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Sample records for language processing techniques

  1. Natural language processing techniques for automatic test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural language processing techniques for automatic test questions generation using discourse connectives. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... Journal of Computer Science and Its Application.

  2. Using of Natural Language Processing Techniques in Suicide Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Orooji

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that each year many people, most of whom are teenagers and young adults die by suicide worldwide. Suicide receives special attention with many countries developing national strategies for prevention. Since, more medical information is available in text, Preventing the growing trend of suicide in communities requires analyzing various textual resources, such as patient records, information on the web or questionnaires. For this purpose, this study systematically reviews recent studies related to the use of natural language processing techniques in the area of people’s health who have completed suicide or are at risk. After electronically searching for the PubMed and ScienceDirect databases and studying articles by two reviewers, 21 articles matched the inclusion criteria. This study revealed that, if a suitable data set is available, natural language processing techniques are well suited for various types of suicide related research.

  3. Capturing and Modeling Domain Knowledge Using Natural Language Processing Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Auger, Alain

    2005-01-01

    .... Initiated in 2004 at Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC), the SACOT knowledge engineering research project is currently investigating, developing and validating innovative natural language processing (NLP...

  4. Using natural language processing techniques to inform research on nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja A. Lewinski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature in the field of nanotechnology is exponentially increasing with more and more engineered nanomaterials being created, characterized, and tested for performance and safety. With the deluge of published data, there is a need for natural language processing approaches to semi-automate the cataloguing of engineered nanomaterials and their associated physico-chemical properties, performance, exposure scenarios, and biological effects. In this paper, we review the different informatics methods that have been applied to patent mining, nanomaterial/device characterization, nanomedicine, and environmental risk assessment. Nine natural language processing (NLP-based tools were identified: NanoPort, NanoMapper, TechPerceptor, a Text Mining Framework, a Nanodevice Analyzer, a Clinical Trial Document Classifier, Nanotoxicity Searcher, NanoSifter, and NEIMiner. We conclude with recommendations for sharing NLP-related tools through online repositories to broaden participation in nanoinformatics.

  5. Creation of structured documentation templates using Natural Language Processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Vipul; Turchin, Alexander; Morin, Laura; Chang, Frank; Li, Qi; Hongsermeier, Tonya

    2006-01-01

    Structured Clinical Documentation is a fundamental component of the healthcare enterprise, linking both clinical (e.g., electronic health record, clinical decision support) and administrative functions (e.g., evaluation and management coding, billing). One of the challenges in creating good quality documentation templates has been the inability to address specialized clinical disciplines and adapt to local clinical practices. A one-size-fits-all approach leads to poor adoption and inefficiencies in the documentation process. On the other hand, the cost associated with manual generation of documentation templates is significant. Consequently there is a need for at least partial automation of the template generation process. We propose an approach and methodology for the creation of structured documentation templates for diabetes using Natural Language Processing (NLP).

  6. Capturing and Modeling Domain Knowledge Using Natural Language Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Intelligence Artificielle , France, May 2001, p. 109- 118 [Barrière, 2001] -----. “Investigating the Causal Relation in Informative Texts”. Terminology, 7:2...out of the flood of information, military have to create new ways of processing sensor and intelligence information, and of providing the results to...have to create new ways of processing sensor and intelligence information, and of providing the results to commanders who must take timely operational

  7. ONTOLOGY BASED MEANINGFUL SEARCH USING SEMANTIC WEB AND NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Palaniammal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The semantic web extends the current World Wide Web by adding facilities for the machine understood description of meaning. The ontology based search model is used to enhance efficiency and accuracy of information retrieval. Ontology is the core technology for the semantic web and this mechanism for representing formal and shared domain descriptions. In this paper, we proposed ontology based meaningful search using semantic web and Natural Language Processing (NLP techniques in the educational domain. First we build the educational ontology then we present the semantic search system. The search model consisting three parts which are embedding spell-check, finding synonyms using WordNet API and querying ontology using SPARQL language. The results are both sensitive to spell check and synonymous context. This paper provides more accurate results and the complete details for the selected field in a single page.

  8. Using Unified Modelling Language (UML) as a process-modelling technique for clinical-research process improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarapeli, P; De Lusignan, S; Ellis, T; Jones, B

    2007-03-01

    The Primary Care Data Quality programme (PCDQ) is a quality-improvement programme which processes routinely collected general practice computer data. Patient data collected from a wide range of different brands of clinical computer systems are aggregated, processed, and fed back to practices in an educational context to improve the quality of care. Process modelling is a well-established approach used to gain understanding and systematic appraisal, and identify areas of improvement of a business process. Unified modelling language (UML) is a general purpose modelling technique used for this purpose. We used UML to appraise the PCDQ process to see if the efficiency and predictability of the process could be improved. Activity analysis and thinking-aloud sessions were used to collect data to generate UML diagrams. The UML model highlighted the sequential nature of the current process as a barrier for efficiency gains. It also identified the uneven distribution of process controls, lack of symmetric communication channels, critical dependencies among processing stages, and failure to implement all the lessons learned in the piloting phase. It also suggested that improved structured reporting at each stage - especially from the pilot phase, parallel processing of data and correctly positioned process controls - should improve the efficiency and predictability of research projects. Process modelling provided a rational basis for the critical appraisal of a clinical data processing system; its potential maybe underutilized within health care.

  9. Handbook of Natural Language Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Indurkhya, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive, modern reference of practical tools and techniques for implementing natural language processing in computer systems. This title covers classical methods, empirical and statistical techniques, and various applications. It describes how the techniques can be applied to European and Asian languages as well as English

  10. Conceptual dissonance: evaluating the efficacy of natural language processing techniques for validating translational knowledge constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Philip R O; Kwok, Alan; Dhaval, Rakesh; Borlawsky, Tara B

    2009-03-01

    The conduct of large-scale translational studies presents significant challenges related to the storage, management and analysis of integrative data sets. Ideally, the application of methodologies such as conceptual knowledge discovery in databases (CKDD) provides a means for moving beyond intuitive hypothesis discovery and testing in such data sets, and towards the high-throughput generation and evaluation of knowledge-anchored relationships between complex bio-molecular and phenotypic variables. However, the induction of such high-throughput hypotheses is non-trivial, and requires correspondingly high-throughput validation methodologies. In this manuscript, we describe an evaluation of the efficacy of a natural language processing-based approach to validating such hypotheses. As part of this evaluation, we will examine a phenomenon that we have labeled as "Conceptual Dissonance" in which conceptual knowledge derived from two or more sources of comparable scope and granularity cannot be readily integrated or compared using conventional methods and automated tools.

  11. Advances in natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Model Process Control Language

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MPC (Model Process Control) language enables the capture, communication and preservation of a simulation instance, with sufficient detail that it can be...

  13. Linearity in Process Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  14. Text Manipulation Techniques and Foreign Language Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ronald W.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses an approach to teaching second language composition which emphasizes (1) careful analysis of model texts from a limited, but well-defined perspective and (2) the application of text manipulation techniques developed by the word processing industry to student compositions. (EKN)

  15. LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS FOR THE BELARUSIAN CORPUS WITH THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING AND MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Hetsevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problems existing in text-to-speech synthesis. Different morphological, lexical and syntactical elements were localized with the help of the Belarusian unit of NooJ program. Those types of errors, which occur in Belarusian texts, were analyzed and corrected. Language model and part of speech tagging model were built. The natural language processing of Belarusian corpus with the help of developed algorithm using machine learning was carried out. The precision of developed models of machine learning has been 80–90 %. The dictionary was enriched with new words for the further using it in the systems of Belarusian speech synthesis.

  16. Symbolic Natural Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Laporte , Eric

    2005-01-01

    The connection between language processing and combinatorics on words is natural. Historically, linguists actually played a part in the beginning of the construction of theoretical combinatorics on words. Some of the terms in current use originate from linguistics: word, prefix, suffix, grammar, syntactic monoid... However, interpenetration between the formal world of computer theory and the intuitive world of linguistics is still a love story with ups and downs. We will encounter in this cha...

  17. Computer based extraction of phenoptypic features of human congenital anomalies from the digital literature with natural language processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakülah, Gökhan; Dicle, Oğuz; Koşaner, Ozgün; Suner, Aslı; Birant, Çağdaş Can; Berber, Tolga; Canbek, Sezin

    2014-01-01

    The lack of laboratory tests for the diagnosis of most of the congenital anomalies renders the physical examination of the case crucial for the diagnosis of the anomaly; and the cases in the diagnostic phase are mostly being evaluated in the light of the literature knowledge. In this respect, for accurate diagnosis, ,it is of great importance to provide the decision maker with decision support by presenting the literature knowledge about a particular case. Here, we demonstrated a methodology for automated scanning and determining of the phenotypic features from the case reports related to congenital anomalies in the literature with text and natural language processing methods, and we created a framework of an information source for a potential diagnostic decision support system for congenital anomalies.

  18. The visual language of technique

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Volume 1 : The book is inspired by the first seminar in a cycle connected to the celebrations of the 150th anniversary of the Politecnico di Milano (May 2013). "Dealing with the Image. Ivory Towers and Virtual Bridges" was the motto of this meeting, aiming to stimulate a discussion among engineers, designers and architects, all of whom are traditionally involved in the use of the Image as a specialized language supporting their work, their research activities, and their educational tasks. The volume also includes essays and contributions of invited or interviewed authors from other disciplines, namely Philosophy, Mathematics and Semiotics, together with articles from the poster session and a report from the round table. According to Regis Debray, in the present "Visual Age", which he has significantly defined as a "Video-Sphere", all the information tends to be processed and controlled by means of visual devices. This occurs especially in the various branches of many technical studies and activities, one of ...

  19. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  20. Novel food processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components

  1. Natural language processing with Java

    CERN Document Server

    Reese, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java programmer who wants to learn about the fundamental tasks underlying natural language processing, this book is for you. You will be able to identify and use NLP tasks for many common problems, and integrate them in your applications to solve more difficult problems. Readers should be familiar/experienced with Java software development.

  2. Graphical Language for Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonso, Keith

    2011-01-01

    A graphical language for processing data allows processing elements to be connected with virtual wires that represent data flows between processing modules. The processing of complex data, such as lidar data, requires many different algorithms to be applied. The purpose of this innovation is to automate the processing of complex data, such as LIDAR, without the need for complex scripting and programming languages. The system consists of a set of user-interface components that allow the user to drag and drop various algorithmic and processing components onto a process graph. By working graphically, the user can completely visualize the process flow and create complex diagrams. This innovation supports the nesting of graphs, such that a graph can be included in another graph as a single step for processing. In addition to the user interface components, the system includes a set of .NET classes that represent the graph internally. These classes provide the internal system representation of the graphical user interface. The system includes a graph execution component that reads the internal representation of the graph (as described above) and executes that graph. The execution of the graph follows the interpreted model of execution in that each node is traversed and executed from the original internal representation. In addition, there are components that allow external code elements, such as algorithms, to be easily integrated into the system, thus making the system infinitely expandable.

  3. Natural language processing tools for computer assisted language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandeventer Faltin, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the usefulness of natural language processing (NLP tools for computer assisted language learning (CALL through the presentation of three NLP tools integrated within a CALL software for French. These tools are (i a sentence structure viewer; (ii an error diagnosis system; and (iii a conjugation tool. The sentence structure viewer helps language learners grasp the structure of a sentence, by providing lexical and grammatical information. This information is derived from a deep syntactic analysis. Two different outputs are presented. The error diagnosis system is composed of a spell checker, a grammar checker, and a coherence checker. The spell checker makes use of alpha-codes, phonological reinterpretation, and some ad hoc rules to provide correction proposals. The grammar checker employs constraint relaxation and phonological reinterpretation as diagnosis techniques. The coherence checker compares the underlying "semantic" structures of a stored answer and of the learners' input to detect semantic discrepancies. The conjugation tool is a resource with enhanced capabilities when put on an electronic format, enabling searches from inflected and ambiguous verb forms.

  4. Teaching a foreign language using multisensory structured language techniques to at-risk learners: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R L; Miller, K S

    2000-01-01

    An overview of multisensory structured language (MSL) techniques used to teach a foreign language to at-risk students is outlined. Research supporting the use of MSL techniques is reviewed. Specific activities using the MSL approach to teach the phonology/orthography, grammar and vocabulary of the foreign language as well as reading and communicative activities in the foreign language are presented.

  5. Statistical Language Models and Information Retrieval: Natural Language Processing Really Meets Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, natural language processing techniques for information retrieval have always been studied outside the framework of formal models of information retrieval. In this article, we introduce a new formal model of information retrieval based on the application of statistical language models.

  6. Dependency Grammar in Lithuanian Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Grigonytė, Gintarė

    2006-01-01

    Lithuanian language is quite in an early stage of language processing. And therefore has a high demand on automated tools like taggers, parsers, word sense disambiguators etc. During the last 10 years only a few researchers were attempting to create a parser for Lithuanian language. However none of them are used in practices nowadays. The process of designing and implementing rule based parser for Lithuanian language is presented in this paper. Rules and constraints of the formal grammar foll...

  7. Automatic classification of written descriptions by healthy adults: An overview of the application of natural language processing and machine learning techniques to clinical discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Cíntia Matsuda; Cunha, Andre; Scarton, Carolina; Aluísio, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Discourse production is an important aspect in the evaluation of brain-injured individuals. We believe that studies comparing the performance of brain-injured subjects with that of healthy controls must use groups with compatible education. A pioneering application of machine learning methods using Brazilian Portuguese for clinical purposes is described, highlighting education as an important variable in the Brazilian scenario. The aims were to describe how to:(i) develop machine learning classifiers using features generated by natural language processing tools to distinguish descriptions produced by healthy individuals into classes based on their years of education; and(ii) automatically identify the features that best distinguish the groups. The approach proposed here extracts linguistic features automatically from the written descriptions with the aid of two Natural Language Processing tools: Coh-Metrix-Port and AIC. It also includes nine task-specific features (three new ones, two extracted manually, besides description time; type of scene described - simple or complex; presentation order - which type of picture was described first; and age). In this study, the descriptions by 144 of the subjects studied in Toledo 18 were used,which included 200 healthy Brazilians of both genders. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a radial basis function (RBF) kernel is the most recommended approach for the binary classification of our data, classifying three of the four initial classes. CfsSubsetEval (CFS) is a strong candidate to replace manual feature selection methods.

  8. Automatic classification of written descriptions by healthy adults: An overview of the application of natural language processing and machine learning techniques to clinical discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Matsuda Toledo

    Full Text Available Discourse production is an important aspect in the evaluation of brain-injured individuals. We believe that studies comparing the performance of brain-injured subjects with that of healthy controls must use groups with compatible education. A pioneering application of machine learning methods using Brazilian Portuguese for clinical purposes is described, highlighting education as an important variable in the Brazilian scenario.OBJECTIVE: The aims were to describe how to: (i develop machine learning classifiers using features generated by natural language processing tools to distinguish descriptions produced by healthy individuals into classes based on their years of education; and (ii automatically identify the features that best distinguish the groups.METHODS: The approach proposed here extracts linguistic features automatically from the written descriptions with the aid of two Natural Language Processing tools: Coh-Metrix-Port and AIC. It also includes nine task-specific features (three new ones, two extracted manually, besides description time; type of scene described - simple or complex; presentation order - which type of picture was described first; and age. In this study, the descriptions by 144 of the subjects studied in Toledo18 were used, which included 200 healthy Brazilians of both genders.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:A Support Vector Machine (SVM with a radial basis function (RBF kernel is the most recommended approach for the binary classification of our data, classifying three of the four initial classes. CfsSubsetEval (CFS is a strong candidate to replace manual feature selection methods.

  9. Natural language processing: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Prakash M; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Chapman, Wendy W

    2011-01-01

    To provide an overview and tutorial of natural language processing (NLP) and modern NLP-system design. This tutorial targets the medical informatics generalist who has limited acquaintance with the principles behind NLP and/or limited knowledge of the current state of the art. We describe the historical evolution of NLP, and summarize common NLP sub-problems in this extensive field. We then provide a synopsis of selected highlights of medical NLP efforts. After providing a brief description of common machine-learning approaches that are being used for diverse NLP sub-problems, we discuss how modern NLP architectures are designed, with a summary of the Apache Foundation's Unstructured Information Management Architecture. We finally consider possible future directions for NLP, and reflect on the possible impact of IBM Watson on the medical field.

  10. Clinical Natural Language Processing in languages other than English: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Névéol, Aurélie; Dalianis, Hercules; Velupillai, Sumithra; Savova, Guergana; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2018-03-30

    Natural language processing applied to clinical text or aimed at a clinical outcome has been thriving in recent years. This paper offers the first broad overview of clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) for languages other than English. Recent studies are summarized to offer insights and outline opportunities in this area. We envision three groups of intended readers: (1) NLP researchers leveraging experience gained in other languages, (2) NLP researchers faced with establishing clinical text processing in a language other than English, and (3) clinical informatics researchers and practitioners looking for resources in their languages in order to apply NLP techniques and tools to clinical practice and/or investigation. We review work in clinical NLP in languages other than English. We classify these studies into three groups: (i) studies describing the development of new NLP systems or components de novo, (ii) studies describing the adaptation of NLP architectures developed for English to another language, and (iii) studies focusing on a particular clinical application. We show the advantages and drawbacks of each method, and highlight the appropriate application context. Finally, we identify major challenges and opportunities that will affect the impact of NLP on clinical practice and public health studies in a context that encompasses English as well as other languages.

  11. Natural language processing in psychiatry. Artificial intelligence technology and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, D A; Rapp, C; Evens, M

    1992-04-01

    The potential benefit of artificial intelligence (AI) technology as a tool of psychiatry has not been well defined. In this essay, the technology of natural language processing and its position with regard to the two main schools of AI is clearly outlined. Past experiments utilizing AI techniques in understanding psychopathology are reviewed. Natural language processing can automate the analysis of transcripts and can be used in modeling theories of language comprehension. In these ways, it can serve as a tool in testing psychological theories of psychopathology and can be used as an effective tool in empirical research on verbal behavior in psychopathology.

  12. Plagiarism Detection for Indonesian Language using Winnowing with Parallel Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Y.; Isa, S. M.; Wulandhari, L. A.; Abdurachman, E.

    2018-03-01

    The plagiarism has many forms, not only copy paste but include changing passive become active voice, or paraphrasing without appropriate acknowledgment. It happens on all language include Indonesian Language. There are many previous research that related with plagiarism detection in Indonesian Language with different method. But there are still some part that still has opportunity to improve. This research proposed the solution that can improve the plagiarism detection technique that can detect not only copy paste form but more advance than that. The proposed solution is using Winnowing with some addition process in pre-processing stage. With stemming processing in Indonesian Language and generate fingerprint in parallel processing that can saving time processing and produce the plagiarism result on the suspected document.

  13. English Language Teachers' Perceptions on Knowing and Applying Contemporary Language Teaching Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucuoglu, Esen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the perceptions of English language teachers teaching at a preparatory school in relation to their knowing and applying contemporary language teaching techniques in their lessons. An investigation was conducted of 21 English language teachers at a preparatory school in North Cyprus. The SPSS statistical…

  14. Knowledge representation and natural language processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weischedel, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    In principle, natural language and knowledge representation are closely related. This paper investigates this by demonstrating how several natural language phenomena, such as definite reference, ambiguity, ellipsis, ill-formed input, figures of speech, and vagueness, require diverse knowledge sources and reasoning. The breadth of kinds of knowledge needed to represent morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics is surveyed. Furthermore, several current issues in knowledge representation, such as logic versus semantic nets, general-purpose versus special-purpose reasoners, adequacy of first-order logic, wait-and-see strategies, and default reasoning, are illustrated in terms of their relation to natural language processing and how natural language impact the issues.

  15. Quantum Algorithms for Compositional Natural Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Zeng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new application of quantum computing to the field of natural language processing. Ongoing work in this field attempts to incorporate grammatical structure into algorithms that compute meaning. In (Coecke, Sadrzadeh and Clark, 2010, the authors introduce such a model (the CSC model based on tensor product composition. While this algorithm has many advantages, its implementation is hampered by the large classical computational resources that it requires. In this work we show how computational shortcomings of the CSC approach could be resolved using quantum computation (possibly in addition to existing techniques for dimension reduction. We address the value of quantum RAM (Giovannetti,2008 for this model and extend an algorithm from Wiebe, Braun and Lloyd (2012 into a quantum algorithm to categorize sentences in CSC. Our new algorithm demonstrates a quadratic speedup over classical methods under certain conditions.

  16. A language for information commerce processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aberer, Karl; Wombacher, Andreas

    Automatizing information commerce requires languages to represent the typical information commerce processes. Existing languages and standards cover either only very specific types of business models or are too general to capture in a concise way the specific properties of information commerce

  17. The Case for Interactionism in Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-28

    D-AIBB 133 THE CASE FOR INTERACTIONISM IN LANGUAGE PROCESSING(U) 1/1 CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIV PITTSBURGH PA DEPT OF PSYCHOLOGY J L MCCLELLAND, 28 APR 87...Interaction in Language Processing The Case for Interactionism in Language Processing James L. McClelland Department of Psychology Carnegie-Mellon...REPORT NUMBER(S) 5 MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) Technical Report 0NR-87-1 6a NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF

  18. Neural Language Processing in Adolescent First-Language Learners: Longitudinal Case Studies in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Leonard, Matthew K; Davenport, Tristan S; Torres, Christina; Halgren, Eric; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2016-03-01

    One key question in neurolinguistics is the extent to which the neural processing system for language requires linguistic experience during early life to develop fully. We conducted a longitudinal anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG) analysis of lexico-semantic processing in 2 deaf adolescents who had no sustained language input until 14 years of age, when they became fully immersed in American Sign Language. After 2 to 3 years of language, the adolescents' neural responses to signed words were highly atypical, localizing mainly to right dorsal frontoparietal regions and often responding more strongly to semantically primed words (Ferjan Ramirez N, Leonard MK, Torres C, Hatrak M, Halgren E, Mayberry RI. 2014. Neural language processing in adolescent first-language learners. Cereb Cortex. 24 (10): 2772-2783). Here, we show that after an additional 15 months of language experience, the adolescents' neural responses remained atypical in terms of polarity. While their responses to less familiar signed words still showed atypical localization patterns, the localization of responses to highly familiar signed words became more concentrated in the left perisylvian language network. Our findings suggest that the timing of language experience affects the organization of neural language processing; however, even in adolescence, language representation in the human brain continues to evolve with experience. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Toward Cognitively Constrained Models of Language Processing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet Vogelzang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Language processing is not an isolated capacity, but is embedded in other aspects of our cognition. However, it is still largely unexplored to what extent and how language processing interacts with general cognitive resources. This question can be investigated with cognitively constrained computational models, which simulate the cognitive processes involved in language processing. The theoretical claims implemented in cognitive models interact with general architectural constraints such as memory limitations. This way, it generates new predictions that can be tested in experiments, thus generating new data that can give rise to new theoretical insights. This theory-model-experiment cycle is a promising method for investigating aspects of language processing that are difficult to investigate with more traditional experimental techniques. This review specifically examines the language processing models of Lewis and Vasishth (2005, Reitter et al. (2011, and Van Rij et al. (2010, all implemented in the cognitive architecture Adaptive Control of Thought—Rational (Anderson et al., 2004. These models are all limited by the assumptions about cognitive capacities provided by the cognitive architecture, but use different linguistic approaches. Because of this, their comparison provides insight into the extent to which assumptions about general cognitive resources influence concretely implemented models of linguistic competence. For example, the sheer speed and accuracy of human language processing is a current challenge in the field of cognitive modeling, as it does not seem to adhere to the same memory and processing capacities that have been found in other cognitive processes. Architecture-based cognitive models of language processing may be able to make explicit which language-specific resources are needed to acquire and process natural language. The review sheds light on cognitively constrained models of language processing from two angles: we

  20. Language loss and language processing : three generations of Dutch migrants in New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsen, Madeleine Elisabeth Helena

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the relationship between language shift, language loss, and language processing. Three generations of Dutch immigrants to New Zealand were tested to investigate intra- and intergenerational patterns of language use, social networks, perceived ethnolinguistic vitality,

  1. Functional graphical languages for process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A wide variety of safety systems are in use today in the process industries. Most of these systems rely on control software using procedural programming languages. This study investigates the use of functional graphical languages for controls in the process industry. Different vendor proprietary software and languages are investigated and evaluation criteria are outlined based on ability to meet regulatory requirements, reference sites involving applications with similar safety concerns, QA/QC procedures, community of users, type and user-friendliness of the man-machine interface, performance of operational code, and degree of flexibility. (author) 16 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Arabic Natural Language Processing System Code Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 This technical note provides a brief description of a Java library for Arabic natural language processing ( NLP ) containing code...for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in the paper "A Cross-Task Flexible Transition Model for Arabic Tokenization, Affix...and also English) natural language processing ( NLP ), containing code for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in Stephen Tratz’s

  3. Business Process Customization using Process Merging Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulanov, Pavel; Lazovik, Alexander; Aiello, Marco

    2012-01-01

    One of the important application of service composition techniques lies in the field of business process management. Essentially a business process can be considered as a composition of services, which is usually prepared by domain experts, and many tasks still have to be performed manually. These

  4. Combining Natural Language Processing and Statistical Text Mining: A Study of Specialized versus Common Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on developing and evaluating hybrid approaches for analyzing free-form text in the medical domain. This research draws on natural language processing (NLP) techniques that are used to parse and extract concepts based on a controlled vocabulary. Once important concepts are extracted, additional machine learning algorithms,…

  5. Individual Differences in Language Acquisition and Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Evan; Donnelly, Seamus; Christiansen, Morten H

    2018-02-01

    Humans differ in innumerable ways, with considerable variation observable at every level of description, from the molecular to the social. Traditionally, linguistic and psycholinguistic theory has downplayed the possibility of meaningful differences in language across individuals. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that there is significant variation among speakers at any age as well as across the lifespan. Here, we review recent research in psycholinguistics, and argue that a focus on individual differences (IDs) provides a crucial source of evidence that bears strongly upon core issues in theories of the acquisition and processing of language; specifically, the role of experience in language acquisition, processing, and attainment, and the architecture of the language system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reasoning about objects using process calculus techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleist, Josva

    This thesis investigates the applicability of techniques known from the world of process calculi to reason about properties of object-oriented programs. The investigation is performed upon a small object-oriented language - The Sigma-calculus of Abadi and Cardelli. The investigation is twofold: We......-calculus turns out to be insufficient. Based on our experiences, we present a translation of a typed imperative Sigma-calculus, which looks promising. We are able to provide simple proofs of the equivalence of different Sigma-calculus objects using this translation. We use a labelled transition system adapted...... to the Sigma-calculus to investigate the use of process calculi techniques directly on the Sigma-calculus. The results obtained are of a fairly theoretical nature. We investigate the connection between the operational and denotaional semantics for a typed functional Sigma-calculus. The result is that Abadi...

  7. ARM assembly language fundamentals and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Hohl, William

    2009-01-01

    Written by the director of ARM's worldwide academic program, this volume gives computer science professionals and students an edge, regardless of their preferred coding language. For those with some basic background in digital logic and high-level programming, the book examines code relevant to hardware and peripherals found on today's microcontrollers and looks at situations all programmers will eventually encounter. The book's carefully chosen examples teach easily transferrable skills that will help readers optimize routines and significantly streamline coding, especially in the embedded sp

  8. Language and culture modulate online semantic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ceri; Kuipers, Jan R; Thierry, Guillaume; Lovett, Victoria; Turnbull, Oliver; Jones, Manon W

    2015-10-01

    Language has been shown to influence non-linguistic cognitive operations such as colour perception, object categorization and motion event perception. Here, we show that language also modulates higher level processing, such as semantic knowledge. Using event-related brain potentials, we show that highly fluent Welsh-English bilinguals require significantly less processing effort when reading sentences in Welsh which contain factually correct information about Wales, than when reading sentences containing the same information presented in English. Crucially, culturally irrelevant information was processed similarly in both Welsh and English. Our findings show that even in highly proficient bilinguals, language interacts with factors associated with personal identity, such as culture, to modulate online semantic processing. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Flow Sheet Is Process Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Manfred

    1988-01-01

    Uses heat exchange, evaporator, and distillation pressure examples to illustrate ways of motivating students to participate creatively and generate questions on process engineering logic. Relates the need for providing a link between theory and industrial practice. (RT)

  10. Experimental data processing techniques by a personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Kiyokata; Tsuda, Kenzo; Abe, Yoshihiko; Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Nishikawa, Akira; Shimura, Hitoshi; Hyodo, Hiromi; Yamagishi, Shigeru.

    1989-01-01

    A personal computer (16-bit, about 1 MB memory) can be used at a low cost in the experimental data processing. This report surveys the important techniques on A/D and D/A conversion, display, store and transfer of the experimental data. It is also discussed the items to be considered in the software. Practical softwares programed BASIC and Assembler language are given as examples. Here, we present some techniques to get faster process in BASIC language and show that the system composed of BASIC and Assembler is useful in a practical experiment. The system performance such as processing speed and flexibility in setting operation condition will depend strongly on programming language. We have made test for processing speed by some typical programming languages; BASIC(interpreter), C, FORTRAN and Assembler. As for the calculation, FORTRAN has the best performance which is comparable to or better than Assembler even in the personal computer. (author)

  11. Multilingual Speech and Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    client software handles the user end of the transaction. Historically, four clients were provided: e-mail, web, FrameMaker , and command line. By...command-line client and an API. The API allows integration of CyberTrans into a number of processes including word processing packages ( FrameMaker ...preservation and logging, and others. The available clients remain e-mail, Web and FrameMaker . Platforms include both Unix and PC for clients, with

  12. Learning to rank for information retrieval and natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Learning to rank refers to machine learning techniques for training a model in a ranking task. Learning to rank is useful for many applications in information retrieval, natural language processing, and data mining. Intensive studies have been conducted on its problems recently, and significant progress has been made. This lecture gives an introduction to the area including the fundamental problems, major approaches, theories, applications, and future work.The author begins by showing that various ranking problems in information retrieval and natural language processing can be formalized as tw

  13. Second language processing : when are first and second languages processed similarly?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.

    In this article we investigate the effects of first language (L1) on second language (L2) neural processing for two grammatical constructions (verbal domain dependency and grammatical gender), focusing on the event-related potential P600 effect, which has been found in both L1 and L2 processing.

  14. A View into Successful Teaching Techniques: Teaching Malay Language as a Foreign Language in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharudin, Mazlina; Sadik, Azlina Md

    2016-01-01

    This paper will highlight successful teaching techniques used in class in teaching the Malay Language 1 course in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The course is to equip foreign students for their studies and also as means of basic communication with the locals in Malaysia. In Malaysia, the emphasis in Malay language teaching are focused to…

  15. An overview of computer-based natural language processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Computer based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer based creations to interact with machines in natural language (like English, Japanese, German, etc., in contrast to formal computer languages). The doors that such an achievement can open have made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural language interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state of the art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants and finally, future trends and expectations. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to engineering and research managers, potential users, and others who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.

  16. THE USE OF CRITICAL THINKING TECHNIQUE STUDYING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AT A HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Надія Бреславець

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the theoretical analysis of skills formation and to the use of critical thinking technique when studying a foreign language at a higher educational establishment. The essence, stages and phases of critical thinking technique have been highlighted, methods of its usage have been grounded. The process of investigation has revealed that introduction of critical thinking technique skills facilitates the increase of foreign language study effectiveness, livens up the work of the students aimed at achieving their personal goals of studies, calls the teachers to rethink the essence of the updated educational process.

  17. Aligning Grammatical Theories and Language Processing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shevaun; Phillips, Colin

    2015-01-01

    We address two important questions about the relationship between theoretical linguistics and psycholinguistics. First, do grammatical theories and language processing models describe separate cognitive systems, or are they accounts of different aspects of the same system? We argue that most evidence is consistent with the one-system view. Second,…

  18. Logic-programming language enriches design processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitson, B.; Ow-Wing, K.

    1984-03-22

    With the emergence of a set of high-level CAD tools for programmable logic devices, designers can translate logic into functional custom devices simply and efficiently. The core of the package is a blockstructured hardware description language called PLPL, for ''programmable-logic programming language.'' The cheif advantage of PLPL lies in its multiple input formats, which permit different design approaches for a variety of design problems. The higher the level of the approach, the closer PLPL will come to directly specifying the desired function. Intermediate steps in the design process can be eliminated, along with the errors that might have been generated during those steps.

  19. Sentence processing: linking language to motor chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Chersi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence in cognitive science and neuroscience is pointing towards the existence of a deep interconnection between cognition, perception and action. According to this embodied perspective language understanding is based on a mental simulation process involving a sensory-motor matching system known as the mirror neuron system. However, the precise dynamics underling the relation between language and action are not yet well understood. In fact, experimental studies are not always coherent as some report that language processing interferes with action execution while others find facilitation. In this work we present a detailed neural network model capable of reproducing experimentally observed influences of the processing of action-related sentences on the execution of motor sequences. The proposed model is based on three main points. The first is that the processing of action-related sentences causes the resonance of motor and mirror neurons encoding the corresponding actions. The second is that there exists a varying degree of crosstalk between neuronal populations depending on whether they encode the same motor act, the same effector or the same action-goal. The third is the fact that neuronal populations’ internal dynamics, which results from the combination of multiple processes taking place at different time scales, can facilitate or interfere with successive activations of the same or of partially overlapping pools.

  20. Input Processing at First Exposure to a Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Gerardo; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in learners' cognitive capacities to process a second language (L2) at first exposure to the target language. Evidence suggests that L2 learners are capable of processing novel words by exploiting phonological information from their first language (L1). Hearing adult learners of a sign language, however, cannot fall back…

  1. Natural Language Processing with Small Feed-Forward Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Botha, Jan A.; Pitler, Emily; Ma, Ji; Bakalov, Anton; Salcianu, Alex; Weiss, David; McDonald, Ryan; Petrov, Slav

    2017-01-01

    We show that small and shallow feed-forward neural networks can achieve near state-of-the-art results on a range of unstructured and structured language processing tasks while being considerably cheaper in memory and computational requirements than deep recurrent models. Motivated by resource-constrained environments like mobile phones, we showcase simple techniques for obtaining such small neural network models, and investigate different tradeoffs when deciding how to allocate a small memory...

  2. Comparative analysis of business rules and business process modeling languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Rima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During developing an information system is important to create clear models and choose suitable modeling languages. The article analyzes the SRML, SBVR, PRR, SWRL, OCL rules specifying language and UML, DFD, CPN, EPC and IDEF3 BPMN business process modeling language. The article presents business rules and business process modeling languages theoretical comparison. The article according to selected modeling aspects of the comparison between different business process modeling languages ​​and business rules representation languages sets. Also, it is selected the best fit of language set for three layer framework for business rule based software modeling.

  3. Implicit Schemata and Categories in Memory-Based Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Antal; Daelemans, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Memory-based language processing (MBLP) is an approach to language processing based on exemplar storage during learning and analogical reasoning during processing. From a cognitive perspective, the approach is attractive as a model for human language processing because it does not make any assumptions about the way abstractions are shaped, nor any…

  4. Processes and variations in language economisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. White

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the processes of reducing language in textchats produced by non-native speakers of English. We propose that forms are reduced because of their high frequency and because of the discourse context. A wide variety of processes are attested in the literature, and we find different forms of clippings in our data, including mixtures of different clippings, homophone respellings, phonetic respellings including informal oral forms, initialisms (but no acronyms, and mixtures of clipping together with homophone and phonetic respellings. Clippings were the most frequent process (especially back-clippings and initialisms, followed by homophone respellings. There were different ways of metalinguistically marking reduction, but capitalisation was by far the most frequent. There is much individual variation in the frequencies of the different processes, although most were within normal distribution. The fact that non-native speakers seem to generally follow reduction patterns of native speakers suggests that reduction is a universal process.

  5. Comparing visualization techniques for learning second language prosody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Alm, Maria Helena; Schümchen, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    We tested the usability of prosody visualization techniques for second language (L2) learners. Eighteen Danish learners realized target sentences in German based on different visualization techniques. The sentence realizations were annotated by means of the phonological Kiel Intonation Model...... and then analyzed in terms of (a) prosodic-pattern consistency and (b) correctness of the prosodic patterns. In addition, the participants rated the usability of the visualization techniques. The results from the phonological analysis converged with the usability ratings in showing that iconic techniques......, in particular the stylized “hat pattern” visualization, performed better than symbolic techniques, and that marking prosodic information beyond intonation can be more confusing than instructive. In discussing our findings, we also provide a description of the new Danish-German learner corpus we created: DANGER...

  6. Improvements in techniques and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairon, B.; Nolin, D.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the De-construction And Decontamination Techniques used at COGEMA-La Hague for dismantling and decontamination of plant UP2 400. Intervention under water particularly intervention from the edge of the pool are described while significant radiological constraints due to the presence of fuel are observed. The Under water fuel operations were undertaking to recover pieces of UNGG fuel and miscellaneous technological waste under 5 m of water and with reduced visibility. Here remote works implying reduced dosimetry and increased security were carried out. Specific issues concerning tools and procedures are addressed as fallows: Pendulous telescopic tool holder on runway channel 215.40; HP cutting under water; Cutting machine set up in the facility; Suction of sludge; Gripping and handling system for the slider and lid; Dredging the Sludge; tests in facility; Control console; Shock absorbing units; Moving the shock absorbing mattresses using slings; Decontamination of large areas of stainless steel walls; Cutting bulky parts in air; Cutting a tubular structure under water; Compacting the drums; Concrete skinning using skinning machines; Concrete skinning using the BRH, hydraulic rock breaker; Concrete skinning using shot blasting; Dismantling the process cell using the 'ATENA' remote power carrier; Removing openings through dry core sample drilling; Removing openings through demolition

  7. The social impact of natural language processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Spruit, Shannon

    Research in natural language processing (NLP) used to be mostly performed on anonymous corpora, with the goal of enriching linguistic analysis. Authors were either largely unknown or public figures. As we increasingly use more data from social media, this situation has changed: users are now...... individually identifiable, and the outcome of NLP experiments and applications can have a direct effect on their lives. This change should spawn a debate about the ethical implications of NLP, but until now, the internal discourse in the field has not followed the technological development. This position paper...

  8. A Comparative of business process modelling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangkawarow, I. R. H. T.; Waworuntu, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this era, there is a lot of business process modeling techniques. This article is the research about differences of business process modeling techniques. For each technique will explain about the definition and the structure. This paper presents a comparative analysis of some popular business process modelling techniques. The comparative framework is based on 2 criteria: notation and how it works when implemented in Somerleyton Animal Park. Each technique will end with the advantages and disadvantages. The final conclusion will give recommend of business process modeling techniques that easy to use and serve the basis for evaluating further modelling techniques.

  9. Emerging Approach of Natural Language Processing in Opinion Mining: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. It studies the problems of automated generation and understanding of natural human languages. This paper outlines a framework to use computer and natural language techniques for various levels of learners to learn foreign languages in Computer-based Learning environment. We propose some ideas for using the computer as a practical tool for learning foreign language where the most of courseware is generated automatically. We then describe how to build Computer Based Learning tools, discuss its effectiveness, and conclude with some possibilities using on-line resources.

  10. Input processing at first exposure to a sign language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega, G.; Morgan, G.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in learners' cognitive capacities to process a second language (L2) at first exposure to the target language. Evidence suggests that L2 learners are capable of processing novel words by exploiting phonological information from their first language (L1). Hearing adult

  11. Parallel transaction processing in functional languages, towards practical functional databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.; Huisman, Marieke; de Keijzer, Ander

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows how functional languages can be adapted for transaction processing, and discusses the implementation of a parallel runtime system for such functional transaction processing languages. We extend functional languages with current state variables and result state variables to allow the

  12. Applicability of statistical process control techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, W.A.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns the application of Process Control Techniques (PCTs) for the improvement of the technical performance of discrete production processes. Successful applications of these techniques, such as Statistical Process Control Techniques (SPC), can be found in the literature. However, some

  13. The Use of Brain Electrophysiology Techniques To Study Language: A Basic Guide for the Beginning Consumer of Electrophysiology Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfese, Dennis L.; Molfese, Victoria J.; Kelly, Spencer

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the use of event-related potential (ERP) approaches to study language processes. First, a brief history of the emergence of this technology is presented, followed by definitions, a theoretical overview, and a practical guide to conducting ERP studies. Examples of language studies that use this technique are…

  14. Rain: A New Concurrent Process-Oriented Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Neil C.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper details the design of a new concurrent process-oriented programming language, Rain. The language borrows heavily from occam-p and C++ to create a new language based on process-oriented programming, marrying channel-based communication, a clear division between statement and expression, and elements of functional programming. An expressive yet simple type system, coupled with templates, underpins the language. Modern features such as Unicode support and 64-bit integers are included ...

  15. Cognitive techniques and language: A return to behavioral origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froján Parga, María X; Núñez de Prado Gordillo, Miguel; de Pascual Verdú, Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    the main purpose of this study is to offer an alternative explanatory account of the functioning of cognitive techniques that is based on the principles of associative learning and highlights their verbal nature. The traditional accounts are questioned and analyzed in the light of the situation of psychology in the 1970s. conceptual analysis is employed to revise the concepts of language, cognition and behavior. Several operant- and Pavlovian-based approaches to these phenomena are presented, while particular emphasis is given to Mowrer’s (1954) approach and Ryle (1949) and Wittgenstein’s (1953) philosophical contributions to the field. several logical problems are found in regard to the theoretical foundations of cognitive techniques. A combination of both operant and Pavlovian paradigms based on the above-mentioned approaches is offered as an alternative explanatory account of cognitive techniques. This new approach could overcome the conceptual fragilities of the cognitive standpoint and its dependence upon constructs of dubious logical and scientific validity.

  16. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  17. Functional MRI of Language Processing and Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Méndez Orellana (Carolina)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ My thesis describe the utility of implementing fMRI to investigate how the language system is reorganized in brain damaged patients. Specifically for aphasia research fMRI allows to show how specific language treatment methods have the potential to enhance language

  18. OBJECTIVES AND PROCESSES OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIZEMORE, MAMIE

    THE OBJECTIVES OF SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING, AND SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS FOR PRESENTING AND DRILLING STRUCTURES BY THE USE OF CERTAIN GESTURES, WERE PRESENTED. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONCENTRATING EFFORTS ON THE ESSENTIALS OF LANGUAGE LEARNING REVOLVED AROUND AN EMPHASIS ON THE TEACHING OF THE LANGUAGE ITSELF RATHER THAN ABOUT ITS HISTORY, VOCABULARY,…

  19. A syntactic component for Vietnamese language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Le-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a syntactic component for the Vietnamese language. We first discuss the construction of a lexicalized tree-adjoining grammar using an automatic extraction approach. We then present the construction and evaluation of a deep syntactic parser based on the extracted grammar. This is a complete system integrating necessary tools to process Vietnamese text, which permits to take as input raw texts and produce syntactic structures. A dependency annotation scheme for Vietnamese and an algorithm for extracting dependency structures from derivation trees are also proposed. At present, this is the first Vietnamese parsing system capable of producing both constituency and dependency analyses with encouraging performances: 69.33% and 73.21% for constituency and dependency analysis accuracy, respectively. The parser also compares favourably to a statistical parser which is trained and tested on the same data sets.

  20. Learning algorithms and automatic processing of languages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluhr, Christian Yves Andre

    1977-01-01

    This research thesis concerns the field of artificial intelligence. It addresses learning algorithms applied to automatic processing of languages. The author first briefly describes some mechanisms of human intelligence in order to describe how these mechanisms are simulated on a computer. He outlines the specific role of learning in various manifestations of intelligence. Then, based on the Markov's algorithm theory, the author discusses the notion of learning algorithm. Two main types of learning algorithms are then addressed: firstly, an 'algorithm-teacher dialogue' type sanction-based algorithm which aims at learning how to solve grammatical ambiguities in submitted texts; secondly, an algorithm related to a document system which structures semantic data automatically obtained from a set of texts in order to be able to understand by references to any question on the content of these texts

  1. The social impact of natural language processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Spruit, Shannon

    Research in natural language processing (NLP) used to be mostly performed on anonymous corpora, with the goal of enriching linguistic analysis. Authors were either largely unknown or public figures. As we increasingly use more data from social media, this situation has changed: users are now...... individually identifiable, and the outcome of NLP experiments and applications can have a direct effect on their lives. This change should spawn a debate about the ethical implications of NLP, but until now, the internal discourse in the field has not followed the technological development. This position paper...... identifies a number of social implications that NLP research may have, and discusses their ethical significance, as well as ways to address them....

  2. The Impacts of Language Background and Language-Related Disorders in Auditory Processing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of language background and language-related disorders (LRDs--dyslexia and/or language impairment) on performance in English speech and nonspeech tests of auditory processing (AP) commonly used in the clinic. Method: A clinical database concerning 133 multilingual children (mostly with English as an additional…

  3. Evaluation of the Grammar Teaching Process by Using the Methods Used in Turkish Language Teaching as a Foreign Language: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Basak Karakoç

    2018-01-01

    The preferred methods for the success of foreign language teaching and the reflection of these methods on the teaching process are very important. Since approaches and methods in language teaching enable the teacher to use different techniques in his/her lectures, they provide a more effective teaching process. The methodology in teaching the…

  4. An Overview of Computer-Based Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.

    Computer-based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines using natural languages (English, Japanese, German, etc.) rather than formal computer languages. NLP is a major research area in the fields of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. Commercial…

  5. Radiotracer techniques in mineral processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewlocki, K.

    1991-01-01

    The value of the smelter metal content in currently exploited polymetallic ores mostly does not exceed 2%. Before metallurgical treatment, ore must pass through the concentration process. The benefication process usually starts from the comminution of excavated material and terminates at the flotation and drying of the concentrate. These operations consume vast quantities of energy. To be economically justified, the process requires optimization and, if possible, automatic control. Radioactive tracers were found to be useful in the identification of particular technological subsystems and their subsequent optimization. A great deal of experience has been gathered in this field so far. The industrial radiotracer test (RTT) is carried out using very sensitive multidetector recording systems which have digital data acquisition capabilities. The optimization strategy consists of periodically adjusting technological process and set points of controlled variables according to certain improvement procedures. If computer facilities are available, data interpretation and calibration of the mathematical models describing the technical process itself can be performed on the spot. This significantly accelerates the whole procedure as RTT may be repeated for particular system configurations. The procedure of plant optimization by means of RTT is illustrated in the paper using the example of the copper ore enrichment process, assuming that it is representative of the whole mineral industry. Identification by RTT of the three main operations involved in the ore enrichment process, such as comminution, flotation and granular classification, is discussed in detail as particular case studies. In reference to this, it is also shown how the technological process can be adjusted to be most efficient. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

  6. Production Logistics Simulation Supported by Process Description Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohács Gábor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process description languages are used in the business may be useful in the optimization of logistics processes too. The process description languages would be the obvious solution for process control, to handle the main sources of faults and to give a correct list of what to do during the logistics process. Related to this, firstly, the paper presents the main features of the frequent process description languages. The following section describes the currently most used process modelling languages, in the areas of production and construction logistics. In addition, the paper gives some examples of logistics simulation, as another very important field of logistics system modelling. The main edification of the paper, the logistics simulation supported by process description languages. The paper gives a comparison of a Petri net formal representation and a Simul8 model, through a construction logistics model, as the major contribution of the research.

  7. Probabilistic evaluation of process model matching techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuss, Elena; Leopold, Henrik; van der Aa, Han; Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2016-01-01

    Process model matching refers to the automatic identification of corresponding activities between two process models. It represents the basis for many advanced process model analysis techniques such as the identification of similar process parts or process model search. A central problem is how to

  8. Handbook of natural language processing and machine translation DARPA global autonomous language exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, Joseph P; McCary, John

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook, written by leading experts in the field, details the groundbreaking research conducted under the breakthrough GALE program - The Global Autonomous Language Exploitation within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), while placing it in the context of previous research in the fields of natural language and signal processing, artificial intelligence and machine translation. The most fundamental contrast between GALE and its predecessor programs was its holistic integration of previously separate or sequential processes. In earlier language research pro

  9. Natural Language Processing Technologies in Radiology Research and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tianrun; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Yu, Sheng; Kelil, Tatiana; Ripley, Beth; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; Rybicki, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    The migration of imaging reports to electronic medical record systems holds great potential in terms of advancing radiology research and practice by leveraging the large volume of data continuously being updated, integrated, and shared. However, there are significant challenges as well, largely due to the heterogeneity of how these data are formatted. Indeed, although there is movement toward structured reporting in radiology (ie, hierarchically itemized reporting with use of standardized terminology), the majority of radiology reports remain unstructured and use free-form language. To effectively “mine” these large datasets for hypothesis testing, a robust strategy for extracting the necessary information is needed. Manual extraction of information is a time-consuming and often unmanageable task. “Intelligent” search engines that instead rely on natural language processing (NLP), a computer-based approach to analyzing free-form text or speech, can be used to automate this data mining task. The overall goal of NLP is to translate natural human language into a structured format (ie, a fixed collection of elements), each with a standardized set of choices for its value, that is easily manipulated by computer programs to (among other things) order into subcategories or query for the presence or absence of a finding. The authors review the fundamentals of NLP and describe various techniques that constitute NLP in radiology, along with some key applications. ©RSNA, 2016 PMID:26761536

  10. Natural Language Processing Technologies in Radiology Research and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tianrun; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Yu, Sheng; Kelil, Tatiana; Ripley, Beth; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The migration of imaging reports to electronic medical record systems holds great potential in terms of advancing radiology research and practice by leveraging the large volume of data continuously being updated, integrated, and shared. However, there are significant challenges as well, largely due to the heterogeneity of how these data are formatted. Indeed, although there is movement toward structured reporting in radiology (ie, hierarchically itemized reporting with use of standardized terminology), the majority of radiology reports remain unstructured and use free-form language. To effectively "mine" these large datasets for hypothesis testing, a robust strategy for extracting the necessary information is needed. Manual extraction of information is a time-consuming and often unmanageable task. "Intelligent" search engines that instead rely on natural language processing (NLP), a computer-based approach to analyzing free-form text or speech, can be used to automate this data mining task. The overall goal of NLP is to translate natural human language into a structured format (ie, a fixed collection of elements), each with a standardized set of choices for its value, that is easily manipulated by computer programs to (among other things) order into subcategories or query for the presence or absence of a finding. The authors review the fundamentals of NLP and describe various techniques that constitute NLP in radiology, along with some key applications. ©RSNA, 2016.

  11. Applications Associated With Morphological Analysis And Generation In Natural Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Yadav

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural Language Processing is one of the most developing fields in research area. In most of the applications related to the Natural Language Processing findings of the Morphological Analysis and Morphological Generation can be considered very important. As morphological study is the technique to recognise a word and its output can be used on later on stages .Keeping in view this importance this paper describes how Morphological Analysis and Morphological Generation can be proved as an important part of various Natural Language Processing fields such as Spell checker Machine Translation etc.

  12. Theatrical language, narrative techniques and anti-anti-Gypsyism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mochi Sismondi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With this article based on his fieldwork in Šuto Orizari, a Municipality in the suburbs of Skopje (Macedonia, the author analyses how theatrical language and narrative techniques can be used to oppose the strengthening of anti-gypsyism in public opinion. Šuto Orizari is the only Municipality in the world where romanés is used as an official language, and the Mayor and the majority of the members of the assembly of the municipality come from the Roma community, thus enjoying a degree of effective self-government. Andrea Mochi Sismondi and Fiorenza Menni lived there for two years trying to understand the different visions of the world originating among Roma, while collecting dramaturgical materials later used in the production of two theatrical performances, a book and several public events where Roma and Gadžé can exchange their points of view on fundamental issues concerning political philosophy. Freedom, equality, the legitimate aspiration to a better life, freedom of movement: all values modern constitutions are based on, and on which the two artists focused their long interviews and conversations with Šuto Orizari citizens and Roma colleagues. The work has been presented all over Italy and its results reveal how literary non-fiction and performing arts can be successfully used to show the weakness of the arguments alleging the cultural distance that would make the dialogue between Roma and Gadžé impossible.

  13. Techniques for Automated Testing of Lola Industrial Robot Language Parser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Lutovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of parsing execution directly affects the accuracy of semantic analysis, optimization and object code generation. Therefore, parser testing represents the basis of compiler testing. It should include tests for correct and expected, but also for unexpected and invalid cases. Techniques for testing the parser, as well as algorithms and tools for test sentences generation, are discussed in this paper. The methodology for initial testing of a newly developed compiler is proposed. Generation of negative test sentences by modifying the original language grammar is described. Positive and negative test cases generated by Grow, Purdom’s algorithm with and without length control, CDRC-P algorithm and CDRC-P algorithm with length control are applied to the testing of L-IRL robot programming language. For this purpose two different tools for generation of test sentences are used. Based on the presented analysis of possible solutions, the appropriate method can be chosen for testing the parser for smaller grammars with many recursive rules.

  14. Toward cognitively constrained models of language processing : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, Margreet; Mills, Anne C.; Reitter, David; van Rij, Jacolien; Hendriks, Petra; van Rijn, Hedderik

    2017-01-01

    Language processing is not an isolated capacity, but is embedded in other aspects of our cognition. However, it is still largely unexplored to what extent and how language processing interacts with general cognitive resources. This question can be investigated with cognitively constrained

  15. The Influence of Process Drama on Elementary Students' Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alida

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the influence of process drama on fourth grade students' written language productivity and specificity. Participants included 16 students with learning and/or behavioral challenges at an urban public charter school. The influence of process drama on students' written language was compared across contextualized and…

  16. Natural Language Processing in Radiology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Ewoud; Braun, Loes M M; Hunink, M G Myriam; Kors, Jan A

    2016-05-01

    Radiological reporting has generated large quantities of digital content within the electronic health record, which is potentially a valuable source of information for improving clinical care and supporting research. Although radiology reports are stored for communication and documentation of diagnostic imaging, harnessing their potential requires efficient and automated information extraction: they exist mainly as free-text clinical narrative, from which it is a major challenge to obtain structured data. Natural language processing (NLP) provides techniques that aid the conversion of text into a structured representation, and thus enables computers to derive meaning from human (ie, natural language) input. Used on radiology reports, NLP techniques enable automatic identification and extraction of information. By exploring the various purposes for their use, this review examines how radiology benefits from NLP. A systematic literature search identified 67 relevant publications describing NLP methods that support practical applications in radiology. This review takes a close look at the individual studies in terms of tasks (ie, the extracted information), the NLP methodology and tools used, and their application purpose and performance results. Additionally, limitations, future challenges, and requirements for advancing NLP in radiology will be discussed. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  17. Speakers of different languages process the visual world differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabal, Sarah; Marian, Viorica

    2015-06-01

    Language and vision are highly interactive. Here we show that people activate language when they perceive the visual world, and that this language information impacts how speakers of different languages focus their attention. For example, when searching for an item (e.g., clock) in the same visual display, English and Spanish speakers look at different objects. Whereas English speakers searching for the clock also look at a cloud, Spanish speakers searching for the clock also look at a gift, because the Spanish names for gift (regalo) and clock (reloj) overlap phonologically. These different looking patterns emerge despite an absence of direct language input, showing that linguistic information is automatically activated by visual scene processing. We conclude that the varying linguistic information available to speakers of different languages affects visual perception, leading to differences in how the visual world is processed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Inter-functional influence of culture and language during the process of foreign language teaching of teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergeshali kyzy A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available this article describes some theoretical tasks of multicultural education of teenagers in foreign language teaching. The work also has analyzed inter-functional influence of the language and culture in the process of foreign language teaching.

  19. Semantic structures advances in natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Waltz, David L

    2014-01-01

    Natural language understanding is central to the goals of artificial intelligence. Any truly intelligent machine must be capable of carrying on a conversation: dialogue, particularly clarification dialogue, is essential if we are to avoid disasters caused by the misunderstanding of the intelligent interactive systems of the future. This book is an interim report on the grand enterprise of devising a machine that can use natural language as fluently as a human. What has really been achieved since this goal was first formulated in Turing's famous test? What obstacles still need to be overcome?

  20. A measurement technique for counting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantoni, V.; Pavia Univ.; De Lotto, I.; Valenziano, F.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for the estimation of first and second order properties of a stationary counting process is presented here which uses standard instruments for analysis of a continuous stationary random signal. (orig.)

  1. Multibeam swath bathymetry signal processing techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ranade, G.; Sudhakar, T.

    Mathematical advances and the advances in the real time signal processing techniques in the recent times, have considerably improved the state of art in the bathymetry systems. These improvements have helped in developing high resolution swath...

  2. The Arabic Natural Language Processing: Introduction and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boukhatem Nadera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Arabic is a Semitic language spoken by more than 330 million people as a native language, in an area extending from the Arabian/Persian Gulf in the East to the Atlantic Ocean in the West. Moreover, it is the language in which 1.4 billion Muslims around the world perform their daily prayers. Over the last few years, Arabic natural language processing (ANLP has gained increasing importance, and several state of the art systems have been developed for a wide range of applications.

  3. Comorbidity of Auditory Processing, Language, and Reading Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mridula; Purdy, Suzanne C.; Kelly, Andrea S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors assessed comorbidity of auditory processing disorder (APD), language impairment (LI), and reading disorder (RD) in school-age children. Method: Children (N = 68) with suspected APD and nonverbal IQ standard scores of 80 or more were assessed using auditory, language, reading, attention, and memory measures. Auditory processing…

  4. Effects of reading speed on second-language sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaan, Edith; Ballantyne, Jocelyn C.; Wijnen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    To test the effects of reading speed on second-language (L2) sentence processing and the potential influence of conflicting native language word order, we compared advanced L2 learners of English with native English speakers on a self-paced reading task. L2 learners read faster overall than native

  5. Processability in Scandinavian second language acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahn, Esther; Håkansson, Gisela; Hammerberg, Björn

    2001-01-01

    . The three languages mentioned are very closely related and have the same adjective morphology and subordinate clause syntax. We can, therefore, treat them as one language for the purposes of this study. Three analyses have been carried out: The first follows Pienemann's theory and is concerned only...... with syntactic levels; the second is a semantic analysis of the acquisition of number versus that of gender; the third analysis studies the various kinds of mismatches between the inflection of the noun, the controller, and the adjective. The results are the following: The first test supports PT as it has been...... described by Pienemann. The second analysis shows that there is an acquisitional hierarchy such that number is acquired before gender (in adjectives), and the mismatch analysis raises questions about the fundamental assumptions of the theory....

  6. Processing sequence annotation data using the Lua programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yutaka; Arita, Masanori; Kumagai, Toshitaka; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The data processing language in a graphical software tool that manages sequence annotation data from genome databases should provide flexible functions for the tasks in molecular biology research. Among currently available languages we adopted the Lua programming language. It fulfills our requirements to perform computational tasks for sequence map layouts, i.e. the handling of data containers, symbolic reference to data, and a simple programming syntax. Upon importing a foreign file, the original data are first decomposed in the Lua language while maintaining the original data schema. The converted data are parsed by the Lua interpreter and the contents are stored in our data warehouse. Then, portions of annotations are selected and arranged into our catalog format to be depicted on the sequence map. Our sequence visualization program was successfully implemented, embedding the Lua language for processing of annotation data and layout script. The program is available at http://staff.aist.go.jp/yutaka.ueno/guppy/.

  7. Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment theory proposes that neural systems for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action systems during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor system activity during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of activity in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron system.

  8. UNLization of Punjabi text for natural language processing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vaibhav Agarwal

    2018-05-26

    May 26, 2018 ... resent, and store information in a natural-language-inde- pendent format [8]. UNL is .... account semantic information available in words of the problem ...... Sentiment Analysis (SA) plays a vital role in decision making process.

  9. The Power of Students’ Subjectivity Processes in Foreign Language acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    of the students in reading and communicating in French and German as part of their academic learning process (Bojsen 2012). In this framework we are already on new ground within the established practice of FL teaching and learning in Denmark as this practice has traditionally been confined to language courses...... and degrees and diplomas in particular foreign languages. However in this case, the students are not inscribed as students of foreign languages. Their subjectivity process is thus not that of a student of French or German, but rather of pedagogy, cultural studies, economics, development studies or other...

  10. The Islamic State Battle Plan: Press Release Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Institute for the Study of Violent Groups NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NLP Natural Language Processing PCorpus Permanent Corpus PDF...approaches, we apply Natural Language Processing ( NLP ) tools to a unique database of text documents collected by Whiteside (2014). His collection...from Arabic to English. Compared to other terrorism databases, Whiteside’s collection methodology limits the scope of the database and avoids coding

  11. Natural language processing and the Now-or-Never bottleneck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, motivated by the need to improve the efficiency of natural language processing tools to handle web-scale data, have recently arrived at models that remarkably match the expected features of human language processing under the Now-or-Never bottleneck framework. This provides additional support for said framework and highlights the research potential in the interaction between applied computational linguistics and cognitive science.

  12. Linguistic Intervention Techniques for At-Risk English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Elke; Evers, Tsila

    2009-01-01

    In U.S. public schools, the population of nonnative speakers of English who are at risk for failing language requirements is growing. This article presents multisensory structured language (MSL) teaching strategies to remediate these students' difficulties in reading, writing, and speaking English. These strategies are underscored by recent…

  13. Figurative language processing in atypical populations: The ASD perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila eVulchanova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to provide a critical overview of experimental and clinical research documenting problems in figurative language processing in atypical populations with a focus on the Autistic Spectrum. Research in the comprehension and processing of figurative language in autism invariably documents problems in this area. The greater paradox is that even at the higher end of the spectrum or in the cases of linguistically talented individuals with Asperger syndrome, where structural language competence is intact, problems with extended language persist. If we assume that figurative and extended uses of language essentially depend on the perception and processing of more concrete core concepts and phenomena, the commonly observed failure in atypical populations to understand figurative language remains a puzzle.Various accounts have been offered to explain this issue, ranging from linking potential failure directly to overall structural language competence (Brock et al., 2008; Norbury, 2005 to right-hemispheric involvement (Gold and Faust, 2010. We argue that the dissociation between structural language and figurative language competence in autism should be sought in more general cognitive mechanisms and traits in the autistic phenotype (e.g., in terms of weak central coherence, Vulchanova et al., 2012b, as well as failure at on-line semantic integration with increased complexity and diversity of the stimuli (Coulson and van Petten, 2002. This perspective is even more compelling in light of similar problems in a number of conditions, including both acquired (e.g., Aphasia and developmental disorders (Williams Syndrome. This dissociation argues against a simple continuity view of language interpretation.

  14. Figurative language processing in atypical populations: the ASD perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulchanova, Mila; Saldaña, David; Chahboun, Sobh; Vulchanov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a critical overview of experimental and clinical research documenting problems in figurative language processing in atypical populations with a focus on the Autistic Spectrum. Research in the comprehension and processing of figurative language in autism invariably documents problems in this area. The greater paradox is that even at the higher end of the spectrum or in the cases of linguistically talented individuals with Asperger syndrome, where structural language competence is intact, problems with extended language persist. If we assume that figurative and extended uses of language essentially depend on the perception and processing of more concrete core concepts and phenomena, the commonly observed failure in atypical populations to understand figurative language remains a puzzle. Various accounts have been offered to explain this issue, ranging from linking potential failure directly to overall structural language competence (Norbury, 2005; Brock et al., 2008) to right-hemispheric involvement (Gold and Faust, 2010). We argue that the dissociation between structural language and figurative language competence in autism should be sought in more general cognitive mechanisms and traits in the autistic phenotype (e.g., in terms of weak central coherence, Vulchanova et al., 2012b), as well as failure at on-line semantic integration with increased complexity and diversity of the stimuli (Coulson and Van Petten, 2002). This perspective is even more compelling in light of similar problems in a number of conditions, including both acquired (e.g., Aphasia) and developmental disorders (Williams Syndrome). This dissociation argues against a simple continuity view of language interpretation.

  15. Figurative language processing in atypical populations: the ASD perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulchanova, Mila; Saldaña, David; Chahboun, Sobh; Vulchanov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a critical overview of experimental and clinical research documenting problems in figurative language processing in atypical populations with a focus on the Autistic Spectrum. Research in the comprehension and processing of figurative language in autism invariably documents problems in this area. The greater paradox is that even at the higher end of the spectrum or in the cases of linguistically talented individuals with Asperger syndrome, where structural language competence is intact, problems with extended language persist. If we assume that figurative and extended uses of language essentially depend on the perception and processing of more concrete core concepts and phenomena, the commonly observed failure in atypical populations to understand figurative language remains a puzzle. Various accounts have been offered to explain this issue, ranging from linking potential failure directly to overall structural language competence (Norbury, 2005; Brock et al., 2008) to right-hemispheric involvement (Gold and Faust, 2010). We argue that the dissociation between structural language and figurative language competence in autism should be sought in more general cognitive mechanisms and traits in the autistic phenotype (e.g., in terms of weak central coherence, Vulchanova et al., 2012b), as well as failure at on-line semantic integration with increased complexity and diversity of the stimuli (Coulson and Van Petten, 2002). This perspective is even more compelling in light of similar problems in a number of conditions, including both acquired (e.g., Aphasia) and developmental disorders (Williams Syndrome). This dissociation argues against a simple continuity view of language interpretation. PMID:25741261

  16. Syntactic processing is distributed across the language system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Idan; Balewski, Zuzanna; Mahowald, Kyle; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2016-02-15

    Language comprehension recruits an extended set of regions in the human brain. Is syntactic processing localized to a particular region or regions within this system, or is it distributed across the entire ensemble of brain regions that support high-level linguistic processing? Evidence from aphasic patients is more consistent with the latter possibility: damage to many different language regions and to white-matter tracts connecting them has been shown to lead to similar syntactic comprehension deficits. However, brain imaging investigations of syntactic processing continue to focus on particular regions within the language system, often parts of Broca's area and regions in the posterior temporal cortex. We hypothesized that, whereas the entire language system is in fact sensitive to syntactic complexity, the effects in some regions may be difficult to detect because of the overall lower response to language stimuli. Using an individual-subjects approach to localizing the language system, shown in prior work to be more sensitive than traditional group analyses, we indeed find responses to syntactic complexity throughout this system, consistent with the findings from the neuropsychological patient literature. We speculate that such distributed nature of syntactic processing could perhaps imply that syntax is inseparable from other aspects of language comprehension (e.g., lexico-semantic processing), in line with current linguistic and psycholinguistic theories and evidence. Neuroimaging investigations of syntactic processing thus need to expand their scope to include the entire system of high-level language processing regions in order to fully understand how syntax is instantiated in the human brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Teaching foreign language during adaptation process to European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayet TOK

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to give information about language teaching in EU and Turkey which started negotiations for being full member in EU. Language teaching in both EU countries and in Turkey is studied comparatively in respect of some variables. These variables are: the age at which pupils are first taught foreign languages as a compulsory subject; the number of language taught during compulsory education, using “ CLIL” type provision in education; percentage distribution of all pupils according to the number of foreign languages learnt in primary and secondary education; percentage of all pupils in primary and secondary education who are learning English, German and/or French; relative priority given to the aims associated with the four major skills in curricula for compulsory foreign languages in full-time compulsory education; the minimum number of hours recommended for teaching foreign languages as a compulsory subject during a notional year in primary and secondary education; minimum number of hours recommended for teaching the first foreign language as a compulsory subject in a notional year in full-time compulsory general education and number of years spent for teaching; the proportion of minimum total time prescribed for the teaching of foreign languages as a compulsory subject, as a percentage of total teaching time in primary and fulltime compulsory general secondary education; and regulations or recommendations regarding maximum class sizes for foreign languages in primary education. In the end of this study, there are regulations and recommendations about teaching foreign languages which are foreseen to be implemented in the adaptation process of EU.

  18. Motivation within the Information Processing Model of Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolopoulou-Sergi, Eleni

    2004-01-01

    The present article highlights the importance of the motivational construct for the foreign language learning (FLL) process. More specifically, in the present article it is argued that motivation is likely to play a significant role at all three stages of the FLL process as they are discussed within the information processing model of FLL, namely,…

  19. ISOLATED SPEECH RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR TAMIL LANGUAGE USING STATISTICAL PATTERN MATCHING AND MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIMALA C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, speech technology has become a vital part of our daily lives. Various techniques have been proposed for developing Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR system and have achieved great success in many applications. Among them, Template Matching techniques like Dynamic Time Warping (DTW, Statistical Pattern Matching techniques such as Hidden Markov Model (HMM and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM, Machine Learning techniques such as Neural Networks (NN, Support Vector Machine (SVM, and Decision Trees (DT are most popular. The main objective of this paper is to design and develop a speaker-independent isolated speech recognition system for Tamil language using the above speech recognition techniques. The background of ASR system, the steps involved in ASR, merits and demerits of the conventional and machine learning algorithms and the observations made based on the experiments are presented in this paper. For the above developed system, highest word recognition accuracy is achieved with HMM technique. It offered 100% accuracy during training process and 97.92% for testing process.

  20. Image processing techniques for remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    interpretation and for processing of scene data for autonomous machine perception. The technique of digital image processing are used for' automatic character/pattern recognition, industrial robots for product assembly and inspection, military recognizance... and spatial co-ordinates into discrete components. The mathematical concepts involved are the sampling and transform theory. Two dimensional transforms are used for image enhancement, restoration, encoding and description too. The main objective of the image...

  1. Combining Machine Learning and Natural Language Processing to Assess Literary Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyan, Renu; McCarthy, Kathryn S.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how machine learning and natural language processing (NLP) techniques can be leveraged to assess the interpretive behavior that is required for successful literary text comprehension. We compared the accuracy of seven different machine learning classification algorithms in predicting human ratings of student essays about…

  2. Learning Additional Languages as Hierarchical Probabilistic Inference: Insights From First Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Bozena; Fine, Alex B; Kleinschmidt, Dave F; Jaeger, T Florian

    2016-12-01

    We present a framework of second and additional language (L2/L n ) acquisition motivated by recent work on socio-indexical knowledge in first language (L1) processing. The distribution of linguistic categories covaries with socio-indexical variables (e.g., talker identity, gender, dialects). We summarize evidence that implicit probabilistic knowledge of this covariance is critical to L1 processing, and propose that L2/L n learning uses the same type of socio-indexical information to probabilistically infer latent hierarchical structure over previously learned and new languages. This structure guides the acquisition of new languages based on their inferred place within that hierarchy, and is itself continuously revised based on new input from any language. This proposal unifies L1 processing and L2/L n acquisition as probabilistic inference under uncertainty over socio-indexical structure. It also offers a new perspective on crosslinguistic influences during L2/L n learning, accommodating gradient and continued transfer (both negative and positive) from previously learned to novel languages, and vice versa.

  3. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  4. Finite-State Methodology in Natural Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Korzycki

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent mathematical and algorithmic results in the field of finite-state technology, as well the increase in computing power, have constructed the base for a new approach in natural language processing. However the task of creating an appropriate model that would describe the phenomena of the natural language is still to be achieved. ln this paper I'm presenting some notions related to the finite-state modelling of syntax and morphology.

  5. Advances in process research by radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, A.; Vogg, H.

    1978-01-01

    Modifications and transformations of materials and their technical implementation in process systems require movement of materials. Radionuclide techniques can greatly help in understanding and describing these mechanisms. The specialized measuring technique is demonstrated by three examples selected from various fields of process technology. Radioactive tracer studies performed on a rotary kiln helped, inter alia, to establish a subdivision into process zones and to pinpoint areas of dust generation. Mixing and feeding actions were studied in a twin screw extruder equipped with a special screw and mixer disk arrangement. Tracer experiments conducted in two secondary settling basins indicate the differences in the mechanisms of movement of the aqueous phase if the mean residence time and the residence time distribution may be influenced not only by hydraulic loads, but also by design variants of the overflow flumes. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Emotional language processing in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartseva, Alina; Dijkstra, Ton; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2014-01-01

    In his first description of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Kanner emphasized emotional impairments by characterizing children with ASD as indifferent to other people, self-absorbed, emotionally cold, distanced, and retracted. Thereafter, emotional impairments became regarded as part of the social impairments of ASD, and research mostly focused on understanding how individuals with ASD recognize visual expressions of emotions from faces and body postures. However, it still remains unclear how emotions are processed outside of the visual domain. This systematic review aims to fill this gap by focusing on impairments of emotional language processing in ASD. We systematically searched PubMed for papers published between 1990 and 2013 using standardized search terms. Studies show that people with ASD are able to correctly classify emotional language stimuli as emotionally positive or negative. However, processing of emotional language stimuli in ASD is associated with atypical patterns of attention and memory performance, as well as abnormal physiological and neural activity. Particularly, younger children with ASD have difficulties in acquiring and developing emotional concepts, and avoid using these in discourse. These emotional language impairments were not consistently associated with age, IQ, or level of development of language skills. We discuss how emotional language impairments fit with existing cognitive theories of ASD, such as central coherence, executive dysfunction, and weak Theory of Mind. We conclude that emotional impairments in ASD may be broader than just a mere consequence of social impairments, and should receive more attention in future research.

  7. Emotional language processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina eLartseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In his first description of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, Kanner emphasized emotional impairments by characterizing children with ASD as indifferent to other people, self-absorbed, emotionally cold, distanced, and retracted. Thereafter, emotional impairments became regarded as part of the social impairments of ASD, and research mostly focused on understanding how individuals with ASD recognize visual expressions of emotions from faces and body postures. However, it still remains unclear how emotions are processed outside of the visual domain. This systematic review aims to fill this gap by focusing on impairments of emotional language processing in ASD.We systematically searched PubMed for papers published between 1990 and 2013 using standardized search terms. Studies show that people with ASD are able to correctly classify emotional language stimuli as emotionally positive or negative. However, processing of emotional language stimuli in ASD is associated with atypical patterns of attention and memory performance, as well as abnormal physiological and neural activity. Particularly, younger children with ASD have difficulties in acquiring and developing emotional concepts, and avoid using these in discourse. These emotional language impairments were not consistently associated with age, IQ, or level of development of language skills.We discuss how emotional language impairments fit with existing cognitive theories of ASD, such as central coherence, executive dysfunction, and weak Theory of Mind. We conclude that emotional impairments in ASD may be broader than just a mere consequence of social impairments, and should receive more attention in future research.

  8. Emotional language processing in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartseva, Alina; Dijkstra, Ton; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2015-01-01

    In his first description of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Kanner emphasized emotional impairments by characterizing children with ASD as indifferent to other people, self-absorbed, emotionally cold, distanced, and retracted. Thereafter, emotional impairments became regarded as part of the social impairments of ASD, and research mostly focused on understanding how individuals with ASD recognize visual expressions of emotions from faces and body postures. However, it still remains unclear how emotions are processed outside of the visual domain. This systematic review aims to fill this gap by focusing on impairments of emotional language processing in ASD. We systematically searched PubMed for papers published between 1990 and 2013 using standardized search terms. Studies show that people with ASD are able to correctly classify emotional language stimuli as emotionally positive or negative. However, processing of emotional language stimuli in ASD is associated with atypical patterns of attention and memory performance, as well as abnormal physiological and neural activity. Particularly, younger children with ASD have difficulties in acquiring and developing emotional concepts, and avoid using these in discourse. These emotional language impairments were not consistently associated with age, IQ, or level of development of language skills. We discuss how emotional language impairments fit with existing cognitive theories of ASD, such as central coherence, executive dysfunction, and weak Theory of Mind. We conclude that emotional impairments in ASD may be broader than just a mere consequence of social impairments, and should receive more attention in future research. PMID:25610383

  9. ERP Response Unveils Effect of Second Language Manipulation on First Language Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Khachatryan

    Full Text Available Lexical access in bilinguals has been considered either selective or non-selective and evidence exists in favor of both hypotheses. We conducted a linguistic experiment to assess whether a bilingual's language mode influences the processing of first language information. We recorded event related potentials during a semantic priming paradigm with a covert manipulation of the second language (L2 using two types of stimulus presentations (short and long. We observed a significant facilitation of word pairs related in L2 in the short version reflected by a decrease in N400 amplitude in response to target words related to the English meaning of an inter-lingual homograph (homograph-unrelated group. This was absent in the long version, as the N400 amplitude for this group was similar to the one for the control-unrelated group. We also interviewed the participants whether they were aware of the importance of L2 in the experiment. We conclude that subjects participating in the long and short versions were in different language modes: closer to monolingual mode for the long and closer to bilingual mode for the short version; and that awareness about covert manipulation of L2 can influence the language mode, which in its turn influences the processing of the first language.

  10. Declarative versus imperative process modeling languages : the issue of maintainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahland, D.; Mendling, J.; Reijers, H.A.; Weber, B.; Weidlich, M.; Zugal, S.; Rinderle-Ma, S.; Sadiq, S.; Leymann, F.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of interest in declarative languages for process modeling both justifies and demands empirical investigations into their presumed advantages over more traditional, imperative alternatives. Our concern in this paper is with the ease of maintaining business process models, for example due to

  11. Language Development in Children with Language Disorders: An Introduction to Skinner's Verbal Behavior and the Techniques for Initial Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Laura Baylot; Bicard, David F.

    2009-01-01

    Language development in typically developing children has a very predictable pattern beginning with crying, cooing, babbling, and gestures along with the recognition of spoken words, comprehension of spoken words, and then one word utterances. This predictable pattern breaks down for children with language disorders. This article will discuss…

  12. Shared Processing of Language and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Ryan P; Chrobak, Quin M; Rauscher, Frances H; Karst, Aaron T; Hanson, Matt D; Steinert, Steven W; Bowe, Kyra L

    2018-01-01

    The present study sought to explore whether musical information is processed by the phonological loop component of the working memory model of immediate memory. Original instantiations of this model primarily focused on the processing of linguistic information. However, the model was less clear about how acoustic information lacking phonological qualities is actively processed. Although previous research has generally supported shared processing of phonological and musical information, these studies were limited as a result of a number of methodological concerns (e.g., the use of simple tones as musical stimuli). In order to further investigate this issue, an auditory interference task was employed. Specifically, participants heard an initial stimulus (musical or linguistic) followed by an intervening stimulus (musical, linguistic, or silence) and were then asked to indicate whether a final test stimulus was the same as or different from the initial stimulus. Results indicated that mismatched interference conditions (i.e., musical - linguistic; linguistic - musical) resulted in greater interference than silence conditions, with matched interference conditions producing the greatest interference. Overall, these results suggest that processing of linguistic and musical information draws on at least some of the same cognitive resources.

  13. Policy and process of innovation in techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Su; Lee, Jin Ju

    1982-09-01

    This book mentions policy and process of innovation in techniques, which deals with introduction, macroscopic analysis of development of science and technology including analysis of existing research about system of development on science and technology and new development system of science and technology, macroscopic analysis of development of science and technology of Korea. It also indicates innovation of technology in Korean industry with various access.

  14. Business Process Modeling Languages Supporting Collaborative Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleimani Malekan, H.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Hammoudi, S.; Maciaszek, L.A.; Cordeiro, J.; Dietz, J.L.G.

    2013-01-01

    Formalizing the definition of Business Processes (BPs) performed within each enterprise is fundamental for effective deployment of their competencies and capabilities within Collaborative Networks (CN). In our approach, every enterprise in the CN is represented by its set of BPs, so that other

  15. Comprehension Process of Second Language Indirect Requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satomi; Roitblat, Herbert L.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the comprehension of English conventional indirect requests by native English speakers and Japanese learners of English. Subjects read stories inducing either a conventional or a literal interpretation of a priming sentence. Results suggest that both native and nonnative speakers process both meanings of an ambiguous conventional request.…

  16. Bioacoustics of human whistled languages: an alternative approach to the cognitive processes of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Julien

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Whistled languages are a valuable heritage of human culture. This paper gives a first survey about a new multidisciplinary approach to these languages. Previous studies on whistled equivalents of languages have already documented that they can provide significant information about the role of rhythm and melody in language. To substantiate this, most whistles are represented by modulations of frequency, centered around 2000 Hz (±1000 Hz and often reach a loudness of about 130 dB (measured at 1m from the source. Their transmission range can reach up to 10 km (as verified in La Gomera, Canary Island, and the messages can remain understandable, even if the signal is deteriorated. In some cultures the use of whistled language is associated with some "talking musical instruments" (e.g. flutes, guitars, harps, gongs, drums, khens. Finally, whistles as a means of conveying information have some analogues in the animal kingdom (e.g. some birds, cetaceans, primates, providing opportunities to compare the acoustic characteristics of the respective signals. With such properties as a reference, the project reported here has two major tasks: to further elucidate the many facets of whistled language and, above all, help to immediately stop the process of its gradual disappearance.

  17. Early Childhood Stuttering and Electrophysiological Indices of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Arnold, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    We examined neural activity mediating semantic and syntactic processing in 27 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 27 preschool-age children who do not stutter (CWNS) matched for age, nonverbal IQ and language abilities. All participants displayed language abilities and nonverbal IQ within the normal range. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited while participants watched a cartoon video and heard naturally spoken sentences that were either correct or contained semantic or syntactic (phrase structure) violations. ERPs in CWS, compared to CWNS, were characterized by longer N400 peak latencies elicited by semantic processing. In the CWS, syntactic violations elicited greater negative amplitudes for the early time window (150–350 ms) over medial sites compared to CWNS. Additionally, the amplitude of the P600 elicited by syntactic violations relative to control words was significant over the left hemisphere for the CWNS but showed the reverse pattern in CWS, a robust effect only over the right hemisphere. Both groups of preschoolage children demonstrated marked and differential effects for neural processes elicited by semantic and phrase structure violations; however, a significant proportion of young CWS exhibit differences in the neural functions mediating language processing compared to CWNS despite normal language abilities. These results are the first to show that differences in event-related brain potentials reflecting language processing occur as early as the preschool years in CWS and provide the first evidence that atypical lateralization of hemispheric speech/language functions previously observed in the brains of adults who stutter begin to emerge near the onset of developmental stuttering. PMID:23773672

  18. Neural correlates of British sign language comprehension: spatial processing demands of topographic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacSweeney, Mairéad; Woll, Bencie; Campbell, Ruth; Calvert, Gemma A; McGuire, Philip K; David, Anthony S; Simmons, Andrew; Brammer, Michael J

    2002-10-01

    In all signed languages used by deaf people, signs are executed in "sign space" in front of the body. Some signed sentences use this space to map detailed "real-world" spatial relationships directly. Such sentences can be considered to exploit sign space "topographically." Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we explored the extent to which increasing the topographic processing demands of signed sentences was reflected in the differential recruitment of brain regions in deaf and hearing native signers of the British Sign Language. When BSL signers performed a sentence anomaly judgement task, the occipito-temporal junction was activated bilaterally to a greater extent for topographic than nontopographic processing. The differential role of movement in the processing of the two sentence types may account for this finding. In addition, enhanced activation was observed in the left inferior and superior parietal lobules during processing of topographic BSL sentences. We argue that the left parietal lobe is specifically involved in processing the precise configuration and location of hands in space to represent objects, agents, and actions. Importantly, no differences in these regions were observed when hearing people heard and saw English translations of these sentences. Despite the high degree of similarity in the neural systems underlying signed and spoken languages, exploring the linguistic features which are unique to each of these broadens our understanding of the systems involved in language comprehension.

  19. Language study on Spliced Semigraph using Folding techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, K.; Padmashree, J.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we proposed algorithm to identify cut vertices and cut edges for n-Cut Spliced Semigraph and splicing the n-Cut Spliced Semigraph using cut vertices else cut edges or combination of cut vertex and cut edge and applying sequence of folding to the spliced semigraph to obtain the semigraph quadruple η(S)=(2, 1, 1, 1). We observed that the splicing and folding using both cut vertices and cut edges is applicable only for n-Cut Spliced Semigraph where n > 2. Also, we transformed the spliced semigraph into tree structure and studied the language for the semigraph with n+2 vertices and n+1 semivertices using Depth First Edge Sequence algorithm and obtain the language structure with sequence of alphabet ‘a’ and ‘b’.

  20. Applications of Natural Language Processing in Biodiversity Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E. Thessen

    2012-01-01

    A computer can handle the volume but cannot make sense of the language. This paper reviews and discusses the use of natural language processing (NLP and machine-learning algorithms to extract information from systematic literature. NLP algorithms have been used for decades, but require special development for application in the biological realm due to the special nature of the language. Many tools exist for biological information extraction (cellular processes, taxonomic names, and morphological characters, but none have been applied life wide and most still require testing and development. Progress has been made in developing algorithms for automated annotation of taxonomic text, identification of taxonomic names in text, and extraction of morphological character information from taxonomic descriptions. This manuscript will briefly discuss the key steps in applying information extraction tools to enhance biodiversity science.

  1. English Language Teaching: phonetics, phonology and auditory processing contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Letícia Maria Martins; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Carvalho, Fernanda Ribeiro Pinto de; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    interrelation of phonetics, phonology and auditory processing in English Language Teaching. to determine whether prior contact with English phonetics favors general learning of this language (L2), i.e. second language, in Portuguese speakers; to verify performance of these individuals in an auditory processing test prior to and after being taught L2. participants of the study were eight college students who had only studied English in high school. These participants were divided into two groups: control group - were only enrolled in English classes; experimental group - were enrolled in English phonetic classes prior to their enrollment in English classes. Participants were submitted to an auditory processing test and to an oral test in English (Oral Test) prior to and after the classes. Data were analyzed in the same way, i.e. prior to and after the classes. these were expressed statistically by T-Student's test. Analyses indicated no difference in performance between groups. Scores indicated better performance of the control group for answering questions in English in the Oral Test. The experimental group had better performance in the auditory processing test after being enrolled to English phonetic classes and English course. prior basic knowledge of English did not enhance general learning (improvement in pronunciation) of the second language, however, it improved the ability of temporal processing in the used test.

  2. Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy

  3. Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials discussed in this report is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy

  4. Language meddles with infants’ processing of observed actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Sciutti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When learning from actions, language can be a crucial source to specify the learning content. Understanding its interactions with action processing is therefore fundamental when attempting to model the development of human learning to replicate it in artificial agents. From early childhood two different processes participate in shaping infants’ understanding of the events occurring around them: Infants’ motor system influences their action perception, driving their attention to the action goal; additionally, parental language influences the way children parse what they observe into relevant units. To date, however, it has barely been investigated whether these two cognitive processes – action understanding and language – are separate and independent or whether language might interfere with the former. To address this question we evaluated whether a verbal narrative concurrent with action observation could avert 14-month-old infants’ attention from an agent’s action goal, which is otherwise naturally selected when the action is performed by an agent. The infants observed movies of an actor reaching and transporting balls into a box. In three between-subject conditions, the reaching movement was accompanied either with no audio (Base condition, a sine-wave sound (Sound condition, or a speech sample (Speech condition. The results show that the presence of a speech sample underlining the movement phase reduced significantly the number of predictive gaze shifts to the goal compared to the other conditions. Our findings thus indicate that any modelling of the interaction between language and action processing will have to consider a potential top-down effect of the former, as language can be a meddler in the predictive behavior typical of the observation of goal oriented actions.

  5. Representing Information in Patient Reports Using Natural Language Processing and the Extensible Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carol; Hripcsak, George; Shagina, Lyuda; Liu, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To design a document model that provides reliable and efficient access to clinical information in patient reports for a broad range of clinical applications, and to implement an automated method using natural language processing that maps textual reports to a form consistent with the model. Methods: A document model that encodes structured clinical information in patient reports while retaining the original contents was designed using the extensible markup language (XML), and a document type definition (DTD) was created. An existing natural language processor (NLP) was modified to generate output consistent with the model. Two hundred reports were processed using the modified NLP system, and the XML output that was generated was validated using an XML validating parser. Results: The modified NLP system successfully processed all 200 reports. The output of one report was invalid, and 199 reports were valid XML forms consistent with the DTD. Conclusions: Natural language processing can be used to automatically create an enriched document that contains a structured component whose elements are linked to portions of the original textual report. This integrated document model provides a representation where documents containing specific information can be accurately and efficiently retrieved by querying the structured components. If manual review of the documents is desired, the salient information in the original reports can also be identified and highlighted. Using an XML model of tagging provides an additional benefit in that software tools that manipulate XML documents are readily available. PMID:9925230

  6. New levels of language processing complexity and organization revealed by Granger causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Gow

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Granger causation analysis of high spatiotemporal resolution reconstructions of brain activation offers a new window on the dynamic interactions between brain areas that support language processing. Premised on the observation that causes both precede and uniquely predict their effects, this approach provides an intuitive, model-free means of identifying directed causal interactions in the brain. It requires the analysis of all nonredundant potentially interacting signals, and has shown that even early processes such as speech perception involve interactions of many areas in a strikingly large network that extends well beyond traditional left hemisphere perisylvian cortex that play out over hundreds of milliseconds. In this paper we describe this technique and review several general findings that reframe the way we think about language processing and brain function in general. These include the extent and complexity of language processing networks, the central role of interactive processing dynamics, the role of processing hubs where the input from many distinct brain regions are integrated, and the degree to which task requirements and stimulus properties influence processing dynamics and inform our understanding of language-specific localized processes.

  7. New levels of language processing complexity and organization revealed by granger causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, David W; Caplan, David N

    2012-01-01

    Granger causation analysis of high spatiotemporal resolution reconstructions of brain activation offers a new window on the dynamic interactions between brain areas that support language processing. Premised on the observation that causes both precede and uniquely predict their effects, this approach provides an intuitive, model-free means of identifying directed causal interactions in the brain. It requires the analysis of all non-redundant potentially interacting signals, and has shown that even "early" processes such as speech perception involve interactions of many areas in a strikingly large network that extends well beyond traditional left hemisphere perisylvian cortex that play out over hundreds of milliseconds. In this paper we describe this technique and review several general findings that reframe the way we think about language processing and brain function in general. These include the extent and complexity of language processing networks, the central role of interactive processing dynamics, the role of processing hubs where the input from many distinct brain regions are integrated, and the degree to which task requirements and stimulus properties influence processing dynamics and inform our understanding of "language-specific" localized processes.

  8. Executive and Phonological Processes in Second-Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…

  9. Visual and Auditory Input in Second-Language Speech Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, Debra M.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of studies in second-language (L2) speech processing have involved unimodal (i.e., auditory) input; however, in many instances, speech communication involves both visual and auditory sources of information. Some researchers have argued that multimodal speech is the primary mode of speech perception (e.g., Rosenblum 2005). Research on…

  10. Expert Knowledge, Distinctiveness, and Levels of Processing in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The foreign language vocabulary learning research literature often attributes strong mnemonic potency to the cognitive processing of meaning when learning words. Routinely cited as support for this idea are experiments by Craik and Tulving (C&T) demonstrating superior recognition and recall of studied words following semantic tasks ("deep"…

  11. Concept of APDL, the atomic process description language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Akira

    2004-01-01

    The concept of APDL, the Atomic Process Description Language, which provides simple and complete description of atomic model is presented. The syntax to describe electron orbital and configuration is defined for the use in the atomic structure, kinetics and spectral synthesis simulation codes. (author)

  12. Recurrent Artificial Neural Networks and Finite State Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisl, Hermann

    It is argued that pessimistic assessments of the adequacy of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for natural language processing (NLP) on the grounds that they have a finite state architecture are unjustified, and that their adequacy in this regard is an empirical issue. First, arguments that counter standard objections to finite state NLP on the…

  13. Language-agnostic processing of microblog data with text embeddings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    A raw stream of posts from a microblogging platform such as Twitter contains text written in a large variety of languages and writing systems, in registers ranging from formal to internet slang. A significant amount has been expended in recent years to adapt standard NLP processing pipelines to be

  14. Evaluating Semantic Indexing Techniques through Cross-Language Fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenkamp, E.C.M.; Dijk, A.H. van

    2005-01-01

    Users in search of on-line document sources are usually looking for content, not words. Hence, IR researchers generally agree that search techniques should be geared toward the meaning underlying documents rather than toward the text itself. The most visible examples of such techniques are Latent

  15. Particle Handling Techniques in Microchemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S. Flowers

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The manipulation of particulates in microfluidics is a challenge that continues to impact applications ranging from fine chemicals manufacturing to the materials and the life sciences. Heterogeneous operations carried out in microreactors involve high surface-to-volume characteristics that minimize the heat and mass transport resistances, offering precise control of the reaction conditions. Considerable advances have been made towards the engineering of techniques that control particles in microscale laminar flow, yet there remain tremendous opportunities for improvements in the area of chemical processing. Strategies that have been developed to successfully advance systems involving heterogeneous materials are reviewed and an outlook provided in the context of the challenges of continuous flow fine chemical processes.

  16. MODELLING OF THE PROCESS OF TEACHING READING ENGLISH LANGUAGE PERIODICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Глушко

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals a scientifically substantiated process of teaching reading English language periodicals in all its components, which are consistently developed, and form of interconnection of the structural elements in the process of teaching reading. This process is presented as a few interconnected and interdetermined models: 1 the models of the process of acquiring standard and expressive lexical knowledge; 2 the models of the process of formation of skills to use such vocabulary; 3 the models of the development of skills to read texts of the different linguistic levels.

  17. Rhythmic Effects of Syntax Processing in Music and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Harim; Sontag, Samuel; Park, YeBin S; Loui, Psyche

    2015-01-01

    Music and language are human cognitive and neural functions that share many structural similarities. Past theories posit a sharing of neural resources between syntax processing in music and language (Patel, 2003), and a dynamic attention network that governs general temporal processing (Large and Jones, 1999). Both make predictions about music and language processing over time. Experiment 1 of this study investigates the relationship between rhythmic expectancy and musical and linguistic syntax in a reading time paradigm. Stimuli (adapted from Slevc et al., 2009) were sentences broken down into segments; each sentence segment was paired with a musical chord and presented at a fixed inter-onset interval. Linguistic syntax violations appeared in a garden-path design. During the critical region of the garden-path sentence, i.e., the particular segment in which the syntactic unexpectedness was processed, expectancy violations for language, music, and rhythm were each independently manipulated: musical expectation was manipulated by presenting out-of-key chords and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated by perturbing the fixed inter-onset interval such that the sentence segments and musical chords appeared either early or late. Reading times were recorded for each sentence segment and compared for linguistic, musical, and rhythmic expectancy. Results showed main effects of rhythmic expectancy and linguistic syntax expectancy on reading time. There was also an effect of rhythm on the interaction between musical and linguistic syntax: effects of violations in musical and linguistic syntax showed significant interaction only during rhythmically expected trials. To test the effects of our experimental design on rhythmic and linguistic expectancies, independently of musical syntax, Experiment 2 used the same experimental paradigm, but the musical factor was eliminated-linguistic stimuli were simply presented silently, and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated at the critical

  18. Teachers’ competences in the foreign language teaching/learning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Altamiro Consolo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss competences demanded from the foreign language teacher for him or her to perform in the teaching-learning process efficiently. Our reflections are based mainly on Paulo Freire (2001, Philippe Perrenoud (2000, Edgar Morin (2003, Maurice Tardif (2002 and Almeida Filho (1999, providing, in this way, a reflective dialogue among studies that focus on teachers’ competences. The main objective is a better understanding of the necessary knowledge about teaching practices so that foreign language teachers’ actions can meet the needs of education at present. We expect to highlight important issues in the development of the aforementioned competences, and suggest that their development can contribute for better language teaching.

  19. Neural correlates of audiovisual speech processing in a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Visser, Maya; Alsius, Agnès; Pallier, Christophe; Avila Rivera, César; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2013-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies of audiovisual speech processing have exclusively addressed listeners' native language (L1). Yet, several behavioural studies now show that AV processing plays an important role in non-native (L2) speech perception. The current fMRI study measured brain activity during auditory, visual, audiovisual congruent and audiovisual incongruent utterances in L1 and L2. BOLD responses to congruent AV speech in the pSTS were stronger than in either unimodal condition in both L1 and L2. Yet no differences in AV processing were expressed according to the language background in this area. Instead, the regions in the bilateral occipital lobe had a stronger congruency effect on the BOLD response (congruent higher than incongruent) in L2 as compared to L1. According to these results, language background differences are predominantly expressed in these unimodal regions, whereas the pSTS is similarly involved in AV integration regardless of language dominance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral History as an Innovative Language Teaching Technique for Spanish Heritage Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Oral history is presented in this article as an interpretative exercise for historical events in a Spanish course for heritage language learners at the university level. Through the interview of a Latino immigrant family, students re-examined the history of their own families and increased their linguistic self-esteem. They were guided to become…

  1. Emergent Processes of Language Acquisition: Japanese Language Leaning and the Consumption of Japanese Cultural Products in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Toyoshima, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    Motivation for learning a second language varies among individuals: some people enjoy the process of learning languages, while others learn a second language for practical reasons. Previous fieldwork research in Thailand has shown that many consumers of Japanese cultural products are also learners of the Japanese language. This suggests that Japanese cultural products motivate consumers to start studying Japanese and to continue learning it. In this study, two hypotheses will be posed in orde...

  2. Translating Message Sequence Charts to other Process Languages using Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van Dongen, Boudewijn F.

    2008-01-01

    stakeholders. Often such discussions lead to more complete behavioral models described by e.g. Event-driven Process Chains (EPCs), UML activity diagrams, BPMN models, Petri nets, etc. Process mining on the other hand, deals with the problem of constructing complete behavioral models by analyzing event logs...

  3. Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

  4. Flame analysis using image processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her Jie, Albert Chang; Zamli, Ahmad Faizal Ahmad; Zulazlan Shah Zulkifli, Ahmad; Yee, Joanne Lim Mun; Lim, Mooktzeng

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents image processing techniques with the use of fuzzy logic and neural network approach to perform flame analysis. Flame diagnostic is important in the industry to extract relevant information from flame images. Experiment test is carried out in a model industrial burner with different flow rates. Flame features such as luminous and spectral parameters are extracted using image processing and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Flame images are acquired using FLIR infrared camera. Non-linearities such as thermal acoustic oscillations and background noise affect the stability of flame. Flame velocity is one of the important characteristics that determines stability of flame. In this paper, an image processing method is proposed to determine flame velocity. Power spectral density (PSD) graph is a good tool for vibration analysis where flame stability can be approximated. However, a more intelligent diagnostic system is needed to automatically determine flame stability. In this paper, flame features of different flow rates are compared and analyzed. The selected flame features are used as inputs to the proposed fuzzy inference system to determine flame stability. Neural network is used to test the performance of the fuzzy inference system.

  5. Hierarchical processing in music, language, and action: Lashley revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh; Martins, Mauricio D

    2014-05-01

    Sixty years ago, Karl Lashley suggested that complex action sequences, from simple motor acts to language and music, are a fundamental but neglected aspect of neural function. Lashley demonstrated the inadequacy of then-standard models of associative chaining, positing a more flexible and generalized "syntax of action" necessary to encompass key aspects of language and music. He suggested that hierarchy in language and music builds upon a more basic sequential action system, and provided several concrete hypotheses about the nature of this system. Here, we review a diverse set of modern data concerning musical, linguistic, and other action processing, finding them largely consistent with an updated neuroanatomical version of Lashley's hypotheses. In particular, the lateral premotor cortex, including Broca's area, plays important roles in hierarchical processing in language, music, and at least some action sequences. Although the precise computational function of the lateral prefrontal regions in action syntax remains debated, Lashley's notion-that this cortical region implements a working-memory buffer or stack scannable by posterior and subcortical brain regions-is consistent with considerable experimental data. © 2014 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Surface analytical techniques applied to minerals processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, R.St.C.

    1991-01-01

    An understanding of the chemical and physical forms of the chemically altered layers on the surfaces of base metal sulphides, particularly in the form of hydroxides, oxyhydroxides and oxides, and the changes that occur in them during minerals processing lies at the core of a complete description of flotation chemistry. This paper reviews the application of a variety of surface-sensitive techniques and methodologies applied to the study of surface layers on single minerals, mixed minerals, synthetic ores and real ores. Evidence from combined XPS/SAM/SEM studies have provided images and analyses of three forms of oxide, oxyhydroxide and hydroxide products on the surfaces of single sulphide minerals, mineral mixtures and complex sulphide ores. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  7. Transformation Strategies between Block-Oriented and Graph-Oriented Process Modelling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendling, Jan; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Zdun, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    Much recent research work discusses the transformation between different process modelling languages. This work, however, is mainly focussed on specific process modelling languages, and thus the general reusability of the applied transformation concepts is rather limited. In this paper, we aim...... to abstract from concrete transformation strategies by distinguishing two major paradigms for representing control flow in process modelling languages: block-oriented languages (such as BPEL and BPML) and graph-oriented languages (such as EPCs and YAWL). The contribution of this paper are generic strategies...... for transforming from block-oriented process languages to graph-oriented languages, and vice versa....

  8. Constraint processing in our extensible language for cooperative imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Minoru; Murao, Yo; Enomoto, Hajime

    1996-02-01

    The extensible WELL (Window-based elaboration language) has been developed using the concept of common platform, where both client and server can communicate with each other with support from a communication manager. This extensible language is based on an object oriented design by introducing constraint processing. Any kind of services including imaging in the extensible language is controlled by the constraints. Interactive functions between client and server are extended by introducing agent functions including a request-respond relation. Necessary service integrations are satisfied with some cooperative processes using constraints. Constraints are treated similarly to data, because the system should have flexibilities in the execution of many kinds of services. The similar control process is defined by using intentional logic. There are two kinds of constraints, temporal and modal constraints. Rendering the constraints, the predicate format as the relation between attribute values can be a warrant for entities' validity as data. As an imaging example, a processing procedure of interaction between multiple objects is shown as an image application for the extensible system. This paper describes how the procedure proceeds in the system, and that how the constraints work for generating moving pictures.

  9. Application of Electroporation Technique in Biofuel Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf Abu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels production is mostly oriented with fermentation process, which requires fermentable sugar as nutrient for microbial growth. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB represents the most attractive, low-cost feedstock for biofuel production, it is now arousing great interest. The cellulose that is embedded in the lignin matrix has an insoluble, highly-crystalline structure, so it is difficult to hydrolyze into fermentable sugar or cell protein. On the other hand, microbial lipid has been studying as substitute of plant oils or animal fat to produce biodiesel. It is still a great challenge to extract maximum lipid from microbial cells (yeast, fungi, algae investing minimum energy.Electroporation (EP of LCB results a significant increase in cell conductivity and permeability caused due to the application of an external electric field. EP is required to alter the size and structure of the biomass, to reduce the cellulose crystallinity, and increase their porosity as well as chemical composition, so that the hydrolysis of the carbohydrate fraction to monomeric sugars can be achieved rapidly and with greater yields. Furthermore, EP has a great potential to disrupt the microbial cell walls within few seconds to bring out the intracellular materials (lipid to the solution. Therefore, this study aims to describe the challenges and prospect of application of EP technique in biofuels processing.

  10. FORMATION OF COGNITIVE INTEREST AT ENGLISH LANGUAGE LESSONS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL: TECHNOLOGIES, METHODS, TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotova, E.G.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of didactic and technological methods and techniques that shape and develop cognitive interest of primary school students in modern methodology of teaching foreign languages. The use of various forms of gaming interaction, problem assignments, information and communication technologies in the teaching of primary school students allows diversifying the teaching of a foreign language, contributes to the development of their creative and cognitive activity. The use of health-saving technologies ensures the creation of a psychologically and emotionally supportive atmosphere at the lesson, which is an essential condition for acquiring new knowledge and maintaining stable cognitive interest among students while learning a foreign language.

  11. Balanced bilinguals favor lexical processing in their opaque language and conversion system in their shallow language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetler, Karin A; de León Rodríguez, Diego; Laganaro, Marina; Müri, René; Nyffeler, Thomas; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2015-11-01

    Referred to as orthographic depth, the degree of consistency of grapheme/phoneme correspondences varies across languages from high in shallow orthographies to low in deep orthographies. The present study investigates the impact of orthographic depth on reading route by analyzing evoked potentials to words in a deep (French) and shallow (German) language presented to highly proficient bilinguals. ERP analyses to German and French words revealed significant topographic modulations 240-280 ms post-stimulus onset, indicative of distinct brain networks engaged in reading over this time window. Source estimations revealed that these effects stemmed from modulations of left insular, inferior frontal and dorsolateral regions (German>French) previously associated to phonological processing. Our results show that reading in a shallow language was associated to a stronger engagement of phonological pathways than reading in a deep language. Thus, the lexical pathways favored in word reading are reinforced by phonological networks more strongly in the shallow than deep orthography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. When language comprehension goes wrong for the right reasons: Good-enough, underspecified, or shallow language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Kiel

    2016-01-01

    This paper contains an overview of language processing that can be described as "good enough", "underspecified", or "shallow". The central idea is that a nontrivial proportion of misunderstanding, misinterpretation, and miscommunication can be attributed not to random error, but instead to processing preferences of the human language processing system. In other words, the very architecture of the language processor favours certain types of processing errors because in a majority of instances, this "fast and frugal", less effortful processing is good enough to support communication. By way of historical background, connections are made between this relatively recent facet of psycholinguistic study, other recent language processing models, and related concepts in other areas of cognitive science. Finally, the nine papers included in this special issue are introduced as representative of novel explorations of good-enough, or underspecified, language processing.

  13. The use of indigenous techniques of communication for language learning: The case of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Ebong, Balbina

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed at determining whether the use of indigenous techniques of communication can have a positive impact on the motivation of the learner of English as a foreign language in Cameroon. By indigenous techniques of communication we mean techniques like role-play, songs, the telling of folktales, riddles and proverbs. This work is intended as a contribution to the search for improvement of student motivation and enthusiasm, whereby they can be more responsive as they participate spont...

  14. Active Learning for Automatic Audio Processing of Unwritten Languages (ALAPUL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0074 ACTIVE LEARNING FOR AUTOMATIC AUDIO PROCESSING OF UNWRITTEN LANGUAGES (ALAPUL) Dimitra Vergyri Andreas Kathol Wen Wang...FA8650-15-C-9101 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) *Dimitra Vergyri; Andreas Kathol; Wen Wang; Chris Bartels; Julian VanHout...feature transform through deep auto-encoders for better phone recognition performance. We target iterative learning to improve the system through

  15. BPMN4SOA : A service oriented process modelling language

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstøl, Eivind

    2010-01-01

    Service oriented architectures have become very popular the last few years. The abstraction of computer systems into a service paradigm bring many new solutions, both for cross business processes to aid interoperability and the reuse of existing legacy systems in a new network centric world. In the wake of this, service modelling has become a part of OMGs Model Driven Architecture and new modelling languages that are based on past experience for the new paradigm are emerging. BPMN 2.0 and...

  16. Teachers’ competences in the foreign language teaching/learning process

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Altamiro Consolo; Cristina Francisca de Carvalho Porto

    2012-01-01

    In this article we discuss competences demanded from the foreign language teacher for him or her to perform in the teaching-learning process efficiently. Our reflections are based mainly on Paulo Freire (2001), Philippe Perrenoud (2000), Edgar Morin (2003), Maurice Tardif (2002) and Almeida Filho (1999), providing, in this way, a reflective dialogue among studies that focus on teachers’ competences. The main objective is a better understanding of the necessary knowledge about teaching practic...

  17. Behavioral Signal Processing: Deriving Human Behavioral Informatics From Speech and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Georgiou, Panayiotis G.

    2013-01-01

    The expression and experience of human behavior are complex and multimodal and characterized by individual and contextual heterogeneity and variability. Speech and spoken language communication cues offer an important means for measuring and modeling human behavior. Observational research and practice across a variety of domains from commerce to healthcare rely on speech- and language-based informatics for crucial assessment and diagnostic information and for planning and tracking response to an intervention. In this paper, we describe some of the opportunities as well as emerging methodologies and applications of human behavioral signal processing (BSP) technology and algorithms for quantitatively understanding and modeling typical, atypical, and distressed human behavior with a specific focus on speech- and language-based communicative, affective, and social behavior. We describe the three important BSP components of acquiring behavioral data in an ecologically valid manner across laboratory to real-world settings, extracting and analyzing behavioral cues from measured data, and developing models offering predictive and decision-making support. We highlight both the foundational speech and language processing building blocks as well as the novel processing and modeling opportunities. Using examples drawn from specific real-world applications ranging from literacy assessment and autism diagnostics to psychotherapy for addiction and marital well being, we illustrate behavioral informatics applications of these signal processing techniques that contribute to quantifying higher level, often subjectively described, human behavior in a domain-sensitive fashion. PMID:24039277

  18. Heritage-culture images disrupt immigrants' second-language processing through triggering first-language interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Morris, Michael W; Cheng, Chi-Ying; Yap, Andy J

    2013-07-09

    For bicultural individuals, visual cues of a setting's cultural expectations can activate associated representations, switching the frames that guide their judgments. Research suggests that cultural cues may affect judgments through automatic priming, but has yet to investigate consequences for linguistic performance. The present studies investigate the proposal that heritage-culture cues hinder immigrants' second-language processing by priming first-language structures. For Chinese immigrants in the United States, speaking to a Chinese (vs. Caucasian) face reduced their English fluency, but at the same time increased their social comfort, effects that did not occur for a comparison group of European Americans (study 1). Similarly, exposure to iconic symbols of Chinese (vs. American) culture hindered Chinese immigrants' English fluency, when speaking about both culture-laden and culture-neutral topics (study 2). Finally, in both recognition (study 3) and naming tasks (study 4), Chinese icon priming increased accessibility of anomalous literal translations, indicating the intrusion of Chinese lexical structures into English processing. We discuss conceptual implications for the automaticity and adaptiveness of cultural priming and practical implications for immigrant acculturation and second-language learning.

  19. Levels of processing and language modality specificity in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary; Karlsson, Thomas; Gunnarsson, Johan; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2013-03-01

    Neural networks underpinning working memory demonstrate sign language specific components possibly related to differences in temporary storage mechanisms. A processing approach to memory systems suggests that the organisation of memory storage is related to type of memory processing as well. In the present study, we investigated for the first time semantic, phonological and orthographic processing in working memory for sign- and speech-based language. During fMRI we administered a picture-based 2-back working memory task with Semantic, Phonological, Orthographic and Baseline conditions to 11 deaf signers and 20 hearing non-signers. Behavioural data showed poorer and slower performance for both groups in Phonological and Orthographic conditions than in the Semantic condition, in line with depth-of-processing theory. An exclusive masking procedure revealed distinct sign-specific neural networks supporting working memory components at all three levels of processing. The overall pattern of sign-specific activations may reflect a relative intermodality difference in the relationship between phonology and semantics influencing working memory storage and processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction in a visual language: real-time sentence processing in American Sign Language across development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Amy M; Borovsky, Arielle; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2018-01-01

    Prediction during sign language comprehension may enable signers to integrate linguistic and non-linguistic information within the visual modality. In two eyetracking experiments, we investigated American Sign language (ASL) semantic prediction in deaf adults and children (aged 4-8 years). Participants viewed ASL sentences in a visual world paradigm in which the sentence-initial verb was either neutral or constrained relative to the sentence-final target noun. Adults and children made anticipatory looks to the target picture before the onset of the target noun in the constrained condition only, showing evidence for semantic prediction. Crucially, signers alternated gaze between the stimulus sign and the target picture only when the sentential object could be predicted from the verb. Signers therefore engage in prediction by optimizing visual attention between divided linguistic and referential signals. These patterns suggest that prediction is a modality-independent process, and theoretical implications are discussed.

  1. ENGLISH LANGUAGE FOR SUCCESSFUL INTEGRATION: LEARNING FROM THE BOLOGNA PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez - Carrion Jose Rodolfo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bologna Process aims to provide tools to connect the European national educational systems. The purpose of this paper is to analyze what we have learned and what challenges remain today. Since the beginning all participating countries had to agree on a comparable three cycle degree system for undergraduates (Bachelor degrees or Grades and graduates (Master and PhD degrees in order to create compatibility and comparability for achieving international competitiveness and a worldwide degree of attractiveness in higher education. The Bologna Declaration, originally signed by 29 countries, has now reached 47 countries, engaged in the process of creating a European Higher Education Area (EHEA, searching to be competitive to launch the European Academia of the 21st Century. The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS has turned out to be the perfect tool to design, describe, and deliver programs and award higher education qualifications. Markets and European universities are going to be able to compete overseas in the future if the new regulations let them to create profitable business in the education area. As expected, European Universities have responded promptly and actively to the call. In the case of small countries like Spain, it is an opportunity to internationalize Spanish universities; moreover, there is the opportunity for the expansion and consolidation of the Spanish language as the second most important foreign language. The 2009 Report highlights that early teaching of a foreign language is advancing in Europe. In lower secondary education, earlier teaching of English is becoming widespread; and the three Nordic countries, Germany, and the UK are the highest innovation performers. The result is a system of higher education more competitive and more attractive for Europeans and non-Europeans students and scholars. Reform is needed today if Europe wants to match the performance of the best performing higher education

  2. Transformation Strategies between Block-Oriented and Graph-Oriented Process Modelling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendling, Jan; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Zdun, Uwe

    to abstract from concrete transformationstrategies by distinguishing two major paradigms for process modelling languages:block-oriented languages (such as BPEL and BPML) and graph-oriented languages(such as EPCs and YAWL). The contribution of this paper are generic strategiesfor transforming from block......Much recent research work discusses the transformation between differentprocess modelling languages. This work, however, is mainly focussed on specific processmodelling languages, and thus the general reusability of the applied transformationconcepts is rather limited. In this paper, we aim......-oriented process languages to graph-oriented languages,and vice versa. We also present two case studies of applying our strategies....

  3. Language Teacher Candidates’ Self-Assessment Process for Teaching to Young Learners in EFL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binnur GENÇ İLTER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching a foreign language to young learners have some differences from teaching adults. Young children have concentration problems and they tend to change their mood every ten minutes and need more creative activities than adults. Therefore, foreign language teachers have to choose interesting activities for them and foreign language teacher candidates should learn the correct methods and techniques during their training period. Although some teacher candidates think the solution for training is simply to get all theoretical knowledge, some of them think that solution lies in encouraging the teacher candidates to create their own activities. This descriptive action research paper arises of a quantitative study the purpose of which is to seek the process of ELT students’ development and reflection on teaching English to children. In order to find out language teacher candidates’ ideas about how they improve themselves, five point Likert scale was prepared. Data collection was achieved by giving the same questionnaires at the beginning and the end of the term at One State University, ELT students in the academic year 2015–2016. 16 male and 32 female students answered the questionnaire. The data were analysed using factor analyses and Levene Test. Findings were examined and some suggestions that focused on language teacher training candidates were put forward.

  4. Pattern Recognition and Natural Language Processing: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kocaleva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of information technologies is growing steadily. With the latest software technologies development and application of the methods of artificial intelligence and machine learning intelligence embededs in computers, the expectations are that in near future computers will be able to solve problems themselves like people do. Artificial intelligence emulates human behavior on computers. Rather than executing instructions one by one, as theyare programmed, machine learning employs prior experience/data that is used in the process of system’s training. In this state of the art paper, common methods in AI, such as machine learning, pattern recognition and the natural language processing (NLP are discussed. Also are given standard architecture of NLP processing system and the level thatisneeded for understanding NLP. Lastly the statistical NLP processing and multi-word expressions are described.

  5. Application of on-line analytical processing technique in accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Dong; Li Weimin; He Duohui; Liu Gongfa; Xuan Ke

    2005-01-01

    A method of application of the on-line analytical processing technique in accelerator is described, which includes data pre-processing, the process of constructing of data warehouse and on-line analytical processing. (authors)

  6. Some Techniques for Teaching Vocabulary. ERIC Focus Reports on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Number 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Joseph; Patin, Paul

    Discussion of techniques for teaching vocabulary in language programs centers on five major areas: (1) "knowing" the word, (2) selection of vocabulary, (3) grading vocabulary for presentation, (4) teaching methods, and (5) vocabulary expansion in advanced levels. Theory of vocabulary instruction is largely supported by writings of Nelson Brooks,…

  7. Spacing Techniques in Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition: Short-Term Gains vs. Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two experiments using the spacing technique (Leitner, 1972; Landauer & Bjork, 1978) in second language vocabulary acquisition. In the past, studies in this area have produced mixed results attempting to differentiate between massed, uniform and expanded intervals of spacing (Balota, Duchek, & Logan,…

  8. Association between language development and auditory processing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Nunes Rocha-Muniz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is crucial to understand the complex processing of acoustic stimuli along the auditory pathway ;comprehension of this complex processing can facilitate our understanding of the processes that underlie normal and altered human communication. AIM: To investigate the performance and lateralization effects on auditory processing assessment in children with specific language impairment (SLI, relating these findings to those obtained in children with auditory processing disorder (APD and typical development (TD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study. Seventy-five children, aged 6-12 years, were separated in three groups: 25 children with SLI, 25 children with APD, and 25 children with TD. All went through the following tests: speech-in-noise test, Dichotic Digit test and Pitch Pattern Sequencing test. RESULTS: The effects of lateralization were observed only in the SLI group, with the left ear presenting much lower scores than those presented to the right ear. The inter-group analysis has shown that in all tests children from APD and SLI groups had significantly poorer performance compared to TD group. Moreover, SLI group presented worse results than APD group. CONCLUSION: This study has shown, in children with SLI, an inefficient processing of essential sound components and an effect of lateralization. These findings may indicate that neural processes (required for auditory processing are different between auditory processing and speech disorders.

  9. Recent Technological Advances in Natural Language Processing and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nishal Pradeepkumar

    2012-01-01

    A recent advance in computer technology has permitted scientists to implement and test algorithms that were known from quite some time (or not) but which were computationally expensive. Two such projects are IBM's Jeopardy as a part of its DeepQA project [1] and Wolfram's Wolframalpha[2]. Both these methods implement natural language processing (another goal of AI scientists) and try to answer questions as asked by the user. Though the goal of the two projects is similar, both of them have a ...

  10. Box: Natural Language Processing Research Using Amazon Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelrod Amittai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a publicly-available state-of-the-art research and development platform for Machine Translation and Natural Language Processing that runs on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud. This provides a standardized research environment for all users, and enables perfect reproducibility and compatibility. Box also enables users to use their hardware budget to avoid the management and logistical overhead of maintaining a research lab, yet still participate in global research community with the same state-of-the-art tools.

  11. Interactive data language (IDL) for medical image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Saion Salikin

    2002-01-01

    Interactive Data Language (IDL) is one of many softwares available in the market for medical image processing and analysis. IDL is a complete, structured language that can be used both interactively and to create sophisticated functions, procedures, and applications. It provides a suitable processing routines and display method which include animation, specification of colour table including 24-bit capability, 3-D visualization and many graphic operation. The important features of IDL for medical imaging are segmentation, visualization, quantification and pattern recognition. In visualization IDL is capable of allowing greater precision and flexibility when visualizing data. For example, IDL eliminates the limits on Number of Contour level. In term of data analysis, IDL is capable of handling complicated functions such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) function, Hough and Radon Transform function, Legendre Polynomial function, as well as simple functions such as Histogram function. In pattern recognition, pattern description is defined as points rather than pixels. With this functionality, it is easy to re-use the same pattern on more than one destination device (even if the destinations have varying resolution). In other words it have the ability to specify values in points. However there are a few disadvantages of using IDL. Licensing is by dongkel key and limited licences hence limited access to potential IDL users. A few examples are shown to demonstrate the capabilities of IDL in carrying out its function for medical image processing. (Author)

  12. Auditory processing efficiency deficits in children with developmental language impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Douglas E. H.; Moore, David R.

    2002-12-01

    The ``temporal processing hypothesis'' suggests that individuals with specific language impairments (SLIs) and dyslexia have severe deficits in processing rapidly presented or brief sensory information, both within the auditory and visual domains. This hypothesis has been supported through evidence that language-impaired individuals have excess auditory backward masking. This paper presents an analysis of masking results from several studies in terms of a model of temporal resolution. Results from this modeling suggest that the masking results can be better explained by an ``auditory efficiency'' hypothesis. If impaired or immature listeners have a normal temporal window, but require a higher signal-to-noise level (poor processing efficiency), this hypothesis predicts the observed small deficits in the simultaneous masking task, and the much larger deficits in backward and forward masking tasks amongst those listeners. The difference in performance on these masking tasks is predictable from the compressive nonlinearity of the basilar membrane. The model also correctly predicts that backward masking (i) is more prone to training effects, (ii) has greater inter- and intrasubject variability, and (iii) increases less with masker level than do other masking tasks. These findings provide a new perspective on the mechanisms underlying communication disorders and auditory masking.

  13. Simplifying Scalable Graph Processing with a Domain-Specific Language

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Sungpack; Salihoglu, Semih; Widom, Jennifer; Olukotun, Kunle

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale graph processing, with its massive data sets, requires distributed processing. However, conventional frameworks for distributed graph processing, such as Pregel, use non-traditional programming models that are well-suited for parallelism and scalability but inconvenient for implementing non-trivial graph algorithms. In this paper, we use Green-Marl, a Domain-Specific Language for graph analysis, to intuitively describe graph algorithms and extend its compiler to generate equivalent Pregel implementations. Using the semantic information captured by Green-Marl, the compiler applies a set of transformation rules that convert imperative graph algorithms into Pregel's programming model. Our experiments show that the Pregel programs generated by the Green-Marl compiler perform similarly to manually coded Pregel implementations of the same algorithms. The compiler is even able to generate a Pregel implementation of a complicated graph algorithm for which a manual Pregel implementation is very challenging.

  14. Simplifying Scalable Graph Processing with a Domain-Specific Language

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Sungpack

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale graph processing, with its massive data sets, requires distributed processing. However, conventional frameworks for distributed graph processing, such as Pregel, use non-traditional programming models that are well-suited for parallelism and scalability but inconvenient for implementing non-trivial graph algorithms. In this paper, we use Green-Marl, a Domain-Specific Language for graph analysis, to intuitively describe graph algorithms and extend its compiler to generate equivalent Pregel implementations. Using the semantic information captured by Green-Marl, the compiler applies a set of transformation rules that convert imperative graph algorithms into Pregel\\'s programming model. Our experiments show that the Pregel programs generated by the Green-Marl compiler perform similarly to manually coded Pregel implementations of the same algorithms. The compiler is even able to generate a Pregel implementation of a complicated graph algorithm for which a manual Pregel implementation is very challenging.

  15. INTERDISCURSIVE PROCESSES IN LINGUISTICS AND LITERARY STUDIES: LANGUAGES AND MEDIA IN THE INNOVATION PROCESS OF THE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Barbosa da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a brief reflection on the interaction between languages ??and media, resulting in a close dialogue between language and technological processes that underlie the historical, and temporal dimensions, but also discursive and audiovisual, especially in poetic interart. Such elements have formed the basis of the discussion held in the discipline Language, Media and Discourse Processes within the Postgraduate in Studies of Languages of CEFET MG

  16. Prereferral Process with Latino English Language Learners with Specific Learning Disabilities: Perceptions of English-as-a-Second-Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlis, Emily; Xu, Yaoying

    2016-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) teachers on the prereferral process for Latino English language learners (ELLs). Using Colaizzi's (1978) phenomenological approach, qualitative data were collected through interviews with four ESL teachers. Analyses of the data indicated that the ESL teachers used research-based…

  17. THE CONSTRUCTION OF INDONESIAN-ENGLISH CROSS LANGUAGE PLAGIARISM DETECTION SYSTEM USING FINGERPRINTING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiy Firdaus Alfikri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross language plagiarism detection is an important task since it can protect person intellectual property right. Since English is the most popular international language, we proposed an Indonesian-English cross language plagiarism detection to handle such problem in Indonesian-English domain where the suspected plagiarism document is written in Indonesian and the source document is written in English. To minimize translation error, we build the system by translating the Indonesian document into English and then compare the translated document with the English document collection. The detection system consists of preprocess component, heuristic retrieval component, and detailed analysis component. The main technique used in retrieval process is fingerprinting which can extract lexical features from text which is suitable to be used to detect plagiarism done using literal translation method. In this paper, we also propose additional methods to be implemented in heuristic retrieval component to increase the performance of the system: phrase chunking, stop word removal, stemming, and synonym selection. We evaluated system’s performance and the effects of additional methods to system’s performance, provided several data test sets which represents a plagiarism type. From the experiments, we concluded that the system works on 83.33% of test cases. We also concluded that mainly all additional methods except the phrase chunking have good effects in enhancing the system accuracy. Deteksi plagiarisme lintas bahasa merupakan hal yang penting untuk melindungi hak kekayaan intelektual. Bahasa Inggris adalah bahasa internasional yang paling populer, karenanya peneliti mengusulkan deteksi plagiarisme lintas bahasa Indonesia-Inggris untuk menangani masalah tersebut di mana domain dokumen yang diduga plagiat ditulis dalam bahasa Indonesia dan dokumen sumber ditulis dalam bahasa Inggris. Untuk meminimalkan kesalahan terjemahan, peneliti membangun

  18. Process efficiency in isotope techniques by microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.; Boelke, L.; Nagli, G.; Schaelicke, W.

    1987-01-01

    The wide application of tracer techniques as a diagnostic tool in nuclear medicine requires the dosage of radioactive tracer solutions in a volume range of 0.5 to 10 ml with a high degree of precision. Two types of computer controlled filling and closing machines for injection bottles are described. Safe handling of radioactive solutions is taken in special consideration. (author)

  19. Episodic grammar: a computational model of the interaction between episodic and semantic memory in language processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, G.; Zuidema, W.; Carlson, L.; Hoelscher, C.; Shipley, T.F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a model of the interaction of semantic and episodic memory in language processing. Our work shows how language processing can be understood in terms of memory retrieval. We point out that the perceived dichotomy between rule-based versus exemplar-based language modelling can be

  20. Data Processing Languages for Business Intelligence. SQL vs. R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin FOTACHE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As data centric approach, Business Intelligence (BI deals with the storage, integration, processing, exploration and analysis of information gathered from multiple sources in various formats and volumes. BI systems are generally synonymous to costly, complex platforms that require vast organizational resources. But there is also an-other face of BI, that of a pool of data sources, applications, services developed at different times using different technologies. This is “democratic” BI or, in some cases, “fragmented”, “patched” (or “chaotic” BI. Fragmentation creates not only integration problems, but also supports BI agility as new modules can be quickly developed. Among various languages and tools that cover large extents of BI activities, SQL and R are instrumental for both BI platform developers and BI users. SQL and R address both monolithic and democratic BI. This paper compares essential data processing features of two languages, identifying similarities and differences among them and also their strengths and limits.

  1. Suicide Note Classification Using Natural Language Processing: A Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Pestian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 25–34 year olds and the third leading cause of death among 15–25 year olds in the United States. In the Emergency Department, where suicidal patients often present, estimating the risk of repeated attempts is generally left to clinical judgment. This paper presents our second attempt to determine the role of computational algorithms in understanding a suicidal patient’s thoughts, as represented by suicide notes. We focus on developing methods of natural language processing that distinguish between genuine and elicited suicide notes. We hypothesize that machine learning algorithms can categorize suicide notes as well as mental health professionals and psychiatric physician trainees do. The data used are comprised of suicide notes from 33 suicide completers and matched to 33 elicited notes from healthy control group members. Eleven mental health professionals and 31 psychiatric trainees were asked to decide if a note was genuine or elicited. Their decisions were compared to nine different machine-learning algorithms. The results indicate that trainees accurately classified notes 49% of the time, mental health professionals accurately classified notes 63% of the time, and the best machine learning algorithm accurately classified the notes 78% of the time. This is an important step in developing an evidence-based predictor of repeated suicide attempts because it shows that natural language processing can aid in distinguishing between classes of suicidal notes.

  2. Suicide Note Classification Using Natural Language Processing: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestian, John; Nasrallah, Henry; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Bennett, Aurora; Leenaars, Antoon

    2010-08-04

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 25-34 year olds and the third leading cause of death among 15-25 year olds in the United States. In the Emergency Department, where suicidal patients often present, estimating the risk of repeated attempts is generally left to clinical judgment. This paper presents our second attempt to determine the role of computational algorithms in understanding a suicidal patient's thoughts, as represented by suicide notes. We focus on developing methods of natural language processing that distinguish between genuine and elicited suicide notes. We hypothesize that machine learning algorithms can categorize suicide notes as well as mental health professionals and psychiatric physician trainees do. The data used are comprised of suicide notes from 33 suicide completers and matched to 33 elicited notes from healthy control group members. Eleven mental health professionals and 31 psychiatric trainees were asked to decide if a note was genuine or elicited. Their decisions were compared to nine different machine-learning algorithms. The results indicate that trainees accurately classified notes 49% of the time, mental health professionals accurately classified notes 63% of the time, and the best machine learning algorithm accurately classified the notes 78% of the time. This is an important step in developing an evidence-based predictor of repeated suicide attempts because it shows that natural language processing can aid in distinguishing between classes of suicidal notes.

  3. Criminal Network Investigation: Processes, Tools, and Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    important challenge for criminal network investigation, despite the massive attention it receives from research and media. Challenges such as the investigation process, the context of the investigation, human factors such as thinking and creativity, and political decisions and legal laws are all challenges...... that could mean the success or failure of criminal network investigations. % include commission reports as indications of process related problems .. to "play a little politics" !! Information, process, and human factors, are challenges we find to be addressable by software system support. Based on those......Criminal network investigations such as police investigations, intelligence analysis, and investigative journalism involve a range of complex knowledge management processes and tasks. Criminal network investigators collect, process, and analyze information related to a specific target to create...

  4. Modality-specific processing precedes amodal linguistic processing during L2 sign language acquisition: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua T; Darcy, Isabelle; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    The present study tracked activation pattern differences in response to sign language processing by late hearing second language learners of American Sign Language. Learners were scanned before the start of their language courses. They were scanned again after their first semester of instruction and their second, for a total of 10 months of instruction. The study aimed to characterize modality-specific to modality-general processing throughout the acquisition of sign language. Results indicated that before the acquisition of sign language, neural substrates related to modality-specific processing were present. After approximately 45 h of instruction, the learners transitioned into processing signs on a phonological basis (e.g., supramarginal gyrus, putamen). After one more semester of input, learners transitioned once more to a lexico-semantic processing stage (e.g., left inferior frontal gyrus) at which language control mechanisms (e.g., left caudate, cingulate gyrus) were activated. During these transitional steps right hemispheric recruitment was observed, with increasing left-lateralization, which is similar to other native signers and L2 learners of spoken language; however, specialization for sign language processing with activation in the inferior parietal lobule (i.e., angular gyrus), even for late learners, was observed. As such, the present study is the first to track L2 acquisition of sign language learners in order to characterize modality-independent and modality-specific mechanisms for bilingual language processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Image processing techniques for digital orthophotoquad production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joy J.; Ladner, L. J.; Champion, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Orthophotographs have long been recognized for their value as supplements or alternatives to standard maps. Recent trends towards digital cartography have resulted in efforts by the US Geological Survey to develop a digital orthophotoquad production system. Digital image files were created by scanning color infrared photographs on a microdensitometer. Rectification techniques were applied to remove tile and relief displacement, thereby creating digital orthophotos. Image mosaicking software was then used to join the rectified images, producing digital orthophotos in quadrangle format.

  6. Physiological patterns during practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique compared with patterns while reading Sanskrit and a modern language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, F; Olson, T; Egenes, T; Gupta, H K

    2001-07-01

    This study tested the prediction that reading Vedic Sanskrit texts, without knowledge of their meaning, produces a distinct physiological state. We measured EEG, breath rate, heart rate, and skin conductance during: (1) 15-min Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice; (2) 15-min reading verses of the Bhagavad Gita in Sanskrit; and (3) 15-min reading the same verses translated in German, Spanish, or French. The two reading conditions were randomly counterbalanced, and subjects filled out experience forms between each block to reduce carryover effects. Skin conductance levels significantly decreased during both reading Sanskrit and TM practice, and increased slightly during reading a modern language. Alpha power and coherence were significantly higher when reading Sanskrit and during TM practice, compared to reading modern languages. Similar physiological patterns when reading Sanskrit and during practice of the TM technique suggests that the state gained during TM practice may be integrated with active mental processes by reading Sanskrit.

  7. Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Constraints and Language Processing (CSLP 2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This research report constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Constraints and Language Processing (CSLP 2008) which is part of the European Summer School in Logic, Language, and Information (ESSLLI 2008), Hamburg, Germany, August 2008.......This research report constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Constraints and Language Processing (CSLP 2008) which is part of the European Summer School in Logic, Language, and Information (ESSLLI 2008), Hamburg, Germany, August 2008....

  8. Digital image processing techniques in archaeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santanam, K.; Vaithiyanathan, R.; Tripati, S.

    Digital image processing involves the manipulation and interpretation of digital images with the aid of a computer. This form of remote sensing actually began in the 1960's with a limited number of researchers analysing multispectral scanner data...

  9. Translating message sequence charts to other process languages using process mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassen, K.B.; Dongen, van B.F.; Jensen, K.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Billington, J.

    2008-01-01

    Message Sequence Charts (MSCs) are often used by software analysts when discussing the behavior of a system with different stakeholders. Often such discussions lead to more complete behavioral models in the form of, e.g., Event-driven Process Chains (EPCs), Unified Modeling Language (UML), activity

  10. WORD PROCESSING AND SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A LONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister Cumming

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2 leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 composing displayed by a 29-year-old, male Mandarin leamer of English with intermediate proficiency in English while he wrote, over 8 months, 14 compositions grouped into 7 comparable pairs of topics altemating between uses of a lap-top computer and of pen and paper. Al1 keystrokes were recorded electronically in the computer environrnent; visual records of al1 text changes were made for the pen-and paper writing. Think-aloud protocols were recorded in al1 sessions. Analyses indicate advantages for the word-processing medium over the pen-and-paper medium in terms ofi a greater frequency of revisions made at the discourse level and at the syntactical level; higher scores for content on analytic ratings of the completed compositions; and more extensive evaluation ofwritten texts in think-aloud verbal reports.

  11. Auditory processing disorders: an update for speech-language pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBonis, David A; Moncrieff, Deborah

    2008-02-01

    Unanswered questions regarding the nature of auditory processing disorders (APDs), how best to identify at-risk students, how best to diagnose and differentiate APDs from other disorders, and concerns about the lack of valid treatments have resulted in ongoing confusion and skepticism about the diagnostic validity of this label. This poses challenges for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who are working with school-age children and whose scope of practice includes APD screening and intervention. The purpose of this article is to address some of the questions commonly asked by SLPs regarding APDs in school-age children. This article is also intended to serve as a resource for SLPs to be used in deciding what role they will or will not play with respect to APDs in school-age children. The methodology used in this article included a computerized database review of the latest published information on APD, with an emphasis on the work of established researchers and expert panels, including articles from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and the American Academy of Audiology. The article concludes with the authors' recommendations for continued research and their views on the appropriate role of the SLP in performing careful screening, making referrals, and supporting intervention.

  12. Combining Different Tools for EEG Analysis to Study the Distributed Character of Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Freitas da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on language processing indicate that language cognition is better understood if assumed to be supported by a distributed intelligent processing system enrolling neurons located all over the cortex, in contrast to reductionism that proposes to localize cognitive functions to specific cortical structures. Here, brain activity was recorded using electroencephalogram while volunteers were listening or reading small texts and had to select pictures that translate meaning of these texts. Several techniques for EEG analysis were used to show this distributed character of neuronal enrollment associated with the comprehension of oral and written descriptive texts. Low Resolution Tomography identified the many different sets (si of neurons activated in several distinct cortical areas by text understanding. Linear correlation was used to calculate the information H(ei provided by each electrode of the 10/20 system about the identified si. H(ei Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used to study the temporal and spatial activation of these sources si. This analysis evidenced 4 different patterns of H(ei covariation that are generated by neurons located at different cortical locations. These results clearly show that the distributed character of language processing is clearly evidenced by combining available EEG technologies.

  13. An introduction to language processing with Perl and Prolog an outline of theories, implementation, and application with special consideration of English, French and German

    CERN Document Server

    Nugues, Pierre M

    2005-01-01

    The areas of natural language processing and computational linguistics have continued to grow in recent years, driven by the demand to automatically process text and spoken data. With the processing power and techniques now available, research is scaling up from lab prototypes to real-world, proven applications. This book teaches the principles of natural language processing, first covering linguistics issues such as encoding, entropy, and annotation schemes; defining words, tokens and parts of speech; and morphology. It then details the language-processing functions involved, including part-o

  14. A general software reliability process simulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    The structure and rationale of the generalized software reliability process, together with the design and implementation of a computer program that simulates this process are described. Given assumed parameters of a particular project, the users of this program are able to generate simulated status timelines of work products, numbers of injected anomalies, and the progress of testing, fault isolation, repair, validation, and retest. Such timelines are useful in comparison with actual timeline data, for validating the project input parameters, and for providing data for researchers in reliability prediction modeling.

  15. Semantic processing skills of Grade 1 English language learners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on part of the first phase of a longitudinal project investigating the development of academic language in English as the Language of Teaching and Learning (LoLT) by Foundation phase learners in two different educational contexts. In the first context, the learners were all English additional language ...

  16. Phonetic and lexical processing in a second language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, M.

    2005-01-01

    Speech comprehension is more difficult in a second language than in one's native language. This dissertation examines the recognition of speech sounds and the recognition of words in a second language. First, Dutch and English listeners' perception of the British English vowels /ae/-/E/, was

  17. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  18. On application of image analysis and natural language processing for music search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwardys, Grzegorz

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, I investigate a problem of finding most similar music tracks using, popular in Natural Language Processing, techniques like: TF-IDF and LDA. I de ned document as music track. Each music track is transformed to spectrogram, thanks that, I can use well known techniques to get words from images. I used SURF operation to detect characteristic points and novel approach for their description. The standard kmeans was used for clusterization. Clusterization is here identical with dictionary making, so after that I can transform spectrograms to text documents and perform TF-IDF and LDA. At the final, I can make a query in an obtained vector space. The research was done on 16 music tracks for training and 336 for testing, that are splitted in four categories: Hiphop, Jazz, Metal and Pop. Although used technique is completely unsupervised, results are satisfactory and encouraging to further research.

  19. Natural Language Processing in Serious Games: A state of the art.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Picca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, Natural Language Processing (NLP has obtained a high level of success. Interactions between NLP and Serious Games have started and some of them already include NLP techniques. The objectives of this paper are twofold: on the one hand, providing a simple framework to enable analysis of potential uses of NLP in Serious Games and, on the other hand, applying the NLP framework to existing Serious Games and giving an overview of the use of NLP in pedagogical Serious Games. In this paper we present 11 serious games exploiting NLP techniques. We present them systematically, according to the following structure:  first, we highlight possible uses of NLP techniques in Serious Games, second, we describe the type of NLP implemented in the each specific Serious Game and, third, we provide a link to possible purposes of use for the different actors interacting in the Serious Game.

  20. Visualizing Patient Journals by Combining Vital Signs Monitoring and Natural Language Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilic, Adnan; Petersen, John Asger; Hoppe, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a data-driven approach to graphically presenting text-based patient journals while still maintaining all textual information. The system first creates a timeline representation of a patients’ physiological condition during an admission, which is assessed by electronically...... monitoring vital signs and then combining these into Early Warning Scores (EWS). Hereafter, techniques from Natural Language Processing (NLP) are applied on the existing patient journal to extract all entries. Finally, the two methods are combined into an interactive timeline featuring the ability to see...... drastic changes in the patients’ health, and thereby enabling staff to see where in the journal critical events have taken place....

  1. Processing data collected from radiometric experiments by multivariate technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, P.; Kowalska, E.; Machaj, B.; Jakowiuk, A.

    2005-01-01

    Multivariate techniques applied for processing data collected from radiometric experiments can provide more efficient extraction of the information contained in the spectra. Several techniques are considered: (i) multivariate calibration using Partial Least Square Regression and Artificial Neural Network, (ii) standardization of the spectra, (iii) smoothing of collected spectra were autocorrelation function and bootstrap were used for the assessment of the processed data, (iv) image processing using Principal Component Analysis. Application of these techniques is illustrated on examples of some industrial applications. (author)

  2. Behind the scenes: A medical natural language processing project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Joy T; Dernoncourt, Franck; Gehrmann, Sebastian; Tyler, Patrick D; Moseley, Edward T; Carlson, Eric T; Grant, David W; Li, Yeran; Welt, Jonathan; Celi, Leo Anthony

    2018-04-01

    Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AI) capabilities in medicine can help address many pressing problems in healthcare. However, AI research endeavors in healthcare may not be clinically relevant, may have unrealistic expectations, or may not be explicit enough about their limitations. A diverse and well-functioning multidisciplinary team (MDT) can help identify appropriate and achievable AI research agendas in healthcare, and advance medical AI technologies by developing AI algorithms as well as addressing the shortage of appropriately labeled datasets for machine learning. In this paper, our team of engineers, clinicians and machine learning experts share their experience and lessons learned from their two-year-long collaboration on a natural language processing (NLP) research project. We highlight specific challenges encountered in cross-disciplinary teamwork, dataset creation for NLP research, and expectation setting for current medical AI technologies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Building gold standard corpora for medical natural language processing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleger, Louise; Li, Qi; Lingren, Todd; Kaiser, Megan; Molnar, Katalin; Stoutenborough, Laura; Kouril, Michal; Marsolo, Keith; Solti, Imre

    2012-01-01

    We present the construction of three annotated corpora to serve as gold standards for medical natural language processing (NLP) tasks. Clinical notes from the medical record, clinical trial announcements, and FDA drug labels are annotated. We report high inter-annotator agreements (overall F-measures between 0.8467 and 0.9176) for the annotation of Personal Health Information (PHI) elements for a de-identification task and of medications, diseases/disorders, and signs/symptoms for information extraction (IE) task. The annotated corpora of clinical trials and FDA labels will be publicly released and to facilitate translational NLP tasks that require cross-corpora interoperability (e.g. clinical trial eligibility screening) their annotation schemas are aligned with a large scale, NIH-funded clinical text annotation project.

  4. Wavelet processing techniques for digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Andrew F.; Song, Shuwu

    1992-09-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for accomplishing mammographic feature analysis through multiresolution representations. We show that efficient (nonredundant) representations may be identified from digital mammography and used to enhance specific mammographic features within a continuum of scale space. The multiresolution decomposition of wavelet transforms provides a natural hierarchy in which to embed an interactive paradigm for accomplishing scale space feature analysis. Similar to traditional coarse to fine matching strategies, the radiologist may first choose to look for coarse features (e.g., dominant mass) within low frequency levels of a wavelet transform and later examine finer features (e.g., microcalcifications) at higher frequency levels. In addition, features may be extracted by applying geometric constraints within each level of the transform. Choosing wavelets (or analyzing functions) that are simultaneously localized in both space and frequency, results in a powerful methodology for image analysis. Multiresolution and orientation selectivity, known biological mechanisms in primate vision, are ingrained in wavelet representations and inspire the techniques presented in this paper. Our approach includes local analysis of complete multiscale representations. Mammograms are reconstructed from wavelet representations, enhanced by linear, exponential and constant weight functions through scale space. By improving the visualization of breast pathology we can improve the chances of early detection of breast cancers (improve quality) while requiring less time to evaluate mammograms for most patients (lower costs).

  5. Evidence for shared cognitive processing of pitch in music and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Fedorenko, Evelina G; Vinke, Louis; Gibson, Edward; Dilley, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Language and music epitomize the complex representational and computational capacities of the human mind. Strikingly similar in their structural and expressive features, a longstanding question is whether the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms underlying these abilities are shared or distinct--either from each other or from other mental processes. One prominent feature shared between language and music is signal encoding using pitch, conveying pragmatics and semantics in language and melody in music. We investigated how pitch processing is shared between language and music by measuring consistency in individual differences in pitch perception across language, music, and three control conditions intended to assess basic sensory and domain-general cognitive processes. Individuals' pitch perception abilities in language and music were most strongly related, even after accounting for performance in all control conditions. These results provide behavioral evidence, based on patterns of individual differences, that is consistent with the hypothesis that cognitive mechanisms for pitch processing may be shared between language and music.

  6. A probabilistic evaluation procedure for process model matching techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuss, Elena; Leopold, Henrik; van der Aa, Han; Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2018-01-01

    Process model matching refers to the automatic identification of corresponding activities between two process models. It represents the basis for many advanced process model analysis techniques such as the identification of similar process parts or process model search. A central problem is how to

  7. Language Analysis in the Context of the Asylum Process: Procedures, Validity, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reath, Anne

    2004-01-01

    In 1993, the language section of the Swedish Migration Board initiated the production of documents they called "language analyses" to aid in the processing of asylum seekers. Today, 11 years later, 2 privately owned companies in Stockholm produce these documents. These companies have produced language analyses not only for the Swedish…

  8. Peeling the Onion of Auditory Processing Disorder: A Language/Curricular-Based Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Geraldine P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article addresses auditory processing disorder (APD) from a language-based perspective. The author asks speech-language pathologists to evaluate the functionality (or not) of APD as a diagnostic category for children and adolescents with language-learning and academic difficulties. Suggestions are offered from a…

  9. Computer processing techniques in digital radiography research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickens, D.R.; Kugel, J.A.; Waddill, W.B.; Smith, G.D.; Martin, V.N.; Price, R.R.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    In the Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, and the Center for Medical Imaging Research, Nashville, TN, there are several activities which are designed to increase the information available from film-screen acquisition as well as from direct digital acquisition of radiographic information. Two of the projects involve altering the display of images after acquisition, either to remove artifacts present as a result of the acquisition process or to change the manner in which the image is displayed to improve the perception of details in the image. These two projects use methods which can be applied to any type of digital image, but are being implemented with images digitized from conventional x-ray film. One of these research endeavors involves mathematical alteration of the image to correct for motion artifacts or registration errors between images that will be subtracted. Another applies well-known image processing methods to digital radiographic images to improve the image contrast and enhance subtle details in the image. A third project involves the use of dual energy imaging with a digital radiography system to reconstruct images which demonstrate either soft tissue details or the osseous structures. These projects are discussed in greater detail in the following sections of this communication

  10. The Relationship between Second Language Acquisition Process and English Language Teaching in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Pritz Hutabarat

    2016-01-01

    English as a global language is learned worldwide and a plethora of methods and approaches have been developed and practiced in English classrooms by dedicated teachers and students. Understanding the underlying theories of second and foreign language acquisition and learning will help both teachers and students in learning and teaching a target language. There has not been many research conducted in the area, especially within Indonesian context. This research therefore attempts to fill in g...

  11. Discovering Process Reference Models from Process Variants Using Clustering Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, C.; Reichert, M.U.; Wombacher, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    In today's dynamic business world, success of an enterprise increasingly depends on its ability to react to changes in a quick and flexible way. In response to this need, process-aware information systems (PAIS) emerged, which support the modeling, orchestration and monitoring of business processes

  12. Arabic text preprocessing for the natural language processing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awajan, A.

    2007-01-01

    A new approach for processing vowelized and unvowelized Arabic texts in order to prepare them for Natural Language Processing (NLP) purposes is described. The developed approach is rule-based and made up of four phases: text tokenization, word light stemming, word's morphological analysis and text annotation. The first phase preprocesses the input text in order to isolate the words and represent them in a formal way. The second phase applies a light stemmer in order to extract the stem of each word by eliminating the prefixes and suffixes. The third phase is a rule-based morphological analyzer that determines the root and the morphological pattern for each extracted stem. The last phase produces an annotated text where each word is tagged with its morphological attributes. The preprocessor presented in this paper is capable of dealing with vowelized and unvowelized words, and provides the input words along with relevant linguistics information needed by different applications. It is designed to be used with different NLP applications such as machine translation text summarization, text correction, information retrieval and automatic vowelization of Arabic Text. (author)

  13. A common type system for clinical natural language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be processed and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a common type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. Results We describe a common type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs, thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System versions 2.0 and later. Conclusions We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types.

  14. A common type system for clinical natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stephen T; Kaggal, Vinod C; Dligach, Dmitriy; Masanz, James J; Chen, Pei; Becker, Lee; Chapman, Wendy W; Savova, Guergana K; Liu, Hongfang; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-01-03

    One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be processed and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a common type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. We describe a common type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs), thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture) and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System) versions 2.0 and later. We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types.

  15. WEB-BASED INSTRUCTIONAL ENVIRONMENTS: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Roman

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of the Internet and especially the World Wide Web for the teaching and learning of foreign languages has grown spectacularly in the past five years. Nevertheless, designing and implementing sound materials for an online learning environment involves timeconsuming processes in which many instructors may be reluctant to participate. For this reason. Web-based course management systems (WCMSs have begun to flourish in the market, in an effoi-t to assist teachers to create learning environments in which students have the necessary means to interact effectively with their peers, their instructors, and the course material. This article reviews the nature of WCMSs, their advantages and disadvantages, and their potential for language learning by focusing on key issues that surround the design implementation, and assessment of Web-based language courses, and by explaining how to integrate WCMSs to increase students' exposure to authentic materials and language-learning related activities, and to motivate them to engage in ineaningful communication processes and collaborative activities.

  16. Working Memory Capacity and Language Processes in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Klara; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the interaction between working memory and language comprehension in children with specific language impairment (SLI), focusing on the function of the central executive component and its interaction with the phonological loop (A. D. Baddeley, 1986) in complex working memory tasks. Thirteen children with SLI and 13 age-matched…

  17. Interaction of Language Processing and Motor Skill in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C.; Goffman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for…

  18. Computational Nonlinear Morphology with Emphasis on Semitic Languages. Studies in Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraz, George Anton

    This book presents a tractable computational model that can cope with complex morphological operations, especially in Semitic languages, and less complex morphological systems present in Western languages. It outlines a new generalized regular rewrite rule system that uses multiple finite-state automata to cater to root-and-pattern morphology,…

  19. The "Robustness" of Vocabulary Intervention in the Public Schools: Targets and Techniques Employed in Speech-Language Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Murphy, Kimberly A.; Pratt, Amy; Biancone, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined vocabulary intervention--in terms of targets and techniques--for children with language impairment receiving speech-language therapy in public schools (i.e., non-fee-paying schools) in the United States. Vocabulary treatments and targets were examined with respect to their alignment with the empirically validated practice of…

  20. Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

  1. Phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in children with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Haresabadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Specific language impairment (SLI, one variety of developmental language disorder, has attracted much interest in recent decades. Much research has been conducted to discover why some children have a specific language impairment. So far, research has failed to identify a reason for this linguistic deficiency. Some researchers believe language disorder causes defects in phonological working memory and affects auditory processing speed. Therefore, this study reviews the results of research investigating these two factors in children with specific language impairment.Recent Findings: Studies have shown that children with specific language impairment face constraints in phonological working memory capacity. Memory deficit is one possible cause of linguistic disorder in children with specific language impairment. However, in these children, disorder in information processing speed is observed, especially regarding the auditory aspect.Conclusion: Much more research is required to adequately explain the relationship between phonological working memory and auditory processing speed with language. However, given the role of phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in language acquisition, a focus should be placed on phonological working memory capacity and auditory processing speed in the assessment and treatment of children with a specific language impairment.

  2. Accurate Identification of Fatty Liver Disease in Data Warehouse Utilizing Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Joseph S; Natarajan, Yamini; Hou, Jason K; Wang, Jingqi; Hanif, Muzammil; Feng, Hua; Kramer, Jennifer R; Desiderio, Roxanne; Xu, Hua; El-Serag, Hashem B; Kanwal, Fasiha

    2017-10-01

    Natural language processing is a powerful technique of machine learning capable of maximizing data extraction from complex electronic medical records. We utilized this technique to develop algorithms capable of "reading" full-text radiology reports to accurately identify the presence of fatty liver disease. Abdominal ultrasound, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging reports were retrieved from the Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse from a random national sample of 652 patients. Radiographic fatty liver disease was determined by manual review by two physicians and verified with an expert radiologist. A split validation method was utilized for algorithm development. For all three imaging modalities, the algorithms could identify fatty liver disease with >90% recall and precision, with F-measures >90%. These algorithms could be used to rapidly screen patient records to establish a large cohort to facilitate epidemiological and clinical studies and examine the clinic course and outcomes of patients with radiographic hepatic steatosis.

  3. Working memory, long-term memory and language processing : issues and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Collette, Fabienne; Van der Linden, Martial; Poncelet, Martine

    2000-01-01

    We examined different views of the relationships between working memory, long-term memory and language processing : working memory considered as a gateway between sensory input and long-term memory or rather as a workspace; working memory considered as not strictly tied to any particular cognitive system (and consequently viewed as separated from the language system) or rather as drawing on the operation and storage capacities of a subset of components involved in language processing. It is a...

  4. Evaluation of EMG processing techniques using Information Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, Fernando D; Politti, Julio C; Felice, Carmelo J

    2010-11-12

    Electromyographic signals can be used in biomedical engineering and/or rehabilitation field, as potential sources of control for prosthetics and orthotics. In such applications, digital processing techniques are necessary to follow efficient and effectively the changes in the physiological characteristics produced by a muscular contraction. In this paper, two methods based on information theory are proposed to evaluate the processing techniques. These methods determine the amount of information that a processing technique is able to extract from EMG signals. The processing techniques evaluated with these methods were: absolute mean value (AMV), RMS values, variance values (VAR) and difference absolute mean value (DAMV). EMG signals from the middle deltoid during abduction and adduction movement of the arm in the scapular plane was registered, for static and dynamic contractions. The optimal window length (segmentation), abduction and adduction movements and inter-electrode distance were also analyzed. Using the optimal segmentation (200 ms and 300 ms in static and dynamic contractions, respectively) the best processing techniques were: RMS, AMV and VAR in static contractions, and only the RMS in dynamic contractions. Using the RMS of EMG signal, variations in the amount of information between the abduction and adduction movements were observed. Although the evaluation methods proposed here were applied to standard processing techniques, these methods can also be considered as alternatives tools to evaluate new processing techniques in different areas of electrophysiology.

  5. Evaluation of EMG processing techniques using Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Carmelo J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electromyographic signals can be used in biomedical engineering and/or rehabilitation field, as potential sources of control for prosthetics and orthotics. In such applications, digital processing techniques are necessary to follow efficient and effectively the changes in the physiological characteristics produced by a muscular contraction. In this paper, two methods based on information theory are proposed to evaluate the processing techniques. Methods These methods determine the amount of information that a processing technique is able to extract from EMG signals. The processing techniques evaluated with these methods were: absolute mean value (AMV, RMS values, variance values (VAR and difference absolute mean value (DAMV. EMG signals from the middle deltoid during abduction and adduction movement of the arm in the scapular plane was registered, for static and dynamic contractions. The optimal window length (segmentation, abduction and adduction movements and inter-electrode distance were also analyzed. Results Using the optimal segmentation (200 ms and 300 ms in static and dynamic contractions, respectively the best processing techniques were: RMS, AMV and VAR in static contractions, and only the RMS in dynamic contractions. Using the RMS of EMG signal, variations in the amount of information between the abduction and adduction movements were observed. Conclusions Although the evaluation methods proposed here were applied to standard processing techniques, these methods can also be considered as alternatives tools to evaluate new processing techniques in different areas of electrophysiology.

  6. Crowdsourcing and curation: perspectives from biology and natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Lynette; Fort, Karën; Boué, Stéphanie; Kyrpides, Nikos; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is increasingly utilized for performing tasks in both natural language processing and biocuration. Although there have been many applications of crowdsourcing in these fields, there have been fewer high-level discussions of the methodology and its applicability to biocuration. This paper explores crowdsourcing for biocuration through several case studies that highlight different ways of leveraging 'the crowd'; these raise issues about the kind(s) of expertise needed, the motivations of participants, and questions related to feasibility, cost and quality. The paper is an outgrowth of a panel session held at BioCreative V (Seville, September 9-11, 2015). The session consisted of four short talks, followed by a discussion. In their talks, the panelists explored the role of expertise and the potential to improve crowd performance by training; the challenge of decomposing tasks to make them amenable to crowdsourcing; and the capture of biological data and metadata through community editing.Database URL: http://www.mitre.org/publications/technical-papers/crowdsourcing-and-curation-perspectives. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Assessment of Process Monitoring Techniques for Pyro processing Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Y. E.; Kim, C. M.; Yim, M. S. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    PM technologies can be used to inspect normal/off-normal operation with various data obtained from facility operations in real time to meet safeguards objectives. To support the use of PM technologies for the purpose of pyroprocessing safeguards, this study aims at identifying technologies that could be useful for PM purposes and evaluating their applicability to a pyroprocessing facility. This paper describes the development of the assessment criteria to evaluate the practicality of candidate technologies for PM based on a variety of requirements and considerations. By using the developed assessment criteria, application of technologies in the oxide reduction process was assessed as a test case example. Research is necessary to validate the criteria according to the needs of each unit process, perhaps based on expert elicitation and/or international collaboration with other expert organization(s). These advanced assessment criteria will serve a useful guideline for selecting appropriate candidate PM technologies for pyroprocessing safeguards. Based on the results of using these evaluation criteria, the optimum technologies can be successfully selected for use at a large scale pyroprocessing facility.

  8. Automation of a problem list using natural language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Peter J

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical problem list is an important part of the electronic medical record in development in our institution. To serve the functions it is designed for, the problem list has to be as accurate and timely as possible. However, the current problem list is usually incomplete and inaccurate, and is often totally unused. To alleviate this issue, we are building an environment where the problem list can be easily and effectively maintained. Methods For this project, 80 medical problems were selected for their frequency of use in our future clinical field of evaluation (cardiovascular. We have developed an Automated Problem List system composed of two main components: a background and a foreground application. The background application uses Natural Language Processing (NLP to harvest potential problem list entries from the list of 80 targeted problems detected in the multiple free-text electronic documents available in our electronic medical record. These proposed medical problems drive the foreground application designed for management of the problem list. Within this application, the extracted problems are proposed to the physicians for addition to the official problem list. Results The set of 80 targeted medical problems selected for this project covered about 5% of all possible diagnoses coded in ICD-9-CM in our study population (cardiovascular adult inpatients, but about 64% of all instances of these coded diagnoses. The system contains algorithms to detect first document sections, then sentences within these sections, and finally potential problems within the sentences. The initial evaluation of the section and sentence detection algorithms demonstrated a sensitivity and positive predictive value of 100% when detecting sections, and a sensitivity of 89% and a positive predictive value of 94% when detecting sentences. Conclusion The global aim of our project is to automate the process of creating and maintaining a problem

  9. Evaluation of PHI Hunter in Natural Language Processing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Andrew; Pickard, Steve; Meystre, Stephane; Scehnet, Jeffrey; Bolton, Dan; Heavirland, Julia; Weaver, Allison Lynn; Hope, Carol; Garvin, Jennifer Hornung

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and evaluate a new, easily accessible tool using a common statistical analysis and business analytics software suite, SAS, which can be programmed to remove specific protected health information (PHI) from a text document. Removal of PHI is important because the quantity of text documents used for research with natural language processing (NLP) is increasing. When using existing data for research, an investigator must remove all PHI not needed for the research to comply with human subjects' right to privacy. This process is similar, but not identical, to de-identification of a given set of documents. PHI Hunter removes PHI from free-form text. It is a set of rules to identify and remove patterns in text. PHI Hunter was applied to 473 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) text documents randomly drawn from a research corpus stored as unstructured text in VA files. PHI Hunter performed well with PHI in the form of identification numbers such as Social Security numbers, phone numbers, and medical record numbers. The most commonly missed PHI items were names and locations. Incorrect removal of information occurred with text that looked like identification numbers. PHI Hunter fills a niche role that is related to but not equal to the role of de-identification tools. It gives research staff a tool to reasonably increase patient privacy. It performs well for highly sensitive PHI categories that are rarely used in research, but still shows possible areas for improvement. More development for patterns of text and linked demographic tables from electronic health records (EHRs) would improve the program so that more precise identifiable information can be removed. PHI Hunter is an accessible tool that can flexibly remove PHI not needed for research. If it can be tailored to the specific data set via linked demographic tables, its performance will improve in each new document set.

  10. Balanced bilinguals favor lexical processing in their opaque language and conversion system in their shallow language

    OpenAIRE

    Buetler, Karin A.; Rodríguez, Diego de León; Laganaro, Marina; Müri, René; Nyffeler, Thomas; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Referred to as orthographic depth, the degree of consistency of grapheme/phoneme correspondences varies across languages from high in shallow orthographies to low in deep orthographies. The present study investigates the impact of orthographic depth on reading route by analyzing evoked potentials to words in a deep (French) and shallow (German) language presented to highly proficient bilinguals. ERP analyses to German and French words revealed significant topographic modulations 240–280 ms po...

  11. Word Order Processing in a Second Language: From VO to OV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdocia, Kepa; Zawiszewski, Adam; Laka, Itziar

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potential studies on second language processing reveal that L1/L2 differences are due either to proficiency, age of acquisition or grammatical differences between L1 and L2 (Kotz in "Brain Lang" 109(2-3):68-74, 2009). However, the relative impact of these and other factors in second language processing is still not well…

  12. Decision Making Strategy and the Simultaneous Processing of Syntactic Dependencies in Language and Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M.P.; Bouwer, F.L.; Honing, H.

    2018-01-01

    Despite differences in their function and domain-specific elements, syntactic processing in music and language is believed to share cognitive resources. This study aims to investigate whether the simultaneous processing of language and music share the use of a common syntactic processor or more

  13. Enablers and Inhibitors to English Language Learners' Research Process in a High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Un

    2015-01-01

    This researcher sought to examine enablers and inhibitors to English language learner (ELL) students' research process within the framework of Carol C. Kuhlthau's Information Search Process (ISP). At a high school forty-eight ELL students in three classes, an English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher, and a biology teacher participated in the…

  14. Comparison of the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the tested functions was observed in both groups. However, in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits the degree of recovery of most language functions and some cognitive functions was higher. A significantly greater correlation was revealed within language and cognitive functions, as well as between language functions and other aspects of cognition in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits than in patients with aphasia following a stroke. Our results show that patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits have a different recovery pattern and a different pattern of correlation between language and cognitive functions compared to patients with aphasia following a stroke. (1) Better understanding of the differences in recovery of language and cognitive functions in patients who have suffered strokes and those who have experienced traumatic brain injury. (2) Better understanding of the relationship between language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. (3) Better understanding of the factors influencing recovery.

  15. Natural-language processing applied to an ITS interface

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Gisolfi; Enrico Fischetti

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that with a subset of a natural language, simple systems running on PCs can be developed that can nevertheless be an effective tool for interfacing purposes in the building of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). After presenting the special characteristics of the Smalltalk/V language, which provides an appropriate environment for the development of an interface, the overall architecture of the interface module is discussed. We then show how sentences are par...

  16. A new processing technique for airborne gamma-ray data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical-statistical background for at new technique for processing gamma-ray spectra is presented. The technique - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition - decomposes at set of gamma-ray spectra into a few basic spectra - the spectral components. The spectral components can be proce...

  17. Techniques and software architectures for medical visualisation and image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botha, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a flexible software platform for medical visualisation and image processing, a technique for the segmentation of the shoulder skeleton from CT data and three techniques that make contributions to the field of direct volume rendering. Our primary goal was to investigate the use

  18. Noncontaminating technique for making holes in existing process systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, T. P.; Czapor, H. P.; Giordano, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Technique is developed for making cleanly-contoured holes in assembled process systems without introducing chips or other contaminants into system. Technique uses portable equipment and does not require dismantling of system. Method was tested on Inconel, stainless steel, ASTMA-53, and Hastelloy X in all positions.

  19. Effects of processing techniques on the radioactive contamination of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Delmas, J.; Grauby, A.

    Following contamination of cultures of rice, grapes and various vegetables by 90 Sr and 137 Cs, the effect of processing and cooking techniques on the contamination of the food-stuff was investigated [fr

  20. How do German bilingual schoolchildren process German prepositions? – A study on language-motor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Heike; Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Bryant, Doreen; Kaup, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    While much support is found for embodied language processing in a first language (L1), evidence for embodiment in second language (L2) processing is rather sparse. In a recent study, we found support for L2 embodiment, but also an influence of L1 on L2 processing in adult learners. In the present study, we compared bilingual schoolchildren who speak German as one of their languages with monolingual German schoolchildren. We presented the German prepositions auf (on), über (above), and unter (under) in a Stroop-like task. Upward or downward responses were made depending on the font colour, resulting in compatible and incompatible trials. We found compatibility effects for all children, but in contrast to the adult sample, there were no processing differences between the children depending on the nature of their other language, suggesting that the processing of German prepositions of bilingual children is embodied in a similar way as in monolingual German children. PMID:29538404

  1. How do German bilingual schoolchildren process German prepositions? - A study on language-motor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Daniela Katharina; Bischoff, Heike; Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Bryant, Doreen; Kaup, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    While much support is found for embodied language processing in a first language (L1), evidence for embodiment in second language (L2) processing is rather sparse. In a recent study, we found support for L2 embodiment, but also an influence of L1 on L2 processing in adult learners. In the present study, we compared bilingual schoolchildren who speak German as one of their languages with monolingual German schoolchildren. We presented the German prepositions auf (on), über (above), and unter (under) in a Stroop-like task. Upward or downward responses were made depending on the font colour, resulting in compatible and incompatible trials. We found compatibility effects for all children, but in contrast to the adult sample, there were no processing differences between the children depending on the nature of their other language, suggesting that the processing of German prepositions of bilingual children is embodied in a similar way as in monolingual German children.

  2. Natural language processing in an intelligent writing strategy tutoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Danielle S; Crossley, Scott A; Roscoe, Rod

    2013-06-01

    The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system that provides writing strategy training. A large part of its artificial intelligence resides in the natural language processing algorithms to assess essay quality and guide feedback to students. Because writing is often highly nuanced and subjective, the development of these algorithms must consider a broad array of linguistic, rhetorical, and contextual features. This study assesses the potential for computational indices to predict human ratings of essay quality. Past studies have demonstrated that linguistic indices related to lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity are significant predictors of human judgments of essay quality but that indices of cohesion are not. The present study extends prior work by including a larger data sample and an expanded set of indices to assess new lexical, syntactic, cohesion, rhetorical, and reading ease indices. Three models were assessed. The model reported by McNamara, Crossley, and McCarthy (Written Communication 27:57-86, 2010) including three indices of lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity accounted for only 6% of the variance in the larger data set. A regression model including the full set of indices examined in prior studies of writing predicted 38% of the variance in human scores of essay quality with 91% adjacent accuracy (i.e., within 1 point). A regression model that also included new indices related to rhetoric and cohesion predicted 44% of the variance with 94% adjacent accuracy. The new indices increased accuracy but, more importantly, afford the means to provide more meaningful feedback in the context of a writing tutoring system.

  3. Evaluation of stabilization techniques for ion implant processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Matthew F.; Wong, Selmer S.; Minter, Jason P.; Marlowe, Trey; Narcy, Mark E.; Livesay, William R.

    1999-06-01

    With the integration of high current ion implant processing into volume CMOS manufacturing, the need for photoresist stabilization to achieve a stable ion implant process is critical. This study compares electron beam stabilization, a non-thermal process, with more traditional thermal stabilization techniques such as hot plate baking and vacuum oven processing. The electron beam processing is carried out in a flood exposure system with no active heating of the wafer. These stabilization techniques are applied to typical ion implant processes that might be found in a CMOS production process flow. The stabilization processes are applied to a 1.1 micrometers thick PFI-38A i-line photoresist film prior to ion implant processing. Post stabilization CD variation is detailed with respect to wall slope and feature integrity. SEM photographs detail the effects of the stabilization technique on photoresist features. The thermal stability of the photoresist is shown for different levels of stabilization and post stabilization thermal cycling. Thermal flow stability of the photoresist is detailed via SEM photographs. A significant improvement in thermal stability is achieved with the electron beam process, such that photoresist features are stable to temperatures in excess of 200 degrees C. Ion implant processing parameters are evaluated and compared for the different stabilization methods. Ion implant system end-station chamber pressure is detailed as a function of ion implant process and stabilization condition. The ion implant process conditions are detailed for varying factors such as ion current, energy, and total dose. A reduction in the ion implant systems end-station chamber pressure is achieved with the electron beam stabilization process over the other techniques considered. This reduction in end-station chamber pressure is shown to provide a reduction in total process time for a given ion implant dose. Improvements in the ion implant process are detailed across

  4. The emotional impact of being myself: Emotions and foreign-language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaz, Lela; Costa, Albert; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni

    2016-03-01

    Native languages are acquired in emotionally rich contexts, whereas foreign languages are typically acquired in emotionally neutral academic environments. As a consequence of this difference, it has been suggested that bilinguals' emotional reactivity in foreign-language contexts is reduced as compared with native language contexts. In the current study, we investigated whether this emotional distance associated with foreign languages could modulate automatic responses to self-related linguistic stimuli. Self-related stimuli enhance performance by boosting memory, speed, and accuracy as compared with stimuli unrelated to the self (the so-called self-bias effect). We explored whether this effect depends on the language context by comparing self-biases in a native and a foreign language. Two experiments were conducted with native Spanish speakers with a high level of English proficiency in which they were asked to complete a perceptual matching task during which they associated simple geometric shapes (circles, squares, and triangles) with the labels "you," "friend," and "other" either in their native or foreign language. Results showed a robust asymmetry in the self-bias in the native- and foreign-language contexts: A larger self-bias was found in the native than in the foreign language. An additional control experiment demonstrated that the same materials administered to a group of native English speakers yielded robust self-bias effects that were comparable in magnitude to the ones obtained with the Spanish speakers when tested in their native language (but not in their foreign language). We suggest that the emotional distance evoked by the foreign-language contexts caused these differential effects across language contexts. These results demonstrate that the foreign-language effects are pervasive enough to affect automatic stages of emotional processing. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Digital processing optical transmission and coherent receiving techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    With coherent mixing in the optical domain and processing in the digital domain, advanced receiving techniques employing ultra-high speed sampling rates have progressed tremendously over the last few years. These advances have brought coherent reception systems for lightwave-carried information to the next stage, resulting in ultra-high capacity global internetworking. Digital Processing: Optical Transmission and Coherent Receiving Techniques describes modern coherent receiving techniques for optical transmission and aspects of modern digital optical communications in the most basic lines. The

  6. Similar and/or Different Writing Processes? A Study of Spanish Foreign Language and Heritage Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elola, Idoia; Mikulski, Ariana M.

    2016-01-01

    Following a cognitively-oriented framework, this study builds upon the authors' previous work (Elola and Mikulski 2013; Mikulski and Elola 2011), which analyzed writing processes (planning time, execution time, revision time), fluency, and accuracy of Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners when composing in English and in Spanish. By analyzing…

  7. Causal knowledge extraction by natural language processing in material science: a case study in chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Kajikawa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publications written in natural language still play a central role as our knowledge source. However, due to the flood of publications, the literature survey process has become a highly time-consuming and tangled process, especially for novices of the discipline. Therefore, tools supporting the literature-survey process may help the individual scientist to explore new useful domains. Natural language processing (NLP is expected as one of the promising techniques to retrieve, abstract, and extract knowledge. In this contribution, NLP is firstly applied to the literature of chemical vapor deposition (CVD, which is a sub-discipline of materials science and is a complex and interdisciplinary field of research involving chemists, physicists, engineers, and materials scientists. Causal knowledge extraction from the literature is demonstrated using NLP.

  8. The sign language skills classroom observation: a process for describing sign language proficiency in classroom settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J B; Newell, W; Holcomb, B R; Stinson, M

    2000-10-01

    In collaboration with teachers and students at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID), the Sign Language Skills Classroom Observation (SLSCO) was designed to provide feedback to teachers on their sign language communication skills in the classroom. In the present article, the impetus and rationale for development of the SLSCO is discussed. Previous studies related to classroom signing and observation methodology are reviewed. The procedure for developing the SLSCO is then described. This procedure included (a) interviews with faculty and students at NTID, (b) identification of linguistic features of sign language important for conveying content to deaf students, (c) development of forms for recording observations of classroom signing, (d) analysis of use of the forms, (e) development of a protocol for conducting the SLSCO, and (f) piloting of the SLSCO in classrooms. The results of use of the SLSCO with NTID faculty during a trial year are summarized.

  9. FORMATION OF CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE OF FOREIGN STUDENTS IN THE PROCESS OF LEARNING UKRAINIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Галина Дідук-Ступ'як

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of formation of cross-cultural competence of foreign students in the process of learning Ukrainian as a foreign language. Theoretical and pragmatic ways of intercultural communication methods for speakers of a foreign language in four types of speech activity have been substantiated. There have been determined linguistic and didactic principles of learning the Ukrainian language as a foreign language using authorial technology of interaction of different approaches that promotes the development of effective cross-cultural competence of foreign students. The main components of the innovative technology of work with foreign language audience have been characterized; a system of tasks and exercises aimed at mastering linguistic, socio-cultural and pragmatic competences has been set. There have been determined linguistic and methodical problems of comparative methodology, which authoring technology LTIRP with the usage of authentic texts is based on. Traditional and new forms, methods and techniques of teaching foreign students in the process of formation of cross-cultural competence have been considered.

  10. Sign language processing and the mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P; Knapp, Heather

    2006-05-01

    In this paper we review evidence for frontal and parietal lobe involvement in sign language comprehension and production, and evaluate the extent to which these data can be interpreted within the context of a mirror neuron system for human action observation and execution. We present data from three literatures--aphasia, cortical stimulation, and functional neuroimaging. Generally, we find support for the idea that sign language comprehension and production can be viewed in the context of a broadly-construed frontal-parietal human action observation/execution system. However, sign language data cannot be fully accounted for under a strict interpretation of the mirror neuron system. Additionally, we raise a number of issues concerning the lack of specificity in current accounts of the human action observation/execution system.

  11. Laying the groundwork for enterprise-wide medical language processing services: architecture and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Elizabeth S; Maloney, Francine L; Shilmayster, Eugene; Goldberg, Howard S

    2009-11-14

    A systematic and standard process for capturing information within free-text clinical documents could facilitate opportunities for improving quality and safety of patient care, enhancing decision support, and advancing data warehousing across an enterprise setting. At Partners HealthCare System, the Medical Language Processing (MLP) services project was initiated to establish a component-based architectural model and processes to facilitate putting MLP functionality into production for enterprise consumption, promote sharing of components, and encourage reuse. Key objectives included exploring the use of an open-source framework called the Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) and leveraging existing MLP-related efforts, terminology, and document standards. This paper describes early experiences in defining the infrastructure and standards for extracting, encoding, and structuring clinical observations from a variety of clinical documents to serve enterprise-wide needs.

  12. Auditory processing deficits are sometimes necessary and sometimes sufficient for language difficulties in children: Evidence from mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Lorna F; Tuomainen, Outi; Rosen, Stuart

    2017-09-01

    There is a general consensus that many children and adults with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment display deficits in auditory processing. However, how these deficits are related to developmental disorders of language is uncertain, and at least four categories of model have been proposed: single distal cause models, risk factor models, association models, and consequence models. This study used children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MMHL) to investigate the link between auditory processing deficits and language disorders. We examined the auditory processing and language skills of 46, 8-16year-old children with MMHL and 44 age-matched typically developing controls. Auditory processing abilities were assessed using child-friendly psychophysical techniques in order to obtain discrimination thresholds. Stimuli incorporated three different timescales (µs, ms, s) and three different levels of complexity (simple nonspeech tones, complex nonspeech sounds, speech sounds), and tasks required discrimination of frequency or amplitude cues. Language abilities were assessed using a battery of standardised assessments of phonological processing, reading, vocabulary, and grammar. We found evidence that three different auditory processing abilities showed different relationships with language: Deficits in a general auditory processing component were necessary but not sufficient for language difficulties, and were consistent with a risk factor model; Deficits in slow-rate amplitude modulation (envelope) detection were sufficient but not necessary for language difficulties, and were consistent with either a single distal cause or a consequence model; And deficits in the discrimination of a single speech contrast (/bɑ/ vs /dɑ/) were neither necessary nor sufficient for language difficulties, and were consistent with an association model. Our findings suggest that different auditory processing deficits may constitute distinct and independent routes to

  13. Automated synthesis of image processing procedures using AI planning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Mortensen, Helen

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the Multimission VICAR (Video Image Communication and Retrieval) Planner (MVP) (Chien 1994) system, which uses artificial intelligence planning techniques (Iwasaki & Friedland, 1985, Pemberthy & Weld, 1992, Stefik, 1981) to automatically construct executable complex image processing procedures (using models of the smaller constituent image processing subprograms) in response to image processing requests made to the JPL Multimission Image Processing Laboratory (MIPL). The MVP system allows the user to specify the image processing requirements in terms of the various types of correction required. Given this information, MVP derives unspecified required processing steps and determines appropriate image processing programs and parameters to achieve the specified image processing goals. This information is output as an executable image processing program which can then be executed to fill the processing request.

  14. Interaction of language processing and motor skill in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C; Goffman, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for articulatory duration and variability. Standard measures of motor, language, and articulation skill were also obtained. Sentences containing particles, as compared with prepositions, were less likely to be produced in a priming task and were longer in duration, suggesting increased difficulty with this syntactic structure. Children with SLI demonstrated higher articulatory variability and poorer gross and fine motor skills compared with aged-matched controls. Articulatory variability was correlated with generalized gross and fine motor performance. Children with SLI show co-occurring speech motor and generalized motor deficits. Current theories do not fully account for the present findings, though the procedural deficit hypothesis provides a framework for interpreting overlap among language and motor domains.

  15. A Document Imaging Technique for Implementing Electronic Loan Approval Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manikandan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The image processing is one of the leading technologies of computer applications. Image processing is a type of signal processing, the input for image processor is an image or video frame and the output will be an image or subset of image [1]. Computer graphics and computer vision process uses an image processing techniques. Image processing systems are used in various environments like medical fields, computer-aided design (CAD, research fields, crime investigation fields and military fields. In this paper, we proposed a document image processing technique, for establishing electronic loan approval process (E-LAP [2]. Loan approval process has been tedious process, the E-LAP system attempts to reduce the complexity of loan approval process. Customers have to login to fill the loan application form online with all details and submit the form. The loan department then processes the submitted form and then sends an acknowledgement mail via the E-LAP to the requested customer with the details about list of documents required for the loan approval process [3]. The approaching customer can upload the scanned copies of all required documents. All this interaction between customer and bank take place using an E-LAP system.

  16. Comparison of the Recovery Patterns of Language and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Post-Traumatic Language Processing Deficits and in Patients with Aphasia Following a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the…

  17. Gender and Agreement Processing in Children with Developmental Language Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments tested whether Russian-speaking children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) are sensitive to gender agreement when performing a gender decision task. In Experiment 1, the presence of overt gender agreement between verbs and/or adjectival modifiers and postverbal subject nouns memory was varied. In Experiment 2, agreement…

  18. Article Omission in Headlines and Child Language: A Processing Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, J.

    2008-01-01

    The results of the crosslinguistic (Dutch, Italian and German) database analysis and experiments presented in my study show that there are interesting similarities between the pattern of article omission by adults in newspaper headlines and the pattern of article omission observed in language

  19. Exploring Flipped Classroom Effects on Second Language Learners' Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-eun; Park, Hyunjin; Jang, Mijung; Nam, Hosung

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the cognitive effects of the flipped classroom approach in a content-based instructional context by comparing second language learners' discourse in flipped vs. traditional classrooms in terms of (1) participation rate, (2) content of comments, (3) reasoning skills, and (4) interactional patterns. Learners in two intact…

  20. Sex Differences in Neural Processing of Language among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Douglas D.; Bitan, Tali; Booth, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Why females generally perform better on language tasks than males is unknown. Sex differences were here identified in children (ages 9-15) across two linguistic tasks for words presented in two modalities. Bilateral activation in the inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri and activation in the left fusiform gyrus of girls was greater than in…

  1. Sentence processing in an artificial language: Learning and using combinatorial constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Michael S; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2010-07-01

    A study combining artificial grammar and sentence comprehension methods investigated the learning and online use of probabilistic, nonadjacent combinatorial constraints. Participants learned a small artificial language describing cartoon monsters acting on objects. Self-paced reading of sentences in the artificial language revealed comprehenders' sensitivity to nonadjacent combinatorial constraints, without explicit awareness of the probabilities embedded in the language. These results show that even newly-learned constraints have an identifiable effect on online sentence processing. The rapidity of learning in this paradigm relative to others has implications for theories of implicit learning and its role in language acquisition. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Language-invariant verb processing regions in Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willms, Joanna L; Shapiro, Kevin A; Peelen, Marius V; Pajtas, Petra E; Costa, Albert; Moo, Lauren R; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2011-07-01

    Nouns and verbs are fundamental grammatical building blocks of all languages. Studies of brain-damaged patients and healthy individuals have demonstrated that verb processing can be dissociated from noun processing at a neuroanatomical level. In cases where bilingual patients have a noun or verb deficit, the deficit has been observed in both languages. This suggests that the noun-verb distinction may be based on neural components that are common across languages. Here we investigated the cortical organization of grammatical categories in healthy, early Spanish-English bilinguals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a morphophonological alternation task. Four regions showed greater activity for verbs than for nouns in both languages: left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LMTG), left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG), pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), and right middle occipital gyrus (RMOG); no regions showed greater activation for nouns. Multi-voxel pattern analysis within verb-specific regions showed indistinguishable activity patterns for English and Spanish, indicating language-invariant bilingual processing. In LMTG and LMFG, patterns were more similar within than across grammatical category, both within and across languages, indicating language-invariant grammatical class information. These results suggest that the neural substrates underlying verb-specific processing are largely independent of language in bilinguals, both at the macroscopic neuroanatomical level and at the level of voxel activity patterns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Dual Coding Model of Processing Chinese as a Second Language: A Cognitive-Load Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Diana Po Lan

    2002-01-01

    The research was conducted in Sydney and Hong Kong using students, from grades 5 to 9, whose first language or teaching medium was English, learning to read Chinese as second language. According to cognitive load theory, the processing of single Chinese characters accompanied by pictures should impose extraneous cognitive load and thus hinders…

  4. Enculturating Seamless Language Learning through Artifact Creation and Social Interaction Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chai, Ching Sing; Aw, Guat Poh; King, Ronnel B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a design-based research (DBR) cycle of MyCLOUD (My Chinese ubiquitOUs learning Days). MyCLOUD is a seamless language learning model that addresses identified limitations of conventional Chinese language teaching, such as the decontextualized and unauthentic learning processes that usually hinder reflection and deep learning.…

  5. Interdisciplinary and Intercultural Differences in Learning Strategy Use: Implications for Language Processing, Curriculum and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Saad F.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examines English as foreign language college interdisciplinary and intercultural differences in learning strategy use and their implications for language processing. Positivism underpins this research at the levels of ontology (standardized variables), epistemology (detachment from the subjects) and methodology, using nomothetic…

  6. Modeling the Process of Summary Writing of Chinese Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiuliang

    2016-01-01

    In language learning contexts, writing tasks that involve reading of source texts are often used to elicit more authentic integrative language use. Thus, interests in researching these read-to-write tasks in general and as assessment tasks keep growing. This study examined and modeled the process of summary writing as a read-to-write integrated…

  7. Hierarchical programming language for modal multi-rate real-time stream processing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuns, S.J.; Hausmans, J.P.H.M.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Modal multi-rate stream processing applications with real-time constraints which are executed on multi-core embedded systems often cannot be conveniently specified using current programming languages. An important issue is that sequential programming languages do not allow for convenient programming

  8. Applying pause analysis to explore cognitive processes in the copying of sentences by second language users

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkifli, Putri Afzan Maria Binti

    2013-01-01

    Pause analysis is a method that investigates processes of writing by measuring the amount of time between pen strokes. It provides the field of second language studies with a means to explore the cognitive processes underpinning the nature of writing. This study examined the potential of using free handwritten copying of sentences as a means of investigating components of the cognitive processes of adults who have English as their Second Language (ESL).\\ud \\ud A series of one pilot and three ...

  9. Integrating deep and shallow natural language processing components : representations and hybrid architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    We describe basic concepts and software architectures for the integration of shallow and deep (linguistics-based, semantics-oriented) natural language processing (NLP) components. The main goal of this novel, hybrid integration paradigm is improving robustness of deep processing. After an introduction to constraint-based natural language parsing, we give an overview of typical shallow processing tasks. We introduce XML standoff markup as an additional abstraction layer that eases integration ...

  10. Congenital Amusia (or Tone-Deafness) Interferes with Pitch Processing in Tone Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Tillmann, Barbara; Burnham, Denis; Nguyen, Sebastien; Grimault, Nicolas; Gosselin, Nathalie; Peretz, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1) and in Thai (Experiment 2). Tones were presented in pairs an...

  11. Processing techniques for data from the GKSS pressure suppression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.; McCauley, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes techniques developed at LLNL for processing data from large-scale steam condensation experiments being performed by the GKSS Research Center in the Federal Republic of Germany. In particular, the computer code GKPLOT, a special evaluation program for generating time-history plots and numerical output files of GKSS data, will be discussed together with tape handling techniques to unblock the data to a form compatible with the LLNL octopus computer network. Using these data processing techniques, we have provided a convenient means of independently examining and analyzing a very extensive data base for steam condenstaion phenomena. In addition, the techniques developed for handling the GKSS data are applicable to the treatment of similar, but perhaps differently structured, experiment data sets

  12. Signal processing techniques for sodium boiling noise detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    At the Specialists' Meeting on Sodium Boiling Detection organized by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) of the International Atomic Energy Agency at Chester in the United Kingdom in 1981 various methods of detecting sodium boiling were reported. But, it was not possible to make a comparative assessment of these methods because the signal condition in each experiment was different from others. That is why participants of this meeting recommended that a benchmark test should be carried out in order to evaluate and compare signal processing methods for boiling detection. Organization of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on signal processing techniques for sodium boiling noise detection was also recommended at the 16th meeting of the IWGFR. The CRP on Signal Processing Techniques for Sodium Boiling Noise Detection was set up in 1984. Eight laboratories from six countries have agreed to participate in this CRP. The overall objective of the programme was the development of reliable on-line signal processing techniques which could be used for the detection of sodium boiling in an LMFBR core. During the first stage of the programme a number of existing processing techniques used by different countries have been compared and evaluated. In the course of further work, an algorithm for implementation of this sodium boiling detection system in the nuclear reactor will be developed. It was also considered that the acoustic signal processing techniques developed for boiling detection could well make a useful contribution to other acoustic applications in the reactor. This publication consists of two parts. Part I is the final report of the co-ordinated research programme on signal processing techniques for sodium boiling noise detection. Part II contains two introductory papers and 20 papers presented at four research co-ordination meetings since 1985. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 22 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Data structures and languages in support of parallel image processing for astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses data structures, and aspects of programming languages and systems that are relevant to image processing of astronomy data. Emphasis is on image processing computations, because this kind of data processing is obviously a ripe one for parallelism and is important in astronomy. However, some discussion of general possibilities are also presented. The role of algorithms is examined since they are not dependent on a particular language. As an implementation of an algorithm a program is equally tied to data structure, operations, architecture and language, and therefore the issue of programming resides in the center of the tetrahedron

  14. Risk-assessment techniques and the reactor licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400), concentrating on the engineering aspects of the contribution to reactor accident risks is followed by some comments on how we have applied the insights and techniques developed in this study to prepare a program to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. Some new work we are just beginning on the application of risk-assessment techniques to stablize the reactor licensing process is also discussed

  15. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance

  16. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; O' Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  17. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  18. Future trends in power plant process computer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettloff, K.

    1975-01-01

    The development of new concepts of the process computer technique has advanced in great steps. The steps are in the three sections: hardware, software, application concept. New computers with a new periphery such as, e.g., colour layer equipment, have been developed in hardware. In software, a decisive step in the sector 'automation software' has been made. Through these components, a step forwards has also been made in the question of incorporating the process computer in the structure of the whole power plant control technique. (orig./LH) [de

  19. Natural-language processing applied to an ITS interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gisolfi

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show that with a subset of a natural language, simple systems running on PCs can be developed that can nevertheless be an effective tool for interfacing purposes in the building of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS. After presenting the special characteristics of the Smalltalk/V language, which provides an appropriate environment for the development of an interface, the overall architecture of the interface module is discussed. We then show how sentences are parsed by the interface, and how interaction takes place with the user. The knowledge-acquisition phase is subsequently described. Finally, some excerpts from a tutoring session concerned with elementary geometry are discussed, and some of the problems and limitations of the approach are illustrated.

  20. Development of process diagnostic techniques for piping and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotsutsuji, Mitoshi

    1987-01-01

    The thing required for using the facilities composing a plant for a long period without anxiety is to quantitatively grasp the quantities of the present condition of the facilities and to take the necessary measures beforehand. For this purpose, the diagnostic techniques for quickly and accurately detect the quantities of the condition of facilities are necessary, and the development of process diagnostic techniques has been desired. The process diagnostic techniques mentioned here mean those for diagnosing the contamination, clogging and performance of towers, tanks, heat exchangers and others. Idemitsu Engineering Co. had developed a simplified diagnostic equipment for detecting the state of fouling in piping in 1982, which is the gamma ray transmission diagnosis named Scale Checker. By further improving it, the process diagnostic techniques for piping and equipment were developed. In this report, the course of development and examination, the principle of detection, the constitution and the examination of remodeling of the Scale Checker are reported. As the cases of process diagnosis in plant facilities, the diagnosis of the clogging in process piping and the diagnosis of the performance of a distillation tower were carried out. The contents of the diagnosis and the results of those cases are explained. (Kako, I.)

  1. Alarm processing system using AI techniques for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon On; Chang, Soon Heung

    1990-01-01

    An alarm processing system (APS) has been developed using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The alarms of nuclear power plants (NPP's) are classified into the generalized and special alarms. The generalized alarms are also classified into the global and local alarms. For each type of alarms, the specific processing rules are applied to filter and suppress unnecessary and potentially misleading alarms. The local processing are based on 'model-based reasoning.' The global and special alarms are processed by using the general cause-consequence check rules. The priorities of alarms are determined according to the plant state and the consistencies between them

  2. STUDY OF ELECTROPOLIMERIZATION PROCESSES OF PYRROLE BY CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRIC TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhitasari Suratman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Electropolymerization processes and electrochemical properties of polypyrrole as electroactive polymer have been studied by cyclic voltammetric technique. Pyrrole was electropolymerized to form polypyrrole in water-based solvent containing sodium perchlorate as supporting electrolyte in several pH values. The pH of the solutions were varied by using Britton Robinson buffer. The results showed that oxidation potential limit of electropolymerization processes of pyrrole was 1220 mV vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode. It can be seen that cyclic voltammetric respon of polypyrrole membrane that was prepared by electropolymerization processes of pyrrole at the scanning rate of 100 mV/s was stable. While the processes of pyrrole electropolymerization carried out at the variation of pH showed that the best condition was at the pH range of 2 - 6.   Keywords: polypyrolle, electropolymer, voltammetric technique

  3. A Transcription Scheme for Languages Employing the Arabic Script Motivated by Speech Processing Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganjavi, Shadi; Georgiou, Panayiotis G; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2004-01-01

    ... (The DARPA Babylon Program; Narayanan, 2003). In this paper, we discuss transcription systems needed for automated spoken language processing applications in Persian that uses the Arabic script for writing...

  4. New developments in techniques for information processing in radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Paola, R.; Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1981-01-01

    Processing of scintigraphic data has passed through different stages in the past fifteen years. After an 'euphoric' era when large off-line computer facilities were used to process very low-quality rectilinear scan pictures, a much more critical period followed the introduction of on-line minicomputer systems to acquire, process and visualize scintillation camera data. A selection of some of the available techniques that could improve the extraction of information from scintigraphic examinations in routine is presented. Tomography has been excluded. As examples, the different techniques of (a) inhomogeneity correction of camera response and (b) respiratory motion corrections are used to show one evolutionary process in the use of computer systems. Filtering has been for a long time the major area of research in scintigraphic image processing. Only very simple (usually smoothing) filters are widely distributed. Little use of more 'powerful' filters in clinical data has been made, and very few serious evaluations have been published. Nevertheless, the number of installed minicomputer and microprocessor systems is increasing rapidly, but in general performing tasks other than filtering. The reasons for this (relative) failure are examined. Some 'new' techniques of image processing are presented. The compression of scintigraphic information is important because of the expected need in the near future for handling of large numbers of static pictures as in dynamic and tomographic studies. For dynamic information processing, the present methodology has been narrowed to those techniques that permit the entire 'data space' to be manipulated (as opposed to curve fitting after region of interest definition). 'Functional' imaging was the first step in this process. 'Factor analysis' could be the next. The results obtained by various research laboratories are reviewed. (author)

  5. Statistic techniques of process control for MTR type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.S.; Ferrufino, F.B.J.; Santos, G.R.T.; Lima, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    This work aims at introducing some improvements on the fabrication of MTR type fuel plates, applying statistic techniques of process control. The work was divided into four single steps and their data were analyzed for: fabrication of U 3 O 8 fuel plates; fabrication of U 3 Si 2 fuel plates; rolling of small lots of fuel plates; applying statistic tools and standard specifications to perform a comparative study of these processes. (author)

  6. Turn-taking in Human Communication--Origins and Implications for Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    Most language usage is interactive, involving rapid turn-taking. The turn-taking system has a number of striking properties: turns are short and responses are remarkably rapid, but turns are of varying length and often of very complex construction such that the underlying cognitive processing is highly compressed. Although neglected in cognitive science, the system has deep implications for language processing and acquisition that are only now becoming clear. Appearing earlier in ontogeny than linguistic competence, it is also found across all the major primate clades. This suggests a possible phylogenetic continuity, which may provide key insights into language evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Proposal of Instruction Process for Improvement of Language Activities in Technology Education Course

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 智広; 山本, 利一

    2012-01-01

    This study is a proposal of instruction process for improvement of language activities in the technology education course in the junior high school in Japan. In this study, two efforts were carried out for the technology concerning material and processing. The first effort was the extraction of the learning situations that develop abilities of thinking, judgment and expression through language activities peculiar to the technology education course. The second effort was the verification o...

  8. Decision Making Strategy and the Simultaneous Processing of Syntactic Dependencies in Language and Music

    OpenAIRE

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M. P.; Bouwer, Fleur L.; Honing, Henkjan

    2018-01-01

    Despite differences in their function and domain-specific elements, syntactic processing in music and language is believed to share cognitive resources. This study aims to investigate whether the simultaneous processing of language and music share the use of a common syntactic processor or more general attentional resources. To investigate this matter we tested musicians and non-musicians using visually presented sentences and aurally presented melodies containing syntactic local and long-dis...

  9. Technical and economic benefits of nuclear techniques in ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This report is the outcome of an Advisory Group Meeting organized by the Agency and hosted by the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the meeting was to assess the technical and economic benefits of applying nuclear techniques in ore processing industry. Nucleonic control systems and nuclear on-line analytical techniques as well as radioisotope tracer tests and their applications in metallic ore-processing, coal production, and cement fabrication were discussed. This report contains a summary and the presentations dealing with nuclear techniques for process control made at this meeting. Using a number of case-histories as examples, it illustrates technical and economic benefits obtainable by the installation of nuclear process control instrumentation. It is expected to be useful for everybody dealing with ore and coal production, but especially for administrative personnel and engineers who plan and implement national development programmes related to mineral resources. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. A Monte Carlo Sampling Technique for Multi-phonon Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegberg, Thure

    1961-12-15

    A sampling technique for selecting scattering angle and energy gain in Monte Carlo calculations of neutron thermalization is described. It is supposed that the scattering is separated into processes involving different numbers of phonons. The number of phonons involved is first determined. Scattering angle and energy gain are then chosen by using special properties of the multi-phonon term.

  11. Harmonizing the Writing Process with Music Training Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecken, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Can music help students become better thinkers and writers? Over the past three years, the author has incorporated some basic music training techniques in her classrooms to help her teach the writing process to students who would otherwise click her off. The students have developed clearer thinking and organizational skills, and have increased…

  12. Self-Repair and Language Selection in Bilingual Speech Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Hennecke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In psycholinguistic research the exact level of language selection in bilingual lexical access is still controversial and current models of bilingual speech production offer conflicting statements about the mechanisms and location of language selection. This paper aims to provide a corpus analysis of self-repair mechanisms in code-switching contexts of highly fluent bilingual speakers in order to gain further insights into bilingual speech production. The present paper follows the assumptions of the Selection by Proficiency model, which claims that language proficiency and lexical robustness determine the mechanism and level of language selection. In accordance with this hypothesis, highly fluent bilinguals select languages at a prelexical level, which should influence the occurrence of self-repairs in bilingual speech. A corpus of natural speech data of highly fluent and balanced bilingual French-English speakers of the Canadian French variety Franco-Manitoban serves as the basis for a detailed analysis of different self-repair mechanisms in code-switching environments. Although the speech data contain a large amount of code-switching, results reveal that only a few speech errors and self-repairs occur in direct code-switching environments. A detailed analysis of the respective starting point of code-switching and the different repair mechanisms supports the hypothesis that highly proficient bilinguals do not select languages at the lexical level.Le niveau exact de la sélection des langues lors de l’accès lexical chez le bilingue reste une question controversée dans la recherche psycholinguistique. Les modèles actuels de la production verbale bilingue proposent des arguments contradictoires concernant le mécanisme et le lieu de la sélection des langues. La présente recherche vise à fournir une analyse de corpus mettant l’accent sur les mécanismes d’autoréparation dans le contexte d’alternance codique dans la production verbale

  13. Decision Making Strategy and the Simultaneous Processing of Syntactic Dependencies in Language and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M P; Bouwer, Fleur L; Honing, Henkjan

    2018-01-01

    Despite differences in their function and domain-specific elements, syntactic processing in music and language is believed to share cognitive resources. This study aims to investigate whether the simultaneous processing of language and music share the use of a common syntactic processor or more general attentional resources. To investigate this matter we tested musicians and non-musicians using visually presented sentences and aurally presented melodies containing syntactic local and long-distance dependencies. Accuracy rates and reaction times of participants' responses were collected. In both sentences and melodies, unexpected syntactic anomalies were introduced. This is the first study to address the processing of local and long-distance dependencies in language and music combined while reducing the effect of sensory memory. Participants were instructed to focus on language (language session), music (music session), or both (dual session). In the language session, musicians and non-musicians performed comparably in terms of accuracy rates and reaction times. As expected, groups' differences appeared in the music session, with musicians being more accurate in their responses than non-musicians and only the latter showing an interaction between the accuracy rates for music and language syntax. In the dual session musicians were overall more accurate than non-musicians. However, both groups showed comparable behavior, by displaying an interaction between the accuracy rates for language and music syntax responses. In our study, accuracy rates seem to better capture the interaction between language and music syntax; and this interaction seems to indicate the use of distinct, however, interacting mechanisms as part of decision making strategy. This interaction seems to be subject of an increase of attentional load and domain proficiency. Our study contributes to the long-lasting debate about the commonalities between language and music by providing evidence for their

  14. Decision Making Strategy and the Simultaneous Processing of Syntactic Dependencies in Language and Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Roncaglia-Denissen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite differences in their function and domain-specific elements, syntactic processing in music and language is believed to share cognitive resources. This study aims to investigate whether the simultaneous processing of language and music share the use of a common syntactic processor or more general attentional resources. To investigate this matter we tested musicians and non-musicians using visually presented sentences and aurally presented melodies containing syntactic local and long-distance dependencies. Accuracy rates and reaction times of participants’ responses were collected. In both sentences and melodies, unexpected syntactic anomalies were introduced. This is the first study to address the processing of local and long-distance dependencies in language and music combined while reducing the effect of sensory memory. Participants were instructed to focus on language (language session, music (music session, or both (dual session. In the language session, musicians and non-musicians performed comparably in terms of accuracy rates and reaction times. As expected, groups’ differences appeared in the music session, with musicians being more accurate in their responses than non-musicians and only the latter showing an interaction between the accuracy rates for music and language syntax. In the dual session musicians were overall more accurate than non-musicians. However, both groups showed comparable behavior, by displaying an interaction between the accuracy rates for language and music syntax responses. In our study, accuracy rates seem to better capture the interaction between language and music syntax; and this interaction seems to indicate the use of distinct, however, interacting mechanisms as part of decision making strategy. This interaction seems to be subject of an increase of attentional load and domain proficiency. Our study contributes to the long-lasting debate about the commonalities between language and music by

  15. Good-enough linguistic representations and online cognitive equilibrium in language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hossein; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    We review previous research showing that representations formed during language processing are sometimes just "good enough" for the task at hand and propose the "online cognitive equilibrium" hypothesis as the driving force behind the formation of good-enough representations in language processing. Based on this view, we assume that the language comprehension system by default prefers to achieve as early as possible and remain as long as possible in a state of cognitive equilibrium where linguistic representations are successfully incorporated with existing knowledge structures (i.e., schemata) so that a meaningful and coherent overall representation is formed, and uncertainty is resolved or at least minimized. We also argue that the online equilibrium hypothesis is consistent with current theories of language processing, which maintain that linguistic representations are formed through a complex interplay between simple heuristics and deep syntactic algorithms and also theories that hold that linguistic representations are often incomplete and lacking in detail. We also propose a model of language processing that makes use of both heuristic and algorithmic processing, is sensitive to online cognitive equilibrium, and, we argue, is capable of explaining the formation of underspecified representations. We review previous findings providing evidence for underspecification in relation to this hypothesis and the associated language processing model and argue that most of these findings are compatible with them.

  16. Advanced applications of natural language processing for performing information extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Mário

    2015-01-01

    This book explains how can be created information extraction (IE) applications that are able to tap the vast amount of relevant information available in natural language sources: Internet pages, official documents such as laws and regulations, books and newspapers, and social web. Readers are introduced to the problem of IE and its current challenges and limitations, supported with examples. The book discusses the need to fill the gap between documents, data, and people, and provides a broad overview of the technology supporting IE. The authors present a generic architecture for developing systems that are able to learn how to extract relevant information from natural language documents, and illustrate how to implement working systems using state-of-the-art and freely available software tools. The book also discusses concrete applications illustrating IE uses.   ·         Provides an overview of state-of-the-art technology in information extraction (IE), discussing achievements and limitations for t...

  17. Process mining techniques: an application to time management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Ali Raza

    2018-04-01

    In an environment people have to make sure that all of their work are completed within a given time in accordance with its quality. In order to achieve the real phenomenon of process mining one needs to understand all of these processes in a detailed manner. Personal Information and communication has always been a highlighting issue on internet but for now information and communication tools within factual life refers to their daily schedule, location analysis, environmental analysis and, more generally, social media applications support these systems which makes data available for data analysis generated through event logs, but also for process analysis which combines environmental and location analysis. Process mining can be used to exploit all these real live processes with the help of the event logs which are already available in those datasets through user censored data or may be user labeled data. These processes could be used to redesign a user's flow and understand all these processes in a bit more detailed manner. In order to increase the quality of each of the processes that we go through our daily lives is to give a closer look to each of the processes and after analyzing them, one should make changes to get better results. On the contrarily, we applied process mining techniques on seven different subjects combined in a single dataset collected from Korea. Above all, the following paper comments on the efficiency of processes in the event logs referring to time management's sphere of influence.

  18. Early processing of orthographic language membership information in bilingual visual word recognition: Evidence from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoversten, Liv J; Brothers, Trevor; Swaab, Tamara Y; Traxler, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    For successful language comprehension, bilinguals often must exert top-down control to access and select lexical representations within a single language. These control processes may critically depend on identification of the language to which a word belongs, but it is currently unclear when different sources of such language membership information become available during word recognition. In the present study, we used event-related potentials to investigate the time course of influence of orthographic language membership cues. Using an oddball detection paradigm, we observed early neural effects of orthographic bias (Spanish vs. English orthography) that preceded effects of lexicality (word vs. pseudoword). This early orthographic pop-out effect was observed for both words and pseudowords, suggesting that this cue is available prior to full lexical access. We discuss the role of orthographic bias for models of bilingual word recognition and its potential role in the suppression of nontarget lexical information. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Proposal for an Object Oriented Process Modeling Language

    OpenAIRE

    Anderl, Reiner; Raßler, Jochen; Malzacher, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Processes are very important for the success within many business fields. They define the proper application of methods, technologies and company structures in order to reach business goals. Not only manufacturing processes have to be defined from the start point to their end, also other processes like product development processes need a proper description to gain success. For example in automotive industries complex product development processes are necessary and defined prior to product de...

  20. WORD SENSE DISAMBIGUATION FOR TAMIL LANGUAGE USING PART-OF-SPEECH AND CLUSTERING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISWARYA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Word sense disambiguation is an important task in Natural Language Processing (NLP, and this paper concentrates on the problem of target word selection in machine translation. The proposed method called enhanced Word Sense Disambiguation with Part-of-Speech and Clustering based Sensecollocation (WSDPCS consists of two steps namely (i Part-of-Speech (POS tagger in disambiguating word senses and (ii Enhanced with Clustering and Sense-collocation dictionary based disambiguation. In the first step an ambiguous Tamil words are disambiguated using Tamil and English POS Tagger. If it has same type of POS category labels, then it passes the word to the next step. In the second step ambiguity is resolved using sense-collocation dictionary. The experimental analysis shows that the accuracy of proposed WSDPCS method achieves 1.86% improvement over an existing method.

  1. The Processing of Biologically Plausible and Implausible forms in American Sign Language: Evidence for Perceptual Tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Diogo; Poeppel, David; Corina, David

    The human auditory system distinguishes speech-like information from general auditory signals in a remarkably fast and efficient way. Combining psychophysics and neurophysiology (MEG), we demonstrate a similar result for the processing of visual information used for language communication in users of sign languages. We demonstrate that the earliest visual cortical responses in deaf signers viewing American Sign Language (ASL) signs show specific modulations to violations of anatomic constraints that would make the sign either possible or impossible to articulate. These neural data are accompanied with a significantly increased perceptual sensitivity to the anatomical incongruity. The differential effects in the early visual evoked potentials arguably reflect an expectation-driven assessment of somatic representational integrity, suggesting that language experience and/or auditory deprivation may shape the neuronal mechanisms underlying the analysis of complex human form. The data demonstrate that the perceptual tuning that underlies the discrimination of language and non-language information is not limited to spoken languages but extends to languages expressed in the visual modality.

  2. Comparative study of resist stabilization techniques for metal etch processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Gerry; Ross, Matthew F.; Wong, Selmer S.; Minter, Jason P.; Marlowe, Trey; Livesay, William R.

    1999-06-01

    This study investigates resist stabilization techniques as they are applied to a metal etch application. The techniques that are compared are conventional deep-UV/thermal stabilization, or UV bake, and electron beam stabilization. The electron beam tool use din this study, an ElectronCure system from AlliedSignal Inc., ELectron Vision Group, utilizes a flood electron source and a non-thermal process. These stabilization techniques are compared with respect to a metal etch process. In this study, two types of resist are considered for stabilization and etch: a g/i-line resist, Shipley SPR-3012, and an advanced i-line, Shipley SPR 955- Cm. For each of these resist the effects of stabilization on resist features are evaluated by post-stabilization SEM analysis. Etch selectivity in all cases is evaluated by using a timed metal etch, and measuring resists remaining relative to total metal thickness etched. Etch selectivity is presented as a function of stabilization condition. Analyses of the effects of the type of stabilization on this method of selectivity measurement are also presented. SEM analysis was also performed on the features after a compete etch process, and is detailed as a function of stabilization condition. Post-etch cleaning is also an important factor impacted by pre-etch resist stabilization. Results of post- etch cleaning are presented for both stabilization methods. SEM inspection is also detailed for the metal features after resist removal processing.

  3. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il Jun [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jung Ho [Kyungbook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity.

  4. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Hak Soo; Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin; Kang, Il Jun; Kwon, Jung Ho

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity

  5. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il Jun [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jung Ho [Kyungbook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity.

  6. Spectroscopic analysis technique for arc-welding process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirapeix, Jesús; Cobo, Adolfo; Conde, Olga; Quintela, María Ángeles; López-Higuera, José-Miguel

    2005-09-01

    The spectroscopic analysis of the light emitted by thermal plasmas has found many applications, from chemical analysis to monitoring and control of industrial processes. Particularly, it has been demonstrated that the analysis of the thermal plasma generated during arc or laser welding can supply information about the process and, thus, about the quality of the weld. In some critical applications (e.g. the aerospace sector), an early, real-time detection of defects in the weld seam (oxidation, porosity, lack of penetration, ...) is highly desirable as it can reduce expensive non-destructive testing (NDT). Among others techniques, full spectroscopic analysis of the plasma emission is known to offer rich information about the process itself, but it is also very demanding in terms of real-time implementations. In this paper, we proposed a technique for the analysis of the plasma emission spectrum that is able to detect, in real-time, changes in the process parameters that could lead to the formation of defects in the weld seam. It is based on the estimation of the electronic temperature of the plasma through the analysis of the emission peaks from multiple atomic species. Unlike traditional techniques, which usually involve peak fitting to Voigt functions using the Levenberg-Marquardt recursive method, we employ the LPO (Linear Phase Operator) sub-pixel algorithm to accurately estimate the central wavelength of the peaks (allowing an automatic identification of each atomic species) and cubic-spline interpolation of the noisy data to obtain the intensity and width of the peaks. Experimental tests on TIG-welding using fiber-optic capture of light and a low-cost CCD-based spectrometer, show that some typical defects can be easily detected and identified with this technique, whose typical processing time for multiple peak analysis is less than 20msec. running in a conventional PC.

  7. Recommendations for elaboration, transcultural adaptation and validation process of tests in Speech, Hearing and Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernambuco, Leandro; Espelt, Albert; Magalhães, Hipólito Virgílio; Lima, Kenio Costa de

    2017-06-08

    to present a guide with recommendations for translation, adaptation, elaboration and process of validation of tests in Speech and Language Pathology. the recommendations were based on international guidelines with a focus on the elaboration, translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation process of tests. the recommendations were grouped into two Charts, one of them with procedures for translation and transcultural adaptation and the other for obtaining evidence of validity, reliability and measures of accuracy of the tests. a guide with norms for the organization and systematization of the process of elaboration, translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation process of tests in Speech and Language Pathology was created.

  8. Speech endpoint detection with non-language speech sounds for generic speech processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Matthew; Romanowski, Brian

    2009-05-01

    Non-language speech sounds (NLSS) are sounds produced by humans that do not carry linguistic information. Examples of these sounds are coughs, clicks, breaths, and filled pauses such as "uh" and "um" in English. NLSS are prominent in conversational speech, but can be a significant source of errors in speech processing applications. Traditionally, these sounds are ignored by speech endpoint detection algorithms, where speech regions are identified in the audio signal prior to processing. The ability to filter NLSS as a pre-processing step can significantly enhance the performance of many speech processing applications, such as speaker identification, language identification, and automatic speech recognition. In order to be used in all such applications, NLSS detection must be performed without the use of language models that provide knowledge of the phonology and lexical structure of speech. This is especially relevant to situations where the languages used in the audio are not known apriori. We present the results of preliminary experiments using data from American and British English speakers, in which segments of audio are classified as language speech sounds (LSS) or NLSS using a set of acoustic features designed for language-agnostic NLSS detection and a hidden-Markov model (HMM) to model speech generation. The results of these experiments indicate that the features and model used are capable of detection certain types of NLSS, such as breaths and clicks, while detection of other types of NLSS such as filled pauses will require future research.

  9. Fractional Processes and Fractional-Order Signal Processing Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Hu; Qiu, TianShuang

    2012-01-01

    Fractional processes are widely found in science, technology and engineering systems. In Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing, some complex random signals, characterized by the presence of a heavy-tailed distribution or non-negligible dependence between distant observations (local and long memory), are introduced and examined from the ‘fractional’ perspective using simulation, fractional-order modeling and filtering and realization of fractional-order systems. These fractional-order signal processing (FOSP) techniques are based on fractional calculus, the fractional Fourier transform and fractional lower-order moments. Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing: • presents fractional processes of fixed, variable and distributed order studied as the output of fractional-order differential systems; • introduces FOSP techniques and the fractional signals and fractional systems point of view; • details real-world-application examples of FOSP techniques to demonstr...

  10. When words fail us: insights into language processing from developmental and acquired disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dorothy V M; Nation, Kate; Patterson, Karalyn

    2014-01-01

    Acquired disorders of language represent loss of previously acquired skills, usually with relatively specific impairments. In children with developmental disorders of language, we may also see selective impairment in some skills; but in this case, the acquisition of language or literacy is affected from the outset. Because systems for processing spoken and written language change as they develop, we should beware of drawing too close a parallel between developmental and acquired disorders. Nevertheless, comparisons between the two may yield new insights. A key feature of connectionist models simulating acquired disorders is the interaction of components of language processing with each other and with other cognitive domains. This kind of model might help make sense of patterns of comorbidity in developmental disorders. Meanwhile, the study of developmental disorders emphasizes learning and change in underlying representations, allowing us to study how heterogeneity in cognitive profile may relate not just to neurobiology but also to experience. Children with persistent language difficulties pose challenges both to our efforts at intervention and to theories of learning of written and spoken language. Future attention to learning in individuals with developmental and acquired disorders could be of both theoretical and applied value.

  11. Evaluation of alternative drying techniques for the earthworm flour processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Suárez Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of earthworm flour includes several steps, among which the most critical is the drying process due to factors such as time and energ y requirements. In addition, the information available about this process is relquite limited. Thus, this work evaluated four drying techniques likely to be implemented by lombricultores: sun drying, oven drying, drying tunnel and microwave assisted drying. Drying kinetics values were obtained for all drying techniques, and specific parameters as the following were evaluated: drying tray material (stainless and ceramic steel for sun drying, microwave power (30 %, 50 % and 80 % and amount of material to be dried (72 and 100 g for microwave assisted drying, temperature (50, 65, 90 and 100 °C for oven drying, and temperature (50 and 63 °C and air speed (2.9 to 3.6 m/s for tunnel drying. It was determined that the most efficient technique is the drying tunnel, because this allows the combination of heat transfer by conduction and convection, and enables controlling the operating parameters. Finally, nutritional analyzes were performed in samples obtained by each drying technique evaluated. The crude protein content for sun drying, microwave assisted drying, oven drying and tunnel drying were 66.36 %, 67.91 %, 60.35 % and 62.33 % respectively, indicating that the drying method and operating parameters do not significantly affect the crude protein content.

  12. Detection of Glaucoma Using Image Processing Techniques: A Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B Naveen; Chauhan, R P; Dahiya, Nidhi

    2018-01-01

    The primary objective of this article is to present a summary of different types of image processing methods employed for the detection of glaucoma, a serious eye disease. Glaucoma affects the optic nerve in which retinal ganglion cells become dead, and this leads to loss of vision. The principal cause is the increase in intraocular pressure, which occurs in open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma, the two major types affecting the optic nerve. In the early stages of glaucoma, no perceptible symptoms appear. As the disease progresses, vision starts to become hazy, leading to blindness. Therefore, early detection of glaucoma is needed for prevention. Manual analysis of ophthalmic images is fairly time-consuming and accuracy depends on the expertise of the professionals. Automatic analysis of retinal images is an important tool. Automation aids in the detection, diagnosis, and prevention of risks associated with the disease. Fundus images obtained from a fundus camera have been used for the analysis. Requisite pre-processing techniques have been applied to the image and, depending upon the technique, various classifiers have been used to detect glaucoma. The techniques mentioned in the present review have certain advantages and disadvantages. Based on this study, one can determine which technique provides an optimum result.

  13. Recent Advances in Techniques for Hyperspectral Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Antonio; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Boardman, Joseph W.; Brazile, Jason; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Fauvel, Mathieu; Gamba, Paolo; Gualtieri, Anthony; hide

    2009-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy, also known as hyperspectral imaging, has been transformed in less than 30 years from being a sparse research tool into a commodity product available to a broad user community. Currently, there is a need for standardized data processing techniques able to take into account the special properties of hyperspectral data. In this paper, we provide a seminal view on recent advances in techniques for hyperspectral image processing. Our main focus is on the design of techniques able to deal with the highdimensional nature of the data, and to integrate the spatial and spectral information. Performance of the discussed techniques is evaluated in different analysis scenarios. To satisfy time-critical constraints in specific applications, we also develop efficient parallel implementations of some of the discussed algorithms. Combined, these parts provide an excellent snapshot of the state-of-the-art in those areas, and offer a thoughtful perspective on future potentials and emerging challenges in the design of robust hyperspectral imaging algorithms

  14. Cognitive processes and neural basis of language switching: proposal of a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2009-12-09

    Although studies on bilingualism are abundant, cognitive processes and neural foundations of language switching received less attention. The aim of our study is to provide new insights to this still open question: do dedicated region(s) for language switching exist or is this function underlain by a distributed circuit of interconnected brain areas, part of a more general cognitive system? On the basis of recent behavioral, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation studies, we propose an original 'hodological' model of language switching. This process might be subserved by a large-scale cortico-subcortical network, with an executive system (prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulum, caudate nucleus) controlling a more dedicated language subcircuit, which involves postero-temporal areas, supramarginal and angular gyri, Broca's area, and the superior longitudinal fasciculus.

  15. Squeezing through the Now-or-Never bottleneck: Reconnecting language processing, acquisition, change, and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick; Christiansen, Morten H

    2016-01-01

    If human language must be squeezed through a narrow cognitive bottleneck, what are the implications for language processing, acquisition, change, and structure? In our target article, we suggested that the implications are far-reaching and form the basis of an integrated account of many apparently unconnected aspects of language and language processing, as well as suggesting revision of many existing theoretical accounts. With some exceptions, commentators were generally supportive both of the existence of the bottleneck and its potential implications. Many commentators suggested additional theoretical and linguistic nuances and extensions, links with prior work, and relevant computational and neuroscientific considerations; some argued for related but distinct viewpoints; a few, though, felt traditional perspectives were being abandoned too readily. Our response attempts to build on the many suggestions raised by the commentators and to engage constructively with challenges to our approach.

  16. Natural language processing using online analytic processing for assessing recommendations in radiology reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Pragya A; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Blake, Michael A; Schultz, Thomas J; Stout, Markus; Lemay, Paul R; Freshman, David J; Halpern, Elkan F; Dreyer, Keith J

    2008-03-01

    The study purpose was to describe the use of natural language processing (NLP) and online analytic processing (OLAP) for assessing patterns in recommendations in unstructured radiology reports on the basis of patient and imaging characteristics, such as age, gender, referring physicians, radiology subspecialty, modality, indications, diseases, and patient status (inpatient vs outpatient). A database of 4,279,179 radiology reports from a single tertiary health care center during a 10-year period (1995-2004) was created. The database includes reports of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, ultrasound, radiography, mammography, angiography, special procedures, and unclassified imaging tests with patient demographics. A clinical data mining and analysis NLP program (Leximer, Nuance Inc, Burlington, Massachusetts) in conjunction with OLAP was used for classifying reports into those with recommendations (I(REC)) and without recommendations (N(REC)) for imaging and determining I(REC) rates for different patient age groups, gender, imaging modalities, indications, diseases, subspecialties, and referring physicians. In addition, temporal trends for I(REC) were also determined. There was a significant difference in the I(REC) rates in different age groups, varying between 4.8% (10-19 years) and 9.5% (>70 years) (P OLAP revealed considerable differences between recommendation trends for different imaging modalities and other patient and imaging characteristics.

  17. Simulation of land mine detection processes using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.

    2005-01-01

    A computer models were designed to study the processes of land mine detection using nuclear technique. Parameters that affect the detection were analyzed . Mines of different masses at different depths in the soil are considered using two types of sources , 252 C f and 14 MeV neutron source. The capability to differentiate between mines and other objects such as concrete , iron , wood , Aluminum ,water and polyethylene were analyzed and studied

  18. Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Langish, S.W.; Skinner, C.H.; Ciebiera, L.P.

    2004-01-01

    In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. Tritium decontamination, by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying motivational forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination

  19. Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Langish, S.W.; Skinner, C.H.; Ciebiera, L.P.

    2005-01-01

    In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. The motivational force for tritium decontamination by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination

  20. Cochlear implants and spoken language processing abilities: Review and assessment of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Nathaniel R.; Pisoni, David B.; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) process sounds electronically and then transmit electric stimulation to the cochlea of individuals with sensorineural deafness, restoring some sensation of auditory perception. Many congenitally deaf CI recipients achieve a high degree of accuracy in speech perception and develop near-normal language skills. Post-lingually deafened implant recipients often regain the ability to understand and use spoken language with or without the aid of visual input (i.e. lip reading...

  1. The neurophysiology of language processing shapes the evolution of grammar: evidence from case marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Balthasar; Witzlack-Makarevich, Alena; Choudhary, Kamal K; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Do principles of language processing in the brain affect the way grammar evolves over time or is language change just a matter of socio-historical contingency? While the balance of evidence has been ambiguous and controversial, we identify here a neurophysiological constraint on the processing of language that has a systematic effect on the evolution of how noun phrases are marked by case (i.e. by such contrasts as between the English base form she and the object form her). In neurophysiological experiments across diverse languages we found that during processing, participants initially interpret the first base-form noun phrase they hear (e.g. she…) as an agent (which would fit a continuation like … greeted him), even when the sentence later requires the interpretation of a patient role (as in … was greeted). We show that this processing principle is also operative in Hindi, a language where initial base-form noun phrases most commonly denote patients because many agents receive a special case marker ("ergative") and are often left out in discourse. This finding suggests that the principle is species-wide and independent of the structural affordances of specific languages. As such, the principle favors the development and maintenance of case-marking systems that equate base-form cases with agents rather than with patients. We confirm this evolutionary bias by statistical analyses of phylogenetic signals in over 600 languages worldwide, controlling for confounding effects from language contact. Our findings suggest that at least one core property of grammar systematically adapts in its evolution to the neurophysiological conditions of the brain, independently of socio-historical factors. This opens up new avenues for understanding how specific properties of grammar have developed in tight interaction with the biological evolution of our species.

  2. Confusing similar words: ERP correlates of lexical-semantic processing in first language attrition and late second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, Kristina; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2016-12-01

    First language (L1) attrition is a socio-linguistic circumstance where second language (L2) learning coincides with changes in exposure and use of the native-L1. Attriters often report experiencing a decline in automaticity or proficiency in their L1 after a prolonged period in the L2 environment, while their L2 proficiency continues to strengthen. Investigating the neurocognitive correlates of attrition alongside those of late L2 acquisition addresses the question of whether the brain mechanisms underlying both L1 and L2 processing are strongly determined by proficiency, irrespective of whether the language was acquired from birth or in adulthood. Using event-related-potentials (ERPs), we examined lexical-semantic processing in Italian L1 attriters, compared to adult Italian L2 learners and to Italian monolingual native speakers. We contrasted the processing of classical lexical-semantic violations (Mismatch condition) with sentences that were equally semantically implausible but arguably trickier, as the target-noun was "swapped" with an orthographic neighbor that differed only in its final vowel and gender-marking morpheme (e.g., cappello (hat) vs. cappella (chapel)). Our aim was to determine whether sentences with such "confusable nouns" (Swap condition) would be processed as semantically correct by late L2 learners and L1 attriters, especially for those individuals with lower Italian proficiency scores. We found that lower-proficiency Italian speakers did not show significant N400 effects for Swap violations relative to correct sentences, regardless of whether Italian was the L1 or the L2. Crucially, N400 response profiles followed a continuum of "nativelikeness" predicted by Italian proficiency scores - high-proficiency attriters and high-proficiency Italian learners were indistinguishable from native controls, whereas attriters and L2 learners in the lower-proficiency range showed significantly reduced N400 effects for "Swap" errors. Importantly, attriters

  3. Delayed Anticipatory Spoken Language Processing in Adults with Dyslexia—Evidence from Eye-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettig, Falk; Brouwer, Susanne

    2015-05-01

    It is now well established that anticipation of upcoming input is a key characteristic of spoken language comprehension. It has also frequently been observed that literacy influences spoken language processing. Here, we investigated whether anticipatory spoken language processing is related to individuals' word reading abilities. Dutch adults with dyslexia and a control group participated in two eye-tracking experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted to assess whether adults with dyslexia show the typical language-mediated eye gaze patterns. Eye movements of both adults with and without dyslexia closely replicated earlier research: spoken language is used to direct attention to relevant objects in the environment in a closely time-locked manner. In Experiment 2, participants received instructions (e.g., 'Kijk naar de(COM) afgebeelde piano(COM)', look at the displayed piano) while viewing four objects. Articles (Dutch 'het' or 'de') were gender marked such that the article agreed in gender only with the target, and thus, participants could use gender information from the article to predict the target object. The adults with dyslexia anticipated the target objects but much later than the controls. Moreover, participants' word reading scores correlated positively with their anticipatory eye movements. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms by which reading abilities may influence predictive language processing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Acquiring and processing verb argument structure: distributional learning in a miniature language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Newport, Elissa L; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2008-05-01

    Adult knowledge of a language involves correctly balancing lexically-based and more language-general patterns. For example, verb argument structures may sometimes readily generalize to new verbs, yet with particular verbs may resist generalization. From the perspective of acquisition, this creates significant learnability problems, with some researchers claiming a crucial role for verb semantics in the determination of when generalization may and may not occur. Similarly, there has been debate regarding how verb-specific and more generalized constraints interact in sentence processing and on the role of semantics in this process. The current work explores these issues using artificial language learning. In three experiments using languages without semantic cues to verb distribution, we demonstrate that learners can acquire both verb-specific and verb-general patterns, based on distributional information in the linguistic input regarding each of the verbs as well as across the language as a whole. As with natural languages, these factors are shown to affect production, judgments and real-time processing. We demonstrate that learners apply a rational procedure in determining their usage of these different input statistics and conclude by suggesting that a Bayesian perspective on statistical learning may be an appropriate framework for capturing our findings.

  5. Advanced software techniques for data management systems. Volume 3: Programming language characteristics and comparison reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, T. A.; Hall, B. C.; Newbold, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    A comparative evaluation was made of eight higher order languages of general interest in the aerospace field: PL/1; HAL; JOVIAL/J3; SPL/J6; CLASP; ALGOL 60; FORTRAN 4; and MAC360. A summary of the functional requirements for a language for general use in manned aerodynamic applications is presented. The evaluation supplies background material to be used in assessing the worth of each language for some particular application.

  6. Knowing what, where, and when: event comprehension in language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukona, Anuenue; Altmann, Gerry T M; Kamide, Yuki

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the retrieval of location information, and the deployment of attention to these locations, following (described) event-related location changes. In two visual world experiments, listeners viewed arrays with containers like a bowl, jar, pan, and jug, while hearing sentences like "The boy will pour the sweetcorn from the bowl into the jar, and he will pour the gravy from the pan into the jug. And then, he will taste the sweetcorn". At the discourse-final "sweetcorn", listeners fixated context-relevant "Target" containers most (jar). Crucially, we also observed two forms of competition: listeners fixated containers that were not directly referred to but associated with "sweetcorn" (bowl), and containers that played the same role as Targets (goals of moving events; jug), more than distractors (pan). These results suggest that event-related location changes are encoded across representations that compete for comprehenders' attention, such that listeners retrieve, and fixate, locations that are not referred to in the unfolding language, but related to them via object or role information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of bodily experience on children's language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellsby, Michele; Pexman, Penny M

    2014-07-01

    The Body-Object Interaction (BOI) variable measures how easily a human body can physically interact with a word's referent (Siakaluk, Pexman, Aguilera, Owen, & Sears, ). A facilitory BOI effect has been observed with adults in language tasks, with faster and more accurate responses for high BOI words (e.g., mask) than for low BOI words (e.g., ship; Wellsby, Siakaluk, Owen, & Pexman, ). We examined the development of this effect in children. Fifty children (aged 6-9 years) and a group of 21 adults completed a word naming task with high and low BOI words. Younger children (aged 6-7 years) did not show a BOI effect, but older children (aged 8-9 years) showed a significant facilitory BOI effect, as did adults. Magnitude of children's BOI effect was related to age as well as reading skills. These results suggest that bodily experience (as measured by the BOI variable) begins to influence visual word recognition behavior by about 8 years of age. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. A process pattern language for coordinated software development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, Chintan; ter Haar, René; Aydin, Mehmet N.; Hillegersberg, Jos Van

    2007-01-01

    In distributed and collocated teams we often find problems in the organizational process structures. Though process patterns have been around for many years, there has been little research in categorizing the different solutions to various problems dealing with coordination, for easy access by

  9. A language for image processing HILLS and its supporting system SDIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.; Toriwaki, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a language HILLS and its supporting system SDIP for image processing. HILLS is a key-word type language for describing image processing procedures by using subroutine packages SLIP and SPIDER. SDIP, written in FORTRAN to keep portability, supports programming by HILLS in interactive mode including functions such as editing, translating HILLS into FORTRAN, error detection, and providing manual information. Results of preliminary experiments suggest that HILLS and SDIP are very useful tools for beginners and researchers in application fields of image processing to develop desired image analysis procedures

  10. Development of laser materials processing and laser metrology techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Chung, Chin Man; Kim, Jeong Mook; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Kwang Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Seong Ouk; Park, Seung Kyu

    1997-09-01

    The applications of remote laser materials processing and metrology have been investigated in nuclear industry from the beginning of laser invention because they can reduce the risks of workers in the hostile environment by remote operation. The objective of this project is the development of laser material processing and metrology techniques for repairing and inspection to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. As to repairing, we developed our own laser sleeve welding head and innovative optical laser weld monitoring techniques to control the sleeve welding process. Furthermore, we designed and fabricated a 800 W Nd:YAG and a 150 W Excimer laser systems for high power laser materials processing in nuclear industry such as cladding and decontamination. As to inspection, we developed an ESPI and a laser triangulation 3-D profile measurement system for defect detection which can complement ECT and UT inspections. We also developed a scanning laser vibrometer for remote vibration measurement of large structures and tested its performance. (author). 58 refs., 16 tabs., 137 figs

  11. Developmental trends in auditory processing can provide early predictions of language acquisition in young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Tardif, Twila; Mai, Xiaoqin; Xu, Lin; Li, Mingyan; Kaciroti, Niko; Kileny, Paul R; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy

    2013-03-01

    Auditory processing capabilities at the subcortical level have been hypothesized to impact an individual's development of both language and reading abilities. The present study examined whether auditory processing capabilities relate to language development in healthy 9-month-old infants. Participants were 71 infants (31 boys and 40 girls) with both Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and language assessments. At 6 weeks and/or 9 months of age, the infants underwent ABR testing using both a standard hearing screening protocol with 30 dB clicks and a second protocol using click pairs separated by 8, 16, and 64-ms intervals presented at 80 dB. We evaluated the effects of interval duration on ABR latency and amplitude elicited by the second click. At 9 months, language development was assessed via parent report on the Chinese Communicative Development Inventory - Putonghua version (CCDI-P). Wave V latency z-scores of the 64-ms condition at 6 weeks showed strong direct relationships with Wave V latency in the same condition at 9 months. More importantly, shorter Wave V latencies at 9 months showed strong relationships with the CCDI-P composite consisting of phrases understood, gestures, and words produced. Likewise, infants who had greater decreases in Wave V latencies from 6 weeks to 9 months had higher CCDI-P composite scores. Females had higher language development scores and shorter Wave V latencies at both ages than males. Interestingly, when the ABR Wave V latencies at both ages were taken into account, the direct effects of gender on language disappeared. In conclusion, these results support the importance of low-level auditory processing capabilities for early language acquisition in a population of typically developing young infants. Moreover, the auditory brainstem response in this paradigm shows promise as an electrophysiological marker to predict individual differences in language development in young children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Fluid Structure Interaction Techniques For Extrusion And Mixing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette, Rudy; Vergnes, Bruno; Coupez, Thierry

    2007-05-01

    This work focuses on the development of numerical techniques devoted to the simulation of mixing processes of complex fluids such as twin-screw extrusion or batch mixing. In mixing process simulation, the absence of symmetry of the moving boundaries (the screws or the rotors) implies that their rigid body motion has to be taken into account by using a special treatment We therefore use a mesh immersion technique (MIT), which consists in using a P1+/P1-based (MINI-element) mixed finite element method for solving the velocity-pressure problem and then solving the problem in the whole barrel cavity by imposing a rigid motion (rotation) to nodes found located inside the so called immersed domain, each sub-domain (screw, rotor) being represented by a surface CAD mesh (or its mathematical equation in simple cases). The independent meshes are immersed into a unique background computational mesh by computing the distance function to their boundaries. Intersections of meshes are accounted for, allowing to compute a fill factor usable as for the VOF methodology. This technique, combined with the use of parallel computing, allows to compute the time-dependent flow of generalized Newtonian fluids including yield stress fluids in a complex system such as a twin screw extruder, including moving free surfaces, which are treated by a "level set" and Hamilton-Jacobi method.

  13. Removable partial denture alloys processed by laser-sintering technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alageel, Omar; Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Alsheghri, Ammar; Song, Jun; Caron, Eric; Tamimi, Faleh

    2018-04-01

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are traditionally made using a casting technique. New additive manufacturing processes based on laser sintering has been developed for quick fabrication of RPDs metal frameworks at low cost. The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanical, physical, and biocompatibility properties of RPD cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys produced by two laser-sintering systems and compare them to those prepared using traditional casting methods. The laser-sintered Co-Cr alloys were processed by the selective laser-sintering method (SLS) and the direct metal laser-sintering (DMLS) method using the Phenix system (L-1) and EOS system (L-2), respectively. L-1 and L-2 techniques were 8 and 3.5 times more precise than the casting (CC) technique (p laser-sintered and cast alloys were biocompatible. In conclusion, laser-sintered alloys are more precise and present better mechanical and fatigue properties than cast alloys for RPDs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1174-1185, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Recent developments in numerical simulation techniques of thermal recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamim, M. [Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Bangladesh (Bangladesh); Abou-Kassem, J.H. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, UAE University, Al-Ain 17555 (United Arab Emirates); Farouq Ali, S.M. [University of Alberta, Alberta (Canada)

    2000-05-01

    Numerical simulation of thermal processes (steam flooding, steam stimulation, SAGD, in-situ combustion, electrical heating, etc.) is an integral part of a thermal project design. The general tendency in the last 10 years has been to use commercial simulators. During the last decade, only a few new models have been reported in the literature. More work has been done to modify and refine solutions to existing problems to improve the efficiency of simulators. The paper discusses some of the recent developments in simulation techniques of thermal processes such as grid refinement, grid orientation, effect of temperature on relative permeability, mathematical models, and solution methods. The various aspects of simulation discussed here promote better understanding of the problems encountered in the simulation of thermal processes and will be of value to both simulator users and developers.

  15. Sequential and Simultaneous Processing Abilities of High-Functioning Autistic and Language-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark H.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study found that a group of 20 children (ages 6-12) with autism and a group of 20 children with developmental receptive language disorder both manifested a relative sequential processing deficit. The groups did not differ significantly on overall sequential and simultaneous processing capabilities relative to their degree of language…

  16. Morphological Processing during Visual Word Recognition in Hebrew as a First and a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined whether sublexical morphological processing takes place during visual word-recognition in Hebrew, and whether morphological decomposition of written words depends on lexical activation of the complete word. Furthermore, it examined whether morphological processing is similar when reading Hebrew as a first language (L1)…

  17. Applying advanced digital signal processing techniques in industrial radioisotopes applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, H.K.A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotopes can be used to obtain signals or images in order to recognize the information inside the industrial systems. The main problems of using these techniques are the difficulty of identification of the obtained signals or images and the requirement of skilled experts for the interpretation process of the output data of these applications. Now, the interpretation of the output data from these applications is performed mainly manually, depending heavily on the skills and the experience of trained operators. This process is time consuming and the results typically suffer from inconsistency and errors. The objective of the thesis is to apply the advanced digital signal processing techniques for improving the treatment and the interpretation of the output data from the different Industrial Radioisotopes Applications (IRA). This thesis focuses on two IRA; the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) measurement and the defect inspection of welded pipes using a gamma source (gamma radiography). In RTD measurement application, this thesis presents methods for signal pre-processing and modeling of the RTD signals. Simulation results have been presented for two case studies. The first case study is a laboratory experiment for measuring the RTD in a water flow rig. The second case study is an experiment for measuring the RTD in a phosphate production unit. The thesis proposes an approach for RTD signal identification in the presence of noise. In this approach, after signal processing, the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) and polynomial coefficients are extracted from the processed signal or from one of its transforms. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), and Discrete Sine Transform (DST) have been tested and compared for efficient feature extraction. Neural networks have been used for matching of the extracted features. Furthermore, the Power Density Spectrum (PDS) of the RTD signal has been also used instead of the discrete

  18. Overview of Business Process Modeling Languages Supporting Enterprise Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleimani Malekan, H.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Shishkov, B.

    2014-01-01

    Enterprises endeavor to provide innovative services and competitive advantages, by constituting Collaborative Networks (CNs). Each enterprise performs a set of Business Processes (BPs), and through developing integrated BPs in CNs, enterprises can jointly produce stronger capabilities. However,

  19. Role-Play Technique as an Antecedent of Performance in English Language: Evidence from Secondary Schools in Wareng District, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, Kemboi; Osman, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In Kenya, there is a national concern over English language dismal performance over the years in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E). Blame has been put on teachers of English language for relying on techniques that favor them at the expense of their students. This article therefore sought to assess the use of role-play technique as…

  20. Monitoring of Lactic Fermentation Process by Ultrasonic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouache, B.; Touat, A.; Boutkedjirt, T.; Bennamane, A.

    The non-destructive control by using ultrasound techniques has become of great importance in food industry. In this work, Ultrasound has been used for quality control and monitoring the fermentation stages of yogurt, which is a highly consumed product. On the contrary to the physico-chemical methods, where the measurement instruments are directly introduced in the sample, ultrasound techniques have the advantage of being non-destructive and contactless, thus reducing the risk of contamination. Results obtained in this study by using ultrasound seem to be in good agreement with those obtained by physico-chemical methods such as acidity measurement by using a PH-meter instrument. This lets us to conclude that ultrasound method may be an alternative for a healthy control of yoghurt fermentation process.

  1. Implications of a ''Noisy'' observer to data processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodenough, D.J.; Metz, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    It is attempted to show how an internal noise source (darklight and threshold jitter) would tend to explain experimental data concerning the visual detection of noise-limited signal in diagnostic imaging. The interesting conclusions can be drawn that the internal noise sets the upper limit to the utility of data processing techniques designed to reduce image noise. Moreover, there should be instances where contrast enhancement techniques may be far more useful to the human observer than corresponding reductions in noise amplitude, especially at high count rates (sigma/sub p/ less than or equal to sigma/sub D/). Then too, the limitations imposed on the human observer by an internal noise source, may point towards the need for additional methods (e.g. computer/microdensitometer) of interpreting images of high photon density so that the highest possible signal to noise ratio might be obtained

  2. Liquid argon TPC signal formation, signal processing and reconstruction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, B.

    2017-07-01

    This document describes a reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions benefits from the knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise. A unique clustering algorithm reconstructs line-like trajectories and vertices in two dimensions which are then matched to create of 3D objects. These techniques and algorithms are available to all experiments that use the LArSoft suite of software.

  3. Techniques of Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language through Constructivist Paradigm: Malaysian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This analysis discusses the constructivist paradigm of teaching Arabic as a foreign language in Malaysian settings. This review examines the role of interactive multimedia in enhancing the chalk and talk methods of teaching Arabic in Malaysian schools. This paper also investigates the importance of Arabic Language in Malaysia. Furthermore, the…

  4. Methods and Techniques for the Design and Implementation of Domain-Specific Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemel, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) are programming language aimed at a particular problem domain, e.g. banking, database querying or website page lay-outs. Through the use of high-level concepts, a DSL raises the level of abstraction and expressive power of the programmer, and reduces the size of

  5. Vocabulary Teaching in Foreign Language via Audiovisual Method Technique of Listening and Following Writing Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozavli, Ebubekir

    2017-01-01

    The objective is hereby study is to compare the effects of conventional and audiovisual methods on learning efficiency and success of retention with regard to vocabulary teaching in foreign language. Research sample consists of 21 undergraduate and 7 graduate students studying at Department of French Language Teaching, Kazim Karabekir Faculty of…

  6. Expert system and process optimization techniques for real-time monitoring and control of plasma processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Qian, Zhaogang; Irani, Keki B.; Etemad, Hossein; Elta, Michael E.

    1991-03-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand of the rapidly-growing semiconductor manufacturing industry it is critical to have a comprehensive methodology integrating techniques for process optimization real-time monitoring and adaptive process control. To this end we have accomplished an integrated knowledge-based approach combining latest expert system technology machine learning method and traditional statistical process control (SPC) techniques. This knowledge-based approach is advantageous in that it makes it possible for the task of process optimization and adaptive control to be performed consistently and predictably. Furthermore this approach can be used to construct high-level and qualitative description of processes and thus make the process behavior easy to monitor predict and control. Two software packages RIST (Rule Induction and Statistical Testing) and KARSM (Knowledge Acquisition from Response Surface Methodology) have been developed and incorporated with two commercially available packages G2 (real-time expert system) and ULTRAMAX (a tool for sequential process optimization).

  7. COCONUT WATER VINEGAR: NEW ALTERNATIVE WITH IMPROVED PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ANAS OTHAMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinegar is a condiment made from various sugary and starchy materials by alcoholic and subsequent acetic fermentation. Vinegar can be produced via different methods and from various types of raw material. A new alternative substrate for vinegar production namely mature coconut water has been tested and was compared with 2 common substrates which were coconut sap and pineapple juice. Substrates such as sap and juices have been found to have high amount of total soluble solids which corresponding to high sugar content in the substrates which is more than 14oBrix. Therefore, both substrates could be directly used for vinegar production without requirement of other carbon sources. However, coconut water which showed low Brix value need to be adjusted to 14oBrix by adding sucrose prior to the fermentation process. Substrates fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae have yielded 7-8% of alcohol within 7-10 days aerobic incubation at room temperature. The alcoholic medium were then used as a seed broth for acetic fermentation with Acetobactor aceti as inoculums and fermented for approximately 2 months to obtain at least 4% of acetic acid. Investigation on the effect of inoculum sizes and implementation of back-slopping technique were performed to improve the processing method for coconut water vinegar production. The results show that 10% of inoculum size was the best for acetic acid fermentation and the back-slopping technique has helped to reduce the process time of coconut water vinegar production.

  8. Electrochemical Techniques in Textile Processes and Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Sala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry uses the electrochemical techniques both in textile processes (such as manufacturing fibers, dyeing processes, and decolorizing fabrics and in wastewaters treatments (color removal. Electrochemical reduction reactions are mostly used in sulfur and vat dyeing, but in some cases, they are applied to effluents discoloration. However, the main applications of electrochemical treatments in the textile sector are based on oxidation reactions. Most of electrochemical oxidation processes involve indirect reactions which imply the generation of hypochlorite or hydroxyl radical in situ. These electrogenerated species are able to bleach indigo-dyed denim fabrics and to degrade dyes in wastewater in order to achieve the effluent color removal. The aim of this paper is to review the electrochemical techniques applied to textile industry. In particular, they are an efficient method to remove color of textile effluents. The reuse of the discolored effluent is possible, which implies an important saving of salt and water (i.e., by means of the “UVEC Cell”.

  9. The benefits of executive control training and the implications for language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika K. Hussey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent psycholinguistics research suggests that the executive function (EF skill known as conflict resolution—the ability to adjust behavior in the service of resolving among incompatible representations—is important for several language processing tasks such as lexical and syntactic ambiguity resolution, verbal fluency, and common-ground assessment. Here, we discuss work showing that various EF skills can be enhanced through consistent practice with working memory tasks that tap these EFs, and, moreover, that improvements on the training tasks transfer across domains to novel tasks that may rely on shared underlying EFs. These findings have implications for language processing and could launch new research exploring if EF training, within a process-specific framework, could be used as a remediation tool for improving general language use. Indeed, work in our lab demonstrates that EF training that increases conflict-resolution processes has selective benefits on an untrained sentence-processing task requiring syntactic ambiguity resolution, which relies on shared conflict-resolution functions. Given claims that conflict-resolution abilities contribute to a range of linguistic skills, EF training targeting this process could theoretically yield wider performance gains beyond garden-path recovery. We offer some hypotheses on the potential benefits of EF training as a component of interventions to mitigate general difficulties in language processing. However, there are caveats to consider as well, which we also address.

  10. Real-Time Processing of ASL Signs: Delayed First Language Acquisition Affects Organization of the Mental Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Amy M.; Borovsky, Arielle; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2015-01-01

    Sign language comprehension requires visual attention to the linguistic signal and visual attention to referents in the surrounding world, whereas these processes are divided between the auditory and visual modalities for spoken language comprehension. Additionally, the age-onset of first language acquisition and the quality and quantity of…

  11. Congestion estimation technique in the optical network unit registration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geunyong; Yoo, Hark; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Youngsun; Lim, Hyuk

    2016-07-01

    We present a congestion estimation technique (CET) to estimate the optical network unit (ONU) registration success ratio for the ONU registration process in passive optical networks. An optical line terminal (OLT) estimates the number of collided ONUs via the proposed scheme during the serial number state. The OLT can obtain congestion level among ONUs to be registered such that this information may be exploited to change the size of a quiet window to decrease the collision probability. We verified the efficiency of the proposed method through simulation and experimental results.

  12. Event Modeling in UML. Unified Modeling Language and Unified Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    We show how events can be modeled in terms of UML. We view events as change agents that have consequences and as information objects that represent information. We show how to create object-oriented structures that represent events in terms of attributes, associations, operations, state charts......, and messages. We outline a run-time environment for the processing of events with multiple participants....

  13. The writing process: A powerful approach for the language-disabled student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, J R; Bader, M S

    1985-01-01

    Our understanding of the writing process can be a powerful tool for teaching language-disabled students the "how" of writing. Direct, explicit instruction in writing process helps these students learn to explore their ideas and to manage the multiple demands of writing. A case study of one student, Jeff, demonstrates how we structure the stages of writing: prewriting, planning, drafting, revising, and proofreading. When these stages are clearly defined and involve specific skills, language-disabled students can reach beyond their limitations and strengthen their expression. The case study of Jeff reveals the development of his sense of control and his regard for himself as a writer.

  14. Belles-Lettres Reading Strategies in the Process of Foreign Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Komarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to some of the teaching strategies based on the peculiarities of belles-lettres text. The author of the article analyses the peculiarities of the belles-lettres text which exert influence on the process of teaching reading skills and thus should be taken into account by foreign language teachers in their work with this type of text. The author argues that teaching belles-lettres reading skills should be centered on the five-level communication process between writer and reader. The teacher's aim is to create or adjust a system of reading instruction within the five levels so that he/she could improve students' reading skills. In the article, it is stated that the process of teaching reading skills should be congruent with the process of interpersonal communication between writer and reader. The author outlines the content of the teacher's approach to the work with this type of text within the process of foreign language instruction. The author describes two approaches to teaching belles-lettres reading skills as well as shows the prospects for the subjective approach. He also states high productivity and effectiveness of the subjective approach in teaching foreign languages. The article shows the importance of involving students who specialize in sciences into the process of belles-lettres reading while studying a foreign language for specific purposes.

  15. Some fuzzy techniques for staff selection process: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Saad, R.; Ahmad, M. Z.; Abu, M. S.; Jusoh, M. S.

    2013-04-01

    With high level of business competition, it is vital to have flexible staff that are able to adapt themselves with work circumstances. However, staff selection process is not an easy task to be solved, even when it is tackled in a simplified version containing only a single criterion and a homogeneous skill. When multiple criteria and various skills are involved, the problem becomes much more complicated. In adddition, there are some information that could not be measured precisely. This is patently obvious when dealing with opinions, thoughts, feelings, believes, etc. One possible tool to handle this issue is by using fuzzy set theory. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review the existing fuzzy techniques for solving staff selection process. It classifies several existing research methods and identifies areas where there is a gap and need further research. Finally, this paper concludes by suggesting new ideas for future research based on the gaps identified.

  16. On the generalizability of the Chunk-and-Pass processing approach: Perspectives from language acquisition and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Usha; Graham, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C) offer the Chunk-and-Pass strategy as a language processing approach allowing humans to make sense of incoming language in the face of cognitive and perceptual constraints. We propose that the Chunk-and-Pass strategy is not adequate to extend universally across languages (accounting for typologically diverse languages), nor is it sufficient to generalize to other auditory modalities such as music.

  17. Is the Levels of Processing effect language-limited?

    OpenAIRE

    Baddeley, Alan David; Hitch, Graham James

    2017-01-01

    The concept of Levels of Processing (LOP), proposing that deep coding enhances retention,has played a central role in the study of episodic memory. Evidence has however been based almost entirely on retention of individual words. Across five experiments, we compare LOP effects between visual and verbal stimuli, using judgments of pleasantness as a method of inducing deep encoding and a range of shallow encoding judgments selected so as to be applicable to both verbal and visual stimuli. LOP e...

  18. Sociolinguistically Informed Natural Language Processing: Automating Irony Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-23

    interaction feature using the entire training dataset, and repeated this process 100 times to account for variation due to the SGD procedure. Table 6...Levy and Goldberg , 2014). We parsed the ukWaC corpus (Baroni et al., 2009) using the Stanford Dependency Parser v3.5.2 with Stanford Dependencies...bitrary and variable sizes. We pre-trained our own syntactic embeddings fol- lowing (Levy and Goldberg , 2014). We parsed the ukWaC corpus (Baroni et

  19. ERP correlates of German Sign Language processing in deaf native signers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänel-Faulhaber, Barbara; Skotara, Nils; Kügow, Monique; Salden, Uta; Bottari, Davide; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-05-10

    The present study investigated the neural correlates of sign language processing of Deaf people who had learned German Sign Language (Deutsche Gebärdensprache, DGS) from their Deaf parents as their first language. Correct and incorrect signed sentences were presented sign by sign on a computer screen. At the end of each sentence the participants had to judge whether or not the sentence was an appropriate DGS sentence. Two types of violations were introduced: (1) semantically incorrect sentences containing a selectional restriction violation (implausible object); (2) morphosyntactically incorrect sentences containing a verb that was incorrectly inflected (i.e., incorrect direction of movement). Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 74 scalp electrodes. Semantic violations (implausible signs) elicited an N400 effect followed by a positivity. Sentences with a morphosyntactic violation (verb agreement violation) elicited a negativity followed by a broad centro-parietal positivity. ERP correlates of semantic and morphosyntactic aspects of DGS clearly differed from each other and showed a number of similarities with those observed in other signed and oral languages. These data suggest a similar functional organization of signed and oral languages despite the visual-spacial modality of sign language.

  20. Language processing and forms of immediate echolalia in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccia, J M; Curcio, F

    1982-03-01

    Several aspects of echolalic speech produced by five autistic children were investigated. We found that the incidence of echolalia was influenced by the type of question addressed to the child and, to a lesser extent, by the child's comprehension of the specific relationships expressed in the question. Additionally, acoustic analysis showed that a substantial proportion of echoes involved a prosodic modification of the examiner's question. Further analyses indicated that some of these modified echoes represent more than just a primitive conversational strategy. Specifically, they seem to reflect a higher level of processing and serve a semantic function, that of affirming the examiner's question.

  1. Processing of combustible radioactive waste using incineration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestas, E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Member countries numerous incineration concepts are being studied as potential methods for conditioning alpha-bearing and other types of combustible radioactive waste. The common objective of these different processes is volume reduction and the transformation of the waste to a more acceptable waste form. Because the combustion processes reduce the mass and volume of waste to a form which is generally more inert than the feed material, the resulting waste can be more uniformly compatible with safe handling, packaging, storage and/or disposal techniques. The number of different types of combustion process designed and operating specifically for alpha-bearing wastes is somewhat small compared with those for non-alpha radioactive wastes; however, research and development is under way in a number of countries to develop and improve alpha incinerators. This paper provides an overview of most alpha-incineration concepts in operation or under development in OECD/NEA Member countries. The special features of each concept are briefly discussed. A table containing characteristic data of incinerators is presented so that a comparison of the major programmes can be made. The table includes the incinerator name and location, process type, capacity throughput, operational status and application. (author)

  2. Dynamic spatial organization of the occipito-temporal word form area for second language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Sun, Yafeng; Lu, Chunming; Ding, Guosheng; Guo, Taomei; Malins, Jeffrey G; Booth, James R; Peng, Danling; Liu, Li

    2017-08-01

    Despite the left occipito-temporal region having shown consistent activation in visual word form processing across numerous studies in different languages, the mechanisms by which word forms of second languages are processed in this region remain unclear. To examine this more closely, 16 Chinese-English and 14 English-Chinese late bilinguals were recruited to perform lexical decision tasks to visually presented words in both their native and second languages (L1 and L2) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Here we demonstrate that visual word form processing for L1 versus L2 engaged different spatial areas of the left occipito-temporal region. Namely, the spatial organization of the visual word form processing in the left occipito-temporal region is more medial and posterior for L2 than L1 processing in Chinese-English bilinguals, whereas activation is more lateral and anterior for L2 in English-Chinese bilinguals. In addition, for Chinese-English bilinguals, more lateral recruitment of the occipito-temporal region was correlated with higher L2 proficiency, suggesting higher L2 proficiency is associated with greater involvement of L1-preferred mechanisms. For English-Chinese bilinguals, higher L2 proficiency was correlated with more lateral and anterior activation of the occipito-temporal region, suggesting higher L2 proficiency is associated with greater involvement of L2-preferred mechanisms. Taken together, our results indicate that L1 and L2 recruit spatially different areas of the occipito-temporal region in visual word processing when the two scripts belong to different writing systems, and that the spatial organization of this region for L2 visual word processing is dynamically modulated by L2 proficiency. Specifically, proficiency in L2 in Chinese-English is associated with assimilation to the native language mechanisms, whereas L2 in English-Chinese is associated with accommodation to second language mechanisms. Copyright © 2017

  3. The 'robustness' of vocabulary intervention in the public schools: targets and techniques employed in speech-language therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Murphy, Kimberly A; Pratt, Amy; Biancone, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined vocabulary intervention-in terms of targets and techniques-for children with language impairment receiving speech-language therapy in public schools (i.e., non-fee-paying schools) in the United States. Vocabulary treatments and targets were examined with respect to their alignment with the empirically validated practice of rich vocabulary intervention. Participants were forty-eight 5-7-year-old children participating in kindergarten or the first-grade year of school, all of whom had vocabulary-specific goals on their individualized education programmes. Two therapy sessions per child were coded to determine what vocabulary words were being directly targeted and what techniques were used for each. Study findings showed that the majority of words directly targeted during therapy were lower-level basic vocabulary words (87%) and very few (1%) were academically relevant. On average, three techniques were used per word to promote deep understanding. Interpreting findings against empirical descriptions of rich vocabulary intervention indicates that children were exposed to some but not all aspects of this empirically supported practice. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  4. Processing Techniques and Applications of Silk Hydrogels in Bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Floren

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are an attractive class of tunable material platforms that, combined with their structural and functional likeness to biological environments, have a diversity of applications in bioengineering. Several polymers, natural and synthetic, can be used, the material selection being based on the required functional characteristics of the prepared hydrogels. Silk fibroin (SF is an attractive natural polymer for its excellent processability, biocompatibility, controlled degradation, mechanical properties and tunable formats and a good candidate for the fabrication of hydrogels. Tremendous effort has been made to control the structural and functional characteristic of silk hydrogels, integrating novel biological features with advanced processing techniques, to develop the next generation of functional SF hydrogels. Here, we review the several processing methods developed to prepare advanced SF hydrogel formats, emphasizing a bottom-up approach beginning with critical structural characteristics of silk proteins and their behavior under specific gelation environments. Additionally, the preparation of SF hydrogel blends and other advanced formats will also be discussed. We conclude with a brief description of the attractive utility of SF hydrogels in relevant bioengineering applications.

  5. Measurement of pharyngeal sensory cortical processing: technique and physiologic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringelstein E Bernd

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia is a major complication of different diseases affecting both the central and peripheral nervous system. Pharyngeal sensory impairment is one of the main features of neurogenic dysphagia. Therefore an objective technique to examine the cortical processing of pharyngeal sensory input would be a helpful diagnostic tool in this context. We developed a simple paradigm to perform pneumatic stimulation to both sides of the pharyngeal wall. Whole-head MEG was employed to study changes in cortical activation during this pharyngeal stimulation in nine healthy subjects. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM and the group analysis of individual SAM data was performed using a permutation test. Results Our results revealed bilateral activation of the caudolateral primary somatosensory cortex following sensory pharyngeal stimulation with a slight lateralization to the side of stimulation. Conclusion The method introduced here is simple and easy to perform and might be applicable in the clinical setting. The results are in keeping with previous findings showing bihemispheric involvement in the complex task of sensory pharyngeal processing. They might also explain changes in deglutition after hemispheric strokes. The ipsilaterally lateralized processing is surprising and needs further investigation.

  6. Using stochastic language models (SLM) to map lexical, syntactic, and phonological information processing in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopopolo, Alessandro; Frank, Stefan L; van den Bosch, Antal; Willems, Roel M

    2017-01-01

    Language comprehension involves the simultaneous processing of information at the phonological, syntactic, and lexical level. We track these three distinct streams of information in the brain by using stochastic measures derived from computational language models to detect neural correlates of phoneme, part-of-speech, and word processing in an fMRI experiment. Probabilistic language models have proven to be useful tools for studying how language is processed as a sequence of symbols unfolding in time. Conditional probabilities between sequences of words are at the basis of probabilistic measures such as surprisal and perplexity which have been successfully used as predictors of several behavioural and neural correlates of sentence processing. Here we computed perplexity from sequences of words and their parts of speech, and their phonemic transcriptions. Brain activity time-locked to each word is regressed on the three model-derived measures. We observe that the brain keeps track of the statistical structure of lexical, syntactic and phonological information in distinct areas.

  7. The Priority of Listening Comprehension over Speaking in the Language Acquisition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang

    2011-01-01

    By elaborating the definition of listening comprehension, the characteristic of spoken discourse, the relationship between STM and LTM and Krashen's comprehensible input, the paper puts forward the point that the priority of listening comprehension over speaking in the language acquisition process is very necessary.

  8. How to analyse age effects in electrophysiological signatures of second language grammar processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, Sanne; Wieling, Martijn; Sprenger, Simone; Brouwer, Susanne; Schmid, Monika

    2017-01-01

    There is a debate on the nature of the relationship between age of acquisition (AoA) and grammatical processing in second language (L2) learners (Birdsong, 2005). On the one hand, it has been argued that the ability to learn the grammar of an L2 decreases continuously with age due to general

  9. Conflicts in Language Processing: A New Perspective on the N400-P600 Distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Sabine; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2011-01-01

    Conflicts in language processing often correlate with late positive event-related brain potentials (ERPs), particularly when they are induced by inconsistencies between different information types (e.g. syntactic and thematic/plausibility information). However, under certain circumstances, similar sentence-level interpretation conflicts (inanimate…

  10. Effects of Stress and Working Memory Capacity on Foreign Language Readers' Inferential Processing during Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Manpreet K.; Loschky, Lester C.; Harris, Richard Jackson; Peck, Nicole R.; Cook, Lindsay G.

    2011-01-01

    Although stress is frequently claimed to impede foreign language (FL) reading comprehension, it is usually not explained how. We investigated the effects of stress, working memory (WM) capacity, and inferential complexity on Spanish FL readers' inferential processing during comprehension. Inferences, although necessary for reading comprehension,…

  11. The Importance of Language in Students' Reasoning about Heat in Thermodynamic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Researchers believe that the way that students talk, specifically the language that they use, can offer a window into their reasoning processes. Yet the connection between what students are saying and what they are actually thinking can be ambiguous. We present the results of an exploratory interview study with 10 participants, designed to…

  12. The application of natural language processing to augmentative and alternative communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, D Jeffery; Lesher, Gregory W; Moulton, Bryan J; Roark, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the application of natural language processing (NLP) to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), particularly in the areas of interface design and word prediction. This article will survey the current state-of-the-science of NLP in AAC and discuss its future applications for the development of next generation of AAC technology.

  13. A Qualitative Analysis Framework Using Natural Language Processing and Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of extending natural language-based processing of qualitative data analysis with the use of a very quantitative tool--graph theory. It is not an attempt to convert qualitative research to a positivist approach with a mathematical black box, nor is it a "graphical solution". Rather, it is a method to help qualitative…

  14. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  15. Unimodal and multimodal regions for logographic language processing in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eDeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The human neocortex appears to contain a dedicated visual word form area (VWFA and an adjacent multimodal (visual/auditory area. However, these conclusions are based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of alphabetic language processing, languages that have clear grapheme-to-phoneme correspondence (GPC rules that make it difficult to disassociate visual-specific processing from form-to-sound mapping. In contrast, the Chinese language has no clear GPC rules. Therefore, the current study examined whether native Chinese readers also have the same VWFA and multimodal area. Two cross-modal tasks, phonological retrieval of visual words and orthographic retrieval of auditory words, were adopted. Different task requirements were also applied to explore how different levels of cognitive processing modulate activation of putative VWFA-like and multimodal-like regions. Results showed that the left occipitotemporal sulcus responded exclusively to visual inputs and an adjacent region, the left inferior temporal gyrus, showed comparable activation for both visual and auditory inputs. Surprisingly, processing levels did not significantly alter activation of these two regions. These findings indicated that there are both unimodal and multimodal word areas for non-alphabetic language reading, and that activity in these two word-specific regions are independent of task demands at the linguistic level.

  16. Construct Validity in TOEFL iBT Speaking Tasks: Insights from Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the construct validity of speaking tasks included in the TOEFL iBT (e.g., integrated and independent speaking tasks). Specifically, advanced natural language processing (NLP) tools, MANOVA difference statistics, and discriminant function analyses (DFA) are used to assess the degree to which and in what ways responses to these…

  17. Writing Process Products in Intermediate-Grade Children with and without Language-Based Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Difficulties with written expression are an important consideration in the assessment and treatment of school-age children. This study evaluated how intermediate-grade children with and without written language difficulties fared on a writing task housed within the Hayes and Berninger (2014) writing process framework. Method: Sixty-four…

  18. A deconvolution technique for processing small intestinal transit data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinch, K. [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Glostrup Hospital, University Hospital of Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsson, H.B.W. [Danish Research Center of Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre Hospital, University Hospital of Copenhagen (Denmark); Madsen, J.L. [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital, University Hospital of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The deconvolution technique can be used to compute small intestinal impulse response curves from scintigraphic data. Previously suggested approaches, however, are sensitive to noise from the data. We investigated whether deconvolution based on a new simple iterative convolving technique can be recommended. Eight healthy volunteers ingested a meal that contained indium-111 diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid labelled water and technetium-99m stannous colloid labelled omelette. Imaging was performed at 30-min intervals until all radioactivity was located in the colon. A Fermi function=(1+e{sup -{alpha}{beta}})/(1+e{sup (t-{alpha}){beta}}) was chosen to characterize the small intestinal impulse response function. By changing only two parameters, {alpha} and {beta}, it is possible to obtain configurations from nearly a square function to nearly a monoexponential function. Small intestinal input function was obtained from the gastric emptying curve and convolved with the Fermi function. The sum of least squares was used to find {alpha} and {beta} yielding the best fit of the convolved curve to the oberved small intestinal time-activity curve. Finally, a small intestinal mean transit time was calculated from the Fermi function referred to. In all cases, we found an excellent fit of the convolved curve to the observed small intestinal time-activity curve, that is the Fermi function reflected the small intestinal impulse response curve. Small intestinal mean transit time of liquid marker (median 2.02 h) was significantly shorter than that of solid marker (median 2.99 h; P<0.02). The iterative convolving technique seems to be an attractive alternative to ordinary approaches for the processing of small intestinal transit data. (orig.) With 2 figs., 13 refs.

  19. Measurement of spatial correlation functions using image processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure for using digital image processing techniques to measure the spatial correlation functions of composite heterogeneous materials is presented. Methods for eliminating undesirable biases and warping in digitized photographs are discussed. Fourier transform methods and array processor techniques for calculating the spatial correlation functions are treated. By introducing a minimal set of lattice-commensurate triangles, a method of sorting and storing the values of three-point correlation functions in a compact one-dimensional array is developed. Examples are presented at each stage of the analysis using synthetic photographs of cross sections of a model random material (the penetrable sphere model) for which the analytical form of the spatial correlations functions is known. Although results depend somewhat on magnification and on relative volume fraction, it is found that photographs digitized with 512 x 512 pixels generally have sufficiently good statistics for most practical purposes. To illustrate the use of the correlation functions, bounds on conductivity for the penetrable sphere model are calculated with a general numerical scheme developed for treating the singular three-dimensional integrals which must be evaluated

  20. Digital Image Processing Technique for Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Cabrera, R.; Guzmán-Sepúlveda, J. R.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; May-Arrioja, D. A.; Ruiz-Pinales, J.; Ibarra-Manzano, O. G.; Aviña-Cervantes, G.; Parada, A. González

    2013-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of death in women and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Primary prevention in the early stages of the disease becomes complex as the causes remain almost unknown. However, some typical signatures of this disease, such as masses and microcalcifications appearing on mammograms, can be used to improve early diagnostic techniques, which is critical for women’s quality of life. X-ray mammography is the main test used for screening and early diagnosis, and its analysis and processing are the keys to improving breast cancer prognosis. As masses and benign glandular tissue typically appear with low contrast and often very blurred, several computer-aided diagnosis schemes have been developed to support radiologists and internists in their diagnosis. In this article, an approach is proposed to effectively analyze digital mammograms based on texture segmentation for the detection of early stage tumors. The proposed algorithm was tested over several images taken from the digital database for screening mammography for cancer research and diagnosis, and it was found to be absolutely suitable to distinguish masses and microcalcifications from the background tissue using morphological operators and then extract them through machine learning techniques and a clustering algorithm for intensity-based segmentation.

  1. Supercritical fluid processing: a new dry technique for photoresist developing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher-Wetmore, Paula M.; Wallraff, Gregory M.; Allen, Robert D.

    1995-06-01

    Supercritical fluid (SCF) technology is investigated as a dry technique for photoresist developing. Because of their unique combination of gaseous and liquid-like properties, these fluids offer comparative or improved efficiencies over liquid developers and, particularly carbon dioxide, would have tremendous beneficial impact on the environment and on worker safety. Additionally, SCF technology offers the potential for processing advanced resist systems which are currently under investigation as well as those that may have been abandoned due to problems associated with conventional developers. An investigation of various negative and positive photoresist systems is ongoing. Initially, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) as a developer for polysilane resists was explored because the exposure products, polysiloxanes, are generally soluble in this fluid. These initial studies demonstrated the viability of the SCF technique with both single layer and bilayer systems. Subsequently, the investigation focused on using SC CO2 to produce negative images with polymers that would typically be considered positive resists. Polymers such as styrenes and methacrylates were chemically modified by fluorination and/or copolymerization to render them soluble in SC CO2. Siloxane copolymers and siloxane-modified methacrylates were examined as well. The preliminary findings reported here indicate the feasibility of using SC CO2 for photoresist developing.

  2. Accelerated decomposition techniques for large discounted Markov decision processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larach, Abdelhadi; Chafik, S.; Daoui, C.

    2017-12-01

    Many hierarchical techniques to solve large Markov decision processes (MDPs) are based on the partition of the state space into strongly connected components (SCCs) that can be classified into some levels. In each level, smaller problems named restricted MDPs are solved, and then these partial solutions are combined to obtain the global solution. In this paper, we first propose a novel algorithm, which is a variant of Tarjan's algorithm that simultaneously finds the SCCs and their belonging levels. Second, a new definition of the restricted MDPs is presented to ameliorate some hierarchical solutions in discounted MDPs using value iteration (VI) algorithm based on a list of state-action successors. Finally, a robotic motion-planning example and the experiment results are presented to illustrate the benefit of the proposed decomposition algorithms.

  3. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    1999-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamma irradiation at 2-10 kGy is considered to be an effective method to control pathogenic bacteria in species including Escherichia coli O157:H7. Gamma irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in beef. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Gamma irradiation on pre-rigor beef shortens the aging-period, improves tenderness and enhances the beef quality. And, a new beef processing method using gamma irradiation, such as in the low salt sausage and hygienic beef patty was developed. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats(beefs: 0-5 kGy; porks: 0-30 kGy) in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepato carcinogenesis and the anti oxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide, which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnuts, acorns, red beans and mung beans, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach.Current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfecting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of agricultural produce. However, irradiation doses suitable for controlling pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. (author)

  4. The influence of language deprivation in early childhood on L2 processing: An ERP comparison of deaf native signers and deaf signers with a delayed language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotara, Nils; Salden, Uta; Kügow, Monique; Hänel-Faulhaber, Barbara; Röder, Brigitte

    2012-05-03

    To examine which language function depends on early experience, the present study compared deaf native signers, deaf non-native signers and hearing German native speakers while processing German sentences. The participants watched simple written sentences while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. At the end of each sentence they were asked to judge whether the sentence was correct or not. Two types of violations were introduced in the middle of the sentence: a semantically implausible noun or a violation of subject-verb number agreement. The results showed a similar ERP pattern after semantic violations (an N400 followed by a positivity) in all three groups. After syntactic violations, native German speakers and native signers of German sign language (DGS) with German as second language (L2) showed a left anterior negativity (LAN) followed by a P600, whereas no LAN but a negativity over the right hemisphere instead was found in deaf participants with a delayed onset of first language (L1) acquisition. The P600 of this group had a smaller amplitude and a different scalp distribution as compared to German native speakers. The results of the present study suggest that language deprivation in early childhood alters the cerebral organization of syntactic language processing mechanisms for L2. Semantic language processing instead was unaffected.

  5. Adapting high-level language programs for parallel processing using data flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Hilda M.

    1988-01-01

    EASY-FLOW, a very high-level data flow language, is introduced for the purpose of adapting programs written in a conventional high-level language to a parallel environment. The level of parallelism provided is of the large-grained variety in which parallel activities take place between subprograms or processes. A program written in EASY-FLOW is a set of subprogram calls as units, structured by iteration, branching, and distribution constructs. A data flow graph may be deduced from an EASY-FLOW program.

  6. A Mouse with a Roof? Effects of Phonological Neighbors on Processing of Words in Sentences in a Non-Native Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Nojack, Agnes; Limbach, Maxi

    2008-01-01

    The architecture of the language processing system for speakers of more than one language remains an intriguing topic of research. A common finding is that speakers of multiple languages are slower at responding to language stimuli in their non-native language (L2) than monolingual speakers. This may simply reflect participants' unfamiliarity with…

  7. Formulaic language in cortical and subcortical disease: Evidence of the dual process model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bridges

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that an intact cortical left hemisphere is crucial for language production. Recently, more credit is given to the right hemisphere and subcortical areas in the production of non-novel language, including formulaic language. John Hughlings Jackson (1874/1958, first described how propositional and non-propositional speech are differentially affected by neural impairment. Non-propositional language is often preserved following left hemisphere stroke even when aphasia is present (Code, 1982; Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006. With right hemisphere and subcortical stroke, formulaic language is reduced (Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006; Speedie et al., 1993. The dual process model of language competence states that propositional and non-propositional speech are processed differently in the brain, with novel speech controlled by the left hemisphere, and a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit modulating formulaic language (Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; 2012. Two studies of formulaic language will be presented as further evidence of the dual process model: a study of formulaic language in Alzheimer’s disease, and a study of recited speech in Parkinson’s disease. Formulaic language includes overlearned words, phrases or longer linguistic units that are known to the native speaker, occur naturally in discourse, and are important for normal social interaction (Fillmore, 1979; Pawley & Syder, 1983; Van Lancker, 1988; Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; Wray, 2002. Formulaic expressions include conversational speech formulas, idioms, proverbs, expletives, pause fillers, discourse elements, and sentence stems (stereotyped sentence-initials. Longer units of linguistic material, such as prayers, rhymes, and poems, termed recited speech, is another subtype of formulaic language that is learned in childhood and recited periodically throughout life. Cortical disease: Alzheimer’s disease and formulaic

  8. The Effect of Thalamic Stimulation on Memory and Language Processing in Parkinsonian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahrasadat Ghoreishi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS is reported to be successful in Parkinson patients with motor symptoms resistant to medication as a treatment procedure. Despite evidence of cortico-subcortico-cortical circuit involvement in motor control, the role of this neural circuitry on higher cognitive functions such as language is still controversial. In particular, research evidence pertaining to the impact of ventrolateral thalamic stimulation on linguistic processing is scarce. This paper investigates the effect of right and left thalamus-DBS on memory and language processing in Parkinson patients. Materials & Methods: In this paper as a case series research we measured memory and language processing in six Parkinson patients (2 left, 2right, 2 bilateral underwent implantation of deep brain stimulating electrode in ventrolateral thalamic nucleus. The data were collected in two “on” and “off” positions, with at least 40 days time interval in between. The patients were assessed using Wechsler memory test, verbal fluency and some sub-tests of Farsi version of Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT. Results: The findings of this research are suggesting an improvement on grammar comprehension and a decline in sentence production and verbal fluency in “on” position versus “off” position, in both groups. The Wechsler memory scores in left thalamus group improved but declined in right thalamus group. Conclusion: The results indicate that thalamic DBS did not cause any deficit on grammar comprehension and even improved the level of comprehension. On the contrary a decrease in verbal fluency and sentence production, as two high level linguistic processing tasks, was observed. The results confirmed contemporary theories of thalamic participation on language processing and did not confirm a laterality effect on language skills. Although observed difference after thalamic DBS between right and left group on memory score can confirm laterality

  9. Temporally Regular Musical Primes Facilitate Subsequent Syntax Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as "baseline condition") followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation.

  10. Translating message sequence charts to other process languages using process mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassen, K.B.; Dongen, van B.F.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Message Sequence Charts (MSCs) are a well known language for specifying scenarios that describe how di??erent actors (e.g., system components, people, or organizations) interact. MSCs are often used as a starting point for software analysts to discuss the behavior of a system with di??erent

  11. LanguageNet: A Novel Framework for Processing Unstructured Text Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present LanguageNet—a novel framework for processing unstructured text information from human generated content. The state of the art information processing frameworks have some shortcomings: modeled in generalized form, trained on fixed (limited) data sets, and leaving...... the specialization necessary for information consolidation to the end users. The proposed framework is the first major attempt to address these shortcomings. LanguageNet provides extended support of graphical methods contributing added value to the capabilities of information processing. We discuss the benefits...... of the framework and compare it with the available state of the art. We also describe how the framework improves the information gathering process and contribute towards building systems with better performance in the domain of Open Source Intelligence....

  12. Preservation vs Innovation. Sustainable rehabilitation in architectural preservation contexts: knowledge, techniques, languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Gulli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the preservation of the characteristics of protected architectural heritage must nowadays be correlated to new requirements for the adaptation of existing buildings to performance standards. This subject raises new questions about the theoretical assumptions and tools to be adopted to coherently answer that request. Focusing on the theme of energy requalification of heritage buildings - the primary focus of interest for the reduction of pollution emissions, according to Horizon 2020 objectives - the preservation of the meanings of an architecture work and of its linguistic, typological and material characteristics proofs to be essential for protection interventions on buildings. However this can’t be considered exhaustive, as the raised issue necessarily requires to be further addressed within the speculative domain of Technique, or rather to open out to the contribution that innovation processes and methods belonging to the field of scientific knowledge could offer.

  13. Neural networks underlying language and social cognition during self-other processing in Autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Rajesh K; Sartin, Emma B; Stevens, Carl; Deshpande, Hrishikesh D; Klein, Christopher; Klinger, Mark R; Klinger, Laura Grofer

    2017-07-28

    The social communication impairments defining autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be built upon core deficits in perspective-taking, language processing, and self-other representation. Self-referential processing entails the ability to incorporate self-awareness, self-judgment, and self-memory in information processing. Very few studies have examined the neural bases of integrating self-other representation and semantic processing in individuals with ASD. The main objective of this functional MRI study is to examine the role of language and social brain networks in self-other processing in young adults with ASD. Nineteen high-functioning male adults with ASD and 19 age-sex-and-IQ-matched typically developing (TD) control participants made "yes" or "no" judgments of whether an adjective, presented visually, described them (self) or their favorite teacher (other). Both ASD and TD participants showed significantly increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) during self and other processing relative to letter search. Analyses of group differences revealed significantly reduced activity in left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), and left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) in ASD participants, relative to TD controls. ASD participants also showed significantly weaker functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) with several brain areas while processing self-related words. The LIFG and IPL are important regions functionally at the intersection of language and social roles; reduced recruitment of these regions in ASD participants may suggest poor level of semantic and social processing. In addition, poor connectivity of the ACC may suggest the difficulty in meeting the linguistic and social demands of this task in ASD. Overall, this study provides new evidence of the altered recruitment of the neural networks underlying language and social cognition in ASD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. USING DISTANCE LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE LEARNING PROCESS OF MODERN PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia A. Umryk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the research it was reviewed the use of distance learning technologies in the organization of research tasks while studying modern programming languages. The article contains an example of a training project on the subject "Modern programming languages". The authors argue the necessity of the use of modern information and communication technologies, in particular in modern programming languages distance learning, for the formation of students' 21st century skills that are essential in the process of programming (it is skills such as self-organization and self-discipline, communication skills, teamwork skills etc.. It is pointed out the structural units of the training project in accordance with the use of distance learning technologies. It is described the general characteristics and the use of appropriate methods of modern information and communication technologies.

  15. Language and science: products and processes of signification in the educational dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dodman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Global changes such as urbanisation, new ways of travelling, new information and communication technologies are causing radical changes in the relationships between human beings and the environment we are both a part of and depend on. Relationships which – according to a multiplicity of researches in various fields – are crucially important. Science education and the language of science risk exacerbating a tendency towards objectifying nature and inhabiting a virtual reality, thereby rendering ever more tenuous the dialogue between people and the natural world. This article examines two approaches to science and language – as products or as processes – and suggests how awareness of the dynamic relationship between language and knowledge can help restore that vital dialogue.

  16. SOFT: smooth OPC fixing technique for ECO process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Shi, Zheng

    2007-03-01

    SOFT (Smooth OPC Fixing Technique) is a new OPC flow developed from the basic OPC framework. It provides a new method to reduce the computation cost and complexities of ECO-OPC (Engineering Change Order - Optical Proximity Correction). In this paper, we introduce polygon comparison to extract the necessary but possibly lost fragmentation and offset information of previous post-OPC layout. By reusing these data, we can start the modification on each segment from a more accurate initial offset. In addition, the fragmentation method in the boundary of the patch in the previous OPC process is therefore available for engineers to stitch the regional ECO-OPC result back to the whole post-OPC layout seamlessly. For the ripple effect in the OPC, by comparing each segment's movement in each loop, we much free the fixing speed from the limitation of patch size. We handle layout remodification, especially in three basic kinds of ECO-OPC processes, while maintaining other design closure. Our experimental results show that, by utilizing the previous post-OPC layout, full-chip ECO-OPC can realize an over 5X acceleration and the regional ECO-OPC result can also be stitched back into the whole layout seamlessly with the ripple effect of the lithography interaction.

  17. Computer processing of the scintigraphic image using digital filtering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Michimasa

    1976-01-01

    The theory of digital filtering was studied as a method for the computer processing of scintigraphic images. The characteristics and design techniques of finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters with linear phases were examined using the z-transform. The conventional data processing method, smoothing, could be recognized as one kind of linear phase FIR low-pass digital filtering. Ten representatives of FIR low-pass digital filters with various cut-off frequencies were scrutinized from the frequency domain in one-dimension and two-dimensions. These filters were applied to phantom studies with cold targets, using a Scinticamera-Minicomputer on-line System. These studies revealed that the resultant images had a direct connection with the magnitude response of the filter, that is, they could be estimated fairly well from the frequency response of the digital filter used. The filter, which was estimated from phantom studies as optimal for liver scintigrams using 198 Au-colloid, was successfully applied in clinical use for detecting true cold lesions and, at the same time, for eliminating spurious images. (J.P.N.)

  18. Integrative techniques related to positive processes in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Thomas D

    2013-09-01

    This review compiles and evaluates a number of therapist interventions that have been found to significantly contribute to positive psychotherapy processes (i.e., increased alliance, patient engagement/satisfaction, and symptomatic improvement). Four forms of intervention are presented: Affect-focused, Supportive, Exploratory, and Patient-Therapist Interaction. The intention of this review is to link specific interventions to applied practice so that integrative clinicians can potentially use these techniques to improve their clinical work. To this end, there is the inclusion of theory and empirical studies from a range of orientations including Emotionally Focused, Psychodynamic, Client-Centered, Cognitive-Behavioral, Interpersonal, Eclectic, and Motivational Interviewing. Each of the four sections will include the theoretical basis and proposed mechanism of change for the intervention, research that supports its positive impact on psychotherapy processes, and conclude with examples demonstrating its use in actual practice. Clinical implications and considerations regarding the use of these interventions will also be presented. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Attention allocation: Relationships to general working memory or specific language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M D; Levee, Tyler; Olino, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Attention allocation, updating working memory, and language processing are interdependent cognitive tasks related to the focused direction of limited resources, refreshing and substituting information in the current focus of attention, and receiving/sending verbal communication, respectively. The current study systematically examined the relationship among executive attention, working memory executive skills, and language abilities while adjusting for individual differences in short-term memory. School-age children completed a selective attention task requiring them to recall whether a presented shape was in the same place as a previous target shape shown in an array imposing a low or high working memory load. Results revealed a selective attention cost when working above but not within memory span capacity. Measures of general working memory were positively related to overall task performance, whereas language abilities were related to response time. In particular, higher language skills were associated with faster responses under low load conditions. These findings suggest that attentional control and storage demands have an additive impact on working memory resources but provide only limited evidence for a domain-general mechanism in language learning. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dutch-Cantonese Bilinguals Show Segmental Processing during Sinitic Language Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinka Timmer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the debate on the primacy of syllable vs. segment (i.e., phoneme as a functional unit of phonological encoding in syllabic languages by investigating both behavioral and neural responses of Dutch-Cantonese (DC bilinguals in a color-object picture naming task. Specifically, we investigated whether DC bilinguals exhibit the phonemic processing strategy, evident in monolingual Dutch speakers, during planning of their Cantonese speech production. Participants named the color of colored line-drawings in Cantonese faster when color and object matched in the first segment than when they were mismatched (e.g., 藍駱駝, /laam4/ /lok3to4/, “blue camel;” 紅饑駝, /hung4/ /lok3to4/, “red camel”. This is in contrast to previous studies in Sinitic languages that did not reveal such phoneme-only facilitation. Phonemic overlap also modulated the event-related potentials (ERPs in the 125–175, 200–300, and 300–400 ms time windows, suggesting earlier ERP modulations than in previous studies with monolingual Sinitic speakers or unbalanced Sinitic-Germanic bilinguals. Conjointly, our results suggest that, while the syllable may be considered the primary unit of phonological encoding in Sinitic languages, the phoneme can serve as the primary unit of phonological encoding, both behaviorally and neurally, for DC bilinguals. The presence/absence of a segment onset effect in Sinitic languages may be related to the proficiency in the Germanic language of bilinguals.

  1. Congenital amusia (or tone-deafness interferes with pitch processing in tone languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eTillmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1 and in Thai (Experiment 2. Tones were presented in pairs and participants were required to make same/different judgments. Experiment 2 additionally included musical analogs of Thai tones for comparison. Performance of congenital amusics was inferior to that of controls for all materials, suggesting a domain-general pitch-processing deficit. The pitch deficit of amusia is thus not limited to music, but may compromise the ability to process and learn tonal languages. Combined with acoustic analyses of the tone material, the present findings provide new insights into the nature of the pitch-processing deficit exhibited by amusics.

  2. Congenital Amusia (or Tone-Deafness) Interferes with Pitch Processing in Tone Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Burnham, Denis; Nguyen, Sebastien; Grimault, Nicolas; Gosselin, Nathalie; Peretz, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1) and in Thai (Experiment 2). Tones were presented in pairs and participants were required to make same/different judgments. Experiment 2 additionally included musical analogs of Thai tones for comparison. Performance of congenital amusics was inferior to that of controls for all materials, suggesting a domain-general pitch-processing deficit. The pitch deficit of amusia is thus not limited to music, but may compromise the ability to process and learn tonal languages. Combined with acoustic analyses of the tone material, the present findings provide new insights into the nature of the pitch-processing deficit exhibited by amusics.

  3. Electrophysiological Study of Algorithmically Processed Metric/Rhythmic Variations in Language and Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magne Cyrille

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is the result of an interdisciplinary collaboration between scientists from the fields of audio signal processing, phonetics and cognitive neuroscience aiming at studying the perception of modifications in meter, rhythm, semantics and harmony in language and music. A special time-stretching algorithm was developed to work with natural speech. In the language part, French sentences ending with tri-syllabic congruous or incongruous words, metrically modified or not, were made. In the music part, short melodies made of triplets, rhythmically and/or harmonically modified, were built. These stimuli were presented to a group of listeners that were asked to focus their attention either on meter/rhythm or semantics/harmony and to judge whether or not the sentences/melodies were acceptable. Language ERP analyses indicate that semantically incongruous words are processed independently of the subject's attention thus arguing for automatic semantic processing. In addition, metric incongruities seem to influence semantic processing. Music ERP analyses show that rhythmic incongruities are processed independently of attention, revealing automatic processing of rhythm in music.

  4. Electrophysiological Study of Algorithmically Processed Metric/Rhythmic Variations in Language and Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kronland-Martinet

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is the result of an interdisciplinary collaboration between scientists from the fields of audio signal processing, phonetics and cognitive neuroscience aiming at studying the perception of modifications in meter, rhythm, semantics and harmony in language and music. A special time-stretching algorithm was developed to work with natural speech. In the language part, French sentences ending with tri-syllabic congruous or incongruous words, metrically modified or not, were made. In the music part, short melodies made of triplets, rhythmically and/or harmonically modified, were built. These stimuli were presented to a group of listeners that were asked to focus their attention either on meter/rhythm or semantics/harmony and to judge whether or not the sentences/melodies were acceptable. Language ERP analyses indicate that semantically incongruous words are processed independently of the subject's attention thus arguing for automatic semantic processing. In addition, metric incongruities seem to influence semantic processing. Music ERP analyses show that rhythmic incongruities are processed independently of attention, revealing automatic processing of rhythm in music.

  5. Mapping innovation processes: Visual techniques for opening and presenting the black box of service innovation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Rørbæk

    2017-01-01

    This chapter argues for the usefulness of visual mapping techniques for performing qualitative analysis of complex service innovation processes. Different mapping formats are presented, namely, matrices, networks, process maps, situational analysis maps and temporal situational analysis maps....... For the purpose of researching service innovation processes, the three latter formats are argued to be particularly interesting. Process maps can give an overview of different periods and milestones in a process in one carefully organized location. Situational analysis maps and temporal situational analysis maps...... can open up complexities of service innovation processes, as well as close them down for presentational purposes. The mapping formats presented are illustrated by displaying maps from an exemplary research project, and the chapter is concluded with a brief discussion of the limitations and pitfalls...

  6. Spatial language processing in the blind: evidence for a supramodal representation and cortical reorganization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn E Struiksma

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological and imaging studies have shown that the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG is specifically involved in processing spatial terms (e.g. above, left of, which locate places and objects in the world. The current fMRI study focused on the nature and specificity of representing spatial language in the left SMG by combining behavioral and neuronal activation data in blind and sighted individuals. Data from the blind provide an elegant way to test the supramodal representation hypothesis, i.e. abstract codes representing spatial relations yielding no activation differences between blind and sighted. Indeed, the left SMG was activated during spatial language processing in both blind and sighted individuals implying a supramodal representation of spatial and other dimensional relations which does not require visual experience to develop. However, in the absence of vision functional reorganization of the visual cortex is known to take place. An important consideration with respect to our finding is the amount of functional reorganization during language processing in our blind participants. Therefore, the participants also performed a verb generation task. We observed that only in the blind occipital areas were activated during covert language generation. Additionally, in the first task there was functional reorganization observed for processing language with a high linguistic load. As the visual cortex was not specifically active for spatial contents in the first task, and no reorganization was observed in the SMG, the latter finding further supports the notion that the left SMG is the main node for a supramodal representation of verbal spatial relations.

  7. Russian Language Development Assessment as a Standardized Technique for Assessing Communicative Function in Children Aged 3–9 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prikhoda N.A.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the Russian Language Development Assessment, a standardized individual diagnostic tool for children aged from 3 to 9 that helps to assess the following components of a child’s communicative function: passive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, knowledge of semantic constructs with logical, temporal and spatial relations, passive perception and active use of syntactic and morphological features of words in a sentence, active and passive phonological awareness, active and passive knowledge of syntactic structures and categories. The article provides descriptions of content and diagnostic procedures for all 7 subtests included in the assessment (Passive Vocabulary, Active Vocabulary, Linguistic Operators, Sentence structure, Word Structure, Phonology, Sentence Repetition. Basing on the data collected in the study that involved 86 first- graders of a Moscow school, the article analyzes the internal consistency and construct validity of each subtest of the technique. It concludes that the Russian Language Development Assessment technique can be of much use both in terms of diagnostic purposes and in supporting children with ASD taking into account the lack of standardized tools for language and speech development assessment in Russian and the importance of this measure in general.

  8. IMPROVING THE STUDENT’S SPEAKING ABILITY OF FRANCE LANGUAGE LESSON BY USING GAMES TECHNIQUE AT SMAN 1 KUTA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Dewi Harsanti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to know the increase of students' speaking ability in French language lesson by using the technique of games. Subjects of research were language class semester students of SMA Negeri 1 Kuta Utara. Data collected by the test and the test is used to determine the student's ability speaking the subject and used questinaire to know students' perception of the game technique. Then the two types of data were analyzed by analysis of simple statistical percentage. The results of the first study of effective implementation of the technique game because there is a significant improvement of students' skills in speaking of 62.21 (poor before treatment becomes 82.58 (good after the second treatment and perceptions of students towards a good and positive game technique methods. Finally, students were really active and enthusiastic to be able to see the presence of class and teach 94.58 on average. Opinions and comments on the activities of the most dominant student expression made by students achieve a 31.27 average.

  9. Analysis of the Growth Process of Neural Cells in Culture Environment Using Image Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsafianf, Atefeh S.; Isfahani, Shirin N.; Kasaei, Shohreh; Mobasheri, Hamid

    Here we present an approach for processing neural cells images to analyze their growth process in culture environment. We have applied several image processing techniques for: 1- Environmental noise reduction, 2- Neural cells segmentation, 3- Neural cells classification based on their dendrites' growth conditions, and 4- neurons' features Extraction and measurement (e.g., like cell body area, number of dendrites, axon's length, and so on). Due to the large amount of noise in the images, we have used feed forward artificial neural networks to detect edges more precisely.

  10. The Relationship between Central Auditory Processing, Language, and Cognition in Children Being Evaluated for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Lauren; Cash, Elizabeth; Chermak, Gail D; Guenette, Linda; Masters, Gay; Musiek, Frank E; Brown, Mallory; Ceruti, Julianne; Fitzegerald, Krista; Geissler, Kristin; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Pediatric central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is frequently comorbid with other childhood disorders. However, few studies have examined the relationship between commonly used CAPD, language, and cognition tests within the same sample. The present study examined the relationship between diagnostic CAPD tests and "gold standard" measures of language and cognitive ability, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). A retrospective study. Twenty-seven patients referred for CAPD testing who scored average or better on the CELF and low average or better on the WISC were initially included. Seven children who scored below the CELF and/or WISC inclusion criteria were then added to the dataset for a second analysis, yielding a sample size of 34. Participants were administered a CAPD battery that included at least the following three CAPD tests: Frequency Patterns (FP), Dichotic Digits (DD), and Competing Sentences (CS). In addition, they were administered the CELF and WISC. Relationships between scores on CAPD, language (CELF), and cognition (WISC) tests were examined using correlation analysis. DD and FP showed significant correlations with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient, and the DD left ear and the DD interaural difference measures both showed significant correlations with working memory. However, ∼80% or more of the variance in these CAPD tests was unexplained by language and cognition measures. Language and cognition measures were more strongly correlated with each other than were the CAPD tests with any CELF or WISC scale. Additional correlations with the CAPD tests were revealed when patients who scored in the mild-moderate deficit range on the CELF and/or in the borderline low intellectual functioning range on the WISC were included in the analysis. While both the DD and FP tests showed significant correlations with one or more cognition measures, the majority of the variance in these

  11. Phonological processing of rhyme in spoken language and location in sign language by deaf and hearing participants: a neurophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, C; Zuinen, T; Bayard, C; Leybaert, J

    2013-06-01

    Sign languages (SL), like oral languages (OL), organize elementary, meaningless units into meaningful semantic units. Our aim was to compare, at behavioral and neurophysiological levels, the processing of the location parameter in French Belgian SL to that of the rhyme in oral French. Ten hearing and 10 profoundly deaf adults performed a rhyme judgment task in OL and a similarity judgment on location in SL. Stimuli were pairs of pictures. As regards OL, deaf subjects' performances, although above chance level, were significantly lower than that of hearing subjects, suggesting that a metaphonological analysis is possible for deaf people but rests on phonological representations that are less precise than in hearing people. As regards SL, deaf subjects scores indicated that a metaphonological judgment may be performed on location. The contingent negative variation (CNV) evoked by the first picture of a pair was similar in hearing subjects in OL and in deaf subjects in OL and SL. However, an N400 evoked by the second picture of the non-rhyming pairs was evidenced only in hearing subjects in OL. The absence of N400 in deaf subjects may be interpreted as the failure to associate two words according to their rhyme in OL or to their location in SL. Although deaf participants can perform metaphonological judgments in OL, they differ from hearing participants both behaviorally and in ERP. Judgment of location in SL is possible for deaf signers, but, contrary to rhyme judgment in hearing participants, does not elicit any N400. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Culturally Inclusive Dance: Working with Chinese English Language Learners in the Dance Technique Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jamie A.

    2018-01-01

    Higher education is experiencing rapidly shifting demographics brought about by the expanding global economy. The influx of English Language Learners (ELLs) into U.S. dance classrooms is creating a shifting paradigm for students and instructors. According to Beth McMurtrie (2012), universities with increasing international enrollments recognize…

  13. Hemingway's Language Style and Writing Techniques in "The Old Man and the Sea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yaochen

    2008-01-01

    Among many great American writers, Hemingway is famous for his objective and terse prose style. As all the novels Hemingway published in his life, "The Old Man and the Sea" typically reflects his unique writing style. The language is simple and natural on the surface, but actually deliberate and artificial. Hemingway's style is related…

  14. Analyzing discourse and text complexity for learning and collaborating a cognitive approach based on natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Dascălu, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    With the advent and increasing popularity of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) and e-learning technologies, the need of automatic assessment and of teacher/tutor support for the two tightly intertwined activities of comprehension of reading materials and of collaboration among peers has grown significantly. In this context, a polyphonic model of discourse derived from Bakhtin’s work as a paradigm is used for analyzing both general texts and CSCL conversations in a unique framework focused on different facets of textual cohesion. As specificity of our analysis, the individual learning perspective is focused on the identification of reading strategies and on providing a multi-dimensional textual complexity model, whereas the collaborative learning dimension is centered on the evaluation of participants’ involvement, as well as on collaboration assessment. Our approach based on advanced Natural Language Processing techniques provides a qualitative estimation of the learning process and enhance...

  15. Techniques for laser processing, assay, and examination of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Mitchell, R.C.; Rogell, M.L.

    1981-11-01

    Fuel examination studies were performed which have application to interim spent fuel storage. These studies were in three areas, i.e., laser drilling and rewelding demonstration, nondestructive assay techniques survey, and fuel examination techniques survey

  16. THE USE OF SOCIAL NETWORKS IN THE PROCESS OF LEARNING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna I. Sotska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decade many changes in the process of education took place because of the development of information and communication technologies. Online social groups tend to be used by teachers and students for formal (study and informal (personal communication purposes. An efficient teacher may turn social networks into an effective tool, encouraging students to communicate in the target language. With the help of social networks the teacher can activate students in the process of learning, create situations for better understanding and perceiving the material. The use of such approaches as blended learning, corporative learning and active learning helps make the classes more attractive and effective. Moreover, social networks can help in the development of students’ creativity, provision of feedback and cooperative learning. The article deals with the question of influence of Massive online open courses on effectiveness of the educational process for students who learn English as a second language.

  17. Factors that aff ect the learning process of a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Vula

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning as a complicated process and very significant one is followed by different influencers that cause different problems due to students’ performance in learning a foreign language. In order to work and try to eliminate such factors we have to detect which are the factors that we as teachers, professors, assistants, have to carry on during the process of teaching. This theoretical research paper will provide scientific data due to different factors that affect learning process of foreign language that were conducted in different places among the world. The researches that are selected are coherently linked with the aim of this scientific c paper and have ensured results from cases studies, quantitative research, and empirical research.

  18. Grammatical number processing and anticipatory eye movements are not tightly coordinated in English spoken language comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eRiordan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of eye movements in world-situated language comprehension have demonstrated that rapid processing of morphosyntactic information – e.g., grammatical gender and number marking – can produce anticipatory eye movements to referents in the visual scene. We investigated how type of morphosyntactic information and the goals of language users in comprehension affected eye movements, focusing on the processing of grammatical number morphology in English-speaking adults. Participants’ eye movements were recorded as they listened to simple English declarative (There are the lions. and interrogative (Where are the lions? sentences. In Experiment 1, no differences were observed in speed to fixate target referents when grammatical number information was informative relative to when it was not. The same result was obtained in a speeded task (Experiment 2 and in a task using mixed sentence types (Experiment 3. We conclude that grammatical number processing in English and eye movements to potential referents are not tightly coordinated. These results suggest limits on the role of predictive eye movements in concurrent linguistic and scene processing. We discuss how these results can inform and constrain predictive approaches to language processing.

  19. Processing structure in language and music: a case for shared reliance on cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert; Okada, Brooke M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between structural processing in music and language has received increasing interest in the past several years, spurred by the influential Shared Syntactic Integration Resource Hypothesis (SSIRH; Patel, Nature Neuroscience, 6, 674-681, 2003). According to this resource-sharing framework, music and language rely on separable syntactic representations but recruit shared cognitive resources to integrate these representations into evolving structures. The SSIRH is supported by findings of interactions between structural manipulations in music and language. However, other recent evidence suggests that such interactions also can arise with nonstructural manipulations, and some recent neuroimaging studies report largely nonoverlapping neural regions involved in processing musical and linguistic structure. These conflicting results raise the question of exactly what shared (and distinct) resources underlie musical and linguistic structural processing. This paper suggests that one shared resource is prefrontal cortical mechanisms of cognitive control, which are recruited to detect and resolve conflict that occurs when expectations are violated and interpretations must be revised. By this account, musical processing involves not just the incremental processing and integration of musical elements as they occur, but also the incremental generation of musical predictions and expectations, which must sometimes be overridden and revised in light of evolving musical input.

  20. Syntactic processing in music and language: Effects of interrupting auditory streams with alternating timbres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiveash, Anna; Thompson, William Forde; Badcock, Nicholas A; McArthur, Genevieve

    2018-07-01

    Music and language both rely on the processing of spectral (pitch, timbre) and temporal (rhythm) information to create structure and meaning from incoming auditory streams. Behavioral results have shown that interrupting a melodic stream with unexpected changes in timbre leads to reduced syntactic processing. Such findings suggest that syntactic processing is conditional on successful streaming of incoming sequential information. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether (1) the effect of alternating timbres on syntactic processing is reflected in a reduced brain response to syntactic violations, and (2) the phenomenon is similar for music and language. Participants listened to melodies and sentences with either one timbre (piano or one voice) or three timbres (piano, guitar, and vibraphone, or three different voices). Half the stimuli contained syntactic violations: an out-of-key note in the melodies, and a phrase-structure violation in the sentences. We found smaller ERPs to syntactic violations in music in the three-timbre compared to the one-timbre condition, reflected in a reduced early right anterior negativity (ERAN). A similar but non-significant pattern was observed for language stimuli in both the early left anterior negativity (ELAN) and the left anterior negativity (LAN) ERPs. The results suggest that disruptions to auditory streaming may interfere with syntactic processing, especially for melodic sequences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Internal mechanisms underlying anticipatory language processing: Evidence from event-related-potentials and neural oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yuping; Xia, Jinyan; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2017-07-28

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated that the language processing system can predict upcoming content during comprehension, there is still no clear picture of the anticipatory stage of predictive processing. This electroencephalograph study examined the cognitive and neural oscillatory mechanisms underlying anticipatory processing during language comprehension, and the consequences of this prediction for bottom-up processing of predicted/unpredicted content. Participants read Mandarin Chinese sentences that were either strongly or weakly constraining and that contained critical nouns that were congruent or incongruent with the sentence contexts. We examined the effects of semantic predictability on anticipatory processing prior to the onset of the critical nouns and on integration of the critical nouns. The results revealed that, at the integration stage, the strong-constraint condition (compared to the weak-constraint condition) elicited a reduced N400 and reduced theta activity (4-7Hz) for the congruent nouns, but induced beta (13-18Hz) and theta (4-7Hz) power decreases for the incongruent nouns, indicating benefits of confirmed predictions and potential costs of disconfirmed predictions. More importantly, at the anticipatory stage, the strongly constraining context elicited an enhanced sustained anterior negativity and beta power decrease (19-25Hz), which indicates that strong prediction places a higher processing load on the anticipatory stage of processing. The differences (in the ease of processing and the underlying neural oscillatory activities) between anticipatory and integration stages of lexical processing were discussed with regard to predictive processing models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ACTION OF UNIFORM SEARCH ALGORITHM WHEN SELECTING LANGUAGE UNITS IN THE PROCESS OF SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Михайловна Некипелова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of action of uniform search algorithm when selecting by human of language units for speech produce. The process is connected with a speech optimization phenomenon. This makes it possible to shorten the time of cogitation something that human want to say, and to achieve the maximum precision in thoughts expression. The algorithm of uniform search works at consciousness  and subconsciousness levels. It favours the forming of automatism produce and perception of speech. Realization of human's cognitive potential in the process of communication starts up complicated mechanism of self-organization and self-regulation of language. In turn, it results in optimization of language system, servicing needs not only human's self-actualization but realization of communication in society. The method of problem-oriented search is used for researching of optimization mechanisms, which are distinctive to speech producing and stabilization of language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-50

  3. Operation technique and healing process of telescopic ileocolostomy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, G; Tóth, I; Barna, T; Bráth, E; Gyáni, K; Mikó, Irén

    2003-01-01

    The healing process of telescopic anastomoses was found in an animal experiment with 12 mongrel dogs. After the division of vessels an ileal segment of different length was invaginated into the lumen of the colon using single-layer interrupted sutures. The following four groups were used: Group A (n = 3): end-to-side ileocolostomy, single-layer interrupted suture (invagination length: 0 mm), survival time: 21 days. Group B (n = 3): invagination length: 20 mm, survival time: 7 days. Group C (n = 3): invagination length: 10 mm, survival time: 21 days. Group D (n = 3): invagination length: 20 mm, survival time: 21 days. At the end of the above survival times the anastomosis area was removed. The bursting pressure was measured and morphological as well as histological examinations were performed. In each case the 0-day look-alikes of anastomoses were performed using the remnant bowels, and bursting pressure measurements were done on these models as well. Anastomosis leakage did not occur. The serosal layer of the intracolonic part of the ileum disappeared during the healing process. The free surface of the intracolonic ileal segment became covered by the sliding mucosa of the colon and the prolapsing mucosa of the ileum. The following could be concluded after the experiments: The inner pressure tolerance of a telescopic ileocolostomy promptly after preparation is better than in case of another single-layer anastomosis. This fact results in increased safety against leakage on the first postoperative days. The inner pressure tolerance of the telescopic ileocolostomy increases during the healing process and it does not depend on the length of the invaginated part (0 day-20 mm: 56 mmHg +/- 6, Group A: 252 +/- 39, Group B: 154 +/- 19, Group C: 249 +/- 20, Group D: 298 +/- 2). There is no difference in pressure tolerance between the telescopic and the end-to-side single-layer interrupted anastomoses after the healing process. The invaginated section within the lumen of the

  4. Electrophysiological Correlates of Error Monitoring and Feedback Processing in Second Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultena, Sybrine; Danielmeier, Claudia; Bekkering, Harold; Lemhöfer, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Humans monitor their behavior to optimize performance, which presumably relies on stable representations of correct responses. During second language (L2) learning, however, stable representations have yet to be formed while knowledge of the first language (L1) can interfere with learning, which in some cases results in persistent errors. In order to examine how correct L2 representations are stabilized, this study examined performance monitoring in the learning process of second language learners for a feature that conflicts with their first language. Using EEG, we investigated if L2 learners in a feedback-guided word gender assignment task showed signs of error detection in the form of an error-related negativity (ERN) before and after receiving feedback, and how feedback is processed. The results indicated that initially, response-locked negativities for correct (CRN) and incorrect (ERN) responses were of similar size, showing a lack of internal error detection when L2 representations are unstable. As behavioral performance improved following feedback, the ERN became larger than the CRN, pointing to the first signs of successful error detection. Additionally, we observed a second negativity following the ERN/CRN components, the amplitude of which followed a similar pattern as the previous negativities. Feedback-locked data indicated robust FRN and P300 effects in response to negative feedback across different rounds, demonstrating that feedback remained important in order to update memory representations during learning. We thus show that initially, L2 representations may often not be stable enough to warrant successful error monitoring, but can be stabilized through repeated feedback, which means that the brain is able to overcome L1 interference, and can learn to detect errors internally after a short training session. The results contribute a different perspective to the discussion on changes in ERN and FRN components in relation to learning, by extending the

  5. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    2000-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamm irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in pork and chicken meats. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Pork loin ham with desirable color was also developed without using of sodium nitrite that is known as a carcinogen. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the antioxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation at about 1 kGy completely eliminated the parasites in foods and drinking water. In the study of quarantine treatment of apple and pear for export by gamma irradiation, current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of apple and pear. However, irradiation doses at 1-3 kGy was suitable for controlling pests and did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. The result of the survey to assess the public understanding indicated that the irradiated food had somewhat negative impression to general public. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a public education and information program by using mass communication and by constructing communication system to obtain the enhanced impression from the general public

  6. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    2000-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamm irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in pork and chicken meats. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Pork loin ham with desirable color was also developed without using of sodium nitrite that is known as a carcinogen. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the antioxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation at about 1 kGy completely eliminated the parasites in foods and drinking water. In the study of quarantine treatment of apple and pear for export by gamma irradiation, current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of apple and pear. However, irradiation doses at 1-3 kGy was suitable for controlling pests and did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. The result of the survey to assess the public understanding indicated that the irradiated food had somewhat negative impression to general public. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a public education and information program by using mass communication and by constructing communication system to obtain the enhanced impression from the general public.

  7. Qubit Manipulations Techniques for Trapped-Ion Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebler, John; Tan, Ting; Lin, Yiheng; Bowler, Ryan; Jost, John; Meier, Adam; Knill, Emanuel; Leibfried, Dietrich; Wineland, David; Ion Storage Team

    2013-05-01

    We report recent results on qubit manipulation techniques for trapped-ions towards scalable quantum information processing (QIP). We demonstrate a platform-independent benchmarking protocol for evaluating the performance of Clifford gates, which form a basis for fault-tolerant QIP. We report a demonstration of an entangling gate scheme proposed by Bermudez et al. [Phys. Rev. A. 85, 040302 (2012)] and achieve a fidelity of 0.974(4). This scheme takes advantage of dynamic decoupling which protects the qubit against dephasing errors. It can be applied directly on magnetic-field-insensitive states, and provides a number of simplifications in experimental implementation compared to some other entangling gates with trapped ions. We also report preliminary results on dissipative creation of entanglement with trapped-ions. Creation of an entangled pair does not require discrete logic gates and thus could reduce the level of quantum-coherent control needed for large-scale QIP. Supported by IARPA, ARO contract No. EAO139840, ONR, and the NIST Quantum Information Program.

  8. A microelectromechanical accelerometer fabricated using printed circuit processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. E.; Ramadoss, R.; Ozmun, P. M.; Dean, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive-type accelerometer fabricated using printed circuit processing techniques is presented. A Kapton polymide film is used as the structural layer for fabricating the MEMS accelerometer. The accelerometer proof mass along with four suspension beams is defined in the Kapton polyimide film. The proof mass is suspended above a Teflon substrate using a spacer. The deflection of the proof mass is detected using a pair of capacitive sensing electrodes. The top electrode of the accelerometer is defined on the top surface of the Kapton film. The bottom electrode is defined in the metallization on the Teflon substrate. The initial gap height is determined by the distance between the bottom electrode and the Kapton film. For an applied external acceleration (normal to the proof mass), the proof mass deflects toward or away from the fixed bottom electrode due to inertial force. This deflection causes either a decrease or increase in the air-gap height thereby either increasing or decreasing the capacitance between the top and the bottom electrodes. An example PCB MEMS accelerometer with a square proof mass of membrane area 6.4 mm × 6.4 mm is reported. The measured resonant frequency is 375 Hz and the Q-factor in air is 0.52.

  9. A microelectromechanical accelerometer fabricated using printed circuit processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J E; Ramadoss, R; Ozmun, P M; Dean, R N

    2008-01-01

    A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive-type accelerometer fabricated using printed circuit processing techniques is presented. A Kapton polymide film is used as the structural layer for fabricating the MEMS accelerometer. The accelerometer proof mass along with four suspension beams is defined in the Kapton polyimide film. The proof mass is suspended above a Teflon substrate using a spacer. The deflection of the proof mass is detected using a pair of capacitive sensing electrodes. The top electrode of the accelerometer is defined on the top surface of the Kapton film. The bottom electrode is defined in the metallization on the Teflon substrate. The initial gap height is determined by the distance between the bottom electrode and the Kapton film. For an applied external acceleration (normal to the proof mass), the proof mass deflects toward or away from the fixed bottom electrode due to inertial force. This deflection causes either a decrease or increase in the air-gap height thereby either increasing or decreasing the capacitance between the top and the bottom electrodes. An example PCB MEMS accelerometer with a square proof mass of membrane area 6.4 mm × 6.4 mm is reported. The measured resonant frequency is 375 Hz and the Q-factor in air is 0.52

  10. Sound to language: different cortical processing for first and second languages in elementary school children as revealed by a large-scale study using fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Lisa; Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Katura, Takusige; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-10-01

    A large-scale study of 484 elementary school children (6-10 years) performing word repetition tasks in their native language (L1-Japanese) and a second language (L2-English) was conducted using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Three factors presumably associated with cortical activation, language (L1/L2), word frequency (high/low), and hemisphere (left/right), were investigated. L1 words elicited significantly greater brain activation than L2 words, regardless of semantic knowledge, particularly in the superior/middle temporal and inferior parietal regions (angular/supramarginal gyri). The greater L1-elicited activation in these regions suggests that they are phonological loci, reflecting processes tuned to the phonology of the native language, while phonologically unfamiliar L2 words were processed like nonword auditory stimuli. The activation was bilateral in the auditory and superior/middle temporal regions. Hemispheric asymmetry was observed in the inferior frontal region (right dominant), and in the inferior parietal region with interactions: low-frequency words elicited more right-hemispheric activation (particularly in the supramarginal gyrus), while high-frequency words elicited more left-hemispheric activation (particularly in the angular gyrus). The present results reveal the strong involvement of a bilateral language network in children's brains depending more on right-hemispheric processing while acquiring unfamiliar/low-frequency words. A right-to-left shift in laterality should occur in the inferior parietal region, as lexical knowledge increases irrespective of language.

  11. Higher Language Ability is Related to Angular Gyrus Activation Increase During Semantic Processing, Independent of Sentence Incongruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene; McAllister, Anita; Lundberg, Peter; Karlsson, Thomas; Engström, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during processing of sentences. Moreover, we were interested if observed neural activation patterns are modulated by semantic incongruency similarly to previously observed changes upon syntactic congruency modulation. We investigated 27 healthy adults with a sentence reading task—which tapped language comprehension and inference, and modulated sentence congruency—employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We assessed the relation between neural activation, congruency modulation, and test performance on a high-level language ability assessment with multiple regression analysis. Our results showed increased activation in the left-hemispheric angular gyrus extending to the temporal lobe related to high language ability. This effect was independent of semantic congruency, and no significant relation between language ability and incongruency modulation was observed. Furthermore, there was a significant increase of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) bilaterally when the sentences were incongruent, indicating that processing incongruent sentences was more demanding than processing congruent sentences and required increased activation in language regions. The correlation of high-level language ability with increased rather than decreased activation in the left angular gyrus, a region specific for language processing, is opposed to what the neural efficiency hypothesis would predict. We can conclude that no evidence is found for an interaction between semantic congruency related brain activation and high-level language performance, even though the semantic incongruent condition shows to be more demanding and evoking more neural activation. PMID

  12. Higher language ability is related to angular gyrus activation increase during semantic processing, independent of sentence incongruency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene eVan Ettinger-Veenstra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during processing of sentences. Moreover, we were interested if observed neural activation patterns are modulated by semantic incongruency similarly to previously observed changes upon syntactic congruency modulation. We investigated 27 healthy adults with a sentence reading task - which tapped language comprehension and inference, and modulated sentence congruency - employing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We assessed the relation between neural activation, congruency modulation, and test performance on a high-level language ability assessment with multiple regression analysis. Our results showed increased activation in the left-hemispheric angular gyrus extending to the temporal lobe related to high language ability. This effect was independent of semantic congruency, and no significant relation between language ability and incongruency modulation was observed. Furthermore, a significant increase of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally when the sentences were incongruent, indicating that processing incongruent sentences was more demanding than processing congruent sentences and required increased activation in language regions. The correlation of high-level language ability with increased rather than decreased activation in the left angular gyrus, a region specific for language processing is opposed to what the neural efficiency hypothesis would predict. We can conclude that there is no evidence found for an interaction between semantic congruency related brain activation and high-level language performance, even though the semantic incongruent condition shows to be more demanding and evoking more neural activation.

  13. Brain function differences in language processing in children and adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Diane L; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Mason, Robert A; Keller, Timothy A; Minshew, Nancy J; Just, Marcel Adam

    2013-08-01

    Comparison of brain function between children and adults with autism provides an understanding of the effects of the disorder and associated maturational differences on language processing. Functional imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) was used to examine brain activation and cortical synchronization during the processing of literal and ironic texts in 15 children with autism, 14 children with typical development, 13 adults with autism, and 12 adult controls. Both the children and adults with autism had lower functional connectivity (synchronization of brain activity among activated areas) than their age and ability comparison group in the left hemisphere language network during irony processing, and neither autism group had an increase in functional connectivity in response to increased task demands. Activation differences for the literal and irony conditions occurred in key language-processing regions (left middle temporal, left pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, left medial frontal, and right middle temporal). The children and adults with autism differed from each other in the use of some brain regions during the irony task, with the adults with autism having activation levels similar to those of the control groups. Overall, the children and adults with autism differed from the adult and child controls in (a) the degree of network coordination, (b) the distribution of the workload among member nodes, and (3) the dynamic recruitment of regions in response to text content. Moreover, the differences between the two autism age groups may be indicative of positive changes in the neural function related to language processing associated with maturation and/or educational experience. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Diminished Auditory Responses during NREM Sleep Correlate with the Hierarchy of Language Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal Wilf

    Full Text Available Natural sleep provides a powerful model system for studying the neuronal correlates of awareness and state changes in the human brain. To quantitatively map the nature of sleep-induced modulations in sensory responses we presented participants with auditory stimuli possessing different levels of linguistic complexity. Ten participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the waking state and after falling asleep. Sleep staging was based on heart rate measures validated independently on 20 participants using concurrent EEG and heart rate measurements and the results were confirmed using permutation analysis. Participants were exposed to three types of auditory stimuli: scrambled sounds, meaningless word sentences and comprehensible sentences. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, we found diminishing brain activation along the hierarchy of language processing, more pronounced in higher processing regions. Specifically, the auditory thalamus showed similar activation levels during sleep and waking states, primary auditory cortex remained activated but showed a significant reduction in auditory responses during sleep, and the high order language-related representation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG cortex showed a complete abolishment of responses during NREM sleep. In addition to an overall activation decrease in language processing regions in superior temporal gyrus and IFG, those areas manifested a loss of semantic selectivity during NREM sleep. Our results suggest that the decreased awareness to linguistic auditory stimuli during NREM sleep is linked to diminished activity in high order processing stations.

  15. Diminished Auditory Responses during NREM Sleep Correlate with the Hierarchy of Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Meytal; Ramot, Michal; Furman-Haran, Edna; Arzi, Anat; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Malach, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Natural sleep provides a powerful model system for studying the neuronal correlates of awareness and state changes in the human brain. To quantitatively map the nature of sleep-induced modulations in sensory responses we presented participants with auditory stimuli possessing different levels of linguistic complexity. Ten participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the waking state and after falling asleep. Sleep staging was based on heart rate measures validated independently on 20 participants using concurrent EEG and heart rate measurements and the results were confirmed using permutation analysis. Participants were exposed to three types of auditory stimuli: scrambled sounds, meaningless word sentences and comprehensible sentences. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, we found diminishing brain activation along the hierarchy of language processing, more pronounced in higher processing regions. Specifically, the auditory thalamus showed similar activation levels during sleep and waking states, primary auditory cortex remained activated but showed a significant reduction in auditory responses during sleep, and the high order language-related representation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) cortex showed a complete abolishment of responses during NREM sleep. In addition to an overall activation decrease in language processing regions in superior temporal gyrus and IFG, those areas manifested a loss of semantic selectivity during NREM sleep. Our results suggest that the decreased awareness to linguistic auditory stimuli during NREM sleep is linked to diminished activity in high order processing stations.

  16. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Process Description language Level 1 Version 1.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Stuart; Le Novère, Nicolas; Demir, Emek; Mi, Huaiyu; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Process Description language represents biological entities and processes between these entities within a network. SBGN PD focuses on the mechanistic description and temporal dependencies of biological interactions and transformations. The nodes (elements) are split into entity nodes describing, e.g., metabolites, proteins, genes and complexes, and process nodes describing, e.g., reactions and associations. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the nodes, such as consumption, production, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, PD is the closest to metabolic and regulatory pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  17. A case of "order insensitivity"? Natural and artificial language processing in a man with primary progressive aphasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerer, V. C.; Varley, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Processing of linear word order (linear configuration) is important for virtually all languages and essential to languages such as English which have little functional morphology. Damage to systems underpinning configurational processing may specifically affect word-order reliant sentence structures. We explore order processing in WR, a man with primary progressive aphasia (PPA). In a previous report, we showed how WR showed impaired processing of actives, which rely strongly on word order, b...

  18. Research in advanced formal theorem-proving techniques. [design and implementation of computer languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, B.; Fikes, R.; Waldinger, R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are summarised of a project aimed at the design and implementation of computer languages to aid in expressing problem solving procedures in several areas of artificial intelligence including automatic programming, theorem proving, and robot planning. The principal results of the project were the design and implementation of two complete systems, QA4 and QLISP, and their preliminary experimental use. The various applications of both QA4 and QLISP are given.

  19. Neuroimaging of language processes: fMRI of silent and overt lexical processing and the promise of multiple process imaging in single brain studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowsky, R.; Owen, W.J.; Wile, T.L.; Friesen, C.K.; Martin, J.L.; Sarty, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    To implement and evaluate a multiple-process functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm designed to effectively and efficiently activate several language-related regions for use with neurosurgical patients. Both overt and covert response conditions were examined. The fMRI experiments compared the traditional silent word-generation condition versus an overt one as they engage frontal language regions (Experiment 1) and silent versus overt semantic association conditions as they engage multiple language processing regions (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1 the overt condition yielded greater magnitude of activation, but not volume of activation, in the left inferior frontal and insular cortices than did the silent condition for most, but not all, participants. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the activation of multiple established language processing regions (ie, orthographic, phonological and semantic) can be achieved in a significant number of participants, particularly under overt semantic association conditions and that such activation varies in predictable ways. The traditional silent response condition cannot be considered as equivalent to the overt response condition during word generation or semantic association. The multiple-process imaging method introduced here was sensitive to processing robust orthographic, phonological, and semantic regions, particularly under the overt response condition. (author)

  20. When too many vowels impede language processing: The case of Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trecca, Fabio; Christiansen, Morten Hyllekvist; Bleses, Dorthe

    development, knowing about 100 fewer words at age 1;3 than children acquiring other languages. This finding has generally been attributed to the complex phonetic structure of Danish, characterized by a uniquely large inventory of vowel-like sounds. This results in indistinct syllable and word boundaries......, which might hinder word segmentation and acquisition1-5. To explore this hypothesis empirically, we used online measures of language processing to investigate to what extent contoids (obstruents and nasal/lateral consonants) and vocoids (vowels and semivowels) play a differential effect on processing...... words in context. Using the looking-while-listening procedure7, we measured accuracy and latency of children’s gaze at yoked pairs of pictures as they listened to speech naming one of the two objects on screen. As stimuli, we selected frequently occurring Danish nouns and child-directed expressions...

  1. The association between aerobic fitness and language processing in children: implications for academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Mark R; Federmeier, Kara D; Raine, Lauren B; Direito, Artur; Boyd, Jeremy K; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-06-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have been instrumental for discerning the relationship between children's aerobic fitness and aspects of cognition, yet language processing remains unexplored. ERPs linked to the processing of semantic information (the N400) and the analysis of language structure (the P600) were recorded from higher and lower aerobically fit children as they read normal sentences and those containing semantic or syntactic violations. Results revealed that higher fit children exhibited greater N400 amplitude and shorter latency across all sentence types, and a larger P600 effect for syntactic violations. Such findings suggest that higher fitness may be associated with a richer network of words and their meanings, and a greater ability to detect and/or repair syntactic errors. The current findings extend previous ERP research explicating the cognitive benefits associated with greater aerobic fitness in children and may have important implications for learning and academic performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Natural language processing-based COTS software and related technologies survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickland, Michael G.; Conrad, Gregory N.; Eaton, Shelley M.

    2003-09-01

    Natural language processing-based knowledge management software, traditionally developed for security organizations, is now becoming commercially available. An informal survey was conducted to discover and examine current NLP and related technologies and potential applications for information retrieval, information extraction, summarization, categorization, terminology management, link analysis, and visualization for possible implementation at Sandia National Laboratories. This report documents our current understanding of the technologies, lists software vendors and their products, and identifies potential applications of these technologies.

  3. On the functional relationship between language and motor processing in typewriting: an EEG study

    OpenAIRE

    Scaltritti, Michele; Pinet, Svetlana; Longcamp, Marieke; Alario, F-Xavier

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The functional relationship between language and motor processing was investigated to elucidate whether it is better described in terms of a discrete or a continuous account of information flow. To this end, we recorded event-related potentials during a typewriting task that combined a semantic priming paradigm with a manipulation of response side (response initiated with right vs. left hand), and focused on the lateralised potentials indexing motor-response activation...

  4. Medical subdomain classification of clinical notes using a machine learning-based natural language processing approach

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Wei-Hung; Wagholikar, Kavishwar B.; McCray, Alexa T.; Szolovits, Peter; Chueh, Henry C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The medical subdomain of a clinical note, such as cardiology or neurology, is useful content-derived metadata for developing machine learning downstream applications. To classify the medical subdomain of a note accurately, we have constructed a machine learning-based natural language processing (NLP) pipeline and developed medical subdomain classifiers based on the content of the note. Methods We constructed the pipeline using the clinical ...

  5. Laboratory process control using natural language commands from a personal computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Herbert A.; Mackin, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    PC software is described which provides flexible natural language process control capability with an IBM PC or compatible machine. Hardware requirements include the PC, and suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. Software required includes the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) operating system, a PC-based FORTRAN-77 compiler, and user-written device drivers. Instructions for use of the software are given as well as a description of an application of the system.

  6. New Levels of Language Processing Complexity and Organization Revealed by Granger Causation

    OpenAIRE

    Gow, David W.; Caplan, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Granger causation analysis of high spatiotemporal resolution reconstructions of brain activation offers a new window on the dynamic interactions between brain areas that support language processing. Premised on the observation that causes both precede and uniquely predict their effects, this approach provides an intuitive, model-free means of identifying directed causal interactions in the brain. It requires the analysis of all non-redundant potentially interacting signals, and has shown that...

  7. Cochlear implants and spoken language processing abilities: review and assessment of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Nathaniel R; Pisoni, David B; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2010-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) process sounds electronically and then transmit electric stimulation to the cochlea of individuals with sensorineural deafness, restoring some sensation of auditory perception. Many congenitally deaf CI recipients achieve a high degree of accuracy in speech perception and develop near-normal language skills. Post-lingually deafened implant recipients often regain the ability to understand and use spoken language with or without the aid of visual input (i.e. lip reading). However, there is wide variation in individual outcomes following cochlear implantation, and some CI recipients never develop useable speech and oral language skills. The causes of this enormous variation in outcomes are only partly understood at the present time. The variables most strongly associated with language outcomes are age at implantation and mode of communication in rehabilitation. Thus, some of the more important factors determining success of cochlear implantation are broadly related to neural plasticity that appears to be transiently present in deaf individuals. In this article we review the expected outcomes of cochlear implantation, potential predictors of those outcomes, the basic science regarding critical and sensitive periods, and several new research directions in the field of cochlear implantation.

  8. Multimodal imaging of temporal processing in typical and atypical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovelman, Ioulia; Wagley, Neelima; Hay, Jessica S F; Ugolini, Margaret; Bowyer, Susan M; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Brennan, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    New approaches to understanding language and reading acquisition propose that the human brain's ability to synchronize its neural firing rate to syllable-length linguistic units may be important to children's ability to acquire human language. Yet, little evidence from brain imaging studies has been available to support this proposal. Here, we summarize three recent brain imaging (functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)) studies from our laboratories with young English-speaking children (aged 6-12 years). In the first study (fNIRS), we used an auditory beat perception task to show that, in children, the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) responds preferentially to rhythmic beats at 1.5 Hz. In the second study (fMRI), we found correlations between children's amplitude rise-time sensitivity, phonological awareness, and brain activation in the left STG. In the third study (MEG), typically developing children outperformed children with autism spectrum disorder in extracting words from rhythmically rich foreign speech and displayed different brain activation during the learning phase. The overall findings suggest that the efficiency with which left temporal regions process slow temporal (rhythmic) information may be important for gains in language and reading proficiency. These findings carry implications for better understanding of the brain's mechanisms that support language and reading acquisition during both typical and atypical development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Processing language in face-to-face conversation: Questions with gestures get faster responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Judith; Kendrick, Kobin H; Levinson, Stephen C

    2017-09-08

    The home of human language use is face-to-face interaction, a context in which communicative exchanges are characterised not only by bodily signals accompanying what is being said but also by a pattern of alternating turns at talk. This transition between turns is astonishingly fast-typically a mere 200-ms elapse between a current and a next speaker's contribution-meaning that comprehending, producing, and coordinating conversational contributions in time is a significant challenge. This begs the question of whether the additional information carried by bodily signals facilitates or hinders language processing in this time-pressured environment. We present analyses of multimodal conversations revealing that bodily signals appear to profoundly influence language processing in interaction: Questions accompanied by gestures lead to shorter turn transition times-that is, to faster responses-than questions without gestures, and responses come earlier when gestures end before compared to after the question turn has ended. These findings hold even after taking into account prosodic patterns and other visual signals, such as gaze. The empirical findings presented here provide a first glimpse of the role of the body in the psycholinguistic processes underpinning human communication.

  10. Role of medial premotor areas in action language processing in relation to motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courson, Melody; Macoir, Joël; Tremblay, Pascale

    2017-10-01

    The literature reports that the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) are involved in motor planning and execution, and in motor-related cognitive functions such as motor imagery. However, their specific role in action language processing remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over SMA and pre-SMA during an action semantic analogy task (SAT) in relation with fine motor skills (i.e., manual dexterity) and motor imagery abilities in healthy non-expert adults. The impact of rTMS over SMA (but not pre-SMA) on reaction times (RT) during SAT was correlated with manual dexterity. Specifically, results show that rTMS over SMA modulated RT for those with lower dexterity skills. Our results therefore demonstrate a causal involvement of SMA in action language processing, as well as the existence of inter-individual differences in this involvement. We discuss these findings in light of neurolinguistic theories of language processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of the episodic buffer in working memory for language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2008-03-01

    A body of work has accumulated to show that the cognitive process of binding information from different mnemonic and sensory sources as well as in different linguistic modalities can be fractionated from general executive functions in working memory both functionally and neurally. This process has been defined in terms of the episodic buffer (Baddeley in Trends Cogn Sci 4(11):417-423, 2000). This paper considers behavioural, neuropsychological and neuroimaging data that elucidate the role of the episodic buffer in language processing. We argue that the episodic buffer seems to be truly multimodal in function and that while formation of unitary multidimensional representations in the episodic buffer seems to engage posterior neural networks, maintenance of such representations is supported by frontal networks. Although, the episodic buffer is not necessarily supported by executive processes and seems to be supported by different neural networks, it may operate in tandem with the central executive during effortful language processing. There is also evidence to suggest engagement of the phonological loop during buffer processing. The hippocampus seems to play a role in formation but not maintenance of representations in the episodic buffer of working memory.

  12. Influence of musical expertise and musical training on pitch processing in music and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Mireille; Schön, Daniele; Moreno, Sylvain; Santos, Andréia; Magne, Cyrille

    2007-01-01

    We review a series of experiments aimed at studying pitch processing in music and speech. These studies were conducted with musician and non musician adults and children. We found that musical expertise improved pitch processing not only in music but also in speech. Demonstrating transfer of training between music and language has interesting applications for second language learning. We also addressed the issue of whether the positive effects of musical expertise are linked with specific predispositions for music or with extensive musical practice. Results of longitudinal studies argue for the later. Finally, we also examined pitch processing in dyslexic children and found that they had difficulties discriminating strong pitch changes that are easily discriminate by normal readers. These results argue for a strong link between basic auditory perception abilities and reading abilities. We used conjointly the behavioral method (Reaction Times and error rates) and the electrophysiological method (recording of the changes in brain electrical activity time-locked to stimulus presentation, Event-Related brain Potentials or ERPs). A set of common processes may be responsible for pitch processing in music and in speech and these processes are shaped by musical practice. These data add evidence in favor of brain plasticity and open interesting perspectives for the remediation of dyslexia using musical training.

  13. Linguistic knowledge, processing speed, and metacognitive knowledge in first- and second-language reading comprehension : A componential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, Amos; Schoonen, Rob; de Glopper, Kees; Hulstijn, Jan; Simis, Annegien; Snellings, Patrick; Stevenson, Marie

    The authors report results of a study into the role of components of first-language (L1; Dutch) and second-language (L2; English) reading comprehension. Differences in the contributions of components of L1 and L2 reading comprehension are analyzed, in particular processing speed in L1 and L2.

  14. Interrelationships between Working Memory, Processing Speed, and Language Development in the Age Range 2-4 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Jayne; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Moran, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored associations between working memory and language in children aged 2-4 years. Method: Seventy-seven children aged 24-30 months were assessed on tests measuring language, visual cognition, verbal working memory (VWM), phonological short-term memory (PSTM), and processing speed. A standardized test of receptive and…

  15. Linguistic knowledge, processing speed and metacognitive knowledge in first and second language reading comprehension; a componential analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, A.; Schoonen, R.; de Glopper, K.; Hulstijn, J.; Simis, A.; Snellings, P.; Stevenson, M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors report results of a study into the role of components of first-language (L1; Dutch) and second-language (L2; English) reading comprehension. Differences in the contributions of components of L1 and L2 reading comprehension are analyzed, in particular processing speed in L1 and L2.

  16. Language differences in verbal short-term memory do not exclusively originate in the process of subvocal rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, A S; Gathercole, S E

    2001-06-01

    Language differences in verbal short-term memory were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, bilinguals with high competence in English and French and monolingual English adults with extremely limited knowledge of French were assessed on their serial recall of words and nonwords in both languages. In all cases recall accuracy was superior in the language with which individuals were most familiar, a first-language advantage that remained when variation due to differential rates of articulation in the two languages was taken into account. In Experiment 2, bilinguals recalled lists of English and French words with and without concurrent articulatory suppression. First-language superiority persisted under suppression, suggesting that the language differences in recall accuracy were not attributable to slower rates of subvocal rehearsal in the less familiar language. The findings indicate that language-specific differences in verbal short-term memory do not exclusively originate in the subvocal rehearsal process. It is suggested that one source of language-specific variation might relate to the use of long-term knowledge to support short-term memory performance.

  17. Image Processing Techniques for Assessment of Dental Trays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yergin, E

    2001-01-01

    .... This technique was used for the alignment of six brands of perforated metal trays with 170 lower arch cast models collected from patients having Angle Class 1 type occlusion with minor malocclusions...

  18. USE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES IN QUALITY IMPROVING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    KALİTE İYİLEŞTİRME SÜRECİNDE YAPAY ZEKÃ KAYA; Orhan ENGİN

    2005-01-01

    Today, changing of competition conditions and customer preferences caused to happen many differences in the viewpoint of firms' quality studies. At the same time, improvements in computer technologies accelerated use of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence technologies are being used to solve many industry problems. In this paper, we investigated the use of artificial intelligence techniques to solve quality problems. The artificial intelligence techniques, which are used in quali...

  19. On the Possibility of ESP Data Use in Natural Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Knopp, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to explore this image label database coming from the ESP game from the natural language processing (NLP) point of view. ESP game is an online game, in which human players do useful work - they label images. The output of the ESP game is then a database of images and their labels. What interests us is whether the data collected in the process of labeling images will be of any use in NLP tasks. Specifically, we are interested in the tasks of automatic corefere...

  20. Signed language and human action processing: evidence for functional constraints on the human mirror-neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P; Knapp, Heather Patterson

    2008-12-01

    In the quest to further understand the neural underpinning of human communication, researchers have turned to studies of naturally occurring signed languages used in Deaf communities. The comparison of the commonalities and differences between spoken and signed languages provides an opportunity to determine core neural systems responsible for linguistic communication independent of the modality in which a language is expressed. The present article examines such studies, and in addition asks what we can learn about human languages by contrasting formal visual-gestural linguistic systems (signed languages) with more general human action perception. To understand visual language perception, it is important to distinguish the demands of general human motion processing from the highly task-dependent demands associated with extracting linguistic meaning from arbitrary, conventionalized gestures. This endeavor is particularly important because theorists have suggested close homologies between perception and production of actions and functions of human language and social communication. We review recent behavioral, functional imaging, and neuropsychological studies that explore dissociations between the processing of human actions and signed languages. These data suggest incomplete overlap between the mirror-neuron systems proposed to mediate human action and language.

  1. Acoustic-Phonetic Versus Lexical Processing in Nonnative Listeners Differing in Their Dominant Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Koenig, Laura L

    2016-09-01

    Nonnative listeners have difficulty recognizing English words due to underdeveloped acoustic-phonetic and/or lexical skills. The present study used Boothroyd and Nittrouer's (1988)j factor to tease apart these two components of word recognition. Participants included 15 native English and 29 native Russian listeners. Fourteen and 15 of the Russian listeners reported English (ED) and Russian (RD) to be their dominant language, respectively. Listeners were presented 119 consonant-vowel-consonant real and nonsense words in speech-spectrum noise at +6 dB SNR. Responses were scored for word and phoneme recognition, the logarithmic quotient of which yielded j. Word and phoneme recognition was comparable between native and ED listeners but poorer in RD listeners. Analysis of j indicated less effective use of lexical information in RD than in native and ED listeners. Lexical processing was strongly correlated with the length of residence in the United States. Language background is important for nonnative word recognition. Lexical skills can be regarded as nativelike in ED nonnative listeners. Compromised word recognition in ED listeners is unlikely a result of poor lexical processing. Performance should be interpreted with caution for listeners dominant in their first language, whose word recognition is affected by both lexical and acoustic-phonetic factors.

  2. PyDecay/GraphPhys: A Unified Language and Storage System for Particle Decay Process Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunietz, Jesse N.; /MIT /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    To ease the tasks of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and event reconstruction (i.e. inferring particle-decay events from experimental data) for long-term BaBar data preservation and analysis, the following software components have been designed: a language ('GraphPhys') for specifying decay processes, common to both simulation and data analysis, allowing arbitrary parameters on particles, decays, and entire processes; an automated visualization tool to show graphically what decays have been specified; and a searchable database storage mechanism for decay specifications. Unlike HepML, a proposed XML standard for HEP metadata, the specification language is designed not for data interchange between computer systems, but rather for direct manipulation by human beings as well as computers. The components are interoperable: the information parsed from files in the specification language can easily be rendered as an image by the visualization package, and conversion between decay representations was implemented. Several proof-of-concept command-line tools were built based on this framework. Applications include building easier and more efficient interfaces to existing analysis tools for current projects (e.g. BaBar/BESII), providing a framework for analyses in future experimental settings (e.g. LHC/SuperB), and outreach programs that involve giving students access to BaBar data and analysis tools to give them a hands-on feel for scientific analysis.

  3. A MODELING AND SIMULATION LANGUAGE FOR BIOLOGICAL CELLS WITH COUPLED MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Endre; Glazier, James A

    2017-04-01

    Biological cells are the prototypical example of active matter. Cells sense and respond to mechanical, chemical and electrical environmental stimuli with a range of behaviors, including dynamic changes in morphology and mechanical properties, chemical uptake and secretion, cell differentiation, proliferation, death, and migration. Modeling and simulation of such dynamic phenomena poses a number of computational challenges. A modeling language describing cellular dynamics must naturally represent complex intra and extra-cellular spatial structures and coupled mechanical, chemical and electrical processes. Domain experts will find a modeling language most useful when it is based on concepts, terms and principles native to the problem domain. A compiler must then be able to generate an executable model from this physically motivated description. Finally, an executable model must efficiently calculate the time evolution of such dynamic and inhomogeneous phenomena. We present a spatial hybrid systems modeling language, compiler and mesh-free Lagrangian based simulation engine which will enable domain experts to define models using natural, biologically motivated constructs and to simulate time evolution of coupled cellular, mechanical and chemical processes acting on a time varying number of cells and their environment.

  4. Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) Representation in Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J; Lechevalier, D; Ak, R; Ferguson, M; Law, K H; Lee, Y-T T; Rachuri, S

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes Gaussian process regression (GPR) models presented in predictive model markup language (PMML). PMML is an extensible-markup-language (XML) -based standard language used to represent data-mining and predictive analytic models, as well as pre- and post-processed data. The previous PMML version, PMML 4.2, did not provide capabilities for representing probabilistic (stochastic) machine-learning algorithms that are widely used for constructing predictive models taking the associated uncertainties into consideration. The newly released PMML version 4.3, which includes the GPR model, provides new features: confidence bounds and distribution for the predictive estimations. Both features are needed to establish the foundation for uncertainty quantification analysis. Among various probabilistic machine-learning algorithms, GPR has been widely used for approximating a target function because of its capability of representing complex input and output relationships without predefining a set of basis functions, and predicting a target output with uncertainty quantification. GPR is being employed to various manufacturing data-analytics applications, which necessitates representing this model in a standardized form for easy and rapid employment. In this paper, we present a GPR model and its representation in PMML. Furthermore, we demonstrate a prototype using a real data set in the manufacturing domain.

  5. Versatility of a multilingual and bi-directional approach for medical language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassinoux, A M; Lovis, C; Baud, R H; Scherrer, J R

    1998-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, we are experiencing an exponential growth of online information that is mostly textual, and that benefits from new electronic media, such as the World Wide Web (WWW), to be broadly diffused across borders. However, there is a gap to bridge between holding information and accessing in a relevant way the deep underlying knowledge. Multilingual natural language processing (NLP), once tuned, is certainly the best solution to cope with this era of textual information. This paper focuses on the lesson learned through the joint development of an analyzer and a generator of medical language, within a multilingual context. Concrete examples, derived from the efforts under way in the European GALEN-IN-USE project, illustrate the use of these linguistic tools for the handling of surgical procedures.

  6. Accessing the mental space - Spatial working memory processes for language and vision overlap in precuneus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Weed, Ethan; Østergaard, Leif

    2008-01-01

    , strikingly overlapping a network previously shown to be involved in recall of spatial aspects of images depicting similar scenarios. This supports a neurocognitive model of language function, where sentences establish meaning by interacting with the perceptual and working memory networks of the brain.......Abstract: The ‘‘overlapping systems'' theory of language function argues that linguistic meaning construction crucially relies on contextual information provided by ‘‘nonlinguistic'' cognitive systems, such as perception and memory. This study examines whether linguistic processing of spatial.......g., ‘‘Was he turned towards her?'') and equally concrete nonspatial content (e.g., ‘‘Was he older than her?''). We found that recall of the spatial content relative to the nonspatial content resulted in higher BOLD response in a dorsoposterior network of brain regions, most significantly in precuneus...

  7. Harnessing Biomedical Natural Language Processing Tools to Identify Medicinal Plant Knowledge from Historical Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivekanand; Law, Wayne; Balick, Michael J; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2017-01-01

    The growing amount of data describing historical medicinal uses of plants from digitization efforts provides the opportunity to develop systematic approaches for identifying potential plant-based therapies. However, the task of cataloguing plant use information from natural language text is a challenging task for ethnobotanists. To date, there have been only limited adoption of informatics approaches used for supporting the identification of ethnobotanical information associated with medicinal uses. This study explored the feasibility of using biomedical terminologies and natural language processing approaches for extracting relevant plant-associated therapeutic use information from historical biodiversity literature collection available from the Biodiversity Heritage Library. The results from this preliminary study suggest that there is potential utility of informatics methods to identify medicinal plant knowledge from digitized resources as well as highlight opportunities for improvement.

  8. ISO 18629 PSL : A Standardized Language for Specifying and Exchanging Process Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Cutting-Decelle, A. F. [University of Loughborough, UK; Michel, Jean-Jacques [IDPICONSEIL; Gruninger, Michael [University of Toronto

    2006-01-01

    As enterprise integration increases, developers face increasingly complex problems related to interoperability. When enterprises collaborate, a common frame of reference or at least a common terminology is necessary for human-to-human, human-to-machine, and machine-to-machine communication. Ontology engineering offers a direction towards solving the inter-operability problems brought about by semantic obstacles related to the definitions of business terms and software classes. Ontology engineering is a set of tasks related to the development of ontologies for a particular domain. This paper is aimed at presenting the approach of ISO 18629, i.e., the Process Specification Language (PSL), to this problem. In the first part, the architecture of the standard is described, with the main features of the language. Then, the problems of the interoperability with PSL and the conformance to the standard are presented. The paper ends with an example showing the use of the standard for interoperability.

  9. Knowledge modelling and reliability processing: presentation of the Figaro language and associated tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouissou, M.; Villatte, N.; Bouhadana, H.; Bannelier, M.

    1991-12-01

    EDF has been developing for several years an integrated set of knowledge-based and algorithmic tools for automation of reliability assessment of complex (especially sequential) systems. In this environment, the reliability expert has at his disposal all the powerful software tools for qualitative and quantitative processing, besides he gets various means to generate automatically the inputs for these tools, through the acquisition of graphical data. The development of these tools has been based on FIGARO, a specific language, which was built to get an homogeneous system modelling. Various compilers and interpreters get a FIGARO model into conventional models, such as fault-trees, Markov chains, Petri Networks. In this report, we introduce the main basics of FIGARO language, illustrating them with examples

  10. The language of future-thought: an fMRI study of embodiment and tense processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Michael; Liberman, Nira; Maril, Anat

    2013-01-15

    The ability to comprehend and represent the temporal properties of an occurrence is a crucial aspect of human language and cognition. Despite advances in neurolinguistic research into semantic processing, surprisingly little is known regarding the mechanisms which support the comprehension of temporal semantics. We used fMRI to investigate neural activity associated with processing of concrete and abstract sentences across the three temporal categories: past, present, and future. Theories of embodied cognition predict that concreteness-related activity would be evident in sensory and motor areas regardless of tense. Contrastingly, relying upon construal level theory we hypothesized that: (1) the neural markers associated with concrete language processing would appear for past and present tense sentences, but not for future sentences; (2) future tense sentences would activate intention-processing areas. Consistent with our first prediction, the results showed that activation in the parahippocampal gyrus differentiated between concrete and abstract sentences for past and present tense sentences, but not for future sentences. Not consistent with our second prediction, future tense sentences did not activate most of the regions that are implicated in the processing of intentions, but only activated the vmPFC. We discuss the implications of the current results to theories of embodied cognition and tense semantics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early language processing efficiency predicts later receptive vocabulary outcomes in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A; Adams, Katherine A; Loi, Elizabeth C; Fernald, Anne; Feldman, Heidi M

    2016-01-01

    As rates of prematurity continue to rise, identifying which preterm children are at increased risk for learning disabilities is a public health imperative. Identifying continuities between early and later skills in this vulnerable population can also illuminate fundamental neuropsychological processes that support learning in all children. At 18 months adjusted age, we used socioeconomic status (SES), medical variables, parent-reported vocabulary, scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (third edition) language composite, and children's lexical processing speed in the looking-while-listening (LWL) task as predictor variables in a sample of 30 preterm children. Receptive vocabulary as measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (fourth edition) at 36 months was the outcome. Receptive vocabulary was correlated with SES, but uncorrelated with degree of prematurity or a composite of medical risk. Importantly, lexical processing speed was the strongest predictor of receptive vocabulary (r = -.81), accounting for 30% unique variance. Individual differences in lexical processing efficiency may be able to serve as a marker for information processing skills that are critical for language learning.

  12. Speech-language therapists' process of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Mingant, Anne

    2014-11-01

    Although aphasia rehabilitation should include significant others, it is currently unknown how this recommendation is adopted in speech-language therapy practice. Speech-language therapists' (SLTs) experience of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation is also understudied, yet a better understanding of clinical reality would be necessary to facilitate implementation of best evidence pertaining to family interventions. To explore the process through which SLTs work with significant others of people with aphasia in rehabilitation settings. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight SLTs who had been working with persons with aphasia in rehabilitation centres for at least 1 year. Grounded theory principles were applied in analysing interview transcripts. A theoretical model was developed representing SLTs' process of working with significant others of persons with aphasia in rehabilitation. Including significant others was perceived as challenging, yet a bonus to their fundamental patient-centred approach. Basic interventions with significant others when they were available included information sharing. If necessary, significant others were referred to social workers or psychologists or the participants collaborated with those professionals. Participants rarely and only under specific conditions provided significant others with language exercises or trained them to communicate better with the aphasic person. As a result, even if participants felt satisfied with their efforts to offer family and friends interventions, they also had unachieved ideals, such as having more frequent contacts with significant others. If SLTs perceived work with significant others as a feasible necessity, rather than as a challenging bonus, they could be more inclined to include family and friends within therapy with the aim to improve their communication with the person with aphasia. SLTs could also be more satisfied with their practice. In order to

  13. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like-not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context.

  14. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like—not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context. PMID:28076400

  15. Beneficiation studies of Bajaur manganese ore by different processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, M.; Khan, F.U.; Yamin, A.; Bilquees, R.; Muhammad, N.

    2010-01-01

    The manganese ore of Bajaur Agency of Pakistan was subjected to flotation, heavy medium separation, gravity concentration and magnetic separation techniques for beneficiation. The original composition of the manganese ore was 45.56% Mn , 4% Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 40% SiO/sub 2/. The Mn content was raised to a maximum 48.76 % in the concentrate with the recovery of 67.78 % through flotation technique. Other techniques rendered marginal increase in Mn concentration against the theoretical possibility of substantial enrichment by rejecting the 20 % gangue minerals. The separation of manganese minerals from associated gangue was difficult, due to mineralogical complexity of the ore, extreme fineness of the particle size, texture and minerals intergrowth. High Mn/Fe ratio, phosphorus, and silica contents were within tolerable limits for utilisation of the ore in ferro-manganese production. (author)

  16. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thick Concrete Using Advanced Signal Processing Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Barker, Alan M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Albright, Austin P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoegh, Kyle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Khazanovich, Lev [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years [1]. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations.

  17. ADAPTING HYBRID MACHINE TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES FOR CROSS-LANGUAGE TEXT RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISWARYA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research work aims in developing Tamil to English Cross - language text retrieval system using hybrid machine translation approach. The hybrid machine translation system is a combination of rule based and statistical based approaches. In an existing word by word translation system there are lot of issues and some of them are ambiguity, Out-of-Vocabulary words, word inflections, and improper sentence structure. To handle these issues, proposed architecture is designed in such a way that, it contains Improved Part-of-Speech tagger, machine learning based morphological analyser, collocation based word sense disambiguation procedure, semantic dictionary, and tense markers with gerund ending rules, and two pass transliteration algorithm. From the experimental results it is clear that the proposed Tamil Query based translation system achieves significantly better translation quality over existing system, and reaches 95.88% of monolingual performance.

  18. Techniques, processes, and measures for software safety and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparkman, D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a detailed survey of current recommended practices and measurement techniques for the development of reliable and safe software-based systems. This report is intended to assist the United States Nuclear Reaction Regulation (NRR) in determining the importance and maturity of the available techniques and in assessing the relevance of individual standards for application to instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power generating stations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides technical support for the Instrumentation and Control System Branch (ICSB) of NRRin advanced instrumentation and control systems, distributed digital systems, software reliability, and the application of verificafion and validafion for the development of software

  19. Statistical Techniques Used in Three Applied Linguistics Journals: "Language Learning,""Applied Linguistics" and "TESOL Quarterly," 1980-1986: Implications for Readers and Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleni, Vicki; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    A study investigated the statistical techniques used by applied linguists and reported in three journals, "Language Learning,""Applied Linguistics," and "TESOL Quarterly," between 1980 and 1986. It was found that 47% of the published articles used statistical procedures. In these articles, 63% of the techniques used could be called basic, 28%…

  20. Translating Message Sequence Charts to other Process Languages using Process Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van Dongen, Boudewijn; van der Aalst, Wil M. P.

    stakeholders. Often such discussions lead to more complete behavioral models described by e.g.\\ Event-driven Process Chains (EPCs), UML activity diagrams, BPMN models, Petri nets, etc. The contribution of this paper is to present a method that uses process mining to translate a set of MSCs that represent...