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...-language pathology. 409.23 Section 409.23 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... § 409.23 Physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech-language pathology. Medicare pays for... therapy or speech-language pathology services must be furnished— (1) By qualified physical therapists...
..., occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. 418.74 Section 418.74 Public Health... requirement—Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. (a) A... providing physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling services...
..., occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology. 418.72 Section 418.72 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology. Physical therapy services, occupational therapy services, and speech-language pathology services must be available, and when provided, offered in...
...-language pathology services. 409.17 Section 409.17 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES..., and speech-language pathology services. (a) General rules. (1) Except as specified in this section, physical therapy, occupational therapy, or speech-language pathology services must be furnished by...
Page, Stephen J; Wallace, Sarah E
Constraint-induced language therapy (CILT) has received recent attention as a possible intervention to improve expressive language in people with nonfluent aphasia. Difficulties have been reported with the practical implementation of constraint-induced movement therapy due to its intensive treatment parameters. It remains unknown whether similar challenges may exist with CILT. To determine the opinions of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) about CILT for people with nonfluent aphasia. One hundred sixty-seven SLPs completed an electronic survey assessing their opinions of various aspects of CILT. Over 60% of participants felt that people with aphasia would be very unlikely or somewhat unlikely to adhere to CILT. The majority felt that people with aphasia would hold high or moderate concerns with the number of hours spent in therapy (high, 41.8%; moderate, 31.4%), the number of days spent in therapy (high, 44.4%; moderate, 24.8%), likelihood for managed care reimbursement (high, 74.8%; moderate, 15.2%), and other logistical issues (high, 39.2%; moderate, 30.7%). With respect to providing CILT, participants cited the number of hours of therapy (high, 37.3%; moderate, 21.6%) and the number of consecutive days of therapy (high, 29.4%; moderate, 20.3%) as concerns. There were 70.6% who indicated that their facilities lacked resources to provide CILT, and 90.9% felt that most facilitates do not have the resources to provide CILT. Some SLPs hold significant concerns with the administration of CILT, particularly related to its dosing and reimbursement parameters. Additional work is needed to investigate the issues that were identified in this survey using qualitative methods with SLPs and people with aphasia and to examine modified CILT protocols.
McCartney, Elspeth; Boyle, James; Ellis, Sue; Bannatyne, Susan; Turnbull, Mary
A manualized language therapy developed via a randomized controlled trial had proved efficacious in the short-term in developing expressive language for mainstream primary school children with persistent language impairment. This therapy had been delivered to a predetermined schedule by speech and language therapists or speech and language therapy assistants to children individually or in groups. However, this model of service delivery is no longer the most common model in UK schools, where indirect consultancy approaches with intervention delivered by school staff are often used. A cohort study was undertaken to investigate whether the therapy was equally efficacious when delivered to comparable children by school staff, rather than speech and language therapists or speech and language therapy assistants. Children in the cohort study were selected using the same criteria as in the randomized controlled trial, and the same manualized therapy was used, but delivered by mainstream school staff using a consultancy model common in the UK. Outcomes were compared with those of randomized controlled trial participants. The gains in expressive language measured in the randomized controlled trial were not replicated in the cohort study. Less language-learning activity was recorded than had been planned, and less than was delivered in the randomized controlled trial. Implications for 'consultancy' speech and language therapist service delivery models in mainstream schools are outlined. At present, the more efficacious therapy is that delivered by speech and language therapists or speech and language therapy assistants to children individually or in groups. This may be related to more faithful adherence to the interventions schedule, and to a probably greater amount of language-learning activity undertaken. Intervention delivered via school-based 'consultancy' approaches in schools will require to be carefully monitored by schools and SLT services. © 2010 Royal College of
Full Text Available This paper addresses the impact of language on cognitive behavioural therapy. Language is emotive and studies carried out in the linguistic field have shown second language is less emotive when describing events occuring in the first language. This paper has been written based on the experiences of a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT service providing therapy to patients from a diverse cultural and ethnic population. Patients whose first language is not English often receive therapy in their second language. Global migration is a common phenomenon and mainly occurs for economic reasons or threat of violence. This paper has been drawn from the results of a literature review on first and second languages and therapy. Despite being an area that is extremely relevant to therapy, there is an apparent lack of literature in relation to cognitive behavioural therapy for depression and other disorders. CBT is one of the recommended therapies by National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Findings from the linguistic field highlight the potential short comings providing therapy in a patient’s second language. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance that therapists working in this field have an understanding of how first and second languages function and the role they play in maintaining patients’ psychological problems. This practice paper discusses measures that can be used in cognitive behavioural therapy to deal with this using a case example.
Glykas, Michael; Chytas, Panagiotis
Speech and language therapists (SLTs) are faced daily with a diversity of speech and language disabilities, which are associated with a variety of conditions ranging from client groups with overall cognitive deficits to those with more specific difficulties. It is desirable that those working with such a range of problems and with such a demanding workload, plan care efficiently. Therefore, the introduction of methodologies, reference models of work and tools, which significantly improve the effectiveness of therapy, are particularly welcome. This paper describes the first web-based tool for diagnosis, treatment and e-Learning in the field of language and speech therapy. The system allows SLTs to find the optimum treatment for each patient, it also allows any non-specialist user-SLT, patient or helper (relative etc.)-to explore their creativity, by designing their own communication aid in an interactive manner, with the use of editors such as: configuration and vocabulary. The system has been tested and piloted by potential users in Greece and the UK.
Hill, Anne E.; Davidson, Bronwyn J.; Theodoros, Deborah G.
Background: Reflective practice is reported to enhance clinical reasoning and therefore to maximize client outcomes. The inclusion of targeted reflective practice in academic programmes in speech-language therapy has not been consistent, although providing opportunities for speech-language therapy students to reflect during their clinical practice…
Joyal, Marilyne; Bonneau, Audrey; Fecteau, Shirley
Individuals with schizophrenia display speech and language impairments that greatly impact their integration to the society. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the importance of speech and language therapy (SLT) as part of rehabilitation curriculums for patients with schizophrenia emphasizing on the speech and language abilities assessed, the therapy setting and the therapeutic approach. This article reviewed 18 studies testing the effects of language therapy or training in 433 adults diagnosed with schizophrenia. Results showed that 14 studies out of 18 lead to improvements in language and/or speech abilities. Most of these studies comprised pragmatic or expressive discursive skills being the only aim of the therapy or part of it. The therapy settings vary widely ranging from twice daily individual therapy to once weekly group therapy. The therapeutic approach was mainly operant conditioning. Although the evidence tends to show that certain areas of language are treatable through therapy, it remains difficult to state the type of approach that should be favoured and implemented to treat language impairments in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adams, Catherine; Lloyd, Julian
In this article, Catherine Adams, clinical senior lecturer in speech and language therapy at the University of Manchester, and Julian Lloyd, senior lecturer in psychology at Newman College, Birmingham, describe the implementation and effects of an intensive programme of speech and language therapy for children who have pragmatic language…
ZEDLER, EMPRESS Y.
NEUROLOGICALLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN OF NORMAL INTELLIGENCE CAN BE HELPED TO IMPROVE THEIR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT THROUGH LANGUAGE THERAPY. A 2-YEAR STUDY SUGGESTED NOT ONLY THAT THIS STATEMENT IS TRUE BUT ALSO THAT SIGNIFICANTLY GREATER IMPROVEMENT COMES IN SITUATIONS WHERE THESE STUDENTS ARE PERMITTED TO REMAIN IN REGULAR CLASSROOMS AND TO RECEIVE…
Goorhuis-Brouwer, SM; Knijff, WA
Objective: this article discusses the effect of speech therapy on language comprehension, language production and non-verbal functioning in two groups of children with developmental language disorders. Design: retrospective study-a follow-up after a mean of 2 years, Materials and methods: verbal and
Geist, Kamile; McCarthy, John; Rodgers-Smith, Amy; Porter, Jessica
Documenting how music therapy can be integrated with speech-language therapy services for children with communication delay is not evident in the literature. In this article, a collaborative model with procedures, experiences, and communication outcomes of integrating music therapy with the existing speech-language services is given. Using…
Method: A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Twenty-two currently practising speech-language therapists who are registered members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association (SASLHA participated in the study. Results: The respondents indicated that they are aware of their role regarding adolescents with written-language difficulties. However, they feel that South-African speech-language therapists are not fulfilling this role. Existing assessment tools and interventions for written-language difficulties are described as inadequate, and culturally and age inappropriate. Yet, the majority of the respondents feel that they are adequately equipped to work with adolescents with written-language difficulties, based on their own experience, self-study and secondary training. The respondents feel that training regarding effective collaboration with teachers is necessary to establish specific roles, and to promote speech-language therapy for adolescents among teachers. Conclusion: Further research is needed in developing appropriate assessment and intervention tools as well as improvement of training at an undergraduate level.
Tambyraja, Sherine R; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Justice, Laura M; Logan, Jessica A R; Schwarz, Sadie
The purpose of the present study was: (a) to examine the extent to which speech-language therapy provided to children with language disorders in the schools targets code-based literacy skills (e.g., alphabet knowledge and phonological awareness) during business-as-usual treatment sessions, and (b) to determine whether literacy-focused therapy time was associated with factors specific to children and/or speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Participants were 151 kindergarten and first-grade children and 40 SLPs. Video-recorded therapy sessions were coded to determine the amount of time that addressed literacy. Assessments of children's literacy skills were administered as well as questionnaires regarding characteristics of SLPs (e.g., service delivery, professional development). Results showed that time spent addressing code-related literacy across therapy sessions was variable. Significant predictors included SLP years of experience, therapy location, and therapy session duration, such that children receiving services from SLPs with more years of experience, and/or who utilized the classroom for therapy, received more literacy-focused time. Additionally, children in longer therapy sessions received more therapy time on literacy skills. There is considerable variability in the extent to which children received literacy-focused time in therapy; however, SLP-level factors predict time spent in literacy more than child-level factors. Further research is needed to understand the nature of literacy-focused therapy in the public schools. Readers will be able to: (a) define code-based literacy skills, (b) discuss the role that speech-language pathologists have in fostering children's literacy development, and (c) identify key factors that may currently influence the inclusion of literacy targets in school-based speech-language therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The author describes the psycho-linguistic therapy «touching the World» for the visually impaired and explores language as a therapeutic tool with great possibilities for a teaching-learning process.
Ebbels, Susan H.; Wright, Lisa; Brockbank, Sally; Godfrey, Caroline; Harris, Catherine; Leniston, Hannah; Neary, Kate; Nicoll, Hilary; Nicoll, Lucy; Scott, Jackie; Maric, Nataša
Background: Evidence of the effectiveness of therapy for older children with (developmental) language disorder (DLD), and particularly those with receptive language impairments, is very limited. The few existing studies have focused on particular target areas, but none has looked at a whole area of a service. Aims: To establish whether for…
Gaile, Jacqueline; Adams, Catherine
Background: Metacognition is a significant component of complex interventions for children who have developmental language disorders. Research into how metacognition operates in the content or process of developmental language therapy delivery is limited. Identification and description of proposed active therapy components, such as metacognition,…
Full Text Available The most common way to communicate with those around us is speech. Suffering from a speech disorder can have negative social effects: from leaving the individuals with low confidence and moral to problems with social interaction and the ability to live independently like adults. The speech therapy intervention is a complex process having particular objectives such as: discovery and identification of speech disorder and directing the therapy to correction, recovery, compensation, adaptation and social integration of patients. Computer-based Speech Therapy systems are a real help for therapists by creating a special learning environment. The Romanian language is a phonetic one, with special linguistic particularities. This paper aims to present a few computer-based speech therapy systems developed for the treatment of various speech disorders specific to Romanian language.
Gaile, Jacqueline; Adams, Catherine
Metacognition is a significant component of complex interventions for children who have developmental language disorders. Research into how metacognition operates in the content or process of developmental language therapy delivery is limited. Identification and description of proposed active therapy components, such as metacognition, may contribute to our understanding of how to deliver complex communication interventions in an optimal manner. To analyse aspects of metacognition during therapy derived from a manualized speech and language intervention (the Social Communication Intervention Programme-SCIP) as delivered to children who have social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SPCD) and to examine the dynamic process of delivering therapy. A purposive sample of eight filmed therapy sessions was selected from the video data corpus of intervention-arm participants within a randomized controlled trial. The child-therapist interactions during therapy sessions from five children (aged between 5;11 and 10;3) in the SCIP trial were transcribed. Filmed sessions represented a variety of communication profiles and SCIP therapy content. Starting from existing theory on metacognition, cycles of iterative analysis were performed using a mixed inductive-deductive qualitative analysis. A preliminary list of metacognitive content embedded in the intervention was developed into a metacognitive coding framework (MCF). A thematic analysis of the identified metacognitive content of the intervention was then carried out across the whole sample. Thematic analysis revealed the presence of metacognition in the content and delivery of SCIP intervention. Four main themes of metacognitive person, task and strategy knowledge, and monitoring/control were identified. Metacognition was a feature of how children's ability to monitor language, pragmatic and social interaction skills, in themselves and other people, was developed. Task design and delivery methods were found to play a
Brady, Marian C; Kelly, Helen; Godwin, Jon; Enderby, Pam; Campbell, Pauline
Aphasia is an acquired language impairment following brain damage that affects some or all language modalities: expression and understanding of speech, reading, and writing. Approximately one third of people who have a stroke experience aphasia. To assess the effects of speech and language therapy (SLT) for aphasia following stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 9 September 2015), CENTRAL (2015, Issue 5) and other Cochrane Library Databases (CDSR, DARE, HTA, to 22 September 2015), MEDLINE (1946 to September 2015), EMBASE (1980 to September 2015), CINAHL (1982 to September 2015), AMED (1985 to September 2015), LLBA (1973 to September 2015), and SpeechBITE (2008 to September 2015). We also searched major trials registers for ongoing trials including ClinicalTrials.gov (to 21 September 2015), the Stroke Trials Registry (to 21 September 2015), Current Controlled Trials (to 22 September 2015), and WHO ICTRP (to 22 September 2015). In an effort to identify further published, unpublished, and ongoing trials we also handsearched the International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders (1969 to 2005) and reference lists of relevant articles, and we contacted academic institutions and other researchers. There were no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing SLT (a formal intervention that aims to improve language and communication abilities, activity and participation) versus no SLT; social support or stimulation (an intervention that provides social support and communication stimulation but does not include targeted therapeutic interventions); or another SLT intervention (differing in duration, intensity, frequency, intervention methodology or theoretical approach). We independently extracted the data and assessed the quality of included trials. We sought missing data from investigators. We included 57 RCTs (74 randomised comparisons) involving 3002 participants in this review (some appearing in
Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Massi, Giselle; Berberian, Ana Paula; Tonocchi, Rita; Lustosa, Sandra Silva
This study aimed to analyze the written production of a deaf person who is in the process of written language acquisition. One person with hearing disability, called R., participated in this study together with his Speech Language Pathologist. The therapist, proficient in sign language, acted as an interlocutor and interpreter, prioritizing the interactive nature of language and interfering in the written production only when it was requested. During the 3 years of work with R., a change in stance toward written language was observed. In addition, he began to reflect on his texts and utilize written Portuguese in a way that allowed his texts to be more coherent. Writing became an opportunity to show his singularity and to begin reconstructing his relationship with language. Speech language pathology and audiology therapy, at a bilingual clinic, can allow people with hearing disability early access to sign language and, consequently, enable the development of the written form of Portuguese.
Wairagkar, Maitreyee; McCrindle, Rachel; Robson, Holly; Meteyard, Lotte; Sperrin, Malcom; Smith, Andy; Pugh, Moyra
The functional connectivity and structural proximity of elements of the language and motor systems result in frequent co-morbidity post brain injury. Although rehabilitation services are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary and "integrated", treatment for language and motor functions often occurs in isolation. Thus, behavioural therapies which promote neural reorganisation do not reflect the high intersystem connectivity of the neurologically intact brain. As such, there is a pressing need for rehabilitation tools which better reflect and target the impaired cognitive networks. The objective of this research is to develop a combined high dosage therapy tool for language and motor rehabilitation. The rehabilitation therapy tool developed, MaLT (Motor and Language Therapy), comprises a suite of computer games targeting both language and motor therapy that use the Kinect sensor as an interaction device. The games developed are intended for use in the home environment over prolonged periods of time. In order to track patients' engagement with the games and their rehabilitation progress, the game records patient performance data for the therapist to interrogate. MaLT incorporates Kinect-based games, a database of objects and language parameters, and a reporting tool for therapists. Games have been developed that target four major language therapy tasks involving single word comprehension, initial phoneme identification, rhyme identification and a naming task. These tasks have 8 levels each increasing in difficulty. A database of 750 objects is used to programmatically generate appropriate questions for the game, providing both targeted therapy and unique gameplay every time. The design of the games has been informed by therapists and by discussions with a Public Patient Involvement (PPI) group. Pilot MaLT trials have been conducted with three stroke survivors for the duration of 6 to 8 weeks. Patients' performance is monitored through MaLT's reporting facility
This report describes the results of language therapy initiated 1 to 6 years after the onset of aphasia in 14 patients. During the course of treatment, each of the 14 patients improved strongly in their communicative abilities (PICA), according to clinical observation and reports from family, hospital ward personnel, or both.
Soliman, Hend; Abdel Hady, Aisha Fawzy; Abdel Hamid, Asmaa; Mahmoud, Heba
The aim of this work was to evaluate receptive and expressive language skills in children with congenital hypothyroidism receiving early hormonal replacement treatment before the age of 3 months and to identify any subtle areas of weaknesses in their language development to check the necessity for future language intervention. The study was conducted on 30 hypothyroid children receiving hormonal replacement. They were subdivided into group I (5-8 years 11 months; 12 cases) and group II (9-12 years 11 months; 18 cases). All patients were subjected to a protocol of assessment applied in the Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolism Pediatric Unit (DEMPU) and evaluation of language skills by the REAL scale. The younger group reached average Arabic language scores, while the older group showed moderate language delay. Early replacement therapy supports language development in young children. However, longitudinal and follow-up studies are required to identify difficulties presenting at older ages that may affect children in the academic settings. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Law, James; Reilly, Sheena; Snow, Pamela C
Historically speech and language therapy services for children have been framed within a rehabilitative framework with explicit assumptions made about providing therapy to individuals. While this is clearly important in many cases, we argue that this model needs revisiting for a number of reasons. First, our understanding of the nature of disability, and therefore communication disabilities, has changed over the past century. Second, there is an increasing understanding of the impact that the social gradient has on early communication difficulties. Finally, understanding how these factors interact with one other and have an impact across the life course remains poorly understood. To describe the public health paradigm and explore its implications for speech and language therapy with children. We test the application of public health methodologies to speech and language therapy services by looking at four dimensions of service delivery: (1) the uptake of services and whether those children who need services receive them; (2) the development of universal prevention services in relation to social disadvantage; (3) the risk of over-interpreting co-morbidity from clinical samples; and (4) the overlap between communicative competence and mental health. It is concluded that there is a strong case for speech and language therapy services to be reconceptualized to respond to the needs of the whole population and according to socially determined needs, focusing on primary prevention. This is not to disregard individual need, but to highlight the needs of the population as a whole. Although the socio-political context is different between countries, we maintain that this is relevant wherever speech and language therapists have a responsibility for covering whole populations. Finally, we recommend that speech and language therapy services be conceptualized within the framework laid down in The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language
Klatte, Inge S.; Roulstone, Sue
A common early intervention approach for preschool children with language problems is parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT). PCIT has positive effects for children with expressive language problems. It appears that speech and language therapists (SLTs) conduct this therapy in many different ways. This might be because of the variety of…
Felsher, L; Ross, E
The purpose of the present study was to survey and compare the knowledge and attitudes of final year occupational therapy, physiotherapy and speech-language therapy students, concerning the role of the speech-language therapist as a member of the stroke rehabilitation team in the hospital setting. In order to achieve this aim, a questionnaire was administered to final year students in these three disciplines, and included questions on most areas of stroke rehabilitation with which the speech-language therapist might be involved, as well as the concepts of rehabilitation and teamwork in relation to stroke rehabilitation. Results suggested a fairly good understanding of the concepts of rehabilitation and teamwork. Students appeared to have a greater understanding of those disorders following a stroke, with which the speech-language therapist is commonly involved, such as Aphasia, Dysarthria, Verbal Apraxia and Dysphagia. However, students appeared to show less understanding of those disorders post-stroke, for which the speech-language therapist's role is less well defined, such as Agraphia, Alexia and Amnesia. In addition, a high percentage of role duplication/overlapping in several aspects of stroke rehabilitation, such as family and social support, was found. Several implications for facilitating communication, collaboration and understanding between paramedical professions, as well as for further research are also provided.
Mariani, Beatriz Zaki Porcelli; Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Massi, Giselle; Tonocchi, Rita; Berberian, Ana Paula
this study aims to discuss the use of Brazilian sign language as the first language for a deaf individual going to a bilingual dialogic clinic from dialogic activities. This is a longitudinal study, including one deaf individual, called N, interacting with his family and speech therapists. During the therapeutic process developed inside the bilingual dialogical clinic, N participated in interactive contexts and could constitute himself as author of his sign language texts. In addition, he started to act dialogically and use verbal and nonverbal signs. Through interactive and dialogical situations developed inside the speech language therapy clinic, this deaf participant got control of his sign language, and started to get interest in and control of the Portuguese language, especially in the written form.
Falkus, Gila; Tilley, Ciara; Thomas, Catherine; Hockey, Hannah; Kennedy, Anna; Arnold, Tina; Thorburn, Blair; Jones, Katie; Patel, Bhavika; Pimenta, Claire; Shah, Rena; Tweedie, Fiona; O'Brien, Felicity; Leahy, Ruth; Pring, Tim
Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) is widely used by speech and language therapists to improve the interactions between children with delayed language development and their parents/carers. Despite favourable reports of the therapy from clinicians, little evidence of its effectiveness is available. We investigated the effects of PCIT as…
Jordan, L; Bryan, K
The potential value of a framework enabling practitioners to conceptualise speech and language therapy from a range of perspectives engendered by different theories about disability is explored. Four disability research paradigms are used to categorise professional activities, whilst the 'individual' and 'social' models of disability are considered as alternative value systems. Challenges facing speech and language therapists in developing roles and services to embrace different perspectives are outlined.
Vavreck, Sarah; Esposito, Judy
The focus of this paper is on responses from fifth grade peer tutors who were trained to use child-centered play therapy language during tutoring sessions with kindergarteners. The focus of this project was to identify academic and social/emotional benefits of participating in the program. Results indicated that participation in the program…
Allen, Jessica; Marshall, Chloë R
Parents play a critical role in their child's language development. Therefore, advising parents of a child with language difficulties on how to facilitate their child's language might benefit the child. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) has been developed specifically for this purpose. In PCIT, the speech-and-language therapist (SLT) works collaboratively with parents, altering interaction styles to make interaction more appropriate to their child's level of communicative needs. This study investigates the effectiveness of PCIT in 8-10-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI) in the expressive domain. It aimed to identify whether PCIT had any significant impact on the following communication parameters of the child: verbal initiations, verbal and non-verbal responses, mean length of utterance (MLU), and proportion of child-to-parent utterances. Sixteen children with SLI and their parents were randomly assigned to two groups: treated or delayed treatment (control). The treated group took part in PCIT over a 4-week block, and then returned to the clinic for a final session after a 6-week consolidation period with no input from the therapist. The treated and control group were assessed in terms of the different communication parameters at three time points: pre-therapy, post-therapy (after the 4-week block) and at the final session (after the consolidation period), through video analysis. It was hypothesized that all communication parameters would significantly increase in the treated group over time and that no significant differences would be found in the control group. All the children in the treated group made language gains during spontaneous interactions with their parents. In comparison with the control group, PCIT had a positive effect on three of the five communication parameters: verbal initiations, MLU and the proportion of child-to-parent utterances. There was a marginal effect on verbal responses, and a trend towards such an effect
Radman, Narges; Spierer, Lucas; Laganaro, Marina; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Colombo, Françoise
Based on findings for overlapping representations of bilingual people's first (L1) and second (L2) languages, unilingual therapies of bilingual aphasia have been proposed to benefit the untrained language. However, the generalisation patterns of intra- and cross-language and phonological therapy and their neural bases remain unclear. We tested whether the effects of an intensive lexical-phonological training (LPT) in L2 transferred to L1 word production in a Persian-French bilingual stroke patient with Broca's aphasia. Language performance was assessed using the Bilingual Aphasia Test, a 144-item picture naming (PN) task and a word-picture verification (WPV) task. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded during PN and WPV in both languages before and after an LPT in French on a wordlist from the PN task. After the therapy, naming improved only for the treated L2 items. The naming performance improved neither in the untrained L2 items nor in the corresponding items in L1. EEG analyses revealed a Language x Session topographic interaction at 540 ms post-stimulus, driven by a modification of the electrophysiological response to the treated L2 but not L1 items. These results indicate that LPT modified the brain networks engaged in the phonological-phonetic processing during naming only in the trained language for the trained items.
Puglisi, Marina Leite; Gândara, Juliana Perina; Giusti, Elisabete; Gouvêa, Maria Aparecida; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria
To explore which measures could predict the persistency of developmental language impairment (DLI) based on the association between the initial language assessment and the therapeutic prognosis of the child. In this retrospective study, the records of 42 children with diagnosis of DLI were analyzed. Participants' age varied from 21 to 63 months at the first language assessment, which included vocabulary, phonology, pragmatics and fluency tests. The performance of subjects in each test was scored from 0 to 4, based on the severity of the deficits, and the maximum score corresponded to age-adequate performance. As prognostic measure, we accounted the length of therapy (in sessions) of patients who were discharged, were referred to another service (because the deficits had become very mild), or remained in therapy (persistent language difficulties). There was association between initial assessment (normal or mild alterations for vocabulary and pragmatics abilities) and prognosis (Language Pathology, since it offers an auxiliary resource to the prognosis and therapeutic planning in cases of DLI.
Koyuncu, E.; Çam, P.; Altinok, N.; Çalli, D.E.; Yarbay Duman, T.; Özgirgin, N.
The aim of this study was to investigate the time window, duration and intensity of optimal speech and language therapy applied to aphasic patients with subacute stroke in our hospital. The study consisted of 33 patients being hospitalized for stroke rehabilitation in our hospital with first stroke
Szelag, Elzbieta; Dacewicz, Anna; Szymaszek, Aneta; Wolak, Tomasz; Senderski, Andrzej; Domitrz, Izabela; Oron, Anna
A number of evidence revealed a link between temporal information processing (TIP) and language. Both literature data and results of our studies indicated an overlapping of deficient TIP and disordered language, pointing to the existence of an association between these two functions. On this background the new approach is to apply such knowledge in therapy of patients suffering from language disorders. In two studies we asked the following questions: (1) can the temporal training reduce language deficits in aphasic patients (Study 1) or in children with specific language impairment (SLI, Study 2)? (2) can such training ameliorate also the other cognitive functions? Each of these studies employed pre-training assessment, training application, post-training and follow-up assessment. In Study 1 we tested 28 patients suffering from post-stroke aphasia. They were assigned either to the temporal training (Group A, n = 15) in milliseconds range, or to the non-temporal training (Group B, n = 13). Following the training we found only in Group A improved TIP, accompanied by a transfer of improvement to language and working memory functions. In Study 2 we tested 32 children aged from 5 to 8 years, affected by SLI who were classified into the temporal training (Group A, n = 17) or non-temporal training (Group B, n = 15). Group A underwent the multileveled audio-visual computer training Dr. Neuronowski®, recently developed in our laboratory. Group B performed the computer speech therapy exercises extended by playing computer games. Similarly as in Study 1, in Group A we found significant improvements of TIP, auditory comprehension and working memory. These results indicated benefits of temporal training for amelioration of language and other cognitive functions in both aphasic patients and children with SLI. The novel powerful therapy tools provide evidence for future promising clinical applications. PMID:26617547
Direct versus Indirect and Individual versus Group Modes of Language Therapy for Children with Primary Language Impairment: Principal Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial and Economic Evaluation
Boyle, James M.; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Forbes, John
Background: Many school-age children with language impairments are enrolled in mainstream schools and receive indirect language therapy, but there have been, to the authors' knowledge, no previous controlled studies comparing the outcomes and costs of direct and indirect intervention delivered by qualified therapists and therapy assistants, and…
Sijercic, Iris; Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A; Hara, Kimberley M
Previous research has found that client motivational language (especially arguments against change or counterchange talk; CCT) in early therapy sessions is a reliable predictor of therapy process and outcomes across a broad range of treatments including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Existing studies have considered the general occurrence of CCT, but the present study differentiated 2 types of CCT in early CBT sessions for 37 clients with generalized anxiety disorder: (a) statements that are uttered to express ambivalence regarding change versus (b) statements that are intended to oppose the therapist or therapy. Two process coding systems were used to accomplish this differentiation. Findings indicated that a higher number of CCT statements that occurred in the presence of resistance (opposition to the therapist or therapy) were a substantive and consistent predictor of lower homework compliance and poorer outcomes, up to 1 year posttreatment. Moreover, when both types of CCT were considered together, only opposition CCT was related to outcomes, and ambivalent CCT was not significantly predictive of proximal and distal outcomes. These findings suggest that the interpersonal context in which CCT statements occur may be critically important to their predictive capacity. More broadly, the findings of this study have implications for the future study of client motivational language and underscore the clinical importance of detecting opposition CCT. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Kummerer, Sharon E.; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A.
The "sociocultural framework" highlights the contributions of children's cultural and linguistic contexts to early language and literacy development. To collaborate with parents in early intervention programs, including speech-language therapy, there must be a sincere commitment to the development of cultural competence. Hispanics are…
The aim of this article is to analyse and describe task-setting in game-like interactions. The task-setting is studied in two contexts: in everyday interaction and in speech and language therapy. The data comprises task interaction between mothers and 5-year-old typically developing children (6 pairs) and task interaction between speech and…
Participants in speech and language therapy sessions engage in talk about talking to accomplish different social actions: identifying and explaining linguistic concepts; correcting language use; and repairing misunderstanding. Different traditions in interaction research have examined the practices of topic management, correction, and repair in…
Zhu, X; Jiao, R; Tu, M; Wang, W; Wen, X; Song, B
To observe the clinical efficacy of vitamin D auxiliary rehabilitation therapy in children with cerebral palsy and language dysfunction. Eighty-two cases of children with cerebral palsy and language dysfunction in our hospital from March 2011 to June 2014 were selected for this study. They were divided into two groups: the rehabilitation treatment group (simple group, 39 cases) and the vitamin D auxiliary rehabilitation therapy group (combination group, 43 cases). After three months of treatment, language development, Gesell Child Development Scale, Bayley Infant Development Scale score and vitamin D and calcium levels were compared. The language development, Gesell Child Development Scale, Bayley Infant Development Scale score and vitamin D and calcium levels for two of the groups, after treatment, are improved compared to before treatment. The difference was statistically significant (P language development in the combination group was obviously higher than the simple group. The difference was significant (95.3% vs. 74.4%, X2 = 2.486, P = 0.032). The Gesell Child Development Scale improved in the combination group compared to the simple group. The difference was statistically significant [(70.4 ± 11.3) vs (53.3 ±10.5), t = 3.127, P = 0.026]. The proportion of normal children was significantly higher than the rehabilitation treatment group, and the difference was statistically significant (30.2% vs. 20.5%, X2 = 3.016, P = 0.029). In the combination group, the vitamin D and calcium levels were statistically increased compared to the rehabilitation treatment group. It had statistical differences between the two groups (Pauxiliary rehabilitation therapy could improve the language function and the language development status in children with cerebral palsy and language dysfunction.
Ullrich, Dieter; Ullrich, Katja; Marten, Magret
Background: In Lower Saxony, Germany, pre-school children with language- and speech-deficits have the opportunity to access kindergartens with integrated language-/speech therapy prior to attending primary school, both regular or with integrated speech therapy. It is unknown whether these early childhood education treatments are helpful and…
Bryan, Karen; Gregory, Juliette
The purpose of this research was to ascertain the views of staff and managers within a youth offending team on their experiences of working with a speech and language therapist (SLT). The model of therapy provision was similar to the whole-systems approach used in schools. The impact of the service on language outcomes is reported elsewhere…
After the decades of the so-called 'paradigm wars' in social science research methodology and the controversy about the relative place and value of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies, 'paradigm peace' appears to have now been declared. This has come about as many researchers have begun to take a 'pragmatic' approach in the selection of research methodology, choosing the methodology best suited to answering the research question rather than conforming to a methodological orthodoxy. With the differences in the philosophical underpinnings of the two traditions set to one side, an increasing awareness, and valuing, of the 'mixed-methods' approach to research is now present in the fields of social, educational and health research. To explore what is meant by mixed-methods research and the ways in which quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods can be combined and integrated, particularly in the broad field of health services research and the narrower one of speech and language therapy. The paper discusses the ways in which methodological approaches have already been combined and integrated in health services research and speech and language therapy, highlighting the suitability of mixed-methods research for answering the typically multifaceted questions arising from the provision of complex interventions. The challenges of combining and integrating quantitative and qualitative methods and the barriers to the adoption of mixed-methods approaches are also considered. The questions about healthcare, as it is being provided in the 21st century, calls for a range of methodological approaches. This is particularly the case for human communication and its disorders, where mixed-methods research offers a wealth of possibilities. In turn, speech and language therapy research should be able to contribute substantively to the future development of mixed-methods research. © 2010 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.
Fourie, Robert J.
Background: Considerations of the negotiated therapeutic relationship in speech and language therapy are somewhat scarce, with specific therapeutic factors generally framed from psycholinguistic, behavioural, or neurological perspectives. Aims: To explore the therapeutic relationship in speech and language therapy, focusing on the personal…
Mohr, Bettina; Difrancesco, Stephanie; Harrington, Karen; Evans, Samuel; Pulvermüller, Friedemann
The role of the two hemispheres in the neurorehabilitation of language is still under dispute. This study explored the changes in language-evoked brain activation over a 2-week treatment interval with intensive constraint induced aphasia therapy (CIAT), which is also called intensive language action therapy (ILAT). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess brain activation in perilesional left hemispheric and in homotopic right hemispheric areas during passive listening to high and low-ambiguity sentences and non-speech control stimuli in chronic non-fluent aphasia patients. All patients demonstrated significant clinical improvements of language functions after therapy. In an event-related fMRI experiment, a significant increase of BOLD signal was manifest in right inferior frontal and temporal areas. This activation increase was stronger for highly ambiguous sentences than for unambiguous ones. These results suggest that the known language improvements brought about by intensive constraint-induced language action therapy at least in part relies on circuits within the right-hemispheric homologs of left-perisylvian language areas, which are most strongly activated in the processing of semantically complex language. PMID:25452721
Law, James; Reilly, Sheena; Snow, Pamela C.
Background: Historically speech and language therapy services for children have been framed within a rehabilitative framework with explicit assumptions made about providing therapy to individuals. While this is clearly important in many cases, we argue that this model needs revisiting for a number of reasons. First, our understanding of the nature…
Wilson, K. Ryan; O'Rourke, Heather; Wozniak, Linda A.; Kostopoulos, Ellina; Marchand, Yannick; Newman, Aaron J.
Our goal was to characterize the effects of intensive aphasia therapy on the N400, an electrophysiological index of lexical-semantic processing. Immediately before and after 4 weeks of intensive speech-language therapy, people with aphasia performed a task in which they had to determine whether spoken words were a "match" or a "mismatch" to…
Music therapists have had an interest in bibliographic research for over 20 years, beginning with Jellison's 1973 analysis of the frequency and types of articles appearing in the existing music therapy literature. Since then, several other researchers have continued in this line of inquiry. The purpose of this study was to (a) identify historical trends in the types of articles that have been published in major music therapy periodicals in the English language, (b) identify historical trends for each type of article within each music therapy journal, (c) to compare percentages of article types within each music therapy journal and (d) to compare percentages of article types across journals. Specifically, how many quantitative, qualitative, historical, philosophical/theoretical, clinical and professional articles have been published throughout the history of the following journals: Journal of Music Therapy, Music Therapy: Journal of the American Association for Music Therapy, Music Therapy Perspectives, The Arts in Psychotherapy, Journal of the Association for Music & Imagery, The Australian Journal of Music Therapy, The Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, The British Journal of Music Therapy, and The New Zealand Society for Music Therapy Journal.
McDonald, David; Proctor, Penny; Gill, Wendy; Heaven, Sue; Marr, Jane; Young, Jane
Intensive Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) training courses for Early Childhood Educators (ECEs) can have a positive effect on their use of interaction strategies that support children's communication skills. The impact of brief SLT training courses is not yet clearly understood. The aims of these two studies were to assess the impact of a brief…
Kesav, Praveen; Vrinda, S L; Sukumaran, Sajith; Sarma, P S; Sylaja, P N
This study aimed to assess the feasibility of professional based conventional speech language therapy (SLT) either alone (Group A/less intensive) or assisted by novel computer based local language software (Group B/more intensive) for rehabilitation in early post stroke aphasia. Comprehensive Stroke Care Center of a tertiary health care institute situated in South India, with the study design being prospective open randomised controlled trial with blinded endpoint evaluation. This study recruited 24 right handed first ever acute ischemic stroke patients above 15years of age affecting middle cerebral artery territory within 90days of stroke onset with baseline Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) Aphasia Quotient (AQ) score of aphasia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fourie, Robert; Crowley, Niamh; Oliviera, Ana
Although some studies have explored the adult therapeutic relationship in speech-language pathology, few, if any, have examined it with regard to children. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic relationship in pediatric speech and language therapy, focusing on the child's experience. Accordingly, the study was qualitative and involved the…
N. van Dijk; B. Spek; M Wieringa-de Waard; C. Lucas
BACKGROUND: The importance and value of the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the decision-making process is recognized by speech-language therapists (SLTs) worldwide and as a result curricula for speech-language therapy students incorporated EBP principles. However, the willingness
Spek, B.; Wieringa-de Waard, M.; Lucas, C.; van Dijk, N.
The importance and value of the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the decision-making process is recognized by speech-language therapists (SLTs) worldwide and as a result curricula for speech-language therapy students incorporated EBP principles. However, the willingness actually to use
Skeat, J.; Perry, A.
Background: The use of qualitative methodologies in speech and language therapy has grown over the past two decades, and there is now a body of literature, both generally describing qualitative research, and detailing its applicability to health practice(s). However, there has been only limited profession-specific discussion of qualitative…
Votruba, Kristen L; Rapport, Lisa J; Whitman, R Douglas; Johnson, Alex; Langenecker, Scott
Negative affectivity and neurocognitive deficits including executive dysfunction have been shown to be detrimental to rehabilitation therapies. However, research on the relationship between neuropsychological deficits and improvement in speech-language therapy (SLT) for aphasia is sparse. To examine the relationships among neurocognitive and psychological functioning and improvement in SLT following aphasia due to stroke. Fifty patients who were ≥ 9 months post stroke and enrolled in outpatient SLT to treat aphasia participated. Using standard language assessment measures, the authors evaluated language functioning at initiation of the study and after participants completed various SLT protocols. Executive functioning, visuospatial skills, attention, and memory also were assessed to provide indices of convergent and discriminant validity. Participants' mood and affectivity were evaluated by self-report, and their functional abilities and recovery of function since stroke were assessed via caregiver report. A multiple regression model testing the combined powers of neurocognitive and psychological variables was significant (P = .004, R2 = 0.33), with psychological and neurocognitive functioning accounting for 15% of the variance in relative language change beyond that accounted for by stroke severity and gross cognitive functioning. Negative affectivity expressed on the Positive and Negative Affectivity Scale made unique contributions to the model. Improvement in SLT is substantially related to neurocognitive and psychological functioning, particularly affectivity. Assessment of these characteristics may assist in identifying patients who are likely to improve and in tailoring treatment programs to yield optimal outcomes.
This dissertation focuses on influences from formal and informal curriculum on the effectiveness of teaching evidence-based speech and language therapy. A study showed that while EBP knowledge and skills increase during the years of study, motivational beliefs such as EBP task value and
Justice, Laura M; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Murphy, Kimberly A; Pratt, Amy; Biancone, Tricia
This study examined vocabulary intervention-in terms of targets and techniques-for children with language impairment receiving speech-language therapy in public schools (i.e., non-fee-paying schools) in the United States. Vocabulary treatments and targets were examined with respect to their alignment with the empirically validated practice of rich vocabulary intervention. Participants were forty-eight 5-7-year-old children participating in kindergarten or the first-grade year of school, all of whom had vocabulary-specific goals on their individualized education programmes. Two therapy sessions per child were coded to determine what vocabulary words were being directly targeted and what techniques were used for each. Study findings showed that the majority of words directly targeted during therapy were lower-level basic vocabulary words (87%) and very few (1%) were academically relevant. On average, three techniques were used per word to promote deep understanding. Interpreting findings against empirical descriptions of rich vocabulary intervention indicates that children were exposed to some but not all aspects of this empirically supported practice. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Justice, Laura M.; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Murphy, Kimberly A.; Pratt, Amy; Biancone, Tricia
This study examined vocabulary intervention--in terms of targets and techniques--for children with language impairment receiving speech-language therapy in public schools (i.e., non-fee-paying schools) in the United States. Vocabulary treatments and targets were examined with respect to their alignment with the empirically validated practice of…
Lucchese, Guglielmo; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Stahl, Benjamin; Dreyer, Felix R.; Mohr, Bettina
Clinical language performance and neurophysiological correlates of language processing were measured before and after intensive language therapy in patients with chronic (time post stroke >1 year) post stroke aphasia (PSA). As event-related potential (ERP) measure, the mismatch negativity (MMN) was recorded in a distracted oddball paradigm to short spoken sentences. Critical ‘deviant’ sentence stimuli where either well-formed and meaningful, or syntactically, or lexico-semantically incorrect. After 4 weeks of speech-language therapy (SLT) delivered with high intensity (10.5 h per week), clinical language assessment with the Aachen Aphasia Test battery demonstrated significant linguistic improvements, which were accompanied by enhanced MMN responses. More specifically, MMN amplitudes to grammatically correct and meaningful mini-constructions and to ‘jabberwocky’ sentences containing a pseudoword significantly increased after therapy. However, no therapy-related changes in MMN responses to syntactically incorrect strings including agreement violations were observed. While MMN increases to well-formed meaningful strings can be explained both at the word and construction levels, the neuroplastic change seen for ‘jabberwocky’ sentences suggests an explanation in terms of constructions. The results confirm previous reports that intensive SLT leads to improvements of linguistic skills in chronic aphasia patients and now demonstrate that this clinical improvement is associated with enhanced automatic brain indexes of construction processing, although no comparable change is present for ungrammatical strings. Furthermore, the data confirm that the language-induced MMN is a useful tool to map functional language recovery in PSA. PMID:28111545
Dickson, Kirstin; Marshall, Marjorie; Boyle, James; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Forbes, John
Background: The study is the first within trial cost analysis of direct versus indirect and individual versus group modes of speech-and-language therapy for children with primary language impairment. Aims: To compare the short-run resource consequences of the four interventions alongside the effects achieved measured by standardized scores on a…
Full Text Available Background: Aphasia affects one third of acute stroke patients. There is a considerable spontaneous recovery in aphasia, but impaired communication ability remains a great problem. Communication difficulties are an impediment to rehabilitation. Early treatment of the language deficits leading to increased communication ability would improve rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to elucidate the efficacy of very early speech and language therapy (SLT in acute stroke patients with aphasia. Methods: A prospective, open, randomized, controlled trial was carried out with blinded endpoint evaluation of SLT, starting within 2 days of stroke onset and lasting for 21 days. 123 consecutive patients with acute, first-ever ischemic stroke and aphasia were randomized. The SLT treatment was Language Enrichment Therapy, and the aphasia tests used were the Norsk grunntest for afasi (NGA and the Amsterdam-Nijmegen everyday language test (ANELT, both performed by speech pathologists, blinded for randomization. Results: The primary outcome, as measured by ANELT at day 21, was 1.3 in the actively treated patient group and 1.2 among controls. NGA led to similar results in both groups. Patients with a higher level of education (>12 years improved more on ANELT by day 21 than those with Conclusions: Very early intensive SLT with the Language Enrichment Therapy program over 21 days had no effect on the degree of aphasia in unselected acute aphasic stroke patients. In aphasic patients with more fluency, SLT resulted in a significant improvement as compared to controls. A higher educational level of >12 years was beneficial.
Justice, Laura M.; Jiang, Hui; Logan, Jessica A.; Schmitt, Mary Beth
Purpose: This study aimed to identify child-level characteristics that predict gains in language skills for children with language impairment who were receiving therapy within the public schools. The therapy provided represented business-as-usual speech/language treatment provided by speech-language pathologists in the public schools. Method: The…
Kambanaros, Maria; Michaelides, Michalis; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.
Background: Clinicians globally recognize as exceptionally challenging the development of effective intervention practices for bi- or multilingual children with specific language impairment (SLI). Therapy in both or all of an impaired child's languages is rarely possible. An alternative is to develop treatment protocols that facilitate the…
Pothier, Louise; Day, Rachael; Harris, Catherine; Pothier, David D.
Background: Information leaflets are commonly used in Speech and Language Therapy Departments. Despite widespread use, they can be of variable quality. Aims: To revise current departmental leaflets using the National Health Service (NHS) Toolkit for Producing Patient Information and to test the effect that this has on the readability scores of the…
James, Deborah M
The Bercow review found a high level of public dissatisfaction with speech and language services for children. Children with speech, language, and communication needs (SLCN) often have chronic complex conditions that require provision from health, education, and community services. Speech and language therapists are a small group of Allied Health Professionals with a specialist skill-set that equips them to work with children with SLCN. They work within and across the diverse range of public service providers. The aim of this review was to explore the applicability of Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) to the case of speech and language therapy. A review of qualitative research on a successfully embedded speech and language therapy intervention was undertaken to test the applicability of NPT. The review focused on two of the collective action elements of NPT (relational integration and interaction workability) using all previously published qualitative data from both parents and practitioners' perspectives on the intervention. The synthesis of the data based on the Normalisation Process Model (NPM) uncovered strengths in the interpersonal processes between the practitioners and parents, and weaknesses in how the accountability of the intervention is distributed in the health system. The analysis based on the NPM uncovered interpersonal processes between the practitioners and parents that were likely to have given rise to successful implementation of the intervention. In previous qualitative research on this intervention where the Medical Research Council's guidance on developing a design for a complex intervention had been used as a framework, the interpersonal work within the intervention had emerged as a barrier to implementation of the intervention. It is suggested that the design of services for children and families needs to extend beyond the consideration of benefits and barriers to embrace the social processes that appear to afford success in embedding
Ansaldo, Ana Inés; Saidi, Ladan Ghazi
Globalization imposes challenges to the field of behavioural neurology, among which is an increase in the prevalence of bilingual aphasia. Thus, aphasiologists have increasingly focused on bilingual aphasia therapy and, more recently, on the identification of the most efficient procedures for triggering language recovery in bilinguals with aphasia. Therapy in both languages is often not available, and, thus, researchers have focused on the transfer of therapy effects from the treated language to the untreated one. This paper discusses the literature on bilingual aphasia therapy, with a focus on cross-linguistic therapy effects from the language in which therapy is provided to the untreated language. Fifteen articles including two systematic reviews, providing details on pre- and posttherapy in the adult bilingual population with poststroke aphasia and anomia are discussed with regard to variables that can influence the presence or absence of cross-linguistic transfer of therapy effects. . The potential for CLT of therapy effects from the treated to the untreated language depends on the word type, the degree of structural overlap between languages, the type of therapy approach, the pre- and postmorbid language proficiency profiles, and the status of the cognitive control circuit.
Nieves Mendizábal de la Cruz
Full Text Available The constant modification of teaching and learning methods require the design of innovative strategies and the identification of educational good practices. The Degree of Speech and Language Therapy at theUniversityofValladolidhas developed various actions to promote international mobility of students and staff members, within the framework of interuniversity innovative educational projects. The objectives are: to make students aware of the role of the international dimension to increase the quality of their training; to expose innovative educational strategies to promote the international mobility; to foster internationalization of studies as a driver of research in this field; to establish Spanish as the language of reference in speech and language therapy. Descriptive methodology of performed actions was used. Results included: questionnaire sent to speech and language therapists in order to know their language skills and to enhance their importance, participation in courses, workshops and meetings, as well as in international mobility programs and exchange of experiences, teaching of subjects in English, publication of multilingual educational materials, contacts with American and European institutions and participation in international networks, blogging. It is concluded that the whole educative community should help to provide university programs of an international identity, and mobility should be provided of a social sense promoting equal opportunities for all groups.
Goldbart, J.; Marshall, J.; Evans, I. R.
The qualification leading to professional practice in speech and language therapy (SLT, also known as speech and language pathology) is not evenly available across the world. Geographic mobility and the availability of information are greater than at any other time in our history. Thus, initial SLT qualification courses in many countries are…
Justice, Laura M; Jiang, Hui; Logan, Jessica A; Schmitt, Mary Beth
This study aimed to identify child-level characteristics that predict gains in language skills for children with language impairment who were receiving therapy within the public schools. The therapy provided represented business-as-usual speech/language treatment provided by speech-language pathologists in the public schools. The sample included 272 kindergartners and first-graders with language impairment who participated in a larger study titled "Speech-Therapy Experiences in the Public Schools." Multilevel regression analyses were applied to examine the extent to which select child-level characteristics, including age, nonverbal cognition, memory, phonological awareness, vocabulary, behavior problems, and self-regulation, predicted children's language gains over an academic year. Pratt indices were computed to establish the relative importance of the predictors of interest. Phonological awareness and vocabulary skill related to greater gains in language skills, and together they accounted for nearly 70% of the explained variance, or 10% of total variance at child level. Externalizing behavior, nonverbal cognition, and age were also potentially important predictors of language gains. This study significantly advances our understanding of the characteristics of children that may contribute to their language gains while receiving therapy in the public schools. Researchers can explore how these characteristics may serve to moderate treatment outcomes, whereas clinicians can assess how these characteristics may factor into understanding treatment responses.
Methods: New graduates of six South African universities were recruited to participate in a survey by completing an electronic questionnaire exploring their perceptions of the dysphagia curricula and their preparedness to practise across the scope of the profession of speechlanguage therapy. Results: Eighty graduates participated in the study yielding a response rate of 63.49%. Participants perceived themselves to be well prepared in some areas (e.g. child language: 100%; articulation and phonology: 97.26%, but less prepared in other areas (e.g. adult dysphagia: 50.70%; paediatric dysarthria: 46.58%; paediatric dysphagia: 38.36% and most unprepared to provide services requiring sign language (23.61% and African languages (20.55%. There was a significant relationship between perceptions of adequate theory and clinical learning opportunities with assessment and management of dysphagia and perceptions of preparedness to provide dysphagia services. Conclusion: There is a need for review of existing curricula and consideration of developing a standard speech-language therapy curriculum across universities, particularly in service provision to a multilingual population, and in both the theory and clinical learning of the assessment and management of adult and paediatric dysphagia, to better equip graduates for practice.
Dornan, Dimity; Hickson, Louise; Murdoch, Bruce; Houston, Todd
This study examined the speech perception, speech, and language developmental progress of 25 children with hearing loss (mean Pure-Tone Average [PTA] 79.37 dB HL) in an auditory verbal therapy program. Children were tested initially and then 21 months later on a battery of assessments. The speech and language results over time were compared with…
Kummerer, Sharon E; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A; Hughes, Marie Tejero
This qualitative study explored mothers' perceptions of their children's communication disabilities, emergent literacy development, and speech-language therapy programs. Participants were 14 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children (age 17-47 months) who were receiving center-based services from an early childhood intervention program, located in a large urban city in the Midwestern United States. Mother interviews composed the primary source of data. A secondary source of data included children's therapy files and log notes. Following the analysis of interviews through the constant comparative method, grounded theory was generated. The majority of mothers perceived their children as exhibiting a communication delay. Causal attributions were diverse and generally medical in nature (i.e., ear infections, seizures) or due to familial factors (i.e., family history and heredity, lack of extended family). Overall, mothers seemed more focused on their children's speech intelligibility and/or expressive language in comparison to emergent literacy abilities. To promote culturally responsive intervention, mothers recommended that professionals speak Spanish, provide information about the therapy process, and use existing techniques with Mexican immigrant families.
Booth, Alannah; Choto, Fadziso; Gotlieb, Jessica; Robertson, Rebecca; Morris, Gabriella; Stockley, Nicola; Mauff, Katya
Background Upon graduation, newly qualified speech-language therapists are expected to provide services independently. This study describes new graduates’ perceptions of their preparedness to provide services across the scope of the profession and explores associations between perceptions of dysphagia theory and clinical learning curricula with preparedness for adult and paediatric dysphagia service delivery. Methods New graduates of six South African universities were recruited to participate in a survey by completing an electronic questionnaire exploring their perceptions of the dysphagia curricula and their preparedness to practise across the scope of the profession of speech-language therapy. Results Eighty graduates participated in the study yielding a response rate of 63.49%. Participants perceived themselves to be well prepared in some areas (e.g. child language: 100%; articulation and phonology: 97.26%), but less prepared in other areas (e.g. adult dysphagia: 50.70%; paediatric dysarthria: 46.58%; paediatric dysphagia: 38.36%) and most unprepared to provide services requiring sign language (23.61%) and African languages (20.55%). There was a significant relationship between perceptions of adequate theory and clinical learning opportunities with assessment and management of dysphagia and perceptions of preparedness to provide dysphagia services. Conclusion There is a need for review of existing curricula and consideration of developing a standard speech-language therapy curriculum across universities, particularly in service provision to a multilingual population, and in both the theory and clinical learning of the assessment and management of adult and paediatric dysphagia, to better equip graduates for practice. PMID:26304217
Greenwood, Nan; Wright, Jannet A.; Bithell, Christine
Background: Communication disorders affect both sexes and people from all ethnic groups, but members of minority ethnic groups and males in the UK are underrepresented in the speech and language therapy profession. Research in the area of recruitment is limited, but a possible explanation is poor awareness and understanding of speech and language…
Full Text Available Chronic communication impairment is common after stroke, and conventional speech and language therapy (SLT strategies have limited effectiveness in post-stroke aphasia. Neurorehabilitation with non-invasive brain stimulation techniques (NIBS ‒ particularly repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS ‒ may enhance the effects of SLT in selected patients. Applying inhibitory NIBS to specific homologous language regions may induce neural reorganization and reduce interhemispheric competition. This mini review highlights randomized controlled trials (RCTs and randomized cross-over trials using low-frequency rTMS or cathodal tDCS over the non-lesioned non-language dominant hemisphere and performs an exploratory meta-analysis of those trials considered combinable. Using a random-effects model, a meta-analysis of nine eligible trials involving 215 participants showed a significant mean effect size of 0.51 (95% CI = 0.24 to 0.79 for the main outcome accuracy of naming in language assessment. No heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 0%. More multicenter RCTs with larger populations and homogenous intervention protocols are required to confirm these and the longer-term effects.
McCartney, Elspeth; Boyle, James; Bannatyne, Susan; Jessiman, Emma; Campbell, Cathy; Kelsey, Cherry; Smith, Jennifer; O'Hare, Anne
The construction of therapy protocols for a large-scale randomized controlled trial comparing speech and language therapists and assistants, and group and individual therapy approaches for children aged 6-11 in mainstream schools is outlined. The aim was to outline the decision-making processes that led to the construction of the research therapy…
Zhi-Min Shi; Gui-Hong Lin; Qing Xie
Objective: To investigate the effects of music therapy on mood, language, behavior, and social skills in children with autism. Methods: A literature search was conducted using the following Chinese databases:the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, the Chinese Biomedical Literature (CBM) Database, and the VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodicals Database. The search terms were“autistic children”or“children with autism”and“music therapy”or“music treatment.”Studies of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included, and each publication included was assessed for quality. A meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.1. Results: Publications were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Six research articles describing RCTs were included; the total sample size was 300 patients. The results of meta-analysis showed that music therapy improved mood [Risk ratio (RR) ¼ 3.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) ¼ 1.93e4.11, Z ¼ 5.45, P Conclusions: Music therapy can improve mood, language, sensory perception, behavior, and social skills in children with autism.
Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Uruma, Go; Kaito, Nobuyoshi; Watanabe, Motoi
To examine the safety and feasibility of therapeutic application of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with language therapy for post-stroke patients with sensory-dominant aphasia. Two post-stroke Japanese patients with sensory-dominant aphasia were studied. In both patients, 10 sessions of 20-minute low-frequency rTMS with 1 Hz to the Wernicke's area were provided throughout 6-day hospitalization, followed by weekly outpatient rTMS treatment for 3 months. The language therapy was also provided through the period of in- and out-patient treatment. Language function was evaluated using the Token test and the Standard Language Test of Aphasia (SLTA) at the start and end of the in-patient treatment and the end of the outpatient treatment. The therapeutic protocol was well tolerated throughout the in- and out-patient treatments, without any adverse effects. The scores of the Token test and certain sub-categories of SLTA increased in both patients after the in-patient rTMS treatment. Persistent improvement of the score was noted over the 3-month post-discharge period. The proposed protocol of long-term application of low-frequency rTMS to the Wernicke's area and language therapy is considered a safe and feasible therapeutic approach for post-stroke patients with sensory-dominant aphasia.
Maria Daniela eCortese
Full Text Available Aphasia is a complex disorder, frequent after stroke (~38%, with a detailed pathophysiological characterization. Proper approaches are mandatory to devise an efficient rehabilitative strategy, in order to address the everyday life and professional disability. Several rehabilitative procedures are based on psycholinguistic, cognitive, psychosocial or pragmatic approaches, among these with neurobehavioral ratio, the Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT .Van Eeckhout’s adaptation to the French language (Melodic-Rhythmic Therapy: MRT has implemented the training strategy by adding a rhythmic structure reproducing the French prosody.Purposes of this study were to adapt the MRT rehabilitation procedures to the Italian language and to verify its efficacy in a group of 6 chronic patients (5 males with severe non-fluent aphasia and without specific aphasic treatments at least from 9 months. The patients were treated 4 days a week for 16 weeks, with sessions of 30-40 min. They were assessed 6 months after the end of the treatment (follow-up. The patients showed a significant improvement at the Aachener Aphasie Test in different fields of spontaneous speech, with superimposable results at the follow-up. Albeit preliminary, these findings support the use of MRT in the rehabilitation after stroke. Specifically, MRT seems to benefit from its stronger structure than the available stimulation-facilitation procedures and allows a better quantification of the rehabilitation efficacy.
Barbosa, Talita Maria Monteiro Farias; Lima, Ivonaldo Leidson Barbosa; Alves, Giorvan Ânderson Dos Santos; Delgado, Isabelle Cahino
To analyze the contributions of speech-language therapy in the integration of young individuals with Down syndrome (DS) into the workplace, with reference to their professionalization. A questionnaire was distributed to eight undergraduate students (tutors) who participated in a project with individuals with DS, five mothers of individuals with DS, and five employees from the institution in which the present study was conducted. The questionnaire assessed the communication, memory, behavior, social interaction, autonomy and independence of the participants with DS, called "trainees". The trainees were employed in one of five routine work sectors at the university that conducted the present study. The data collected in this descriptive and cross-sectional study were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The Research Ethics Committee of the affiliated institute approved the project. Mothers and tutors rated the trainees' language skills as "good". However, their ratings differed from those of the participating employees. After the trainees with DS were placed in a work environment, significant changes were observed in their communication and autonomy. There was no improvement in the trainees' independence, but after training noticeable changes were observed in their social behavior and autonomy. Speech-language therapy during vocational training led to positive changes in the social behavior of individuals with DS, as evidenced by an increase in their autonomy and communication.
Pechak, Celia; Diaz, Deborah; Dillon, Loretta
As the Hispanic population continues to expand in the United States, health professionals increasingly may encounter people who speak Spanish and have limited English proficiency. Responding to these changes, various health profession educators have incorporated Spanish language training into their curricula. Of 12 doctor of physical therapy (DPT) programs identified as including elective or required Spanish courses, the program at The University of Texas at El Paso is the only one integrating required Spanish language training across the curriculum. The purpose of this case report is to describe the development, implementation, and preliminary outcomes of the evolving educational model at The University of Texas at El Paso. The University of Texas at El Paso is situated immediately across the border from Mexico. Responding to the large population with limited English proficiency in the community, faculty began to integrate required Spanish language training during a transition from a master-level to a DPT curriculum. The Spanish language curriculum pillar includes a Spanish medical terminology course, language learning opportunities threaded throughout the clinical courses, clinical education courses, and service-learning. Forty-five DPT students have completed the curriculum. Assessment methods were limited for early cohorts. Clinically relevant Spanish verbal proficiency was assessed with a practical examination in the Spanish course, a clinical instructor-rated instrument, and student feedback. Preliminary data suggested that the model is improving Spanish language proficiency. The model still is evolving. Spanish language learning opportunities in the curriculum are being expanded. Also, problems with the clinical outcome measure have been recognized. Better definition of intended outcomes and validation of a revised tool are needed. This report should promote opportunities for collaboration with others who are interested in linguistic competence. © 2014
Cunningham, Barbara J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.
Background: The Preschool Speech and Language Program (PSLP) in Ontario, Canada, is a publicly funded intervention service for children from birth to 5 years with communication disorders. It has begun a population-level programme evaluation of children's communicative participation outcomes following therapy. Data are currently being collected for…
Breitenstein, Caterina; Grewe, Tanja; Flöel, Agnes; Ziegler, Wolfram; Springer, Luise; Martus, Peter; Huber, Walter; Willmes, Klaus; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Haeusler, Karl Georg; Abel, Stefanie; Glindemann, Ralf; Domahs, Frank; Regenbrecht, Frank; Schlenck, Klaus-Jürgen; Thomas, Marion; Obrig, Hellmuth; de Langen, Ernst; Rocker, Roman; Wigbers, Franziska; Rühmkorf, Christina; Hempen, Indra; List, Jonathan; Baumgaertner, Annette
Treatment guidelines for aphasia recommend intensive speech and language therapy for chronic (≥6 months) aphasia after stroke, but large-scale, class 1 randomised controlled trials on treatment effectiveness are scarce. We aimed to examine whether 3 weeks of intensive speech and language therapy under routine clinical conditions improved verbal communication in daily-life situations in people with chronic aphasia after stroke. In this multicentre, parallel group, superiority, open-label, blinded-endpoint, randomised controlled trial, patients aged 70 years or younger with aphasia after stroke lasting for 6 months or more were recruited from 19 inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation centres in Germany. An external biostatistician used a computer-generated permuted block randomisation method, stratified by treatment centre, to randomly assign participants to either 3 weeks or more of intensive speech and language therapy (≥10 h per week) or 3 weeks deferral of intensive speech and language therapy. The primary endpoint was between-group difference in the change in verbal communication effectiveness in everyday life scenarios (Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test A-scale) from baseline to immediately after 3 weeks of treatment or treatment deferral. All analyses were done using the modified intention-to-treat population (those who received 1 day or more of intensive treatment or treatment deferral). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01540383. We randomly assigned 158 patients between April 1, 2012, and May 31, 2014. The modified intention-to-treat population comprised 156 patients (78 per group). Verbal communication was significantly improved from baseline to after intensive speech and language treatment (mean difference 2·61 points [SD 4·94]; 95% CI 1·49 to 3·72), but not from baseline to after treatment deferral (-0·03 points [4·04]; -0·94 to 0·88; between-group difference Cohen's d 0·58; p=0·0004). Eight patients had
Raglio, Alfredo; Oasi, Osmano; Gianotti, Marta; Rossi, Agnese; Goulene, Karine; Stramba-Badiale, Marco
The aim of this research is to evaluate the effects of active music therapy (MT) based on free-improvisation (relational approach) in addition to speech language therapy (SLT) compared with SLT alone (communicative-pragmatic approach: Promoting Aphasic's Communicative Effectiveness) in stroke patients with chronic aphasia. The experimental group (n = 10) was randomized to 30 MT individual sessions over 15 weeks in addition to 30 SLT individual sessions while the control group (n = 10) was randomized to only 30 SLT sessions during the same period. Psychological and speech language assessment were made before (T0) and after (T1) the treatments. The study shows a significant improvement in spontaneous speech in the experimental group (Aachener Aphasie subtest: p = 0.020; Cohen's d = 0.35); the 50% of the experimental group showed also an improvement in vitality scores of Short Form Health Survey (chi-square test = 4.114; p = 0.043). The current trial highlights the possibility that the combined use of MT and SLT can lead to a better result in the rehabilitation of patients with aphasia than SLT alone.
Harnish, Stacy; Meinzer, Marcus; Trinastic, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, David; Page, Stephen
To formally assess changes in language, affected UE movement, and motor functional activation changes via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following participation in motor therapy without any accompanying language intervention. Pre-post case series. Five subjects with stroke exhibiting chronic, stable UE hemiparesis. The upper extremity section of the Fugl-Meyer (FM), the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), administered during performance of an affected UE motor task. All subjects were administered six weeks of repetitive task specific training (RTP), performed for approximately 2.5 hours per day, split into two sessions. For the first four weeks of the intervention period, RTP was administered every weekday, whereas, for the subsequent two weeks, RTP was administered 3 days/week. Epidural cortical stimulation was co-administered with the RTP via an electrode array and implanted pulse generator. For all sessions, one subject worked with a single therapist. Four weeks before and four weeks after the intervention period, all subjects were administered the FM, WAB, and fMRI. Three of the subjects exhibited clinically significant language changes on the WAB. These individuals exhibited the largest motor changes as measured by the FM. Functional MRI revealed distinct motor activation patterns in these subjects, characterized by more strongly right lateralized focal BOLD activity or a shift in activation toward the right hemisphere. Language changes appear to co-occur with motor changes after UE RTP. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of these findings may lead to more efficient and synergistic rehabilitative therapy delivery.
Marshall, Julie; Goldbart, Juliet; Phillips, Julie
Parental and speech and language therapist (SLT) explanatory models may affect engagement with speech and language therapy, but there has been dearth of research in this area. This study investigated parents' and SLTs' views about language development, delay and intervention in pre-school children with language delay. The aims were to describe, explore and explain the thoughts, understandings, perceptions, beliefs, knowledge and feelings held by: a group of parents from East Manchester, UK, whose pre-school children had been referred with suspected language delay; and SLTs working in the same area, in relation to language development, language delay and language intervention. A total of 24 unstructured interviews were carried out: 15 with parents whose children had been referred for speech and language therapy and nine with SLTs who worked with pre-school children. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using Atlas/ti. The data were analysed, subjected to respondent validation, and grounded theories and principled descriptions developed to explain and describe parents' and SLTs' beliefs and views. Parent and SLT data are presented separately. There are commonalities and differences between the parents and the SLTs. Both groups believe that language development and delay are influenced by both external and internal factors. Parents give more weight to the role of gender, imitation and personality and value television and videos, whereas the SLTs value the 'right environment' and listening skills and consider that health/disability and socio-economic factors are important. Parents see themselves as experts on their child and have varied ideas about the role of SLTs, which do not always accord with SLTs' views. The parents and SLTs differ in their views of the roles of imitation and play in intervention. Parents typically try strategies before seeing an SLT. These data suggest that parents' ideas vary and that, although parents and SLTs may share some
Glogowska, M; Campbell, R; Peters, T J; Roulstone, S; Enderby, P
In the past decade, there has been growing recognition of the need to involve clients in decisions about the healthcare they receive and in the evaluation of services offered. In health services research, survey and scaling methods have become important tools for research into 'consumer views' and the perspectives of people receiving healthcare. In spite of the increase in recent years in the participation of parents in their children's Speech and Language Therapy (SLT), there has been little attempt to investigate parents' perceptions and opinions of the services they receive. Moreover, there has been no previous attempt to derive a scale to measure these attitudes. The paper reports a study that explored the attitudes to therapy of 81 parents whose preschool children were receiving SLT intervention. Factor analysis of 12 items on a questionnaire revealed three issues salient in parental attitudes to therapy: practical help, emotional support and the perceived effectiveness of the service. The validity of these factors was supported by other findings from the questionnaire. The properties of the resulting scales are discussed and the ways in which they might be further refined and developed for use in SLT are suggested.
Overton, Sarah; Wren, Yvonne
The ultimate aim of intervention for children with language impairment is an improvement in their functional language skills. Baseline and outcome measurement of this is often problematic however and practitioners commonly resort to using formal assessments that may not adequately reflect the child's competence. Language sampling,…
Phanwanich, Warangkhana; Kumdee, Orrawan; Ritthipravat, Panrasee; Wongsawat, Yodchanan
Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) is the science that employs the merit of human-animal interaction to alleviate mental and physical problems of persons with disabilities. However, to achieve the goal of AAT for persons with severe disabilities (e.g. spinal cord injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), real-time animal language interpretation is needed. Since canine behaviors can be visually distinguished from its tail, this paper proposes the automatic real-time interpretation of canine tail language for human-canine interaction in the case of persons with severe disabilities. Canine tail language is captured via two 3-axis accelerometers. Directions and frequency are selected as our features of interests. New fuzzy rules and center of gravity (COG)-based defuzzification method are proposed in order to interpret the features into three canine emotional behaviors, i.e., agitate, happy, and scare as well as its blended emotional behaviors. The emotional behavior model is performed in the simulated dog. The average recognition rate in real dog is 93.75% accuracy.
Ana Cristina Guarinello
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar a inserção da disciplina de Libras em cursos nacionais de graduação em Fonoaudiologia, enfocando carga horária, período em que é ofertada, a natureza/estrutura da mesma; bem como, a avaliação de graduandos quanto à contribuição de tal disciplina na sua formação acadêmica e nas relações estabelecidas com sujeitos surdos. MÉTODO: foi aplicado um questionário a 240 acadêmicos de sete cursos de graduação em Fonoaudiologia, ofertados em Instituições de Ensino nacionais. Para tanto, adotou-se como critério de inclusão, acadêmicos que já tivessem cumprido a carga horária total da disciplina de Libras. O questionário foi respondido por escrito nas dependências dos cursos. Os resultados, analisados quantitativamente, foram organizados e apresentados em tabelas de frequências absolutas e relativas. RESULTADOS: os achados demonstram que se por um lado dentre os acadêmicos predomina a visão de que a carga horária destinada à referida disciplina é insuficiente, por outro existe uma conscientização por parte dos mesmos quanto à importância e à necessidade da formação em Libras. CONCLUSÃO: a partir de tal estudo pode-se evidenciar a necessidade do aprofundamento de discussões no contexto fonoaudiológico acerca da formação acadêmica voltada a Libras, bem como a definição de critérios e parâmetros que garantam um ensino de qualidade em torno de tal conteúdo. Esse estudo aponta para a necessidade do implemento de pesquisas que ofereçam elementos para o avanço na formação acadêmica fonoaudiológica voltada ao referido conteúdo, bem como, contribuam para a avanço de práticas fonoaudiológicas bilíngues, clínicas e educacionais, dirigidas a sujeitos surdos.PURPOSE: to analyze the insertion of a sign language discipline in national speech language therapy courses, approaching the number of hours spent with the discipline, the period when its offered, the structure nature, and the
Ana Cristina Guarinello
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar a inserção da disciplina de Libras em cursos nacionais de graduação em Fonoaudiologia, enfocando carga horária, período em que é ofertada, a natureza/estrutura da mesma; bem como, a avaliação de graduandos quanto à contribuição de tal disciplina na sua formação acadêmica e nas relações estabelecidas com sujeitos surdos. MÉTODO: foi aplicado um questionário a 240 acadêmicos de sete cursos de graduação em Fonoaudiologia, ofertados em Instituições de Ensino nacionais. Para tanto, adotou-se como critério de inclusão, acadêmicos que já tivessem cumprido a carga horária total da disciplina de Libras. O questionário foi respondido por escrito nas dependências dos cursos. Os resultados, analisados quantitativamente, foram organizados e apresentados em tabelas de frequências absolutas e relativas. RESULTADOS: os achados demonstram que se por um lado dentre os acadêmicos predomina a visão de que a carga horária destinada à referida disciplina é insuficiente, por outro existe uma conscientização por parte dos mesmos quanto à importância e à necessidade da formação em Libras. CONCLUSÃO: a partir de tal estudo pode-se evidenciar a necessidade do aprofundamento de discussões no contexto fonoaudiológico acerca da formação acadêmica voltada a Libras, bem como a definição de critérios e parâmetros que garantam um ensino de qualidade em torno de tal conteúdo. Esse estudo aponta para a necessidade do implemento de pesquisas que ofereçam elementos para o avanço na formação acadêmica fonoaudiológica voltada ao referido conteúdo, bem como, contribuam para a avanço de práticas fonoaudiológicas bilíngues, clínicas e educacionais, dirigidas a sujeitos surdos.PURPOSE: to analyze the insertion of a sign language discipline in national speech language therapy courses, approaching the number of hours spent with the discipline, the period when its offered, the structure nature, and the
Tambyraja, Sherine R; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Farquharson, Kelly; Justice, Laura M
The present study focused on the identification and stability of language and literacy profiles of primary school children receiving school-based language therapy over the course of one academic year. Participants included 272 early elementary school-age children (144 boys, 128 girls) who had been clinically identified as having a language impairment. A latent profile analysis was used to identify distinct profiles on the basis of a battery of language and literacy assessments in the fall and spring of the academic year. Four profiles were identified in both fall and spring that could be best described as representing high, average, and low overall abilities. Two average groups were identified that differentiated according to phonological awareness abilities. Children's profile membership was variable from fall to spring with nearly 60% of children shifting into a higher profile. The results of t tests comparing children who shifted into higher profiles from those who remained stable in profile membership revealed group differences regarding language severity, socio-economic status, and proportion of therapy sessions received in the classroom. These results provide further evidence regarding the heterogeneity of children with language impairment served in the public schools, indicating that differences may be best conceptualized along a continuum of severity.
Paula, Erica Macêdo de; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria
To investigate the conflict resolution abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment, and to verify whether the time of speech-language therapy correlates to the performance on the conflict resolution task. Participants included 20 children with Specific Language Impairment (Research Group) and 40 children with normal language development (Control Group), with ages ranging from 7 years to 8 years and 11 months. To assess the conflict resolution abilities, five hypothetical contexts of conflict were presented. The strategies used by the children were classified and scored by the following levels: level 0 (solutions that do not match the other levels), level 1 (physical solutions), level 2 (unilateral solutions), level 3 (cooperative solutions), and level 4 (mutual solutions). Statistical analysis showed group effect for the variable total score. There was a difference between the groups for modal development level, with higher level of modal development observed in the Control Group. There was no correlation between the period of speech-language therapy attendance and the total score. Children with Specific Language Impairment present difficulties in solving problems, in view of the fact that they mainly use physical and unilateral strategies. There was no correlation between the time of speech-language therapy and performance in the task.
... services furnished under § 410.62; (iii) Outpatient physical therapy and speech-language pathology services... physical therapy and speech-language pathology services furnished by a nurse practitioner, clinical nurse... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outpatient physical therapy services: Conditions...
Post-termination relationships are complex because the client may need additional services and it may be difficult to determine when the speech-language pathologist-client relationship is truly terminated. In my contribution to this scientific forum, discharge experiences from speech-language pathologists working in Cyprus and Greece will be explored in search of commonalities and differences in the way in which pathologists end therapy from different cultural perspectives. Within this context the personal impact on speech-language pathologists of the discharge process will be highlighted. Inherent in this process is how speech-language pathologists learn to hold their feelings, anxieties and reactions when communicating discharge to clients. Overall speech-language pathologists working in Cyprus and Greece experience similar emotional responses to positive and negative therapy endings as speech-language pathologists working in Australia. The major difference is that Cypriot and Greek therapists face serious limitations in moving their clients on after therapy has ended.
Tambyraja, Sherine R.; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Farquharson, Kelly; Justice, Laura M.
Purpose: The present study focused on the identification and stability of language and literacy profiles of primary school children receiving school-based language therapy over the course of one academic year. Method: Participants included 272 early elementary school-age children (144 boys, 128 girls) who had been clinically identified as having a…
Baker, B; Ross, E; Girson, J
The present study aimed to examine the attitudes of a group of South African speech-language pathologists towards stuttering and stuttering therapy. Further aims were to investigate whether a stereotype of stutterers was found among these speech-language pathologists, and to determine whether there was any relationship between the attitudes held about stutterers, and the therapists' training and experience. A random probability sample of respondents was selected from the population of speech therapists registered with the Interim Medical and Dental Council of South Africa (I.M.D.C.S.A.). A self-administered mailed questionnaire was employed to realise the aims of the study. The main result of this investigation indicated that almost 50% of the sample of qualified clinicians surveyed, viewed stutterers as a group characterised by specific personality traits and psychological problems. This belief held true irrespective of the number of years of experience working in the field, the time of graduation, the frequency of treating stutterers, or the training emphasis. Implications of these results are considered with respect to student training, continuing education of qualified practitioners and future research.
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and..., occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a) Physical...) Where applicable, licensed by the State. (b) Occupational therapy. (1) Occupational therapy means...
Owens, Gina; Granader, Yael; Humphrey, Ayla; Baron-Cohen, Simon
LEGO[R] therapy and the Social Use of Language Programme (SULP) were evaluated as social skills interventions for 6-11 year olds with high functioning autism and Asperger Syndrome. Children were matched on CA, IQ, and autistic symptoms before being randomly assigned to LEGO or SULP. Therapy occurred for 1 h/week over 18 weeks. A no-intervention…
Southwood, Frenette; van Dulm, Ondene
Background South African speech-language therapists (SLTs) currently do not reflect the country's linguistic and cultural diversity. The question arises as to who might be better equipped currently to provide services to multilingual populations: SLTs with more clinical experience in such contexts, or recently trained SLTs who are themselves linguistically and culturally diverse and whose training programmes deliberately focused on multilingualism and multiculturalism? Aims To investigate whether length of clinical experience influenced: number of bilingual children treated, languages spoken by these children, languages in which assessment and remediation can be offered, assessment instrument(s) favoured, and languages in which therapy material is required. Method From questionnaires completed by 243 Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA)-registered SLTs who treat children with language problems, two groups were drawn: 71 more experienced (ME) respondents (20+ years of experience) and 79 less experienced (LE) respondents (maximum 5 years of experience). Results The groups did not differ significantly with regard to (1) number of children (monolingual or bilingual) with language difficulties seen, (2) number of respondents seeing child clients who have Afrikaans or an African language as home language, (3) number of respondents who can offer intervention in Afrikaans or English and (4) number of respondents who reported needing therapy material in Afrikaans or English. However, significantly more ME than LE respondents reported seeing first language child speakers of English, whereas significantly more LE than ME respondents could provide services, and required therapy material, in African languages. Conclusion More LE than ME SLTs could offer remediation in an African language, but there were few other significant differences between the two groups. There is still an absence of appropriate assessment and remediation material for Afrikaans and African
Southwood, Frenette; Van Dulm, Ondene
South African speech-language therapists (SLTs) currently do not reflect the country's linguistic and cultural diversity. The question arises as to who might be better equipped currently to provide services to multilingual populations: SLTs with more clinical experience in such contexts, or recently trained SLTs who are themselves linguistically and culturally diverse and whose training programmes deliberately focused on multilingualism and multiculturalism? To investigate whether length of clinical experience influenced: number of bilingual children treated, languages spoken by these children, languages in which assessment and remediation can be offered, assessment instrument(s) favoured, and languages in which therapy material is required. From questionnaires completed by 243 Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA)-registered SLTs who treat children with language problems, two groups were drawn:71 more experienced (ME) respondents (20+ years of experience) and 79 less experienced (LE) respondents (maximum 5 years of experience). The groups did not differ significantly with regard to (1) number of children(monolingual or bilingual) with language difficulties seen, (2) number of respondents seeing child clients who have Afrikaans or an African language as home language, (3) number of respondents who can offer intervention in Afrikaans or English and (4) number of respondents who reported needing therapy material in Afrikaans or English. However, significantly more ME than LE respondents reported seeing first language child speakers of English, whereas significantly more LE than ME respondents could provide services, and required therapy material, in African languages. More LE than ME SLTs could offer remediation in an African language, but there were few other significant differences between the two groups. There is still an absence of appropriate assessment and remediation material for Afrikaans and African languages, but the increased number of African
Power, Maxine; Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; Kasthuri, Ram S.; Nicholson, David A.; Hamdy, Shaheen
Videofluoroscopy (VF) is the 'gold standard' assessment for oropharyngeal dysphagia and radiographers are beginning to direct this examination independently, yet little is known about the roles and responsibilities of the core professions of radiology and speech and language therapy and their practice in this examination. Aim: To evaluate VF practice and identify the roles and responsibilities of radiology and speech and language therapy personnel. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was developed and distributed to speech and language therapists (SALT) and radiologists via national special interest networks. Information regarding protocols, test materials, supervision, radiation protection and training was obtained. Results: One hundred and thirteen questionnaires were completed, 83% of respondents had more than 5 years service. Most were carrying out VF on an 'ad hoc' basis with only 32% participating in more than 6 assessments per month. There was no consensus on protocol and 41% chose to thicken barium solutions by adding more barium sulphate powder, potentially predisposing patients to complications. Over 50% of SALTs had received one day post-graduate training in VF, whereas, only one radiologist had specific VF training. Conclusion: Despite its importance in determining the feeding route for patients, VF is carried out infrequently by most clinicians and protocols vary widely. Moreover, intra- and inter-disciplinary training and supervision is minimal. More work is needed to develop standard guidelines, to improve the quality of the examination and its reproducibility
Kindler, Jochen; Homan, Philipp; Jann, Kay; Federspiel, Andrea; Flury, Richard; Hauf, Martinus; Strik, Werner; Dierks, Thomas; Hubl, Daniela
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a novel therapeutic approach, used in patients with pharmacoresistant auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). To investigate the neurobiological effects of TMS on AVH, we measured cerebral blood flow with pseudo-continuous magnetic resonance-arterial spin labeling 20 ± 6 hours before and after TMS treatment. Thirty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were investigated. Fifteen patients received a 10-day TMS treatment to the left temporoparietal cortex, and 15 received the standard treatment. The stimulation location was chosen according to an individually determined language region determined by a functional magnetic resonance imaging language paradigm, which identified the sensorimotor language area, area Spt (sylvian parietotemporal), as the target region. TMS-treated patients showed positive clinical effects, which were indicated by a reduction in AVH scores (p ≤ .001). Cerebral blood flow was significantly decreased in the primary auditory cortex (p ≤ .001), left Broca's area (p ≤ .001), and cingulate gyrus (p ≤ .001). In control subjects, neither positive clinical effects nor cerebral blood flow decreases were detected. The decrease in cerebral blood flow in the primary auditory cortex correlated with the decrease in AVH scores (p ≤ .001). TMS reverses hyperactivity of language regions involved in the emergence of AVH. Area Spt acts as a gateway to the hallucination-generating cerebral network. Successful therapy corresponded to decreased cerebral blood flow in the primary auditory cortex, supporting its crucial role in triggering AVH and contributing to the physical quality of the false perceptions. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Ancharski, Alexandra
Language treatment for children with specific language impairment (SLI) often takes months to achieve moderate results. Interventions often do not incorporate the principles that are known to affect learning in unimpaired learners. To outline some key findings about learning in typical populations and to suggest a model of how they might be applied to language treatment design as a catalyst for further research and discussion. Three main principles of implicit learning are reviewed: variability, complexity and sleep-dependent consolidation. After explaining these principles, evidence is provided as to how they influence learning tasks in unimpaired learners. Information is reviewed on principles of learning as they apply to impaired populations, current treatment designs are also reviewed that conform to the principles, and ways in which principles of learning might be incorporated into language treatment design are demonstrated. This paper provides an outline for how theoretical knowledge might be applied to clinical practice in an effort to promote discussion. Although the authors look forward to more specific details on how the principles of learning relate to impaired populations, there is ample evidence to suggest that these principles should be considered during treatment design. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Wren, Yvonne; Humphries, Kerry; Stock, Nicola Marie; Rumsey, Nichola; Lewis, Sarah; Davies, Amy; Bennett, Rhiannon; Sandy, Jonathan
Efforts to increase the evidence base in speech and language therapy are often limited by methodological factors that have restricted the strength of the evidence to the lower levels of the evidence hierarchy. Where higher graded studies, such as randomized controlled trials, have been carried out, it has sometimes been difficult to obtain sufficient power to detect a potential effect of intervention owing to small sample sizes or heterogeneity in the participants. With certain clinical groups such as cleft lip and palate, systematic reviews of intervention studies have shown that there is no robust evidence to support the efficacy of any one intervention protocol over another. To describe the setting up of an observational clinical cohort study and to present this as an alternative design for answering research questions relating to prevalence, risk factors and outcomes from intervention. The Cleft Collective Speech and Language (CC-SL) study is a national cohort study of children born with cleft palate. Working in partnership with regional clinical cleft centres, a sample size of over 600 children and 600 parents is being recruited and followed up from birth to age 5 years. Variables being collected include demographic, psychological, surgical, hearing, and speech and language data. The process of setting up the study has led to the creation of a unique, large-scale data set which is available for researchers to access now and in future. As well as exploring predictive factors, the data can be used to explore the impact of interventions in relation to individual differences. Findings from these investigations can be used to provide information on sample criteria and definitions of intervention and dosage which can be used in future trials. The observational cohort study is a useful alternative design to explore questions around prevalence, risk factors and intervention for clinical groups where robust research data are not yet available. Findings from such a
Stahl, Benjamin; Mohr, Bettina; Dreyer, Felix R; Lucchese, Guglielmo; Pulvermüller, Friedemann
Clinical research highlights the importance of massed practice in the rehabilitation of chronic post-stroke aphasia. However, while necessary, massed practice may not be sufficient for ensuring progress in speech-language therapy. Motivated by recent advances in neuroscience, it has been claimed that using language as a tool for communication and social interaction leads to synergistic effects in left perisylvian eloquent areas. Here, we conducted a crossover randomized controlled trial to determine the influence of communicative language function on the outcome of intensive aphasia therapy. Eighteen individuals with left-hemisphere lesions and chronic non-fluent aphasia each received two types of training in counterbalanced order: (i) Intensive Language-Action Therapy (ILAT, an extended form of Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy) embedding verbal utterances in the context of communication and social interaction, and (ii) Naming Therapy focusing on speech production per se. Both types of training were delivered with the same high intensity (3.5 h per session) and duration (six consecutive working days), with therapy materials and number of utterances matched between treatment groups. A standardized aphasia test battery revealed significantly improved language performance with ILAT, independent of when this method was administered. In contrast, Naming Therapy tended to benefit language performance only when given at the onset of the treatment, but not when applied after previous intensive training. The current results challenge the notion that massed practice alone promotes recovery from chronic post-stroke aphasia. Instead, our results demonstrate that using language for communication and social interaction increases the efficacy of intensive aphasia therapy. Copyright Â© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Thomas Wiben Jensen
Full Text Available This article argues for a view on languaging as inherently affective. Informed by recent ecological tendencies within cognitive science and distributed language studies a distinction between first order languaging (language as whole-body sense making and second order language (language as system like constraints is put forward. Contrary to common assumptions within linguistics and communication studies separating language-as-a-system from language use (resulting in separations between language vs. body-language and verbal vs. non-verbal communication etc. the first/second order distinction sees language as emanating from behavior making it possible to view emotion and affect as integral parts languaging behavior. Likewise, emotion and affect are studied, not as inner mental states, but as processes of organism-environment interactions. Based on video recordings of interaction between 1 children with special needs, and 2 couple in therapy and the therapist patterns of reciprocal influences between interactants are examined. Through analyzes of affective stance and patterns of inter-affectivity it is exemplified how language and emotion should not be seen as separate phenomena combined in language use, but rather as completely intertwined phenomena in languaging behavior constrained by second order patterns.
Ammons, Kerrie Allen
With a growing body of research that supports a link between language and literacy, governing bodies in the field of speech and language pathology have recognized the need to reconsider the role of speech-language pathologists in addressing the emergent literacy needs of preschoolers who struggle with literacy and language concepts. This study…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Aphasia is a severely disabling condition occurring in 20 to 25% of stroke patients. Most patients with aphasia due to stroke receive speech and language therapy. Methodologically sound randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of specific interventions for patients with aphasia following stroke are scarce. The currently available evidence suggests that intensive speech and language therapy is beneficial for restoration of communication, but the optimal timing of treatment is as yet unclear. In the Rotterdam Aphasia Therapy Study-3 we aim to test the hypothesis that patients with aphasia due to stroke benefit more from early intensive cognitive-linguistic therapy than from deferred regular language therapy. Methods/design In a single blinded, multicentre, randomised controlled trial, 150 patients with first ever aphasia due to stroke will be randomised within two weeks after stroke to either early intensive cognitive-linguistic therapy (Group A or deferred regular therapy (Group B. Group A will start as soon as possible, at the latest two weeks after stroke, with a four week period of one hour a day treatment with cognitive-linguistic therapy. In Group B professional speech and language therapy is deferred for four weeks. After this period, patients will follow the conventional procedure of speech and language therapy. Participants will be tested with an extensive linguistic test battery at four weeks, three months and six months after inclusion. Primary outcome measure is the difference in score between the two treatment groups on the Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test, a measure of everyday verbal communication, four weeks after randomisation. Trial registration This trial is registered in the Dutch Trial Register (http://www.trialregister.nl, NTR3271.
Kool, Ritesh; Lawver, Timothy
Play therapy represents a unique form of treatment that is not only geared toward young children, but is translated into a language children can comprehend and utilize-the language of play. For the referring provider or practitioner, questions may remain regarding the nature, course, and efficacy of play therapy. This article reviews the theoretical underpinnings of play therapy, some practical considerations, and finally a summary of the current state of research in regard to play therapy. The authors present the practicing psychiatrist with a road map for referring a patient to play therapy or initiating it in appropriate cases.
Miller, S; Jungheim, M; Ptok, M
In principle, a child can seemingly easily acquire any given language. First language acquisition follows a certain pattern which to some extent is found to be language independent. Since time immemorial, it has been of interest why children are able to acquire language so easily. Different disciplinary and methodological orientations addressing this question can be identified. A selective literature search in PubMed and Scopus was carried out and relevant monographies were considered. Different, partially overlapping phases can be distinguished in language acquisition research: whereas in ancient times, deprivation experiments were carried out to discover the "original human language", the era of diary studies began in the mid-19th century. From the mid-1920s onwards, behaviouristic paradigms dominated this field of research; interests were focussed on the determination of normal, average language acquisition. The subsequent linguistic period was strongly influenced by the nativist view of Chomsky and the constructivist concepts of Piaget. Speech comprehension, the role of speech input and the relevance of genetic disposition became the centre of attention. The interactionist concept led to a revival of the convergence theory according to Stern. Each of these four major theories--behaviourism, cognitivism, interactionism and nativism--have given valuable and unique impulses, but no single theory is universally accepted to provide an explanation of all aspects of language acquisition. Moreover, it can be critically questioned whether clinicians consciously refer to one of these theories in daily routine work and whether therapies are then based on this concept. It remains to be seen whether or not new theories of grammar, such as the so-called construction grammar (CxG), will eventually change the general concept of language acquisition.
I. van der Meulen (Ineke); W.M.E. van de Sandt-Koenderman (Mieke); Heijenbrok, M.H. (Majanka H.); E.G. Visch-Brink (Evy); Ribber, G.M. (Gerard M.)
textabstractMelodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) is a language production therapy for severely nonfluent aphasic patients using melodic intoning and rhythm to restore language. Although many studies have reported its beneficial effects on language production, randomized controlled trials (RCT) examining
Aims: To investigate whether length of clinical experience influenced: number of bilingual children treated, languages spoken by these children, languages in which assessment and remediation can be offered, assessment instrument(s favoured, and languages in which therapy material is required. Method: From questionnaires completed by 243 Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA-registered SLTs who treat children with language problems, two groups were drawn:71 more experienced (ME respondents (20+ years of experience and 79 less experienced (LE respondents (maximum 5 years of experience. Results: The groups did not differ significantly with regard to (1 number of children(monolingual or bilingual with language difficulties seen, (2 number of respondents seeing child clients who have Afrikaans or an African language as home language, (3 number of respondents who can offer intervention in Afrikaans or English and (4 number of respondents who reported needing therapy material in Afrikaans or English. However, significantly more ME than LE respondents reported seeing first language child speakers of English, whereas significantly more LE than ME respondents could provide services, and required therapymaterial, in African languages. Conclusion: More LE than ME SLTs could offer remediation in an African language, but there were few other significant differences between the two groups. There is still an absence of appropriate assessment and remediation material for Afrikaans and African languages, but the increased number of African language speakers entering the profession may contribute to better service delivery to the diverse South African population.
Barberena,Luciana da Silva; Brasil,Brunah de Castro; Melo,Roberta Michelon; Mezzomo,Carolina Lisbôa; Mota,Helena Bolli; Keske-Soares,Márcia
PURPOSE: To present recent studies that used the ultrasound in the fields of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology, which evidence possibilities of the applicability of this technique in different subareas. RESEARCH STRATEGY: A bibliographic research was carried out in the PubMed database, using the keywords "ultrasonic," "speech," "phonetics," "Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences," "voice," "deglutition," and "myofunctional therapy," comprising some areas of Speech Language Pathology and...
Barberena, Luciana da Silva; Brasil, Brunah de Castro; Melo, Roberta Michelon; Mezzomo, Carolina Lisbôa; Mota, Helena Bolli; Keske-Soares, Márcia
PURPOSE: To present recent studies that used the ultrasound in the fields of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology, which evidence possibilities of the applicability of this technique in different subareas. RESEARCH STRATEGY: A bibliographic research was carried out in the PubMed database, using the keywords "ultrasonic," "speech," "phonetics," "Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences," "voice," "deglutition," and "myofunctional therapy," comprising some areas of Speech Language Patholog...
Cardoso, Carla; Montenegro, Melaine Luz
The aim of this study was to identify variations from different language therapy processes times in two groups of children with autistic spectrum disorders. 8 subjects, from 3 to 17 years old, participated of this study and they were divided in two groups: Group 1: 4 subjects, in language therapy for 12 months, with therapist change after 6 months; Group 2: 4 subjects, also in language therapy for 12 months, but without therapist change in this period. Data was collected from two videotapes recordings: initial and final and all the recordings had fifteen minutes of duration. The analysis was done according to the criteria proposed by Fernandes (2004a), for functional evaluation of language and the statistical analysis were done with the Wilcoxon signed ranks test and the Mann-Whitney test, with 5% of significance. The results showed no difference between the two groups. This outcome may be related to the small size of the groups or to the duration of the study. Nevertheless, a better functional profile of communication was noted on group 2, with had no therapist change. This outcome was represented by the improving of the communicational acts and the use of the communicative space, it was also noted an increasing of the utilization of the verbal mean and decreasing of the vocal mean, besides a greater utilization of the more interactive functions.
Spek, B.; Wieringa-de Waard, M.; Lucas, C.; van Dijk, N.
Worldwide speech-language therapy (SLT) students are educated in evidence-based practice (EBP). For students to use EBP in their future day-to-day clinical practice, they must value EBP as positive and must feel confident in using it. For curricula developers it is therefore important to know the
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Stevens, Adrienne; Garritty, Chantelle; Moher, David
Permanent childhood hearing loss affects 1 to 3 per 1000 children and frequently disrupts typical spoken language acquisition. Early identification of hearing loss through universal newborn hearing screening and the use of new hearing technologies including cochlear implants make spoken language an option for most children. However, there is no consensus on what constitutes optimal interventions for children when spoken language is the desired outcome. Intervention and educational approaches ranging from oral language only to oral language combined with various forms of sign language have evolved. Parents are therefore faced with important decisions in the first months of their child's life. This article presents the protocol for a systematic review of the effects of using sign language in combination with oral language intervention on spoken language acquisition. Studies addressing early intervention will be selected in which therapy involving oral language intervention and any form of sign language or sign support is used. Comparison groups will include children in early oral language intervention programs without sign support. The primary outcomes of interest to be examined include all measures of auditory, vocabulary, language, speech production, and speech intelligibility skills. We will include randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and other quasi-experimental designs that include comparator groups as well as prospective and retrospective cohort studies. Case-control, cross-sectional, case series, and case studies will be excluded. Several electronic databases will be searched (for example, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO) as well as grey literature and key websites. We anticipate that a narrative synthesis of the evidence will be required. We will carry out meta-analysis for outcomes if clinical similarity, quantity and quality permit quantitative pooling of data. We will conduct subgroup analyses if possible according to severity
Luciele Dias Oliveira
Full Text Available TEMA: fatores de risco psíquico ao desenvolvimento infantil e as implicações para a fonoaudiologia. OBJETIVOS: estudar, por meio de uma revisão teórica os riscos psíquicos ao desenvolvimento infantil, com ênfase nos riscos para aquisição da linguagem, e discutir as implicações para a atuação fonoaudiológica em idade precoce. CONCLUSÃO: a partir da literatura revisada, constatou-se que crianças que convivem com riscos biológicos e, sobretudo psíquicos, nos primeiros anos de vida, são mais propensas a desenvolver problemas que podem afetar o seu desenvolvimento. Assim, considera-se a necessidade daatuação fonoaudiológica estar vinculada a uma constante observação dos fatores de risco psíquico ao desenvolvimento infantil e aquisição da linguagem, podendo participar da detecção e estimulação precoces em uma perspectiva promocional.BACKGROUND: psychical risk factors to child development and implications on speech-language and hearing therapy. PURPOSE: to study, through a theoretical review, the psychical risks to the child development, emphasizing the risks for language acquisition, and discuss the implications on the speech-language and hearing therapy performance for precocious age. CONCLUSION: through reviewed literature, we evidenced that children who live with biological and especially psychic risks, during their first years, are more inclined to develop problems that may come to affect their development. So, we consider the need for speech-language and hearing therapy to be linked to a constant observation of the psychical risk factors to the child development and language acquisition, being this professional able to take part in the precocious detection and stimulation under a promotional perspective.
Stanek,, Edward J.; Stokes, Polly; Li, Minming; Andrianopoulos, Mary
Purpose Intensive language action therapy (ILAT) can be effective in overcoming learned nonuse in chronic aphasia. It is suggested that all three guiding principles (constraint, communication embedding, massed practice) are essential to ILAT's success. We examined whether one of these, guidance by constraint, is critical. Method Twenty-four participants with aphasia (PWAs) were assigned to ILAT or a modified version of promoting aphasic communicative effectiveness (PACE) in a randomized block, single-blind, parallel-group treatment study. Blocking was by severity (mild/moderate, moderate to severe, severe). Both groups received intensive treatment in the context of therapeutic language action games. Whereas the ILAT group was guided toward spoken responses, the PACE group could choose any response modality. Results All participants, whether assigned to ILAT or PACE groups, improved on the primary outcome measure, picture naming. There was a Severity × Treatment interaction, with the largest effects estimated for PWAs with mild/moderate and moderate to severe aphasia. Regardless of severity, the ILAT group outperformed the PACE group on untrained pictures, suggesting some benefit of ILAT to generalization. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Although the groups differed in subtle ways, including better generalization to untrained pictures for ILAT, the study was inconclusive on the influence of guidance by constraint. PMID:27997954
Kurland, Jacquie; Stanek, Edward J; Stokes, Polly; Li, Minming; Andrianopoulos, Mary
Intensive language action therapy (ILAT) can be effective in overcoming learned nonuse in chronic aphasia. It is suggested that all three guiding principles (constraint, communication embedding, massed practice) are essential to ILAT's success. We examined whether one of these, guidance by constraint, is critical. Twenty-four participants with aphasia (PWAs) were assigned to ILAT or a modified version of promoting aphasic communicative effectiveness (PACE) in a randomized block, single-blind, parallel-group treatment study. Blocking was by severity (mild/moderate, moderate to severe, severe). Both groups received intensive treatment in the context of therapeutic language action games. Whereas the ILAT group was guided toward spoken responses, the PACE group could choose any response modality. All participants, whether assigned to ILAT or PACE groups, improved on the primary outcome measure, picture naming. There was a Severity × Treatment interaction, with the largest effects estimated for PWAs with mild/moderate and moderate to severe aphasia. Regardless of severity, the ILAT group outperformed the PACE group on untrained pictures, suggesting some benefit of ILAT to generalization. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Although the groups differed in subtle ways, including better generalization to untrained pictures for ILAT, the study was inconclusive on the influence of guidance by constraint.
Clegg, Judy; Brumfitt, Shelagh; Parks, Randolph W.; Woodruff, Peter W. R.
Background: There is a significant body of evidence documenting the speech and language abnormalities found in adult psychiatric disorders. These speech and language impairments can create additional social barriers for the individual and may hinder effective communication in psychiatric treatment and management. However, the role of speech and…
Intensive speech and language therapy in patients with chronic aphasia after stroke: a randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint, controlled trial in a health-care setting:A randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint, controlled trial in a health-care setting
Caterina, Breitenstein; Grewe, Tanja; Flöel, Agnes; Ziegler, Wolfram; Springer, Luise; Martus, Peter; Huber, Walter; Willmes, Klaus; Ringelstein, E. Bernd; Haeusler, Karl Georg; Abel, Steffie; Glindemann, Ralf; Domahs, Frank; Regenbrecht, Frank; Schlenck, Klaus-Jürgen
BackgroundTreatment guidelines for aphasia recommend intensive speech and language therapy for chronic (≥6 months) aphasia after stroke, but large-scale, class 1 randomised controlled trials on treatment effectiveness are scarce. We aimed to examine whether 3 weeks of intensive speech and language therapy under routine clinical conditions improved verbal communication in daily-life situations in people with chronic aphasia after stroke.MethodsIn this multicentre, parallel group, superiority, ...
Behavioural studies form an essential component of the Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) undergraduate degree. This study aimed to produce online teaching material in behavioural studies suitable for undergraduate SLT students, explore students' views on the online material, record their performance when taught through this innovative method and compare their performance to a group taught through the traditional lecture based method. Finally, it aimed to explore the relationship between engagement with the module and performance. SLT students completed an online health psychology/sociology module and their performance was compared to students who completed a traditional lecture based course. Student evaluations of the online course were also recorded as was their engagement with the online module. Results suggested that there was no significant difference between students taught through an online medium compared to those taught through "traditional lectures". An evaluation survey suggested that students appeared to enjoy the material although there was some reluctance to develop an independent learning style. Online learning has a great deal to offer SLT education. However, material has to be developed that can both engage and motivate learners, thereby enhancing student independent learning.
Ebbels, Susan H.; Maric, Nataša; Murphy, Aoife; Turner, Gail
Background: Little evidence exists for the effectiveness of therapy for children with receptive language difficulties, particularly those whose difficulties are severe and persistent. Aims: To establish the effectiveness of explicit speech and language therapy with visual support for secondary school-aged children with language impairments…
Spiel, G; Brunner, E; Allmayer, B; Pletz, A
Speech disabilities (articulation deficits) and language disorders--expressive (vocabulary) receptive (language comprehension) are not uncommon in children. An overview of these along with a global description of the impairment of communication as well as clinical characteristics of language developmental disorders are presented in this article. The diagnostic tables, which are applied in the European and Anglo-American speech areas, ICD-10 and DSM-IV, have been explained and compared. Because of their strengths and weaknesses an alternative classification of language and speech developmental disorders is proposed, which allows a differentiation between expressive and receptive language capabilities with regard to the semantic and the morphological/syntax domains. Prevalence and comorbidity rates, psychosocial influences, biological factors and the biological social interaction have been discussed. The necessity of the use of standardized examinations is emphasised. General logopaedic treatment paradigms, specific therapy concepts and an overview of prognosis have been described.
Fairweather, Glenn C; Lincoln, Michelle A; Ramsden, Robyn
Difficulties in accessing allied health services, especially in rural and remote areas, appear to be driving the use of telehealth services to children in schools. The objectives of this study were to investigate the experiences and views of school executive staff and therapy assistants regarding the feasibility and acceptability of a speech-language pathology telehealth program for children attending schools in rural and remote New South Wales, Australia. The program, called Come N See, provided therapy interventions remotely via low-bandwidth videoconferencing, with email follow-up. Over a 12-week period, children were offered therapy blocks of six fortnightly sessions, each lasting a maximum of 30 minutes. School executives (n=5) and therapy assistants (n=6) described factors that promoted or threatened the program's feasibility and acceptability, during semistructured interviews. Thematic content analysis with constant comparison was applied to the transcribed interviews to identify relationships in the data. Emergent themes related to (a) unmet speech pathology needs, (b) building relationships, (c) telehealth's advantages, (d) telehealth's disadvantages, (e) anxiety replaced by joy and confidence in growing skills, and (f) supports. School executive staff and therapy assistants verified that the delivery of the school-based telehealth service was feasible and acceptable. However, the participants saw significant opportunities to enhance this acceptability through building into the program stronger working relationships and supports for stakeholders. These findings are important for the future development of allied health telehealth programs that are sustainable as well as effective and fit the needs of all crucial stakeholders. The results have significant implications for speech pathology clinical practice relating to technology, program planning and teamwork within telehealth programs.
In this article the contents of the principal English-language family therapy journals and key family therapy articles published in other journals in 2013 are reviewed under these headings: models of family therapy, developments in family therapy practice, couple therapy, training, diversity, international developments, research and DSM-5.
Duffy, Frank H; Shankardass, Aditi; McAnulty, Gloria B; Eksioglu, Yaman Z; Coulter, David; Rotenberg, Alexander; Als, Heidelise
Up to a third of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) manifest regressive autism (R-ASD).They show normal early development followed by loss of language and social skills. Absent evidence-based therapies, anecdotal evidence suggests improvement following use of corticosteroids. This study examined the effects of corticosteroids for R-ASD children upon the 4 Hz frequency modulated evoked response (FMAER) arising from language cortex of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and upon EEG background activity, language, and behavior. An untreated clinical convenience sample of ASD children served as control sample. Twenty steroid-treated R-ASD (STAR) and 24 not-treated ASD patients (NSA), aged 3 - 5 years, were retrospectively identified from a large database. All study participants had two sequential FMAER and EEG studies;Landau-Kleffner syndrome diagnosis was excluded. All subjects' records contained clinical receptive and expressive language ratings based upon a priori developed metrics. The STAR group additionally was scored behaviorally regarding symptom severity as based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) ASD criteria list. EEGs were visually scored for abnormalities. FMAER responses were assessed quantitatively by spectral analysis. Treated and untreated group means and standard deviations for the FMAER, EEG, language, and behavior, were compared by paired t-test and Fisher's exact tests. The STAR group showed a significant increase in the 4 Hz FMAER spectral response and a significant reduction in response distortion compared to the NSA group. Star group subjects' language ratings were significantly improved and more STAR than NSA group subjects showed significant language improvement. Most STAR group children showed significant behavioral improvement after treatment. STAR group language and behavior improvement was retained one year after treatment. Groups did not differ in terms of minor EEG abnormalities. Steroid treatment produced no
This research originated from the need for a speech and language therapy assessment in te reo Maori for a particular child who attended a Maori immersion unit. A Speech and Language Therapy te reo assessment had already been developed but it needed to be revised and normative data collected. Discussions and assessments were carried out in a…
Faught, Gayle G.; Conners, Frances A.; Barber, Angela B.; Price, Hannah R.
Background: Phonological memory (PM) plays a significant role in language development but is impaired in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Without formal recommendations on how to address PM limitations in clients with DS, it is possible speech-language pathologists (SLPs) find ways to do so in their practices. Aims: This study asked if and how…
Leahy, Margaret M.
Therapeutic discourse is the talk-in-interaction that represents the social practice between clinician and client. This article invites speech-language pathologists to apply their knowledge of language to analyzing therapy talk and to learn how talking practices shape clinical roles and identities. A range of qualitative research approaches,…
In this article the contents of the principal English-language family therapy journals published in 2011 are reviewed under these headings: child-focused problems, adult-focused problems, couples therapy, medical family therapy, military family therapy, theory, research, training, the new Journal of Couple and Family Psychology and Human Systems twenty-first anniversary.
Barberena, Luciana da Silva; Brasil, Brunah de Castro; Melo, Roberta Michelon; Mezzomo, Carolina Lisbôa; Mota, Helena Bolli; Keske-Soares, Márcia
To present recent studies that used the ultrasound in the fields of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology, which evidence possibilities of the applicability of this technique in different subareas. A bibliographic research was carried out in the PubMed database, using the keywords "ultrasonic," "speech," "phonetics," "Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences," "voice," "deglutition," and "myofunctional therapy," comprising some areas of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences. The keywords "ultrasound," "ultrasonography," "swallow," "orofacial myofunctional therapy," and "orofacial myology" were also used in the search. Studies in humans from the past 5 years were selected. In the preselection, duplicated studies, articles not fully available, and those that did not present direct relation between ultrasound and Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences were discarded. The data were analyzed descriptively and classified subareas of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences. The following items were considered: purposes, participants, procedures, and results. We selected 12 articles for ultrasound versus speech/phonetics subarea, 5 for ultrasound versus voice, 1 for ultrasound versus muscles of mastication, and 10 for ultrasound versus swallow. Studies relating "ultrasound" and "Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences" in the past 5 years were not found. Different studies on the use of ultrasound in Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences were found. Each of them, according to its purpose, confirms new possibilities of the use of this instrument in the several subareas, aiming at a more accurate diagnosis and new evaluative and therapeutic possibilities.
In this paper the principal English-language family therapy journals published in 2003 are reviewed under the following headings: therapy effectiveness, therapy process, assessment, theory with specific reference to attachment resilience, practice with specific reference to trauma, and training.
Examines poems dealing with Yoruba, Greek, Christian, and other gods, finding that metaphor, transference, cancellation, transport, and justice are all intrinsic elements of the languages of the gods. Examines implications for poetry, for psychotherapy, and for the field of poetry therapy. (SR)
Dignam, Jade; Copland, David; McKinnon, Eril; Burfein, Penni; O'Brien, Kate; Farrell, Anna; Rodriguez, Amy D
Most studies comparing different levels of aphasia treatment intensity have not controlled the dosage of therapy provided. Consequently, the true effect of treatment intensity in aphasia rehabilitation remains unknown. Aphasia Language Impairment and Functioning Therapy is an intensive, comprehensive aphasia program. We investigated the efficacy of a dosage-controlled trial of Aphasia Language Impairment and Functioning Therapy, when delivered in an intensive versus distributed therapy schedule, on communication outcomes in participants with chronic aphasia. Thirty-four adults with chronic, poststroke aphasia were recruited to participate in an intensive (n=16; 16 hours per week; 3 weeks) versus distributed (n=18; 6 hours per week; 8 weeks) therapy program. Treatment included 48 hours of impairment, functional, computer, and group-based aphasia therapy. Distributed therapy resulted in significantly greater improvements on the Boston Naming Test when compared with intensive therapy immediately post therapy (P=0.04) and at 1-month follow-up (P=0.002). We found comparable gains on measures of participants' communicative effectiveness, communication confidence, and communication-related quality of life for the intensive and distributed treatment conditions at post-therapy and 1-month follow-up. Aphasia Language Impairment and Functioning Therapy resulted in superior clinical outcomes on measures of language impairment when delivered in a distributed versus intensive schedule. The therapy progam had a positive effect on participants' functional communication and communication-related quality of life, regardless of treatment intensity. These findings contribute to our understanding of the effect of treatment intensity in aphasia rehabilitation and have important clinical implications for service delivery models. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Owens, Gina; Granader, Yael; Humphrey, Ayla; Baron-Cohen, Simon
LEGO therapy and the Social Use of Language Programme (SULP) were evaluated as social skills interventions for 6-11 year olds with high functioning autism and Asperger Syndrome. Children were matched on CA, IQ, and autistic symptoms before being randomly assigned to LEGO or SULP. Therapy occurred for 1 h/week over 18 weeks. A no-intervention control group was also assessed. Results showed that the LEGO therapy group improved more than the other groups on autism-specific social interaction scores (Gilliam Autism Rating Scale). Maladaptive behaviour decreased significantly more in the LEGO and SULP groups compared to the control group. There was a non-significant trend for SULP and LEGO groups to improve more than the no-intervention group in communication and socialisation skills.
Trice-Black, Shannon; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Kiper Riechel, Morgan E.
Play therapy is an empirically supported intervention used to address a number of developmental issues faced in childhood. Through the natural language of play, children and adolescents communicate feelings, thoughts, and experiences. Schools provide an ideal setting for play therapy in many ways; however, several challenges exist in implementing…
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Hamel, Candyce; Stevens, Adrienne; Pratt, Misty; Moher, David; Doucet, Suzanne P; Neuss, Deirdre; Bernstein, Anita; Na, Eunjung
Permanent hearing loss affects 1 to 3 per 1000 children and interferes with typical communication development. Early detection through newborn hearing screening and hearing technology provide most children with the option of spoken language acquisition. However, no consensus exists on optimal interventions for spoken language development. To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of early sign and oral language intervention compared with oral language intervention only for children with permanent hearing loss. An a priori protocol was developed. Electronic databases (eg, Medline, Embase, CINAHL) from 1995 to June 2013 and gray literature sources were searched. Studies in English and French were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were measures of auditory, vocabulary, language, and speech production skills. All data collection and risk of bias assessments were completed and then verified by a second person. Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to judge the strength of evidence. Eleven cohort studies met inclusion criteria, of which 8 included only children with severe to profound hearing loss with cochlear implants. Language development was the most frequently reported outcome. Other reported outcomes included speech and speech perception. Several measures and metrics were reported across studies, and descriptions of interventions were sometimes unclear. Very limited, and hence insufficient, high-quality evidence exists to determine whether sign language in combination with oral language is more effective than oral language therapy alone. More research is needed to supplement the evidence base. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Wilssens, Ineke; Vandenborre, Dorien; van Dun, Kim; Verhoeven, Jo; Visch-Brink, Evy; Mariën, Peter
The authors compared the effectiveness of 2 intensive therapy methods: Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy (CIAT; Pulvermüller et al., 2001) and semantic therapy (BOX; Visch-Brink & Bajema, 2001). Nine patients with chronic fluent aphasia participated in a therapy program to establish behavioral treatment outcomes. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups (CIAT or BOX). Intensive therapy significantly improved verbal communication. However, BOX treatment showed a more pronounced improvement on two communication-namely, a standardized assessment for verbal communication, the Amsterdam Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (Blomert, Koster, & Kean, 1995), and a subjective rating scale, the Communicative Effectiveness Index (Lomas et al., 1989). All participants significantly improved on one (or more) subtests of the Aachen Aphasia Test (Graetz, de Bleser, & Willmes, 1992), an impairment-focused assessment. There was a treatment-specific effect. BOX treatment had a significant effect on language comprehension and semantics, whereas CIAT treatment affected language production and phonology. The findings indicate that in patients with fluent aphasia, (a) intensive treatment has a significant effect on language and verbal communication, (b) intensive therapy results in selective treatment effects, and (c) an intensive semantic treatment shows a more striking mean improvement on verbal communication in comparison with communication-based CIAT treatment.
City Univ. of New York, Flushing, NY. Queens Coll.
Seven papers review research in speech-language pathology and audiology. K. Polzer et al. describe an investigation of sign language therapy for the severely language impaired. S. Dworetsky and L. Clark analyze the phonemic and nonphonemic error patterns in five nonverbal and five verbal oral apraxic adults. The performance of three language…
In this article the contents of the principal English-language family therapy journals, and key family therapy articles published in other journals in 2012 are reviewed under these headings: therapy processes in the treatment of child-focused problems, autism, adolescent substance use, human immunodeficiency virus, depression and grief, fragile families, mental health recovery, medical family therapy, family business and systemic practice, couple therapy, intimate partner violence, key issues...
Litosseliti, Lia; Leadbeater, Claire
The speech and language therapy/pathology (SLT/SLP) profession is characterized by extreme 'occupational sex segregation', a term used to refer to persistently male- or female-dominated professions. Men make up only 2.5% of all SLTs in the UK, and a similar imbalance is found in other countries. Despite calls to increase diversity in the allied health professions more generally, research into the reasons for occupational sex segregation and gender as a potential key factor remains scarce. This study aims to explore the potential role of gender/gendered discourses in people's decision to pursue a career in SLT/SLP. It seeks to illustrate how gendered assumptions/expectations/discourses continue to construct SLT as a 'gendered' profession, and to make some recommendations in this area for SLT recruitment and practice. The study adopted a qualitative design which elicited research participants' views, knowledge and experiences (in their own words) in relation to the research questions. Data collection involved two iterative phases: a preliminary data phase--which involved semi-structured interviews with newly qualified SLT graduates and practising SLTs, and the completion of questionnaires by undergraduate SLTs--and a main/focus group phase. In the focus group phase reported in this paper, six focus groups in total were held with SLTs, teachers of SLT, and careers advisors in London, UK. The data were analysed qualitatively using grounded theory principles, thematic analysis and discourse analysis. The findings extend our knowledge and understanding of gender as a parameter of people's motivations and perceptions, which can influence their choice of career (e.g. as regards pay and flexibility). The findings also show that discourses around women as carers, nurturers and communicators constitute key ways through which the SLT profession continues to be constructed as 'women's work'. The topic of structural gender inequalities in the profession was also discussed in the
Moharir, Madhavi; Barnett, Noel; Taras, Jillian; Cole, Martha; Ford-Jones, E Lee; Levin, Leo
Failure to recognize and intervene early in speech and language delays can lead to multifaceted and potentially severe consequences for early child development and later literacy skills. While routine evaluations of speech and language during well-child visits are recommended, there is no standardized (office) approach to facilitate this. Furthermore, extensive wait times for speech and language pathology consultation represent valuable lost time for the child and family. Using speech and language expertise, and paediatric collaboration, key content for an office-based tool was developed. early and accurate identification of speech and language delays as well as children at risk for literacy challenges; appropriate referral to speech and language services when required; and teaching and, thus, empowering parents to create rich and responsive language environments at home. Using this tool, in combination with the Canadian Paediatric Society's Read, Speak, Sing and Grow Literacy Initiative, physicians will be better positioned to offer practical strategies to caregivers to enhance children's speech and language capabilities. The tool represents a strategy to evaluate speech and language delays. It depicts age-specific linguistic/phonetic milestones and suggests interventions. The tool represents a practical interim treatment while the family is waiting for formal speech and language therapy consultation.
Landreth, Garry L.; Ray, Dee C.; Bratton, Sue C.
Because the child's world is a world of action and activity, play therapy provides the psychologist in elementary-school settings with an opportunity to enter the child's world. In the play therapy relationship, toys are like the child's words and play is the child's language. Therefore, children play out their problems, experiences, concerns, and…
De Tommaso, Barbara; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Caglio, Marcella M; D'Agata, Federico; Campagnoli, Marcello; Orsi, Laura; Raimondo, Simona; Vighetti, Sergio; Mortara, Paolo; Massazza, Giuseppe; Pinessi, Lorenzo
In this paper we report the effect of a combined transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and speech language therapy on linguistic deficits following left brain damage in a stroke case. We show that simultaneous electrical excitatory stimulation to the left and inhibitory stimulation to the right parietal regions (dual-tDCS) affected writing and reading rehabilitation, enhancing speech therapy outcomes. The results of a comparison with healthy controls showed that application of dual-tDCS could improve, in particular, sub-lexical transcoding and, specifically, the reading of non-words with increasing length and complexity. Positive repercussions on patient's quality of functional communication were also ascertained. Significant changes were also found in other language and cognitive tasks not directly treated (comprehension and constructive apraxia).
As language lateralization in the brain left hemisphere is one of the most well known but less understood characteristics of the human brain, this research thesis reports the use of brain functional imaging to address some specific aspects of this lateralization. In a first part, the author reports the study of mechanisms of recovery from aphasia after a left hemisphere lesion within a population of aphasic right-handers. Based on a contrast between patients with a persistent aphasia despite usual language therapies, and patients with a significant recovery after a melodic and rhythmic therapy (TMR), a PET-based (positron emission tomography) activation study has been developed, based on the opposition between usual language stimuli and stimuli accentuated by TMR. In the second part, the author explored more systematically on sane patients the influence of some physical characteristics of auditory stimulation on the induced functional asymmetry [fr
... Agencies as Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.713 Condition of participation: Physical therapy services. If the organization offers physical therapy services... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Physical therapy...
Smith, Craig, Ed.; Nylund, David, Ed.
Through transcripts and case examples this book explores how drama, art, play, and humor can be used to engage children of different ages in therapy and to honor their idiosyncratic language, knowledge, and perspectives. Chapters are: (1) "Introduction: Comparing Traditional Therapies with Narrative Approaches" (C. Smith); (2) "'I…
Sallat, Stephan; Jentschke, Sebastian
Language and music share many properties, with a particularly strong overlap for prosody. Prosodic cues are generally regarded as crucial for language acquisition. Previous research has indicated that children with SLI fail to make use of these cues. As processing of prosodic information involves similar skills to those required in music perception, we compared music perception skills (melodic and rhythmic-melodic perception and melody recognition) in a group of children with SLI (N = 29, five-year-olds) to two groups of controls, either of comparable age (N = 39, five-year-olds) or of age closer to the children with SLI in their language skills and about one year younger (N = 13, four-year-olds). Children with SLI performed in most tasks below their age level, closer matching the performance level of younger controls with similar language skills. These data strengthen the view of a strong relation between language acquisition and music processing. This might open a perspective for the possible use of musical material in early diagnosis of SLI and of music in SLI therapy.
Sallat, Stephan; Jentschke, Sebastian
Language and music share many properties, with a particularly strong overlap for prosody. Prosodic cues are generally regarded as crucial for language acquisition. Previous research has indicated that children with SLI fail to make use of these cues. As processing of prosodic information involves similar skills to those required in music perception, we compared music perception skills (melodic and rhythmic-melodic perception and melody recognition) in a group of children with SLI (N = 29, five-year-olds) to two groups of controls, either of comparable age (N = 39, five-year-olds) or of age closer to the children with SLI in their language skills and about one year younger (N = 13, four-year-olds). Children with SLI performed in most tasks below their age level, closer matching the performance level of younger controls with similar language skills. These data strengthen the view of a strong relation between language acquisition and music processing. This might open a perspective for the possible use of musical material in early diagnosis of SLI and of music in SLI therapy. PMID:26508812
Full Text Available Language and music share many properties, with a particularly strong overlap for prosody. Prosodic cues are generally regarded as crucial for language acquisition. Previous research has indicated that children with SLI fail to make use of these cues. As processing of prosodic information involves similar skills to those required in music perception, we compared music perception skills (melodic and rhythmic-melodic perception and melody recognition in a group of children with SLI (N=29, five-year-olds to two groups of controls, either of comparable age (N=39, five-year-olds or of age closer to the children with SLI in their language skills and about one year younger (N=13, four-year-olds. Children with SLI performed in most tasks below their age level, closer matching the performance level of younger controls with similar language skills. These data strengthen the view of a strong relation between language acquisition and music processing. This might open a perspective for the possible use of musical material in early diagnosis of SLI and of music in SLI therapy.
Cameron, Thomas H.; Kelly, Desmond P.
The subject of this case report is a two-year, seven-month-old girl with de Lange syndrome, normal intelligence, and age-appropriate language skills. She demonstrated initial delays in gross motor skills and in receptive and expressive language but responded well to intensive speech and language intervention, as well as to physical therapy.…
Moharir, Madhavi; Barnett, Noel; Taras, Jillian; Cole, Martha; Ford-Jones, E Lee; Levin, Leo
Failure to recognize and intervene early in speech and language delays can lead to multifaceted and potentially severe consequences for early child development and later literacy skills. While routine evaluations of speech and language during well-child visits are recommended, there is no standardized (office) approach to facilitate this. Furthermore, extensive wait times for speech and language pathology consultation represent valuable lost time for the child and family. Using speech and language expertise, and paediatric collaboration, key content for an office-based tool was developed. The tool aimed to help physicians achieve three main goals: early and accurate identification of speech and language delays as well as children at risk for literacy challenges; appropriate referral to speech and language services when required; and teaching and, thus, empowering parents to create rich and responsive language environments at home. Using this tool, in combination with the Canadian Paediatric Society’s Read, Speak, Sing and Grow Literacy Initiative, physicians will be better positioned to offer practical strategies to caregivers to enhance children’s speech and language capabilities. The tool represents a strategy to evaluate speech and language delays. It depicts age-specific linguistic/phonetic milestones and suggests interventions. The tool represents a practical interim treatment while the family is waiting for formal speech and language therapy consultation. PMID:24627648
Full Text Available This article presents some tehnical and pedagogical features of an interactive platforme used for language therapy. Timlogoro project demonstrates that technology is an effective tool in learning and, in particular, a viable solution for improving speech disorders present in different stages of age. A digital platform for different categories of users with speech impairments (children and adults has a good support in pedagogical principles. In speech therapy, the computer was originally used to assess deficiencies. Nowadays it has become a useful tool in language rehabilitation. A few Romanian speech therapists create digital applications that will be used in therapy for recovery.This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific UEFISCDI.
Mohr, Bettina; Stahl, Benjamin; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann
Background. Patients with brain lesions and resultant chronic aphasia frequently suffer from depression. However, no effective interventions are available to target neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with aphasia who have severe language and communication deficits. Objective. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of 2 different methods of speech and language therapy in reducing symptoms of depression in aphasia on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) using secondary analysis (BILAT-1 trial). Methods. In a crossover randomized controlled trial, 18 participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia following left-hemispheric brain lesions were assigned to 2 consecutive treatments: (1) intensive language-action therapy (ILAT), emphasizing communicative language use in social interaction, and (2) intensive naming therapy (INT), an utterance-centered standard method. Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups, receiving both treatments in counterbalanced order. Both interventions were applied for 3.5 hours daily over a period of 6 consecutive working days. Outcome measures included depression scores on the BDI and a clinical language test (Aachen Aphasia Test). Results. Patients showed a significant decrease in symptoms of depression after ILAT but not after INT, which paralleled changes on clinical language tests. Treatment-induced decreases in depression scores persisted when controlling for individual changes in language performance. Conclusions. Intensive training of behaviorally relevant verbal communication in social interaction might help reduce symptoms of depression in patients with chronic nonfluent aphasia. PMID:29192534
Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Mingant, Anne
Background: Although aphasia rehabilitation should include significant others, it is currently unknown how this recommendation is adopted in speech-language therapy practice. Speech-language therapists' (SLTs) experience of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation is also understudied, yet a better understanding of clinical…
Maviş, Ilknur; St Louis, Kenneth O; Özdemir, Sertan; Toğram, Bülent
The study sought to identify clinical beliefs and attitudes of speech and language therapists (SLTs) in Turkey and to compare them to previous research on SLTs in the USA and UK. The Clinician Attitudes Toward Stuttering (CATS) inventory was administered by mail to nearly all-practicing SLTs in Turkey (n=61). Turkish SLTs, whose caseloads contained a substantial number of people who stutter, agreed with CATS items suggesting psychological causes and problems for those who stutter. They strongly believed therapy should focus on parent counseling for preschoolers who stutter as well as adolescents. They were not optimistic about carrying out stuttering therapy nor about the likelihood that children who stutter could be effectively treated. Attitudes toward stuttering by clinicians who treat them are important considerations in the conduct and outcomes of stuttering therapy. Additionally, SLTs working with stuttering clients should benefit from professional views and clinical experiences of their colleagues from surveys such as this one. The reader will be able to describe: (a) the components of the CATS, (b) common themes in Turkish speech and language therapists' attitudes toward stuttering, (c) differences between the attitudes of speech and language therapists from Turkey versus the United States and the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Play therapy is a counseling approach for children applying toys, games, and other play media to communicate to the children "language." One of the Play therapy models that combine ecosystems as being formed by an inseparable reciprocal relationship between living things, and their environment is Eco systemic Play Therapy (EPT. Ecosystem Play Therapy as a hybrid model that integrates the concepts of science biology, several models of child psychotherapy, and developmental theories. This model is not eclectic. Rather, it is the integration of several models to create an independent model that is different from the sum of its parts. The focus of EPT is on the process of optimizing the implementation of the child's function as the context of the child's ecosystem or world. EPT is developed from a phenomenological philosophical perspective, in contrast to traditional perspectives.
Full Text Available Background: Orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC who grow up in institutional care often show communication and language problems. The caregivers lack training, and there are few language didactics programmes aimed at supporting communication and language development in OVC in institutional care in Tanzania. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to adapt the German concept of relational communication therapy (RCT as a support to language development in a Tanzanian early childhood education context in a culturally sensitive way. Following the adaptation of the concept, a training programme for Tanzanian caregiver students was developed to compare their competencies in language didactics before and after training. Methods: A convergent mixed methods design was used to examine changes following training in 12 participating caregiver students in a Tanzanian orphanage. The competencies in relational language didactics were assessed by a self-developed test and video recordings before and after intervention. Based on the results, we drew conclusions regarding necessary modifications to the training modules and to the concept of RCT. Results: The relational didactics competencies of the caregiver students improved significantly following their training. A detailed analysis of the four training modules showed that the improvement in relational didactics competencies varied depending on the topic and the teacher. Conclusion: The results provide essential hints for the professionalisation of caregivers and for using the concept of RCT for OVC in institutional care in Tanzania. Training programmes and concepts should not just be transferred across different cultures, disciplines and settings; they must be adapted to the specific cultural setting.
Overby, Megan S.
Background: Academic programmes in speech-language pathology are increasingly providing telehealth/telepractice clinical education to students. Despite this growth, there is little information describing effective ways to teach it. Aims: The current exploratory study analyzed the perceptions of speech-language pathology/therapy (SLP/SLT) faculty,…
Macauly, Beth L.; Gutierrez, Karla M.
This study examined the effectiveness of hippotherapy versus traditional therapy for children with language-learning disabilities. Three boys, ages 9, 10, and 12 years, and their parents independently completed a satisfaction questionnaire at the end of traditional therapy (T1) and again at the end of hippotherapy (T2). A comparison of the…
Faccio, Elena; Centomo, Chiara; Mininni, Giuseppe
We look into the transformation of meanings in psychotherapy and suggest a clinical application for Wittgenstein's intuitions concerning the role of linguistic practices in generating significance. In post-modern theory, therapy does not necessarily change reality as much as it does our way of experiencing it by intervening in the linguistic-representational rules responsible for constructing the text which expresses the problem. Since "states of mind assume the truths and forms of the language devices that we use to represent them" (Foucault, 1963, p. 57), therapy may be intended as a narrative path toward a new naming of one's reified experiences. The clinical problem we consider here, the pervasive feeling of inadequacy due to one's excessive height (dysmorphophobia), is an excellent example of "language game" by which a "perspicuous representation" (the "therapy" proposed by Wittgenstein in the 1953) may bring out alternatives to linguistically-built "traps", putting the blocked semiotic mechanism back into motion.
Edmonston, Nellie K.
The case report describes the speech and language charactersitics of a five-year-old girl with Prader-Willi syndrome, a congential disorder (characterized by mental retardation and specific physical characteristics), and the language therapy procedures used over a 10-month period. (Author/SW)
József P. Vas
Full Text Available The author suggests that the origin of musicality is implied in an implicit musical language every human being possesses in uterus due to a resonance and attunement with prenatal environment, mainly the mother. It is emphasized that ego-development and evolving implicit musical language can be regarded as parallel processes. To support this idea a lot of examples of musical representations are demonstrated by the author. Music is viewed as a tone of ego-functioning involving the musical representations of bodily and visceral senses, cross-modal perception, unity of sense of self, individual fate of ego, and tripolar and bipolar musical coping codes. Finally, a special form of music therapy is shown to illustrate how can implicit musical language be transformed into explicit language by virtue of participants’ spontaneity, creativity, and playfulness.
Vas József, P
The author suggests that the origin of musicality is implied in an implicit musical language every human being possesses in uterus due to a resonance and attunement with prenatal environment, mainly the mother. It is emphasized that ego-development and evolving implicit musical language can be regarded as parallel processes. To support this idea a lot of examples of musical representations are demonstrated by the author. Music is viewed as a tone of ego-functioning involving the musical representations of bodily and visceral senses, cross-modal perception, unity of sense of self, individual fate of ego, and tripolar and bipolar musical coping codes. Finally, a special form of music therapy is shown to illustrate how can implicit musical language be transformed into explicit language by virtue of participants' spontaneity, creativity, and playfulness.
... Engagement Resources Local Support NDSS Events NDSS Scholarships Social Media Kayla’s ... Speech and language development can be challenging for many children with Down syndrome. Here is information that can ...
Glaria, Rocio; Carmona, Lorena; Perez, Cristhian; Parra, Paula
To relate engagement and academic burnout with curriculum evaluation among speech therapy students. This observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at the end of the first academic semester for each level and at the end of a theoretical class in order to ensure the maximum participation rate at the University of Concepción, Concepción, Chile, and comprised students of a speech and language therapy programme.Curriculum evaluation scale, academic engagement and academic burnout questionnaires were used. STATA SE 11 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 200 participants, 157(78.50%) were women and 43(21.50%) men. The overall mean age was 20.81±2.15 years (range: 18-30 years). Emotional burnout was inversely correlated with the evaluation of teaching and evaluation methods, distribution of fields, teaching team and achievement of objectives (pburnout and higher levels of academic engagement.
Sahar Mohammad Esmaeilzadeh
Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss occurs when there is a problem with one or more parts of the ear or ears and causes children to have a delay in the language-learning process. Hearing loss affects children's lives and their development. Several approaches have been developed over recent decades to help hearing-impaired children develop language skills. Auditory-verbal therapy (AVT is one such approach. Recently, researchers have found that music and play have a considerable effect on the communication skills of children, leading to the development of music therapy (MT and play therapy (PT. There have been several studies which focus on the impact of music on hearing-impaired children. The aim of this article is to review studies conducted in AVT, MT, and PT and their efficacy in hearing-impaired children. Furthermore, the authors aim to introduce an integrated approach of AVT, MT, and PT which facilitates language and communication skills in hearing-impaired children. Materials and Methods: In this article we review studies of AVT, MT, and PT and their impact on hearing-impaired children. To achieve this goal, we searched databases and journals including Elsevier, Chor Teach, and Military Psychology, for example. We also used reliable websites such as American Choral Directors Association and Joint Committee on Infant Hearing websites. The websites were reviewed and key words in this article used to find appropriate references. Those articles which are related to ours in content were selected. Results: Recent technologies have brought about great advancement in the field of hearing disorders. Now these impairments can be detected at birth, and in the majority of cases, hearing impaired children can develop fluent spoken language through audition. According to researches on the relationship between hearing impaired children’s communication and language skills and different approaches of therapy, it is known that learning through listening and
Ratcliffe, Katherine T.; Sanekane, Cindy
Equine-assisted therapies are interventions that use the unique qualities of a horse to assist persons with disabilities to improve their gross motor, language, social, and self-help skills. Programs offering these services are varied and operate on all major continents across the world. The effectiveness of equine-assisted therapies is generally…
Fraser, Diane Lynch
Designing therapeutic approaches for language-disordered young children calls for the coordination of communication skills across the three developmental pathways: motor, social-emotional, and language-cognitive. The case study presented in this document examines the effectiveness of a dance-movement therapy intervention conducted over a 2-year…
Armstrong, Linda; Stansfield, Jois; Bloch, Steven
Following content analyses of the first 30 years of the UK speech and language therapy professional body's journal, this study was conducted to survey the published work of the speech (and language) therapy profession over the last 50 years and trace key changes and themes. To understand better the development of the UK speech and language therapy profession over the last 50 years. All volumes of the professional journal of the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists published between 1966 and 2015 (British Journal of Communication Disorders, European Journal of Communication Disorders and International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders) were examined using content analysis. The content was compared with that of the same journal as it appeared from 1935 to 1965. The journal has shown a trend towards more multi-authored and international papers, and a formalization of research methodologies. The volume of papers has increased considerably. Topic areas have expanded, but retain many of the areas of study found in earlier issues of the journal. The journal and its articles reflect the growing complexity of conditions being researched by speech and language therapists and their professional colleagues and give an indication of the developing evidence base for intervention and the diverse routes which speech and language therapy practice has taken over the last 50 years. © 2017 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Mohammad Esmaeilzadeh, Sahar; Sharifi, Shahla; Tayarani Niknezhad, Hamid
Hearing loss occurs when there is a problem with one or more parts of the ear or ears and causes children to have a delay in the language-learning process. Hearing loss affects children's lives and their development. Several approaches have been developed over recent decades to help hearing-impaired children develop language skills. Auditory-verbal therapy (AVT) is one such approach. Recently, researchers have found that music and play have a considerable effect on the communication skills of children, leading to the development of music therapy (MT) and play therapy (PT). There have been several studies which focus on the impact of music on hearing-impaired children. The aim of this article is to review studies conducted in AVT, MT, and PT and their efficacy in hearing-impaired children. Furthermore, the authors aim to introduce an integrated approach of AVT, MT, and PT which facilitates language and communication skills in hearing-impaired children. In this article we review studies of AVT, MT, and PT and their impact on hearing-impaired children. To achieve this goal, we searched databases and journals including Elsevier, Chor Teach, and Military Psychology, for example. We also used reliable websites such as American Choral Directors Association and Joint Committee on Infant Hearing websites. The websites were reviewed and key words in this article used to find appropriate references. Those articles which are related to ours in content were selected. VT, MT, and PT enhance children's communication and language skills from an early age. Each method has a meaningful impact on hearing loss, so by integrating them we have a comprehensive method in order to facilitate communication and language learning. To achieve this goal, the article offers methods and techniques to perform AVT and MT integrated with PT leading to an approach which offers all advantages of these three types of therapy.
Bolderston, Amanda [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Department of Radiation Oncology, Room 5-969, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)], E-mail: email@example.com; Palmer, Cathryne; Flanagan, Wendy; McParland, Neil [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Department of Radiation Oncology, Room 5-969, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)
Introduction: This qualitative study explores the experiences of undergraduate radiation therapy students who have English as a second language (ESL) in the clinical environment, as well as the experiences of staff members who teach these students. Specific study aims were to increase understanding of the issues faced by this subset of students, including identifying potential barriers to clinical learning. Methods and design: A qualitative methodology was utilized with focus groups as the data collection tool to gain insights from students/recent graduates whose primary language was not English, as well as from staff members who educate this group of students in the clinical environment. Two focus groups were conducted; Group 1 (n = 6) consisted of ESL graduates/students and Group 2 (n = 5) consisted of radiation therapy staff members and clinical coordinators who are actively involved in the education of ESL students. Comparative data analysis of the transcribed discussions was carried out using content analysis and categorized according to the emergent themes. Results: Three overarching themes were identified for both groups, 'Communication', 'Differences' and 'Dealing with it...' The primary barrier for ESL students was seen as proficiency in English, which manifested in a number of ways. This resulted in a lack of confidence and a subsequent sense of alienation. External challenges identified were unfamiliarity with Canadian systems and cultural differences. Support strategies identified included the use of mentorship, professional development and external support for teaching staff and journaling, among others. Conclusions: There are identified challenges for ESL students in the clinical environment, thus it is important to provide support for this population to improve learning outcomes. Recommendations for practice, arising from the study as well as the available literature included: allowing extra time, assisting with
Bolderston, Amanda; Palmer, Cathryne; Flanagan, Wendy; McParland, Neil
Introduction: This qualitative study explores the experiences of undergraduate radiation therapy students who have English as a second language (ESL) in the clinical environment, as well as the experiences of staff members who teach these students. Specific study aims were to increase understanding of the issues faced by this subset of students, including identifying potential barriers to clinical learning. Methods and design: A qualitative methodology was utilized with focus groups as the data collection tool to gain insights from students/recent graduates whose primary language was not English, as well as from staff members who educate this group of students in the clinical environment. Two focus groups were conducted; Group 1 (n = 6) consisted of ESL graduates/students and Group 2 (n = 5) consisted of radiation therapy staff members and clinical coordinators who are actively involved in the education of ESL students. Comparative data analysis of the transcribed discussions was carried out using content analysis and categorized according to the emergent themes. Results: Three overarching themes were identified for both groups, 'Communication', 'Differences' and 'Dealing with it...' The primary barrier for ESL students was seen as proficiency in English, which manifested in a number of ways. This resulted in a lack of confidence and a subsequent sense of alienation. External challenges identified were unfamiliarity with Canadian systems and cultural differences. Support strategies identified included the use of mentorship, professional development and external support for teaching staff and journaling, among others. Conclusions: There are identified challenges for ESL students in the clinical environment, thus it is important to provide support for this population to improve learning outcomes. Recommendations for practice, arising from the study as well as the available literature included: allowing extra time, assisting with improving English proficiency
Full Text Available A range of methods in clinical research aim to assess treatment-induced progress in aphasia therapy. Here, we used a crossover randomized controlled design to compare the suitability of utterance-centered and dialogue-sensitive outcome measures in speech-language testing. Fourteen individuals with post-stroke chronic non-fluent aphasia each received two types of intensive training in counterbalanced order: conventional confrontation naming, and communicative-pragmatic speech-language therapy (Intensive Language-Action Therapy, an expanded version of Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy. Motivated by linguistic-pragmatic theory and neuroscience data, our dependent variables included a newly created diagnostic instrument, the Action Communication Test (ACT. This diagnostic instrument requires patients to produce target words in two conditions: (i utterance-centered object naming, and (ii communicative-pragmatic social interaction based on verbal requests. In addition, we administered a standardized aphasia test battery, the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT. Composite scores on the ACT and the AAT revealed similar patterns of changes in language performance over time, irrespective of the treatment applied. Changes in language performance were relatively consistent with the AAT results also when considering both ACT subscales separately from each other. However, only the ACT subscale evaluating verbal requests proved to be successful in distinguishing between different types of training in our patient sample. Critically, testing duration was substantially shorter for the entire ACT (10–20 min than for the AAT (60–90 min. Taken together, the current findings suggest that communicative-pragmatic methods in speech-language testing provide a sensitive and time-effective measure to determine the outcome of aphasia therapy.
Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny
This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of individualized therapy activities and in close liaison with families. The study used an enhanced AB single-subject design in which an 8-year-old child with an SCD participated in 20 therapy sessions with a specialist speech-language pathologist. A procedure of matching assessment findings to intervention choices was followed to construct an individualized treatment program. Examples of intervention content and the embedded structure of SCIP are illustrated. Observational and formal measurements of receptive and expressive language, conversation, and parent-teacher ratings of social communication were completed before therapy, after therapy, and at a 6-month follow-up session. Outcomes revealed change in total and receptive language scores but not in expressive language. Conversation showed marked improvement in responsiveness, appreciation of listener knowledge, turn taking, and adaptation of discourse style. Teacher-reported outcomes included improved classroom behavior and enhanced literacy skills. Parent-reported outcomes included improved verbal interactions with family members and personal narratives. This clinical focus article demonstrates the complexity of needs in a child with an SCD and how these can be addressed in individualized intervention. Findings are discussed in relation to the essential nature of language support including pragmatic therapy for children with SCDs. Discussion of the role of formal and functional outcome measurement as well as the proximity of chosen outcomes to the intervention is included.
Korenev, Alexey; Westbrook, Carolyn; Merry, Yvonne; Ershova, Tatiana
The Language Teachers' Target Language project (LTTL) aims to describe language teachers' target language use domain (Bachman & Palmer 2010) and to develop a language test for future teachers of English. The team comprises four researchers from Moscow State University (MSU) and Southampton Solent University.
Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher
This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed.…
Speak, Move, Play and Learn with Children on the Autism Spectrum: Activities to Boost Communication Skills, Sensory Integration and Coordination Using Simple Ideas from Speech and Language Pathology and Occupational Therapy
Brady, Lois Jean; Gonzalez, America X.; Zawadzki, Maciej; Presley, Corinda
This practical resource is brimming with ideas and guidance for using simple ideas from speech and language pathology and occupational therapy to boost communication, sensory integration, and coordination skills in children on the autism spectrum. Suitable for use in the classroom, at home, and in community settings, it is packed with…
Serna Dimas, Héctor Manuel; Ruíz Castellanos, Erika
The preparation of both language-building activities and a variety of teacher/student interaction patterns increase both oral language participation and content learning in a course of manual therapy with mixed-language ability students. In this article, the researchers describe their collaboration in a content-based course in English with English…
Dagsvold, Inger; Møllersen, Snefrid; Stordahl, Vigdis
The Indigenous population in Norway, the Sami, have a statutory right to speak and be spoken to in the Sami language when receiving health services. There is, however, limited knowledge about how clinicians deal with this in clinical practice. This study explores how clinicians deal with language-appropriate care with Sami-speaking patients in specialist mental health services. This study aims to explore how clinicians identify and respond to Sami patients' language data, as well as how they experience provision of therapy to Sami-speaking patients in outpatient mental health clinics in Sami language administrative districts. Data were collected using qualitative method, through individual interviews with 20 therapists working in outpatient mental health clinics serving Sami populations in northern Norway. A thematic analysis inspired by systematic text reduction was employed. Two themes were identified: (a) identification of Sami patients' language data and (b) experiences with provision of therapy to Sami-speaking patients. Findings indicate that clinicians are not aware of patients' language needs prior to admission and that they deal with identification of language data and offer of language-appropriate care ad hoc when patients arrive. Sami-speaking participants reported always offering language choice and found more profound understanding of patients' experiences when Sami language was used. Whatever language Sami-speaking patients may choose, they are found to switch between languages during therapy. Most non-Sami-speaking participants reported offering Sami-speaking services, but the patients chose to speak Norwegian. However, a few of the participants maintained language awareness and could identify language needs despite a patient's refusal to speak Sami in therapy. Finally, some non-Sami-speaking participants were satisfied if they understood what the patients were saying. They left it to patients to address language problems, only to discover patients
Jamal, Norezmi; Shanta, Shahnoor; Mahmud, Farhanahani; Sha'abani, MNAH
This paper reviews the state-of-the-art an automatic speech recognition (ASR) based approach for speech therapy of aphasic patients. Aphasia is a condition in which the affected person suffers from speech and language disorder resulting from a stroke or brain injury. Since there is a growing body of evidence indicating the possibility of improving the symptoms at an early stage, ASR based solutions are increasingly being researched for speech and language therapy. ASR is a technology that transfers human speech into transcript text by matching with the system's library. This is particularly useful in speech rehabilitation therapies as they provide accurate, real-time evaluation for speech input from an individual with speech disorder. ASR based approaches for speech therapy recognize the speech input from the aphasic patient and provide real-time feedback response to their mistakes. However, the accuracy of ASR is dependent on many factors such as, phoneme recognition, speech continuity, speaker and environmental differences as well as our depth of knowledge on human language understanding. Hence, the review examines recent development of ASR technologies and its performance for individuals with speech and language disorders.
Pickles, Andrew; Anderson, Deborah K.; Lord, Catherine
Background: Delayed, abnormal language is a common feature of autism and language therapy often a significant component of recommended treatment. However, as with other disorders with a language component, we know surprisingly little about the language trajectories and how varied these might be across different children. Thus, we know little about…
Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; McDermott, Orii; Orrell, Martin
With increasing occurrence of international multicentre studies, there is a need for music therapy outcome measures to become more widely available across countries. For countries where English is not the first language, translation and cross-cultural adaptation of outcome measures may be necessa...... procedural steps for the translation and adaptation of music therapy outcome instruments. OBS: 50 free online copies to share: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/d8TPZbkVMjzgKg7DjcmT/full......With increasing occurrence of international multicentre studies, there is a need for music therapy outcome measures to become more widely available across countries. For countries where English is not the first language, translation and cross-cultural adaptation of outcome measures may be necessary....... A literature review identified a knowledge gap regarding translation procedures of outcome measures used in music therapy research. However, a large body of translation guidelines is available in other health professions. We used the guidelines from these related fields to identify guidelines and outline...
Goorhuis-Brouwer, SM; Knijff, WA
Objective: Analysis of treatment recommendation given by speech therapists. Evaluation of the language abilities in the examined children and re-examination of those abilities after 12 months. Materials and methods: Thirty-four children, aged between 2.0 and 5.3 years, referred to speech therapists
Palmer, Rebecca; Enderby, Pam; Paterson, Gail
Speech and language therapy (SLT) for aphasia can be difficult to access in the later stages of stroke recovery, despite evidence of continued improvement with sufficient therapeutic intensity. Computerized aphasia therapy has been reported to be useful for independent language practice, providing new opportunities for continued rehabilitation. The success of this option depends on its acceptability to patients and carers. To investigate factors that affect the acceptability of independent home computerized aphasia therapy practice. An acceptability study of computerized therapy was carried out alongside a pilot randomized controlled trial of computer aphasia therapy versus usual care for people more than 6 months post-stroke. Following language assessment and computer exercise prescription by a speech and language therapist, participants practised three times a week for 5 months at home with monthly volunteer support. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 participants who received the intervention and ten carers (n = 24). Questions from a topic guide were presented and answered using picture, gesture and written support. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Three research SLTs identified and cross-checked themes and subthemes emerging from the data. The key themes that emerged were benefits and disadvantages of computerized aphasia therapy, need for help and support, and comparisons with face-to-face therapy. The independence, flexibility and repetition afforded by the computer was viewed as beneficial and the personalized exercises motivated participants to practise. Participants and carers perceived improvements in word-finding and confidence-talking. Computer practice could cause fatigue and interference with other commitments. Support from carers or volunteers for motivation and technical assistance was seen as important. Although some participants preferred face-to-face therapy, using a computer for
SCHIPOR, D. M.
Full Text Available This interdisciplinary research was developed with a view to create and implement an intelligent informatics system for the treatment of dyslalic disorders, specific to the Romanian language (CBTS system - computer-based speech therapy, as a complementary speech therapy method, customised and client-oriented. The rules of the logotherapeutic guide have been expressed in pseudocode programs in order to allow a greater flexibility in expressing the logotherapeutic procedures in an informatics system. The pseudocode logopedic programs comprise the succession of stages of the therapeutic program from a speech therapy perspective, and based on what the expert system can achieve. The LOGOMON system is conceived in order to assist the physical therapist and the child during the entire therapeutic period, recording the main data related to the child, which proved to be useful in diagnosis and treatment. The experimental validation of the system proved that assisted therapy contributes to the improvement of classical therapy, to obtaining optimal results in correcting the dyslalic person's speech.
Palmer, Rebecca; Enderby, Pam; Paterson, Gail
Background: Speech and language therapy (SLT) for aphasia can be difficult to access in the later stages of stroke recovery, despite evidence of continued improvement with sufficient therapeutic intensity. Computerized aphasia therapy has been reported to be useful for independent language practice, providing new opportunities for continued…
Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Massi, Giselle; Berberian, Ana Paula; Tonocchi, Rita; Valentin, Silvana Mendonça Lopes
This article aims to investigate deaf people's reasons to participate in a therapeutic group and to analyze some of their reflections on the use of written Portuguese language produced inside this group within a sociocultural perspective. It was carried out at a School for the deaf located in Curitiba, Paraná State/Brazil in a partnership with…
Argues that within biblio/poetry therapy, self and others are invented through expressive resources inherent in language. Shows how poetic communication conveys, through texts, "transformative" transferences and countertransferences that foster creative imagination. Sees biblio/poetry therapy as a performance scene where co-tellings,…
Ferguson, Morag; Spence, William
Background: As UK healthcare moves towards the ideals of prevention and enablement, health promotion is more commonly cited as an area of practice. In comparison with its allied health profession peers, physiotherapy and occupational therapy, the speech and language therapy profession has little evidence to demonstrate that it has explored what…
Rolvsjord, Randi; Stige, Brynjulf
In contemporary music therapy as well as in related interdisciplinary fields, the importance of context in relation to theory, research, and practice has been emphasized. However, the word context seems to be used in several different ways and conceptualizations of contextual approaches vary too. The objective of this theoretical article is to clarify traditions of language use in relation to context in music therapy. In reviewing and discussing the literature, we focus on t...
This article summarizes current trends in speech and language pathology services to individuals with Down's syndrome. Speech and language pathologists (N=112) responded to a survey identifying widely used assessment instruments, therapy materials, sources of information, and needs in relation to services at five age levels. (Author/DB)
Hébert, Michèle L J; Kehayia, Eva; Prelock, Patricia; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Snider, Laurie
This study investigates occupational therapy for early communication in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The research explored the role of occupational therapists in supporting children with ASD to become better communicators by considering their inter-professional collaboration with speech-language pathologists. Convenience samples of 21 clinical occupational therapists and speech-language pathologists were recruited to participate in semi-structured audio-recorded focus groups, using a qualitative design. Distinct views included a child-centred focus from speech-language pathologists, whereas occupational therapists spoke of the child through societal viewpoints, which later pointed to occupational therapists' proficiency in enabling skill generalization in ASD. An equal partnership was consistently reported between these clinicians, who identified the same objectives, shared strategies, joint treatments, and ongoing collaboration as the four main facilitators to inter-professional collaboration when treating children with ASD. Three unique roles of occupational therapy comprised developing non-verbal and verbal communication pre-requisites, adapting the setting, educating-partnering-advocating for the child, and providing occupation-based intervention. These three themes meshed with the discipline-specific occupational therapy domains represented in the Person-Environment-Occupation framework. When working in inter-professional collaboration, speech-language pathologists and occupational therapists agree that occupational therapy is indispensable to early intervention in enabling communication in ASD.
Janice K. Tucker
Full Text Available This research surveyed 170 school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs in one northeastern state, with only 1.8% reporting telepractice use in school-settings. These results were consistent with two ASHA surveys (2002; 2011 that reported limited use of telepractice for school-based speech-language pathology. In the present study, willingness to use telepractice was inversely related to age, perhaps because younger members of the profession are more accustomed to using technology. Overall, respondents were concerned about the validity of assessments administered via telepractice; whether clinicians can adequately establish rapport with clients via telepractice; and if therapy conducted via telepractice can be as effective as in-person speech-language therapy. Most respondents indicated the need to establish procedures and guidelines for school-based telepractice programs.
Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus
Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early language delay is a high-prevalence condition of concern to parents and professionals. It may result in lifelong deficits not only in language function, but also in social, emotional/behavioural, academic and economic well-being. Such delays can lead to considerable costs to the individual, the family and to society more widely. The Language for Learning trial tests a population-based intervention in 4 year olds with measured language delay, to determine (1 if it improves language and associated outcomes at ages 5 and 6 years and (2 its cost-effectiveness for families and the health care system. Methods/Design A large-scale randomised trial of a year-long intervention targeting preschoolers with language delay, nested within a well-documented, prospective, population-based cohort of 1464 children in Melbourne, Australia. All children received a 1.25-1.5 hour formal language assessment at their 4th birthday. The 200 children with expressive and/or receptive language scores more than 1.25 standard deviations below the mean were randomised into intervention or ‘usual care’ control arms. The 20-session intervention program comprises 18 one-hour home-based therapeutic sessions in three 6-week blocks, an outcome assessment, and a final feed-back/forward planning session. The therapy utilises a ‘step up-step down’ therapeutic approach depending on the child’s language profile, severity and progress, with standardised, manualised activities covering the four language development domains of: vocabulary and grammar; narrative skills; comprehension monitoring; and phonological awareness/pre-literacy skills. Blinded follow-up assessments at ages 5 and 6 years measure the primary outcome of receptive and expressive language, and secondary outcomes of vocabulary, narrative, and phonological skills. Discussion A key strength of this robust study is the implementation of a therapeutic framework that provides a standardised
Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD has been described as a genetic condition caused by a mutation in the CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine nucleotide sequence. Depending on the stage of the disease, people may have difficulties in speech, language and swallowing. The purpose of this paper is to describe these difficulties in detail, as well as to provide an account on speech and language therapy approach to this condition. Regarding speech, it is worth noticing that characteristics typical of hyperkinetic dysarthria can be found due to underlying choreic movements. The speech of people with HD tends to show shorter sentences, with much simpler syntactic structures, and difficulties in tasks that require complex cognitive processing. Moreover, swallowing may present dysphagia that progresses as the disease develops. A timely, comprehensive and effective speech-language intervention is essential to improve the quality of life of people and contribute to their communicative welfare.
Isaksen, Jytte; Brouwer, Catherine E.
Abstract Outcomes of aphasia therapy in Denmark are documented in evaluation sessions in which both the person with aphasia and the speech-language therapist take part. The participants negotiate agreements on the results of therapy. By means of conversation analysis, we study how such agreements...... on therapy outcome are reached interactionally. The sequential analysis of 34 video recordings focuses on a recurrent method for reaching agreements in these outcome evaluation sessions. In and through a special sequence of conversational assessment it is claimed that the person with aphasia has certain...
Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E
The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy....... This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes...... in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin...
Full Text Available Background: The Indigenous population in Norway, the Sami, have a statutory right to speak and be spoken to in the Sami language when receiving health services. There is, however, limited knowledge about how clinicians deal with this in clinical practice. This study explores how clinicians deal with language-appropriate care with Sami-speaking patients in specialist mental health services. Objectives: This study aims to explore how clinicians identify and respond to Sami patients’ language data, as well as how they experience provision of therapy to Sami-speaking patients in outpatient mental health clinics in Sami language administrative districts. Method: Data were collected using qualitative method, through individual interviews with 20 therapists working in outpatient mental health clinics serving Sami populations in northern Norway. A thematic analysis inspired by systematic text reduction was employed. Findings: Two themes were identified: (a identification of Sami patients’ language data and (b experiences with provision of therapy to Sami-speaking patients. Conclusion: Findings indicate that clinicians are not aware of patients’ language needs prior to admission and that they deal with identification of language data and offer of language-appropriate care ad hoc when patients arrive. Sami-speaking participants reported always offering language choice and found more profound understanding of patients’ experiences when Sami language was used. Whatever language Sami-speaking patients may choose, they are found to switch between languages during therapy. Most non-Sami-speaking participants reported offering Sami-speaking services, but the patients chose to speak Norwegian. However, a few of the participants maintained language awareness and could identify language needs despite a patient's refusal to speak Sami in therapy. Finally, some non-Sami-speaking participants were satisfied if they understood what the patients were saying
Chen, Wei; Yuan, Ti-Fei
Mirror neuron system (MNS) represents one of the most important discoveries of cognitive neuroscience in the past decade, and it has been found to involve in multiple aspects of brain functions including action understanding, imitation, language understanding, empathy, action prediction and speech evolution. This manuscript reviewed the function of MNS in action understanding as well as language evolution, and specifically assessed its roles as the bridge from body language to fluent speeches. Then we discussed the speech defects of autism patients due to the disruption of MNS. Finally, given that MNS is plastic in adult brain, we proposed MNS targeted therapy provides an efficient rehabilitation approach for brain damages conditions as well as autism patients.
Full Text Available The field of language planning (LP has largely ignored planned languages. Of classic descriptions of LP processes, only Tauli (preceded by Wüster suggests that planned languages (what Wüster calls Plansprache might bear on LP theory and practice. If LP aims "to modify the linguistic behaviour of some community for some reason," as Kaplan and Baldauf put it, creating a language de novo is little different. Language policy and planning are increasingly seen as more local and less official, and occasionally more international and cosmopolitan. Zamenhof's work on Esperanto provides extensive material, little studied, documenting the formation of the language and linking it particularly to issues of supranational LP. Defining LP decision-making, Kaplan & Baldauf begin with context and target population. Zamenhof's Esperanto came shortly before Ben-Yehuda's revived Hebrew. His target community was (mostly the world's educated elite; Ben-Yehuda's was worldwide Jewry. Both planners were driven not by linguistic interest but by sociopolitical ideology rooted in reaction to anti-Semitism and imbued with the idea of progress. Their territories had no boundaries, but were not imaginary. Function mattered as much as form (Haugen's terms, status as much as corpus. For Zamenhof, status planning involved emphasis on Esperanto's ownership by its community - a collective planning process embracing all speakers (cf. Hebrew. Corpus planning included a standardized European semantics, lexical selectivity based not simply on standardization but on representation, and the development of written, and literary, style. Esperanto was successful as linguistic system and community language, less as generally accepted lingua franca. Its terminology development and language cultivation offers a model for language revival, but Zamenhof's somewhat limited analysis of language economy left him unprepared to deal with language as power.
Armstrong, Linda; Stansfield, Jois; Bloch, Steven
Background: Following content analyses of the first 30 years of the UK speech and language therapy professional body's journal, this study was conducted to survey the published work of the speech (and language) therapy profession over the last 50 years and trace key changes and themes. Aim: To understand better the development of the UK speech and…
Abdoola, Fareeaa; Flack, Penelope S; Karrim, Saira B
Role-based learning involves the process whereby learners acquire skills, knowledge and understanding through the assumption of roles within real-life settings. Role-play holds potential as an effective learning strategy for children; however, there is limited research on the use of role-play as a therapy method within the field of speech-language pathology. Children with language learning disability (LLD) typically present with difficulties in social communication, which can negatively affect their social and academic achievement. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of role-play as a therapy approach targeting the pragmatic skills of stylistic variation and requesting for clarification in learners with LLD. The use of combined positivist and interpretivist paradigms allowed for the implementation of an embedded mixed methods design. An experimental pretest-posttest design was implemented. Eight participants, who were learners with a diagnosis of LLD, were purposefully selected. Data collection was conducted over five phases, utilising the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (4th Ed.) Pragmatics Profile, discourse completion tasks, session plans and session records. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and were supplemented by qualitative data from session records. Results revealed improvements in stylistic variation and requesting for clarification post role-play intervention, with minimal changes in the control group. Limitations of the study have been reported for consideration when interpreting results. Role-play as a therapy approach targeting two pragmatic skills, stylistic variation and requesting for clarification, was found to be beneficial for learners with LLD. Recommendations for the implementation of role-play as a therapy approach were made.
Rolvsjord, Randi; Stige, Brynjulf
In contemporary music therapy as well as in related interdisciplinary fields, the importance of context in relation to theory, research, and practice has been emphasized. However, the word context seems to be used in several different ways and conceptualizations of contextual approaches vary too. The objective of this theoretical article is to clarify traditions of language use in relation to context in music therapy. In reviewing and discussing the literature, we focus on the field of mental health care. When discussing issues related to context, this literature partly focuses on the surroundings of music therapy practice, partly on the ecology of reciprocal influences within and between situations or systems. On this basis, three types of context awareness in music therapy are identified: music therapy in context; music therapy as context; and music therapy as interacting contexts. The identified types of context awareness are exemplified through references to music therapy literature and then discussed in relation to two very different metaphors, namely context as frame and context as link. Implications for practice, research, and theory development in music therapy are suggested.
Rolvsjord, Randi; Stige, Brynjulf
In contemporary music therapy as well as in related interdisciplinary fields, the importance of context in relation to theory, research, and practice has been emphasized. However, the word context seems to be used in several different ways and conceptualizations of contextual approaches vary too. The objective of this theoretical article is to clarify traditions of language use in relation to context in music therapy. In reviewing and discussing the literature, we focus on the field of mental health care. When discussing issues related to context, this literature partly focuses on the surroundings of music therapy practice, partly on the ecology of reciprocal influences within and between situations or systems. On this basis, three types of context awareness in music therapy are identified: music therapy in context; music therapy as context; and music therapy as interacting contexts. The identified types of context awareness are exemplified through references to music therapy literature and then discussed in relation to two very different metaphors, namely context as frame and context as link. Implications for practice, research, and theory development in music therapy are suggested. PMID:26157199
Marshall, Julie; Harding, Sam; Roulstone, Sue
Background: Evidence-based practice includes research evidence, clinical expertise and stakeholder perspectives. Stakeholder perspectives are important and include parental ethno-theories, which embrace views about many aspects of speech, language and communication, language development, and interventions. The Developmental Niche Framework…
Pierrakeas, C; Georgopoulos, V; Malandraki, G
The use of telemedicine in speech and language pathology provides patients in rural and remote areas with access to quality rehabilitation services that are sufficient, accessible, and user-friendly leading to new possibilities in comprehensive and long-term, cost-effective diagnosis and therapy. This paper discusses the use of online collaboration environments for various telemedicine applications of speech therapy which include online group speech therapy scenarios, multidisciplinary clinical consulting team, and online mentoring and continuing education.
Marshall, J; Goldbart, J; Phillips, J; Evans, R
Informal evidence suggests that many overseas speech and language therapists (SLTs) either do not return to their home country on qualification or do not work as SLTs in the public sector. Many factors may contribute to this situation. However, concern that it may result in part from a poor match between UK SLT education and the demands of the role in other countries, led the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) to fund a study of overseas SLT students' experiences of UK qualifying courses. The study involved questionnaires and interviews with current students and those qualifying since May 1994. The focus of this paper is the respondents' experiences of studying and working in the UK, their views of the advantages and disadvantages of working in their home countries and the UK and supportive strategies that UK universities and other agencies might adopt. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Helland, Wenche Andersen; Helland, Turid
Language problems may negatively affect children's behaviour and have detrimental effects on the development of peer-relations. We investigated and compared emotional and behavioural profiles in children with SLI and in children with ASD aged 6-15 years and explored to what extent pragmatic language problems contributed to the emotional and behavioural needs (EBN) in these clinical groups. The ASD group consisted of 23 children (19 boys; 4 girls) and the SLI group consisted of 20 children (18 boys; 2 girls). In order to assess EBN and language abilities, the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Children's Communication Checklist -2 (CCC-2) were filled out by parents. Our main findings were that although EBN was common in both groups; the children in the ASD group were significantly impaired relative to the children in the SLI group. However, in both groups pragmatic language problems were found to be significantly associated with EBN. A comprehensive assessment of EBN as well as pragmatic language abilities should be an integral part of the assessment procedure. Considering the substantial influence of pragmatic language abilities on social function and in resolving interpersonal conflicts with peers further development of therapy plans and interventions targeting pragmatics is strongly needed. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
De Cesaro, Bruna Campos; Gurgel, Léia Gonçalves; Nunes, Gabriela Pisoni Canedo; Reppold, Caroline Tozzi
Systematically review the literature on interventions in children's language in primary health care. One searched the electronic databases (January 1980 to March 2013) MEDLINE (accessed by PubMed), Scopus, Lilacs and Scielo. The search terms used were "child language", "primary health care", "randomized controlled trial" and "intervention studies" (in English, Portuguese and Spanish). There were included any randomized controlled trials that addressed the issues child language and primary health care. The analysis was based on the type of language intervention conducted in primary health care. Seven studies were included and used intervention strategies such as interactive video, guidance for parents and group therapy. Individuals of both genders were included in the seven studies. The age of the children participant in the samples of the articles included in this review ranged from zero to 11 years. These seven studies used approaches that included only parents, parents and children or just children. The mainly intervention in language on primary health care, used in randomized controlled trials, involved the use of interactional video. Several professionals, beyond speech and language therapist, been inserted in the language interventions on primary health care, demonstrating the importance of interdisciplinary work. None of the articles mentioned aspects related to hearing. There was scarcity of randomized controlled trials that address on language and public health, either in Brazil or internationally.
Full Text Available Background: Role-based learning involves the process whereby learners acquire skills, knowledge and understanding through the assumption of roles within real-life settings. Role-play holds potential as an effective learning strategy for children; however, there is limited research on the use of role-play as a therapy method within the field of speech-language pathology. Children with language learning disability (LLD typically present with difficulties in social communication, which can negatively affect their social and academic achievement. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of role-play as a therapy approach targeting the pragmatic skills of stylistic variation and requesting for clarification in learners with LLD. Method: The use of combined positivist and interpretivist paradigms allowed for the implementation of an embedded mixed methods design. An experimental pretest-posttest design was implemented. Eight participants, who were learners with a diagnosis of LLD, were purposefully selected. Data collection was conducted over five phases, utilising the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (4th Ed. Pragmatics Profile, discourse completion tasks, session plans and session records. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and were supplemented by qualitative data from session records. Results: Results revealed improvements in stylistic variation and requesting for clarification post role-play intervention, with minimal changes in the control group. Limitations of the study have been reported for consideration when interpreting results. Conclusion: Role-play as a therapy approach targeting two pragmatic skills, stylistic variation and requesting for clarification, was found to be beneficial for learners with LLD. Recommendations for the implementation of role-play as a therapy approach were made.
Botting, Nicola; Gaynor, Marguerite; Tucker, Katie; Orchard-Lisle, Ginnie
Some reports suggest that there is an increase in the number of children identified as having developmental language impairment (Bercow, 2008). yet resource issues have meant that many speech and language therapy services have compromised provision in some way. Thus, efficient ways of identifying need and prioritizing intervention are required.…
About a quarter of young children in the United States are dual language learners. The large majority are Latino children who are exposed to Spanish in their homes. The language needs of Latino dual language preschoolers are different from the needs of monolingual English-speaking children. As a group, they are likely to live in environments that put them at risk of delays in language development. This situation is direr for dual language preschoolers with language impairment. Recent findings from studies on interventions for Spanish-English preschoolers with language impairment suggest that a bilingual approach does not delay English vocabulary and oral language learning and promotes Spanish maintenance. Targets and strategies for different language domains are described. The effects of pullout versus push-in interventions for this population are preliminarily explored. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Robles-Bykbaev, Vladimir; López-Nores, Martín; Pazos-Arias, José; Quisi-Peralta, Diego; García-Duque, Jorge
The language and communication constitute the development mainstays of several intellectual and cognitive skills in humans. However, there are millions of people around the world who suffer from several disabilities and disorders related with language and communication, while most of the countries present a lack of corresponding services related with health care and rehabilitation. On these grounds, we are working to develop an ecosystem of intelligent ICT tools to support speech and language pathologists, doctors, students, patients and their relatives. This ecosystem has several layers and components, integrating Electronic Health Records management, standardized vocabularies, a knowledge database, an ontology of concepts from the speech-language domain, and an expert system. We discuss the advantages of such an approach through experiments carried out in several institutions assisting children with a wide spectrum of disabilities.
Sanden, Guro Refsum
Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...
Topouzkhanian, Sylvia; Mijiyawa, Moustafa
In West Africa, as in Majority World countries, people with a communication disability are generally cut-off from the normal development process. A long-term involvement of two partners (Orthophonistes du Monde and Handicap International) allowed the implementation in 2003 of the first speech-language pathology qualifying course in West Africa, within the Ecole Nationale des Auxiliaires Medicaux (ENAM, National School for Medical Auxiliaries) in Lome, Togo. It is a 3-year basic training (after the baccalaureate) in the only academic training centre for medical assistants in Togo. This department has a regional purpose and aims at training French-speaking African students. French speech-language pathology lecturers had to adapt their courses to the local realities they discovered in Togo. It was important to introduce and develop knowledge and skills in the students' system of reference. African speech-language pathologists have to face many challenges: creating an African speech and language therapy, introducing language disorders and their possible cure by means other than traditional therapies, and adapting all the evaluation tests and tools for speech-language pathology to each country, each culture, and each language. Creating an African speech-language pathology profession (according to its own standards) with a real influence in West Africa opens great opportunities for schooling and social and occupational integration of people with communication disabilities.
Brown, Ted; Gutman, Sharon A
Journals are currently assessed and ranked using a number of different quantitative performance metrics. To compare and correlate the publication metrics of English-language occupational therapy journals published in 2015. Bibliometric data was sourced for 14 English-language occupational therapy journals including the Journal Citations Report (JCR) 2-year impact factor (IF), Eigenfactor Score (EFS), Article Influence Score (AIS), Scopus Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP), Scopus Citescore, and SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) score. The JCR, Scopus, and SJR 2015 bibliometric data were correlated. The top six English-language occupational therapy journals in relation to JCR IF, EFS, AIS, SNIP, Citescore, SJR score, and SJR IIF were AJOT, AOTJ, POPT, CJOT, SJOT, and BJOT. JCR IF, EFS, JCR AIS, SNIP, Citescore, SJR score and SJR IIF were all significantly correlated with coefficients ranging from 0.751 to 0.961 (p article rankings rather than the singular use of IF scores that currently and frequently occurs in many jurisdictions.
Chiricuţă, Ion Christian
New developments in breast cancer radiotherapy make possible new standards in treatment recommandations based on international guidelines. Developments in radiotherapy irradiation techniques from 2D to 3D-Conformal RT and to IMRT (Intensity Modulated Arc Therapy) make possible to reduce the usual side effects on the organs at risk as: skin, lung, miocard, bone, esophagus and brahial plexus. Dispite of all these progresses acute and late side effects are present. Side effects are as old as the radiotherapy was used. New solutions are available now by improving irradiation techniques. New techniques as sentinel node procedure (SNP) or partial breast irradiation (PBRT) and immediate breast reconstruction with silicon implants (IBRIS) make necessary new considerations regarding the target volume delineations. A new language for definition of gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV) based on the new diagnostic methods as PET/CT,nonaparticle MRI will have real impact on target delineation and irradiation techniques. "The new common language in breast cancer therapy" would be the first step to improve the endresults and finally the quality of life of the patients. Celsius.
Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Alibali, Martha Wagner
When speakers talk, they gesture. The goal of this review is to investigate the contribution that these gestures make to how we communicate and think. Gesture can play a role in communication and thought at many timespans. We explore, in turn, gesture's contribution to how language is produced and understood in the moment; its contribution to how we learn language and other cognitive skills; and its contribution to how language is created over generations, over childhood, and on the spot. We find that the gestures speakers produce when they talk are integral to communication and can be harnessed in a number of ways. (a) Gesture reflects speakers' thoughts, often their unspoken thoughts, and thus can serve as a window onto cognition. Encouraging speakers to gesture can thus provide another route for teachers, clinicians, interviewers, etc., to better understand their communication partners. (b) Gesture can change speakers' thoughts. Encouraging gesture thus has the potential to change how students, patients, witnesses, etc., think about a problem and, as a result, alter the course of learning, therapy, or an interchange. (c) Gesture provides building blocks that can be used to construct a language. By watching how children and adults who do not already have a language put those blocks together, we can observe the process of language creation. Our hands are with us at all times and thus provide researchers and learners with an ever-present tool for understanding how we talk and think.
opportunities for continuing medical education (CME) and poor patient ... related to insulin therapy, language barriers between doctor and patients, and fear of ..... of primary health care professionals regarding initiation of insulin in primary ...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007
This accordion style pamphlet, dual sided with English and Spanish text, suggests questions for parents to ask their Speech-Language Pathologist and speech and language therapy services for their children. Sample questions include: How will I participate in my child's therapy sessions? How do you decide how much time my child will spend on speech…
... physical therapy and speech pathology services to be performed by other than salaried organization... Agencies as Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.719 Condition of participation: Arrangements for physical therapy and speech pathology services to be performed...
Samaneh Sadat Dastgheib
Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, music has been employed in many intervention and rehabilitation program to enhance cognitive abilities in patients. Numerous researches show that music therapy can help improving language skills in patients including hearing impaired. In this study, a new method of music training is introduced based on principles of neuroscience and capabilities of Persian language to optimize language development in deaf children after implantation. Materials and Methods: The candidate children are classified in three groups according to their hearing age and language development. The music training program is established and centered on four principles, as follows: hearing and listening to music (with special attention to boost hearing, singing, rhythmic movements with music and playing musical instruments. Results: Recently much research has demonstrated that even after cochlear implant operation, a child cannot acquire language to the same level of detail as a normal child. As a result of this study music could compensate this developmental delay .It is known that the greater the area of the brain that is activated, the more synaptic learning and plasticity changes occur in that specific area. According to the principles of neural plasticity, music could improve language skills by activating the same areas for language processing in the brain. Conclusion: In conclusion, the effects of music on the human brain seem to be very promising and therapeutic in various types of disorders and conditions, including cochlear implantation.
Fogg-Rogers, Laura; Buetow, Stephen; Talmage, Alison; McCann, Clare M; Leão, Sylvia H S; Tippett, Lynette; Leung, Joan; McPherson, Kathryn M; Purdy, Suzanne C
People with stroke or Parkinson's disease (PD) live with reduced mood, social participation and quality of life (QOL). Communication difficulties affect 90% of people with PD (dysarthria) and over 33% of people with stroke (aphasia). These consequences are disabling in many ways. However, as singing is typically still possible, its therapeutic use is of increasing interest. This article explores the experiences of and factors influencing participation in choral singing therapy (CST) by people with stroke or PD and their significant others. Participants (eight people with stroke, six with PD) were recruited from a community music therapy choir running CST. Significant others (seven for stroke, two for PD) were also recruited. Supported communication methods were used as needed to undertake semi-structured interviews (total N = 23). Thematic analysis indicated participants had many unmet needs associated with their condition, which motivated them to explore self-management options. CST participation was described as an enjoyable social activity, and participation was perceived as improving mood, language, breathing and voice. Choral singing was perceived by people with stroke and PD to help them self-manage some of the consequences of their condition, including social isolation, low mood and communication difficulties. Choral singing therapy (CST) is sought out by people with stroke and PD to help self-manage symptoms of their condition. Participation is perceived as an enjoyable activity which improves mood, voice and language symptoms. CST may enable access to specialist music therapy and speech language therapy protocols within community frameworks.
This article explores India's linguistic diversity from a language policy perspective, emphasizing policies relevant to linguistic minorities. The Kumaun region of Utterakhand provides a local, minority-language perspective on national-level language planning. A look at the complexity of counting India's languages reveals language planning…
Sun, Ingrid Ya I; Varanda, Cristina Andrade; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux
Identifying effective methods for stimulating language and communication of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is fundamental to the effective use of available resources to support these children. This pilot study was designed to explore the potential benefits of a program of stimulation of executive functions (SEF) on the functional aspects of language and communication through the assessment of the functional communicative profile and social-cognitive performance. Twenty children, aged 5-12 years, with a diagnosis of ASD participated in the study. Two stimulation programs were offered over a 10- to 12-week period as part of the regular services offered to these children through a University's speech and language therapy outpatient clinic in São Paulo, Brazil. Children either received SEF intervention in their home implemented by their parent/s, with close monitoring by the speech-language pathologist (SLP) (group 1), or they received SEF by the SLP during regular speech-language therapy individual sessions (group 2). The findings suggested that there were differences between the children's pre- and posttest performance. Significantly different performances were observed in the areas of occupation of communication space, proportion of communicative interactivity, and social-cognitive performance. The inclusion of activities to stimulate executive function abilities in language intervention for children with ASD warrants further investigation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Krzok, Franziska; Rieger, Verena; Niemann, Katharina; Nobis-Bosch, Ruth; Radermacher, Irmgard; Huber, Walter; Willmes, Klaus; Abel, Stefanie
Background: SAPS--'Sprachsystematisches Aphasiescreening'--is a novel language-systematic aphasia screening developed for the German language, which already had been positively evaluated. It offers a fast assessment of modality-specific psycholinguistic components at different levels of complexity and the derivation of impairment-based treatment…
Chun, Dorothy; Smith, Bryan; Kern, Richard
This article offers a capacious view of technology to suggest broad principles relating technology and language use, language teaching, and language learning. The first part of the article considers some of the ways that technological media influence contexts and forms of expression and communication. In the second part, a set of heuristic…
Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia; Kenworthy, Maura; Van Voorst, Tanya
This paper provides research and clinical information relevant to music therapy for preschool children who use cochlear implants (CI). It consolidates information from various disciplinary sources regarding (a) cochlear implantation of young prelingually-deaf children (~age 2-5), (b) patterns of auditory and speech-language development, and (c) research regarding music perception of children with CIs. This information serves as a foundation for the final portion of the article, which describes typical music therapy goals and examples of interventions suitable for preschool children. PMID:23904691
Okura, Eve K.
This dissertation presents the findings from interviews conducted with language nest workers, teachers, language nest coordinators, administrators of language revitalization programs, principals and directors of language immersion schools that work in close proximity with language nests, and linguists involved in language revitalization efforts.…
Hurkmans, Joost; Jonkers, Roel; de Bruijn, Madeleen; Boonstra, Anne M.; Hartman, Paul P.; Arendzen, Hans; Reinders - Messelink, Heelen
Background: Several studies using musical elements in the treatment of neurological language and speech disorders have reported improvement of speech production. One such programme, Speech-Music Therapy for Aphasia (SMTA), integrates speech therapy and music therapy (MT) to treat the individual with
Dignam, Jade; Copland, David; O'Brien, Kate; Burfein, Penni; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Rodriguez, Amy D.
Purpose: The relationship between cognitive abilities and aphasia rehabilitation outcomes is complex and remains poorly understood. This study investigated the influence of language and cognitive abilities on anomia therapy outcomes in adults with aphasia. Method: Thirty-four adults with chronic aphasia participated in Aphasia Language Impairment…
Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the problem of determination of the essence of language union and language family in modern linguistics, which is considered important, because these terms are often used as absolute synonyms. The research is relevant due to the need to distinguish the features of languages that are inherited during their functioning within either language union or language family when these languages are compared. The research has been carried out in order to present the historical background of the problem and to justify the need for differentiation of language facts that allow relating languages to particular language union or language family. In order to fulfill the goal of this work, descriptive, comparative, and historical methods have been used. A range of examples has been provided to prove that some languages, mainly Slavonic and Baltic languages, form a language family rather than a language union, because a whole number of features in their systems are the heritage of their common Indo-European past. Firstly, it is necessary to take into account changes having either common or different nature in the system of particular languages; secondly, one must have a precise idea of what features in the phonetic and morphological systems of compared languages allow to relate them to language union or language family; thirdly, it must be determined whether the changes in compared languages are regular or of any other type. On the basis of the obtained results, the following conclusions have been drawn: language union and language family are two different types of relations between modern languages; they allow identifying both degree of similarity of these languages and causes of differences between them. It is most important that one should distinguish and describe the specific features of two basic groups of languages forming language family or language union. The results obtained during the analysis are very important for linguistics
Meehan, Elaine; Harvey, Adrienne; Reid, Susan M; Reddihough, Dinah S; Williams, Katrina; Crompton, Kylie E; Omar, Suhaila; Scheinberg, Adam
The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of therapy service use for a sample of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy over a 1 year period and to identify factors associated with frequency of therapy and parental satisfaction with therapy frequency. Parents of 83 children completed a survey on their child's use of occupational therapy, physiotherapy and speech and language pathology services over the previous year. Participants were randomly selected from a sample stratified by age and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level. During the year prior to survey completion, 83% of children had received occupational therapy, 88% had received physiotherapy and 60% had received speech and language pathology services. Frequency of therapy was higher for younger children (P < 0.01), those classified at GMFCS levels IV-V (P < 0.05) and those attending schools specifically for children with disabilities. Current structures for therapy service delivery for children with cerebral palsy are systems-based, and age-based funding systems and the organisation of services around the education system are preventing the delivery of needs-based therapy. Paediatricians that care for children and young people with cerebral palsy need to pay particular attention to those that may miss out on therapy due to age or school type, and support these families in accessing appropriate therapy. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Ghazi-Saidi, Ladan; Ansaldo, Ana Ines
Introduction and Aim : Repetition and imitation are among the oldest second language (L2) teaching approaches and are frequently used in the context of L2 learning and language therapy, despite some heavy criticism. Current neuroimaging techniques allow the neural mechanisms underlying repetition and imitation to be examined. This fMRI study examines the influence of verbal repetition and imitation on network configuration. Integration changes within and between the cognitive control and language networks were studied, in a pair of linguistically close languages (Spanish and French), and compared to our previous work on a distant language pair (Ghazi-Saidi et al., 2013). Methods : Twelve healthy native Spanish-speaking (L1) adults, and 12 healthy native Persian-speaking adults learned 130 new French (L2) words, through a computerized audiovisual repetition and imitation program. The program presented colored photos of objects. Participants were instructed to look at each photo and pronounce its name as closely as possible to the native template (imitate). Repetition was encouraged as many times as necessary to learn the object's name; phonological cues were provided if necessary. Participants practiced for 15 min, over 30 days, and were tested while naming the same items during fMRI scanning, at week 1 (shallow learning phase) and week 4 (consolidation phase) of training. To compare this set of data with our previous work on Persian speakers, a similar data analysis plan including accuracy rates (AR), response times (RT), and functional integration values for the language and cognitive control network at each measure point was included, with further L1-L2 direct comparisons across the two populations. Results and Discussion : The evidence shows that learning L2 words through repetition induces neuroplasticity at the network level. Specifically, L2 word learners showed increased network integration after 3 weeks of training, with both close and distant language
O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko
Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…
Kontio, Janne; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
The present article deals with language choice as communicative strategies in the language learning environment of an English-medium content and language integrated learning (CLIL) workshop at an auto mechanics class in a Swedish upper secondary school. The article presents the organisation and functions of language alternations (LAs) which are…
Richards, Heather; Conway, Clare; Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon
Teachers' subject knowledge is recognized as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers' subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their schooling,…
Spek, B; Wieringa-de Waard, M; Lucas, C; van Dijk, N
The importance and value of the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the decision-making process is recognized by speech-language therapists (SLTs) worldwide and as a result curricula for speech-language therapy students incorporated EBP principles. However, the willingness actually to use EBP principles in their future profession not only depends on EBP knowledge and skills, but also on self-efficacy and task value students perceive towards EBP. To investigate the relation between EBP knowledge and skills, and EBP self-efficacy and task value in different year groups of Dutch SLT students. Students from three year groups filled in a tool that measured EBP knowledge and skills: the Dutch Modified Fresno (DMF). EBP self-efficacy and task value were assessed by using a 20-item questionnaire. Both tools were validated for this population. Mean scores for the three year groups were calculated and tested for group differences using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a post-hoc Games-Howell procedure. With a multiple linear regression technique it was assessed whether EBP self-efficacy and task value predict learning achievement scores on the DMF. Other possible predictors included in the model were: level of prior education, standard of English, having had mathematics in prior education and the SLT study year. A total of 149 students filled in both measurement tools. Mean scores on EBP knowledge and skills were significantly different for the three year groups, with students who were further along their studies scoring higher on the DMF. Mean scores on the EBP self-efficacy and task value questionnaire were the same for the three year groups: all students valued EBP positive but self-efficacy was low in all groups. Of the possible predictors, only the year in which students study and EBP self-efficacy were significant predictors for learning achievements in EBP. Despite a significant increase in EBP knowledge and skills over the years as assessed by
Marina Leite Puglisi
Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to investigate the behavior and social profile of Brazilian children with specific language impairment (SLI and explore whether the severity of language deficits was associated with behavioral problems and low social competence. Twenty-four children with SLI aged from 6 to 11 years who showed substantial expressive language problems and were receiving speech-language therapy were assessed through the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. Children with SLI showed high rates of behavioral problems and low levels of social competence. With the exception of two subscales (“somatic” and “rule breaker”, the percentage of children with SLI at risk of behavioral problems was significantly higher than the same proportion in the general population; and almost all children with SLI (95.2 % demonstrated problems with social competence. The severity of language deficits was associated with the risk of behavioral problems according to only one criterion. No associations were found between the severity of language problems and social competence. The study provides cross-cultural evidence to support the existence of behavior problems and reduced social competence in children with SLI. Our findings point to the need of using a combination of measures to classify the severity of language problems rather than a single dimension.
The results for that intervention show that the hypothesis was correct and students need more time and structure if they are to improve their language competence sufficiently. Keywords: language learning interventions, English for specific purposes, language competence, fossilization. Journal for Language Teaching Vol.
Peleška, Jan; Švejda, David; Zvárová, Jana
Roč. 45, 1/2 (1997), s. 25-29 ISSN 1386-5056 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA313/93/0616 Grant - others:COPERNICUS(XE) JRP-10053 Keywords : computer supported decision making * microsoft access language * therapy of arterial hypertension
Maryellen C MacDonald
Full Text Available Language production processes can provide insight into how language comprehension works and language typology—why languages tend to have certain characteristics more often than others. Drawing on work in memory retrieval, motor planning, and serial order in action planning, the Production-Distribution-Comprehension (PDC account links work in the fields of language production, typology, and comprehension: 1 faced with substantial computational burdens of planning and producing utterances, language producers implicitly follow three biases in utterance planning that promote word order choices that reduce these burdens, thereby improving production fluency. 2 These choices, repeated over many utterances and individuals, shape the distributions of utterance forms in language. The claim that language form stems in large degree from producers’ attempts to mitigate utterance planning difficulty is contrasted with alternative accounts in which form is driven by language use more broadly, language acquisition processes, or producers’ attempts to create language forms that are easily understood by comprehenders. 3 Language perceivers implicitly learn the statistical regularities in their linguistic input, and they use this prior experience to guide comprehension of subsequent language. In particular, they learn to predict the sequential structure of linguistic signals, based on the statistics of previously-encountered input. Thus key aspects of comprehension behavior are tied to lexico-syntactic statistics in the language, which in turn derive from utterance planning biases promoting production of comparatively easy utterance forms over more difficult ones. This approach contrasts with classic theories in which comprehension behaviors are attributed to innate design features of the language comprehension system and associated working memory. The PDC instead links basic features of comprehension to a different source: production processes that shape
Beber, Bárbara Costa; Brandão, Lenisa; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes
This article aims to warn the Brazilian Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology scientific community about the importance and necessity of scientific and clinical activities regarding Primary Progressive Aphasia. This warning is based on a systematic literature review of the scientific production on Primary Progressive Aphasia, from which nine Brazilian articles were selected. It was observed that there is an obvious lack of studies on the subject, as all the retrieved articles were published in medical journals and much of it consisted of small samples; only two articles described the effectiveness of speech-language therapy in patients with Primary Progressive Aphasia. A perspective for the future in the area and characteristics of Speech-Language Therapy for Primary Progressive Aphasia are discussed. As a conclusion, it is evident the need for greater action by Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology on Primary Progressive Aphasia.
Murdoch, Blake; Zarzeczny, Amy; Caulfield, Timothy
To identify the frequency and qualitative characteristics of stem cell-related marketing claims made on websites of clinics featuring common types of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners. The involvement of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners in the marketing of stem cell therapies and stem cell-related interventions is understudied. This research explores the extent to which they are involved and collaborate with medical professionals. This knowledge will help with identifying and evaluating potential policy responses to this growing market. Systematic website analysis. Global. US and English-language bias due to methodology. Representations made on clinic websites in relation to practitioner types, stem cell therapies and their targets, stem cell-related interventions. Statements about stem cell therapies relating to evidence of inefficacy, limited evidence of efficacy, general procedural risks, risks specific to the mode of therapy, regulatory status, experimental or unproven nature of therapy. Use of hype language (eg, language that exaggerates potential benefits). 243 websites offered stem cell therapies. Many websites advertised stem cell transplantation from multiple sources, such as adipose-derived (112), bone marrow-derived (100), blood-derived (28), umbilical cord-derived (26) and others. Plant stem cell-based treatments and products (20) were also advertised. Purposes for and targets of treatment included pain, physical injury, a wide range of diseases and illnesses, cosmetic concerns, non-cosmetic ageing, sexual enhancement and others. Medical doctors (130), chiropractors (53) and naturopaths (44) commonly work in the clinics we found to be offering stem cell therapies. Few clinic websites advertising stem cell therapies included important additional information, including statements about evidence of inefficacy (present on only 12.76% of websites), statements about limited evidence of efficacy (18.93%), statements of
Full Text Available In this editorial introduction we aim to explore the notion of contextually-relevant resources. We argue that it is the responsibility of Speech Language Therapists (SLTs and Audiologists (As working in South Africa to develop contextually relevant resources, and not to rely on the countries or cultures where the professions originated to do so. Language is often cited as the main barrier to contextually relevant resources: most SLTs and As are aware of the need for more resources in the indigenous local languages. However, the issue is not as straightforward as translating resources from English into other languages. The challenges related to culture, e.g. formal education, familiarity with the test situation, have to be considered; as well as the population on which norms were obtained; the nature of vocabulary or picture items. This paper introduces four original research papers that follow in this edition of the journal, and showcases them as examples of innovative development in our field. At the same time we call for the further development of assessment materials, intervention resources, and contributions to the evidence base in our context. We emphasise the importance of local knowledge to drive the development of these resources in innovative and perhaps unexpected ways, and suggest that all clinicians have an important role to play in this process.
Kathryn M. Howard
Full Text Available This article focuses on surveys of first-year language learners studying 19 different languages at two large East Coast Universities. The survey included questions about why students decided to study these languages, including career plans, study abroad, interest in liter-ature and culture, desire to communicate with speakers of the lan-guage, desire to speak with family members, building on previous language skills, and love of languages in general. Results were broken down by language and by language types, such as whether the lan-guages were commonly taught in the United States, how the lan-guages are politicized in the current historical context, and how the languages intersect with historical and geographic trends in immigra-tion and immigration policy. This article examines in particular the presence of heritage language learners in these language classrooms, the varying reasons that students choose to study these languages, and students’ prior attainment and exposure to the language. The pa-per discusses the political, historical, and social contexts of language study in the United States and the associated implications for effec-tive language recruitment and effective language program design.
This article is an attempt to the work on language learning strategies(LLS) in second & foreign language acquisiton (SFLA) research, and to give suggestions for future language learning strategies research. In the first section, I will discuss briefly the background of language learning strategies reserch, and in the ensuing sections, I will review articles on: (i) the identification & classification of language learning strategies; (ii) the variables affecting the use of language learning st...
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo é entender o conhecimento, as crenças e o uso das medicinas alternativas e complementares entre fonoaudiólogas que atuam no setor público de saúde. O estudo foi realizado em um hospital terciário de Ribeirão Preto, SP. Um questionário desenvolvido para os propósitos do estudo foi administrado em uma casuística de 40 fonoaudiólogas. Os itens do questionário foram criados conforme uma revisão da literatura. A aceitação de medicinas alternativas e complementares, como acupuntura e homeopatia, é expressiva entre as profissionais entrevistadas. Os resultados do presente estudo sugerem que o uso e a prática destas medicinas são feitos de forma racional, com certa prudência. As entrevistadas admitem que um tratamento complementar deve ser submetido a testes científicos antes de sua aceitação, e que é desaconselhável a um paciente buscar um tratamento alternativo ou complementar sem antes consultar o médico.The purpose of this study is to understand the knowledge, beliefs, concerns and practices toward alternative and complementary therapies among speech-language pathologists in a Brazilian public hospital. The current study was conducted in a large tertiary hospital in Ribeirão Preto, Southeastern Brazil. A questionnaire developed to measure knowledge, beliefs and practices on alternative and complementary therapies was answered by forty speech-language pathologists. The questionnaire items were created via literature review. Alternative and complementary therapies as acupuncture and homeopathy have high acceptance among the interviewed professionals. The results of the present study suggest that the use and practice of these techniques are made in a rational manner, with some prudence. The interviewed professionals admit that complementary treatment must be submitted to scientific tests before its acceptance, and that it is inadvisable for the patient to try treatment with alternative and
Andréa Regina Nunes Misquiatti
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o perfil funcional da comunicação de crianças e adolescentes com distúrbios do espectro autístico em dois ambientes de terapia de linguagem, que se diferenciam quanto ao aspecto físico. MÉTODOS: Participaram dez sujeitos com distúrbios do espectro autístico, seis do gênero masculino e quatro do gênero feminino, com idades entre 4 e 13 anos. Na coleta de dados, foram realizadas filmagens de oito sessões de terapia de linguagem individual com duração de 30 minutos, sendo quatro sessões em uma sala comum e quatro em uma sala com ambientação específica (sala NIC, intercaladamente, durante um mês. Para a análise dos dados foi empregado o Protocolo de Pragmática, e os resultados receberam tratamento estatístico. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que não houve diferença significativa entre o perfil pragmático apresentado pelos dez sujeitos na sala comum e na sala NIC. CONCLUSÃO: O contexto físico aqui estudado não influenciou significativamente no perfil funcional da comunicação de indivíduos do espectro autístico, ainda que se tenha verificado tendências individuais apresentando melhor desempenho em uma sala ou em outra.PURPOSE: To analyze the functional communicative profile of children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders in two different language therapy environments which differ from each other on the physical environment. METHODS: Participants were ten subjects with autistic spectrum disorders, six male and four female, with ages varying from 4 to 13 years. For data gathering, eight 30-minute individual language therapy sessions were videotaped: four sessions in regular therapy settings (common room interspersed with four sessions in a specific environment setting (NIC room, for one month. Results were registered on the Pragmatic Protocol, and statistical analysis was carried out. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between the pragmatic profile presented by the subjects in the
Marshall, Julie; Goldbart, Juliet; Evans, Ruth
Informal evidence suggests that many Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) students from outside of the UK and/or Republic of Ireland who come to the UK either do not return to their home country on qualification or do not practise as SLTs in the public sector. Many factors may contribute to this situation. Concern that it may result in part from a poor match between UK SLT education and the demands of the role in other countries led the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) to fund a study of international SLT students' experiences of UK qualifying courses. To discover and describe the experiences, views and expectations of current and past international students studying SLT in the UK and past international students' experiences, views and expectations of practising as SLTS, both inside and outside the UK. To consider the implications of the findings for (1) international students planning to work as SLTs; (2) UK SLT students planning to practise outside the UK; and (3) all those involved in SLT education: educational institutions; supervising SLTs; RCSLT. The study involved distributing 166 postal questionnaires (some directly to (ex)students and some to their Higher Education Institutes, or HEIs) and carrying out 23 interviews, with both current students and those qualifying since May 1994. Quantitative analysis was carried out using SPSS using descriptive statistics. Qualitative analysis used content and thematic analyses. Seventy-one questionnaires were received from current and past students, representing a minimum response rate of 43%. (It was not possible to verify exactly how many questionnaires were distributed by HEIs.) The results describe the diverse range of respondents' experiences of studying and working in the UK, their views of working in their home countries and the UK, and their suggestions about strategies that might be adopted to support them further. The results revealed that students come from a wide diversity of countries
Brentari, Diane; Coppola, Marie
How do languages emerge? What are the necessary ingredients and circumstances that permit new languages to form? Various researchers within the disciplines of primatology, anthropology, psychology, and linguistics have offered different answers to this question depending on their perspective. Language acquisition, language evolution, primate communication, and the study of spoken varieties of pidgin and creoles address these issues, but in this article we describe a relatively new and important area that contributes to our understanding of language creation and emergence. Three types of communication systems that use the hands and body to communicate will be the focus of this article: gesture, homesign systems, and sign languages. The focus of this article is to explain why mapping the path from gesture to homesign to sign language has become an important research topic for understanding language emergence, not only for the field of sign languages, but also for language in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:201-211. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1212 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nelde, Peter Hans
Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)
Full Text Available The goal of this project in Estonia was to determine what languages are spoken by students from the 2nd to the 5th year of basic school at their homes in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. At the same time, this problem was also studied in other segregated regions of Estonia: Kohtla-Järve and Maardu. According to the database of the population census from the year 2000 (Estonian Statistics Executive Office's census 2000, there are representatives of 142 ethnic groups living in Estonia, speaking a total of 109 native languages. At the same time, the database doesn’t state which languages are spoken at homes. The material presented in this article belongs to the research topic “Home Language of Basic School Students in Tallinn” from years 2007–2008, specifically financed and ordered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant No. ETF 7065 in the framework of an international study called “Multilingual Project”. It was determined what language is dominating in everyday use, what are the factors for choosing the language for communication, what are the preferred languages and language skills. This study reflects the actual trends of the language situation in these cities.
Lin, Janice; Kelleher, Caitlin L; Engsberg, Jack R
Stroke is one of the leading causes of serious long-term disability. However, home exercise programs given at rehabilitation often lack in motivational aspects. The purposes of this pilot study were (1) create individualized virtual reality (VR) games and (2) determine the effectiveness of VR games for improving movement in upper extremities in a 6-week home therapy intervention for persons with stroke. Participants were two individuals with upper extremity hemiparesis following a stroke. VR games were created using the Looking Glass programming language and modified based on personal interests, goals, and abilities. Participants were asked to play 1 hour each day for 6 weeks. Assessments measured upper extremity movement (range of motion and Action Research Arm Test [ARAT]) and performance in functional skills (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure [COPM] and Motor Activity Log [MAL]). Three VR games were created by a supervised occupational therapist student. The participants played approximately four to six times a week and performed over 100 repetitions of movements each day. Participants showed improvement in upper extremity movement and participation in functional tasks based on results from the COPM, ARAT, and MAL. Further development in the programming environment is needed to be plausible in a rehabilitation setting. Suggestions include graded-level support and continuation of creating a natural programming language, which will increase the ability to use the program in a rehabilitation setting. However, the VR games were shown to be effective as a home therapy intervention for persons with stroke. VR has the potential to advance therapy services by creating a more motivating home-based therapy service.
Baxter, William H., III
Singapore's language policy must balance the wishes of the various ethnic groups, the political situation in the regions, and the needs of economic development. Malay, Mandarin Chinese, English, and Tamil are all recognized as official languages. Malay has special symbolic status as the national language. (RM)
Leni Amalia Suek
Full Text Available The maintenance of community languages of migrant students is heavily determined by language use and language attitudes. The superiority of a dominant language over a community language contributes to attitudes of migrant students toward their native languages. When they perceive their native languages as unimportant language, they will reduce the frequency of using that language even though at home domain. Solutions provided for a problem of maintaining community languages should be related to language use and attitudes of community languages, which are developed mostly in two important domains, school and family. Hence, the valorization of community language should be promoted not only in family but also school domains. Several programs such as community language school and community language program can be used for migrant students to practice and use their native languages. Since educational resources such as class session, teachers and government support are limited; family plays significant roles to stimulate positive attitudes toward community language and also to develop the use of native languages.
Full Text Available Objective: Early detection of children who are at risk for speech and language impairment and those at early stages of delay is crucial for provision of early intervention services. However, unfortunately in Iran, this disorder is not identified or referred for proper treatment and rehabilitation at early critical stages. Materials & Methods: This study was carried out in two phases. The first phase which was qualitative in nature was meant to identify all potentially affective factors through literature review as well as by acquiring the viewpoints of experts and families on this issue. Twelve experts and 9 parents of children with speech and language disorders participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews, thereby completing the first draft of potentially affective factors compiled through literature review. The completed list of factors finally led to the design of a questionnaire for identifying “factors affecting late referral in childhood speech and language impairment”. The questionnaire was approved for face and content validity. The cronbach’s alpha was determined to be 0.81. Two groups of parents were asked to complete the questionnaire: the parents of children who had attended speech and language clinics located on the west and central regions of Tehran city, after their child was 3 years old and those who had attended before their child was 3 years old, as the case and control group, respectively. Results: According to the results, among the seven factors which showed significant difference between the two groups of children before definite diagnosis of speech and language disorders was arrived for the child, 3 factors were related to the type of guidance and consultation received by the family from physicians, 2 factors were related to parents’ lack of awareness and knowledge, and 2 factors were related to the screening services received. All six factors showing significant difference between the two groups after
Sparks, R; Ganschow, L; Pohlman, J; Skinner, S; Artzer, M
Research findings suggest that most students who have foreign language learning problems have language-based difficulties and, in particular, phonological processing problems. Authors of the present study examined pre- and posttest scores on native language and foreign language aptitude tests of three groups of at-risk high school students enrolled in special, self-contained sections of first-year Spanish. Two groups were instructed using a multisensory structured language (MSL) approach. One of the groups was taught in both English and Spanish (MSL/ES), the other only in Spanish (MSL/S). The third group (NO-MSL) was instructed using more traditional second language teaching methodologies. Significant gains were made by the MSL-ES group on measures of native language phonology, vocabulary, and verbal memory and on a test of foreign language aptitude; the MSL/S group made significant gains on the test of foreign language aptitude. No significant gains on the native language or foreign language aptitude measures were made by the NO-MSL group. Implications for foreign language classroom instruction of at-risk students are discussed.
Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica
Learning a new language involves substantial vocabulary acquisition. Learners can accelerate this process by relying on words with native-language overlap, such as cognates. For bilingual third language learners, it is necessary to determine how their two existing languages interact during novel language learning. A scaffolding account predicts transfer from either language for individual words, whereas an accumulation account predicts cumulative transfer from both languages. To compare these accounts, twenty English-German bilingual adults were taught an artificial language containing 48 novel written words that varied orthogonally in English and German wordlikeness (neighborhood size and orthotactic probability). Wordlikeness in each language improved word production accuracy, and similarity to one language provided the same benefit as dual-language overlap. In addition, participants' memory for novel words was affected by the statistical distributions of letters in the novel language. Results indicate that bilinguals utilize both languages during third language acquisition, supporting a scaffolding learning model.
Wake, Melissa; Tobin, Sherryn; Levickis, Penny; Gold, Lisa; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Zens, Naomi; Goldfeld, Sharon; Le, Ha; Law, James; Reilly, Sheena
Population approaches to lessen the adverse impacts of preschool language delay remain elusive. We aimed to determine whether systematic ascertainment of language delay at age 4 years, followed by a 10-month, 1-on-1 intervention, improves language and related outcomes at age 5 years. A randomized trial nested within a cross-sectional ascertainment of language delay. Children with expressive and/or receptive language scores more than 1.25 SD below the mean at age 4 years entered the trial. Children randomly allocated to the intervention received 18 1-hour home-based therapy sessions. The primary outcomes were receptive and expressive language (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals - Preschool, 2(nd) Edition) and secondary outcomes were child phonological skills, letter awareness, pragmatic skills, behavior, and quality of life. A total of 1464 children were assessed for language delay at age 4 years. Of 266 eligible children, 200 (13.6%) entered the trial, with 91 intervention (92% of 99) and 88 control (87% of 101) children retained at age 5 years. At age 5 years, there was weak evidence of benefit to expressive (adjusted mean difference, intervention - control, 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.5 to 4.4; P = .12) but not receptive (0.6; 95% CI -2.5 to 3.8; P = .69) language. The intervention improved phonological awareness skills (5.0; 95% CI 2.2 to 7.8; P language intervention was successfully delivered by non-specialist staff, found to be acceptable and feasible, and has the potential to improve long-term consequences of early language delay within a public health framework.
What people perceive as "a language"--a named entity--is abstracted from practices and notions about those practices. People take for granted that language is somehow a "thing," an objectively distinct and bounded entity. How languages come to be thus imagined indexes the conditions under which they are imagined. The articles…
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aphasia assessment is the first step towards a well- founded language therapy. Language tests need to consider cultural as well as typological linguistic aspects of a given language. This study was designed to determine the standardization, validity and reliability of Language Assessment Test for Aphasia, which consists of eight subtests including spontaneous speech and language, auditory comprehension, repetition, naming, reading, grammar, speech acts, and writing. METHODS: The test was administered to 282 healthy participants and 92 aphasic participants in age, education and gender matched groups. The validity study of the test was investigated with analysis of content, structure and criterion-related validity. For reliability of the test, the analysis of internal consistency, stability and equivalence reliability was conducted. The influence of variables on healhty participants’ sub-test scores, test score and language score was examined. According to significant differences, norms and cut-off scores based on language score were determined. RESULTS: The group with aphasia performed highly lower than healthy participants on subtest, test and language scores. The test scores of healthy group were mostly affected by age and educational level but not affected by gender. According to significant differences, age and educational level for both groups were determined. Considering age and educational levels, the reference values for the cut-off scores were presented. CONCLUSION: The test was found to be a highly reliable and valid aphasia test for Turkish- speaking aphasic patients either in Turkey or other Turkish communities around the world
Comparação dos resultados da fonoterapia e fonoterapia associada à acupuntura na paralisia facial periférica Comparison between myofunctional therapy and myofunctional therapy associated with acupuncture on treatment for peripheral facial paralysis
Márcia Cristina de Paula Rosa
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a eficácia da fonoterapia e da Acupuntura associada à fonoterapia em pacientes com paralisia facial periférica de Bell. MÉTODOS: foram encaminhados para tratamento fonoaudiológico 15 pacientes, dos quais oito foram selecionados randomicamente para fonoterapia associada à Acupuntura, constituindo o grupo experimental. Os dois grupos passaram por avaliação, seguida pelas sessões de tratamento e logo após foram reavaliados, por um examinador externo. Os dados foram analisados por testes de hipóteses com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: a mediana do número de sessões foi de 12,0 para o grupo controle e 5,5 para o grupo experimental (p=0,007, sendo que todos os integrantes deste último receberam alta terapêutica. Das 10 variáveis correlacionadas à mobilidade, quatro (40,0% apresentaram melhora significante no grupo controle e sete (70,0% no grupo experimental. Em relação à tonicidade, das 11 variáveis analisadas verificou-se melhora em sete (63,6% no grupo submetido apenas à fonoterapia e em 11 (100,0% no grupo submetido à fonoterapia associada à Acupuntura. Quanto às 15 medidas faciais investigadas houve melhora nos dois grupos, sendo esta mais evidente no grupo experimental. Apenas uma variável (6,7% apresentou valor significante no que se refere àdiferença entre os dois grupos na reavaliação. Em contrapartida, na comparação entre a avaliação e a reavaliação verificou-se valores significantes em sete variáveis (46,7%, sendo que em cinco (33,3% a melhora foi mais evidente no grupo experimental. CONCLUSÃO: a associação da terapia fonoaudiológica com a Acupuntura foi mais eficaz no tratamento da paralisia facial periférica de Bell, na amostra estudada.PURPOSE: to compare the efficacy of speech-language therapy and acupuncture associated with speech-language therapy in patients with Bell's peripheral facial paralysis. METHODS: we referred 15 patients for speech-language therapy, of
Russell, Ginny; Miller, Laura L; Ford, Tamsin; Golding, Jean
Retrospective recall about children's symptoms is used to establish early developmental patterns in clinical practice and is also utilised in child psychopathology research. Some studies have indicated that the accuracy of retrospective recall is influenced by life events. Our hypothesis was that an intervention: speech and language therapy, would adversely affect the accuracy of parent recall of early concerns about their child's speech and language development. Mothers (n = 5,390) reported on their child's speech development (child male to female ratio = 50:50) when their children were aged 18 or 30 months, and also reported on these early concerns retrospectively, 10 years later, when their children were 13 years old. Overall reliability of retrospective recall was good, 86 % of respondents accurately recalling their earlier concerns. As hypothesised, however, the speech and language intervention was strongly associated with inaccurate retrospective recall about concerns in the early years (Relative Risk Ratio = 19.03; 95 % CI:14.78-24.48). Attendance at speech therapy was associated with increased recall of concerns that were not reported at the time. The study suggests caution is required when interpreting retrospective reports of abnormal child development as recall may be influenced by intervening events.
Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…
FCET2EC (From controlled experimental trial to = 2 everyday communication): How effective is intensive integrative therapy for stroke-induced chronic aphasia under routine clinical conditions? A study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Baumgaertner, Annette; Grewe, Tanja; Ziegler, Wolfram; Floel, Agnes; Springer, Luise; Martus, Peter; Breitenstein, Caterina
Therapy guidelines recommend speech and language therapy (SLT) as the "gold standard" for aphasia treatment. Treatment intensity (i.e., ≥5 hours of SLT per week) is a key predictor of SLT outcome. The scientific evidence to support the efficacy of SLT is unsatisfactory to date given the lack of randomized controlled trials (RCT), particularly with respect to chronic aphasia (lasting for >6 months after initial stroke). This randomized waiting list-controlled multi-centre trial examines whether intensive integrative language therapy provided in routine in- and outpatient clinical settings is effective in improving everyday communication in chronic post-stroke aphasia. Participants are men and women aged 18 to 70 years, at least 6 months post an ischemic or haemorrhagic stroke resulting in persisting language impairment (i.e., chronic aphasia); 220 patients will be screened for participation, with the goal of including at least 126 patients during the 26-month recruitment period. Basic language production and comprehension abilities need to be preserved (as assessed by the Aachen Aphasia Test).Therapy consists of language-systematic and communicative-pragmatic exercises for at least 2 hours/day and at least 10 hours/week, plus at least 1 hour self-administered training per day, for at least three weeks. Contents of therapy are adapted to patients' individual impairment profiles.Prior to and immediately following the therapy/waiting period, patients' individual language abilities are assessed via primary and secondary outcome measures. The primary (blinded) outcome measure is the A-scale (informational content, or 'understandability', of the message) of the Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (ANELT), a standardized measure of functional communication ability. Secondary (unblinded) outcome measures are language-systematic and communicative-pragmatic language screenings and questionnaires assessing life quality as viewed by the patient as well as a relative
F. Nouwens (Femke); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); M. Jong-Hagelstein (Marjolein); E.G. Visch-Brink (Evy); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); L. de Lau (Lonneke)
textabstractBackground: Aphasia is a severely disabling condition occurring in 20 to 25% of stroke patients. Most patients with aphasia due to stroke receive speech and language therapy. Methodologically sound randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of specific interventions for
McDonald, David; Proctor, Penny; Gill, Wendy; Heaven, Sue; Marr, Jane; Young, Jane
The purpose of this addendum is to include within our discussion the findings of Girolametto et al. (2007), a randomized controlled trial of Teacher Talk training, an adapted version of Learning Language and Loving It (LLLI) (Weitzman and Greenberg, 2002). Teacher Talk does not include the coaching and video feedback elements of LLLI. Girolametto…
Conclusion: Knowledge of the way in which speech and language therapy services are organised and provided has the potential to shape the development of communication disability rehabilitation in SSA. This research has identified a range of issues requiring consideration as the profession develops and grows.
This catalog lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Radiation Therapy, and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 30 April 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. These are noted in the catalogue
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether the use of prosodically varied speech within a traditional language therapy framework had any effect on the listening skills, pragmatic skills and social interaction behaviour of three children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. A single participant multiple baseline design across behaviours was implemented. Three participants with ASD were selected for this research. The listening skills, pragmatic skills and social interaction behaviour of the participants were compared before treatment, after a 3-week period of treatment and after a 2-week withdrawal period from treatment, utilising prosodically varied speech within a traditional language therapy approach. Statistical significance was not calculated for each individual due to the limited data, but visual inspection indicated that all the participants showed positive behavioural changes in performance across all areas after 3 weeks of treatment, independent of their pre-treatment performance level. The use of prosodically varied speech within a traditional language therapy framework appears to be a viable form of treatment for children with ASD.
Rojas, Raul; Iglesias, Aquiles
Although the research literature regarding language growth trajectories is burgeoning, the shape and direction of English Language Learners' (ELLs) language growth trajectories are largely not known. This study used growth curve modeling to determine the shape of ELLs' language growth trajectories across 12,248 oral narrative language samples…
-pharmacological interventions used in Alzheimer-type dementia with language therapy programmes.
Segmento tardio do desempenho em linguagem de crianças com desvio fonológico após terapia fonológica Late follow-up of language performance of children with phonological disorders after speech therapy
Helena Bolli Mota
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar um acompanhamento tardio do desempenho em habilidades de linguagem de um grupo de estudo com histórico de desvio fonológico (após ter realizado terapia fonológica, comparando-o com um grupo controle. MÉTODOS: Dezoito sujeitos, nove do grupo de estudo e nove do controle, participaram do estudo e foram avaliados quanto à linguagem escrita a partir da aplicação de atividades de compreensão de texto, complementação de sentenças, formação de sentenças, sequencialização de parágrafos e combinação de sentenças que fazem parte do Exame de Linguagem TIPITI. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da pesquisa mostraram correlações estatísticas significantes, positivas e fortes, nas habilidades de linguagem, entre os grupos estudados e, também, diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre o grupo experimental e o grupo controle, na análise do teste Kruskal-Wallis. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se que, mesmo após a realização de terapia fonológica e a superação dos desvios, o grupo de estudo apresentou desempenho inferior ao do grupo controle.PURPOSE: To carry out a late follow-up of the performance on language abilities of a study group with history of phonological disorders (after speech therapy, compared to a control group with normal phonological development. METHODS: Eighteen subjects, nine from the study group and nine from the control group, participated in the study and were evaluated on written language, carrying out tasks of text comprehension, sentences complementation, sentences formation, paragraph continuation, and sentences combination, which are part of the TIPITI Language Assessment. RESULTS: The results showed positive and strong statistically significant correlation between the groups regarding the language abilities. Statistically significant differences were also found between study and control groups on the Kruskal-Wallis test. CONCLUSION: It was verified that, even after speech therapy and overcoming
Poudel, Kamal Kumar
The metalingual (also called "metalinguistic") function of language is a well-discussed concept in the literature of functional linguistics. It is often conceived as a purpose in which language is used to define or talk about language itself. Similarly, the purpose in which language is used for teaching in general is explained as the…
Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Leonard, Matthew K; Davenport, Tristan S; Torres, Christina; Halgren, Eric; Mayberry, Rachel I
One key question in neurolinguistics is the extent to which the neural processing system for language requires linguistic experience during early life to develop fully. We conducted a longitudinal anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG) analysis of lexico-semantic processing in 2 deaf adolescents who had no sustained language input until 14 years of age, when they became fully immersed in American Sign Language. After 2 to 3 years of language, the adolescents' neural responses to signed words were highly atypical, localizing mainly to right dorsal frontoparietal regions and often responding more strongly to semantically primed words (Ferjan Ramirez N, Leonard MK, Torres C, Hatrak M, Halgren E, Mayberry RI. 2014. Neural language processing in adolescent first-language learners. Cereb Cortex. 24 (10): 2772-2783). Here, we show that after an additional 15 months of language experience, the adolescents' neural responses remained atypical in terms of polarity. While their responses to less familiar signed words still showed atypical localization patterns, the localization of responses to highly familiar signed words became more concentrated in the left perisylvian language network. Our findings suggest that the timing of language experience affects the organization of neural language processing; however, even in adolescence, language representation in the human brain continues to evolve with experience. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Arizona is the site of many explicit language policies as well as ongoing scholarly discussions of related language ideologies--beliefs about the role of language in society. This study adds a critical piece to the investigation of the role of ideologies in language policy processes by thoroughly documenting language ideologies expressed by a…
Dani Laura Peruzzolo
Full Text Available Introduction: Specialized care for infants considers that the sooner the intervention in risk and symptoms occurs, the greater the possibility of obtaining better results. Aims: To describe the process of early intervention provided by an extension program of graduate studies in Occupational Therapy and Hearing, Speech and Languages Science courses and also discuss the theoretical and practical paths in the care for infants and in the Occupational Therapy area. Method: Case report with convenience sample. The study was carried out through an assessment interpreted in light of psychomotor, occupational therapeutic, and speech, hearing and language contributions. The intervention was under the responsibility of an occupational therapist supported by an interdisciplinary team. It occurred once a week from August 2011 to January 2012 and from March 2012 to July 2012. Data analysis was carried out by comparing the entry assessment test and the final assessment test. Results: The boy had not developed concepts of body schema and body image that could sustain his relationship with objects, space and other persons. He presented little linguistic evolution. Considering the contributions of occupational therapy in psychomotor clinic, the boy reconstructed his family place in early intervention. The possibility of language functioning connected to the boy’s demands allowed access to symbolism. Conclusion: The proposal of early occupational therapy intervention with a single therapist supported by an interdisciplinary team was able to overcome the structural and instrumental obstacles to the boy’s development.
Thordardottir, Elin; Cloutier, Geneviève; Ménard, Suzanne; Pelland-Blais, Elaine; Rvachew, Susan
This study investigated the clinical effectiveness of monolingual versus bilingual language intervention, the latter involving speech-language pathologist-parent collaboration. The study focuses on methods that are currently being recommended and that are feasible within current clinical contexts. Bilingual children with primary language impairment who speak a minority language as their home language and French as their second (n=29, mean age=5 years) were randomly assigned to monolingual treatment, bilingual treatment, and no-treatment (delayed-treatment) conditions. Sixteen sessions of individual language intervention were offered, targeting vocabulary and syntactic skills in French only or bilingually, through parent collaboration during the clinical sessions. Language evaluations were conducted before and after treatment by blinded examiners; these evaluations targeted French as well as the home languages. An additional evaluation was conducted 2 months after completion of treatment to assess maintenance of gains. Both monolingual and bilingual treatment followed a focused stimulation approach. Results in French showed a significant treatment effect for vocabulary but no difference between treatment conditions. Gains were made in syntax, but these gains could not be attributed to treatment given that treatment groups did not improve more than the control group. Home language probes did not suggest that the therapy had resulted in gains in the home language. The intervention used in this study is in line with current recommendations of major speech-language pathology organizations. However, the findings indicate that the bilingual treatment created through collaboration with parents was not effective in creating a sufficiently intense bilingual context to make it significantly different from the monolingual treatment. Further studies are needed to assess the gains associated with clinical modifications made for bilingual children and to search for effective ways
Ineke Van Der Meulen
Full Text Available AbstractMelodic Intonation Therapy (MIT is a language production therapy for severely non-fluent aphasic patients using melodic intoning and rhythm to restore language. Although many studies have reported its beneficial effects on language production, randomized controlled trials (RCT examining the efficacy of MIT are rare. In an earlier publication, we presented the results of an RCT on MIT in subacute aphasia and found that MIT was effective on trained and untrained items. Further, we observed a clear trend in improved functional language use after MIT. Subacute aphasic patients receiving MIT improved considerably on language tasks measuring connected speech and daily life verbal communication. Here, we present the results of a pilot RCT on MIT in chronic aphasia and compare these to the results observed in subacute aphasia. We used a multicenter waiting-list randomized controlled trial design. Patients with chronic (>1 year post-stroke aphasia were randomly allocated to the experimental group (6 weeks MIT or to the control group (6 weeks no intervention followed by 6 weeks MIT. Assessments were done at baseline (T1, after 6 weeks (T2, and 6 weeks later (T3. Efficacy was evaluated at T2 using univariable linear regression analyses. Outcome measures were chosen to examine several levels of therapy success: improvement on trained items, generalization to untrained items, and generalization to verbal communication. Of 17 included patients, 10 were allocated to the experimental condition and 7 to the control condition. MIT significantly improved repetition of trained items (β=13.32, p=.02. This effect did not remain stable at follow-up assessment. In contrast to earlier studies, we found only a limited and temporary effect of MIT, without generalization to untrained material or to functional communication. The results further suggest that the effect of MIT in chronic aphasia is more restricted than its effect in earlier stages post stroke. This
Leonardi, Simona; Cacciola, Alberto; De Luca, Rosaria; Aragona, Bianca; Andronaco, Veronica; Milardi, Demetrio; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore
Music is part of the human nature, and it is also philogenically relevant to language evolution. Language and music are bound together in the enhancement of important social functions, such as communication, cooperation and social cohesion. In the last few years, there has been growing evidence that music and music therapy may improve communication skills (but not only) in different neurological disorders. One of the plausible reasons concerning the rational use of sound and music in neurorehabilitation is the possibility to stimulate brain areas involved in emotional processing and motor control, such as the fronto-parietal network. In this narrative review, we are going to describe the role of music therapy in improving aphasia and other neurological disorders, underlying the reasons why this tool could be effective in rehabilitative settings, especially in individuals affected by stroke.
In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int
Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)
Language minority students' writing is often measured solely in terms of its distance from native speaker norms, yet doing so may ignore the process through which these texts are realized and the role that the first language plays in their creation. This study analyzes oral interactions among adolescent second language writers during an extended…
We show a representation of Quantum Computers defines Quantum Turing Machines with associated Quantum Grammars. We then create examples of Quantum Grammars. Lastly we develop an algebraic approach to high level Quantum Languages using Quantum Assembly language and Quantum C language as examples.
This issue of the journal 'Medecine Nucleaire - Imagerie Fonctionnelle et Metabolique' contains the short communications, abstracts of the poster communications and lectures presented in the 36. French Language Colloquium on Nuclear Medicine held at Rennes - Saint-Malo on 1 to 3 October, 1997. According to their content the communications were bunched in the following sessions: Radioprotection-Environment, Cardiology-Pneumology, Endocrinology, Oncology-Diagnosis, Oncology-Therapy, Neurology, Radiobiology, Radioprotection, Osteo-articulary, Uro-Nephrology, Hepato-Gastroenterology, Radiopharmaceuticals, Immuno-analysis, Instrumentation-Image Processing. The overwhelming majority of the papers presented dealt with the use of radioisotopes and radiolabelled complexes in diagnosis and therapy especially, by means of PET and SPECT techniques. The colloquium proceedings are completed by two lectures on Radioimmunotherapy of lymphomas and use of PET in tumor imaging considered from the cost efficiency
Hirschberg, Jeno; Bók, Szilvia; Juhász, Márta; Trenovszki, Zsuzsa; Votisky, Péter; Hirschberg, Andor
(1) To adopt the nasometry for the Hungarian language and to obtain normative nasalance scores. (2) To compare our results with the data of other languages and to evaluate the correlation between nasalance scores and perceptual ratings of nasality. (3) To use the nasometry in various fields of the otolaryngological, phoniatric, and logopedic diagnostics, therapy and documentation. (1) To determine the normative nasalance scores regarding the Hungarian language, we included 30 children aged 5-7 years and 45 adults in the 20-25 years age group. In the latter group 15 subjects were speech therapists and 30 phonetically untrained people-15 males and 15 females. phonation of isolated vowels, articulation of spirants, cyclical repetition of affricates, pronunciation of various (oral, nasal, mixed type) sentences and evaluation of the nasalance score in continuous speech. (2) Thirty-six persons (12 speech pathologists, 12 logopedic students, 12 phonetically uneducated individuals) evaluated the children's physiological and nasal speech recordings with a 3-point scale. (3) Two hundred and forty-eight children of kindergarten age were examined, 20 infants and 6 adult singers in the following fields: evaluation of hypernasality due to cleft palate or velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI), and of the success of the therapy; examination of hyponasality in cases of enlarged adenoid and allergic rhinitis; evaluation of the speech of hard-of-hearing people; differentiation between nasal sigmatism and hyperrhinophony; testing of the resonance in professional singers; examination of infant cry; application of nasometry in the therapy. The mean value of the nasalance score using the oral sentence: "Zsuzsi kutyája ugat" is 11-13%, in the nasal sentence ("A majom banánt enne") 56%, while that of the mixed sentence representing the Hungarian language ("Jó napot kívánok!") falls in the 30-40% range. The resonance grows with aging and there is no significant difference between genders
Tierney, Cheryl D; Pitterle, Kathleen; Kurtz, Marie; Nakhla, Mark; Todorow, Carlyn
Childhood apraxia of speech is a neurologic speech sound disorder in which children have difficulty constructing words and sounds due to poor motor planning and coordination of the articulators required for speech sound production. We report the case of a 3-year-old boy strongly suspected to have childhood apraxia of speech at 18 months of age who used multimodal communication to facilitate language development throughout his work with a speech language pathologist. In 18 months of an intensive structured program, he exhibited atypical rapid improvement, progressing from having no intelligible speech to achieving age-appropriate articulation. We suspect that early introduction of sign language by family proved to be a highly effective form of language development, that when coupled with intensive oro-motor and speech sound therapy, resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Like other areas of speech-language pathology, the behavioural management of voice disorders lacks precision regarding optimal dose-response relationships. In voice therapy, dosing can presumably vary from no measurable effect (i.e., no observable benefit or adverse effect), to ideal dose (maximum benefit with no adverse effects), to doses that produce toxic or harmful effects on voice production. Practicing specific vocal exercises will inevitably increase vocal load. At ideal doses, these exercises may be non-toxic and beneficial, while at intermediate or high doses, the same exercises may actually be toxic or damaging to vocal fold tissues. In pharmacology, toxicity is a critical concept, yet it is rarely considered in voice therapy, with little known regarding "effective" concentrations of specific voice therapies vs "toxic" concentrations. The potential for vocal fold tissue damage related to overdosing on specific vocal exercises has been under-studied. In this commentary, the issue of dosing will be explored within the context of voice therapy, with particular emphasis placed on possible "overdosing".
Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E
The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the history of music therapy research and treatment of children with autism. Understanding such history is important in order to improve clinical efficacy and inform future research. This paper includes a history of autism diagnosis, reviews strengths and limitations of music therapy practice with children with autism from 1940-2009, and suggests direction for future music therapy research and clinical practice with this population. Literature was limited to the English language and obtained with the following search terms: autism, autistic, (early) infantile autism, child, therapeutic music, musical therapy, and music therapy. Table of contents from music therapy journals were searched, and reference lists from obtained articles were perused for additional articles. This historical review focused primarily on journal articles, however, books and book chapters that appeared to hold particular historical significance were also included.
Results: First, we replicated our previous results obtained with fewer participants: all improved in both tDCS and sham conditions on trained items. Generalization of treatment on untrained items was significant only in tDCS condition. Therapy gains lasted longer in tDCS condition as well. Second, preliminary analyses of rs-fMRI show changes of functional connectivity between written language areas in the tDCS and sham conditions. Conclusions: tDCS represents an increasingly valuable treatment option in language rehabilitation even in neurodegeneration. Late intervention is as beneficial as early intervention but improvement seems more dramatic in early cases. Different possibilities are discussed: tDCS may indeed change the course of the disease, i.e., it may slow down the rate of decline or, language improvement due to tDCS (or delay in language deterioration due to the course of the disease may hold the spread of decline in other cognitive functions, thus, early interventions appear more beneficial. The correlation between functional connectivity and language production outcomes is expected to shed light on how tDCS works in the brains of people with a neurodegenerative disease. Implications of functional connectivity changes between language areas involved in the targeted language function will inform further interventions.
Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Manfredi, Valentina; Schifano, Letizia; Paterlini, Chiara; Parente, Annalisa; Tagliavini, Fabrizio
Alzheimer's disease (AD) can impair language, but active music therapy (AMT) and memantine (M) can improve communication. This study aimed to clarify whether adding AMT to M may improve language in comparison with drugs alone in patients with moderate AD on stable therapy with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEI). Forty-five AD patients treated with stable dose of AchEI were randomized to receive AMT plus M 20 mg/day or M 20 mg/day for 24 weeks. The Severe Impairment Battery-Language (SIB-l), SIB, Mini Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Lubben Social Network Scale, Activities of Daily Living, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scores at baseline and 12 and 24 weeks assessed language (primary variable) and overall cognitive, psycho-behavior, social, and functional aspects (secondary variables). The SIB-l showed a stabilization of the baseline condition in both groups, in the absence of between-group differences. The NPI depression and appetite scores significantly improved in the M-AMT group. Moreover, significantly less patients in the M-AMT group than those in the M group showed worsening of the NPI total score. Daily activities, social relationships, and overall cognitive performance did not deteriorate. In patients with moderate AD, AMT added to pharmacotherapy has no further benefits for language in comparison with pharmacotherapy alone. However, this integrated treatment can improve the psycho-behavioral profile.
Valdizán, José R; Rodríguez-Mena, Diego; Díaz-Sardi, Mauricio
In cases of expressive language disorder (ELD), the child is unable to put his or her thoughts into words. Comorbidity is present with difficulties in repeating, imitating or naming. There are no problems with pronunciation, as occurs in phonological disorder, it may present before the age of three years and is crucial between four and seven years of age. Electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have been carried out not only in ELD, but also in clinical pictures where the language disorder was the main symptom or was associated to another neurodevelopmental pathology. We conducted a retrospective study involving a review of 100 patient records, with patients (25 girls and 75 boys) aged between two and six years old who had been diagnosed with ELD (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revised) and were free of seizures and not receiving treatment. They were submitted to an EEG and received treatment with valproic acid if EEG findings were positive. Only six patients (males) presented localised spike-wave paroxysmal EEG activity in the frontotemporal region. This 6% is a percentage that is higher than the one found in the normal children's population (2%), but lower than the value indicated in the literature for language disorders, which ranges between 20% and 50%. These patients responded positively to the treatment and both expressive language and EEG findings improved. It is possible that in ELD without paroxysms there may be a dysfunction in the circuit made up of the motor cortex-neostriatum prior to grammatical learning, whereas if there are paroxysms then this would point to neuronal hyperactivity, perhaps associated to this dysfunction or not, in cortical areas. In our cases valproic acid, together with speech therapy, helped the children to recover their language abilities.
Isotani, Selma Mie; Azevedo, Marisa Frasson de; Chiari, Brasília Maria; Perissinoto, Jacy
expressive language of pre-term children. to compare the expressive vocabulary of two year-old children born prematurely, to that of those born at term. the study sample was composed by 118 speech-language assessment protocols, divided in two groups: the pre-term group (PTG) composed by 58 underweight premature children followed by a multi-professional team at the Casa do Prematuro (House of Premature Children) at Unifesp, and the full-term group (FTG) composed by 60 full-term born children. In order to evaluate the expressive language of these children, the Lave - Lista de Avaliação do Vocabulário Expressivo (Assessment List of the Expressive Vocabulary) was used. The Lave is an adaptation of the LDS - Language Development Survey - for the Brazilian Portuguese Language. The Lave investigates the expressive language and detects delays in oral language. children born underweight and prematurely present a greater occurrence of expressive language delay, 27.6%. These pre-term children present significantly lower expressive vocabulary and phrasal extension than children of the same age born at full-term in all semantic categories. Family income proved to be positively associated to phrasal extension, as well as to gestational age and weight at birth; thus indicating the effect of these adverse conditions still during the third year of age. The audiological status was associated to word utterances in the PTG. children born prematurely and underweight are at risk in terms of vocabulary development; this determines the need for speech-therapy intervention programs.
Recently, the applied linguistics field has examined the knowledge, skills, and principles needed for assessment, defined as language assessment literacy. Two major issues in language assessment literacy have been addressed but not fully resolved--what exactly language assessment literacy is and how it differs among stakeholders (e.g., students…
Full Text Available French language policy has historically centred on ways French can be considered a dominant and influential language. It has done this since the Middle Ages, by allowing the French language to serve as a political tool. On an international level, language was a way of subjugating conquered peoples (former colonies. It promoted France’s international status (by the 18th century French was the diplomatic language of Europe. On a national level, the French language was one of the ways governments were able to centralise political power (suppression of regional languages. One of the ways French language authorities have promoted the use of language has been through education policies and the way language is taught in schools. For example, the French language was imposed on the colonised territories of France through teaching in missionary schools. Within France, stringent laws were adopted, in particular during the nineteenth century, allowing the French language to replace local languages in schools. In France today, language policies continue to exist and to have an influence on the way we view language and society. One of the main priorities of French language policy is to protect the status of the national language in particular with respect to the increasing use of English as a global dominant language in areas such as science, technology, tourism, entertainment and the media (Nunan: 2007, 178. Consequently, France has adopted policies to respond to this linguistic climate. This has implications on the way the French language is taught both within France as well as outside of France. This paper will examine some of the policies and agencies created over recent years that affect the French language. It will also identify some of the consequences these policies have on the teaching of language. Finally it will argue that a space has been created within the language classroom that attempts to find a compromise between the language policies of
Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Sing-Chai, Ching; Poh-Aw, Guat
This conceptual paper describes a language learning model that applies social media to foster contextualized and connected language learning in communities. The model emphasizes weaving together different forms of language learning activities that take place in different learning contexts to achieve seamless language learning. It promotes social interactions with social media about the learners’ day-to-day life using the targeted second or foreign language. The paper first identifies three ke...
Matthews, Rebecca Alison; Woll, Bencie; Clarke, Mike
In the current economic climate, whilst the demand for health services, including Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) continues to rise, there is pressure to reduce health service budgets, Tele-technology—the use of tele-communication technology to link patient and clinician remotely—could potentially provide a solution to meeting the demand for SLT with reduced resources. However, only a few SLT services in the United Kingdom (UK) have reported on using tele-technology to provide their service (Howell, Tripoliti and Pring, 2009; Styles, 2008; McCullough, 2001; Katsavarus, 2001). In 2002 the American Speech and Hearing Association (ASHA) surveyed its members on their experience and views of using tele-technology and specifically video-conferencing to provide an SLT service. The analysis of the responses identified five areas of concern—lack of professional guidelines, limited evidence of clinical efficacy, disruption and problems managing the technology, change in the interaction and loss of rapport as well as anticipated, additional costs to provide the service. The study reported here set up an SLT service using the desktop videoconferencing system, Skype, in an independent SLT practice based in the UK. Data were collected to evaluate the acceptability of the clinical sessions, the technology, the quality of interaction and costs of an SLT service using Skype. Eleven participants aged between 7 and 14 years with varying therapy needs took part. Each received a mix of face-to-face (F2F) and Skype SLT over the ten session trial period. Data were collected for every session using a report card; adults supporting the children were asked for their views using a questionnaire at the beginning and end of the trial; the child participants were interviewed after the trial period was over; one F2F and one Skype session was video recorded for each participant; work activity was recorded along with identifiable costs of F2F and Skype SLT sessions. A total of 110 session
Vásquez, Anete; Smith, Philip C
This thoroughly revised and updated edition of Teaching Language Arts to English Language Learners provides readers with the comprehensive understanding of both the challenges that face ELLs and ways in which educators might address them in the language arts classroom. The authors offer proven techniques that teachers can readily use to teach reading, writing, grammar, and vocabulary as well as speaking, listening, and viewing skills. A complete section is also devoted to ways teachers can integrate all five strands of the language arts curriculum into a comprehensive unit of study w
Full Text Available This paper addresses the possibilities of combining Spanish language learners and English language learners in high school and post-secondary institutions for mutual benefit to learn authentic language. Academic or "classroom" Spanish is insufficient to empower students for today's workplace. The concept behind "Real Language" is illustrated by an example of an interdisciplinary activity to facilitate communicative interaction in genuine language and promote cultural understanding between intermediate Spanish students and ESOL/native speakers at the high school and post-secondary level. Students are asked to utilize their life skills in interactive, freestyle conversation without the intervention of an instructor. The learning space for language exchange is an out-of-class venue for a non-intimidating, more authentic setting. This simple qualitative study investigates the potential value of this sort of interdisciplinary activity. The intent is to evaluate attitudes of the participants in relation to confidence in their ability to use the target language, and their willingness to use it in social and professional environments and, in addition, to facilitate cultural understanding. The positive result of the project is validated by the voice of the student participants as they reflect on their experience in "Real Language". Could this concept facilitate evolving strategies for interdisciplinary contemporary foreign language learning?
Full Text Available A systematic review of literature up to date reflects great scholarly interest in the impacts of study abroad (SA sojourns on foreign language learners’ communicative competence. This paper provides an overview on gains in sociolinguistic and pragmatic competences drawing upon research carried out in this field, which in broad terms supports the belief that both types of competences are effectively developed in SA stays. This article also offers a detailed account of the main constituents of the language tourism product -the travel component and the language learning component- with a special focus on the educational input and the language learning complements included in the latter. Thus, a fundamental part of the language tourism market system will be depicted from a supply perspective. Following an exploratory approach, a literature review was conducted in order to identify existing and missing knowledge in the field of language travel supply, and key aspects were pinpointed and classified. The taxonomy and underpinning concepts resulting from the categorisation of those key features may be considered the starting point for future investigations on SA programmes. The model offered in this exploratory study aims at constituting the underlying conceptual framework for subsequent research on the role of different SA programme design characteristics within the language tourism experience.
The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy
Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chai, Ching Sing; Aw, Guat Poh
This conceptual paper describes a language learning model that applies social media to foster contextualized and connected language learning in communities. The model emphasizes weaving together different forms of language learning activities that take place in different learning contexts to achieve seamless language learning. it promotes social…
The present study explores Korean students' demonstration of language awareness through their engagement in language play. Grounded in the understanding of the relationship between language play and an "engagement with language" (EWL) perspective, this ethnographic and discourse analytic study investigates how Korean students aged 11-15…
Tribet, J; Boucharlat, M; Myslinski, M
The elderly represent the fastest growing population group in France. The care management of people suffering from dementia has become an important problem. Demented patients manifest behavioral problems, depression, apathy, impairment in social activities and language skill disorders. The literature contains few studies investigating animal-assisted therapy for demented patients. However, there is a clear need for psychological assistance for this population. In the management of such behavioural problems associated with dementia, we propose to develop a dog-assisted therapy. Three qualitative case studies are analysed to specify the perceptions of the therapist regarding animal-assisted therapy. This study is a qualitative pilot study. Subjects were two female and one male patients admitted in a nursing home. They were diagnosed with severe dementia. Their mean age was 94 years. All of them agreed to attend the dog therapy activities and informed consent from their family was requested. We met these patients 15 times over nine months. The meetings always took place in the same place for 30 min, once a week. The evaluation was based on the clinical observations of the psychologist. This study revealed many psychological benefits for patients with dementia. The animal-assisted therapy had a calming effect on the patients. It could well be helpful as a communication link during therapy sessions. The dog, because of its unconditional acceptance, increases the self-esteem of the patient and contributes to a more secure environment. The patients, who rarely interacted socially, increased their interactions with the dog. In spite of the lack of normal verbal use of language, nonverbal communication continues including touching and posture. Furthermore, patients verbalized that the dog was affectionate and they could identify themselves with it. This prospective study leads up to the conclusion that pet therapy could prove to be efficient. We conducted animal
Gundgaard, M.G.; Ehrnrooth, E.; Sørensen, Jens Benn
BACKGROUND: The past years' therapy for colorectal cancer has evolved rapidly with the introduction of novel cytotoxic agents such as irinotecan, capecitabine and oxaliplatin. Further advances have been achieved with the integration of targeted agents such as bevacizumab, cetuximab and recently......, panitumumab. As a result, third-line treatment is now a necessary step in the optimal treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a literature review of English language publications on third-line therapy for MCRC from January 2000 to April 2007. Data......OS of 16 months. With irinotecan and 5-FU, mOS around 8 months were reported and with cetuximab combined with irinotecan, the highest mOS was 9.8 months. CONCLUSION: Third-line therapy in advanced colorectal cancer may improve mOS for patients with MCRC. Therefore, randomized studies should be conducted...
Music therapy can meet the basic needs of children with special needs, such as behavioral problems, attention skills, social skills, emotional needs and intersubjective skills. In addition cognitive skills can be strengthened if the basic needs are fulfilled. The lecture gives an overview...... by Malloch & Trevarthen (2009) as inborn ‘communicative musicality’. Communicative musicality provides the ground for early interplay and attachment, cognitive development and language, and characterizes human interplay throughout the life. For children who cannot join into a normal development music can...... of the current music therapy research in the field, i.e. the results of effect studies as well as research focusing on how music therapy works or why we can see this effect. The developmental psychology, informed by the infant research and neuro-affective psychology, gives a ground to understand what development...
Beckage, Nicole M.; Colunga, Eliana
Language is inherently cognitive and distinctly human. Separating the object of language from the human mind that processes and creates language fails to capture the full language system. Linguistics traditionally has focused on the study of language as a static representation, removed from the human mind. Network analysis has traditionally been focused on the properties and structure that emerge from network representations. Both disciplines could gain from looking at language as a cognitive process. In contrast, psycholinguistic research has focused on the process of language without committing to a representation. However, by considering language networks as approximations of the cognitive system we can take the strength of each of these approaches to study human performance and cognition as related to language. This paper reviews research showcasing the contributions of network science to the study of language. Specifically, we focus on the interplay of cognition and language as captured by a network representation. To this end, we review different types of language network representations before considering the influence of global level network features. We continue by considering human performance in relation to network structure and conclude with theoretical network models that offer potential and testable explanations of cognitive and linguistic phenomena.
Saidi, Tamana; Djurhuus, Terji; Egeslund, Søren Due; Oikonomou, Anna Maria; Pietilä, Minerva
This project aims to display how the process differs when acquiring a first language, two first languages simultaneously or a second language. The linguistic elements are presented in First Language and Second Language and in bilingualism. We will be looking at Chomsky’s Nativist approach, as well as Behaviorism by Skinner. Also, socio-cultural theory by Vygotsky and the cognitive approach are used. A study will be conducted to find out whether bilinguals can perform as well as native speaker...
Full Text Available This study discusses the traces proto-languages of Austronesian in modern languages in Sumatra. Modern languages in Sumatra are the languages of the subgroups of Sumatra as part of a group which is an Austronesian Southwestern which is Western Austronesian group. The purpose of this study is to find and assess reflex etimon mother language of Austronesian present in some modern languages in the language of Sumatra namely Aceh, Batak Toba, Mandailaing language, language Kerinci, Minangkabau and Mentawai language. To find reflex (reflection mother language of Austronesian in several languages in Sumatra used comparative methods are qualitative. The use of the method is to reconstruct antarabahasa relationship based on the legacy of rank higher language that PAN into several languages with the lower rank (top-down reconstruction namely the Acehnese language, language Batak Toba, Mandailing language, language Kerinci, Minangkabau and Mentawai language. Research findings indicate that there are reflex (reflection etimon mother language of Austronesian in some modern languages in the language of Sumatra, Aceh, Batak Toba, Mandailaing language, language Kerinci, Minangkabau and Mentawai language. This indicates that all six of these languages is a derivative of the PAN.
Stephan, T; Keilmann, A
Currently, only few tests for the development of speech and language exist for bi- or multilingual children in Germany. One of those, the LiSe-DaZ (Linguistic performance measurement - German as a second language), was examined in a prospective study regarding its practicability and the sensitivity to detect children with specific language impairment in a group of children aged 5 to 7 who suffered from a severe language impairment according to clinical tests. 74 children (mean age: 60 months; 46% monolingual German-speaking; 54% bi- or multilingual) with severe specific language impairment were examined with the LiSe-DaZ in addition to the clinical established diagnostic during their in-patient stay in the hospital. The children, on average, showed in the receptive language abilities (LiSe-DaZ vs. TROG-D), the expressive vocabulary (LiSe-DaZ vs. AWST-R or WWT) and in the use of prepositions (LiSe-DaZ vs. Ravensburger Dysgrammatical clinical trial) significantly (pchildren were diagnosed as language impaired by clinically established tests whereas the LiSe-DaZ considered the children's language development to be normal. This difference was consistently more prominent for children with German as a second language. Compared with the clinically established tests, the informative value of the LiSe-DaZ turned out to be insufficient. The LiSe-DaZ does not detect children with the need of language therapy. Nevertheless, a norming of the established speech tests for bi- or multilingual children would be desirable to avoid unfounded judgements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Sánchez, María Teresa; García, Ofelia; Solorza, Cristian
This article addresses language allocation policies in what is increasingly called "Dual Language Education" (DLE) in the U.S., offering a challenge to the strict language separation policies in those programs and a proposal for flexibility that transforms them into "Dual Language Bilingual Education" (DLBE). The article offers…
Bitter, Klaus; Wegener, Carla; Gomille, Nadine
Speech and language acquisition are major, important criteria in the treatment outcomes of cleft lip and palate patients. A generally accepted and definitive treatment protocol regarding surgical techniques and the time schedule does not yet exist. In the world literature, there are reports of velo-pharyngeal insufficiency rates between 7 and 30%. In a prospective study, all children aged 312 months with cleft lip, alveolus and palate, or cleft palate only, underwent an intravelar veloplasty. Follow-up monitoring consisted of frequent clinical linguistic checks and supervision of language development without a planned intention of articulation therapy before the age of about 5 years. Three hundred and ninety-seven children with non-syndromic clefts were included in this study, the youngest being 8-year old. Sixty children (15%) showed deviations in language and speech acquisition. From these, 56 (14%) had received articulation therapy after the 5th birthday. From these 56 children, 45 had overcome their problems with speech therapy alone whereas 11 (3%) needed a velo-pharyngeoplasty. Although these results are much better than those reported in other cohorts, some children still have velo-pharyngeal incompetence for no apparent reason. One possible explanation might be surgical, since on occasions, the intravelar muscle bundle is divided into two parts and the palato-pharyngeal part runs isolated more laterally and can be missed during reconstruction and retropositioning.
Language change can be understood as an evolutionary process. Language change occurs at two different timescales, corresponding to the two steps of the evolutionary process. The first timescale is very short, namely, the production of an utterance: this is where linguistic structures are replicated and language variation is generated. The second timescale is (or can be) very long, namely, the propagation of linguistic variants in the speech community: this is where certain variants are selected over others. At both timescales, the evolutionary process is driven by social interaction and the role language plays in it. An understanding of social interaction at the micro-level—face-to-face interactions—and at the macro-level—the structure of speech communities—gives us the basis for understanding the generation and propagation of language structures, and understanding the nature of language itself.
Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan
Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language. PMID:26544876
The author spent four years embedded in a multilingual kindergarten classroom in which children spoke six different languages and several more years observing multilingual Head Start classrooms. She shares numerous examples of young dual language learners actively figuring out the way written language works in their first and second languages.…
Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…
Tuller, Laurice; Hamann, Cornelia; Chilla, Solveig; Ferré, Sandrine; Morin, Eléonore; Prevost, Philippe; Dos Santos, Christophe; Abed Ibrahim, Lina; Zebib, Racha
The detection of specific language impairment (SLI) in children growing up bilingually presents particular challenges for clinicians. Non-word repetition (NWR) and sentence repetition (SR) tasks have proven to be the most accurate diagnostic tools for monolingual populations, raising the question of the extent of their usefulness in different bilingual populations. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of NWR and SR tasks that incorporate phonological/syntactic complexity as discussed in recent linguistic theory. The tasks were developed as part of the Language Impairment Testing in Multilingual Settings (LITMUS) toolkit, in two different national settings, France and Germany, and investigated children with three different home languages: Arabic, Portuguese and Turkish. NWR and SR tasks developed in parallel were administered to 151 bilingual children, aged 5;6-8;11, in France and in Germany, to 64 children in speech-language therapy (SLT) and to 87 children not in SLT, whose first language (L1) was Arabic, Portuguese or Turkish. Children were also administered standardized language tests in each of their languages to determine likely clinical status (typical development (TD) or SLI), and parents responded to a questionnaire including questions about early and current language use (bilingualism factors) and early language development (risk factors for SLI). Monolingual controls included 47 TD children and 29 children with SLI. Results were subjected to inter-group comparisons, to diagnostic accuracy calculation, and to correlation and multiple regression analyses. In accordance with previous studies, NWR and SR identified SLI in the monolingual children, yielding good to excellent diagnostic accuracy. Diagnostic accuracy in bilingual children was fair to good, generally distinguishing children likely to have SLI from children likely to have TD. Accuracy was necessarily linked to the determination of clinical status, which was based on standardized assessment in each
in cross-language and second language speech perception research: The mapping issue (the perceptual relationship of sounds of the native and the nonnative language in the mind of the native listener and the L2 learner), the perceptual and learning difficulty/ease issue (how this relationship may or may...... not cause perceptual and learning difficulty), and the plasticity issue (whether and how experience with the nonnative language affects the perceptual organization of speech sounds in the mind of L2 learners). One important general conclusion from this research is that perceptual learning is possible at all...
The working context for speech and language therapists (SLTs) delivering interventions to adults who have a learning disability has changed following the reorganization of care provision from hospitals to the community. Consequently, SLTs often deliver their care within a social model of disability through indirect intervention in collaboration with carers. However, there has been little research into how this approach works in practice. To gain insight into the working context by identifying the key factors that influence indirect SLT interventions as perceived by SLTs and by paid carers from a range of service providers. To explore the implications of the results for the delivery of indirect SLT interventions and provide direction for further research. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from an opportunistic sample of five SLTs working in Community Learning Disability Teams (CLDTs) and 12 carers from residential and day care services who had had experience of working with SLTs. The data were analysed inductively using a grounded theory framework. Two broad themes emerged for SLTs: roles and expectations, and changing carer behaviour through training. The key themes for carers were roles and values, awareness of communication needs, and motivation and opportunity to implement interventions. Four broad factors are suggested as having the potential to influence indirect interventions: diversity in the working context; possible conflict between the guiding values of SLTs and carers, particularly residential carers; collaboration and support for implementation; and SLT doubts about the effectiveness of formal carer communication training. The results add to the evidence that the delivery of indirect speech and language therapy interventions to people with learning disabilities is a complex activity demanding specialist skills from SLTs. The findings suggest that these should include expertise in professional collaborative and relational skills, and
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the document categorization task with statistical language models. Our study mainly focuses on categorization of documents in agglutinative languages. Due to the productive morphology of agglutinative languages, the number of word forms encountered in naturally occurring text is very large. From the language modeling perspective, a large vocabulary results in serious data sparseness problems. In order to cope with this drawback, previous studies in various application areas suggest modified language models based on different morphological units. It is reported that performance improvements can be achieved with these modified language models. In our document categorization experiments, we use standard word form based language models as well as other modified language models based on root words, root words and part-of-speech information, truncated word forms and character sequences. Additionally, to find an optimum parameter set, multiple tests are carried out with different language model orders and smoothing methods. Similar to previous studies on other tasks, our experimental results on categorization of Turkish documents reveal that applying linguistic preprocessing steps for language modeling provides improvements over standard language models to some extent. However, it is also observed that similar level of performance improvements can also be acquired by simpler character level or truncated word form models which are language independent.
Rodríguez Ortiz, I R
This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were interpreters). Sign language comprehension was assessed using passages of secondary level. After being exposed to the passages, the participants had to tell what they had understood about them, answer a set of related questions, and offer a title for the passage. Sign language comprehension by deaf participants was quite acceptable but not as good as that by hearing signers who, unlike deaf participants, were not only late learners of sign language as a second language but had also learned it through formal training.
SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language) educators in Gauteng regarding the ...
Rivers, William P.; Brecht, Richard D.
In honor of the 50th Anniversary of "Foreign Language Annals," and recognizing the seminal role this journal has in informing the language education profession about policies and programs, we sketch a future for advocacy for language education in the United States. Drawing on the Languages for All initiative and the work of the…
Full Text Available Second language acquisition cannot take place without having exposure to language input. With regard to this, the present research aimed at providing empirical evidence about the low and the upper-intermediate language learners’ preferred type of audiovisual programs and language proficiency development outside the classroom. To this end, 60 language learners (30 low level and 30 upper-intermediate level were asked to have exposure to their preferred types of audiovisual program(s outside the classroom and keep a diary of the amount and the type of exposure. The obtained data indicated that the low-level participants preferred cartoons and the upper-intermediate participants preferred news more. To find out which language proficiency level could improve its language proficiency significantly, a post-test was administered. The results indicated that only the upper-intermediate language learners gained significant improvement. Based on the findings, the quality of the language input should be given priority over the amount of exposure.
Language is the most important information and communication characteristics of all the human beings. Language is power ... among the Igbo. The Igbo have embraced foreign languages in place of their mother tongue (Igbo language). This
Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise
Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....
Full Text Available Language identification is widely used in machine learning, text mining, information retrieval, and speech processing. Available techniques for solving the problem of language identification do require large amount of training text that are not available for under-resourced languages which form the bulk of the World’s languages. The primary objective of this study is to propose a lexicon based algorithm which is able to perform language identification using minimal training data. Because language identification is often the first step in many natural language processing tasks, it is necessary to explore techniques that will perform language identification in the shortest possible time. Hence, the second objective of this research is to study the effect of the proposed algorithm on the run-time performance of language identification. Precision, recall, and F1 measures were used to determine the effectiveness of the proposed word length algorithm using datasets drawn from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Act in 15 languages. The experimental results show good accuracy on language identification at the document level and at the sentence level based on the available dataset. The improved algorithm also showed significant improvement in run time performance compared with the spelling checker approach.
Ask Larsen, Flemming
Language acquisition in the bodily-tactile modality is difficult to understand, describe, and support. This chapter advocates a reinterpretation of the gestural and idiosyncratic bodily-tactile communication of people with congenital deafblindness (CDB) in terms of early language acquisition...... towards Tactile Sign Language (TSL). The access to participation in complex TSL culture is crucial for language acquisition. We already know how to transfer the patterns of social interaction into the bodily-tactile modality. This is the fundation on which to build actual linguistic participation. TSL...... as a first language is presently a theoretic possibility. We need more research on how to accommodate TSL to language Development and on how to fit TSL into participation in complex cultural activities....
The languages of Klingon and Na'vi, both created for media, are also languages that have garnered much media attention throughout the course of their existence. Speakers of these languages also utilize social media and information technologies, specifically websites, in order to learn the languages and then put them into practice. While teaching a…
This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language…
Levey, Sandra; Polirstok, Susan
Language Development: Understanding Language Diversity in the Classroom offers comprehensive coverage of the language development process for pre- and in-service teachers while emphasizing the factors that further academic success in the classroom, including literacy skills, phonological awareness, and narrative. With chapters written by respected…
de Bot, Kees; Weltens, Bert
Reviews recent research on language maintenance and language loss, focusing on the loss of a second language in a first language environment, the linguistic aspects of loss, and relearning a "lost" language. An annotated bibliography discusses nine important works in the field. (43 references) (MDM)
This work brings together cutting-edge scholarship in language, education and society from all parts of the world. Celebrating the 60th birthday of Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, it is inspired by her work in minority, indigenous and immigrant education; multilingualism; linguistic human rights; and global...... language and power issues. Drawn from all parts of the world, the contributors are active in a range of scientific and professional areas including bilingual education; sociolinguistics; the sociology of education, law and language; economics and language; linguistics; sign language; racism; communication......; discourse analysis; language policy; minority issues; and language pedagogy. The book situates issues of minorities and bilingual education in broader perspectives of human rights, power and the ecology of language. It aims at a distillation of themes that are central to an understanding of language rights...
Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth
Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language. This article is part of the themed issue ‘New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences’. PMID:27872370
Smith, Kenny; Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth
Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language.This article is part of the themed issue 'New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences'. © 2016 The Authors.
. An ongoing research project tries to find out why this is the case. A preliminary result seems to be that it is not the academic motivation that starts the learning process of the local language, but once the students have stated to learn Danish, some of them also follow study courses in Danish, especially...... on offering programs rather in English than the local language. At Copenhagen Business School, 56.4% of the students at MA level followed courses in English in 2009. Many students come to Denmark from abroad, follow the English language programs offered, but are motivated to learn Danish, the local language...
To, Carol K S; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin
Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language disorders (LD). Nineteen Cantonese-speaking students aged 5;8-6;8 who were diagnosed with LD were recruited from a school that used Putonghua (an alternative Chinese dialect) as the MOI when learning Chinese language and were compared with 18 age-and-gender-matched Cantonese-speaking students with LD from a school that used Cantonese as the MOI when learning Chinese language. All the students also learned English (L2) as a subject at school. Proficiency in Cantonese was tested at the beginning and the end of the semester in Grade One in terms of: (1) grammar, (2) expressive vocabulary, (3) auditory textual comprehension, (4) word definition and (5) narration. Mixed-model ANOVAs revealed an effect of time on language proficiency indicating positive gains in both groups. Interaction effects between time and group were not significant. There was a trend that children learning Putonghua showed slightly more improvement in auditory textual comprehension. Proficiency gains were similar across groups. The study found no evidence that a multilingual learning environment hinders the language proficiency in L1 in students who have LD. © 2011 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner
Persons suffering from dementia progressively loose language skills, cognitive skills, memory function, perception, etc. Still they seem to respond to music and to interact in the music therapy setting. As part of a Ph.D.-research I have worked with 6 persons suffering from middle to last stages...... of dementia in individual music therapy. I have focused on the use of familiar songs in order to create a safe and secure setting and enhance communication and reminiscence. In the presentation I give examples of how the persons respond to the music, how the individual music therapy sessions are build up......, criteria for choosing the songs, and how a person emotionally can profit from the structured musical form....
Vaiouli, Potheini; Andreou, Georgia
Research demonstrates connections among children's music actions, their engagement abilities, and their language development. Although the link between music and the engagement abilities of young children with autism is well established, there is not enough evidence on the effectiveness of music strategies and music therapy interventions to…
Sanden, Guro Refsum
This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...
Sanden, Guro Refsum
This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...
This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness or otherwise of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy in reducing the level of general and examination anxieties with a view to fostering better academic performance in English Language among students who had failed this subject at least once. Ninety eight students in ...
The language policy is usually inferred from the language practices that characterise various spheres of life. This article attempts to show how the language policy, which primarily influences text production in the country, has nurtured translation practice. The dominating role of English sees many texts, particularly technical ...
Lombardi, Diana R.; Button, Melissa; Westra, Henny A.
How clients talk about change early in treatment has been found to be a potent predictor of their subsequent treatment success. Studies examining such client motivational language (arguments for and against change) have typically been conducted in the context of motivational interviewing for addictions. The present study examined the capacity of client motivational language to predict treatment outcomes in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety. Client early...
Macoir, Joël; Sauvageau, Vincent Martel; Boissy, Patrick; Tousignant, Marilyn; Tousignant, Michel
Although the use of telepractice in speech-language therapy for assessment purposes is well documented, its effectiveness and potential for rehabilitation in poststroke aphasia remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a remotely delivered synchronous pragmatic telespeech language therapy for improving functional communication in aphasia. A pre-/post-test design was chosen in which each participant was his or her own control. Using a telerehabilitation platform and software (Oralys TeleTherapy) based on the Promoting Aphasics' Communicative Effectiveness (PACE) approach, 20 participants with chronic poststroke aphasia received 9 speech therapy sessions over a 3-week period. Teletreatment with the PACE pragmatic rehabilitation approach led to improvements in functional communication, marked by (a) an increase in communication effectiveness, reflecting significantly improved autonomy in functional communication; (b) a decrease in communication exchange duration, meaning that the treatment made communication faster and more efficient; (c) a decrease in the number of communication acts, meaning that, after treatment, less information was needed to be efficiently understood by the communication partner; and (d) an increase in the number of different communication strategies used, meaning that the treatment fostered the use of a variety of alternative communication modes. This study provides additional arguments about the benefits of telerehabilitation for poststroke patients with aphasia. It showed that multimodal language therapy delivered through synchronous telerehabilitation had positive effects on functional communication in chronic aphasia.
The neurologic music therapy is a new scope of music therapy. Its techniques deal with dysfunctions resulting from diseases of the human nervous system. Music can be used as an alternative modality to access functions unavailable through non-musical stimulus. Processes in the brain activated by the influence of music can be generalized and transferred to non-musical functions. Therefore, in clinical practice, the translation of non-musical therapeutic exercises into analogous, isomorphic musical exercises is performed. They make use of the executive peculiarity of musical instruments and musical structures to prime, cue and coordinate movements. Among musical components, a repetitive rhythm plays a significant role. It regulates physiologic and behavioural functions through the mechanism of entrainment (synchronization of biological rhythms with musical rhythm based on acoustic resonance). It is especially relevant for patients with a deficient internal timing system in the brain. Additionally, regular rhythmic patterns facilitate memory encoding and decoding of non-musical information hence music is an efficient mnemonic tool. The music as a hierarchical, compound language of time, with its unique ability to access affective/motivational systems in the brain, provides time structures enhancing perception processes, mainly in the range of cognition, language and motor learning. It allows for emotional expression and improvement of the motivation for rehabilitation activities. The new technologies of rhythmic sensory stimulation (i.e. Binaural Beat Stimulation) or rhythmic music in combination with rhythmic light therapy appear. This multimodal forms of stimulation are used in the treatment of stroke, brain injury, dementia and other cognitive deficits. Clinical outcome studies provide evidence of the significant superiority of rehabilitation with music over the one without music.
Maya Khemlani David
Full Text Available The linguistic situation of the Sindhi language in London is examined with a view to determining whether the community is maintaining the use of its ethnic language. The Sindhi Hindus of London are a language community, which have never been researched. The language choice of the community in different domains and for a range of language functions is discussed. Both external and internal factors of language shift have weakened the linguistic and communicative competence of Sindhi speakers in the language contact situation of the United Kingdom.
Andréa Regina Nunes Misquiatti
years old - participated in the study. Subjects had diagnosis of autism (Case 1 and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (Case 2, respectively. As a procedure for data collection and analysis, a longitudinal study was carried out through a follow up of the cases during the four years of language therapy. The procedure included filmed therapy sessions, documental analysis of information contained in the patients' records regarding anamnesis, assessments and therapeutic reports, and multidisciplinary evaluations and exams. In both cases there was an improvement on visual contact, social interaction, vocabulary and symbolic play. For Case 1, there was an increase from 2.0 to 6.2 communicative acts per minute; for Case 2, an increase from 3.5 to 8.0 acts. Both subjects demonstrated predominance of the verbal communicative mean and greater variety of communicative functions. Other factors influenced these results, such as the intellectual deficiency, the family dynamics, the conflicts on the relationship between the brothers and the school environment in which they were placed. The study confirmed the relevance of the speech-language pathologist in interventions of pervasive developmental disorders, along with multidisciplinary teams, for the discussion of diagnoses and of the most appropriate procedures. Longitudinal studies can contribute for more detailed and reliable analysis of therapeutic intervention in these cases, in order to clarify gaps existent in literature and to support the role of clinical speech-language pathologists.
Wake, Melissa; Levickis, Penny; Tobin, Sherryn; Gold, Lisa; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Goldfeld, Sharon; Zens, Naomi; Le, Ha N D; Law, James; Reilly, Sheena
We have previously shown short-term benefits to phonology, letter knowledge, and possibly expressive language from systematically ascertaining language delay at age 4 years followed by the Language for Learning intervention. Here, we report the trial's definitive 6-year outcomes. Randomized trial nested in a population-based ascertainment. Children with language scores >1.25 SD below the mean at age 4 were randomized, with intervention children receiving 18 1-hour home-based therapy sessions. Primary outcome was receptive/expressive language. Secondary outcomes were phonological, receptive vocabulary, literacy, and narrative skills; parent-reported pragmatic language, behavior, and health-related quality of life; costs of intervention; and health service use. For intention-to-treat analyses, trial arms were compared using linear regression models. Of 1464 children assessed at age 4, 266 were eligible and 200 randomized; 90% and 82% of intervention and control children were retained respectively. By age 6, mean language scores had normalized, but there was little evidence of a treatment effect for receptive (adjusted mean difference 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.2 to 5.7; P = .20) or expressive (0.8; 95% CI -1.6 to 3.2; P = .49) language. Of the secondary outcomes, only phonological awareness skills (effect size 0.36; 95% CI 0.08-0.65; P = .01) showed benefit. Costs were higher for intervention families (mean difference AU$4276; 95% CI: $3424 to $5128). Population-based intervention targeting 4-year-old language delay was feasible but did not have lasting impacts on language, possibly reflecting resolution in both groups. Long-term literacy benefits remain possible but must be weighed against its cost. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Elaine Ferreira do Vale Borges
Full Text Available In this article, I intend to conduct a short literature review and discussion about paradigm shift in language teaching and language teacher education from Cartesian to the complexity paradigm. For that, I use the Kuhnian notion of scientific revolution to present a short compilation of works related to paradigm shift in different sciences, including psychology, linguistics and, more emphatically, applied linguistics. The main proposal is to show the evolutions of paradigm shift in language and social sciences and its impact on the emergence of the complexity paradigm in language teaching and language teacher education fields.
Ting, Su-Hie; Ling, Teck-Yee
The study examines the sustainability status of Sarawak indigenous languages through a survey on adolescents' language use using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS). The specific aspects examined were: the presence of ethnic languages in relation to other languages in selected domains of language use; the adolescents'…
IntroductionReturn the class to the students and let the students be the masters of the class.This is what I have changed during the last three years in my class.I have been using Communicative Language Teaching method instead of Grammar Translation method.In the Grammar Translation method, students only study grammar and learn lists of words and then translate what they have learned into Chinese.In the classroom,the teacher uses the students' first language to explain the grammar and vocabulary in the text and then helps the students to translate it.This method is based on the idea that language is made up of words and that language changes according to the grammar rules.
Cowley, Stephen; Gahrn-Andersen, Rasmus
Building on a distributed perspective, the Special Issue develops Alain Berthoz's concept of simplexity. By so doing, neurophysiology is used to reach beyond observable and, specifically, 1st-order languaging. While simplexity clarifies how language uses perception/action, a community's ‘lexicon......’ (a linguistic 2nd order) also shapes human powers. People use global constraints to make and construe wordings and bring a social/individual duality to human living. Within a field of perception-action-language, the phenomenology of ‘words’ and ‘things’ drives people to sustain their own experience....... Simplex tricks used in building bodies co-function with action that grants humans access to en-natured culture where, together, they build human knowing....
Evaluating evidence-based health care teaching and learning in the undergraduate human nutrition; occupational therapy; physiotherapy; and speech, language and hearing therapy programs at a sub-Saharan African academic institution.
Schoonees, Anel; Rohwer, Anke; Young, Taryn
It is important that all undergraduate healthcare students are equipped with evidence-based health care (EBHC) knowledge and skills to encourage evidence-informed decision-making after graduation. We assessed EBHC teaching and learning in undergraduate human nutrition (HN); occupational therapy (OT); physiotherapy (PT); and speech, language and hearing therapy (SPLH) programs at a sub-Saharan African university. We used methodological triangulation to obtain a comprehensive understanding of EBHC teaching and learning: (1) through a document review of module guides, we identified learning outcomes related to pre-specified EBHC competencies; we conducted (2) focus group discussions and interviews of lecturers to obtain their perspectives on EBHC and on EBHC teaching and learning; and we (3) invited final year students (2013) and 2012 graduates to complete an online survey on EBHC attitudes, self-perceived EBHC competence, and their experience of EBHC teaching and learning. We reviewed all module outlines (n = 89) from HN, PT and SLHT. The OT curriculum was being revised at that time and could not be included. Six lecturers each from HN and OT, and five lecturers each from PT and SLHT participated in the focus groups. Thirty percent (53/176) of invited students responded to the survey. EBHC competencies were addressed to varying degrees in the four programs, although EBHC teaching and learning mostly occurred implicitly. Learning outcomes referring to EBHC focused on enabling competencies (e.g., critical thinking, biostatistics, epidemiology) and were concentrated in theoretical modules. Key competencies (e.g., asking questions, searching databases, critical appraisal) were rarely addressed explicitly. Students felt that EBHC learning should be integrated throughout the four year study period to allow for repetition, consolidation and application of knowledge and skills. Lecturers highlighted several challenges to teaching and practising EBHC, including lack of
Sushil Kumar*1 & Richa Aggarwal2
Language is a communication tool through which we can communicate with each other like Hindi, English etc any other language. So if we want to communicate with computer, we need computer programming languages. So in computer we have two types of languages, one is low level language which is easily understood by computer but difficult to learn. Second is high level language which is same like English language, not understood by computer but easy to learn. Python is a high level language. This...
Full Text Available There is a need for evidence based interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD to limit the life-long, psychosocial impact of pragmatic language impairments. This systematic review identified 22 studies reporting on 20 pragmatic language interventions for children with ASD aged 0-18 years. The characteristics of each study, components of the interventions, and the methodological quality of each study were reviewed. Meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effectiveness of 15 interventions. Results revealed some promising approaches, indicating that active inclusion of the child and parent in the intervention was a significant mediator of intervention effect. Participant age, therapy setting or modality were not significant mediators between the interventions and measures of pragmatic language. The long-term effects of these interventions and the generalisation of learning to new contexts is largely unknown. Implications for clinical practice and directions for future research are discussed.
Jennifer N. Gelinas, MD, PhD
Conclusions: Cerebellar language activation occurs in homologous regions of Crus I/II contralateral to cerebral language activation in patients with both right and left cerebral language dominance. Cerebellar language laterality could contribute to comprehensive pre-operative evaluation of language lateralization in pediatric epilepsy surgery patients. Our data suggest that patients with atypical cerebellar language activation are at risk for having atypical cerebral language organization.
with Danish. While previous studies of English as an international language have tended to focus on the consequences for the local language, this article also includes a discussion of the role of English in relation to other international languages. English is constructed as the international language......With the spread of English as a global language, concerns have been voiced over the impact of English on local languages. This article presents results from an ethnographic study of language ideologies in a Danish workplace with a particular focus on ideologies of English in relation to the local...... language and to other foreign languages. In this international company, conflicting ideologies construct the local language Danish on the one hand as the natural language in Denmark, but as unimportant compared to English on the other hand. English is constructed as prestigious and powerful in contrast...
Sanden, Guro Refsum
This paper offers a review of existing literature on the topic of language management tools – the means by which language is managed – in multilingual organisations. By drawing on a combination of sociolinguistics and international business and management studies, a new taxonomy of language...... management tools is proposed, differentiating between three categories of tools. Firstly, corporate policies are the deliberate control of issues pertaining to language and communication developed at the managerial level of a firm. Secondly, corporate measures are the planned activities the firm’s leadership...... may deploy in order to address the language needs of the organisation. Finally, front-line practices refer to the use of informal, emergent language management tools available to staff members. The language management tools taxonomy provides a framework for operationalising the management of language...
Laborda, Jesus Garcia
This article points out the changes in organization, students and language learning that language trips, as contrasted with educational trips (of which language trips are a subgroup) have gone through in the last years. The article emphasizes the need to differentiate between language trips and language tourism based on issues of additional…
Pham, Giang; Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn
. Differences in rates of change between languages and between treatment conditions are discussed in terms of social and cognitive processes that impact children's language systems. The main findings have at least two implications for clinical practice: (1) therapy that emphasizes focused practice in language and cognitive processing skills may promote gains in children's language learning abilities; and (2) bilingual treatment does not detract from outcomes in English, the language of the majority community for study participants. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Mauritius is a multilingual country with English, French and Creole as the main languages, and several ancestral languages which are mainly used for religious ceremonies. Most children speak Creole at home and learn English, French and one ancestral language in the first year of primary school. The educational dropout rate is 40-50% after primary…
Full Text Available We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area who were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and experiences regarding ESOL learners were described. Some participant educators at schools that were not former Model C schools had large classes, including large proportions of ESOL learners. Furthermore, there was a shortage of educators who were able to speak isiXhosa, the most frequently occurring first (or home language of the region's ESOL learners. Challenges faced by educators when teaching ESOL learners included learners' academic and socio-emotional difficulties and a lack of parent involvement in their children's education. Participant educators indicated a need for departmental, professional and parental support, and additional training and resources. Implications and recommendations for speech-language therapist and educator collaborations and speech-language therapists' participation in educator training were identified.
Joelton Duarte de Santana
Full Text Available Language as a social element is constitutive to every human being. Language gives each person, as well as to his or her own linguistic community, an individual and peculiar way to figure out the world and its surroundings. Language is influenced by several processes, including sociocultural and historical ones. If we say that each language may allow its speaker to do a very own world reading, a question about its language behavior in other continents arises. This way we were able to understand how sociocultural influences could improve the whole cultural identity construction process. Both defining linguistic communities and specifying social groups, language becomes a symbolic space of identification. The movie – Language- lives In Portuguese reunites Portuguese speakers reports around the world aiming to illustrate Portuguese language as a nations identity construction, autoafirmation and legitimation factor through social, cultural and historic processes. This study is based on the belief in such a kind of dialogism between Language and Culture. The sociolinguistic studies nowadays do not intend, as they used to, understanding or describing structural language aspects and very individuals ones, but especially to reflect upon relations among subject, language, identity, culture and history.
Sparks, Richard L; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy; Javorsky, James
Fifty-four students were tested at specific time intervals over 10 years to determine best native language (NL) predictors of oral and written foreign language (FL) proficiency and FL aptitude. All participants completed two years of Spanish, French, or German. Each was administered measures of NL literacy, oral language, and cognitive ability in elementary school. A measure of FL aptitude was administered at the beginning of ninth grade and FL proficiency was evaluated at the end of the 10th grade. Among the variables, NL literacy measures were the best predictors of FL proficiency, and NL achievement and general (verbal) intelligence were strong predictors of FL aptitude. Results suggest that indices of NL literacy as early as first grade are related to FL proficiency and FL aptitude nine and 10 years later. Findings provide strong support for connections between L1 and L2 skills, and for speculation that "lower level" skills in phonological processing are important for written language development and oral proficiency in a FL.
Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically,…
Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera F.
There has been a growing concern about how best to address the needs of dual language learners with language impairments. Most dual language programmes have been evaluated with children with typical language development (TLD) and as a result, very little is known about the effect of these programmes on children with language disabilities. The…
Acioly, Marcus Andre; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Zimmermann, Christoph; Erb, Michael; Heckl, Stefan; Tatagiba, Marcos
The left hemisphere is generally considered to harbor language functions. Atypical cortical language lateralization is mainly demonstrated in left-handed and ambidextrous individuals, whereas dissociated language functions have been reported in association with brain injuries as a part of the reorganization process. We present a thoughtful discussion on the underlying mechanisms of dissociated language functions through an illustrative case of dissociated expressive language. A 31-year-old left-handed woman presented with a recurrent left frontal glioma. Preoperative language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) panel revealed right-sided dominance for two different language tasks (verbal fluency and visual naming), and the word chain task demonstrated maximal activation in the left hemisphere at the posterior margin of the tumor. The patient was operated on awake to assess language functions intraoperatively. Preoperative fMRI findings were confirmed revealing a task-specific dissociation of expressive language functions. Surgical resection was taken to the functional boundaries. Postoperatively, no language dysfunction occurred. Dissociated language functions are prone to occur in long-standing lesions. Different patterns of dissociation may be encountered due to interindividual particularities and cerebral plasticity. The presented patient is unique by demonstrating new insight into expressive language dissociation, emphasizing the role of a preoperative language fMRI panel and the capability of intraoperative language mapping for identifying special language networks. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Scott, Michael L
Thoroughly updated to reflect the most current developments in language design and implementation, the second edition*Addresses key developments in programming language design:+ Finalized C99 standard+ Java 5+ C# 2.0+ Java concurrency package (JSR 166) and comparable mechanisms in C#+ Java and C# generics*Introduces and discusses scripting languages throughout the book and in an entire new chapter that covers:+ Application domains: shell languages, text processing and report generation, mathematics and statistics, "glue" languages and general purpose scripting, extension languages, scripting t
Van Staden, Annalene
Full Text Available This article argues the importance of allowing deaf children to acquire sign language from an early age. It demonstrates firstly that the critical/sensitive period hypothesis for language acquisition can be applied to specific language aspects of spoken language as well as sign languages (i.e. phonology, grammatical processing and syntax. This makes early diagnosis and early intervention of crucial importance. Moreover, research findings presented in this article demonstrate the advantage that sign language offers in the early years of a deaf child’s life by comparing the language development milestones of deaf learners exposed to sign language from birth to those of late-signers, orally trained deaf learners and hearing learners exposed to spoken language. The controversy over the best medium of instruction for deaf learners is briefly discussed, with emphasis placed on the possible value of bilingual-bicultural programmes to facilitate the development of deaf learners’ literacy skills. Finally, this paper concludes with a discussion of the implications/recommendations of sign language teaching and Deaf education in South Africa.
Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne
This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports.
Full Text Available Taking into account severa1 limitations of communicative language teaching (CLT, this paper calls for the need to consider research on language use and learning through communication as a basis for language teaching. It will be argued that a reflective approach towards language teaching and learning might be generated, which is explained in terms of the need to develop a context-sensitive pedagogy and in terms of teachers' and learners' development.
Archer, S. K.; Wellwood, I.; Smith, C. H.; Newham, D. J.
Background: Dysphagia is common after stroke, leading to adverse outcome. There is a paucity of high-quality evidence for dysphagia therapy, thus making it difficult to determine the best approaches to treatment. Clinical decisions are often based on usual practice, however no formal method of monitoring practice patterns exists. Aims: To…
Geertsema, Salomé; Hyman, Charene; van Deventer, Chantelle
SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language) educators in Gauteng regarding the possible influence of SMS language on…
Lopez, Minda Morren
This study explores the language ideologies of young children in a Spanish/English dual language programme in the USA. Recent studies of language ideologies in education have centred primarily on adults or older students, but this study focuses on young children from varied language backgrounds. By analysing discussions centred on children's…
Kandler, Anne; Unger, Roman; Steele, James
'Language shift' is the process whereby members of a community in which more than one language is spoken abandon their original vernacular language in favour of another. The historical shifts to English by Celtic language speakers of Britain and Ireland are particularly well-studied examples for which good census data exist for the most recent 100-120 years in many areas where Celtic languages were once the prevailing vernaculars. We model the dynamics of language shift as a competition process in which the numbers of speakers of each language (both monolingual and bilingual) vary as a function both of internal recruitment (as the net outcome of birth, death, immigration and emigration rates of native speakers), and of gains and losses owing to language shift. We examine two models: a basic model in which bilingualism is simply the transitional state for households moving between alternative monolingual states, and a diglossia model in which there is an additional demand for the endangered language as the preferred medium of communication in some restricted sociolinguistic domain, superimposed on the basic shift dynamics. Fitting our models to census data, we successfully reproduce the demographic trajectories of both languages over the past century. We estimate the rates of recruitment of new Scottish Gaelic speakers that would be required each year (for instance, through school education) to counteract the 'natural wastage' as households with one or more Gaelic speakers fail to transmit the language to the next generation informally, for different rates of loss during informal intergenerational transmission.
Kandler, Anne; Unger, Roman; Steele, James
‘Language shift’ is the process whereby members of a community in which more than one language is spoken abandon their original vernacular language in favour of another. The historical shifts to English by Celtic language speakers of Britain and Ireland are particularly well-studied examples for which good census data exist for the most recent 100–120 years in many areas where Celtic languages were once the prevailing vernaculars. We model the dynamics of language shift as a competition process in which the numbers of speakers of each language (both monolingual and bilingual) vary as a function both of internal recruitment (as the net outcome of birth, death, immigration and emigration rates of native speakers), and of gains and losses owing to language shift. We examine two models: a basic model in which bilingualism is simply the transitional state for households moving between alternative monolingual states, and a diglossia model in which there is an additional demand for the endangered language as the preferred medium of communication in some restricted sociolinguistic domain, superimposed on the basic shift dynamics. Fitting our models to census data, we successfully reproduce the demographic trajectories of both languages over the past century. We estimate the rates of recruitment of new Scottish Gaelic speakers that would be required each year (for instance, through school education) to counteract the ‘natural wastage’ as households with one or more Gaelic speakers fail to transmit the language to the next generation informally, for different rates of loss during informal intergenerational transmission. PMID:21041210
Ekman, Torbjörn; Mechlenborg, Peter; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh
Virtual machines raise the abstraction level of the execution environment at the cost of restricting the set of supported languages. Moreover, the ability of a language implementation to integrate with other languages hosted on the same virtual machine typically constrains the features...... of the language. In this paper, we present a highly flexible yet efficient approach to hosting multiple programming languages on an object-oriented virtual machine. Our approach is based on extending the interface of each class with language-specific wrapper methods, offering each language a tailored view...... of a given class. This approach can be deployed both on a statically typed virtual machine, such as the JVM, and on a dynamic virtual machine, such as a Smalltalk virtual machine. We have implemented our approach to language interoperability on top of a prototype virtual machine for embedded systems based...
Background: The inverse-care law suggests that fewer healthcare resources are available in deprived areas where health needs are greatest. Aims: To examine the provision of paediatric speech and language services across London boroughs and to relate provision to the level of deprivation of the boroughs. Methods & Procedures: Information on the…
Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Mingant, Anne
Although aphasia rehabilitation should include significant others, it is currently unknown how this recommendation is adopted in speech-language therapy practice. Speech-language therapists' (SLTs) experience of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation is also understudied, yet a better understanding of clinical reality would be necessary to facilitate implementation of best evidence pertaining to family interventions. To explore the process through which SLTs work with significant others of people with aphasia in rehabilitation settings. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight SLTs who had been working with persons with aphasia in rehabilitation centres for at least 1 year. Grounded theory principles were applied in analysing interview transcripts. A theoretical model was developed representing SLTs' process of working with significant others of persons with aphasia in rehabilitation. Including significant others was perceived as challenging, yet a bonus to their fundamental patient-centred approach. Basic interventions with significant others when they were available included information sharing. If necessary, significant others were referred to social workers or psychologists or the participants collaborated with those professionals. Participants rarely and only under specific conditions provided significant others with language exercises or trained them to communicate better with the aphasic person. As a result, even if participants felt satisfied with their efforts to offer family and friends interventions, they also had unachieved ideals, such as having more frequent contacts with significant others. If SLTs perceived work with significant others as a feasible necessity, rather than as a challenging bonus, they could be more inclined to include family and friends within therapy with the aim to improve their communication with the person with aphasia. SLTs could also be more satisfied with their practice. In order to
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explicate teaching of Russian as a foreign language throughout history: to identify the main achievements of the field, to determine methods and materials used in this area, to trace the developing process from the very begging till present days, when teaching Russian language as a foreign language became a separate specific discipline. To achieve the set purposes mentioned above the known nowadays studies on the field of teaching and learning Russian as a foreign language were investigated. Basing on obtained sources, the history of teaching Russian language as a foreign language was divided into two periods: before and after becoming separate discipline. In the article not only the main features, such as theories, methods, sources of each period were studied, but also history of teaching Russian language as a foreign language was evaluated as a unified process. Keywords: Teaching-Learning activities, Russian as a Foreign Language, Historical linguistic process
Full Text Available The paper focuses on Slovene - English language contact and the potential language change resulting from it. Both the immigrant context (the U.S. and Canada and Slovenia, where direct and indirect language contact can be observed respectively, are examined from two perspectives: social on the one hand and linguistic on the other. In the case of Slovene Americans and Canadians the emphasis is on language maintenance and shift, and on the relationship between mother tongue preservation and ethnic awareness. The linguistic section examines different types of bilingual discourse (borrowing, code switching, showing how the Slovene inflectional system in particular is being increasingly generalized, simplified and reduced, and how Slovene word order is gradually beginning to resemble that of English. In the case of Slovenia we are witnessing an unprecedented surge in the influence of English on Slovene, especially in the media (both classic and electronic, advertising, science, and the language of the young. This influence will be discussed on a number of levels, such as lexical, syntactic and intercultural, and illustrated by relevant examples.
Lee, Myeong Soo; Kim, Jong-In; Ernst, Edzard
We aimed to assess the effectiveness of massage as a treatment option for autism. We searched the following electronic databases using the time of their inception through March 2010: MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Health Technology Assessment, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, 6 Korean medical databases (KSI, DBpia, KISTEP, RISS, KoreaMed, and National Digital Library), China Academic Journal (through China National Knowledge Infrastructure), and 3 Japanese medical databases (Journal@rchive, Science Links Japan, and Japan Science & Technology link). The search phrase used was "(massage OR touch OR acupressure) AND (autistic OR autism OR Asperger's syndrome OR pervasive developmental disorder)." The references in all located articles were also searched. No language restrictions were imposed. Prospective controlled clinical studies of any type of massage therapy for autistic patients were included. Trials in which massage was part of a complex intervention were also included. Case studies, case series, qualitative studies, uncontrolled trials, studies that failed to provide detailed results, and trials that compared one type of massage with another were excluded. All articles were read by 2 independent reviewers (M.S.L. and J-I.K.), who extracted data from the articles according to predefined criteria. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane classification. Of 132 articles, only 6 studies met our inclusion criteria. One randomized clinical trial found that massage plus conventional language therapy was superior to conventional language therapy alone for symptom severity (P firm conclusions cannot be drawn. Future, more rigorous randomized clinical trials seem to be warranted. © Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Hale, Ken; And Others
Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)
Schuit, J.; Baker, A.; Pfau, R.
Sign language typology is a fairly new research field and typological classifications have yet to be established. For spoken languages, these classifications are generally based on typological parameters; it would thus be desirable to establish these for sign languages. In this paper, different
The article is devoted to the description and characterizing of language schools and foreign language studying programs in Portugal. The relevance of language learning for professional, mobility, self-developing means is shown. The main courses and programs are observed and the advantages and disadvantages of each of them are given. It is stated that Portuguese courses mostly follow the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. A small synopsis of the abilities for each level is p...
Cirillo, Michelle; Bruna, Katherine Richardson; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth
In this article, we describe aspects of mathematical language that could be problematic to English-language learners, provide recommendations for teaching English-language learners, and suggest activities intended to foster language development in mathematics. (Contains 1 figure.)
Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Vamvakas, George; Gooch, Debbie; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew
Language development has been characterised by significant individual stability from school entry. However, the extent to which trajectories of language growth vary in children with language disorder as a function of co-occurring developmental challenges is a question of theoretical import, with implications for service provision. SCALES employed a population-based survey design with sample weighting procedures to estimate growth in core language skills over the first three years of school. A stratified sample (n = 529) received comprehensive assessment of language, nonverbal IQ, and social, emotional and behavioural difficulties at 5-6 years of age and 95% of the sample (n = 499) were assessed again at ages 7-8. Language growth was measured using both raw and standard scores in children with typical development, children with language disorder of unknown origin, and children with language disorders associated with a known clinical condition and/or intellectual disability. Overall, language was stable at the individual level (estimated ICC = 0.95) over the first three years of school. Linear mixed effects models highlighted steady growth in language raw scores across all three groups, including those with multiple developmental challenges. There was little evidence, however, that children with language disorders were narrowing the gap with peers (z-scores). Adjusted models indicated that while nonverbal ability, socioeconomic status and social, emotional and behavioural deficits predicted initial language score (intercept), none predicted language growth (slope). These findings corroborate previous studies suggesting stable language trajectories after ages 5-6 years, but add considerably to previous work by demonstrating similar developmental patterns in children with additional nonverbal cognitive deficits, social, emotional, and behavioural challenges, social disadvantage or clinical diagnoses. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and
Lauridsen, Karen M.
Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....
Language as a means of communication conceives and transmits information. To perform this unique role, language should be devoid of any misconception. Language as speech and writing depends on some features to be relevant during communication exercise. Such features are today advertently or inadvertently ...
de Vos, C.; Pfau, R.
Since the 1990s, the field of sign language typology has shown that sign languages exhibit typological variation at all relevant levels of linguistic description. These initial typological comparisons were heavily skewed toward the urban sign languages of developed countries, mostly in the Western
Abigail R. Bradshaw
Full Text Available Language lateralisation refers to the phenomenon in which one hemisphere (typically the left shows greater involvement in language functions than the other. Measurement of laterality is of interest both to researchers investigating the neural organisation of the language system and to clinicians needing to establish an individual’s hemispheric dominance for language prior to surgery, as in patients with intractable epilepsy. Recently, there has been increasing awareness of the possibility that different language processes may develop hemispheric lateralisation independently, and to varying degrees. However, it is not always clear whether differences in laterality across language tasks with fMRI are reflective of meaningful variation in hemispheric lateralisation, or simply of trivial methodological differences between paradigms. This systematic review aims to assess different language tasks in terms of the strength, reliability and robustness of the laterality measurements they yield with fMRI, to look at variability that is both dependent and independent of aspects of study design, such as the baseline task, region of interest, and modality of the stimuli. Recommendations are made that can be used to guide task design; however, this review predominantly highlights that the current high level of methodological variability in language paradigms prevents conclusions as to how different language functions may lateralise independently. We conclude with suggestions for future research using tasks that engage distinct aspects of language functioning, whilst being closely matched on non-linguistic aspects of task design (e.g., stimuli, task timings etc; such research could produce more reliable and conclusive insights into language lateralisation. This systematic review was registered as a protocol on Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/5vmpt/.
Full Text Available Current views about language are dominated by the idea of arbitrary connections between linguistic form and meaning. However, if we look beyond the more familiar Indo-European languages and also include both spoken and signed language modalities, we find that motivated, iconic form-meaning mappings are, in fact, pervasive in language. In this paper, we review the different types of iconic mappings that characterize languages in both modalities, including the predominantly visually iconic mappings in signed languages. Having shown that iconic mapping are present across languages, we then proceed to review evidence showing that language users (signers and speakers exploit iconicity in language processing and language acquisition. While not discounting the presence and importance of arbitrariness in language, we put forward the idea that iconicity need also be recognized as a general property of language, which may serve the function of reducing the gap between linguistic form and conceptual representation to allow the language system to hook up to motor and perceptual experience.
There has been growing interest by British policy-makers in the importance of acknowledging the role of migrant children's background in their educational progress. Therefore, this article draws on studies of language-ethnicity and of language-religion to understand the linguistic and the religious heritage of four groups of Brazilian migrants in…
This study investigated whether there was a correlation between first language proficiency as measured by the Mississippi Curriculum Test (MCT II) Reading and Language Arts and foreign language proficiency as measured by the French Language Proficiency Test. Data for the independent variable, first language proficiency, was collected from the…
Chan, Jim Yee Him
This study examines Hong Kong major stakeholders' (secondary students, university students, teachers and professionals) perceptions of language variation, English language teaching (ELT) and language use in their everyday communication via a large-scale questionnaire survey (N = 1893). Based on principal components analysis of the questionnaire…
Novia Tri Febriani
Full Text Available Language learning belief and language learning strategies are two essential predictors that have significant effect toward students’ language proficiency. Learners’ belief is dealing with what comes from inside the learners in learning the language, such as foreign language aptitude; difficulty of language learning; nature of language learning; learning and communication strategies; and motivation. Meanwhile, language learning strategies are learners’ plan in achieving certain goals or mastering the target language. A preliminary research was conducted in order to find what strategy mostly used by the learners. It turned out that the strategy mostly used by them was metacognitive strategies. Thus, this study aims to investigate about the correlation between metacognitive strategies and certain belief’ variables in students’ language learning which are foreign language aptitude and motivation. Moreover, twenty postgraduate students of English education department participated in this study. This study used correlational research, in which the BALLI (Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory and SILL (Strategies Inventory for Language Learners questionnaires were adopted as the instruments in collecting the data. The findings of this study indicated that there is negative linear correlation between metacognitive strategy and foreign language aptitude (rXY = -0,049 while there is significant positive linear correlation between metacognitive and motivation (rXY =+0,79 in students’ language learning. Furthermore, this study also provide some recommendations, which is it is expected that there will be more researches use studies using different respondents with various contexts. Secondly, the further research will use both of quantitative and qualitative data relating to this issue in order to make a more accurate data.
احمدی ، شیخی احمدی ، شیخی
Like sentences, combination of words is the main part of syntax in Persian language as well as in Russian language and plays an important role in sentence structures of these languages. Combination of words in Russian language is divided into three categories: verbal combinations, nominal and adverbial combinations. The writers of this article have studied combination of verbs in Russian language and their translation in Persian language.
Full Text Available This study investigates the performance of 22 monolingual and 54 bilingual children with and without specific language impairment (SLI, in a non-word repetition task (NWRT and a sentence repetition task (SRT. Both tasks were constructed according to the principles for LITMUS tools (Language Impairment Testing in Multilingual Settings developed within COST Action IS0804 and incorporated phonological or syntactic structures that are linguistically complex and have been shown to be difficult for children with SLI across languages. For phonology these are in particular (nonwords containing consonant clusters. In morphosyntax, complexity has been attributed to factors such as embedding and/or syntactic movement. Tasks focusing on such structures are expected to identify SLI in bilinguals across language combinations. This is notoriously difficult because structures that are problematic for typically developing bilinguals (BiTDs and monolingual children with SLI (MoSLI often overlap. We show that the NWRT and the SRT are reliable tools for identification of SLI in bilingual contexts. However, interpretation of the performance of bilingual children depends on background information as provided by parental questionnaires. To evaluate the accuracy of our tasks, we recruited children in ordinary kindergartens or schools and in speech language therapy centers and verified their status with a battery of standardized language tests, assessing bilingual children in both their languages. We consider a bilingual child language impaired if she shows impairments in two language domains in both her languages. For assessment, we used tests normed for monolinguals (with one exception and adjusted the norms for bilingualism and for language dominance. This procedure established the following groups: 10 typical monolinguals (MoTD, 12 MoSLI, 46 BiTD, and 8 bilingual children with SLI (BiSLI. Our results show that both tasks target relevant structures: monolingual
Full Text Available Aspects of the discourse of 5 language-impaired children and 5 children with no language impairment, aged approximately 9 years, were compared. A film and a story sequence were utilised to elicit narratives on which, measures of cohesion, tense and pronouns were appraised. Measures of cohesion refer to the ability to indicate appropriately the relations of meaning with regard to situational context. Measures of tense include aspects of tense range and tense continuity. Measures of pronouns refer to the anaphoric use of pronouns with non-ambiguous referents. The group of language-impaired children was found to be significantly poorer on measures of cohesion and pronominal usage than the normal children, whereas a significant difference between the two groups was not revealed on measures of tense. Possible factors accounting for these findings were discussed and implications for the diagnosis and therapy of the older language-impaired child were considered.
Full Text Available SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language educators in Gauteng regarding the possible influence of SMS language on certain aspects of learners' written language skills. If an influence was perceived by the educators, their perceptions regarding the degree and nature of the influence were also explored. A quantitative research design, utilising a questionnaire, was employed. The sample of participants comprised 22 educators employed at independent secondaryschools within Gauteng, South Africa. The results indicated that the majority of educators viewed SMS language as having a negative influence on the written language skills of Grade 8 and 9 learners. The influence was perceived as occurring in the learners' spelling, punctuation, and sentence length. A further finding was that the majority of educators address the negative influences of SMS language when encountered in written tasks.
Adoniou, Misty; Qing, Yi
There is a correlation between language proficiency and achievement in mathematics (Riordain & O'Donoghue, 2009), and this is particularly evident for children who speak English as an additional language or dialect. More effort needs to be made in mathematics classrooms to develop cognitive competencies, including the ability to decode and…
Fernanda Marafiga Wiethan
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a eficiência da abordagem grupal com mães de sujeitos com distúrbios de linguagem para promover mudanças na interação dialógica da díade mãe-filho. Fizeram parte do estudo quatro díades mãe-criança. Os procedimentos constituíram-se de entrevista inicial com as mães e filmagem das díades em situação de interação antes e após a intervenção terapêutica, para interpretação do discurso materno e da atividade dialógica, bem como verificação da eficácia das sessões em grupo. O grupo terapêutico constituiu-se de oito encontros com as mães destas crianças, nos quais se discutiram temas variados acerca do desenvolvimento infantil. Os resultados mostraram que a intervenção provocou melhorias na interação mãe-filho. A intervenção terapêutica grupal auxiliou as mães no exercício da função materna, dando acolhimento às suas demandas, mostrando-se também, uma alternativa importante em clínicas do sistema público de saúde, à medida que pode reduzir a espera para atendimento fonoaudiológico.The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a group therapy approach with mothers of subjects with language impairment to promote changes in the dialogic interaction of the mother-child dyad. Four mother-child dyads participated in this study. The procedures were an initial interview with the mothers and filming of the dyads engaged in an interaction situation before and after therapeutic intervention, in order to interpret the mother's speech and the dialogic activity, as well as to verify the efficacy of group sessions. Group therapy consisted of eight meetings with the mothers, in which varied issues regarding child development were discussed. The results showed that the intervention improved mother-child interaction. The group therapy approach not only helped mothers in their role, welcoming their demands, but was also an important alternative in clinics of the public
Full Text Available Foreign Language Anxiety (FLA can be a crippling condition for many students, preventing them from taking an active part in the classroom, and also retarding their L2 use in wider communicative situations. Providing learners with the tools to overcome anxiety on an individual basis is an area which needs further investigation. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT is a widespread counselling practice used to treat anxieties. It shares similarities with some techniques employed in Advising in Language Learning (ALL for helping students with language goals, and it is worthwhile investigating and raising awareness of how it can be used for FLA. The article describes major characteristics of FLA and also CBT, and then describes four functions which CBT and ALL share: goal-setting, guided discovery, Socratic questioning and use of reflection. Preliminary research also demonstrates how some of the practices associated with CBT could be applied by Learning Advisors to help students to overcome FLA.
Dooly, Melinda; Masats, Dolors
This state-of-the-art review provides a critical overview of research publications in Spain in the last ten years in three areas of teaching and learning foreign languages (especially English): context and language integrated learning (CLIL), young language learners (YLL), and technology-enhanced language learning (TELL). These three domains have…
Muro, Joel H.; Muro, Lilia Lamar; Rose, Katherine Kensinger; Webster, Lindsey; Allen, Cassie
The communication process between care providers and children can, at times, be complex. Young children typically lack the verbal language necessary for complex emotional expression. In this article, the authors contend that using some basic "child centered play therapy" (CCPT) techniques would be beneficial in enhancing communicative…
Full Text Available Problem Statement: EFL learners are rarely given opportunities to interact with native speakers and “…to do something with a language”. In Turkish settings, language learners mostly complain that they do not have enough opportunities to interact with native speakers, and class hours are too limited to acquire a language and more importantly they are not taught expressions that help them express themselves in daily contexts.Purpose of Study: This study aimed at investigating EFL (English as a Foreign Language learners’ experiences in a Language Exchange Community, namely xLingo.Method: 16 students from a state university spent time on language exchange communities. The researcher met these students once a week to make sure that everything was going fine. The students used xLingo for almost six months. The researcher interviewed them through the five questions that were earlier developed and piloted by the researcher himself.Findings and Results: The findings mostly focused on four aspects namely language development, autonomy, culture and self-confidence. Conclusions and Recommendations: Given the challenges Turkish EFL learners have to face in the process of language learning, language exchange communities are believed to open up more possibilities for language learners to get more comprehensible input and to interact with more native speakers and more importantly to do something with a language. In order to make best use of these communities, it is a mandatory step that language teachers be introduced to the concept along with practical applications and that these communities should be integrated into language testing system.
Pham, Giang; Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn
to examine longer-term treatment effects for bilingual school-age children with PLI. Differences in rates of change between languages and between treatment conditions are discussed in terms of social and cognitive processes that impact children’s language systems. The main findings have at least two implications for clinical practice: (1) therapy that emphasizes focused practice in language and cognitive processing skills may promote gains in children’s language learning abilities; and (2) bilingual treatment does not detract from outcomes in English, the language of the majority community for study participants. PMID:25134887
Mahyara Francini Jacob
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drug use during pregnancy is a well-known risk factor for the manifestation of speech-language disabilities. However, the necessity of studies directed towards drug use and its influence on interventional speech process in cases of alterations of child language and fluency is observed. In this study, clinical history data are presented as well as pre and post-assessment tests (Speech and Language and the description of an interventional process of a six-year child. The main communication complaint about the child was stuttering. In addition to the child’s clinical history, there was also knowledge of alcohol and legal and illegal drug use by the mother from before the moment of conception until this intervention process was reported. The protocols Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI, Child Language Test (ABFW: phonology, vocabulary, and fluency tests, along with the Checklist of Verbal Communication Skills were applied. Based on these assessments, the child was diagnosed with mild to moderate stuttering, phonological simplifications, vocabulary inferior to that expected for his age, difficulty maintaining communicative turns, simplified narrative skills, alterations in psycholinguistic processes, and complaints from the school about his learning. The child underwent speech therapy in the areas of fluency and Child Language (phonological approach, showing evolution in the post-intervention assessment. Thus, in the present case, it became clear that the concomitant use of alcohol with exposure to cigarettes and marijuana may trigger changes in the acquisition and development of language, fluency and, consequently, learning.
Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…
Full Text Available This paper introduces the LISp-Miner Control Language – a scripting language for the LISp-Miner system, an academic system for knowledge discovery in databases. The main purpose of this language is to provide programmable means to all the features of the LISp-Miner system and mainly to automate the main phases of data mining – from data introduction and preprocessing, formulation of analytical tasks, to discovery of the most interesting patterns. In this sense, the language is a necessary prerequisite for the EverMiner project of data mining automation. Language will serve other purposes too – for an automated verification of the LISp-Miner system functionality before a new version is released and as an educational tool in advanced data mining courses.
Oliveira, Carla; Lousada, Marisa; Jesus, Luis M. T.
Children with speech sound disorders (SSD) represent a large number of speech and language therapists' caseloads. The intervention with children who have SSD can involve different therapy approaches, and these may be articulatory or phonologically based. Some international studies reveal a widespread application of articulatory based approaches in…
Venables, Elizabeth; Eisenchlas, Susana A.; Schalley, Andrea C.
The aim of this study is to examine the strategies majority language-speaking parents use to support the development of the minority language in families who follow the pattern of exposure known as one-parent-one-language (OPOL). In this particular pattern of raising a child bilingually, each parent speaks only their own native language to their…
Alt, Mary; Arizmendi, Genesis D; Beal, Carole R
The present study examined the relationship between mathematics and language to better understand the nature of the deficit and the academic implications associated with specific language impairment (SLI) and academic implications for English language learners (ELLs). School-age children (N = 61; 20 SLI, 20 ELL, 21 native monolingual English [NE]) were assessed using a norm-referenced mathematics instrument and 3 experimental computer-based mathematics games that varied in language demands. Group means were compared with analyses of variance. The ELL group was less accurate than the NE group only when tasks were language heavy. In contrast, the group with SLI was less accurate than the groups with NE and ELLs on language-heavy tasks and some language-light tasks. Specifically, the group with SLI was less accurate on tasks that involved comparing numerical symbols and using visual working memory for patterns. However, there were no group differences between children with SLI and peers without SLI on language-light mathematics tasks that involved visual working memory for numerical symbols. Mathematical difficulties of children who are ELLs appear to be related to the language demands of mathematics tasks. In contrast, children with SLI appear to have difficulty with mathematics tasks because of linguistic as well as nonlinguistic processing constraints.
Denise Ren da Fontoura
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This paper reviews the methodological characteristics of studies on rehabilitation of expressive aphasia, describing the techniques of rehabilitation used. Methods: The databases Medline, Science Direct and PubMed were searched for relevant articles (January 1999 to December 2011 using the keywords Expressive / Broca / Nonfluent Aphasia, combined with Language or Speech Rehabilitation / Therapy / Intervention. Results: A total of 56 articles were retrieved describing rehabilitation techniques, including 22 with a focus on lexical processing, 18 on syntax stimulation, seven with the aim of developing speech and nine with multiple foci. Conclusion: A variety of techniques and theoretical approaches are available, highlighting the heterogeneity of research in this area. This diversity can be justified by the uniqueness of patients' language deficits, making it difficult to generalize. In addition, there is a need to combine the formal measures of tests with measures of pragmatic and social skills of communication to determine the effect of rehabilitation on the patient's daily life.
This volume aims to bridge the gap between language arts teaching and linguistic theory. Part one discusses selected aspects of linguistics that are relevant to language arts teaching: the acquisition and development of language during childhood; the English sound system and its relation to spellings and meanings; traditional, structural, and…
Kocab, Annemarie; Senghas, Ann; Snedeker, Jesse
Understanding what uniquely human properties account for the creation and transmission of language has been a central goal of cognitive science. Recently, the study of emerging sign languages, such as Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL), has offered the opportunity to better understand how languages are created and the roles of the individual learner and the community of users. Here, we examined the emergence of two types of temporal language in NSL, comparing the linguistic devices for conveying temporal information among three sequential age cohorts of signers. Experiment 1 showed that while all three cohorts of signers could communicate about linearly ordered discrete events, only the second and third generations of signers successfully communicated information about events with more complex temporal structure. Experiment 2 showed that signers could discriminate between the types of temporal events in a nonverbal task. Finally, Experiment 3 investigated the ordinal use of numbers (e.g., first, second) in NSL signers, indicating that one strategy younger signers might have for accurately describing events in time might be to use ordinal numbers to mark each event. While the capacity for representing temporal concepts appears to be present in the human mind from the onset of language creation, the linguistic devices to convey temporality do not appear immediately. Evidently, temporal language emerges over generations of language transmission, as a product of individual minds interacting within a community of users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yu, Shuiyuan; Xu, Chunshan
Language is generally considered a defining feature of human beings, a key medium for interpersonal communication, a fundamental tool for human thinking and an important vehicle for culture transmission. For the anthropoids to evolve into human being, the emergence of linguistic system is a vital step. Then, how can language serve functions so complicated and so important? To answer this question, it is necessary to probe into a central topic in linguistics: the structure of language, which has been inevitably involved in various fields of linguistic research-the functions of languages, the evolution of languages, the typology of languages, etc.
This paper takes language policing as an ideospace, a space where multiple language ideologies are constructed and contested. Drawing on critical language policy and linguistic anthropology, it unravels how participants in a Nepalese Facebook group construct and reproduce language ideologies that both challenge and impose homogeneity and…
O'Rourke, Bernadette; DePalma, Renée
In this article, we examine the experiences of 18 Galician language learners who participated in what Garland [(2008). "The minority language and the cosmopolitan speaker: Ideologies of Irish language learners" (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of California, Santa Barbara] refers to as a "language-learning holiday" in…
Ag. Bambang Setiyadi; - Mahpul; Muhammad Sukirlan; Bujang Rahman
Studies on motivation in language learning have been well documented. The role of motivation in determining the use of learning strategies has been identified and the correlation between motivation and language performance has been determined. However, how language motivation in EFL context is classified and how language motivation is inter-correlated with the use of metacognitive and language performance has still not become widespread in the literature on language learning. The current stud...
The effects of multisensory structured language instruction on native language and foreign language aptitude skills of at-risk high school foreign language learners: A replication and follow-up study.
Sparks, R L; Ganschow, L
According to research findings, most students who experience foreign language learning problems are thought to have overt or subtle native language learning difficulties, primarily with phonological processing. A recent study by the authors showed that when a multisensory structured language approach to teaching Spanish was used with a group of at-risk high school students, the group's pre- and posttest scores on native language phonological processing, verbal memory and vocabulary, and foreign language aptitude measures significantly improved. In this replication and follow-up study, the authors compared pre- and posttest scores of a second group of students (Cohort 2) who received MSL instruction in Spanish on native language and foreign language aptitude measures. They also followed students from the first study (Cohort 1) over a second year of foreign language instruction. Findings showed that the second cohort made significant gains on three native language phonological measures and a test of foreign language aptitude. Follow-up testing on the first cohort showed that the group maintained its initial gains on all native language and foreign language aptitude measures. Implications for the authors' Linguistic Coding Deficit Hypothesis are discussed and linked with current reading research, in particular the concepts of the assumption of specificity and modularity.
Baker, Felicity; Jones, Carolyn
This pilot study examined the effects of a short-term music therapy program on the classroom behaviours of newly arrived refugee students who were attending an intensive "English as a Second Language" secondary school. A cross-over design with two five-week intervention periods was employed with group music therapy sessions conducted one…
Full Text Available Objective: This study compares the effect of speech therapy and picture exchange communication system (PECS on communication development of 4-8 year old autistic children. Materials & Methods: This is an experimental and comparison study. In this study 10 subjects including PECS and speech therapy groups were selected using the available sampling method on the base of including and excluding criteria. Both groups were matched according to age and developmental indices of Niusha scale. Dependent variables were listening, receptive language, expressive language, cognition, speech and social communication. Intervention was applied for both groups similarly divided in 40 minute sessions 3 times a weak for 3 months. Our parameters were evaluated by Niusha development scale before and after interventions. The results were analyzed clinically and statistically by sum-ranks willkokson and rank- signed willkokson. Results: Post test comparison between the two groups revealed that the members of PECS group had a more progress in listening, receptive language, cognition and social communication skills rather than speech therapy group. But these differences were not significant statistically and T(sum ranks was between critical values. Conclusion: considering the results, it could be concluded that PECS is a effective strategy to train non-verbal autistic children. Moreover it could be used as a supplement teaching method beside other therapeutic method such as speech therapy.
Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan
Informed by family language policy (FLP) as the theoretical framework, I illustrate in this paper how language ideologies can be incongruous and language policies can be conflicting through three multilingual families in Singapore representing three major ethnic groups--Chinese, Malay and Indian. By studying their family language audits, observing…
This paper examines whether the recursive structure imbedded in some exercises used in the Non Verbal Communication Device (NVCD) approach is actually the factor that enables this approach to favor language acquisition and reacquisition in the case of children with cerebral lesions. For that a definition of the principle of recursion as it is used by logicians is presented. The two opposing approaches to the problem of language development are explained. For many authors such as Chomsky  the faculty of language is innate. This is known as the Standard Theory; the other researchers in this field, e.g. Bates and Elman , claim that language is entirely constructed by the young child: they thus speak of Language Acquisition. It is also shown that in both cases, a version of the principle of recursion is relevant for human language. The NVCD approach is defined and the results obtained in the domain of language while using this approach are presented: young subjects using this approach acquire a richer language structure or re-acquire such a structure in the case of cerebral lesions. Finally it is shown that exercises used in this framework imply the manipulation of recursive structures leading to regular grammars. It is thus hypothesized that language development could be favored using recursive structures with the young child. It could also be the case that the NVCD like exercises used with children lead to the elaboration of a regular language, as defined by Chomsky , which could be sufficient for language development but would not require full recursion. This double claim could reconcile Chomsky's approach with psychological observations made by adherents of the Language Acquisition approach, if it is confirmed by researches combining the use of NVCDs, psychometric methods and the use of Neural Networks. This paper thus suggests that a research group oriented towards this problematic should be organized.
Mohammed Akram A.M. Sa‘Adeddin
Full Text Available This article is an attempt to draw a plan for developing curricula for teaching the Qur’anic Language at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM. The article is in four sections. The first offers an overview of Language Engineering, the language profile in Malaysia, the Qur 'anic Language teaching situation at IIUM, and the conditions for competent Corpus Planning. The second discusses the significance of the Qur’anic Language, and the Islamic semantic affinity between the Qur’anic Language and Bahasa Melayu. The third focuses on the implications of the Qur’anic language Corpus Planning for language teachers, materials writers and curriculum designers. The fourth briefly introduces our theory of interpretive reading, goes on to apply it to an active reading of sūratu likhlās, and considers the implications of this type of reading for the Qur’anic Language syllabus design.
The theory of fuzzy recognizable languages over bounded distributive lattices is presented as a paradigm of recognizable formal power series. Due to the idempotency properties of bounded distributive lattices, the equality of fuzzy recognizable languages is decidable, the determinization of multi-valued automata is effective, and a pumping lemma exists. Fuzzy recognizable languages over finite and infinite words are expressively equivalent to sentences of the multi-valued monadic second-order logic. Fuzzy recognizability over bounded ℓ-monoids and residuated lattices is briefly reported. The chapter concludes with two applications of fuzzy recognizable languages to real world problems in medicine.
It has long been the assumption of many in the field of second language teaching that learning a second language helps to promote and enhance native language skill development, and that this correlation is direct and positive. Language professionals have assumed that learning a second language directly supports the development of better skills,…
Scott, Michael L
Programming Language Pragmatics is the most comprehensive programming language textbook available today. Taking the perspective that language design and language implementation are tightly interconnected, and that neither can be fully understood in isolation, this critically acclaimed and bestselling book has been thoroughly updated to cover the most recent developments in programming language design. With a new chapter on run-time program management and expanded coverage of concurrency, this new edition provides both students and professionals alike with a solid understanding of the most impo
The paper summarizes the latest evidence on the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions (with special focus on chronic LBP) by using acupuncture and bee venom therapy (BVT). Methodology: The overview is based on English-language studies and articles found by searches of Medline over more than last 10 years.
In this article, we first conceive the contact between languages from different configurations to, secondly, analyze the geopolitics of the Romance languages, represented by the three great linguistic groups, that is, the French-speaking, Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking groups.---Original in French.
McKee, Rachel Locker; Manning, Victoria
Status planning through legislation made New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) an official language in 2006. But this strong symbolic action did not create resources or mechanisms to further the aims of the act. In this article we discuss the extent to which legal recognition and ensuing language-planning activities by state and community have affected…
Thompson, Robin L; Vinson, David P; Woll, Bencie; Vigliocco, Gabriella
An arbitrary link between linguistic form and meaning is generally considered a universal feature of language. However, iconic (i.e., nonarbitrary) mappings between properties of meaning and features of linguistic form are also widely present across languages, especially signed languages. Although recent research has shown a role for sign iconicity in language processing, research on the role of iconicity in sign-language development has been mixed. In this article, we present clear evidence that iconicity plays a role in sign-language acquisition for both the comprehension and production of signs. Signed languages were taken as a starting point because they tend to encode a higher degree of iconic form-meaning mappings in their lexicons than spoken languages do, but our findings are more broadly applicable: Specifically, we hypothesize that iconicity is fundamental to all languages (signed and spoken) and that it serves to bridge the gap between linguistic form and human experience.
Arshad, H.; Ghayas, M.S.; Madiha, A.
To observe the patterns of speech sounds and language disorders. To find out associated risk factors of speech sounds and language disorders. Background: Communication is the very essence of modern society. Communication disorders impacts quality of life. Patterns and factors associated with speech sounds and language impairments were explored. The association was seen with different environmental factors. Methodology: The patients included in the study were 200 whose age ranged between two and sixteen years presented in speech therapy clinic OPD Mayo Hospital. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire assessed the patient's bio data, socioeconomic background, family history of communication disorders and bilingualism. It was a descriptive study and was conducted through cross-sectional survey. Data was analysed by SPSS version 16. Results: Results reveal Language disorders were relatively more prevalent in males than those of speech sound disorders. Bilingualism was found as having insignificant effect on these disorders. It was concluded from this study that the socioeconomic status and family history were significant risk factors. Conclusion: Gender, socioeconomic status, family history can play as risk for developing speech sounds and language disorders. There is a grave need to understand patterns of communication disorders in the light of Pakistani society and culture. It is recommended to conduct further studies to determine risk factors and patterns of these impairments. (author)
This article summarizes current trends in speech and language pathology services to individuals with Down syndrome. Data was collected through the use of a questionnaire mailed to speech and language pathologists who regularly serve clients with Down syndrome. Most widely used assessment instruments, therapy materials, sources of information, and need for materials to be developed are presented as they relate to services for birth-3 year olds, 3-5 year olds, school-age-14 year olds, prevocational-18 year olds, and above-age-18 adult services. The discussion addresses specific needs for research and needed direction for evaluation and treatment with the Down syndrome population.
Organick, Elliott Irving; Plummer, Robert P
Programming Language Structures deals with the structures of programming languages and introduces the reader to five important programming languages: Algol, Fortran, Lisp, Snobol, and Pascal. The fundamental similarities and differences among these languages are discussed. A unifying framework is constructed that can be used to study the structure of other languages, such as Cobol, PL/I, and APL. Several of the tools and methodologies needed to construct large programs are also considered.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with a summary of the relevant concepts and principles about al
Tsai, Cheng-Hui; Wang, Chuan Po
Chinese Teaching in Taiwan in recent years in response to the international trend of development, making at all levels of Chinese language teaching in full swing, for the recent boom in Chinese language teaching, many overseas Chinese language learning for children also had a passion while actively learning Chinese language, and even many overseas…
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT ... SL recognition system based on the Malaysian Sign Language (MSL). Implementation results are described. Keywords: sign language; pattern classification; database.
Full Text Available The refugees and migrants waves detonated a bomb in the EU’ 2015. The people composing the waves aimed, as usually, the Western and Northern countries, where the advances inclusive policies and high social benefices are available. A moderate rate of legal and illegal migrants (plus some refugees took the central Mediterranean route to Europe and directed to North. In 2015, the new comers, (much more than previously used additional routes, too. One of their new route, the Balkan Route, is the topic of the present paper, seen on the sociolinguistic perspective. On the Balkan Route with the new people arrived large of speakers of new languages, rare and extremely rare for Europe. On the one hand, this speakers challenge the management of migratory fluxes and also the future linguistic policies in EU. On the other hand, their speakers risk to miss the EU CEAS protection and to become victims of traffickers and exploiters of the Human Being. The present paper aims to draw the attention to the impact of the new languages received in Europe and to indicate European resources already able to work with some of them. It is trying to list the new added languages within the EU languages coming via Balkan route 2015, in the Q 3, looking to the first 10 “providers states” of the new languages. It limits the research on the languages coming from Asia. The analysis compares them, in terms of the number, of languages’ family; of the previous speakers’ communities’ presence within the EU. It will draw the attention to the Rare Added Languages in Europe (RALE, and especially, to some languages (and dialect belong to the family ROM and DOM. The rarity of some of the new added languages represents real issues for the immigration officers. They need European interpreters, objective and well qualified, able to speak directly with the persons in need, able to recognize the language of those people who do not speak any of the linguae francae working in
Full Text Available Within the scope of my investigation on language use and language attitudes of People of German Descent from the USSR, I find almost regular different language contact phenomena, such as viel bliny habn=wir gbackt (engl.: 'we cooked lots of pancakes' (cf. Ries 2011. The aim of analysis is to examine both language use with regard to different forms of language contact and the language attitudes of the observed speakers. To be able to analyse both of these aspects and synthesize them, different types of data are required. The research is based on the following two data types: everyday conversations and interviews. In addition, the individual speakers' biography is a key part of the analysis, because it allows one to draw conclusions about language attitudes and use. This qualitative research is based on morpho-syntactic and interactional linguistic analysis of authentic spoken data. The data arise from a corpus compiled and edited by myself. My being a member of the examined group allowed me to build up an authentic corpus. The natural language use is analysed from the perspective of different language contact phenomena and potential functions of language alternations. One central issue is: How do speakers use the languages available to them, German and Russian? Structural characteristics such as code switching and discursive motives for these phenomena are discussed as results, together with the socio-cultural background of the individual speaker. Within the scope of this article I present exemplarily the data and results of one speaker.
Full Text Available The article deals with language courses offered by private language schools in Slovenia. It examines who the people in charge of the language schools are, what criteria new teachers have to meet to become an employee of a school, whether the methodology applied (if any has been carefully chosen, what the teaching techniques are and who chooses them. Second language method discoveries have been subjected to perennial criticism and scepticism over the last half of century. Teachers around the globe have been confused by the constant shifts in the popularity of different methods. The article examines the con sequences of the abovementioned circumstances. The 15 interviews conducted with private language schools’ managers have generated valuable information on the level of professionalism in this area of business. The results have shown that most of the randomly chosen schools are managed by language professionals or by economists who employ a linguist for controlling the teaching and learning processes and that the majority of schools does adopt a particular approach or method of teaching. Teacher trainees receive a lot of support and guidance prior to teaching in a school. In most cases, teachers are free to choose techniques of teaching according to their preferences, providing the techniques are not in conflict with the general schools’ principles. The criteria for employment vary considerably. Nearly all managers would employ a professional language teacher with experience only, but others demand that the teacher be a native speaker regardless of his/her education. Several stress the importance of personal characteristics and would consider employing only lighthearted and energetic teachers. Teachers’ work and students’ progress are often evaluated.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While it is clearly admitted that normal behavioural development is determined by the interplay of genetic and environmental influences, this is much less the case for psychiatric disorders for which more emphasis has been given in the past decades on biological determinism. Thus, previous studies have shown that Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD were not affected by parental style. However, animal research suggests that different behavioural traits can be differentially affected by genetic/environmental factors. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study we hypothesized that amongst the ASD, language disorders may be more sensitive to social factors as language is a social act that develops under social influences. Using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, we compared the early characteristics of sensori-motor and language development in a large sample of children with ASD (n = 162 with parents belonging to different levels of education. The results showed that children raised by parents with a high level of education displayed earlier language development. Moreover, they showed earlier first words and phrases if their mother was at a high level of education, which reveals an additional gender effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this study may trigger important new lines of thought and research, help equilibrate social and purely biological perspectives regarding ASD and bring new hopes for environmentally based therapies.
Santos, Lívia Rodrigues; Almeida, Letícia; Teixeira, Letícia Caldas; Bassi, Iara; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes
To study the possible factors associated with adherence to the speech-language pathology treatment of dysphonia in female teachers of municipal schools of Belo Horizonte. This was a retrospective study that analyzed the medical records of 251 teachers treated at the Voice Ambulatory Speech Language Pathology Service, Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (AV-UFMG) from August 2007 to December 2009. The collected data included age, number of scheduled sessions, number of absences, number of children, type of dysphonia, degree of dysphonia, monthly family income, and education. We calculated the distance, in kilometers, of the residence to the place of treatment and the workplace to place of treatment. We also analyzed the social vulnerability index of the workplace. The results of this research indicated that of the 135 records that were included in the study, 89 (65.93%) corresponded to the discharged group and 46 (34.07%) corresponded to the abandonment group. In comparison with all the variables studied, only the number of faults and the type of dysphonia were associated with poor adherence to voice therapy. Results showed that the number of absences in sessions, treatment-related factor, organofuncional dysphonia type, and clinical-related factor were all associated with the abandonment of voice therapy.
Tucker, Jerry H.
Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.
Examines the resilience of small languages in the face of larger ones. Highlights include the concept of one dominant language, such as Esperanto; the threat of television to small visual-language societies; the power of visual media; man's relationship to language; and the resilience of language. (LRW)
Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.
THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. APPROXIMATELY 65 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE, LINGUISTICS, LANGUAGE LEARNING, LANGUAGE SKILLS, LANGUAGE PATTERNS, AND…
Foreign language motivation is regarded as one source of individual differences in second language acquisition. Learn-ing motivation is a dynamic mechanism which gives rise to learning activities. Learners ’motivation is a decisive factor for the suc-cess of second language acquisition.
Full Text Available This paper explores the ways in which the transfer of assumptions from first language (L1 writing can help the process of writing in second language (L2. In learning second language writing skills, learners have two primary sources from which they construct a second language system: knowledge and skills from first language and input from second language. To investigate the relative impact of first language literacy skills on second language writing ability, 60 EFL students from Tabriz Islamic Azad University were chosen as participants of this study, based on their language proficiency scores. The subjects were given two topics to write about: the experimental group subjects were asked to write in Persian and then translate their writing into English. The control group wrote in English. The results obtained in this study indicate that the content and vocabulary components of the compositions were mostly affected by the use of first language.
Sodiya, Adesina Simon
Natural languages are the latest generation of programming languages, which require processing real human natural expressions. Over the years, several groups or researchers have trying to develop widely accepted natural language languages based on artificial intelligence (AI). But no true natural language has been developed. The goal of this work is to design a natural language preprocessing architecture that identifies and accepts programming instructions or sentences in their natural forms ...
Senghas, A; Coppola, M
It has long been postulated that language is not purely learned, but arises from an interaction between environmental exposure and innate abilities. The innate component becomes more evident in rare situations in which the environment is markedly impoverished. The present study investigated the language production of a generation of deaf Nicaraguans who had not been exposed to a developed language. We examined the changing use of early linguistic structures (specifically, spatial modulations) in a sign language that has emerged since the Nicaraguan group first came together: In tinder two decades, sequential cohorts of learners systematized the grammar of this new sign language. We examined whether the systematicity being added to the language stems from children or adults: our results indicate that such changes originate in children aged 10 and younger Thus, sequential cohorts of interacting young children collectively: possess the capacity not only to learn, but also to create, language.
Full Text Available In this paper, we explore presence of collocational relations in the computer-assisted language learning systems and other language resources for the Japanese language, on one side, and, in the Japanese language learning textbooks and wordlists, on the other side. After introducing how important it is to learn collocational relations in a foreign language, we examine their coverage in the various learners’ resources for the Japanese language. We particularly concentrate on a few collocations at the beginner’s level, where we demonstrate their treatment across various resources. A special attention is paid to what is referred to as unpredictable collocations, which have a bigger foreign language learning-burden than the predictable ones.
Myers, Susan E; Whitman, Barbara Y; Carrel, Aaron L; Moerchen, Victoria; Bekx, M Tracy; Allen, David B
Infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) typically display failure to thrive and decreased muscle mass with excess body fat for age. Growth hormone (GH) therapy in children with PWS improves, but does not normalize, body composition and muscle strength and agility. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of earlier GH therapy on anthropometric measurements, body composition, and psychomotor development in affected PWS infants and toddlers. Twenty-five subjects, ages 4-37 months, were randomized to 2 years of GH therapy (1 mg/m(2)/day) or 1 year of observation without GH treatment and then placed on GH (1.5 mg/m(2).day) for 1 year only. Anthropometric measurements were obtained by standard methods: percent body fat, lean body mass, and total body bone mineral density by dual x-ray absorptiometry; motor constructs of mobility and stability by the Toddler Infant Motor Evaluation; and cognitive and language function by the Capute Scales of Infant Language and Cognitive Development. GH-treated PWS subjects demonstrated normalization of length/height standard deviation scores (SDS), faster head growth, increased lean body mass accrual, and decreased percent body fat (P < 0.005 for all parameters), as well as improved language (P = 0.05) and cognitive (P = 0.02) quotient Z-scores compared with similarly aged untreated PWS subjects after 1 year into the study. PWS subjects treated before their first birthday spoke their first words at a mean age of 14.4 +/- 2.8 months and walked independently at 23.3 +/- 4.8 months. GH therapy was well-tolerated; however, one PWS subject experienced scoliosis progression. As greater benefits were seen in our study with early treatment, prompt referral to a pediatric endocrinologist for consideration of GH therapy is recommended for PWS at an early age. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Showstack, Rachel E.
Drawing on linguistic anthropological notions of language ideologies and sociolinguistic approaches to stance, this study examines the meaning-making resources through which Spanish heritage language (HL) learners orient toward ideological perspectives on language value and linguistic expertise in classroom interaction. Part of a larger…
Among American Indian Pueblo tribes, community-based language revitalisation initiatives have been established in response to a growing language shift towards English. This has been most prominent among school age children, prompting some tribes to extend tribal language programmes into local public schools. For centuries, the transmission of…
Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup
multilingual children's language and literacy acquisition processes, we direct our focus to a single child's active exploration of what it means to know a language. Through analysis of interviews and researcher generated activities, we see how this child both describes and does language competence......This article examines how, in a multilingual perspective, language competence is experienced, talked about and practiced by language users themselves. By viewing children as active co-creators of the spaces in which language is used, this article contributes to a research tradition in which focus...... is shifted from viewing the individual's language competence as a mental linguistic or communicative property, to viewing language as a series of social and spatial practices. Looking at data from the research project Tegn på Sprog (in the following referred to as Signs of Language), which examines...
Sanden, Guro Refsum
The term ‘language management’ has become a widely used expression in the sociolinguistic literature. Originally introduced by Jernudd and Neustupný in 1987, as a novel continuation of the language planning tradition stemming from the 1960/70s, language management along these lines has developed...... from the international management discipline, appear to have taken an interest in language as a variable in business and corporate management. It is also common to refer to this research field as language management. This conceptual article offers a theoretically based comparison of the three...... into the Language Management Theory (LMT). A second definition of language management, diverting from LMT, can be found in the work of Spolsky, who treats language management as a theoretical component of the wider concept of language policy. Furthermore, over the past 15 years a number of scholars, particularly...
Full Text Available In this article, we first conceive the contact between languages from different configurations to, secondly, analyze the geopolitics of the Romance languages, represented by the three great linguistic groups, that is, the French-speaking, Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking groups.---Original in French.
Park, Joseph Sung-Yul
Language occupies a crucial position in neoliberalism, due to the reimagination of language as commodified skill. This paper studies the role of language ideology in this transformation by identifying a particular ideology that facilitates this process, namely the ideology which views language as pure potential. Neoliberalism treats language as a…
Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva
This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…
Adams, Ashley M.
This manuscript explores the role of embodied views of language comprehension and production in bilingualism and specific language impairment. Reconceptualizing popular models of bilingual language processing, the embodied theory is first extended to this area. Issues such as semantic grounding in a second language and potential differences between early and late acquisition of a second language are discussed. Predictions are made about how this theory informs novel ways of thinking about teaching a second language. Secondly, the comorbidity of speech, language, and motor impairments and how embodiment theory informs the discussion of the etiology of these impairments is examined. A hypothesis is presented suggesting that what is often referred to as specific language impairment may not be so specific due to widespread subclinical motor deficits in this population. Predictions are made about how weaknesses and instabilities in speech motor control, even at a subclinical level, may disrupt the neural network that connects acoustic input, articulatory motor plans, and semantics. Finally, I make predictions about how this information informs clinical practice for professionals such as speech language pathologists and occupational and physical therapists. These new hypotheses are placed within the larger framework of the body of work pertaining to semantic grounding, action-based language acquisition, and action-perception links that underlie language learning and conceptual grounding. PMID:27582716
Full Text Available This study aims to find out the relation of language family and glottochronology of Gorontalo language and Atinggola language in Gorontalo Province. The research employed a comparative method, and the research instrument used a list of 200 basic Morris Swadesh vocabularies. The data source was from documents or gloss translation of 200 basic vocabularies and interview of two informants (speakers of Gorontalo and Atinggola languages. Data analysis was done by using the lexicostatistic technique. The following indicators were used to determine the word family: (a identical pairs, (b the word pairs have phonemic correspondences, (c phonetic similarities, and (d a different phoneme. The results of data analysis reveal that there are 109 or 55.05% word pairs of the word family out of 200 basic vocabularies of Swadesh. The results of this study also show that the glottochronology of Gorontalo language and Atinggola language are (a Gorontalo and Atinggola languages are one single language at 1.377 + 122 years ago, (b Gorontalo and Atinggola languages are one single language at 1,449 - 1,255 years ago. This study concludes that (a the relation of the kinship of these two languages is in the family group, (b glottochronology (separation time between Gorontalo language and Atinggola language is between 1.4 to 1.2 thousand years ago or in the 12th – 14th century. Keywords: relation, kinship level, local language, Gorontalo Province, lexicostatistics study
Burow, Burkhard D.
Computing in the next millennium will be using software from this millennium. Programming languages evolve and new ones continue to be created. The use of legacy code demonstrates why some present and future applications may span programming languages. Even a completely new application may mix programming languages, if it allows its components to be more conveniently expressed. Given the need, mixed language programming should be easy and robust. By resolving a variety of difficulties, the well established cfortran.h package provides, the desired convenient interface across the C and Fortran programming languages, as demonstrated using CERN's Book. (author)
Mohd Natar, Ahmad Kamal; Nagappan, Rajendran; Ainuddin, Husna Ahmad; Masuri, Ghazali; Thanapalan, Chandra Kannan K.
Current cognitive screening tests are difficult to use due to their deficit in cultural and conceptual significance and translation into other languages. The purpose of this study was to translate the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Geriatrics (LOTCA-G) into Malay language and test its reliability and validity for…
Chater, Nick; McCauley, Stewart M.; Christiansen, M. H.
occurs on-line. These properties are difficult to reconcile with the 'abstract knowledge' viewpoint, and crucially suggest that language comprehension and production are facets of a unitary skill. This viewpoint is exemplified in the Chunk-Based Learner, a computational acquisition model that processes...... incrementally and learns on-line. The model both parses and produces language; and implements the idea that language acquisition is nothing more than learning to process. We suggest that the Now-or-Never bottleneck also provides a strong motivation for unified perception-production models in other domains......Are comprehension and production a single, integrated skill, or are they separate processes drawing on a shared abstract knowledge of language? We argue that a fundamental constraint on memory, the Now-or-Never bottleneck, implies that language processing is incremental and that language learning...
Full Text Available In a bilingual society like Singapore, home language environment (HLE of Singaporean children is becoming increasingly concerned, especially for those who are yet to have formal education in schools. The reported rapid shift of family language has increased the tensions among families, schools and communities. This study examined some of the many facets of Singaporean Chinese preschoolers’ HLE, and further discussed how these facets are related to children’s Chinese language proficiency in oral and written forms. Three hundred and seventy-six Singaporean Chinese six-year olds completed Chinese oral and written language proficiency screening. Their parents completed a HLE survey. The findings revealed the possible trend of home language shift from Mandarin Chinese to English in the younger generation. Aside from home language use factors, the importance of other facets that form a rich language environment is also highlighted for children's language development.
Fitzsimmons-Doolan, Shannon; Palmer, Deborah; Henderson, Kathryn
Dual language bilingual education (DLBE) programs are framed to reflect pluralist discourses (de Jong, E. . "Policy Discourses and U.S. Language in Education Policies." "Peabody Journal of Education" 88 (1): 98-111) and affiliated language ideologies. The continued expansion of DLBE programs not surprisingly brings to…
The current longitudinal study examines the similarities and differences between primary and secondary foreign language curricula and pedagogy along with the development of motivation for language learning and second language proficiency. Data from 26 English learners of French (aged 10-11) were collected across three times points over a 12-month…
Full Text Available Using an ethnographic case study design, this study investigates language learners' socialization into the cultural values of Uzbek language. Informed by a language socialization theoretical framework, the study focuses on the classroom routines and interactions that socialize students into certain social values through mini-lectures that are beyond the linguistic objectives of the curriculum. The research questions addressed are: What social values are being taught implicitly or explicitly? What cultural values are students being socialized into? What constitutes valuable cultural knowledge as claimed by the teacher? In the audio and video recorded observation data, a selected excerpt of typical classroom interactions is analyzed adopting discourse analysis methods. The findings of the study could be implemented in teacher education programs and in designing textbooks and curriculum for less commonly taught languages.
Duncan, E Susan; Small, Steven L
Resting state magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) permits observation of intrinsic neural networks produced by task-independent correlations in low frequency brain activity. Various resting state networks have been described, with each thought to reflect common engagement in some shared function. There has been limited investigation of the plasticity in these network relationships after stroke or induced by therapy. Twelve individuals with language disorders after stroke (aphasia) were imaged at multiple time points before (baseline) and after an imitation-based aphasia therapy. Language assessment using a narrative production task was performed at the same time points. Group independent component analysis (ICA) was performed on the rsfMRI data to identify resting state networks. A sliding window approach was then applied to assess the dynamic nature of the correlations among these networks. Network correlations during each 30-second window were used to cluster the data into ten states for each window at each time point for each subject. Correlation was performed between changes in time spent in each state and therapeutic gains on the narrative task. The amount of time spent in a single one of the (ten overall) dynamic states was positively associated with behavioral improvement on the narrative task at the 6-week post-therapy maintenance interval, when compared with either baseline or assessment immediately following therapy. This particular state was characterized by minimal correlation among the task-independent resting state networks. Increased functional independence and segregation of resting state networks underlies improvement on a narrative production task following imitation-based aphasia treatment. This has important clinical implications for the targeting of noninvasive brain stimulation in post-stroke remediation.
Gadberry, Anita L; Sweeney, Alison
Music therapists work with many people who require Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). As communication goals are central to music therapy practice, many music therapists would benefit from training in AAC. The purpose of this survey study was to determine the state of AAC education for music therapists at the university level, how AAC is being used in music therapy sessions, and how practicing music therapists are trained in AAC. Music therapy faculty and credentialed music therapists in North America and Europe were invited to complete an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze survey data from each group of respondents. With regard to training in AAC at the university level, results indicate that almost half of music therapy faculty (44.66%) provided some training. The primary reason given for not providing training was a lack of educator knowledge in this area. Results indicate that a majority (81.77%) of music therapy clinicians are familiar with AAC and slightly over half (55.08%) reported that they work with clients who use AAC. Sixty-two percent of music therapists reported using AAC to promote expressive language, and 49% to increase receptive language. Over 80% of clinicians stated they would benefit from additional AAC training. Although a majority of music therapists are familiar with ACC, results indicate that ACC competency could be enhanced through university-level instruction and continuing professional development courses. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Dilks, Sarah; Tasker, Fiona; Wren, Bernadette
This study set out to explore therapy processes in psychosis with an initial focus on reflexivity and how this might be expressed in therapy conversations. Leiman's (2000) definition of reflexivity was used as a starting-point for an exploratory investigation of the use of language as reflective activity. Grounded theory was chosen as an appropriate methodology to distil an explanatory account across the qualitative data collected. Six psychologist-client pairs supplied three tapes of therapy sessions spread out across the course of therapy. Each participant was separately interviewed on two occasions to ascertain their views of therapy and of the emerging grounded theory. A grounded theory was developed conceptualizing the processes and activities in psychological therapy in psychosis. Building bridges to observational perspectives summarizes the core process in psychological therapy in psychosis. Therapy in psychosis is understood as intimately linking the social and internal world in a dialogical process aimed at enhancing the client's functioning in the social world rather than at specifically developing the private mental experience of reflexivity or mentalizing.
Akın Şenkal, Özgül; Özer, Cem
The hoarseness in school-aged children disrupts the educational process because it affects the social progress, communication skills, and self-esteem of children. Besides otorhinolaryngological examination, the first treatment option is voice therapy when hoarseness occurs. The aim of the study was to determine the factors increasing the hoarseness in school-aged children by parental interview and to know preferable voice therapy on school-aged children within the frame of International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Retrospective analysis of data gathered from patient files. A total of 75 children (56 boys and 19 girls) were examined retrospectively. The age range of school-aged children is 7-14 years and average is 10.86 ± 2.51. A detailed history was taken from parents of children involved in this study. Information about vocal habits of children was gathered within the frame of ICF and then the voice therapies of children were started by scheduling appointments by an experienced speech-language pathologist. The differences between before and after voice therapy according to applied voice therapy methods, statistically significant differences were determined between maximum phonation time values and s/z rate. The relationship between voice therapy sessions and s/z rate with middle degree significance was found with physiological voice therapy sessions. According to ICF labels, most of voice complaints are matching with "body functions" and "activity and limitations." The appropriate voice therapy methods for hoarseness in school-aged children must be chosen and applied by speech-language therapists. The detailed history, which is received from family during the examination, within the frame of ICF affects the processes of choosing the voice therapy method and application of them positively. Child's family is very important for a successful management. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Board of Visitors, Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center AGENCY: Department of the Army, DOD. ACTION: Notice; cancellation. SUMMARY: The Board of Visitors, Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center meeting scheduled for August 3 and 4, 2011...
Loucas, Tom; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Meldrum, David; Baird, Gillian
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) are common developmental disorders characterised by deficits in language and communication. The nature of the relationship between them continues to be a matter of debate. This study investigates whether the co-occurrence of ASD and language impairment is associated with differences in severity or pattern of autistic symptomatology or language profile. Participants (N = 97) were drawn from a total population cohort of 56,946 screened as part of study to ascertain the prevalence of ASD, aged 9 to 14 years. All children received an ICD-10 clinical diagnosis of ASD or No ASD. Children with nonverbal IQ > or =80 were divided into those with a language impairment (language score of 77 or less) and those without, creating three groups: children with ASD and a language impairment (ALI; N = 41), those with ASD and but no language impairment (ANL; N = 31) and those with language impairment but no ASD (SLI; N = 25). Children with ALI did not show more current autistic symptoms than those with ANL. Children with SLI were well below the threshold for ASD. Their social adaptation was higher than the ASD groups, but still nearly 2 SD below average. In ALI the combination of ASD and language impairment was associated with weaker functional communication and more severe receptive language difficulties than those found in SLI. Receptive and expressive language were equally impaired in ALI, whereas in SLI receptive language was stronger than expressive. Co-occurrence of ASD and language impairment is not associated with increased current autistic symptomatology but appears to be associated with greater impairment in receptive language and functional communication.
Schwämmle, Veit; de Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro
Human history leaves fingerprints in human languages. Little is known about language evolution and its study is of great importance. Here we construct a simple stochastic model and compare its results to statistical data of real languages. The model is based on the recent finding that language changes occur independently of the population size. We find agreement with the data additionally assuming that languages may be distinguished by having at least one among a finite, small number of different features. This finite set is also used in order to define the distance between two languages, similarly to linguistics tradition since Swadesh.
Nosarti, Chiara; Mechelli, Andrea; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J
The relationship between orthography (spelling) and phonology (speech sounds) varies across alphabetic languages. Consequently, learning to read a second alphabetic language, that uses the same letters as the first, increases the phonological associations that can be linked to the same orthographic units. In subjects with English as their first language, previous functional imaging studies have reported increased left ventral prefrontal activation for reading words with spellings that are inconsistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., PINT) compared with words that are consistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., SHIP). Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 17 Italian-English and 13 English-Italian bilinguals, we demonstrate that left ventral prefrontal activation for first language reading increases with second language vocabulary knowledge. This suggests that learning a second alphabetic language changes the way that words are read in the first alphabetic language. Specifically, first language reading is more reliant on both lexical/semantic and nonlexical processing when new orthographic to phonological mappings are introduced by second language learning. Our observations were in a context that required participants to switch between languages. They motivate future fMRI studies to test whether first language reading is also altered in contexts when the second language is not in use.
Full Text Available This study was aimed at recognizing constraints on the way of some Iranian language teachers' utilization of self-developed, localized, English language teaching resources. To this aim, three sets of teacher variables on pedagogical and personal accounts were examined including Language teachers' experience (novice/experienced, their educational level (BA/MA/PhD and their gender. Data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, through stratified sampling, some eighty-three volunteering, English language teachers (Male and Female, who were indulged in the Iranian Ministry of Education (MoE, university settings (public and private and language institutes were randomly selected. Teachers’ responses to a validated researcher-made questionnaire on language teacher curriculum autonomy revealed an overall significant Multiple R with F (3, 80 =.88, (0.04 but each individual above-cited predictors could not significantly predict teacher curriculum autonomy score. In the second phase for triangulation aims, three above-cited teacher variables were mapped over the insights gained through written interview sessions with some fourteen English language teachers. Language teachers' self-reported 'challenges' and 'opportunities' for using self-developed language teaching resources for class use were content analyzed. It became evident that teaching experience was mystified in some respects in terms of its influence over interviewed teachers since diverse intentions on the part of the language teachers in this research might have deterred them not to use their full potential over using their own materials in class. Possible reasons for this situation have been fully discussed in the end.
The textbook is the first of its kind in the German language that presents an exhaustive survey of the state-of-the-art in cardiovascular radiation therapy at international level. The contributions explain the causes of restenosis, the fundamental aspects and principles as well as the current practice in radiation treatment intended to improve the long-term effects of PTCA, and present initial results of clinical studies. Specialists from various branches of medicine contributed their specific experimental and clinical findings. (orig./CB) [de
Wright, Stephen C.; Taylor, Donald M.; Macarthur, Judy
Examines the impact of early heritage-language education and second-language education on heritage-language and second-language development among Inuit, White, and mixed-heritage kindergarten children. Inuit children in second-language classes showed heritage language skills equal to or better than mixed-heritage children and Whites educated in…
Jarvis, Huw; Krashen, Stephen
In this article, Huw Jarvis and Stephen Krashen ask "Is CALL Obsolete?" When the term CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) was introduced in the 1960s, the language education profession knew only about language learning, not language acquisition, and assumed the computer's primary contribution to second language acquisition…
Jung, Won-Mo; Chae, Younbyoung; Jang, Bo-Hyoung
Nowadays a lot of trials for collecting electronic medical records (EMRs) exist. However, structuring data format for EMR is an especially labour-intensive task for practitioners. Here we propose a new mark-up language for medical record charting (called Charting Language), which borrows useful properties from programming languages. Thus, with Charting Language, the text data described in dynamic situation can be easily used to extract information.
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Board of Visitors, Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: Under the... Visitors, Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. Date: August 3 and 4, 2011. Time of Meeting...
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Board of Visitors, Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: Under the... Visitors, Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. Date: August 10 and 11, 2010. Time of Meeting...
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Board of Visitors Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: Under the... Visitors, Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. Date: October 31, 2012 and November 1, 2012...
This dissertation explores Information Structure in two sign languages: Sign Language of the Netherlands and Russian Sign Language. Based on corpus data and elicitation tasks we show how topic and focus are expressed in these languages. In particular, we show that topics can be marked syntactically
Griffin, Aaron S; Cabot, Peter; Wallwork, Ben; Panizza, Ben
The use of alternative medicine in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) continues to increase in popularity, for the most part without meeting the burden of being based on sound clinical evidence. New and emerging treatments, both natural and developed, are numerous, and it remains a challenge for otolaryngologists as well as general practitioners to keep up to date with these therapies and their efficacy. In this systematic review, we discuss a number of alternative therapies for CRS, their proposed physiologic mechanisms, and evidence supporting their use. This analysis is based on our review of the English-language literature on alternative therapies for CRS (we did not include any therapies that are already recommended by accepted professional bodies). Data collection was performed using the PubMed database (not restricted to MEDLINE due to the nature of the subject matter), the Cochrane databases, and bibliography searches. We found that while many of the alternative therapies we reviewed might have a firm basis in science, they lack any clinical evidence to support their use specifically for CRS. Some emerging therapies, such as therapeutic ultrasonography and phonophoresis, show some promise, based on a growing body of positive evidence. In addition, the use of baby shampoo, thyme honey, and bromelain additives to saline lavage in CRS are all supported by clinical evidence, as is Sinupret, an oral preparation that contains echinacea. However, higher levels of evidence gleaned from large, well-designed, prospective, randomized, controlled trials are needed before any of these therapies can be recommended.
Declerck, Mathieu; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M.
The current study systematically examined the influence of sequential predictability of languages and concepts on language switching. To this end, 2 language switching paradigms were combined. To measure language switching with a random sequence of languages and/or concepts, we used a language switching paradigm that implements visual cues and…