease of precipitation with approximately 7% per 100-meter altitude. Although many assumptions have to be taken for non-extreme weather conditions, the very good correlation of 0.97 between runoff modelling and the real discharge hydrograph highlights the

  6. Bhaktapur, Nepal: the MAL-ED birth cohort study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Shrestha, Sanjaya Kumar; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Strand, Tor; Shrestha, Binob; Shrestha, Rita; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Ulak, Manjeswori; Mason, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study site in Nepal is located in the Bhaktapur municipality, 15 km east of Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. Bhaktapur, an ancient city famous for its traditional temples and buildings, is included on UNESCO's World Heritage List and is a major tourist attraction in Nepal. Nepal is a land-locked country located in South Asia between China and India with an area of 147 181 km(2), ranging from sea-level plains to Mount Everest, the world's highest peak. The total population as of the 2011 census was 26.6 million, with an average annual population growth rate of 1.4. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is ranked 157 of 186 in the 2013 Human Development Report; one-third of the Nepali population lives below the poverty line. The current under-5 mortality rate is 54 per 1000 live births, the infant mortality rate is 46 per 1000 live births, and the neonatal mortality rate is 33 per 1000 live births. Vaccine coverage for all Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines is >80%. Among children, the most common diseases contributing to significant morbidity and mortality are acute respiratory infection and dehydration from severe diarrhea. In this article, we report on the geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic features of the Bhaktapur MAL-ED site and describe the data that informed our cohort recruitment strategy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Neurocysticercosis in Nepal: a retrospective clinical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ojha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The prevalence of epilepsy is higher in Nepal. This study was conducted to analyze the clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis (NCC among seizure patients admitted to our center. Methods: We retrospectively studied all the NCC patients admitted to Neurology Department, Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from April 2012 to February 2014. Computer tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI head, clinical profile, lab investigations and exclusion of other causes were the basis of the NCC diagnosis. Chi-square and Student′s t-test were used for comparison of variables. Results: Out of 131 seizure patients admitted, 21 patients were diagnosed with NCC (mean age: 33.95 ± 16.41; male: 15 (71.4%, female: 6 (28.6%. Generalized tonic clonic seizure was the most common seizure type in NCC patients (18 patients; 85.7%, two of them had status epilepticus during presentation in Emergency Department. Three patients had focal seizure, one with epilepsia partialis continua. Neuroimaging showed multiple NCC lesions in 8 (38.1% and a single NCC lesion in 13 (61.9% patients. Seven of them (33.3% sought traditional healers before being presented to our center. Eight patients (38.1% were treated with antiepileptics in local health-post without neuroimaging studies done. Calcified stage of NCC was the most frequent CT/MRI findings (12 patients; 57.1%. Phenytoin was preferred both by physicians and patients due to its low cost. Conclusion: NCC is a common finding among seizure patients in Nepal. Poor economic status, illiteracy and underdeveloped rural society are the major challenges in prevention and treatment of NCC.

  8. Maternal Mortality in Nepal: Unraveling the Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwal, Juhee V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishMaternal mortality has been recognised as a public health problem in the developing countries. The situation concerning maternal mortality in Nepal remained unexplored and vague until the early 1990s. By using 1996 Nepal Family Health Survey, this study discusses the maternal mortality situation in Nepal and analyses the differentials in maternal mortality by place of residence,region, ethnic and religious groups, age at death, and parity. Almost 28 percent of deaths of women in reproductive age was accountable to maternal causes.Logistic regression analysis shows ‘ethnicity,’ ‘age of women,’ and ‘number of births’ as strong predictors of maternal mortality. A number of policy recommendations are suggested to help lower maternal mortality.FrenchLa mortalité liée à la maternité est un des phénomènes de santé qui a étéidentifié dans les pays en voie de développement. La situation de la mortalitéliée à la maternité au Népal est restée inexplorée et assez vague jusqu’au débutdes années 1990. En utilisant les données du Nepal Family Health Survey de1996, cet article examine la situation de la mortalité liée à la maternité au Népalet analyse les différentiels des taux de mortalité par lieu de résidence, région,groupe ethnique et religieux, âge au décès, et parité. Presque 28 pourcent desdécès de femmes en âge de procréer sont liés à la maternité. L’analyse derégression logique démontre que « l’ethnicité », « l’âge des femmes », et le« nombre de naissances » sont de forts prédicteurs du taux des mortalités liées àla maternité.

  9. Late Miocene-Pleistocene evolution of India-Eurasia convergence partitioning between the Bhutan Himalaya and the Shillong Plateau: New evidences from foreland basin deposits along the Dungsam Chu section, eastern Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutand, Isabelle; Barrier, Laurie; Govin, Gwladys; Grujic, Djordje; Hoorn, Carina; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Najman, Yani

    2016-12-01

    The Shillong Plateau is a unique basement-cored uplift in the foreland of the eastern Himalaya that accommodates part of the India-Eurasia convergence since the late Miocene. It was uplifted in the late Pliocene to 1600 m, potentially inducing regional climatic perturbations by orographically condensing part of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) precipitations along its southern flank. As such, the eastern Himalaya-Shillong Plateau-ISM is suited to investigate effects of tectonics, climate, and erosion in a mountain range-broken foreland system. This study focuses on a 2200 m thick sedimentary section of the Siwalik Group strategically located in the lee of the Shillong Plateau along the Dungsam Chu at the front of the eastern Bhutan Himalaya. We have performed magnetostratigraphy constrained by vitrinite reflectance and detrital apatite fission track dating, combined with sedimentological and palynological analyses. We show that (1) the section was deposited between 7 and 1 Ma in a marginal marine deltaic transitioning into continental environment after 5 Ma, (2) depositional environments and paleoclimate were humid with no major change during the depositional period indicating that the orographic effect of the Shillong Plateau had an unexpected limited impact on the paleoclimate of the Bhutanese foothills, and (3) the diminution of the flexural subsidence in the basin and/or of the detrital input from the range is attributable to a slowdown of the displacement rates along the Main Boundary Thrust in eastern Bhutan during the latest Miocene-Pleistocene, in response to increasing partitioning of the India-Eurasia convergence into the active faults bounding the Shillong Plateau.

  10. Spatial and temporal variations of thunderstorm activities over Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnadara, Upul

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation of frequencies of thunderstorms over Sri Lanka using thunder day data is presented. A thunder day is simply a calendar day in which thunder is heard at least once at a given location. Two sets of data were collected and analyzed: annual totals for 10 climatological stations for a period of 50 years and monthly totals for 20 climatological stations for a period of 20 years. The average annual thunder days over Sri Lanka was found to be 76. Among the climatological stations considered, a high number of annual thunder days was recorded in Ratnapura (150 days/year), followed by Colombo (108 days/year) and Bandarawela (106 days/year). It appears that there are no widespread long-term increasing or decreasing trends in thunderstorm frequencies. However, Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka which has over two million people shows an increasing trend of 0.8 thunder days per year. Although there is a high variability between stations reporting the number of thunder days, the overall pattern within a year is clear. Thunderstorm frequencies are high during two periods: March-May and September-November, which coincide with the first inter-monsoon and second inter-monsoon periods. Compared to the dry zone, the wet zone, especially the southwestern region, has high thunderstorm activity. There is a clear spatial difference in thunderstorm activities during the southwest and northeast monsoon seasons. During both these seasons, enhanced thunderstorm activities are reported on the leeward side of the mountain range. A slight reduction in the thunderstorm activities was found in the high elevation areas of the hill country compared to the surrounding areas. A lightning ground flash density map derived using annual thunder days is also presented.

  11. The family and demographic change in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, B

    1996-01-01

    Sri Lanka has almost completed the demographic transition with low mortality rates and fertility rates approaching replacement levels. Sri Lanka shares these characteristics with the South Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in contrast to elsewhere in South Asia where mortality and especially fertility rates remain much higher. A key part of the explanation for these differences lies in the nature of the family. The Sri Lankan family is essentially the conjugal unit of husband, wife and dependent children whereas in northern South Asia agnatic relations between son and parents are central to family structure. Related to this family system the position of women in Sri Lankan society was relatively high in South Asian terms. Consequently women had a strong say in health and fertility behaviour. When required, for example, mothers take the initiative in seeking health care for themselves and their children. Importantly family structure has facilitated female education which is associated with both mortality and fertility decline. There are few concerns that the values imparted by secular education are contrary to the values of the family or to women's roles within it. The egalitarian family structure has also contributed to fertility decline by raising the costs of children and reducing the long-run benefits to be gained from them. Sri Lanka is particularly distinctive in the contribution of changes in female age at marriage to its fertility decline, marriage age having risen six years this century. This change has been accompanied in recent times by a shift from family-arranged to self-selected (love) marriage. The explanation lies in changes in the socio-economic system which have reduced the centrality of the family in wider social and economic relations, and placed a greater premium on an individual's own abilities and attributes.

  12. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-06

    bottom. Around the island are countless swallow’s nests with tens of thousands of birds who are not afraid of man. There arc also many kinds of exotic...requiring 3 days and 3 nights. They could gather things as they pleased while there, and they caught fish and birds for food. They filled the ship’s cargoe... Bhutan , India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, has held four heads-of-state conferences and many foreign ministers meetings since its

  13. Awareness, Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension in Western Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; Shrestha, Archana; Mishra, Shiva Raj

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a significant contributor to cardiovascular and renal diseases. In low-income settings like Nepal, there are few epidemiological studies assessing hypertension burden. Thus, the purpose was to determine prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension...... in Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in semi-urban area of western Nepal among randomly selected participants, aged between 25 and 65 years. Systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP of ≥90 mm Hg and/or taking current antihypertensive medicine defined as hypertension...

  14. Ecologically sound building in Sri Lanka; Bygget i solen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Ragnar

    2002-07-01

    The article describes a 300 m2 office and television building in Sri Lanka. A number of energy-conserving measures have been implemented the most conspicuous of which are some large, blue solar cell roofs which at the same time give shade and 25000 W solar electricity. The dc from the solar cells is converted to 230 V ac by means of inverters. Among other environmentally friendly aspects is automobile-free garden, natural ventilation and cooling, energy-efficient equipment and wood materials from certified environmental forests. Sewer is handled on location by a local plant. 75 percent of the house is available to wheelchair users.

  15. Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, M.; Desprats, J. F.; Fontaine, M.; Pedreros, R.; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C. H. E. R.; de Silva, U.; Poisson, B.

    2008-06-01

    The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka. The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka. This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks. The coastal

  16. Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garcin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed. Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka.

    The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka.

    This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation

  17. Upgrading graphite by flotation at Bogala Mines in Sri Lanka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Graphite is naturally floatable due to its hydrophobic property and also soft and smears on other gangue particles, rendering the gangue more or less floatable too. Due to this reason it is important to concentrate on areas such as suitable flotation reagents, depression agents, pH modifiers, and particle size to be fed during the process, The paper surveys and analyses the suitable particle size to be fed to achieve high-grade concentrate. According to the work carried out the author suggested the ideal cost effective flotation flow sheet for improved results at Bogala Mines in Sri Lanka.

  18. [Cutaneous diphtheria after a minor injury in Sri Lanka].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, L; Mechlin, A; Schultz, E S

    2016-02-01

    Cutaneous dipththeria is an infectious bacterial disease endemic in tropical regions, but rarely diagnosed in Germany. Following travel in Sri Lanka, a 60-year-old German presented to our dermatological clinic with a skin ulcer and extensive erythematous erosive edema of his left foot. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated from a swab of the lesion. There were no clinical signs of toxic diphtheria. The patient was treated with penicillin G and erythromycin, followed by a slow healing of the lesion. The isolated strain could be identified as toxigenic C. diphtheriae mitis. Due to increased travel activity, dermatologists should have uncommon infections like cutaneous diphtheria in mind.

  19. Along-Strike Variations in the Timing of Melt Crystallization and Metamorphism Across Central and Eastern Bhutan: New Insights from LASS Monazite Geochronology and Trace-Element Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, S. M.; Kauffman, R.; Gonzales-Clayton, B.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Agustsson, K. S.; Long, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Continent-continent collisional systems represent the largest orogens on Earth and provide locations to study processes that drive the transition from contraction and crustal thickening to extension and collapse. The Greater Himalayan Zone (GHZ) exposed along strike of the Himalayan orogen contains exhumed mid-crustal metasedimentary rocks. To better understand the history of burial, crustal flow, and partial melting during the early stages of Himalayan tectonics in the Eocene to ~40 Myr into its orogenic evolution, monazite was analyzed from five migmatitic gneisses and five host gneisses exposed across two transects within central and eastern Bhutan. Monazite was analyzed in situ by the split-stream laser-ablation (LASS) ICPMS technique, which allows simultaneous collection of U-Th-Pb isotopes and trace-element abundances. The migmatites from the eastern Bhutan transect yield monazite dates that record melt crystallization as young as ca. 15-13 Ma. The host gneisses yield similar to younger (down to ca. 11 Ma) dates, documenting coeval to continued metamorphism of the GHZ. In comparison, melt crystallization in the central Bhutan rocks ended by ca. 18 Ma, and metamorphic monazite from a metapelite record metamorphism until ca. 14 Ma. In the migmatite and host-rock samples from both transects, the trace-element data show an inverse correlation between date and the HREE concentration. This trend likely documents the breakdown of garnet, which probably coincides with the first stages of GHZ exhumation. Thus, the LASS data showed that garnet breakdown and GHZ exhumation occurred from ca. 18 to 14 Ma in eastern Bhutan and ca. 20 to 17 Ma in central Bhutan. The new monazite data suggest different histories for the melt crystallization, metamorphism, and exhumation of the GHZ rocks between central and eastern Bhutan, even though the present day rocks from the two transects are only exposed ~60 km apart. Moreover, in comparison to other parts of the eastern Himalaya, the

  20. Notes on recollection and extended distribution of Rhynchotechum alternifolium C.B.Clarke (Gesneriaceae in Eastern Himalaya, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nripemo Odyuo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhynchotechum alternifolium C.B.Clarke, a Gesneriaceae plant taxon earlier known from India and Myanmar, is reported here as an extended distribution to Bhutan. In India, earlier it was reported from Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur and Nagaland. The last observation of this taxon was in 1962 from Myanmar. During recent field exploration (2015, it is once again reported from Nagaland. Based on herbaria records, it is also recorded from Sikkim Himalaya. Brief taxonomic description along with photographic illustration and distribution map of the taxon is provided. Further investigation is required in the eastern Himalaya and North-eastern region of India to ascertain its present population status as well as IUCN status for conservation point of view.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-6, Issue-2, Mar-May 2017, Page: 1-8

  1. The seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease in the sedentary livestock herds in four districts of Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukpa, Kinzang; Robertson, Ian D; Ellis, Trevor M

    2011-07-01

    Cross sectional serological surveys were conducted between March and December 2009 to determine the distribution of foot-and-mouth disease and also to validate the current passive surveillance system in Bhutan. A total of 1909 sera collected from cattle, goats, sheep, and pigs, from 485 herds in 106 villages, were tested using a foot-and-mouth disease non-structural protein 3ABC ELISA. The true prevalence at the animal-level for all species was 15% (95% CI: 13.5, 16.7) using the sensitivity (97.2%) and specificity (99.5%) for cattle. The true prevalence for cattle, goats, sheep and pigs were 17.6 (95% CI: 15.6, 19.5), 11.9% (95% CI: 5.6, 18.3), 11.9% (95% CI: 1.3, 25.1), and 1.9% (95% CI: 0.0, 3.8), respectively. The sub-districts that shared border with India had significantly (p=0.03) higher seroprevalence than the interior sub-districts. Villages located in the sub-tropical zone had significantly (p<0.0001) higher seroprevalence than those located at high altitude zones. Herds with known outbreaks of FMD were 3.6 times more likely (p<0.001) to be seropositive than those with no history of outbreaks of FMD. The study showed the usefulness of population-based serological surveys in detecting circulation of active infection in populations which were, until now, considered to be free of disease based on a passive surveillance system. The study also highlighted the benefits of conducting serological and questionnaire surveys, simultaneously, to ascertain the infection status of herds and animals. Some of the findings from this study could be considered for strengthening of the current FMD control program in Bhutan.

  2. Environmental variability and child growth in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Gerald; Sununtnasuk, Celeste; Brown, Molly

    2015-09-01

    Data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic Health Survey are combined with satellite remotely sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to evaluate whether interannual variability in weather is associated with child health. For stunting, we focus on children older than 24 months of age. NDVI anomaly averages during cropping months are evaluated during the year before birth, the year of birth, and the second year after birth. For wasting, we assess children under 59 months of age and relate growth to NDVI averages for the current and most recent growing periods. Correlations between short-run indicators of child growth and intensity of green vegetation are generally positive. Regressions that control for a range of child-, mother- and household-specific characteristics produce mixed evidence regarding the role of NDVI anomalies during critical periods in a child's early life and the subsequent probability of stunting and wasting. Overall findings suggest that the relationship between environmental conditions and child growth are heterogeneous across the landscape in Nepal and, in many cases, highly non-linear and sensitive to departures from normality.

  3. Forest conservation in Nepal: encouraging women's participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, A

    1987-01-01

    The deforestation in Nepal is upsetting the delicate ecological balance and effecting the lives of many of the people, especially the hill women, who use these resources in their household. The deforestation increases erosion, causing landslides, and raises the silt in rivers, changing their course and flooding the southern plains. The majority of Nepal's population is rural and they depend on agriculture for their livelihood. It is estimated that 95% of the wood taken in deforestation is used for fuel primarily used in cooking. The farmers developed a complicated system of land preparation and terracing, but this has not stopped erosion on the steeper slopes. Since women are the ones who get the wood for fuel and other products they must become an integral part of any conservation plan. With the Nationalization Act of 1957, the forest land became the property of the government and therefore managed under the Ministry of Forests through the department officers. Later legislation involved the communities in replanting and longterm care and transfer of tracts for protection and management. In addition nurseries were created for seedlings and the improved wood burning stoves were distributed. Women were not initially involved in these programs because of their traditional role, but through training programs involving local communities, the importance of women in forestry conservation was recognized. Women were first employed in nursery labor and then as supervisors and now more are involved in project activities and forestry staff. They have been most helpful in training others in using the new fuel-efficient stoves.

  4. Energy and street foods (Bangladesh and Sri Lanka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Energy used by street food vendors is effectively replacing fuel consumption in the household, as studies have shown that street foods are often cheaper to buy than to prepare at home. Rapid urbanisation has led to a proliferation of these very small food outlets, particularly in the Asian subcontinent. Street foods provide employment and income to millions of people around the world, and provide low cost, affordable food to low income people. The project pilot tested improved biomass stoves with a selection of street food vendors. In Sri Lanka, laboratory tests were undertaken with the following three stoves: improved rice-husk burner, biomass gasifier, and double-mouth chimney stoves. From the pilot testing in Sri Lanka the key findings are that the efficient gasifier stove is not suitable for street food vendors, but there were some promising results from larger biomass stoves. In Bangladesh, the project piloted four types of biomass stove: single mouth, double mouth, bucket-type and institutional stove. As these were more established, the pilot focused on a method for reaching a larger number of beneficiaries, people were trained to make stoves in their own and in others' houses. Five workshops were held and over 540 stoves were built. Impact assessment exercises were undertaken in both countries. (author)

  5. Musculoskeletal trauma services in Mozambique and Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Richard C

    2008-10-01

    There is currently an escalating epidemic of trauma-related injuries due to road traffic accidents and armed conflicts. This trauma occurs predominantly in rural areas where most of the population lives. Major ways to combat this epidemic include prevention programs, improved healthcare facilities, and training of competent providers. Mozambique and Sri Lanka have many common features including size, economic system, and healthcare structure but have significant differences in their medical education systems. With six medical schools, Sri Lanka graduates 1000 new physicians per year while Mozambique graduates less than 50 from their singular school. To supplement the low number of physicians, a training course for surgical technicians has been implemented. Examination of district hospital staffing and the medical education in these two countries might provide for improving trauma care competence in other developing countries. Musculoskeletal education is underrepresented in most medical school curricula around the world. District hospitals in developing countries are commonly staffed by recently graduated general medical officers, whose last formal education was in medical school. There is an opportunity to improve the quality of trauma care at the district hospital level by addressing the musculoskeletal curriculum content in medical schools.

  6. Marine protected areas in Sri Lanka: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Nishan; de Vos, Asha

    2007-11-01

    Despite the popularity of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a management tool, increasing evidence shows that many fail to achieve conservation objectives. Although several MPAs exist in Sri Lanka, most are not managed, and resource extraction and habitat degradation continue unabated. At present, the declaration and management of MPAs is carried out without adequate consideration of the ecology, socioeconomic realities, or long-term management sustainability. Managers have focused more toward the creation of new legislation and protected areas rather than ensuring the implementation of existing regulations and management of existing protected areas. Poor coordination and a lack of serious political will have also hindered successful resource management. As in other developing countries, MPA managers have to contend with coastal communities that are directly dependant on marine resources for their subsistence. This often makes it unfeasible to exclude resource users, and MPAs have failed to attract necessary government support because many politicians are partial toward the immediate needs of local communities for both economic and political reasons. A more integrated approach, and decisions based on the analysis of all relevant criteria combined with a concerted and genuine effort toward implementing strategies and achieving predetermined targets, is needed for effective management of MPAs and the sustainable use of marine resources in Sri Lanka.

  7. Plant Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning is a common presentation in paediatric practice and an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in Sri Lanka. The burden of plant poisoning is largely underexplored. The current multicenter study based in rural Sri Lanka assessed clinical profiles, poison related factors, clinical management, complications, outcomes, and risk factors associated with plant poisoning in the paediatric age group. Among 325 children, 57% were male with 64% being below five years of age. 99.4% had ingested the poison. Transfer rate was 66.4%. Most had unintentional poisoning. Commonest poison plant was Jatropha circus and poisoning event happened mostly in home garden. 29% of parents practiced harmful first-aid practices. 32% of children had delayed presentations to which the commonest reason was lack of parental concern regarding urgency of seeking medical care. Presence of poisonous plants in home garden was the strongest risk factor for plant poisoning. Mortality rate was 1.2% and all cases had Oleander poisoning. The study revealed the value of community awareness regarding risk factors and awareness among healthcare workers regarding the mostly benign nature of plant poisoning in children in view of limiting incidence of plant poisoning and reducing expenditure on patient management.

  8. Processes of Internal and International Migration from Chitwan, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Pratikshya; Massey, Douglas S

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examine which factors predict internal and international migration from Chitwan, a flat valley located in the South-Central region of Nepal, seeking to measure the effect of theoretically specified variables such as human capital, social capital, physical capital, and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions while controlling for demographic variables. We use data from the Chitwan Valley Family Study (CVFS) to estimate a series of discrete time event history models of first and repeat migration to three competing destinations: other locations within Chitwan, other districts within Nepal, and places outside of Nepal. Results support hypotheses derived from neoclassical economics, the theory of new economics of migration, social capital theory, and cumulative causation theory. Our results underscore the need for a synthetic theoretical model that incorporates factors operating at the individual, household, and community levels. The use of multiple explanatory models yields a clearer picture of the forces driving internal and international migration from rural districts in developing nations such as Nepal.

  9. Zika Virus: Yet Another Emerging Threat to Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimal, M; Gautam, I; Baral, G; Pandey, B; Karki, K B

    2015-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus with single stranded RNA related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes primarily by Aedes aegipti which is widely distributed in Nepal. ZIKV was first identified incidentally in Rhesus monkey in Uganda in 1947 and human infection in 1952; and by now outbreaks of ZIKV disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared the ZIKV an international public health emergency. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize origin, signs, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, preventions and management of ZIKV and possible threat to Nepal in light of endemicity of other arbovirus infections and common mosquito vector species in Nepal. Keyword: Aedes aegypti; aedes albopictus; zika virus; microcephaly; birth defect; Nepal.

  10. Serological response to Bartonella species in febrile patients from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Khin Saw Aye; Gibbons, Robert V; Iverson, Jennifer; Shrestha, Sanjaya K; Pavlin, Julie A; Mongkolsirichaikul, Duangrat; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2011-12-01

    The Bartonella-associated illnesses are spread world-wide and involve a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms in humans. Several Bartonella species have been shown to be responsible for cases of febrile illnesses. Little information exists on distribution of Bartonella species and their role in human diseases in Nepal. Our preliminary study, a retrospective serological survey of archived specimens, suggests that Bartonella antibodies are prevalent among febrile patients in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal.

  11. Government’s Strategy Against the Maoist Insurgency in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Most of the villages in the mountains and Himalayas are very remote with no modern development or infrastructure. Due to this diversity, there has...status from the hands of British imperialism and later from Indian expansionism.”6 S. D. Muni, in his book Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Challenges and...No Legitimacy to the Beneficiaries of the New Kot Massacre.” 7S. D. Muni is an Indian Professor who is said to be an influential Nepal policymaker

  12. A staff support programme for rural hospitals in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Mark; Shah, Sharada; Shakya, Rabina; Sundar Chansi, Bal; Shah, Kashim; Munday, Daniel; Eyal, Nir; Hayes, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem District hospitals in Nepal struggle to provide essential services such as caesarean sections. Approach Retention of health workers is critical to the delivery of long-term, quality health-care services. To promote retention and enhance performance in rural public hospitals, the Government of Nepal and the Nick Simons Institute progressively implemented a rural staff support programme in remote hospitals. After competitive selection for a compulsory-service scholarship and tr...

  13. Treeline dynamics with climate change at the central Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Treeline shifting in tandem with climate change has widely been reported from various parts of the world. In Nepal, several impacts of climate change on the physical environment have been observed, but study on the biological impacts is lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline in the high mountain slope of Kalchuman Lake (3750–4003 m a.s.l.) area of Manaslu Conservation Area in the central Nepal Himalaya to explore the impact of climate change ...

  14. Report on the third Nepal Geological Congress, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattarai, Pankaj; Aoyama, Kiyomichi

    2001-01-01

    The Geology of Himalayan Region is very complex and mysterious as well as interesting. Many geo-scientists around the world are doing research to study its complexity. Nepal Geological society, one of the leading professional groups of geo-scientists of Nepal has organized a congress. More than 250 Geo-scientists and civil engineers from 15 countries have taken part in this three days long congress. 50 oral papers were presented in 6 different topics: Regional geology and tectonics, Hydrogeol...

  15. Is there new public health management (NPM) in Nepal? Arguments for and against NPM in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a reflection about whether new public management (NPM) styles of reforms seen in other developing countries are also seen in Nepal, and to substantiate these facts with the available evidence and findings. The author saw the emergence of NPM ideas in Western industrialized countries like the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Now it exists in several developing countries of Africa and Asia; but it is very hard to generalize the degree and scope of NPM elements' existence. In Southeast Asia, there is still a mix of the old bureaucratic system with new NPM-oriented reform initiatives. Series of administrative reforms, donor conditionality, and the reestablishment of democracy in the country after 1991 have influenced an orientation toward an efficient, people-oriented, mixed-economy model with increasing partnership of private agencies and nongovernmental organizations in Nepal. The political movement of the last 15 years in the country has strongly called for a new, efficient, and performance-oriented administration and management culture in the country. There are several initiatives already introduced (public-private partnership, decentralization, good governance, accountability/public auditing, performance-based outcome/results-oriented financing and reporting systems). However, to take this momentum up, it still requires strong willingness of political leaders and senior administrators. At the moment, peace and stability of turmoil, political stability, state-of-the-art management skills, and supportive organizational culture are the fundamental requirements for increasing the realization of, and sustaining the NPM-oriented reforms in Nepal.

  16. Communicating awareness of light pollution with the schools in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Jayanta

    2015-08-01

    Nepal is also highly polluted by the lights and other dusts partials, but lacks the formal education of light pollutions and effect of light for astronomy observations. When we get Sky Quality Meter (SQM) last year (2014) we have installed it in Kathmandu.This paper will highlight about installation SQM in Nepal, measurement of brightness of the night sky in magnitudes per square arc second. Research work of light pollution of Kathmandu will be more in focus. Highlight of the Astronomy programs by different Schools in Nepal along with the background of coverage of Astronomy education in the syllables of different education level. The various procedure , technique and idea used in providing the space education through different activities and program to school studentsThe paper will also deal with the Importance of light and use of artificial light. Beside it will also highlight the possibility of development of various observatories in Nepal because of its tremendous topography increasing the Astro tourism in Nepal.Hence the paper would focus on the light pollution of the city like Kathmandu and light system in Nepal and Astronomy education to its implementation along with its outreach to Nepalese society.

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF IMPORTANT POLICIES FOR ACCELERATING DEVELOPMENT IN NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Neupane

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nepal belongs to one of the least developed countries around the world with HDI 157 out of 187 countries (UNDP 2013. Even though poverty in Nepal has reduced to 24.8% in the latest census, the livelihoods of the poorest people living in the remote communities are still vulnerable. Two third of the population still depends on the subsistence agriculture. Similarly, due to lack of job opportunities, youth migration is escalating and Nepal is facing one of the most critical phases of development in its history (Snellinger 2009. Inadequate infrastructure and poor road connectivity are other constraints for the development (World Bank 2011. It follows that, poor access to electricity is another challenge despite the country’s enormous potential for hydroelectricity. Similarly, Nepal  has huge prospective for tourism due to its unique natural resources (Bhandari 2004. Nonetheless, Nepal has not benefited optimally from the tourism sector for its self-sustained development. Recently Government of Nepal (2011 has announced diverse policies for accelerating development through proper utilization of local resources. This paper critically evaluates the crucial policies such as Agriculture Development Strategy, National Cooperatives Policy, National Youth Policy, and Micro-hydro for Rural Development, and Tourism for Development. The paper discusses each of these policies’ background; critically analyse the likelihood as well as challenges for fast-tracking development; and finally offers some recommendations based discussion and analysis.

  18. Highly Pathogenic Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Clade 2.3.2.1a in Poultry, Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova-Petkova, Atanaska; Franks, John; Tenzin, Sangay; Dahal, Narapati; Dukpa, Kinzang; Dorjee, Jambay; Feeroz, Mohammed M.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Barman, Subrata; Krauss, Scott; McKenzie, Pamela; Webby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1), clade 2.3.2.1a, with an H9-like polymerase basic protein 1 gene, isolated in Bhutan in 2012, replicated faster in vitro than its H5N1 parental genotype and was transmitted more efficiently in a chicken model. These properties likely help limit/eradicate outbreaks, combined with strict control measures. PMID:27584733

  19. Isolation and characterization of influenza A virus (subtype H5N1) that caused the first highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in chicken in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, S C; Dahal, N; Nagarajan, S; Tosh, C; Murugkar, H V; Rinzin, K; Sharma, B; Jain, R; Katare, M; Patil, S; Khandia, R; Syed, Z; Tripathi, S; Behera, P; Kumar, M; Kulkarni, D D; Krishna, Lal

    2012-02-24

    We characterized Influenza A/H5N1 virus that caused the first outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in chickens in Bhutan in 2010. The virus was highly virulent to chicken, killing them within two days of the experimental inoculation with an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) of 2.88. For genetic and phylogenetic analyses, complete genome sequencing of 4 viral isolates was carried out. The isolates revealed multiple basic amino acids at their hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site, similar to other "Qinghai-like" H5N1 isolates. The receptor-binding site of HA molecule contained avian-like amino acids ((222)Q and (224)G). The isolates also contained amino acid residue K at position 627 of the PB2 protein, and other markers in NS 1 and PB1 proteins, highlighting the risk to mammals. However, the isolates were sensitive to influenza drugs presently available in the market. The sequence analysis indicated that the Bhutan viruses shared 99.1-100% nucleotide homology in all the eight genes among themselves and 2010 chicken isolate from Bangladesh (A/chicken/Bangladesh/1151-11/2010) indicating common progenitor virus. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Bhutan isolates belonged to sub-clade 2.2.3 (EMA 3) and shared common progenitor virus with the 2010 Bangladesh virus. Based on the evidence of phylogeny and molecular markers, it could be concluded that the outbreaks in Bhutan and Bangladesh in 2010 were due to independent introductions of the virus probably through migratory birds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Man-animal relationships in Central Nepal

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    Lohani Usha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal is small in size but rich in bio-cultural diversity. The rugged terrain of the country is home to a number of unique assemblages of fauna, some of which are endemic. Not only faunal resources the country also harbors some very ancient populations whose interrelationship with these diverse faunal resources is very intimate and thus demands scientific study. Animals play important role in both material and spiritual spheres of their life. There are more than hundred groups of such populations in the country and the group Tamang is one of these. The present paper studies Tamang-animal relationships in central Nepal. There is a growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies all across the globe, but this field is yet in its infancy in Nepal. The country is losing important fauna as well as ancient human cultures at the advent of development processes. As a result, ethnozoological knowledge is also teetering on the brink of extinction. Methods Ethnozoological data were collected by applying different participatory approaches techniques such as semi-structured interviews, participatory rural appraisal, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were obtained by employing a household level questionnaire survey. Data were collected from the period of September 2004 to August 2005. Most of the animals were identified up to the species level with the help of standard taxonomic keys. Results The Tamang community treasures knowledge on various uses of 41 genera belonging to 28 families. Out of total number of animals, 14.6% belong to the Invertebrate group and the rest to the Vertebrate group. Of the total uses 58% fall in the food and medicinal use category, 16% in the magico-religious use category, 18% in the category of omen indication, and 2% each in the categories such as weather forecasting, trophy, ethnomusical and taboos. Conclusions The Tamang maintain strong ties with animals both at a

  1. Sexual coercion of married women in Nepal

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    Adhikari Ramesh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual coercion is an important public health issue due to its negative association with social and health outcomes. The paper aims to examine the prevalence of sexual coercion perpetrated by husbands on their wives in Nepal and to identify the characteristics associated with this phenomenon. Methods The data used in this paper comes from a cross-sectional survey on "Domestic Violence in Nepal" carried out in 2009. A total of 1,536 married women were interviewed and associations between sexual coercion and the explanatory variables were assessed via bivariate analysis using Chi-square tests. Logistic regression was then applied to assess the net effect of several independent variables on sexual coercion. Results Overall, about three in five women (58% had experienced some form of sexual coercion by their husbands. Logistic regression analysis found that the literacy status of women, decision-making power regarding their own health care, husband-wife age differences, alcohol consumption by the husband, and male patriarchal control all had significant associations with women's experience of sexual coercion. Literate women had 28% less chance (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 0.72 of experiencing sexual coercion by their husbands than did illiterate women. Women who made decisions jointly with their husbands with regard to their own health care were 36% less likely (aOR = 0.64 to experience sexual coercion than those whose health care was decided upon by their mothers/fathers-in-law. On the other hand, women whose husbands were 5 or more years older than they were more likely to report sexual coercion (aOR = 1.33 than were their counterparts, as were women whose husbands consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.27. Furthermore, women who experienced higher levels of patriarchal control from their husbands were also more likely to experience sexual coercion by their husbands (aOR = 7.2 compared to those who did not face such control. Conclusion The

  2. Using a Policy of ‘Gross National Happiness’ to Guide the Development of Sustainable Early Learning Programs in the Kingdom of Bhutan: Aspirations and Challenges

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    Jessica Ball

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A national study on demand for early childhood care and development programs in Bhutan found strong support for development of a new early childhood care and development (ECCD sector. A wide range of stakeholders participating in the study, including ministries of education and health, post-secondary institutions, private preschool providers, community management committees, parents and children, emphasized the goal of preschool to promote success in English-medium formal education. Promoting cultural traditions was also a priority, while developing children’s proficiency in home languages was hardly mentioned. The study highlighted the changing needs of Bhutanese families in the current context of increasing urbanization, dual career parents, and a shift from extended to nuclear family homes. Recommendations derived from the study encouraged a made in Bhutan approach to ECCD policy, programs, and professional education. Subsequent to the study, the national education policy included plans for implementation of ECCD covering children from birth to 8 years old. To ensure the sustainability and cultural congruence of new programs and investments with the Kingdom’s Gross National Happiness Policy, a Gross National Happiness Commission screened and approved the new National Education Policy, which the Ministry of Education is charged with implementing. The emergence of an ECCD sector in Bhutan points to the role that national aspirations and value-driven policies and review processes could play in maintaining language diversity and transmitting culturally based knowledge.

  3. Conflict, forced displacement and health in Sri Lanka: a review of the research landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2014-01-01

    Sri Lanka has recently emerged from nearly three decades of protracted conflict, which came to an end five years ago in 2009. A number of researchers have explored the devastating effect the conflict has had on public health, and its impact on Sri Lanka's health system - hailed as a success story in the South Asian region. Remarkably, no attempt has been made to synthesize the findings of such studies in order to build an evidence-informed research platform. This review aims to map the 'research landscape' on the impact of conflict on health in Sri Lanka. Findings highlight health status in select groups within affected communities and unmet needs of health systems in post-conflict regions. We contend that Sri Lanka's post-conflict research landscape requires exploration of individual, community and health system resilience, to provide better evidence for health programs and interventions after 26 years of conflict.

  4. The Solar Orientation of the Lion Rock Complex in Sri Lanka

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    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the solar orientation of the archaeological complex of Sigiriya, the Lion Rock, in Sri Lanka. We can see that the axis of this complex is oriented with the sunset of the zenithal sun.

  5. The history of nursing services and education in Sri Lanka and the effects on developing professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Rasika S; McCutcheon, Helen

    2006-10-01

    Understanding the evolution of nursing in a country provides perspective on the origins of current successes and dilemmas and enables the development of strategies and plans for future trends in the profession. This article explores the evolution of nursing services and education in Sri Lanka and the effects on developing professionalism in nursing. Internet database searches, personal communication, and published and unpublished literature and reports were reviewed to obtain historical information on nursing services and education in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan health system is reviewed, and the establishment of Western medicine in Sri Lanka and its effects on developing institutionalized nursing education is presented, with a focus on the evolution of nursing education. Major challenges for the nursing profession in Sri Lanka are discussed, and some recommendations are shared.

  6. Four Schools in Sri Lanka: Equality of Opportunity for Rural Children?

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    Kapferer, Judith

    1975-01-01

    Author described four schools he observed in Sri Lanka in 1971-72 in an attempt to determine the extent to which rural children are disadvantaged in terms of social mobility through educational achievement. (Author/RK)

  7. Bank Finance For Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises In Sri Lanka: Issues And Policy Reforms

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    Gamage Pandula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Access to bank finance is necessary to create an economic environment that enables Small and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to grow and prosper. The SMEs in Sri Lanka, however, face significant constraints to access bank finance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the access to bank finance and related issues in the SME sector of Sri Lanka. The paper is exploratory in nature and reviews the bank financing situation for SMEs in Sri Lanka, as well as provides an overview of constraints faced by the banks (supply-side and SMEs (demand-side. The paper also highlights some good practices in SME lending from international experience and outlines some recommendations to help overcome the constraints faced by the banks and SMEs. The recommendations discussed in this paper may be of importance to policymakers, not only in Sri Lanka, but in many other developing countries in a similar stage of economic growth.

  8. The Smooth-Coated Otter in Nepal

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    Houghton S.J.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available This study has shown that the Smooth-coated otter is common along the length of the Naryani river and that it relies heavily on fish. It also suggests their feeding habits are sufficiently flexible to adapt to local variations in their food supply. A comparison of river banks suggests human activities decrease the availability of suitable habitat and over-fishing decreases food supply. Extensive deforestation in the hills causes flooding and increases the turbidity of the lowland changing both the aquatic environment and the river's topography. Pollution, resulting from chemical discharge is increasingly an important problem in Nepal. Without an effective management plan controlling these, those animal species dependent on the riverine system may rapidly decrease in number or even disappear permanently.

  9. Volatile constituents of Pinus roxburghii from Nepal

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    Prabodh Satyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Is one of 3 species of pine found in Nepal, the oil of which is traditionally used to treat cuts, wounds, boils, and blisters. Objective: To obtain, analyze, and examine the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils of P. roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Three plant parts (cone, needle, and bark of Pinus roxburghii were collected in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. The needle and cone essential oils were screened for anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger; brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality; and in-vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. Results: GC-MS analysis for the cone oil revealed 81 compounds with 78 components being identified (95.5% of the oil while 98.3% of needle oil was identified to contain 68 components and 98.6% of the bark oil (38 components was identified. The 3 essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, particularly (E-caryophyllene (26.8%-34.5% and α-humulene (5.0%-7.3% as well as monoterpene alcohols terpinen-4-ol (4.1%-30.1% and α-terpineol(2.8%-5.0%. The monoterpene δ-3-carene was present only in needle and cone essential oils (2.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Bio-activity assays of the cone essential oil of P. roxburghii showed remarkable cytotoxic activity (100% killing of MCF-7 cells at 100 μg/mL along with notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 =11.8 μg/mL. The cone essential oil did not show anti-bacterial activity, but it did exhibit anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC=39 μg/mL. Conclusion: The bioactivity of P. roxburghii essential oil is consistent with its traditional medicinal use.

  10. Hearing impairment and ear pathology in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, P; Bridges, A; Guragain, R; Friedman, D; Prasad, R; Weir, N

    1993-05-01

    A stratified random cluster sample of 15,845 subjects was performed in two regions of Nepal to determine the prevalence and main causes of hearing impairment (the most common disability) and the prevalence of ear disease. Subjects reporting current ear pain, or ear discharge, or hearing impairment on direct questioning by a Nepali health worker (primary screening failed), had otoscopy and audiometry (using the Liverpool Field Audiometer) performed, and a questionnaire administered relating to past history. In every fifth house subjects who passed the primary screening (1,716 subjects) were examined to assess the false negative rate of screening. An estimated 16.6 per cent of the study population have hearing impairment (either ear worse than 30 dB hearing threshold level (HTL) 1.0-4.0 kHz, or 50 dB HTL 0.5 kHz), and 7.4 per cent ear drum pathology, equivalent to respectively 2.71 and 1.48 million people extrapolated to the whole of Nepal. Most hearing impairment in the school age group (55.2 per cent) is associated with otitis media or its sequelae. Probably at least 14 per cent of sensorineural deafness is preventable (7 per cent infectious disease, 3.9 per cent trauma, 0.8 per cent noise exposure, 1 per cent cretinism, and 1 per cent abnormal pregnancy or labour). Most individuals reporting current ear pathology (61 per cent) had never attended a health post, and of those receiving ear drop treatment, 84 per cent still had serious pathology. Of subjects who reported ear drop treatment at any time, 31 per cent still had serious pathology. The use of traditional remedies was prevalent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Internet-based media coverage on dengue in Sri Lanka between 2007 and 2015

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    Annelies Wilder-Smith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. Objective: To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri Lanka. Design: We examined Internet-based news media articles on dengue queried from HealthMap for Sri Lanka, for the period January 2007 to November 2015. For comparative purposes, we compared hits on dengue with hits on influenza and malaria. Results: There were 565 hits on dengue between 2007 and 2015, with a rapid rise in 2009 and followed by a rising trend ever since. These hits were highly correlated with the national epidemiological trend of dengue. The volume of digital media coverage of dengue was much higher than of influenza and malaria. Conclusions: Dengue in Sri Lanka is receiving increasing media attention. Our findings underpin previous claims that digital media reports reflect national epidemiological trends, both in annual trends and inter-annual seasonal variation, thus acting as proxy biosurveillance to provide early warning and situation awareness of emerging infectious diseases.

  12. Teaching English as a Foreign/Second Language in Nepal: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews the history of English language teaching English as a second or foreign language in schools and colleges in Nepal. Teaching English language and literature in Nepal is of about a half a decade, starting from the mid of twentieth century. English learners in Nepal do not have enough exposure to various techniques…

  13. Non-economic gains of Sri Lanka's FTAs with neighbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandara, Jayatilleke S.; Yu, Wusheng

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to answer the question: does a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA) lead to an improvement in the security of a member country and greater peace between two member countries in the developing world? Design/methodology/approach – This paper reviews existing...... motivations of countries forming regional and bilateral trading arrangements, this paper adds to understanding of what motivates small developing countries to form trade agreements with big neighbours....... literature and uses the idea of non-economic gains from regional trading agreements to explain how Sri Lanka managed to use FTAs to neutralise India and obtain military assistance from Pakistan using its FTAs with two countries during the recently concluded war. Findings – Even though political objectives...

  14. Birds of Sabaragamuwa University campus, Buttala, Sri Lanka

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    T.D. Surasinghe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a bird survey in the Sabaragamuwa University premises in southeastern Sri Lanka between 2001 and 2004. We recorded 145 bird species, representing 17 orders and 51 families from the campus. The birdlife included Red-faced Malkoha, a globally Vulnerable species and four Near Threatened taxa. The university premises suffer from severe habitat alteration largely owing to fire, filling-up of aquatic habitats, resource over-extraction, improper waste management, invasion by exotic species and livestock grazing. Several conservation measures, including habitat management strategies such as restoration of riparian vegetation, and wetlands, increasing plant diversity in home gardens and prevention of secondary successions in grasslands are recommended to protect the campus environment and to conserve its avifaunal diversity.

  15. Malaria in Sri Lanka: one year post-tsunami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briët, Olivier J T; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H

    2006-01-01

    have been higher than recorded, although there were no indications of this and it is unlikely to have affected the overall trend significantly. The focus of national and international post tsunami malaria control efforts was supply of antimalarials, distribution of impregnated mosquito nets...... and increased monitoring in the affected area. Internationally donated antimalarials were either redundant or did not comply with national drug policy, however, few seem to have entered circulation outside government control. Despite distribution of mosquito nets, still a large population is relatively exposed...... to mosquito bites due to inadequate housing. There were no indications of increased malaria vector abundance. Overall it is concluded that the tsunami has not negatively influenced the malaria situation in Sri Lanka....

  16. Fossilized diatoms in meteorites from recent falls in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Wallis, Jamie; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Samaranayake, Anil; Williams, George; Jerman, Gregory; Wallis, D. H.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2013-09-01

    On December 29, 2012, a bright yellow and green fireball was observed to disintegrate over the Polonnaruwa District of North Central, Sri Lanka. Many low density, black stones were recovered soon after the observed fall from rice paddy fields near the villages of Aralaganwila and Dimbulagala. These stones were initially studied by optical microscopy methods at the Medical Research Institute in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Soon thereafter, samples were sent to the UK and to the United States. More extensive Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy studies were then carried out at Cardiff University and the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center. The physico-chemical properties, elemental abundances, mineralogy and stable isotope data clearly indicate that these stones are non-terrestrial. Freshly fractured interior surfaces of the black stones have also been observed to contain the remains of fossilized diatom. Many of the diatom frustules are clearly embedded in the meteorite rock matrix and exhibit nitrogen levels below the EDX detection limits. Some of the fossil diatoms are araphid marine pennates and planktonic forms that are inconsistent with conditions associated with rice paddy fields. These observations indicate the fossilized diatoms are indigenous to the meteorites rather than post-arrival biological contaminants. The carbon content and mineralogy suggests that these stones may represent a previously ungrouped clan of carbonaceous meteorites. The extremely low density (~0.6) of the stones and their observed mineralogy was inconsistent with known terrestrial rocks (e.g., pumice, diatomite and fulgurites). The minerals detected suggest that the parent body of the Polonnaruwa stones may have been the nucleus of a comet. These observations are interpreted as supporting the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Panspermia hypothesis and the hypothesis that diatoms and other microorganisms might be capable of living and growing in water ice and brines in comets.

  17. Assessing medication packaging and labelling appropriateness in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athuraliya, N; Walkom, E J; Dharmaratne, S; Robertson, J

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of poor dispensing practices with inadequate packaging and labelling of medicines, and limited advice on their usage in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). We examined the labelling and packaging of medicines identified during a survey of 1322 households in six regions of Sri Lanka between 2010 and 2013 conducted using the World Health Organization (WHO) methodology for household surveys. We compared medicines obtained from public and private sources and asked interviewees if they understood how to take the medicines. Packaging was considered adequate when the primary package was an envelope or closable container holding only one medicine. Adequate labels were legible and included medicine name, dose and expiration date. Interviewers assessed whether respondents knew how to take the medicines. Of 1322 households, 1253 households (94.8%) had at least one medicine; 84% were classified as western medicines and 16% traditional medicines. Of 5756 western medicines identified, 82.1% were adequately packaged, 43.3% adequately labelled and 41.4% both adequately packaged and labelled. Participants stated that they understood the label and knew how to take 96% of the medicines. Private medicine sources had more adequately packaged medicines than public sources (87.7% vs 73.5%; OR 2.58, 95% CI 2.23, 2.99) and more adequately labelled medicines (52.2% vs 27.4%; OR 2.90, 95% CI 2.57, 3.26). Inadequate packaging and labelling of medicines remain a concern in Sri Lanka. Commitment to Good Pharmacy Practices, investments in staff education and training and adequate dispensing resources (containers and labels), particularly in the public sector, are needed to address sub-optimal dispensing practices. Ageing populations with more chronic diseases requiring polypharmacy and complex medicine regimens increase the need for appropriately packaged and labelled medicines.

  18. Supporting elephant conservation in Sri Lanka through MODIS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Kithsiri; Tateishi, Ryutaro

    2012-10-01

    The latest national elephant survey of Sri Lanka (2011) revealed Sri Lanka has 5,879 elephants. The total forest cover for these elephants is about 19,500 sq km (2012 estimation) and estimated forest area is about 30% of the country when smaller green patches are also counted. However, studies have pointed out that a herd of elephants need about a 100 sq km of forest patch to survive. With a high human population density (332 people per sq km, 2010), the pressure for land to feed people and elephants is becoming critical. Resent reports have indicated about 250 elephants are killed annually by farmers and dozens of people are also killed by elephants. Under this context, researchers are investigating various methods to assess the elephant movements to address the issues of Human-Elephant-Conflict (HEC). Apart from various local remedies for the issue, the conservation of elephant population can be supported by satellite imagery based studies. MODIS sensor imagery can be considered as a successful candidate here. Its spatial resolution is low (250m x 250m) but automatically filters out small forest patches in the mapping process. The daily imagery helps to monitor temporal forest cover changes. This study investigated the background information of HEC and used MODIS 250m imagery to suggest applicability of satellite data for Elephant conservations efforts. The elephant movement information was gathered from local authorities and potentials to identify bio-corridors were discussed. Under future research steps, regular forest cover monitoring through MODIS data was emphasized as a valuable tool in elephant conservations efforts.

  19. Models for short term malaria prediction in Sri Lanka

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    Galappaththy Gawrie NL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in Sri Lanka is unstable and fluctuates in intensity both spatially and temporally. Although the case counts are dwindling at present, given the past history of resurgence of outbreaks despite effective control measures, the control programmes have to stay prepared. The availability of long time series of monitored/diagnosed malaria cases allows for the study of forecasting models, with an aim to developing a forecasting system which could assist in the efficient allocation of resources for malaria control. Methods Exponentially weighted moving average models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models with seasonal components, and seasonal multiplicative autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA models were compared on monthly time series of district malaria cases for their ability to predict the number of malaria cases one to four months ahead. The addition of covariates such as the number of malaria cases in neighbouring districts or rainfall were assessed for their ability to improve prediction of selected (seasonal ARIMA models. Results The best model for forecasting and the forecasting error varied strongly among the districts. The addition of rainfall as a covariate improved prediction of selected (seasonal ARIMA models modestly in some districts but worsened prediction in other districts. Improvement by adding rainfall was more frequent at larger forecasting horizons. Conclusion Heterogeneity of patterns of malaria in Sri Lanka requires regionally specific prediction models. Prediction error was large at a minimum of 22% (for one of the districts for one month ahead predictions. The modest improvement made in short term prediction by adding rainfall as a covariate to these prediction models may not be sufficient to merit investing in a forecasting system for which rainfall data are routinely processed.

  20. Mobile assessment of on-road air pollution and its sources along the East-West Highway in Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Tenzin; Knibbs, Luke D.; He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-10-01

    Human exposures in transportation microenvironments are poorly represented by ambient stationary monitoring. A number of on-road studies using vehicle-based mobile monitoring have been conducted to address this. Most previous studies were conducted on urban roads in developed countries where the primary emission source was vehicles. Few studies have examined on-road pollution in developing countries in urban settings. Currently, no study has been conducted for roadways in rural environments where a substantial proportion of the population live. This study aimed to characterize on-road air quality on the East-West Highway (EWH) in Bhutan and identify its principal sources. We conducted six mobile measurements of PM10, particle number (PN) count and CO along the entire 570 km length of the EWH. We divided the EWH into five segments, R1-R5, taking the road length between two district towns as a single road segment. The pollutant concentrations varied widely along the different road segments, with the highest concentrations for R5 compared with other road segments (PM10 = 149 μg/m3, PN = 5.74 × 104 particles/cm-3, CO = 0.19 ppm), which is the final segment of the road to the capital. Apart from vehicle emissions, the dominant sources were road works, unpaved roads and roadside combustion activities. Overall, the highest contributions above the background levels were made by unpaved roads for PM10 (6 times background), and vehicle emissions for PN and CO (5 and 15 times background, respectively). Notwithstanding the differences in instrumentation used and particle size range measured, the current study showed lower PN concentrations compared with similar on-road studies. However, concentrations were still high enough that commuters, road maintenance workers and residents living along the EWH, were potentially exposed to elevated pollutant concentrations from combustion and non-combustion sources. Future studies should focus on assessing the dispersion patterns of

  1. The 2015 Gorkha Nepal Earthquake: Insights from Earthquake Damage Survey

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    Katsuichiro eGoda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2015 Gorkha Nepal earthquake caused tremendous damage and loss. To gain valuable lessons from this tragic event, an earthquake damage investigation team was dispatched to Nepal from 1 May 2015 to 7 May 2015. A unique aspect of the earthquake damage investigation is that first-hand earthquake damage data were obtained 6 to 11 days after the mainshock. To gain deeper understanding of the observed earthquake damage in Nepal, the paper reviews the seismotectonic setting and regional seismicity in Nepal and analyzes available aftershock data and ground motion data. The earthquake damage observations indicate that the majority of the damaged buildings were stone/brick masonry structures with no seismic detailing, whereas the most of RC buildings were undamaged. This indicates that adequate structural design is the key to reduce the earthquake risk in Nepal. To share the gathered damage data widely, the collected damage data (geo-tagged photos and observation comments are organized using Google Earth and the kmz file is made publicly available.

  2. The trajectory of methadone maintenance treatment in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambekar, Atul; Rao, Ravindra; Pun, Anan; Kumar, Suresh; Kishore, Kunal

    2013-11-01

    There are about 28,500 people who inject drugs (PWID) in Nepal and HIV prevalence among this group is high. Nepal introduced harm reduction services for PWID much earlier than other countries in South Asia. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Nepal in 1994. This initial small scale MMT programme was closed in 2002 but reopened in 2007 as an emergency HIV prevention response. It has since been scaled up to include three MMT clinics and continuation of MMT is supported by the Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA; the nodal ministry for drug supply reduction activities) and has been endorsed in the recent National Narcotics policy. Pressure from drug user groups has also helped its reintroduction. Interestingly, these developments have taken place during a period of political instability in Nepal, with the help of strong advocacy from multiple stakeholders. The MMT programme has also had to face resistance from those who were running drug treatment centres. Despite overcoming such troubles, the MMT programme faces a number of challenges. Coverage of MMT is low and high-risk injecting and sexual behaviour among PWID continues. The finance for MMT is largely from external donors and these donations have become scarce with the current global economic problems. With a multitude of developmental challenges for Nepal, the position of MMT in the national priority list is uncertain. Ownership of the programme by government, a cost-effective national MMT scale up plan and rigorous monitoring of its implementation is needed.

  3. Notes on Cordyceps species Collected from the Central Region of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bhushan

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to explore the Cordyceps species and other entomopathogenic fungal flora around Kathmandu Valley and a few high altitude locations of Nepal. In this paper, we report eight Cordyceps species as new to Nepal: C. gracilis, C. ishikariensis, C. liangshanensis, C. martialis, C. militaris, C. pruinosa, C. sphecocephala and C. tricentri. We also mention a few allied genera such as Beauveria, Hirsutella and Paecilomyces from Nepal. Further collections from different ecological regions of Nepal will show the richness of entomopathogenic fungal floral diversity of Nepal. PMID:24049507

  4. Political Instability in Nepal: Examining the Roles of the Parties and Monarchy in the Second Democratic Period (1990-2002)

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak , Surya Prasad; Surya Prasad, Pathak

    2012-01-01

    This paper has related two goals. First, it examines the root causes of the breakdown of democracy in Nepal, focuses on second democratic period (1990-2002), and second, it explores the future prospects of democracy in Nepal. In order to identify the problems of the breakdown of democracy in Nepal, this research draws upon interviews conducted in Nepal with politicians of the two largest parties in the second democratic period (1990-2002), the Nepali Congress and the Communist Party of Nepal ...

  5. Association between Sleep Duration and Self-Reported Health Status: Findings from the Bhutan's Gross National Happiness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithey, Gyambo; Wen, Li Ming; Kelly, Patrick; Li, Mu

    2017-01-15

    Short and long sleep durations have been found to be associated with chronic conditions like diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. However, most studies were conducted in developed countries and the results were inconsistent. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between sleep duration and self-reported health status in a developing country setting. We conducted secondary data analysis of the 2010 Gross National Happiness study of Bhutan, which was a nationwide cross sectional study with representative samples from rural and urban areas. The study included 6476 participants aged 15-98 y. The main outcome variable of interest was self-reported health status. Sleep duration was categorized as ≤ 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, 9 h, 10 h, and ≥ 11 h. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to investigate the association between sleep duration and self-reported health status. The mean sleep duration was 8.5 (± 1.65) h. Only 9% of the respondents slept for 7 h; 6% were short sleepers (≤ 6 h) and 84% were long sleepers (21%, 8 h; 28%, 9 h; 22%, 10 h; 13%, ≥ 11 h). We found that both short (≤ 6 h) and long sleep duration (≥ 11 h) were independently associated with poor self-reported health status. This study found that people with shorter and longer sleep durations were more likely to report poorer health status.

  6. Traditional Knowledge in the Time of Neo-Liberalism: Access and Benefit-Sharing Regimes in India and Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Barpujari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In a neoliberal world, traditional knowledge (TK of biodiversity possessed by Indigenous and Local Communities (ILCs in the global South has become a valuable "commodity" or "bio-resource," necessitating the setting up of harmonized ground rules (international and national in the form of an access and benefitsharing regime to facilitate its exchange in the world market. Despite criticisms that a regime with a neo-liberal orientation is antithetical to the normative ethos of ILCs, it could also offer a chance for developing countries and ILCs to generate revenue for socioeconomic development—to which they are gradually becoming open, but only under fair and equitable terms. Based on this context, this article proposes to look into the legal and policy frameworks and institutional regimes governing access and benefit sharing of TK associated with biological resources in two countries of South Asia: India and Bhutan. The article seeks to examine how such regimes are reconciling the imperatives of a neo-liberal economy with providing a just and equitable framework for ILCs and TK holders, which is truly participatory and not top-down.

  7. Development of coffee production in Nepal : analysis of an appropriate supply chain and institutional support for production and export of specialty coffee from Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Egil Ragnar

    2008-01-01

    The coffee industry in Nepal is young, and it is only since 2003 that export of washed Arabica coffee has commenced. The industry seems to be rather fragmented with several exporting companies competing to collect the relatively small output of the coffee production system. Two Norwegian investors are looking to promote coffee production for export from three hilly districts in eastern Nepal. There seems to be some recognition that coffee from Nepal can satisfy the quality criteria for specia...

  8. Intentional burns in Nepal: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Bir Bahadur; Duke, Janine M; Sharma, Narayan Prasad; Thapa, Buland; Dahal, Peeyush; Bariya, Nara Devi; Marston, Wendy; Wallace, Hilary J

    2015-09-01

    Intentional burns injuries are associated with high mortality rates, and for survivors, high levels of physical and psychological morbidity. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of intentional burn admissions to the adult Burns Unit at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, during the period 2002-2013. A secondary data analysis of de-identified data of patients hospitalized at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, with a burn during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2013. Socio-demographic, injury and psychosocial factors of patients with intentional and unintentional burns are described and compared. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine statistical significance. There were a total of 1148 burn admissions of which 329 (29%) were for intentional burn, 293 (26%) were self-inflicted and 36 (3%) were due to assault. Mortality rates for intentional burns were approximately three times those for unintentional burns (60 vs. 22%). When compared to unintentional burns, patients with intentional burns were more likely to be female (79 vs. 48%), married (84 vs. 67%), younger (25 vs. 30 years), have more extensive burns (total body surface area, %: 55 vs. 25) and higher mortality (60 vs. 22%). Intentional burns were more likely to occur at home (95 vs. 67%), be caused by fire (96 vs. 77%), and kerosene was the most common accelerant (91 vs. 31%). A primary psychosocial risk factor was identified in the majority of intentional burn cases, with 60% experiencing adjustment problems/interpersonal conflict and 32% with evidence of a pre-existing psychological condition. A record of alcohol/substance abuse related to the patient or other was associated with a greater proportion of intentional burns when compared with unintentional burns (17 vs. 4%). The majority of intentional burn patients were female. Almost all intentional burns occurred in the home and were caused by fire, with kerosene the most common accelerant used. Underlying

  9. Drug retailer training: experiences from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, K K; Gartoulla, R P; Pradhan, Y M; Shrestha, A D; Karkee, S B; Quick, J D

    1992-10-01

    Sale of modern medicines by untrained peddlers, general merchants, and other drug sellers is common throughout the developing world. Drug sellers operating in the 'informal sector' are often the first source of health care outside the home. Reasons given by patients for using private drug sellers include expediency, convenience, efficacy of the medicines, dependability of supply, and reasonable cost. At the same time, self-medication through private drug sellers can be ineffective, wasteful, and at times distinctly harmful. Regulatory approaches to controlling drug selling in the informal sector, widely endorsed on paper through national drug control legislation, require a cadre of professional regulatory staff and enforcement mechanisms which are too often beyond the current economic and political reach of countries. In Nepal, where rugged terrain has limited infrastructure development, the doctor to population ratio is 1:23,000, utilization of government health services averages only 0.2 visits per person per year. Retail drug outlets outnumber health posts and health centers by a ratio of 4:1 and private drug sellers often offer the only access to modern medicine for much of the population. Community surveys have found that drug retailers are very often the first and only source of health care outside the home. Given the importance of retail drug outlets and the lack of trained pharmacists, the Department of Drug Administration in 1981 established a 45-hr course for drug retailers which emphasized practical training as well as formal teaching on pharmacology, ethics, storage of drugs, and legal issues. By the end of 1989, 4096 drug retailers had graduated from the course. Still run by the Ministry of Health Department of Drug Administration, the course has proven to be administratively feasible and has been quite popular with drug retailers. Initial reservations expressed by doctors and some pharmacists were soon overcome, and the course is now well accepted by

  10. La mise à jour du traité de 1949 entre l’Inde et le Bhutan : l’amorce d’une nouvelle politique indienne de voisinage ? The Revision of the Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty, 1949: a new Diplomacy towards India's Neighbours ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Sermet

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le traité de voisinage, de 1949, entre l'Inde et le Bhutan a été réécrit et corrigé dans ses aspects les plus discutables. Ce renouvellement intervient alors que le Bhutan connaît des réformes politiques visant à introduire des éléments de parlementarisme constitutionnel au sein de son régime monarchique. Du côté indien, faut-il considérer que cette initiative diplomatique pourrait retentir sur le traité indo-népalais de 1950, et surtout sur les relations difficiles entretenues avec la Chine et le Pakistan ?

  11. Balancing Energy, Food, Natural Resources and Environment in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dilli Bahadur

    2010-09-15

    Nepal could harness less than 1% of its 83000 MW hydropower potential. Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project (6720 MW) is a bi-national project on Mahakali River bordering between Nepal and India. The earnings from: electricity (NRs. 34.55 billion/year); irrigation (NRs. 5.55 billion/year), fish farming (NRs. 8.65 billion/year), carbon trading (NRs. 4.42 billion/year) and many billions from other sources e.g. eco-tourism, industry, horticulture, herbiculture, floriculture, sericulture, rafting and water sports, educational and vocational training and other industrial/commercial activities can catapult the socioeconomic horizon of Nepal. Hence, PMP should be jointly developed in the earliest and build confidence for the further hydropower development.

  12. Japanese encephalitis: Challenges and intervention opportunities in Nepal

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    Shristi Ghimire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is a mosquito borne zoonotic disease caused by JE virus (JEV. JE has been endemic in Terai region, the lowland plains of Nepal bordering India, since 1978. However, in recent years cases of JE has been continuously reported from high altitude zones of hills and mountains. Irrigated rice farming system, expanded pig husbandry practices, inadequate vaccine coverage, low level of public awareness and climate change favoring mosquito breeding in higher altitudes might be the probable risk factors for emergence and re-emergence of JE in Nepal. Repeated outbreak in endemic areas and geographical expansion to newer areas have created huge challenge for JE prevention and control. At present, JE is one of the major public health concern of Nepal. Expanding vaccine coverage, improving agricultural practices, generating public awareness, supporting for use of mosquito avoiding practices and regional collaboration at border against JE can be helpful in getting better control over it in future.

  13. Challenges in diabetes mellitus type 2 management in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Ferrario, Alessandra; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    on the prevalence, cost and treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 and its complications in Nepal and to critically assess the challenges to be addressed to contain the epidemic and its negative economic impact. Design A comprehensive review of available evidence and data sources on prevalence, risk factors, cost......, complications, treatment, and management of diabetes mellitus type 2 in Nepal was conducted through an online database search for articles published in English between January 2000 and November 2015. Additionally, we performed a manual search of articles and reference lists of published articles for additional...... references. Results Diabetes mellitus type 2 is emerging as a major health care problem in Nepal, with rising prevalence and its complications especially in urban populations. Several challenges in diabetes management were identified, including high cost of treatment, limited health care facilities, and lack...

  14. Challenges in diabetes mellitus type 2 management in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Ferrario, Alessandra; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    on the prevalence, cost and treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 and its complications in Nepal and to critically assess the challenges to be addressed to contain the epidemic and its negative economic impact. DESIGN: A comprehensive review of available evidence and data sources on prevalence, risk factors, cost......, complications, treatment, and management of diabetes mellitus type 2 in Nepal was conducted through an online database search for articles published in English between January 2000 and November 2015. Additionally, we performed a manual search of articles and reference lists of published articles for additional...... references. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus type 2 is emerging as a major health care problem in Nepal, with rising prevalence and its complications especially in urban populations. Several challenges in diabetes management were identified, including high cost of treatment, limited health care facilities...

  15. 10+2 Agenda for Public Health in Nepal

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    K C Gautam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health has come a long way in Nepal, but there is still a long way to go. Over the past years some remarkable achievements have been made in millennium development goals, such as reduction of child mortality, maternal mortality and fertility. However, there still exist wide gaps in healthcoverage among different ethnic groups, geographic regions and gender. In this context, a 10+2 agenda is recommended for scaling-up essentialhealth care in Nepal. These focus on equity, tackling malnutrition, prioritizing non-communicable diseases, preventing accidents, injuries and disabilities, promoting environmental health, harnessing the power of education and communication for behavior change, strengthening healthsystems, fostering public-private partnership, capitalizing on international health partnerships, as well as institutionalizing a culture of non-violence, and consolidating genuine democracy. KEYWORDS: 10+2 agenda, Nepal, public health

  16. Astronomy Olympiad: An Initiative To Promote Astronomy Education In Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Suresh

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents National Astronomy Olympiad Program as a new initiative towards the development of astronomy education in Nepal by Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO).Innovoative components of the olympiad programs designed by NASO to engage both scince and non-science backgound people will be discussed in detail. It will discuss the first National Astronomy Olympiad 2014 and Second National Astronomy Olympiad 2015 in details. It will also present crowd funding, its effectiveness to outreach as well as collecting funds from around the world will be presented in brief. Proposed module of astronomy olympiad to promote astronnomy in the countries without formal astronomy education in high school like Nepal,will be presented in dedail. Possible strategry to strengthen such programs in developing nations and role of IAU to promote such educational program will be explored in detail.

  17. Medical education and training in Nepal: SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, H; Marahatta, S B

    2008-01-01

    To analyse the impact of the medical colleges that have been set up within the last two decades by production of the doctors and the effect on the health of the people. SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunities and threats) analysis of medical education in Nepal has been done by reviewing medical manpower produced by the different institutions in the undergraduate and postgraduate (PG) categories, their registration with the Nepal Medical Council in terms of the existing health scenario of the country. Shows severe shortage of basic sciences teachers. In the clinical areas ophthalmic manpower and services provided are exemplary. There are shortages and shortcomings in all areas if standard health care is to be provided to the Nepalese. There is a long way to go to provide the expected educational and medical services to foreigners prepared to pay more to avail of this in Nepal.

  18. Public health impacts of climate change in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, H D; Dhimal, B; Dhimal, M; Bhusal, C L

    2011-04-01

    Climate change is a global issue in this century which has challenged the survival of living creatures affecting the life supporting systems of the earth: atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Scientists have reached in a consensus that climate change is happening. The anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases is responsible for global warming and therefore climate change. Climate change may directly or indirectly affect human health through a range of pathways related to temperature and precipitation. The aim of this article is to share knowledge on how climate change can affect public health in Nepal based on scientific evidence from global studies and experience gained locally. In this review attempt has been made to critically analyze the scientific studies as well as policy documents of Nepalese Government and shed light on public health impact of climate change in the context of Nepal. Detailed scientific study is recommended to discern impact of climate change on public health problems in Nepal.

  19. Nurses' views on need for professional development in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, G K; Bhandari, N; Singh, B

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the nurses' views on need for professional development and barriers in Nepal. This is a qualitative content analysis study conducted among nurses from different health institutes. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to obtain their views on need of professional development and major barriers against professional development in Nepal. Eleven nurses for in-depth interviews and three groups of six nurses each for focus group discussions were selected purposefully from Kathmandu University Hospital, Dhulikhel and Tribhuban University Teachng Hospital, Kathmnadu. Five themes emerged from qualitative data. "Continuing professional development", "supportive management", "nursing leadership", "recognition and respect" and "professional networking" were considered as essential factors for professional development. Lack of "commitment by the nurses", "female gender professional" and "lack of autonomy" were felt as barriers for the nursing professioanl development. Continuing professional development and supportive working environment are crucial to make nursing profession more dynamic and appealing in Nepal.

  20. Ethics Review Committee approval and informed consent: an analysis of biomedical publications originating from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwardhana Chesmal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International guidelines on research have focused on protecting research participants. Ethical Research Committee (ERC approval and informed consent are the cornerstones. Externally sponsored research requires approval through ethical review in both the host and the sponsoring country. This study aimed to determine to what extent ERC approval and informed consent procedures are documented in locally and internationally published human subject research carried out in Sri Lanka. Methods We obtained ERC approval in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. Theses from 1985 to 2005 available at the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM library affiliated to the University of Colombo were scrutinised using checklists agreed in consultation with senior research collaborators. A Medline search was carried out with MeSH major and minor heading 'Sri Lanka' as the search term for international publications originating in Sri Lanka during 1999 to 2004. All research publications from CMJ during 1999 to 2005 were also scrutinized. Results Of 291 theses, 34% documented ERC approvals and 61% documented obtaining consent. From the international journal survey, 250 publications originated from Sri Lanka of which only 79 full text original research publications could be accessed electronically. Of these 38% documented ERC approval and 39% documented obtaining consent. In the Ceylon Medical Journal 36% documented ERC approval and 37% documented obtaining consent. Conclusion Only one third of the publications scrutinized recorded ERC approval and procurement of informed consent. However, there is a positive trend in documenting these ethical requirements in local postgraduate research and in the local medical journal.

  1. E-waste issues in Sri Lanka and the Basel Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraweera, Inoka

    2016-03-01

    E-waste is hazardous, complex and expensive to treat in an environmentally sound manner. The management of e-waste is considered a serious challenge in both developed and developing countries and Sri Lanka is no exception. Due to significant growth in the economy and investments and other reasons the consumption of electronic and electrical equipment in Sri Lanka has increased over the years resulting in significant generation of e-waste. Several initiatives such as introduction of hazardous waste management rules, ratification of the Basel Convention in 1992 and the introduction of a National Corporate E-waste Management Program have been undertaken in Sri Lanka to manage e-waste. Strengthening policy and legislation, introducing methods for upstream reduction of e-waste, building capacity of relevant officers, awareness raising among school children and the general public and development of an e-waste information system are vital. Research on e-waste needs to be developed in Sri Lanka. The health sector could play a leading role in the provision of occupational health and safety for e-waste workers, advocacy, capacity building of relevant staff and raising awareness among the general public about e-waste. Improper e-waste management practices carried out by informal sector workers need to be addressed urgently in Sri Lanka.

  2. Examining Adaptations to Water Stress Among Farming Households in Sri Lanka's Dry Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N. E.; Carrico, A.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is increasing water scarcity in Sri Lanka's primary rice-farming zone. Whether these changes will undermine the national-level food security that Sri Lanka has worked to develop since their independence depends upon the ability of the small-scale farmers that dominate rice production and the institutions that support them to overcome the challenges presented by changing water availability. Using household survey data collected in 13 rice farming communities throughout Sri Lanka, this research explores how water stressed farmers are working to adapt to changing conditions and how the strategies they employ impact rice yields. Our analyses reveal that farmers' abilities to access irrigation infrastructure is the most important factor shaping the rice yields of water stressed Sri Lanka farmers. Notably, however, our research also identified farmers' use of hybrid, 'short duration' seed varietals to be the only climate adaptation strategy being promoted by agricultural extension services to have a significant positive impact on farmers' yields. These findings provide encouraging evidence for policies that promote plant breeding and distribution in Sri Lanka as a means to buffer the food system to climate change.

  3. Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agampodi Thilini C

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners

  4. Intensive Multi-Perspective Seminar on Nepal-China Relations:Past,Present and Future Held in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The Intensive Multi-Perspective Seminar on Nepal-China relations: Past, Present and Future, sponsored by Nepal World Culture Net, was held from August 1 to 3 in the capital Kathmandu, to mark the 56th anniversary of diplomatic ties. CPAFFC Vice President Jing Dunquan headed a delegation consisting of government officials, experts and scholars from the Tibet Autonomous Region, Sichuan Pro- vince, Xi’an City, Chengdu City and China Radio International. They had discussions with personages from Nepalese political, economic and cultural circles, expressed their views and offered suggestions on the present bilateral relations as well as development prospects.

  5. Livelihood asset maps: a multidimensional approach to measuring risk-management capacity and adaptation policy targeting—a case study in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Thor

    2013-01-01

    to the fact that some areas facing increased level of climate-related risks lack access to productive and human capital, while other areas facing a similar situation have relatively insufficient access to financial assets. This again shows that any non-targeted policy aiming at improving households’ risk......-makers with a tool to quickly identify areas with limited access to certain types of assets, making the latter less able to react to a changing level of climaterelated risks. In the case of Bhutan, distinct spatial patterns of asset endowments is identified using five different asset indicators drawing attention...

  6. Emergency surveillance for novel influenza A(H7N9) virus in domestic poultry, feral pigeons and other wild birds in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzin, T; Tenzin, S; Tshering, D; Lhamo, K; Rai, P B; Dahal, N; Dukpa, K

    2015-12-01

    Following the March 2013 outbreak of novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in humans and the subsequent isolation of the virus from chickens, ducks and pigeons in the People's Republic of China, concerns were raised that the H7N9 virus would spread beyond China through the poultry value chain linking to a number of bordering countries. For this reason, a rapid emergency surveillance exercise took place in Bhutan between May and July 2013 with the objective of determining whether influenza A(H7N9) virus was silently circulating in domestic poultryandwild birds in Bhutan.Atotal of 1716 oropharyngeal,tracheal and cloacal swabs together with faecal droppings were collected from poultry, wild birds and feral pigeons throughout the country; these samples included 150 that had been previously collected for surveillance of influenza A(H5N1) virus. Overall, 733 of the samples were tested. A QIAamp Viral RNA Mini K it was used to extract viral RNA from a mix of oropharyngeal, tracheal and cloacal swabs and faecal droppings. The matrix gene of avian influenza type A virus was detected using a specific real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, and positive samples were further tested in RT-PCR for simultaneous detection of the H7 and N9 genes. Among the 733 samples tested, 46 (26 prospective, 20 retrospective) were confirmed positive for influenza A, a prevalence of 6.3% (95% CI: 4.6 to 8.3). The influenza A-positive samples were from areas in the south of Bhutan that had experienced previous outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N1). None of the samples tested positive for H7N9 strains, providing evidence that influenza A(H7N9) virus was not present in the sampled population. A risk-based approach for surveillance of influenza A(H7N9) and H5N1 is recommended in Bhutan, based on the epidemiology of the disease in China and other countries in South and Southeast Asia.

  7. Disaster Recovery Framework for Commercial Banks in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueen Uddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector is the backbone of the entire financial economy of a country. In today’s globalized world, most organizations use online transaction processing systems for transferring money and doing business. Natural or man-made disasters can lead to data loss which in turn can cause millions of dollars of money lost. This study focuses on disaster recovery practices in commercial banks in Sri Lanka. From our preliminary findings, it was concluded that commercial banks only have ad-hoc disaster recovery standards and practices, as there is no standard framework available. Fourteen (14 banks were selected for data collection and relevant authorities were interviewed. The results were translated as qualitative observations to understand the best practices. Similarly, international standards, compliance requirements of the central bank, and existing researches were used to develop a disaster recovery practice framework. The proposed framework was then validated for its efficiency and usefulness among commercial banks and found to be acceptable by the banking industry.  

  8. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan Chrishan; Selvarajah, Mathu

    2016-07-01

    In the last two decades, chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has emerged as a significant contributor to the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rural Sri Lanka. It is characterized by the absence of identified causes for CKD. The prevalence of CKDu is 15.1-22.9% in some Sri Lankan districts, and previous research has found an association with farming occupations. A systematic literature review in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and Lilacs databases identified 46 eligible peer-reviewed articles and one conference abstract. Geographical mapping indicates a relationship between CKDu and agricultural irrigation water sources. Health mapping studies, human biological studies, and environment-based studies have explored possible causative agents. Most studies focused on likely causative agents related to agricultural practices, geographical distribution based on the prevalence and incidence of CKDu, and contaminants identified in drinking water. Nonetheless, the link between agrochemicals or heavy metals and CKDu remains to be established. No definitive cause for CKDu has been identified. Evidence to date suggests that the disease is related to one or more environmental agents, however pinpointing a definite cause for CKDu is challenging. It is plausible that CKDu is multifactorial. No specific guidelines or recommendations exist for treatment of CKDu, and standard management protocols for CKD apply. Changes in agricultural practices, provision of safe drinking water, and occupational safety precautions are recommended by the World Health Organization.

  9. Sexuality and women's rights in armed conflict in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambiah, Yasmin

    2004-05-01

    The discourse of human rights in armed conflict situations is well adapted to respond to violence and violation, invoking internationally agreed principles of civil and political rights. However, in areas where the subject or domain of rights discourse is contested or controversial, human rights advocates appear less prepared to promote and defend such rights. Sexuality is one such domain. This paper explores the complex sexual choices women in Sri Lanka have had to negotiate, particularly widows and sex workers, within a context of ethnic conflict, militarisation and war. It argues that sexuality cannot be defined exclusively in terms of violation, even in a context dominated by violence, and that the sexual ordering of society may be subverted in such conditions. Newly widowed women and sex workers have had to negotiate self-determination as well as take responsibility for earning income and heading households, in spite of contrary community pressures. For women, political and economic rights are closely linked with the ability to determine their sexual and reproductive choices. The challenge to women's and human rights advocates is how to articulate sexual autonomy as a necessary right on a par with others, and strategise to secure this right during armed conflict and postwar reconstruction.

  10. Managing shallow aquifers in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aditya; Manthrithilake, Herath; Siddiqui, Salman; Rajah, Ameer; Pathmarajah, S

    2015-07-01

    This study looks at the groundwater issues in the dry zone of Sri Lanka and shows how the use of remote sensing with high-resolution images can help in groundwater management. A new approach is developed for automatic extraction of the location of agro-wells using high-spatial-resolution satellite imageries. As an example, three pilot sites in three different aquifer systems in the country are considered, and their high-resolution images are analyzed over two temporal time periods. The analysis suggests that the well density in all three regions has increased over the last few years, indicating higher levels of groundwater extraction. Using the well inventory developed by this new approach, the water budgeting was prepared for the mainland of Jaffna Peninsula. The analysis shows a wide variation in well density in the Jaffna Peninsula, ranging from (as little as) less than 15 wells per square kilometer to (as high as) more than 200 wells per square kilometer. Calculations made for the maximum allowable water extraction in each administrative division of Jaffna show that less than 3 h of daily extraction per well is possible in some districts. This points to an increasing pressure on groundwater resources in the region and thus highlights the importance of understanding groundwater budgets for sustainable development of the aquifers.

  11. Problems of Illiteracy in a Literate Developing Society: Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Chandra

    1997-09-01

    With 87.0% of its population literate, Sri Lanka occupies a high ranking position among South and South-East Asian nations in educational development. The high percentage of literacy achieved through progressive measures in education spanning half a century, however, has led to a state of complacency and less priority being given to efforts at eradicating illiteracy. This paper will focus on a recent study conducted on the incidence of illiteracy in specific disadvantaged communities in the country which indicated that in the present era of technological advancement, lack of literacy will continue to affect the life-chances of people in these communities where the rate of literacy remains much lower than the national average. The study investigates into the factors associated with illiteracy, and the attitudes and perceptions of the communities themselves towards literacy programmes and regarding the modalities and strategies of providing literacy. The implications of the study and the final recommendations drawn up in consultation with the policy makers at national and provincial levels in governmental and non-governmental sectors are also discussed in the paper.

  12. Temporal correlation between malaria and rainfall in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galappaththy Gawrie NL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rainfall data have potential use for malaria prediction. However, the relationship between rainfall and the number of malaria cases is indirect and complex. Methods The statistical relationships between monthly malaria case count data series and monthly mean rainfall series (extracted from interpolated station data over the period 1972 – 2005 in districts in Sri Lanka was explored in four analyses: cross-correlation; cross-correlation with pre-whitening; inter-annual; and seasonal inter-annual regression. Results For most districts, strong positive correlations were found for malaria time series lagging zero to three months behind rainfall, and negative correlations were found for malaria time series lagging four to nine months behind rainfall. However, analysis with pre-whitening showed that most of these correlations were spurious. Only for a few districts, weak positive (at lags zero and one or weak negative (at lags two to six correlations were found in pre-whitened series. Inter-annual analysis showed strong negative correlations between malaria and rainfall for a group of districts in the centre-west of the country. Seasonal inter-annual analysis showed that the effect of rainfall on malaria varied according to the season and geography. Conclusion Seasonally varying effects of rainfall on malaria case counts may explain weak overall cross-correlations found in pre-whitened series, and should be taken into account in malaria predictive models making use of rainfall as a covariate.

  13. Neurological manifestations of snake bite in Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seneviratne U

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Snake bite is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in certain parts of Sri Lanka. This study was designed to determine the offending snakes, neurological manifestations, disease course, and outcome in neurotoxic envenomation. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Fifty six consecutive patients admitted with neurological manifestations following snake bite were studied prospectively. Data were obtained regarding the offending snakes, neurological symptoms, time taken for onset of symptoms, neurological signs, and time taken for recovery. RESULTS: The offending snake was Russell′s viper in 27(48.2%, common and Sri Lankan krait in 19(33.9%, cobra in 3(5.4%, and unidentified in 7(12.5%. Ptosis was the commonest neurological manifestation seen in 48(85.7% followed by ophthalmoplegia (75%, limb weakness (26.8%, respiratory failure (17.9%, palatal weakness (10.7%, neck muscle weakness (7.1%, and delayed sensory neuropathy (1.8%. Neurological symptoms were experienced usually within 6 hours after the bite. Following administration of antivenom, the signs of recovery became evident within a few hours to several days. The duration for complete recovery ranged from four hours to two weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Complete recovery of neuromuscular weakness was observed in all patients except for one who died with intracerebral haemorrhage shortly after admission.

  14. Human body donation programs in Sri Lanka: Buddhist perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant.

  15. Clinical and genetic features of Huntington disease in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathipala, Dulika S; Jayasekara, Rohan W; Dissanayake, Vajira H W

    2013-12-05

    Huntington disease was one of the first neurological hereditary diseases for which genetic testing was made possible as early as 1993. The study describes the clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with Huntington disease in Sri Lanka. Data of 35 consecutive patients tested from 2007 to 2012 at the Human Genetics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo was analyzed retrospectively. Clinical data and genetic diagnostic results were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. Thirty patients had fully penetrant (FP) CAG repeat mutations and 5 had reduced penetrant (RP) CAG repeat mutations. In the FP group mean ages of onset and diagnosis were 37.5 and 40.4 years, while in the RP group it was 63.0 and 64.8 years respectively. The age of diagnosis ranged from 15 to 72 years, with 2 patients with Juvenile onset (60 years) Huntington disease. The symptoms at diagnosis were predominantly motor (32/35 -91%). Three patients had psychiatric and behavioral disorders. The age difference between onset and genetic diagnosis showed significant delay in females compared to males (p Huntington disease in the Sri Lankan study population were similar to that previously reported in literature.

  16. Dehydration and malaria augment the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, E A R I E; Perera, P A J; Sivakanesan, R; Abeysekara, T; Nugegoda, D B; Jayaweera, J A A S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology (CKDu) is a serious health issue in Sri Lanka. One-to-one age and sex-matched two sample comparative study was carried out in the Medawachchiya divisional secretariat area of the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka, by randomly selecting 100 CKDu patients and 100 age and sex-matched subjects from non-CKDu affected families from the same area. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for the collection of data pertaining to occupation, medical history and lifestyle. Data were analyzed using a conditional linear logistic model. Working for >6 h in the field per day, exposure to sun, drinking water only from well, consumption of CKDu. Treatment of water prior to consumption had a significant protective effect against CKDu. Dehydration, history of malaria and drinking untreated well water from are likely contribute to the development of CKD of unknown etiology among the inhabitants of NCP, Sri Lanka.

  17. Use of x-ray fluorescence and diffraction techniques in studying ancient ceramics of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, B. S. B.

    2012-07-01

    Ceramics were produced for centuries in Sri Lanka for various purposes. Ancient ceramic articles such as pottery, bricks, tiles, sewer pipes, etc, were made from naturally occurring raw materials. Use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in characterizing of two ancient ceramic samples from two different archaeological sites in Sri Lanka is presented. The information obtained in this manner is used to figure out the ancient ceramic technology, particularly to learn about the raw materials used, the source of raw materials, processing parameters such as firing temperature or binders used in ceramic production. This information then can be used to explore the archaeometric background such as the nature and extent of cultural and technological interaction between different periods of history in Sri Lanka.

  18. Phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of an epidemic strain of dengue virus type 1 in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocwieja, Karen E; Fernando, Anira N; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Sundararaman, Sesh A; Tennekoon, Rashika N; Tippalagama, Rashmi; Krishnananthasivam, Shivankari; Premawansa, Gayani; Premawansa, Sunil; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan

    2014-08-01

    In 2009, a severe epidemic of dengue disease occurred in Sri Lanka, with higher mortality and morbidity than any previously recorded epidemic in the country. It corresponded to a shift to dengue virus 1 as the major disease-causing serotype in Sri Lanka. Dengue disease reached epidemic levels in the next 3 years. We report phylogenetic evidence that the 2009 epidemic DENV-1 strain continued to circulate within the population and caused severe disease in the epidemic of 2012. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses suggest that the 2009 Sri Lankan epidemic DENV-1 strain may have traveled directly or indirectly from Thailand through China to Sri Lanka, and after spreading within the Sri Lankan population, it traveled to Pakistan and Singapore. Our findings delineate the dissemination route of a virulent DENV-1 strain in Asia. Understanding such routes will be of particular importance to global control efforts.

  19. REDD+ readiness implications for Sri Lanka in terms of reducing deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Eskil; Persson, U Martin; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S P

    2012-06-15

    Any system to compensate countries for reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) requires a historical reference level against which future performance can be measured. Here we examine the possibilities Sri Lanka, a small forest country with limited data on forest carbon stocks, has to get ready for REDD+. We construct a historical reference level using available forest inventory data combined with updated 2008 and 2009 in situ carbon density data for Sri Lankan forests. Furthermore, we use a combination of qualitative and quantitative data to attribute the clearing of Sri Lankan forests in the latest years for which national forest inventory data are available, 1992-1996, to various proximate drivers and to estimate the opportunity cost of forest conservation. We estimate that baseline deforestation emissions in Sri Lanka amounted to 17MtCO(2)yr(-1) in the 1992-1996 period, but conclude that it is challenging for Sri Lanka to produce a robust and accurate reference level due to the lack of nationally based inventories. We find that the majority of forest clearing (87%) is due to small-scale, rainfed farming, with the two other major drivers being rice and tea cultivation. Further, Sri Lankan revenues from REDD+ participation could be substantial, but they are sensitive to REDD+ policy transaction cost, highly uncertain timber revenues, and particularly the carbon price paid for emission reductions. The latter needs to be higher than $5-10/tCO(2) if there are to be substantial incentives for Sri Lanka to participate in REDD+. There is, however, a large gap in the knowledge of deforestation drivers that needs to be filled if Sri Lanka is to formulate an effective policy response to forest degradation in REDD+. For successful REDD+ implementation in Sri Lanka to happen, technological assistance, readiness assistance, and continued political momentum are crucial.

  20. Global projects and Astronomy awareness activities in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Modern astronomy is a crowning achievement of human civilization which inspires teenagers to choose career in science and technology and is a stable of adult education. It is a unique and cost effective tool for furthering sustainable global development because of its technological, scientific and cultural dimensions which allow us to reach with the large portion of the community interact with children and inspire with our wonderful cosmos.Using astronomy to stimulate quality and inspiring education for disadvantaged children is an important goal of Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) since its inception. NASO is carrying out various awareness activities on its own and in collaboration with national and international organizations like Central Department of Physics Tribhuvan University (TU), International astronomical Union (IAU), Department of Physics Prithvi Narayan Campus Pokhara, Nepal academy of science and technology (NAST), Global Hands on Universe (GHOU), EU- UNAWE and Pokhara Astronomical Society (PAS) to disseminate those activities for the school children and teachers in Nepal. Our experiences working with kids, students, teachers and public in the field of universe Awareness Activities for the school children to minimize the abstruse concept of astronomy through some practical approach and the project like Astronomy for the visually impaired students, Galileo Teacher Training program and International School for young astronomers (ISYA) outskirts will be explained which is believed to play vital role in promoting astronomy and space science activities in Nepal.

  1. Action Learning in ActionAid Nepal: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Patricia; Rai, Deep Ranjani

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an example of how action learning was used as a framework for an organisational intervention to fundamentally change the organisational culture over a period of time. It also identifies our learning over that period of time and what worked well (and not so well) in an International Non-Governmental Organisation in Nepal.

  2. The mammalian fauna from the Central Himalaya, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Bahadur Katuwal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nepal harbors unique mammalian fauna, but it is poorly studied at higher elevation. Mammalian fauna were recorded in Manaslu Conservation Area, Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley of Solukhumbu district and Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal during March 2011 to April 2013 along the trail and the study plots from 700m to 4400m a.s.l. Semi-structured interviews were made with local people to understand their behavior and habitats. Altogether, 29 mammalian fauna were recorded. Five species were recorded new for the areas. Overall, Carnivore species (nine were encountered more, followed by species of the order Cetartiodactyla (seven. The highest number of mammalian fauna (18 was identified from Manaslu Conservation Area whereas the least (11 from Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley. Human wildlife conflict was frequent with Himalayan Goral (Naemorhedus goral, Barking Deer (Muntiacus vaginalis, Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta, Nepal Grey Langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus and Himalayan Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus for crop depredation in these areas. Although mammalian research started a long time ago, scenario of comprehensive research is not satisfactory in the Central Himalaya, Nepal.

  3. World Bank in Nepal's Education: Three Decades of Neoliberal Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically analyses key educational policy documents produced by the World Bank mainly from the mid-1980s to 2010 with regard to implementing major educational projects in Nepal. Using critical policy sociology as a methodological tool, the paper explores how a small Himalayan nation with per capita income of about US$730 (2014) plunged…

  4. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crishna, Brinda; Prajapati, Surya Bhakta

    2008-01-01

    In Nepal, the estimates of the prevalence of disabilities vary, and there is sparse information specifically about people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Existing data suggest higher rates of prevalence of ID in the more remote northern area due to use of non-iodized salt, lack of health facilities, and extreme poverty. Superstitious beliefs…

  5. Competing Perspectives on the Gurkhas and Identity Politics in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens

    2015-01-01

    cheap and reliable military labour and racial discrimination in the British army; in spite of this, a limited number of ‘Gurkhas’ have over time contributed considerably to the economic status of their families and hometowns in Nepal. The UCPN(Maoist) leadership has often called for an end...

  6. Es hora de aplicar los Principios Rectores en Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva K Dhungana

    2008-01-01

    Mientras el nuevo gobierno nepalés dirigido por los maoístas demora la aplicación de la política nacional sobre desplazados internos, siguen desatendidas las necesidades de aquéllos que han huido a causa del conflicto armado.

  7. Interviews of Dilmaya Gurung of Nepal, by Alan Macfarlane

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A transcript of a set of interviews done in central Nepal by Alan Macfarlane in 1992. The subject, Dilmaya Gurung, died in 1995. Films of the interviews, and over 50 other films of Dilmaya at work can be seen on the Cambridge Streaming Media Service, searching for 'Dilmaya'.

  8. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study examines the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition--specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand…

  9. Mobile Learning Practice in Higher Education in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Krishna Prasad

    2016-01-01

    During the 15 years of this current century, mobile technology has become a leading technology in the support of educational outcomes. This study investigated the mobile learning practices among undergraduates in higher education in the semi-urban and rural areas of the Gorkha district of Nepal. The objectives were to explore the availability of…

  10. Beyond Bilingual Education: Multilingual Language Education in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shelley K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the framework for implementing multilingual language education (MLE) countrywide in Nepal. I outline key tenets of MLE, explain the rationale for implementing it in the Nepali context, and describe the MLE framework that formed the basis of trainer workshops. The framework is divided into 7 topics: 4 of…

  11. Nepal: Civic and Voter Education. Quarterly Reports, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Democratic Inst. for International Affairs, Washington, DC.

    The lack of confidence the people of Nepal feel about their political process is due, in part, to the majority's unfamiliarity with, and lack of participation in, their democratic institutions. Since 1994, the National Democratic Institute (NDI) has been partaking in a broader national effort to increase Nepalis contributions to their governing…

  12. Masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand, J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This thesis documents my attempt to study masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal. It is based on the recognition that more than two decades of mainstreaming gender in development research and policy have failed to come to grips with the mas

  13. Menstruation and Education in Nepal. NBER Working Paper No. 14853

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Emily; Thornton, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a randomized evaluation that distributed menstrual cups (menstrual sanitary products) to adolescent girls in rural Nepal. Girls in the study were randomly allocated a menstrual cup for use during their monthly period and were followed for fifteen months to measure the effects of having modern sanitary products…

  14. Differentiation, Development, (Dis)Integration: Education in Nepal's "People's War"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Robin; Rappleye, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    A violent conflict between Maoist insurgents and the national government has engulfed Nepal for most of the last decade, a situation that has been complicated by deep-seated instability at the highest levels of the government itself. Even with the declaration of a ceasefire in 2006, violence endures in pockets of lawless banditry and unrest at the…

  15. Uneven Terrain: Educational Policy and Equity in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Robin; Rappleye, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between educational policy, equity, and national development in Nepal. It argues that current inequities in educational opportunities and outcomes are largely attributable to persistent inequities and biases in the educational policy framework. We begin by surveying the complex, multifaceted reality of…

  16. Social Enterprise, education and the new political economy of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carney, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a research agenda for studying social enterprise (SE) initiatives in education reform. Whilst based on research experiences gained in Nepal, the discussion here is relevant for similar SE efforts in other ‘developing’ countries as well as high-income contexts...

  17. The Giant Pill-Millipedes of Nepal (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Zephroniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesener, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The type of the only species of the order Sphaerotheriida with a record in Nepal, Kophosphaera excavata (Butler, 1874), originally described from Sikkim, is redescribed. The subspecies K. excavata mammifera Attems, 1936 from Sureil, Darjeeling, India, is elevated to species rank, K. mammifera stat. nov.. A species of unclear country of origin ('Himalaya'), Sphaeropoeus montanus Karsch, 1881, is briefly redescribed and transferred to the genus Zephronia, Z. montana (Karsch, 1881) n. comb.. Z. tumida Butler, 1882, an apparently widespread north Indian Zephronia species, is redescribed. Sphaerotheriida specimens collected during several expeditions to Nepal undertaken by Prof. J. Martens in the 1970s and 1980s were examined. The material contained 10 specimens (7 males, 3 females) from seven localities, including three undescribed species, Zephronia nepalensis n. sp., Kophosphaera shivapuri n. sp., and Kophosphaera martensi n. sp., as well as a specimen of Kophosphaera politissima Attems, 1935, type species of the genus and described previously from India. A key to all (now seven) species of Kophosphaera is presented. A brief diagnosis of the Kophosphaera excavata group is provided. While Zephronia seems to be restricted to the eastern part of Nepal, two endemic and two more widespread Kophosphaera species occur also in its central and mid-western part, representing the western-most records of the family Zephroniidae in Asia. The current distribution of the family in Nepal clearly indicates the Zephroniidae as a family adapted to tropical environments.

  18. Retrospective Descriptive Study of Cerebral Palsy in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    There is very little data pertaining to cerebral palsy (CP) from Nepal. In this retrospective study it was observed that dyskinetic CP was seen in 29% and the sex ratio of males to females was two in the study population of children with CP. Both of these are much higher than data from developed countries. Hence, further randomized cross-sectional…

  19. Competing Perspectives on the Gurkhas and Identity Politics in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Associated with the unification of Nepal under the ‘Gorkha’ kingdom, and popularly projected in both national myth and globalized tourist imagery, the ‘Gurkhas’ in the British army have been an important national symbol. The history of the ‘Gurkhas’ is multifaceted and also includes chapters abou...

  20. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crishna, Brinda; Prajapati, Surya Bhakta

    2008-01-01

    In Nepal, the estimates of the prevalence of disabilities vary, and there is sparse information specifically about people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Existing data suggest higher rates of prevalence of ID in the more remote northern area due to use of non-iodized salt, lack of health facilities, and extreme poverty. Superstitious beliefs…

  1. Corporal Punishment in Private Schools: The Case of Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Jeevan; Park, Sae-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate the situation of corporal punishment which is being practiced in Nepalese schools going against new policies that promote the non-violence teaching. It was based on original qualitative study of one private school of Kathmandu (the capital city of Nepal) having more than 2000 students and 100 teachers.…

  2. Action Learning in ActionAid Nepal: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Patricia; Rai, Deep Ranjani

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an example of how action learning was used as a framework for an organisational intervention to fundamentally change the organisational culture over a period of time. It also identifies our learning over that period of time and what worked well (and not so well) in an International Non-Governmental Organisation in Nepal.

  3. Telemedicine for Rural and Underserved Communities of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2011-01-01

    Health workers in rural health care serve most of the population in Nepal, but are isolated from specialist support and access to current medical information. Fortunately, the advent of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has unleashed new opportunities for the delivery of health ser...

  4. Masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand, J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This thesis documents my attempt to study masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal. It is based on the recognition that more than two decades of mainstreaming gender in development research and policy have failed to come to grips with the mas

  5. Masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand, J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This thesis documents my attempt to study masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal. It is based on the recognition that more than two decades of mainstreaming gender in development research and policy have failed to come to grips with the

  6. [Nepal earthquake: nursing missions in Paris and Kathmandu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, Chrystel; Sergent, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    A violent earthquake hit Nepal on 25th April 2015, injuring and killing thousands. A nurse manager and a nurse, both working in anaesthesia and reservists in the French Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Organisation, describe their mission: one working in the crisis centre in Paris, the other on the ground, providing assistance to French victims.

  7. Low vitamin B12 levels among newly-arrived refugees from Bhutan, Iran and Afghanistan: a multicentre Australian study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Benson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 deficiency is prevalent in many countries of origin of refugees. Using a threshold of 5% above which a prevalence of low Vitamin B12 is indicative of a population health problem, we hypothesised that Vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds this threshold among newly-arrived refugees resettling in Australia, and is higher among women due to their increased risk of food insecurity. This paper reports Vitamin B12 levels in a large cohort of newly arrived refugees in five Australian states and territories. METHODS: In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we collected Vitamin B12, folate and haematological indices on all refugees (n = 916; response rate 94% of eligible population who had been in Australia for less than one year, and attended one of the collaborating health services between July 2010 and July 2011. RESULTS: 16.5% of participants had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<150 pmol/L. One-third of participants from Iran and Bhutan, and one-quarter of participants from Afghanistan had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Contrary to our hypothesis, low Vitamin B12 levels were more prevalent in males than females. A higher prevalence of low Vitamin B12 was also reported in older age groups in some countries. The sensitivity of macrocytosis in detecting Vitamin B12 deficiency was only 4.6%. CONCLUSION: Vitamin B12 deficiency is an important population health issue in newly-arrived refugees from many countries. All newly-arrived refugees should be tested for Vitamin B12 deficiency. Ongoing research should investigate causes, treatment, and ways to mitigate food insecurity, and the contribution of such measures to enhancing the health of the refugee communities.

  8. Biosecurity survey in relation to the risk of HPAI outbreaks in backyard poultry holdings in Thimphu city area, Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzin, Tenzin; Wangdi, Chador; Rai, Purna Bdr

    2017-04-21

    A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the biosecurity and other practices of backyard poultry holdings and knowledge and practices of poultry keepers following an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus in poultry in Thimphu city area, Bhutan. The study identified 62 backyard poultry holdings in 12 settlement areas, and the owners were subsequently interviewed. The birds are kept in a low-input low-output system, fed locally available scavenging feed base, and supplemented with food scraps and some grain. Although the birds are housed at night in a small coop to protect them against theft and predators, they are let loose during the day to scavenge in the homestead surroundings. This invariably results in mixing with other poultry birds within the settlement and wild birds, creating favorable conditions for disease spread within and between flocks. Moreover, the poultry keepers have a low level of knowledge and awareness related to the importance of biosecurity measures, as well as veterinary care of the birds and reporting systems. Of particular concern is that sick birds within backyard holdings may not be detected rapidly, resulting in silent spread of disease and increased risk of humans contacting the virus (e.g. HPAI) from infected poultry. Nevertheless, all the respondents have indicated that they know and practice hand washing using soap and water after handling poultry and poultry products, but rarely use face-masks and hand gloves while handling poultry or cleaning poultry house. This study highlights the importance of educating poultry keepers to improve the housing and management systems of poultry farming within the backyard holdings in the Thimphu city area in order to prevent future disease outbreaks.

  9. Profile of Breast Diseases in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Bajracharya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Breast problems, benign or malignant are common in occurrence worldwide. Breast problems can present themselves in a number of ways like breast pain, nipple discharge, cystic lesions and more commonly a lump. Breast diseases are under reported and cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in women. This prospective study was undertaken with an aim to study the profile of various breast diseases in eastern Nepal.Materials & Methods:  This is a prospective study of women with breast diseases conducted from March 2011 to February 2012. Inclusion criteria were women irrespective of age with breast diseases with or without complaints. Exclusion criteria were women having breast abscess and mammary fistula.Results: Out of 125 breast diseases 39 cases (31% had malignancy and 86 cases (69% had BBD. The overall mean age for BBD was 25.9 years, with range of 10-60 years. The mean age for malignant breast diseases was 45.6 years, with range of 28-67 years. All of the cases had breast lump as their presenting complaints whether they came out benign or malignant. 52.8% had no significant pain associated with lump; in malignant cases 35.8% had pain associated with lump. In benign cases 68.7% had no perceptible change in lump size. On ultrasound scan, 69% of the lesions were designated benign compared to 31% malignant features. FNAC resulted in 68% lesions to be classified as of benign nature and 32% as malignant /suspicious malignancy.Conclusion: BBD constituted 69% of breast diseases, and mostly fibroadenoma and FCC/FCD and commonest malignant lesion was infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The BBD peaked at the age of 21-30 years.

  10. Spices as a source of lead exposure: a market-basket survey in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, M P; Perera, R; Liyanaarachchi, L A; Dassanayake, M P

    2013-12-01

    We performed a laboratory analysis of spices sold in Sri Lanka for lead content. Samples of curry powder, chili powder and turmeric powder from seven provinces, collected using the market basket survey method, underwent atomic absorption spectrometry. Blanks and standards were utilised for instrument calibration and measurement accuracy. The results were validated in two different laboratories. All samples were found to have lead levels below the US Food and Drug Administration's action level of 0.5 μg/g. Spices sold in Sri Lanka contain lead concentrations that are low and within the stipulated safety standards.

  11. Illegal Fishing Activity ‒ A New Threat in Mannar Island Coastal Area (Sri Lanka)

    OpenAIRE

    Sosai Augustin Siluvaithasan

    2015-01-01

    Illegal fishing net use is one of the most serious threats to the health of the world’s fisheries and for the secure employment of fishers. Illegal modes of fishing adversely affect the fishing industry according to the Fisheries and Aquatic Resource Ministry of Sri Lanka which is the regulatory body of the fisheries industry. In Sri Lanka, usage of illegal fishing methods has increased in recent years. There is an urgent need to identify prohibited or illegal fishing activities and the use o...

  12. Cryptogenic cirrhosis is the leading cause for listing for liver transplantation in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardana, R C; Niriella, M A; Liyanage, C A H; Wijesuriya, S R; Gunathilaka, B; Dassanayake, A S; De Silva, H J

    2013-11-01

    Hepatitis B and C are rare in Sri Lanka. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is increasing in the country. Eighty-one patients referred for liver transplantation (LT) over a period of 18 months were prospectively evaluated. Ninety-two percent (n = 74) were males. Cryptogenic cirrhosis was the leading indication for LT (58%, n = 47) followed by alcohol in 27% (n = 33). Hepatitis B and C were not seen in our cases. The liver biochemistry and clinical status of cirrhosis were similar in cryptogenic and alcoholic cirrhotics. Fourteen patients died while waiting for transplant, and nine transplants were performed. Cryptogenic cirrhosis is the leading cause for LT in Sri Lanka.

  13. Some notes on the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea of Tantirimale Archaeological Site, Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D.C. Asela

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There are 243 species of butterflies which including 5 families in Sri Lanka and 20 of them are endemic. However out of the 243 species 37 butterfly species belonging to 4 families was discovered from Tanthirimale Archaeological Forest area. This forest is classified as a Tropical dry mixed evergreen forests and its situated dry zone in Anuradapura district of Sri Lanka. We select three habitat types such as: forests, Rock outcrops and scrublands for studding composition and structure of butterflies in Archaeological Forest area. However, this important forest is threatened by harmful human activities such as man made fire, illegal logging, chena cultivation and road kills.

  14. Dental hygienists on top of the world: supporting oral health education in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knevel, R J M

    2005-11-01

    This article describes the oral health situation in Nepal. Based on research and strategic planning reports from the WHO and the Ministry of Health in Nepal the value of Oral Health Promotion in Nepal is being promoted. The implications of possible dental treatment and/or oral health promotions are being discussed. A plan for support of improvement of the oral health in Nepal is presented. The main focus is the support of the development of the dental hygiene education and profession in Nepal. Another focus of attention is the ability of dental hygienists in Nepal to develop them individually and to create independent professionalization. This article forms the basis for developing a 5-year collaborative programme with Kantipur School of Dentistry and the Dental Hygiene Education, Amsterdam. It can be a means to inspire dental hygienists around the world to put efforts into improving oral health in developing countries.

  15. Timing and conditions of metamorphism and melt crystallization in Greater Himalayan rocks, eastern and central Bhutan: insight from U-Pb zircon and monazite geochronology and trace-element analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, K.; Gordon, S. M.; Long, S. P.; Kylander-Clark, A. R. C.; Agustsson, K.; Penfold, M.

    2015-05-01

    Within the eastern Himalaya in central and eastern Bhutan, Greater Himalayan (GH) rocks are interpreted to have been thickened by the Kakhtang thrust (KT). In order to understand the metamorphic and exhumation history of the GH and to evaluate the structural significance of the KT, zircon and monazite from twenty samples were analyzed by laser-ablation split-stream ICPMS. In eastern Bhutan, zircon and monazite from samples collected in the KT hanging wall revealed ca. 36-28 Ma metamorphism. Subsequently, the initiation of melt crystallization shows a trend with structural distance above the KT, with early melt crystallization (ca. 27 Ma) in the structurally highest samples and younger melt crystallization (ca. 16 Ma) for leucosomes within the KT zone. Melt crystallization was protracted and continued until ca. 14-13 Ma in both the KT hanging wall and the footwall. In comparison, in central Bhutan, two leucosomes revealed extended melt crystallization from ca. 31 to 19 Ma. The youngest zircon dates from samples exposed structurally above and below the KT are similar, indicating that the KT was not as significant of a structure as other fault systems to which it has been correlated. However, the younging trend in the initiation of melt crystallization with decreasing structural distance above the KT argues that progressive underplating of ductile material assisted in the initial emplacement of the GH unit in central and eastern Bhutan. The KT likely represents a minor shear zone that aided in this underplating process.

  16. School-based assessments in high-stakes examinations in Bhutan: a question of trust? Exploring inconsistencies between external exam scores, school-based assessments, detailed teacher ratings, and student self-ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, Hans; Dolkar, Dechen

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the validity of school-based assessments when they serve to supplement scores on central tests in high-stakes examinations. The school-based continuous assessment (CA) marks are compared to the marks scored on the central written Bhutan Certificate of Secondary Education (BCSE) e

  17. The Efficiency of Community Forests: Successful and Unsuccessful Examples From Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dangi, Resham B.

    2000-01-01

    This study suggests that transfer of State forests to the local communities is the least cost policy option to improve prevailing deforestation problem in Nepal. However, there are few problems at operational, institutional, and policy levels, which are restricting community forest (CF) transformation. The critical review of seven representative case studies and modern forest policy of Nepal identifies following important issues in CF transformation in Nepal. They are low marginal flexibility...

  18. Adequacy and Effectiveness of Logistic Services in Nepal: Implication for Export Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkarnikar, Pushpa Raj

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the adequacy and effectiveness of delivery of logistic services and their implication for export performance of Nepal. It provides a detailed assessment of the current trade facilitation and logistics situation in Nepal, including on transportation, storage and handling services. The results of an exploratory survey of freight forwarders and exporters conducted as part of the study indicate low level of efficiency of logistics in Nepal. This is consistent with benchmark in...

  19. Sri Lanka [Population education in countries of the region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, W S

    1982-06-01

    Increases in the educational level and allied factors such as late marriage have led to a decrease in the birth rate to 27.6/1000 in Sri Lanka. The World Fertility Survey in 1975 revealed that the average number of children desired was only 2.4 although the average number per family was 3.9, indicating the need for population education especially at the school level. Population education components were introduced to the junior secondary level, grades 6-9, in stages beginning in 1974 following institution of the Population Education In-School Project at the Curriculum Development Centre of the Ministry of Education. Population components were introduced into language, mathematics, science, health science, and social studies curricula already being taught. The longrange objectives of the program are to prepare future citizens who will be knowledgeable about the impact of population growth on the quality of life, and to promote responsible attitudes and decisions regarding family size. Immediate objectives are to promote understanding of population dynamics and encourage responsible attitudes. The program strives to avoid conflict with sociocultural and socioreligious norms of the various population sectors. Teacher training was provided in residential seminars, and through course guides and reference books. Reorganization of the educational structure led to a brief period of inactivity for the Population Education Unit, but work began again in 1980. The Non-Formal Education Branch of the Ministry of Education is ragarded as a possible area for introduction of population education components in adult education. Most population education programs directed toward adults are conducted by other ministries. The main problems in implementation of the junior secondary level population education program have been initial training of teachers and provision of resource and reference materials; use of the mobile library donated by the UNESCO Population Education Clearinghouse

  20. Heavy metals in Ratnapura alluvial gem sediments, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, M. S.; Hettiarachchi, J. K.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Wijesekara, H.; Hewawasam, T.

    2011-12-01

    The valuable gems in Sri Lanka are found from the sedimentary gem deposits in Ratnapura District, which are found as alluvial deposits some are about >50 m deep. Gem bearing gravel layer is taken out from the mine, washed by panning to recover the gem minerals in the heavy mineral fraction, is a common practice in the gem mining area. Gem bearing sediment layer is associated with different heavy minerals in which different trace metals as Co, Cr, Cu, Al, Zr, Pb and As also can be present. During panning, the sediment is washed away and the heavy metals attached to the sediments are released into the environment. Hence we studied the lability and bioavailability of arsenic and other heavy metals from the gem sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 15 small scale gem mines (3 soil layers- top, gem mineral layer and layer below gem bearing gravel layer), air dried and sieved to obtain 150 mg/kg), Cu (>150 mg/kg), Pb (>400 mg/kg), Zn (>600 mg/kg) and Co ions (>100 mg/kg). Arsenite in the gem sediments were low and recorded as arsenic analysis is under investigation. Highest concentrations for bioavailable and exchangeable (leach to water) metals were Fe>Co>Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb. Sediments from few gem pits showed considerably high concentrations of metals analyzed. In some places Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn reported high in bioavailable fractions 70, 25, 20, 10 mg/kg respectively. Mobilization of these metals may increase due to changes in the pH and the presence of other ions in the environment. High concentrations of toxic metals in exchangeable and bioavailable fractions indicate the risk on plant and animals as well as the open water bodies and groundwater sources.

  1. The Energy Forum of Sri Lanka: Working toward appropriate expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieusma, Dean

    Taking my cue from the knowledge base and practices comprising appropriate technology development, and building on politics of expertise scholarship, this dissertation develops the concept of appropriate expertise: the combination of social and technical competences required to address marginalization through technological interventions. The dissertation asks what appropriate expertise looks like "on the ground" in the context of development as practiced by an exceptional group of technology designers from the Energy Forum of Sri Lanka: What design goals did they strive toward? What challenges did they face? What strategies did they employ? In an effort to answer these questions, the dissertation looks at how these designers interacted across a range of contexts with a broad spectrum of people and institutions, each with its own expertise to draw upon. In particular, it looks at how they situated their work in a highly contoured field of social power, where different types of expertise were used as resources for reinforcing or resisting existing power relations. I use the concept relations of expertise to denote the structure of expert interactions across multiple contexts of activity. Although this concept links to broad political-economic conditions that order varied expert practices, my analytic focus is at a different level: the situated experiences of expert practitioners. By starting with ground-level practices and understandings, I argue that creating new relations of expertise---that is, changing the nature of the interactions among experts and between experts and those they work with---is the key way my informants worked to legitimate marginalized perspectives and thereby empower marginalized social groups around technology-development practices. Appropriate expertise enables the creation of appropriate technologies, but it does more. It enables the creation of new relations of expertise, both through inspiring new forms of interpersonal interaction

  2. Buddha's birthplace (Lumbini, Nepal) is polluted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupakheti, Dipesh; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Praveen Puppala, Siva; Kang, Shichang; Naja, Manish; Panday, Arnico; Zhang, Qianggong; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Mahata, Khadak; Lawrence, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Lumbini, in southern Nepal, is a UNESCO world heritage site of universal value as the birthplace of the Buddha. Poor air quality in Lumbini and surrounding regions is a great concern for public health as well as for preservation, protection and promotion of Buddhist heritage and culture. Measurements of the ambient concentrations of key air pollutants (BC, PM, CO, O3) were conducted in Lumbini, first of its kind in Lumbini, during an intensive measurement period of three months (April-June 2013) in the pre-monsoon season. The measurements were carried out as a part of the international air pollution measurement campaign; SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley - Atmospheric Brown Clouds). Hourly average concentrations were: BC: 4.9±3.8 (0.3-29.9) μg/m3; CO: 344.1±160.3 (124.9-1429.7) ppbv; O3: 46.6±20.3 (0.85-118.1) ppbv; PM10: 128.8±91.9 (10.5-603.9) μg/m3; and PM2.5: 53.1±35.1 (6.1-272.2) μg/m3. These levels are comparable to heavily polluted sites in the region. The 24-h average PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations frequently (94% and 85%, respectively, of the sampled period) exceeded the WHO guideline, which implies significant health risks for the residents and visitors in the region. Clear diurnal cycles were observed for the pollutants. Occurrences of peak concentrations during the study period were due to regional forest fires and meteorological conditions conducive of transport to Lumbini. The WRF-STEM model was used to simulate the meteorology and the pollution concentration, and showed the model concentration to be lower by a factor of ~1.4-5, even though the model was able to capture the observed variability. Regionally tagged CO tracers and the chemical composition of fine mode PM2.5 was obtained from the model. The aerosol spectral light absorption coefficients obtained from Lumbini indicated presence of BC from both biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, with more than half of the ambient BC attributable to fossil fuel

  3. Rainfall Distributions in Sri Lanka in Time and Space: An Analysis Based on Daily Rainfall Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Burt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Daily rainfall totals are analyzed for the main agro-climatic zones of Sri Lanka for the period 1976–2006. The emphasis is on daily rainfall rather than on longer-period totals, in particular the number of daily falls exceeding given threshold totals. For one station (Mapalana, where a complete daily series is available from 1950, a longer-term perspective on changes over half a century is provided. The focus here is particularly on rainfall in March and April, given the sensitivity of agricultural decisions to early southwest monsoon rainfall at the beginning of the Yala cultivation season but other seasons are also considered, in particular the northeast monsoon. Rainfall across Sri Lanka over three decades is investigated in relation to the main atmospheric drivers known to affect climate in the region: sea surface temperatures in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, of which the former are shown to be more important. The strong influence of El Niño and La Niña phases on various aspects of the daily rainfall distribution in Sri Lanka is confirmed: positive correlations with Pacific sea-surface temperatures during the north east monsoon and negative correlations at other times. It is emphasized in the discussion that Sri Lanka must be placed in its regional context and it is important to draw on regional-scale research across the Indian subcontinent and the Bay of Bengal.

  4. An airtight paddy storage system for small-scale farmers in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adhikarinayake, T.B.; Müller, J.; Oostdam, J.W.M.; Huisman, W.; Richards, P.

    2007-01-01

    The farmers in Sri Lanka's dry zone are the main contributors to the paddy production in the country. However, due to various reasons, they face difficulties in obtaining a reasonable income for their produce at harvesting time. According to the survey carried out in the paddy producing regions, it

  5. The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face.

  6. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  7. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-01-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  8. Hacer que los desplazados internos se comprometan en Sri Lanka: el enfoque budista

    OpenAIRE

    Barry-Murphy, Emily; Stephenson, Max

    2014-01-01

    Una ONG budista de Sri Lanka nos ofrece un ejemplo de cómo las sociedades civiles endógenas confesionales pueden ayudar a movilizar a los desplazados internos a la hora de crear y definir estrategias para su propia protección.

  9. Distribution pattern of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt) gene haplotypes in Sri Lanka 1996-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jenny J; Senaratne, Tharanga N; Daniels, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. Widespread antimalarial resistance has been a barrier to malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. Analysis of genetic markers in historic parasites may uncover trends in the spread of resistance. We examined the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt; codons 72...

  10. Peace Education in Conflict Zones--Experience from Northern Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Simon; Lewer, Nick

    2008-01-01

    In September 2005, adult students from Kilinochchi, located in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)-controlled Wanni region of northern Sri Lanka, were awarded University of Bradford, UK, validated postgraduate certificates or diplomas in conflict resolution and peace preparedness. The diploma is, we think, a landmark in peace education…

  11. Letters From Batticaloa : TMVP's Emergence and the Transmission of Conflict in Eastern Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Meertens, A.

    2013-01-01

    In March 2004 a man known as Karuna Amman announced his defection from the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam), an armed group seeking the formation of an independent Tamil state in the north and east of Sri Lanka. Six months after his defection, Karuna launched a new political movement – the Ta

  12. Anticipated prospects and civilian applications of Indian satellite navigation services in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Senanayake

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, positive impacts of 3 Indian Navigational Satellite programmes (GAGAN, IRNSS and INSAT-MSS reporting system for the civilian applications over Sri Lanka are discussed. Other neighbouring countries covered under the footprint of Indian navigational satellite programmes can also employ these services for the location based applications productively.

  13. Speaking Conflict: Ideological Barriers to Bilingual Policy Implementation in Civil War Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christina P.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a holistic view of ideological barriers to bilingual policy implementation in Sri Lanka, a conflict-ridden postcolonial nation-state. I examine Sinhalese youth and adults' Tamil as a second language (TSL) learning and speaking practices across three contexts: a multilingual school, a program for government servants, and an…

  14. Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-22

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013.  Created: 9/22/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/8/2014.

  15. Livestock farming in coconut plantations in Sri Lanka: Constraints and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samarajeewa, A.D.; Schiere, J.B.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.; Viets, T.C.

    2003-01-01

    A study was carried out to identify biological and socio-economic constraints and opportunities for livestock development in coconut plantations in Sri Lanka. One part of the study focussed on the use of participatory rural appraisal to establish felt needs of different farmer categories in terms of

  16. Duty and Service: Life and Career of a Tamil Teacher of English in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher's own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and…

  17. Air-Sea and Lateral Exchange Processes in East Indian Coastal Current off Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    from small-scale mixing to the reversal of monsoonal currents, in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and around Sri Lanka and the role of regional air-sea...The program supports logistics of numerous US scientists operating in the Indian Ocean under ASIRI, EBOB and NASCAR projects. Capacity building is a

  18. Desafíos de la respuesta humanitaria colectiva en Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim, Firzan

    2008-01-01

    La necesidad de hacer frente al desplazamiento provocado por el conflicto y el tsunami, convierte a Sri Lanka en un terreno ideal para probar los principios de colaboración humanitaria que forman el esqueleto de la Plataforma Global Humanitaria.

  19. Temporal variation of microbiological and chemical quality of noncarbonated bottled drinking water sold in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, A T; Abayasekara, C L; Chandrajith, Rohana; Adikaram, N K B

    2012-03-01

    Use of bottled water in Sri Lanka has increased over the last decade, while new brands of bottled water are often introduced to the market. However, the manufacturers' adherence to bottled water regulations is questionable, raising concerns regarding the quality of bottled water. The objective of the current study was to investigate the microbiological and chemical quality of bottled water in Sri Lanka. Thirty bottled water brands were sampled and their chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed. Microbiological analysis was carried out within 1 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 mo after the date of manufacture. The results indicated that 63% of brands tested exceeded the levels permitted by the Sri Lanka Standards Institution (SLSI) for presumptive total coliforms (TC) (bottled drinking water. Throughout their shelf life, the counts of TC, FC, and HPC bacteria decreased. Bacteria identified were Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pasteurella haemolytica, the most frequently being P. aeruginosa. The dominant fungi identified were Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. Inorganic chemical parameters were within permitted levels for all brands except for initial content of ammonia. The results of this study show the need for the bottling industry to be monitored closely by relevant authorities, in order to provide safe bottled drinking water to consumers in Sri Lanka.

  20. Is Marriage Delay a Multiphasic Response to Pressures for Fertility Decline? The Case of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, John; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated causes for rise in female age of marriage in Sri Lanka, studying 10,964 persons from 1,974 households. Found that rise in marriage age was not primarily a response to social pressure for fertility decline, but rather a result of urbanization, higher levels of education, unemployment, and consequent decline in parentally arranged early…

  1. Voormalige kindsoldaten in Sri Lanka, een onopgeloste erfenis van een bloedig conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stöpler, L.; Frerks, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    Lucien Stopler & Georg Frerks discuss the plight of the Tamil ex-child soldiers in Sri Lanka, an unresolved heritage of a bloody war. In the wake of the defeat of the LTTE, the Sri Lankan government has not shown much effort in addressing the root causes of the conflict and in building peace. It

  2. An Analysis of the Competency-Based Secondary Mathematics Curriculum in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena

    2014-01-01

    In education, there is a growing interest in the concept of "competency" especially in vocational training and professional development. The concept is strongly associated with the ability to apply knowledge and skills in effective ways in unanticipated situations. In Sri Lanka, a new competency-based mathematics curriculum was…

  3. Financing and Educational Policy in Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Financing Educational Systems: Country Case Studies-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallak, Jacques

    The retrospective case study presented is part of a research project undertaken to determine ways in which developing nations can best allocate resources to education in light of their social and economic levels. Past socioeconomic trends in Sri Lanka and its economy in the 1970's are considered first. The case study then moves into descriptions…

  4. Peasant in transition : agrarian society in Western Sri Lanka under Dutch rule, 1740-1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewasiri, Nirmal Ranjith

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates the structural changes in the agrarian society in Western parts of Sri Lanka as seen in the mid and late eighteenth century in the context of the encounter with the Dutch United East India Company (VOC) administration. It attempts to understand the developments in the period

  5. Speaking Conflict: Ideological Barriers to Bilingual Policy Implementation in Civil War Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christina P.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a holistic view of ideological barriers to bilingual policy implementation in Sri Lanka, a conflict-ridden postcolonial nation-state. I examine Sinhalese youth and adults' Tamil as a second language (TSL) learning and speaking practices across three contexts: a multilingual school, a program for government servants, and an…

  6. Towards Universalization of Primary Education in Asia and the Pacific: Country Studies--Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Sri Lanka's primary education program is described in this study. Chapter One discusses the present system of education, providing a brief history of the development of the educational system, a discussion of legal provisions concerning education, an overview of the school structure, as well as discussions of educational administration, teacher…

  7. Food of larval Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna in a stream habitat in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piyaratne, M K; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P

    2005-01-01

    No previous studies have been conducted on the natural food of larval Anopheles culicifacies s.l. (the major malaria vector) and An. varuna (a secondary vector) in Sri Lanka. The present study analyzed the contents of guts dissected from larvae collected from pools in a natural stream-cum-irrigat...

  8. Strong association between house characteristics and malaria vectors in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; van der Hoek, Wim

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether house characteristics could be used to further refine the residual insecticide-spraying program in Sri Lanka. Indoor-resting mosquito densities were estimated in 473 houses based on fortnightly collections over a two-and-a-half-year period...

  9. Impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaire S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Surya Gaire,1 Tefera Darge Delbiso,1 Srijana Pandey,2 Debarati Guha-Sapir,1 1Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disaster (CRED, Institute of Health and Society (IRSS, Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL, Brussels, Belgium; 2Department of Nursing, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH, Institute of Medicine (IOM, Baluwatar, Kathmandu, Nepal Background: Stunting is a major public health problem that results from inadequate nutritional intake over a long period of time. Disasters have major implications in poor and vulnerable children. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal.Method: A sample consisting of 2,111 children aged 6–59 months was obtained from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine moderate and severe stunting against disaster, controlling for all possible confounders.Result: Out of the total study sample, 43% were stunted (17.1% severely and 25.9% moderately. The final model, after adjusting for confounders, showed that epidemics have no impact on child stunting (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66, 1.97 and adjusted OR =1.04, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.65 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively. Floods have impact on child stunting (adjusted OR =0.57, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.96 and adjusted OR =0.66, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively. However, children aged 6–11 months, nonvaccinated children, children of working women, children who live in mountainous areas, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be moderately stunted. Similarly, children aged 36–47 months, Dalit and other ethnic groups, children from rural settings, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be severely stunted.Conclusion: This article illustrates the need to rethink about child stunting in Nepal. This study suggests need for further

  10. Malaria Control and Elimination in Sri Lanka: Documenting Progress and Success Factors in a Conflict Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyasinghe, Rabindra R.; Galappaththy, Gawrie N. L.; Smith Gueye, Cara; Kahn, James G.; Feachem, Richard G. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sri Lanka has a long history of malaria control, and over the past decade has had dramatic declines in cases amid a national conflict. A case study of Sri Lanka's malaria programme was conducted to characterize the programme and explain recent progress. Methods The case study employed qualitative and quantitative methods. Data were collected from published and grey literature, district-level and national records, and thirty-three key informant interviews. Expenditures in two districts for two years – 2004 and 2009 – were compiled. Findings Malaria incidence in Sri Lanka has declined by 99.9% since 1999. During this time, there were increases in the proportion of malaria infections due to Plasmodium vivax, and the proportion of infections occurring in adult males. Indoor residual spraying and distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets have likely contributed to the low transmission. Entomological surveillance was maintained. A strong passive case detection system captures infections and active case detection was introduced. When comparing conflict and non-conflict districts, vector control and surveillance measures were maintained in conflict areas, often with higher coverage reported in conflict districts. One of two districts in the study reported a 48% decline in malaria programme expenditure per person at risk from 2004 to 2009. The other district had stable malaria spending. Conclusions/Significance Malaria is now at low levels in Sri Lanka – 124 indigenous cases were found in 2011. The majority of infections occur in adult males and are due to P. vivax. Evidence-driven policy and an ability to adapt to new circumstances contributed to this decline. Malaria interventions were maintained in the conflict districts despite an ongoing war. Sri Lanka has set a goal of eliminating malaria by the end of 2014. Early identification and treatment of infections, especially imported ones, together with effective surveillance and response, will

  11. Assessing sloth bears as surrogates for carnivore conservation in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayeke, Shyamala; Van Manen, Frank T.

    2012-01-01

    Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.

  12. Women’s Access to Education in Nepal: Intergenerational Change

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    Mira Mishra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes intergenerational changes in women’s access to education in Nepal. It links up the changes with changing socio-economic processes and suggests that women’s access to education is increasing by generation. And by linking up Anthony Giddens’s Structuration Theory (1984 with the finding, the paper shows the interplay of both structure and agency in bringing changes in women’s access to education. This paper also shows the rural urban differences in access to education and links up between marriage and education. The paper begins with the brief introduction of Nepal and Nepali women, goes on to theoretical arguments on structure and agency debate, and then describes methodology and characteristics of 39 women interviewees and discusses changes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v6i0.8478 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 6, 2012 49-60

  13. Human Trafficking in Nepal: Post-Earthquake Risk and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Keeling, June; Kallestrup, Per

    2016-09-15

    As Nepal mourns the 1-year commemoration of the April 2015 earthquake and its aftershocks that killed more than 8500 people and left thousands injured and displaced, other more hidden repercussions of the resultant chaotic environment need attention: the increased risk of human trafficking. Considering that natural disasters provide a milieu for this illicit trade, there is a need for a robust response from stakeholders such as donors, civil society organizations, and government organizations against human trafficking following disasters such as the Nepal earthquake. Responsibility to prevent and fight trafficking should be explicitly included in the mandate of relief and rehabilitation mechanisms set up at the national level to coordinate the disaster relief response, serving to support populations in both rural and urban areas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 2).

  14. Between Yesterday and Today: Contemporary Art in Nepal

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    Kathryn Hagy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines works from the last decade by six Nepalese artists and delves into questions such as how today’s artists align themselves between their ancient arts and their contemporary context. What is the conversation about globalism and its impact on artists? How do artists deal with social pressures and is the content of their work directly affected by these pressures? Through in-country research and subsequent study and interviews with artists, what is revealed is an energetic art scene that draws much of its inspiration from a local context, whether that be affirmation of or protest against that context to some degree. When visiting Kathmandu Nepal, one is bound to discover that like the ancient sculptures, paintings and temple architecture that exist on every corner, the art of contemporary Nepal is everywhere as well.

  15. Electronic waste and informal recycling in Kathmandu, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Thapa, Khim B.; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of relevant policies and supporting infrastructure, many developing countries are struggling to establish a resource-oriented waste management system. In countries like Nepal, where informal recycling practices are prevalent, the lack of understanding of the existing system hinders...... surveys, and site observations was conducted to understand the local recycling sector, the lifecycle of electronic products, and the relevant stakeholders. E-waste is found to be an integral part of the existing solid waste management chain and, therefore, needs to be addressed collectively. We identify...... the challenges and opportunities towards building a sustainable system for managing e-waste, and offer propositions for a resource-oriented waste management system. This study can serve as a baseline for future research on informal waste recycling, e-waste in particular, in Nepal and similar developing economies...

  16. Women and citizenship post‐trafficking: the case of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane; Laurie, Nina; Poudel, Meena; Townsend, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article analyses the relationship between gender, sexuality and citizenship embedded in models of citizenship in the Global South, specifically in South Asia, and the meanings associated with having – or not having – citizenship. It does this through an examination of women's access to citizenship in Nepal in the context of the construction of the emergent nation state in the ‘new’ Nepal ‘post‐conflict’. Our analysis explores gendered and sexualized constructions of citizenship in this context through a specific focus on women who have experienced trafficking, and are beginning to organize around rights to sustainable livelihoods and actively lobby for changes in citizenship rules which discriminate against women. Building from this, in the final section we consider important implications of this analysis of post‐trafficking experiences for debates about gender, sexuality and citizenship more broadly. PMID:27642193

  17. Women and citizenship post-trafficking: the case of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane; Laurie, Nina; Poudel, Meena; Townsend, Janet

    2016-05-01

    This article analyses the relationship between gender, sexuality and citizenship embedded in models of citizenship in the Global South, specifically in South Asia, and the meanings associated with having - or not having - citizenship. It does this through an examination of women's access to citizenship in Nepal in the context of the construction of the emergent nation state in the 'new' Nepal 'post-conflict'. Our analysis explores gendered and sexualized constructions of citizenship in this context through a specific focus on women who have experienced trafficking, and are beginning to organize around rights to sustainable livelihoods and actively lobby for changes in citizenship rules which discriminate against women. Building from this, in the final section we consider important implications of this analysis of post-trafficking experiences for debates about gender, sexuality and citizenship more broadly.

  18. Gender Perspective to Vedic Education: Current Practices in Nepal

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    Rajendra Raj Timilsina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vedic civilization has seen changes in its history- from Satya Yug to current Kali Yug. There were equal rights and duties of both men and women at the beginning. Interpretations of Veda, brought out of the Puranas and externalities made the status unequal. Sanatan Dharma, which is still mainstream of Hinduism, has been challenged by reformist Arya Samaj. As a result, there are interpretive differences as well as practices. Such differences can be seen in contemporary Nepal for the last 130 years. Continuing the differences, classicism has been reviving in the education. This revival also commenced with the same dualism. In this qualitative approach of exploration, two different gurukuls of girls have been observed and analyzed from the field for the purpose of exploring the recent practices. The observation was based on respective scriptures as well as experts' interviews. These data have analyzed the confronting practices on gender in Veda and rooted ideas in contemporary Nepal.

  19. Nutritional status and correlated socio-economic factors among preschool and school children in plantation communities, Sri Lanka

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lahiru Sandaruwan Galgamuwa; Devika Iddawela; Samath D Dharmaratne; GLS Galgamuwa

    2017-01-01

    .... It is mostly preventable through public health and economic development. The aim of the present study was to determine socio-economic factors associated with nutritional status among children in plantation communities, Sri Lanka...

  20. Current Status of Marine Snakes from Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka with Description of Hitherto Unrecorded Hydrophis fasciatus fasciatus (Schneider, 1799

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sivashanthini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As only a few study reported on sea snakes of Sri Lanka, a study was undertaken from June 2003 to November 2004 in the coast of Jaffna Peninsula which lies in the Northern part of Sri Lanka. Out of the 121 specimens examined, 9 species under 5 genera in two families were documented in the coastal waters of both Valvettiturai to Point Pedro and the Jaffna lagoon waters. This includes Hydrophis fasciatus fasciatus which is no longer known in Sri Lanka increased the number of Hydrophis species to 8, thus the total number of sea snakes inhabiting the coastal waters of Sri Lanka become 14 in Hydrophiidae. Of the sea snakes collected, Lapemis curtus (33.88% and Praescutata viperina (23.97% were the commonly recorded species. Least recorded species were H. lapemoides, H. fasciatus fasciatus, Kerilia jerdonii jerdonii and Acrochordus granulatus (0.83, 0.83, 2.47 and 2.47%, respectively.

  1. Leishmanization revisited: immunization with a naturally attenuated cutaneous Leishmania donovani isolate from Sri Lanka protects against visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Laura-Isobel; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Ranasinghe, Shanlindra; Matlashewski, Greg

    2013-02-27

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa and associated with three main clinical presentations: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is the second most lethal parasitic disease after malaria and there is so far no human vaccine. Leishmania donovani is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in South East Asia and Eastern Africa. However, in Sri Lanka, L. donovani causes mainly cutaneous leishmaniasis, while visceral leishmaniasis is rare. We investigate here the possibility that the cutaneous form of L. donovani can provide immunological protection against the visceral form of the disease, as a potential explanation for why visceral leishmaniasis is rare in Sri Lanka. Subcutaneous immunization with a cutaneous clinical isolate from Sri Lanka was significantly protective against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2 response. These results provide a possible rationale for the scarcity of visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka and could guide leishmaniasis vaccine development efforts.

  2. Institutional landscapes affecting small-scale fishing in Southern Sri Lanka - legal pluralism and its socio-economic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A.R. Wickramasinghe; M. Bavinck

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the variety of institutional arrangements affecting small-scale fishing in southern Sri Lanka, highlighting legal pluralism and focusing particularly on its consequences for livelihoods and resource conservation. Evidence derives from two landing centres in Hambantota Distric

  3. Feeding preferences of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Raj Kumar; Raubenheimer, David; Aryal, Achyut; Pathak, Mitra Lal; Ji, Weihong

    2016-11-17

    Nepal provides habitat for approximately 100-125 wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Although a small proportion of the world population of this species, this group is important for maintaining the genetic diversity of elephants and conservation of biodiversity in this region. Knowledge of foraging patterns of these animals, which is important for understanding their habitat requirements and for assessing their habitat condition, is lacking for the main areas populated by elephants in Nepal. This study investigates the feeding preferences of the Asian elephant in Parsa Wildlife Reserve (PWR) and Chitwan National Park (CNP), Nepal. Fifty-seven species of plants in 25 families were found to be eaten by Asian elephants, including 12 species of grasses, five shrubs, two climbers, one herb and 37 species of trees. The species that contributed the greatest proportion of the elephant's diet were Spatholobus parviflorus (20.2%), Saccharum spontaneum (7.1%), Shorea robusta (6.3), Mallotus philippensis (5.7%), Garuga pinnata (4.3%). Saccharum bengalensis (4.2%), Cymbopogan spp (3.7%), Litsea monopetala (3.6) and Phoenix humilis (2.9%). The preference index (PI) showed that browsed species were preferred during the dry season, while browsed species and grasses were both important food sources during the rainy season. Elephants targeted leaves and twigs more than other parts of plants (P < 0.05). This study presents useful information on foraging patterns and baseline data for elephant habitat management in the PWR and CNP in the south central region of Nepal.

  4. HIV-AIDS in Nepal: the coming crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, D

    1998-01-01

    The number of officially reported cases of HIV infection and of AIDS in Nepal remains low in comparison with numbers in many other Asian countries. But Nepal's open border with India (where HIV infection rates are rapidly rising) and the high level of physical mobility within Nepal and abroad, associated with widespread labor migration and encouraged by the recent development of road transport, means that there is a real danger of a rapid spread of HIV within Nepal. The major means of infection is through heterosexual encounters involving male clients and female sex workers, but other sections of the population are also at risk from infection. Media attention has focused on female sex workers, particularly those who have worked in India, but the issue is far broader than this. Social and economic factors forcing or encouraging young men and women to seek employment away from home underlie the widespread growth of ¿the sex industry¿ and the ¿trafficking¿ of girls and young women. The state's capacity to respond effectively is limited, in part through lack of resources; international agencies are supporting local nongovernmental organizations in a variety of activities designed to ¿educate¿ and to ¿support¿ those at risk; but in the last analysis, it is the local communities from which young men and women migrate and to which they return that are obliged to find ways of coping. Sometimes these communities are supportive of the victims, sometimes not. The spread of HIV-AIDS is not just a ¿health¿ issue, but an issue of economic and social development, of gender relations and of human rights.

  5. Female empowerment and education of children in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus Hatlebakk; Yogendra B. Gurung

    2014-01-01

    A family survey was conducted in Nepal to investigate whether female empowerment leads to more education, in particular for girls. The relative economic power of the male and female side of the extended family was used as an instrument for female empowerment. The findings indicate, however, that both female empowerment and relative economic power affect education. There is a positive association between female empowerment and children’s education for both gender, while boys are prioritized if...

  6. Effects of Abortion Legalization in Nepal, 2001–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jillian T.; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. Methods We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001–2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001–2003), early implementation (2004–2006), and later implementation (2007–2010). Results 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Conclusion Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women’s health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance

  7. National health insurance policy in Nepal: challenges for implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj Mishra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9% and rural (59% discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015, the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal.

  8. The Advancement of Women in Post-Conflict Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Women Many gender -related improvements emerged in post-conflict Nepal. Some of the first actions included the Gender Equality Act of 2006, and the...Civil War from 1996 to 2006 left in its wake an awareness that the involvement of women in every sector of society is fundamentally important . The...resulting changes in law and the creation of new legislation demonstrated this awareness and reflected a growing appreciation of the need for gender

  9. Advancement of Women in Post-Conflict Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Women Many gender -related improvements emerged in post-conflict Nepal. Some of the first actions included the Gender Equality Act of 2006, and the...Civil War from 1996 to 2006 left in its wake an awareness that the involvement of women in every sector of society is fundamentally important . The...resulting changes in law and the creation of new legislation demonstrated this awareness and reflected a growing appreciation of the need for gender

  10. Effects of abortion legalization in Nepal, 2001-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian T Henderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. METHODS: We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001-2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001-2003, early implementation (2004-2006, and later implementation (2007-2010. RESULTS: 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85. Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75. CONCLUSION: Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women's health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the

  11. An appraisal of the maternal mortality decline in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hussein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A decline in the national maternal mortality ratio in Nepal has been observed from surveys conducted between 1996 and 2008. This paper aims to assess the plausibility of the decline and to identify drivers of change. METHODS: National and sub-national trends in mortality data were investigated using existing demographic and health surveys and maternal mortality and morbidity surveys. Potential drivers of the variation in maternal mortality between districts were identified by regressing district-level indicators from the Nepal demographic health surveys against maternal mortality estimates. RESULTS: A statistically significant decline of the maternal mortality ratio from 539 maternal deaths to 281 per 100,000 (95% CI 91,507 live births between 1993 and 2003 was demonstrated. The sub-national changes are of similar magnitude and direction to those observed nationally, and in the terai region (plains the differences are statistically significant with a reduction of 361 per 100,000 live births (95% CI 36,686 during the same time period. The reduction in fertility, changes in education and wealth, improvements in components of the human development index, gender empowerment and anaemia each explained more than 10% of the district variation in maternal mortality. A number of limitations in each of the data sources used were identified. Of these, the most important relate to the underestimation of numbers of deaths. CONCLUSION: It is likely that there has been a decline in Nepal's maternal mortality since 1993. This is good news for the country's sustained commitments in this area. Conclusions on the magnitude, pattern of the change and drivers of the decline are constrained by lack of data. We recommend close tracking of maternal mortality and its determinants in Nepal, attention to the communication of future estimates, and various options for bridging data gaps.

  12. Prachanda: The Mastermind Behind the Maoist Insurgency in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Shahi Lieutenant Colonel, Nepal Army B.A., Tribhuban University , 2008 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of... hostel facilities, he had to stay outside in a rented house, where he got an opportunity to make connections with communist leaders and had access to... University Press. Brittanica, (2010). The History Channel Website. Retrieved July 18, 2010, from http://www.history.com/topics/prachanda. Camp, D

  13. Impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, Surya; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Pandey, Srijana; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting is a major public health problem that results from inadequate nutritional intake over a long period of time. Disasters have major implications in poor and vulnerable children. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal. Method A sample consisting of 2,111 children aged 6–59 months was obtained from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine moderate and severe stunting against disaster, controlling for all possible confounders. Result Out of the total study sample, 43% were stunted (17.1% severely and 25.9% moderately). The final model, after adjusting for confounders, showed that epidemics have no impact on child stunting (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66, 1.97 and adjusted OR =1.04, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.65 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively). Floods have impact on child stunting (adjusted OR =0.57, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.96 and adjusted OR =0.66, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively). However, children aged 6–11 months, nonvaccinated children, children of working women, children who live in mountainous areas, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be moderately stunted. Similarly, children aged 36–47 months, Dalit and other ethnic groups, children from rural settings, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be severely stunted. Conclusion This article illustrates the need to rethink about child stunting in Nepal. This study suggests need for further research, integration of disaster data in the Nepal Demography Health Survey, educational interventions, public awareness, promotion of vaccination, and equity in health service delivery. PMID:27354834

  14. Prachanda the mastermind behind the Maoist Insurgency in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shahi, Prem.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study focuses on the leadership roles of Pushpa Kamal Dahal, alias "Prachanda", in the Maoist's political victory in Nepal. The Nepalese Maoist Insurgency under Prachanda's leadership, without strong evident external support and without achieving a military victory over the state, rose to power in a very short time. Prachanda chose an outdated ideology and launched armed struggle to put forward his grievances in spite of the ...

  15. An Empirical Analysis of Money Supply Process in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Kumar Shrestha Ph.D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the money supply process in Nepal empirically on the basis of mainstream and Post-Keynesian theoretical perspectives for both pre and post-liberalization period covering the sample period of 1965/66-2009/10. The relative contribution of different components of money supply has been computed and the money supply as well as money multiplier function has been estimated. Empirical results show that disposable high powered money is found to be a major contributor to the change ...

  16. Modelling glacier change in the Everest region, Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, J. M.; W. W. Immerzeel; Wagnon, P.; Vincent, C; S. Bajracharya

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we apply a glacier mass balance and ice redistribution model to simulate historical and future glacier change in the Everest region of Nepal. High-resolution temperature and precipitation fields derived from gridded APHRODITE data, and validated against independent station observations from the EVK2CNR network, are used to drive the historical model from 1961 to 2007. The model is calibrated against geodetically derived esti...

  17. Intestinal parasitic infections among patients attending Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, P K; Rai, S K; Khanal, L K; Ghimire, G; Banjara, M R; Singh, A

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to find out the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among patients attending Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu from July 2011 to February 2012. A total of 312 stool samples collected in a clean, dry screw capped plastic container were examined using the formal-ether concentration and sucrose-flotation techniques. Overall parasite positivity rate was 30.1% with significant difference between males (34.2%) and Female (26.3%) (p 15 years old (26.9%). Rate of infection was significantly higher among patients from inside Kathmandu Valley (31.1%) than outside valley (17.4%) (p < 0.05). E. histolytica (38.5%) and Hookworm (10.6%) were the commonest protozoa and helminthes respectively. Other parasites detected were G. lamblia (26.0%), E. coli (1.0%), T. trichiura (7.7%), A. lumbricoides (6.7%), H. nana (5.8%) and Taenia species (3.8%). Out of total parasites detected, 65.4% were protozoa and 34.6% were helminthes. Positive rate was higher in Dalit (37.5%) and Aadibasi-Janjati (34.3%) than Brahman-Chhetri (22.6%) (p < 0.05).

  18. A staff support programme for rural hospitals in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Shah, Sharada; Shakya, Rabina; Sundar Chansi, Bal; Shah, Kashim; Munday, Daniel; Eyal, Nir; Hayes, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    District hospitals in Nepal struggle to provide essential services such as caesarean sections. Retention of health workers is critical to the delivery of long-term, quality health-care services. To promote retention and enhance performance in rural public hospitals, the Government of Nepal and the Nick Simons Institute progressively implemented a rural staff support programme in remote hospitals. After competitive selection for a compulsory-service scholarship and training, family practice doctors who could do basic surgery, orthopaedics and obstetrics were hired under a binding three-year contract in each participating hospital. Comfortable living quarters and an Internet connection were provided for the resident doctors; in-service training for all staff and capacity development for each hospital's management committee were provided. Nepal's mountainous landscape, poverty and inequitable rural/urban distribution of health workers pose barriers to adequate health care. Between 2011 and 2015 family practice doctors were maintained in all seven programme hospitals. All hospitals became providers of comprehensive emergency obstetric care and served more patients. Compared with hospitals not within the programme, deliveries increased significantly (203% versus 71% increase, respectively; P = 0.002). The programme recently expanded to 14 hospitals. A package of human resource supports can improve the retention of doctors and the use of remote hospitals. Factors contributing to the success of this programme were compulsory-service scholarship, central personnel management, performance-based incentives and the provision of comfortable living quarters.

  19. Design guidelines for energy-efficient hotels in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bodach

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is predicted that the major increase in energy consumption and, thus, carbon emissions, will happen in the developing world. However, in most developing countries the knowledge about energy efficiency, particularly in the building sector, is quite low. Strategies developed for industrialised countries might not be suitable or must be adapted for the very different context of developing countries. This research aims to find energy-efficient and cost-effective building design options for the case of Nepal. Energy-efficient building design is a non-trivial issue involving a number of interdependent design criteria. Particularly, in composite climates, passive design strategies might conflict each other leading to an inefficient building design. This paper explores the energy conservation potential in hotel design for all bioclimatic zones of Nepal using building energy simulation with parametric analysis. Based on extensive field studies, reference models for typical hotel buildings ranging from small-scale resort hotels to large-scale multi-storey hotels were developed. These reference designs were optimised by varying design parameters such as window-to-wall ratio, glazing material, shading devices, glazing type and insulation levels. During the design optimisation, energy demand as well as cost effectiveness were evaluated. Finally, recommendations for energy-efficient and cost-effective hotel design solutions were suggested. In addition, the bioclimatic zoning for Nepal was consolidated leading to five elevation-based zones that can be used to introduce building energy regulations in the future.

  20. Distribution probability of large-scale landslides in central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Manita; Bhandary, Netra P.; Dahal, Ranjan Kumar; Yatabe, Ryuichi

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale landslides in the Himalaya are defined as huge, deep-seated landslide masses that occurred in the geological past. They are widely distributed in the Nepal Himalaya. The steep topography and high local relief provide high potential for such failures, whereas the dynamic geology and adverse climatic conditions play a key role in the occurrence and reactivation of such landslides. The major geoscientific problems related with such large-scale landslides are 1) difficulties in their identification and delineation, 2) sources of small-scale failures, and 3) reactivation. Only a few scientific publications have been published concerning large-scale landslides in Nepal. In this context, the identification and quantification of large-scale landslides and their potential distribution are crucial. Therefore, this study explores the distribution of large-scale landslides in the Lesser Himalaya. It provides simple guidelines to identify large-scale landslides based on their typical characteristics and using a 3D schematic diagram. Based on the spatial distribution of landslides, geomorphological/geological parameters and logistic regression, an equation of large-scale landslide distribution is also derived. The equation is validated by applying it to another area. For the new area, the area under the receiver operating curve of the landslide distribution probability in the new area is 0.699, and a distribution probability value could explain > 65% of existing landslides. Therefore, the regression equation can be applied to areas of the Lesser Himalaya of central Nepal with similar geological and geomorphological conditions.

  1. Challenging gender roles through STEM education in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Todd J.

    Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) education programs are currently being introduced and expanded across "developing" nations. STEM programs often conflict with hegemonic gender norms, for example by targeting girls and women in male dominated societies. However, given the cultural complexity of STEM for girls, implementing educators are rarely asked their point of view on programs from abroad. This study explored the perceptions of educators in Nepal who participated in the Girls Get STEM Skills (GGSS) program, a program funded through the U.S. Department of State for 2015/2016. The 8-month program reached 254 girls across three government schools and included the donation of 30 laptops. In August, 2016, the researcher conducted one-on-one interviews and focus groups with 18 participants at GGSS school sites in Pokhara, Nepal. Qualitative data was gathered on educators' perceptions of teacher roles, Nepal as a developing nation, gender imbalance in STEM, and the GGSS curriculum. The study argues that educators viewed educational topics through the lens of bikas, the Nepali word for development. This suggests that the principal impact of STEM programs--as part of larger development initiatives--may be the creation and reinforcement of new social meanings rather than the tangible impacts of the projects themselves.

  2. Revisiting global body politics in Nepal: A reflexive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Using the example of a human rights training in Nepal, the author looks at global body politics in a reflexive piece on her engagement in development practices that translate western feminist ideas on gender inequality and empowerment via UN human rights policies into non-western contexts. It firsts look at postcolonial and critical literature on feminist engagement in gender and development processes including a discussion on the concept of global body politics before examining briefly the framing of gender-based violence in Nepal. The core of the paper is a reflexive analysis and interrogation of the training in Nepal in order to bring out the tensions and contradictions around western developmental, feminist and human rights discourses. The discussion looks at how difficult it is for feminist, human rights and developmental discourses and practices to unmoor themselves from the notion of the 'expert' and those who do the rights/work/righting rights training and those who are perennially seen as requiring training. The conclusion reflects on possibilities of other epistemic practices found in intercultural dialogues.

  3. Nurses’ Views on Need for Professional Development in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Kamal Shrestha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study explores the nurses' views on need for professional development and barriers in Nepal. METHODS: This is a qualitative content analysis study conducted among nurses from different health institutes. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to obtain their views on need of professional development and major barriers against professional development in Nepal. Eleven nurses for in-depth interviews and three groups of six nurses each for focus group discussions were selected purposefully from Kathmandu University Hospital, Dhulikhel and Tribhuban University Teachng Hospital, Kathmnadu. RESULTS: Five themes emerged from qualitative data. "Continuing professional development", "supportive management", "nursing leadership", "recognition and respect" and "professional networking" were considered as essential factors for professional development. Lack of "commitment by the nurses", "female gender professional" and "lack of autonomy" were felt as barriers for the nursing professioanl development. CONCLUSIONS: Continuing professional development and supportive working environment are crucial to make nursing profession more dynamic and appealing in Nepal. Keywords: continuing professional development, professional development, supportive managment

  4. Migration and the Problem of Old Age People in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Ram Gautam

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Current trends of migration in Nepal imply that the extensive out-migration of young people from rural areas, to foreign and internal urban centres, coincides with a rise in the problem of older couples in rural areas. This article examines the impact of migration on living condition and internal feelings of old age couples by drawing on the results of sociological and demographic field studies in Kandebash Village Development Committee (VDC comprising multiethnic communities of western Nepal. The methodology for identifying older people is, social survey followed by direct interview with semi-structured questionnaire, examining variations by socio-economic strata and family structures. Comparative analysis indicates considerable heterogeneity in past and present migration patterns, both within and between countries. Economically higher status families are commonly able to reinforce their position by making better use of emigration opportunities. These families are migrating permanently to urban centers within country. Migrants from economically middle and lower status families are continuing temporary migration to foreign countries. Temporary migration, both within and between countries, is making old age couples alone in rural villages. The migrants' financial and material contributions are a nominal support. The old age lonely couples are facing many problems such as feeling loneliness, helplessness, frustration, increased household and social burdening.Key words: Migration, emigration, immigration, old age couple, rural migration, NepalDOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1361Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.145-160

  5. Status and prospects of maize research in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind KC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Food and nutritional securities are the major threats coupled with declining factor productivity and climate change effects in Nepal. Maize being the principal food crops of the majority of the hill people and source of animal feed for ever growing livestock industries in Terai of Nepal. Despite the many efforts made to increase the maize productivity in the country, the results are not much encouraging. Many of the maize based technologies developed and recommended for the farmers to date are not fully adopted. Therefore, problem is either on technology development or on dissemination or on both. Considering the above facts, some of the innovative and modern approaches of plant breeding and crop management technologies to increase the maize yield need to be developed and disseminated. There is a need for location-specific maize production technologies, especially for lowland winter maize, marginal upland maize production system, and resource poor farmers. Research efforts can be targeted to address both yield potential and on-farm yields by reducing the impacts of abiotic and biotic constraints. Therefore, in order to streamline the future direction of maize research in Nepal, an attempt has been made in this article to highlight the present status and future prospects with few key pathways.

  6. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome in various ethnic population of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, S; Dulal, S; Maharjan, I M

    2008-09-01

    Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is an ocular condition characterized by a distinctive deposition of fibrillar material in the anterior segment of the eye. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is frequently associated with glaucoma. Though it is seen in all the population, prevalence varies considerably in different races. A hospital based study done in Nepal by our group showed that Gurung population is frequently affected by this disease than any others. To determine the fact a larger population based study was necessary. Thus a research was designed to survey the various populations in the community. Different population from Kathmandu valley, Kavrepalanchowk, Pokhara, and Ghandruk were evaluated in two different phases to include major ethnic population living in Nepal. Household surveys done to bring all the targeted population to base hospital and detail examination including anterior segment evaluation after dilatation of pupil, optic disc evaluation, intraocular pressure measurement, gonioscopy, visual field recording and photographic documentation was done. Total of4430 population surveyed while only 2135 fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. Gurungs irrespective of their place of residence showed higher prevalence of Pseudoexfoliation syndrome accounting for 7.8% in Kathmandu valley while 12.0% in Ghandruk. Tamangs were affected very rarely by this disease accounting only for 0.3%. Gurungs are at higher risk of developing Pseudoexfoliation syndrome than any others in Nepal.

  7. Potential diagnostic biomarkers for chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Sayanthooran, Saravanabavan; Magana-Arachchi, Dhammika N.; Gunerathne, Lishanthe; Abeysekera, Tilak

    2017-01-01

    Background In Sri Lanka, there exists chronic kidney disease of both known (CKD) and unknown etiologies (CKDu). Identification of novel biomarkers that are customized to the specific causative factors would lead to early diagnosis and clearer prognosis of the diseases. This study aimed to find genetic biomarkers in blood to distinguish and identify CKDu from CKD as well as healthy populations from CKDu endemic and non-endemic areas of Sri Lanka. Methods The expression patterns of a selected p...

  8. Farmers' Laws and Irrigation, Water Rights and Dispute Management in the Hills of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poudel, R.

    2000-01-01

    The title of my Thesis is "Farmers' Laws and Irrigation: Water Rights and Dispute Management in the Hills of Nepal". This is based on a research I conducted in the Thulotar Kulo irrigation system in Nepal, during 1997 and 1998. Thulotar Kulo is a farmer-managed irrigation system.Although this is a c

  9. When I Give, I Own: Building Literacy through READ Community Libraries in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Khan, Nafizuddin; Dondolo, Thamsanqa

    2008-01-01

    Under the auspices of the International Reading Association, an evaluation was conducted of Rural Education and Development (READ) program of creating community libraries in Nepal. READ set out to address the high rates of illiteracy and poverty in Nepal through the development of these libraries. To examine READ's approach, a team of…

  10. Determinants of Child Immunization in Nepal: The Role of Women's Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shanta; Lee, Hae nim

    2012-01-01

    Background: Approximately 1.4 million or 13% of all children who die each year could be prevented with widely-available vaccines. Objective: We examined if women's empowerment improved child immunization using data on 1,056 mothers with young children from Nepal. Methods: The study utilized the 2006 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, a…

  11. Farmer Field Schools: Unexpected outcomes of gendered empowerment in wartime Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, A.M.B.; Visser, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article is the outcome of an empirical study of technical training of women and men through Farmer Field Schools in rural Nepal during the last decade. When the Farmer Field Schools started in Nepal as part of the FAO Integrated Pest Management project in 1997, this was also the year that the

  12. The Role of Obstetric Knowledge in Utilization of Delivery Service in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, Rajendra; Baral, Om Bahadur; Khanal, Vishnu; Lee, Andy H.

    2014-01-01

    Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness (BP/CR) program has been promoted in Nepal to equip pregnant women with obstetric knowledge so as to motivate them to seek professional care. Using a prospective design of 701 pregnant women of more than 5 months gestation in a central hills district of Nepal, we evaluated if having obstetric knowledge…

  13. Situation of Iron Deficiency and Its Management Prioritizing Dietary Intervention in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, BK; Koirala, U; Lama, STA

    2012-01-01

    Background Control of iron deficiency disorders is prioritized in the nutrition policies of Nepal. The situation is still threatening the public health in both rural and urban areas. Objective There are limited reviews on the iron deficiency situation in Nepal. This study was undertaken to find o...

  14. The Role of Obstetric Knowledge in Utilization of Delivery Service in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, Rajendra; Baral, Om Bahadur; Khanal, Vishnu; Lee, Andy H.

    2014-01-01

    Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness (BP/CR) program has been promoted in Nepal to equip pregnant women with obstetric knowledge so as to motivate them to seek professional care. Using a prospective design of 701 pregnant women of more than 5 months gestation in a central hills district of Nepal, we evaluated if having obstetric knowledge…

  15. Public and Private School Performance in Nepal: An Analysis Using the SLC Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Amrit

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for School Leaving Certificate Exam, this paper analyzes public and private school performance in Nepal. The ordinary least square estimates suggest that private school students perform better than public school students. However, the problem of self-selection bias arises, as…

  16. Nepali Private Schools and Tolerated Illegality: A Foucauldian Analysis of Privatisation of Education in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma Poudyal, Chandra

    2017-01-01

    The Education Act 1971 is the main policy document under which schools in Nepal are operated. With the change in political regime, this policy has been amended as per the ideology of the incoming regime. Although private schools started to show their influence in Nepal in the late 1980s, excessive growth of private schools began with the…

  17. Does Private School Competition Improve Public School Performance? The Case of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Amrit

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for school leaving certificate (SLC) exam, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of private school competition on public school performance for the case of Nepal. The study uses the number of private schools in the neighborhood as a measure of competition. The identification…

  18. Farmer Field Schools: Unexpected outcomes of gendered empowerment in wartime Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, A.M.B.; Visser, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article is the outcome of an empirical study of technical training of women and men through Farmer Field Schools in rural Nepal during the last decade. When the Farmer Field Schools started in Nepal as part of the FAO Integrated Pest Management project in 1997, this was also the year that the M

  19. Nutritional status and mortality of highland children in Nepal : Impact of sociocultural factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, PMJF; Hendriks, JLM; Gerver, WJM; de Jong, Peter; deMeer, K

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the nutritional status of native children in the highlands of Nepal (1,700-3,000 m) and explores the relationship between child mortality and surviving children's nutritional status. A random sample of 145 households from 11 villages in the Koshi Hill Zone in east Nepal was s

  20. Does Private School Competition Improve Public School Performance? The Case of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Amrit

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for school leaving certificate (SLC) exam, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of private school competition on public school performance for the case of Nepal. The study uses the number of private schools in the neighborhood as a measure of competition. The identification…

  1. Public and Private School Performance in Nepal: An Analysis Using the SLC Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Amrit

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for School Leaving Certificate Exam, this paper analyzes public and private school performance in Nepal. The ordinary least square estimates suggest that private school students perform better than public school students. However, the problem of self-selection bias arises, as…

  2. Poor thermal care practices among home births in Nepal: further analysis of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Khanal

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hypothermia is a major factor associated with neonatal mortality in low and middle income countries. Thermal care protection of newborn through a series of measures taken at birth and during the initial days of life is recommended to reduce the hypothermia and associated neonatal mortality. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of and the factors associated with receiving 'optimum thermal care' among home born newborns of Nepal. METHODS: Data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS 2011 were used for this study. Women who reported a home birth for their most recent childbirth was included in the study. Factors associated with optimum thermal care were examined using Chi-square test followed by logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 2464 newborns were included in the study. A total of 57.6 % were dried before the placenta was delivered; 60.3% were wrapped; 24.5% had not bathing during the first 24 hours, and 63.9% were breastfed within one hour of birth. Overall, only 248 (10.7%; 95% CI (8.8 %, 12.9% newborns received optimum thermal care. Newborns whose mothers had achieved higher education (OR 2.810; 95% CI (1.132, 6.976, attended four or more antenatal care visits (OR 2.563; 95% CI (1.309, 5.017, and those whose birth were attended by skilled attendants (OR 2.178; 95% CI (1.428, 3.323 were likely to receive optimum thermal care. CONCLUSION: The current study showed that only one in ten newborns in Nepal received optimum thermal care. Future newborn survival programs should focus on those mothers who are uneducated; who do not attend the recommended four or more attend antenatal care visits; and those who deliver without the assistance of skilled birth attendants to reduce the risk of neonatal hypothermia in Nepal.

  3. Level of awareness about legalization of abortion in Nepal: a study at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuladhar, H; Risal, A

    2010-06-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 25.0% of all pregnancies worldwide end in induced abortion, approximately 50 million each year. More than half of these abortions are performed under unsafe conditions resulting in high maternal mortality ratio specially in developing countries like Nepal. Abortion was legalized under specified conditions in March 2002 in Nepal. But still a large proportion of population are unaware of the legalization and the conditions under which it is permitted. Legal reform alone cannot reduce abortion related deaths in our country. This study was undertaken with the main objective to study the level of awareness about legalization of abortion in women attending gyne out patients department of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital (NMCTH), which will give a baseline knowledge for further dissemination and advocacy about abortion law. Total 200 women participated in the study. Overall 133 (66.5%) women said they were aware of legalization of abortion in Nepal. Women of age group 20-34 years, urban residents, service holders, Brahmin/Chhetri caste and with higher education were more aware about it. Majority (92.0%) of the women received information from the media. Detail knowledge about legal conditions under which abortion can be performed specially in second trimester was found to be poor. Large proportion (71.0%) of the women were still unaware of the availability of comprehensive abortion care services at our hospital, which is being provided since last seven years. Public education and advocacy campaigns are crucial to create awareness about the new legislation and availability of services. Unless the advocacy and awareness campaign reaches women, they are not likely to benefit from the legal reform and services.

  4. Strong sustainability in Nepal: A structural economics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Surendra R.

    This dissertation analyzes the sustainability of the economy of Nepal. The main empirical question addressed is whether the Tenth Plan of Nepal (2002--2007) will meet its projected economic output goal and achieve its primary goal of reducing poverty. To this end, economic growth scenarios are examined in terms of availability of energy demand and supply, and income disparity among different households. The structure of the Nepali economy is examined using a Leontief input-output table, a Ghosian supply-side input-output table, and a social accounting matrix for the year 1999. Based on the input-output analysis of energy demand and supply for the 10th Plan, it is unlikely that energy requirements of the projected output will be met, unless some extra sources of energy are developed. Households need to switch their energy use from fuel wood/biomass to other alternatives. In order to meet the target of the Plan vis-a-vis energy demand or supply, a few policy measures are urgently needed, though some of these options require many years to develop. Household income inequality and distribution is examined through the SAM multipliers; namely aggregate, transfer, open-loop, and closed-loop multipliers. The investment-income multiplier scenarios for the 10th Plan indicate that the nominal income of households may increase due to the increased investment, which will not necessarily improve the bottom deciles households, particularly socio-economically deprived households. Economic growth in Nepal during the past fifty years demonstrates that the modernization model is unsuccessful. Economic growth occurred at some centers at the cost of periphery. A huge regional disparity has developed between hills and plains, east and west, city and rural areas. Nepal's persistent poverty indicates a failure of modernization theory. The Tenth Plan would be another continuation of a failed legacy, unless social and natural endowments are considered for sustainability. Nepal could be an

  5. Societal impacts and vulnerability to floods in Bangladesh and Nepal

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    Tanvir H. Dewan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh and Nepal lie between the Himalayas and low-lying coasts of the Bay of Bengal and are traversed by hundreds of rivers and tributaries. Historical data shows that, since 1970, the scale, intensity and duration of floods have increased in Bangladesh and Nepal, causing grave human suffering; disruptions in normal life and activity, damages of infrastructure, crops and agricultural land with severe impacts on the economy. Bangladesh is affected by torrential rain, glacier melt, upstream water flow and tidal surges. In 1988, Bangladesh experienced one of the most severe floods of the twentieth century which aroused significant concern internationally and triggered the Bangladesh Action Plan for Flood Control. The Government of Bangladesh (GOB has so far constructed a number of flood shelters and carried out 482 water and flood control projects involving flood protection embankments, drainage channels, sluice gates and regulators on different rivers and canals. These also provided safety measures against inundation by tidal waves, storm-surges and flooding. The Terai region of Nepal is highly prone to hydrological risks including torrential rain, floods, glaciers resulting in erosion and landslides. The Government of Nepal (GON has implemented different mitigation measures mainly early warning awareness, rescue measure, relief, and post-flood rehabilitation programs etc. Disaster Management Bureaus of both the countries have already conducted many trainings, workshops and seminars to disseminate scientific knowledge and coping up practices to disaster managers and to create public awareness. Besides the contemporary approaches to mitigating flood effects, people of these countries have coped with floods through generations relying on traditional/indigenous knowledge and other local adaptation practices. It is crucial that along with scientific process, indigenous, traditional and conventional practices are to be integrated for a national

  6. Cross-border transmission line between Nepal and India: a test-case for the analysis of HVDC integration into an existing HVAC system

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Nepal has huge hydropower potential of 83,000 MW, of which 42,000 MW is technically and economically feasible. According to the annual report of Nepal Electricity Authority, the total installed capacity of hydropower in Nepal is only 733.57 MW. Although bestowed with tremendous hydropower resources, only about 40% of Nepal s population has access to electricity and remaining 60% faces severe load shedding. In this scenario, the cross border transmission links between Nepal and India serves t...

  7. An Assessment of Monsoon Triggered Landslides in Western Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan Acharya, Madhu

    2010-05-01

    Due to heavy monsoon rain, rugged topography and very young mountains, frequent slope failures and soil erosion are very common in Nepal but in most of cases the natural slopes are disturbed by men to construct a road through it and the situation further aggravated by the Monsoon rain. Summer usually tests the disaster response capacity of Nepal, when the monsoons trigger water induced disasters. This year Nepal's Western regions were most severely affected by floods and landslides. Every year, sadly, it is the same story of mostly poor people living in remote villages succumbing to landslides and flooding and those who survive facing hardships brought on by the disaster. The tail end of the monsoon in October has triggered flood and landslides in Nepal which affected a total of 14 districts in the mid and far-west regions, of which Kailali, Bardiya, Banke, Dadeldhura, Accham and Kanchapur district are most affected. The affected areas are geographically scattered and remote, and are therefore difficult to access. In this year (2009), flood and landslides have claimed 62 lives, affecting more than 152,000 individuals from 27,000 families. More than 4,000 families are displaced and are taking shelter in schools, open space and forest areas with no protection from the external elements. In the above context the prevention and mitigation measures for landslides is a great challenge for Nepal. Nepal has been investing its huge amount of resources to stabilize landslides and roadside slope failures, still then it has become unmanageable during Monsoon time. Considering the above facts, an assessment of landslides which were occurred during the Monsoon (July-October 2009), along Khodpe - Jhota - Chainpur road in far western region of Nepal has been carried out based on the field observation of various landslides. The paper presents the causes and mechanisms of failures of different landslides which are mostly triggered by Monsoon rain. It also suggests some low cost

  8. Projections of annual rainfall and surface temperature from CMIP5 models over the BIMSTEC countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Kar, S. C.; Dalal, Mamta; Pattnayak, R. K.

    2017-05-01

    Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) comprising Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand brings together 21% of the world population. Thus the impact of climate change in this region is a major concern for all. To study the climate change, fifth phase of Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) models have been used to project the climate for the 21st century under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 over the BIMSTEC countries for the period 1901 to 2100 (initial 105 years are historical period and the later 95 years are projected period). Climate change in the projected period has been examined with respect to the historical period. In order to validate the models, the mean annual rainfall has been compared with observations from multiple sources and temperature has been compared with the data from Climatic Research Unit (CRU) during the historical period. Comparison reveals that ensemble mean of the models is able to represent the observed spatial distribution of rainfall and temperature over the BIMSTEC countries. Therefore, data from these models may be used to study the future changes in the 21st century. Four out of six models show that the rainfall over India, Thailand and Myanmar has decreasing trend and Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and Sri Lanka show an increasing trend in both the RCP scenarios. In case of temperature, all the models show an increasing trend over all the BIMSTEC countries in both the scenarios, however, the rate of increase is relatively less over Sri Lanka than the other countries. The rate of increase/decrease in rainfall and temperature are relatively more in RCP8.5 than RCP4.5 over all these countries. Inter-model comparison show that there are uncertainties within the CMIP5 model projections. More similar studies are required to be done for better understanding the model uncertainties in climate projections over this region.

  9. Study of radiation safety conditions in different hospitals in Nepal; Estudio de las condiciones de seguridad radiologica en diferentes hospitales de Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanchan, P. A.; Jha, L. N.; Galan Montenegro, P.; Herandez Rodriguez, R.; Moreno Saiz, C.; Casado Villalon, F. J.

    2011-07-01

    Radiology in Nepal began in 1923, but the current date there aren't infrastructure in radiation protection to control the use of ionizing radiation in different areas. Only recently Nepal is part of the IAEA and this should be a support and an acceleration creating the right conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of radiation protection in medicine. Due to the lack of regulation, monitoring or quality control, not even recommended.

  10. Nepal; 2008 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Staff Supplement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    Limited progress has been made in addressing Nepal’s structural weaknesses in tax administration and public financial management. Macroeconomic performance under the recent Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF)-supported program has been stable. The outlook for 2007–08 remains stable. Although the macroeconomic performance has been stable, progress on structural reforms has been held back by the fragile political circumstances. Public enterprises and the Nepal Oil Corporation, in p...

  11. Identities of two Paragonimus species from Sri Lanka inferred from molecular sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, M; Rajapakse, R P V J; Paranagama, W; Agatsuma, T

    2003-09-01

    Metacercariae of Paragonimus spp. were obtained from field-collected freshwater crabs in Sri Lanka. Genomic DNA was extracted from single metacercariae. Two gene regions (partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and the second internal transcribed spacer of the nuclear ribosomal gene repeat (ITS2)) were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction. Two differing sequences were obtained for each of these gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses placed the type 1 sequences as sister to a clade containing P. westermani and P. siamensis whereas the type 2 sequences were close to published sequences of P. siamensis from Thailand. The possible taxonomic status of these two types are discussed. This is the first report of molecular data about Paragonimus from Sri Lanka.

  12. Bartonella infection in urban and rural dogs from the tropics: Brazil, Colombia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, E C; Chomel, B B; Singhasivanon, O-U; Namekata, D Y; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Cortés-Vecino, J A; Gennari, S M; Rajapakse, R P; Huong, L T; Dubey, J P

    2013-01-01

    Dogs can be infected by a wide range of Bartonella spp., but limited studies have been conducted in tropical urban and rural dog populations. We aimed to determine Bartonella antibody prevalence in 455 domestic dogs from four tropical countries and detect Bartonella DNA in a subset of these dogs. Bartonella antibodies were detected in 38 (8·3%) dogs, including 26 (10·1%) from Colombia, nine (7·6%) from Brazil, three (5·1%) from Sri Lanka and none from Vietnam. DNA extraction was performed for 26 (63%) of the 41 seropositive and 10 seronegative dogs. Four seropositive dogs were PCR positive, including two Colombian dogs, infected with B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, and two Sri Lankan dogs harbouring sequences identical to strain HMD described in dogs from Italy and Greece. This is the first detection of Bartonella infection in dogs from Colombia and Sri Lanka and identification of Bartonella strain HMD from Asia.

  13. Teaching speech and language therapists in Sri Lanka: issues in curriculum, culture and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenden, Mary; Hartley, Sally; Kariyakaranawa, Sunil; Kodikara, Somadasa

    2003-01-01

    This paper draws on the experiences of the authors in designing and teaching a new course to educate speech and language therapists in Sri Lanka. This was the first speech and language therapist course in the country and was the result of collaboration between two universities, one in the UK and one in Sri Lanka. Rather than replicating established programmes elsewhere it was more appropriate to design a new course, suited to providing a comprehensive model of service, encompassing both social and medical approaches to rehabilitation. Issues about developing teaching and learning approaches to match pre-existing knowledge and experience of both staff and students are addressed. The particular ways of designing the programme to take account of cultural and language aspects of the Sri Lankan context are discussed.

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Leprosy in a High-Risk Community Setting in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrera, Thushani Marie Elizabeth; Tillekeratne, L Gayani; Fernando, M S Nilanthi; Kasturiaratchi, S T Kaushlya; Østbye, Truls

    2016-10-01

    Leprosy is caused by the Mycobacterium leprae bacillus. Pockets of high endemicity remain in a number of countries including Sri Lanka, in spite of the fact that elimination has been achieved at the national level. In 2012, in a village in the Puttlam district, dermatologists reported an increase in individuals with leprosy. This village had been established in the 1990s for people displaced from Northern Sri Lanka during a civil war. A comprehensive household survey was conducted by district health officials from June to July 2012, and all household members present during the survey period were examined for leprosy lesions. Patients with suspected leprosy were referred to a dermatology clinic for clinical or pathological confirmation. The prevalence of leprosy was high (511 per 10 000 population). Household contact with another patient with leprosy increased the risk of leprosy (odds ratio = 6.69; P leprosy at bay in high-risk communities.

  15. The health and nutritional status of school children in two rural communities in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, S D; Paranavitane, S R; Rajakaruna, J; Weerasinghe, S; Silva, D; Wickremasinghe, A R

    2000-06-01

    There is growing evidence of considerable burden of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases and undernutrition in school children. This study describes the nutritional status and parasitic infections of school children in two areas of rural Sri Lanka. All children in four primary schools in the Moneragala district of Sri Lanka were included in the study. The height and weight of children were measured and anthropometric indices calculated. Stool and blood samples were examined for evidence of intestinal helminthiasis, malaria and anaemia. A greater proportion of boys than girls were underweight, wasted and stunted. Over 80% of the children were anaemic but did not apparently have iron deficiency anaemia according to their blood picture. The prevalence of parasitic infections such as hookworm and Plasmodium spp that may contribute to anaemia was low.

  16. The delaying effect of stigma on mental health help-seeking in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Sunera M; Deane, Frank P; McLeod, Hamish J

    2017-03-01

    Mental health stigma has been associated with delays in seeking treatment. To describe perceived stigma experienced by patients and carers in Sri Lanka and to determine the effects of stigma on help-seeking delay. Survey of outpatients and family carers (n = 118 dyads) attending two psychiatric hospitals in Sri Lanka, using the Disclosure and Discrimination subscales of the Stigma Scale. Stigma was positively related to help-seeking delay for carers but not patients. Public stigma experienced by carers accounted for 23% of the variance in help-seeking delay. Reducing stigma may reduce help-seeking delays during the course of treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Measuring revealed and emergent vulnerabilities of coastal communities to tsunami in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkmann, Jörn; Fernando, Nishara

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents the important findings of a study undertaken in two selected tsunami-affected coastal cities in Sri Lanka (Batticaloa and Galle) to measure the revealed and emergent vulnerability of coastal communities. International risk studies have failed to demonstrate the high vulnerability of coastal communities to tsunami in Sri Lanka. Therefore, indirect assessment tools to measure pre-event vulnerability have to be complemented by assessment tools that analyse revealed and emergent vulnerability in looking at the aftermath and impact patterns of a real scenario, as well as in examining the dynamics of disaster recovery in which different vulnerabilities can be identified. The paper first presents a conceptual framework for capturing vulnerability within a process-oriented approach linked to sustainable development. Next, it highlights selected indicators and methods to measure revealed and emergent vulnerability at the local level using the examples of Batticaloa and Galle. Finally, it discusses the usefulness and application of vulnerability indicators within the framework of reconstruction.

  18. The Role of Military as an Instrument of Soft Power in Post-War Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apsara Karunaratne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soft Power is a relatively new term that has emerged in international relations. Coined by Joseph S. Nye in the 1990s, it emphasizes on power embedded in culture and exerting influence through non-coercive forms. Soft power, however, defines power predominantly in terms of power relations among states and gives little or no significance to power relations within a state. Furthermore, even though considerable literature has been written on the role of the military in inter-state relations, there is little research on the internal exercise of soft power through military means. Taking a step further, this paper seeks to analyze the internal soft power of the military in post-war Sri Lanka by opening a new window to look at the often criticized development interventions of the armed forces in the aftermath of the conflict between the Government of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.

  19. Putting houses in place: rebuilding communities in post-tsunami Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwanpura, Kanchana N

    2009-07-01

    This paper interrogates the social and political geographies of resettlement and reconstruction of temporary and permanent shelters, which are fundamental to rebuilding tsunami-affected communities. War and ethnic cleavages are an endemic feature of Sri Lanka's social polity, and uneven development processes in the country are clearly visible. This paper draws attention to these spaces of inequality by drawing on in-depth interviews and participant observation carried out in Eastern and Southern Sri Lanka. It argues that communities' concerns and anxieties regarding displacement and resettlement have tended to be articulated against prevailing fault lines of war and inequality. This is the backdrop against which communities negotiated the recovery process. My fieldwork shows that it is critical to understand that disaster and development relief are ingrained within context specificities. Relief efforts therefore need to recognise that the process of 'putting houses in place' should be embedded within local social relations.

  20. Examining adaptations to water stress among farming households in Sri Lanka's dry zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nicholas E; Carrico, Amanda

    2017-02-16

    Climate change is increasing water scarcity in Sri Lanka. Whether these changes will undermine national-level food security depends upon the ability of the small-scale farmers that dominate rice production and the institutions that support them to overcome the challenges presented by changing water availability. Analyzing household survey data, this research identifies household, institutional, and agroecological factors that influence how water-stressed farmers are working to adapt to changing conditions and how the strategies they employ impact rice yields. Paralleling studies conducted elsewhere, we identified institutional factors as particularly relevant in farmer adaptation decisions. Notably, our research identified farmers' use of hybrid seed varietals as the only local climate adaptation strategy to positively correlate with farmers' rice yields. These findings provide insight into additional factors pertinent to successful agricultural adaptation and offer encouraging evidence for policies that promote plant breeding and distribution in Sri Lanka as a means to buffer the food system to climate change-exacerbated drought.

  1. Malaria vectors in a traditional dry zone village in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F

    1999-01-01

    Malaria transmission by anopheline mosquitoes was studied in a traditional tank-irrigation-based rice-producing village in the malaria-endemic low country dry zone of northcentral Sri Lanka during the period August 1994-February 1997. Adult mosquitoes were collected from human and bovid bait...... catches, bovid-baited trap huts, indoor catches, and pit traps. Mosquito head-thoraces were tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, and blood-engorged abdomens for the presence of human blood by ELISAs. House surveys were done at two-day intervals to record cases of blood film...... in An. culicifacies and An. peditaeniatus. Malaria parasite infections were seen in seven mosquito species, with 75% of the positive mosquitoes containing P. falciparum and 25% P. vivax. Polymorph PV247 was recorded from a vector (i.e., An. varuna) for the first time in Sri Lanka. Computations of mean...

  2. Cetacean Community Ecology in the Waters of Sri Lanka and the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cetacean Community Ecology in the Waters of Sri Lanka...novaeangliae in the Arabian Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 149:13-21. Smith, B. D., B. Ahmed, R. M. Mowgli and S. Strindberg. 2008. Species occurrence...and distributional ecology of nearshore cetaceans in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh, with abundance estimates for Irrawaddy dolphins Orcaella

  3. SOME ETHNO-ARCHAEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES OF THE VEDDAS IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.M. Chandraratne

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Veddas are considered to be the indigenous people of Sri Lanka. A century ago, the Veddas were scattered across the Eastern Province, and some parts of the North-Central and Uva Provinces, although at present they are confined to Bintanne that stretches to some parts of the Uva and Eastern provinces. This paper explores the subsistence pattern of the Veddas in Sri Lanka in relation to their old equipment and practices. It builds on ethno-archaeological interpretations drawing from archaeological evidence from Prehistoric to Historical periods. Evidence of interaction of humans, technology,faunal and floral resources found from archaeological sites in relation to subsistence was interpreted through the method of ethnographic analogy. Evidence suggests that during the historical period, the Veddas lived in various parts of Sri Lanka including Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Ratnapura, Buttala, Tambalagam pattu, Kattakulam pattu, Bintannae, Nilgala and Batticaloa. They bartered deer hide, dried flesh, cotton and honey for rice, Kurrakkan (Elusine coracana , tobacco, salt, clothes and iron arrow heads a century ago. The existence of charred bones and arrow head type of bone tools shows the practice of hunting during the protohistoric and early historic periods. The Veddas did not adopt Sinhalese mode of life up till the 19th century. However, acculturation is gradually taking place at least in the lifestyle of Veddas in Dambana at present. Especially the Anuradhapura Veddas who lived outside the Bintanne area do not seem to possess traditional Vedda livelihoods, and maintain a lifestyle comparable with the Sinhalese Buddhist culture. Based on the above evidence, the paper concludes that the subsistence patterns of Veddas prior to the last century are quite comparable with similar evidence found from the Mesolithic, Proto and the Early Historic periods in Sri Lanka, though a certain decline in the distinction between Vedda culture and the dominant culture

  4. Inter-Annual Variability in Blue Whale Distribution off Southern Sri Lanka between 2011 and 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Asha de Vos; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Robert G Harcourt

    2014-01-01

    Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) movements are often driven by the availability of their prey in space and time. While globally blue whale populations undertake long-range migrations between feeding and breeding grounds, those in the northern Indian Ocean remain in low latitude waters throughout the year with the implication that the productivity of these waters is sufficient to support their energy needs. A part of this population remains around Sri Lanka where they are usually recorded cl...

  5. Interprofessional work in operating rooms: a qualitative study from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, Vathsala; Guruge, Sepali; Gamage, Bawantha; Espin, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Background A growing body of research shows links between poor teamwork and preventable surgical errors. Similar work has received little attention in the Global South, and in South Asia, in particular. This paper describes surgeons? perception of teamwork, team members? roles, and the team processes in a teaching hospital in Sri Lanka to highlight the nature of interprofessional teamwork and the factors that influence teamwork in this setting. Methods Data gathered from interviews with 15 su...

  6. Sri Lanka: Physical Reconstruction and Economic Development as Conflict Prevention Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Đevoić, Boženko

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the 26 year long ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka and examines physical reconstruction and economic development as measures of conflict prevention and postconflict reconstruction. During the years of conflict, the Sri Lankan government performed some conflict prevention measures, but most of them caused counter effects, such as the attempt to provide “demilitarization”, which actually increased militarization on both sides, and “political power sharing” that was ...

  7. Comparing India’s Counterinsurgency Approaches in Sri Lanka and Against the Naxalites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    executed by the government must be legal , for it is this same authority by which the government expects its citizens to adhere to both during the...contested areas.26 Joseph Gallieni, a French military officer during the turn of the 20th Century, fathered the “oil stain” metaphor for...their roots in ethnic tensions. Under British rule, the minority Tamil population, who spoke English , dominated the political landscape of Sri Lanka.138

  8. Assessment of Variable Planting Date as an Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Variability in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture accounts for approximately 70% of global freshwater withdrawals. Changes in precipitation patterns due to climate change as well as increasing demands for water necessitate an increased understanding of the water-­food intersection, notably at a local scale to inform farmer adaptations to improve water productivity, i.e., to get more food with less water. Local assessments of water-food security are particularly important for nations with self-sufficiency policies, which prioritize in-country production of certain resources. An ideal case study is the small island nation of Sri Lanka, which has a self-sufficiency policy for its staple food of rice. Because rice is a water-intensive crop, assessment of irrigation water requirements (IWRs) and the associated changes over time is especially important. Previous studies on IWRs of rice in Sri Lanka have failed to consider the Yala (dry) season, when water is scarcest.The goal of this study is to characterize the role that a human decision, setting the planting date, can play in buffering declines in rice yield against changes in precipitation patterns. Using four meteorological stations in the main rice-growing zones in Sri Lanka, we explore (1) general changes in IWRs over time during the Yala season and (2) the impact of the rice planting date. We use both historical data from meteorological stations as well as future projections from regional climate models. Our results indicate that gains can be achieved using a variable planting date relative to a fixed date, in accordance with a similar conclusion for the Maha (wet) season. This local scale assessment of Sri Lanka IWRs will contribute to the growing global literature on the impacts of water scarcity on agriculture and the role that one adaptation measure can play in mitigating deleterious impacts.

  9. Predicting effects of rainforest fragmentation from live trapping studies of small mammals in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    M.R. Wijesinghe

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of forest fragmentation on small mammals inhabiting the rainforests of Sri Lanka. Fifteen forests ranging in size from 145 to 11000 ha were live-trapped for five to eight nights each in both interior and edge habitats, yielding a total of 18400 trap nights. A total of 444 individuals belonging to 10 species of small mammals were captured. Multiple-regression analysis incorporating three indicators of fragmentation: patch area, shape index (perimeter/area) and...

  10. An Investment Case to Prevent the Reintroduction of Malaria in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shretta, Rima; Baral, Ranju; Avanceña, Anton L. V.; Fox, Katie; Dannoruwa, Asoka Premasiri; Jayanetti, Ravindra; Jeyakumaran, Arumainayagam; Hasantha, Rasike; Peris, Lalanthika; Premaratne, Risintha

    2017-01-01

    Sri Lanka has made remarkable gains in reducing the burden of malaria, recording no locally transmitted malaria cases since November 2012 and zero deaths since 2007. The country was recently certified as malaria free by World Health Organization in September 2016. Sri Lanka, however, continues to face a risk of resurgence due to persistent receptivity and vulnerability to malaria transmission. Maintaining the gains will require continued financing to the malaria program to maintain the activities aimed at preventing reintroduction. This article presents an investment case for malaria in Sri Lanka by estimating the costs and benefits of sustaining investments to prevent the reintroduction of the disease. An ingredient-based approach was used to estimate the cost of the existing program. The cost of potential resurgence was estimated using a hypothetical scenario in which resurgence assumed to occur, if all prevention of reintroduction activities were halted. These estimates were used to compute a benefit–cost ratio and a return on investment. The total economic cost of the malaria program in 2014 was estimated at U.S. dollars (USD) 0.57 per capita per year with a financial cost of USD0.37 per capita. The cost of potential malaria resurgence was, however, much higher estimated at 13 times the cost of maintaining existing activities or 21 times based on financial costs alone. This evidence suggests a substantial return on investment providing a compelling argument for advocacy for continued prioritization of funding for the prevention of reintroduction of malaria in Sri Lanka. PMID:28115673

  11. DETERMINANTS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS: APPLYING WESTERN MODEL TO THE SRI LANKA CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the factors influencing the intention of students to start up a new venture. Using both the "Theory of Planned Behavior" and "Theory of Reasoned Action", a model is tested using survey data collected from 353 undergraduate business students in Sri Lanka. Results of structural equation modeling show entrepreneurial intentions are positively influenced by perceived behavioral control and macro-environment support. However, the effects of attitudes towards entrepreneurship an...

  12. Current status of Calotes liocephalus Günther, 1872 (Reptilia: Agamidae of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.T. Amarasinghe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Calotes liocephalus Günther, 1872 is an endemic and threatened, arboreal agamid lizard of Sri Lanka, which is found only in the forests of the Knuckles Mountain Range and Peak Wilderness up to 1850m. This work is mainly based on examination of the type specimen and WHT specimens as well as published literature and our observations of ecology, behaviour and threats on Calotes liocephalus.

  13. An Overview of Meat Industry in Sri Lanka: A Comprehensive Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jo, Cheorun; Jayasena, Dinesh D.

    2016-01-01

    Livestock is considered as one of the most important segments in agriculture since animal husbandry was practiced for centuries as a backyard system by rural families. Livestock plays as a powerful tool in rural development where meat industry contributes a dominant part. Meat and meat products become a vital component in the diet, which had been one of the main protein sources traditionally as well. The development in the livestock and meat industry of Sri Lanka basically depends upon religi...

  14. Household responses to malaria and their costs: a study from rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, F; Hoek, Wim van der; Amerasinghe, P H

    1997-01-01

    A study of the cost of malaria at the household level, community perceptions, preventive measures and illness behaviour linked to the disease was undertaken in 5 villages in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The surveyed community had a high knowledge of malaria, although side effects of antimalarial...... was on special diets for the sick person, to neutralize the perceived heating effect of the disease and its treatment....

  15. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescent students; a perspective from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijeratne Thilina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000. With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the Ratnapura municipality (urban population of approx. 50,000, Sri Lanka and all students aged 14-18 were assessed with self administered (pre tested, Sinhalese translations questionnaires [Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale, Anxiety screening test of suicide and mental health association international]. Results A total of 445 students were assessed (male-54.4%, female 45.6%. Thirty six percent screened positive for depression (mild depression-17%, severe depression-19% and 28% screened positive for severe anxiety. Females screened positive for depression and anxiety significantly more than the males (p = 0.0001, 0.005 respectively. Students in classes facing barrier examinations at the end of the year had the highest positivity rates. Examination related issues (36% were the most commonly cited problem. Recommendations It is recommended that: 1. School mental health development programmes in Sri Lanka concentrate more on reducing examination related stress, and in particular focus on the female students 2. Policy decisions are made to reduce competition for higher education 3. A nationally coordinated survey on mental health of adolescent students is carried out utilizing the island-wide network of medical officers of mental health.

  16. An Investment Case to Prevent the Reintroduction of Malaria in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shretta, Rima; Baral, Ranju; Avanceña, Anton L V; Fox, Katie; Dannoruwa, Asoka Premasiri; Jayanetti, Ravindra; Jeyakumaran, Arumainayagam; Hasantha, Rasike; Peris, Lalanthika; Premaratne, Risintha

    2017-03-01

    AbstractSri Lanka has made remarkable gains in reducing the burden of malaria, recording no locally transmitted malaria cases since November 2012 and zero deaths since 2007. The country was recently certified as malaria free by World Health Organization in September 2016. Sri Lanka, however, continues to face a risk of resurgence due to persistent receptivity and vulnerability to malaria transmission. Maintaining the gains will require continued financing to the malaria program to maintain the activities aimed at preventing reintroduction. This article presents an investment case for malaria in Sri Lanka by estimating the costs and benefits of sustaining investments to prevent the reintroduction of the disease. An ingredient-based approach was used to estimate the cost of the existing program. The cost of potential resurgence was estimated using a hypothetical scenario in which resurgence assumed to occur, if all prevention of reintroduction activities were halted. These estimates were used to compute a benefit-cost ratio and a return on investment. The total economic cost of the malaria program in 2014 was estimated at U.S. dollars (USD) 0.57 per capita per year with a financial cost of USD0.37 per capita. The cost of potential malaria resurgence was, however, much higher estimated at 13 times the cost of maintaining existing activities or 21 times based on financial costs alone. This evidence suggests a substantial return on investment providing a compelling argument for advocacy for continued prioritization of funding for the prevention of reintroduction of malaria in Sri Lanka.

  17. Interprofessional work in operating rooms: a qualitative study from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, Vathsala; Guruge, Sepali; Gamage, Bawantha; Espin, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Background A growing body of research shows links between poor teamwork and preventable surgical errors. Similar work has received little attention in the Global South, and in South Asia, in particular. This paper describes surgeons’ perception of teamwork, team members’ roles, and the team processes in a teaching hospital in Sri Lanka to highlight the nature of interprofessional teamwork and the factors that influence teamwork in this setting. Methods Data gathered from interviews with 15 su...

  18. A descriptive profile of β-thalassaemia mutations in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Black, M. L.; Sinha, S.; S Agarwal; Colah, R.; Das, R; Bellgard, M.; Bittles, A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Thalassaemia is a common and debilitating autosomal recessive disorder affecting many populations in South Asia. To date, efforts to create a regional profile of β-thalassaemia mutations have largely concentrated on the populations of India. The present study updates and expands an earlier profile of β-thalassaemia mutations in India, and incorporates comparable data from Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Despite limited data availability, clear patterns of historical and cultural population movements ...

  19. Were human babies used as bait in crocodile hunts in colonial Sri Lanka?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anslem de Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of live animals as bait is not an uncommon practice in hunting worldwide.  However, some curious accounts of the use of human babies as bait to lure crocodiles in sport hunting exist on the island of Sri Lanka, where sport hunting was common during the British colonial period.  Herein we compile the available records, review other records of the practice, and discuss the likelihood of the exercise actually having taken place. 

  20. Potential Challenges of Controlling Leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka at a Disease Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharaka Wijerathna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present works reviewed the existing information on leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka and in other countries, focusing on challenges of controlling leishmaniasis in the country, in an outbreak. Evidence from recent studies suggests that there is a possibility of a leishmaniasis outbreak in Sri Lanka in the near future. Difficulty of early diagnosis due to lack of awareness and unavailability or inadequacy of sensitive tests are two of the main challenges for effective case management. Furthermore, the absence of a proper drug for treatment and lack of knowledge about vector biology, distribution, taxonomy and bionomics, and reservoir hosts make the problem serious. The evident potential for visceralization in the cutaneous variant of L. donovani in Sri Lanka may also complicate the issue. Lack of knowledge among local communities also reduces the effectiveness of vector and reservoir host control programs. Immediate actions need to be taken in order to increase scientific knowledge about the disease and a higher effectiveness of the patient management and control programs must be achieved through increased awareness about the disease among general public and active participation of local community in control activities.