WorldWideScience

Sample records for language l1 writing

  1. Revising in two languages: A multidimensional comparison of online writing revisions in L1 en FL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Stevenson; R. Schoonen; K. de Glopper

    2006-01-01

    It has frequently been claimed that, in foreign language writing, attention to linguistic processes inhibits attention available for higher level conceptual processing [e.g., Chenoweth & Hayes, 2001; Whalen & Ménard, 1995]. This study examines this hypothesis for foreign language revision processes

  2. Do L2 Writing Courses Affect the Improvement of L1 Writing Skills via Skills Transfer from L2 to L1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonca, Altmisdort

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship of second language (L2) writing skills proficiency with the first language (L1) writing skills, in light of the language transfer. The study aims to analyze the positive effects of L2 writing proficiency on L1 writing proficiency. Forty native Turkish-speaking university students participated in the study.…

  3. Revising in two languages : A multi-dimensional comparison of online writing revisions in L1 and FL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, Marie; Schoonen, Rob; de Glopper, Cornelis

    2006-01-01

    It has frequently been claimed that, in foreign language writing, attention to linguistic processes inhibits attention available for higher level conceptual processing [e.g., Chenoweth & Hayes, 2001; Whalen & Menard, 1995]. This Study examines this hypothesis for foreign language revision processes

  4. Voice and Narrative in L1 Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Ellen; Piekut, Anke

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing. Subsequ...... training of voice and narratives as a resource for academic writing, and that the Bildung potential of L1 writing may be tied to this issue.......This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing...... in lower secondary L1, she found that her previous writing strategies were not rewarded in upper secondary school. In the second empiri-cal study, two upper-secondary exam papers are investigated, with a focus on their approaches to exam genres and their use of narrative resources to address issues...

  5. Modeling the development of L1 and EFL writing proficiency of secondary school students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Schoonen; A. van Gelderen; R.D. Stoel; J. Hulstijn; K. de Glopper

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed severa

  6. Modeling the Development of L1 and EFL Writing Proficiency of Secondary School Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, Rob; van Gelderen, Amos; Stoel, Reinoud D.; Hulstijn, Jan; de Glopper, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed severa

  7. L1 use during L2 writing: an empirical study of a complex phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Weijen; H. van den Bergh; G. Rijlaarsdam; T. Sanders

    2009-01-01

    This study examined writers’ use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and

  8. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  9. EXPLORING L1 INTERFERENCE IN THE WRITINGS OF KADAZANDUSUN ESL STUDENTS

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    Chelster Sherralyn Jeoffrey Pudin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For many ethnic KadazanDusuns from Sabah, North Borneo, English is a third language after their mother tongue and Malay. The burden of having to contend with an additional language frequently leads to errors, particularly those caused by interference from the first language (L1. This study set out to identify the types and frequency of English language errors and their correlations in the writing of KadazanDusun ESL students at Universiti Malaysia Sabah. A further aim of the study was to establish which of these errors could be attributed to L1 interference. A total of 54 students with lower Malaysian University Entrance Test (MUET band scores were asked to complete a questionnaire and write a short essay on a designated topic. The language errors were categorized and analysed via statistical analysis. Errors considered to be related to L1 interference were then identified after consultation with an experienced KadazanDusun language lecturer. The most common errors were those involving singular /plural nouns and unusual sentence structures. The results show that approximately 25% of the errors were attributable to L1 interference, i.e. mode (normal/involuntary, voice (actor (-ing form /undergoer (-ed form, overuse of article, linker (when linker is used, no article is needed, auxiliary verb and direct translation. The findings of this study give ESL practitioners a better insight into student errors and should lead to improved writing performance in the classroom.

  10. Plagiarism in Second-Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorari, Diane; Petric, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a broad and multidisciplinary field of study, and within second-language (L2) writing, research on the topic goes back to the mid-1980s. In this review article we first discuss the received view of plagiarism as a transgressive act and alternative understandings which have been presented in the L1 and L2 writing literature. We then…

  11. "Does the Mirror Speak My Language?" A Comparison of L1 and L2 Student Reflections on Their Experiences in a Small-Group Writing Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren J.

    2016-01-01

    Reflection has often been considered a powerful tool for students in composition, helping them develop rhetorical awareness and the ability to transfer their knowledge to future writing tasks. However, the methods that promote reflection have often been debated, and students have considered the process both puzzling and difficult. Furthermore, few…

  12. Voice in High-Stakes L1 Academic Writing Assessment: Implications for L2 Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cecilia Guanfang; Llosa, Lorena

    2008-01-01

    Despite the debate among writing researchers about its viability as a pedagogical tool in writing instruction [e.g., Helms-Park, R., & Stapleton, P. (2003). "Questioning the importance of individualized voice in undergraduate L2 argumentative writing: An empirical study with pedagogical implications." "Journal of Second Language Writing," 12 (3),…

  13. THE ROLE OF L1 IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION (SLA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuTianyun

    2004-01-01

    This paper based on the related SLA theories, attempts to present the development of the roles of the first language on language learning before focusing on what have been found in this area. The purpose of the writing is to call the public attention on the rediscovery of the role L1 plays in SLA.

  14. Teachers' Language: L1 Attrition in Russian-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isurin, Ludmila

    2007-01-01

    The present study reports on the evidence of first language (L1) attrition in a population that may appear to be the most resistant to L1 changes. Russian monolinguals (n=3) and Russian-English bilinguals (n=10) participated in the study. The bilinguals were graduate students teaching Russian as a foreign language at a U.S. university. The data…

  15. Panel: Opportunities and Challenges of Writing in a Second Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupatadze, Ketevan; Chiu, Scott C.; Cozart, Stacey Marie;

    and L2 writers similar or different from each other? 2). How do students develop beliefs and attitudes towards L2 writing? How do their L1 writing experiences inform their L2 writing strategies? How do rhetorical and discursive strategies of L1 writing impact students’ learning of L2 writing and should...... such impact be viewed as an opportunity or as a problem when teaching second/foreign language writing? 3). What type of support do students need to become better L2 writers? What are their particular pedagogical needs? How can writing instructors or practitioners best support our students in achieving....../foreign language writing is essential for a clearer and broader picture to emerge on L2 writing. To this end, the panel will bring together specialists from around the world, from different types of institutions, with different student bodies, who will present their research on teaching and learning L2 writing...

  16. Writing in first and second language: empirical studies on text quality and writing processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about writing proficiency among students of secondary education. Due to globalization, the ability to express oneself in a language other than the first language (L1) is increasingly becoming a condition for educational success. In The Netherlands, this ‘other’ or second language (L2)

  17. Spanish as a Second Language when L1 Is Quechua: Endangered Languages and the SLA Researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalt, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Spanish is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Quechua is the largest indigenous language family to constitute the first language (L1) of second language (L2) Spanish speakers. Despite sheer number of speakers and typologically interesting contrasts, Quechua-Spanish second language acquisition is a nearly untapped research area,…

  18. Foreign Language Writing and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuri Soedjatmiko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In LI writing, every writer is said to have experienced writer's block. To overcome this writers are suggested that they continue writing without stopping to edit typing mistakes or find appropriate words. Using 14 fourth-semester students of the English Department whose LI is Indonesian as subjects, and consulting experts' findings and experience in writing, this study attempts to qualitatively describe the flow of thoughts of the subjects while writing in English, i.e., whether or not they think in bahasa Indonesia and translate it into English. Three steps are employed. The first is by evaluating the subjects first writing draft to see whether or not they choose appropriate words, compose sentences, and put them in coherent paragraphs. Some guiding assumptions are drawn from their work on the strategies utilized to overcome writer's block. The second step is checking through open interviews. The last step sees whether or not the strategies are related to the writer's language competence as shown by the average of subjects grades in dictation, reading, writing and structure from Semester 1 to Semester 4. The findings show that strategies used whether or not translation is used are not affected by the subjects' language competence. Almost all subjects think in bahasa Indonesia and translate their thoughts into English. From the four subjects who claim to always write directly in English, only two write clearly and well-organized writing, and one of them the best of all even says that she does not hesitate to consult dictionary if necessary. This study then suggests the teaching of EFL writing in class encourage students to think in Indonesian. In writing the first draft, students should be allowed or advised to write the Indonesian expressions to maintain the flow of their writing.

  19. Discourse Connectives in L1 and L2 Argumentative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Discourse connectives (DCs) are multi-functional devices used to connect discourse segments and fulfill interpersonal levels of discourse. This study investigates the use of selected 80 DCs within 11 categories in the argumentative essays produced by L1 and L2 university students. The analysis is based on the International Corpus Network of Asian…

  20. First language transfer in second language writing: An examination of current research

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    Khaled Karim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available First language (L1 transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA, and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1 transfer in second language (L2 writing. The paper begins by discussing the different views of L1 transfer and how they have changed over time and then reviews some of the major studies that have examined the role of L1 transfer both as a learning tool and as a communicative strategy in L2 writing. The paper concludes with a number of suggestions for L2 writing instruction and future research.

  1. Task Response and Text Construction across L1 and L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study, undertaken from a socio-cognitive perspective, aims to investigate the effects of intensive preparatory high school training in L1 and/or L2 essay writing for university entrance exams. The analysis focuses on the task response and structural features in L1 (Japanese) and L2 (English) essays written by first-year Japanese…

  2. 过程写作教学中母语思维及母语策略的积极作用%Positive Impacts of L1 Thinking and L1 Strategies on Process Writing Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晴华

    2013-01-01

    L1 thinking is a common phenomenon in second language acquisition. Applying L1 strategies in their process of L2 writing is unavoidable to most of the Chinese students. Unlike other writing methods, process-oriented approach tends to focus more on the writing process. It gives priority to critical thinking when organizing the content, aiming to promote the develop⁃ment of language use. The paper attempts to examine the positive influences of L1 thinking and the use of L1 strategies to achieve positive transfer in L2 process writing.%  母语思维是二语习得过程中较为常见的现象。对于多数在母语环境中进行英语写作的中国学生而言,母语策略的运用是一个无法回避的过程。有别于其他写作方法,过程写作法将写作的过程列为教学重心,旨在通过思辩水平的加强来提高语言运用能力。该文试图论证母语思维在英语过程写作法教学中所发挥的积极作用,并对相应母语策略的运用进行探讨。

  3. VAGUE LANGUAGE AND BUSINESS ENGLISH LETTER WRITING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYongqiang

    2004-01-01

    It is general practice for business executives to use preciseand accurate language when writing business letters in order toavoid misunderstanding. However, proper use of vague languagein writing letters also enhances the successful conclusion of transactions. This article shows how vague language is exploitedin writing business letters, which ineludes proper expression ofcourtesy, realization of self-protection and embodiment of the“you-attitude”.

  4. Chinese High School Students' L1 Writing Instruction: Implications for EFL Writing in College —— A Qualitative Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZhaohui

    2004-01-01

    In EFL situation, the college English teaching has been criticized for being "time consuming and low in proficiency".However, in the case of writing, the problem is not only concerned with efficiency, but also the long-lasting poor performance on the students' part. One assumption of the poor performance is that college students are unskilled L1 writers,

  5. Generation 1.5 Writing Compared to L1 and L2 Writing in First-Year Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, scholars have suggested that "second-language writers" are made up of two distinct groups: Generation 1.5 (long-term U.S.-resident language learners) and more traditional L2 students (e.g., international or recently arrived immigrants). To investigate that claim, this study compares the first-year composition writing of Generation 1.5…

  6. L1/L2/L3 Writing Development: Longitudinal Case Study of a Japanese Multicompetent Writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal case study, supplemented by cross-sectional comparisons among five groups of writers with differing backgrounds, investigates how Natsu, a Japanese multilingual writer, developed her L1, L2 (English), and L3 (Chinese) writing competence over two and a half years. To create a comprehensive picture of this multilingual writer, the…

  7. An Exploration of L1, L2, and Bilingual Students' Writing Features on the SAT Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Shaw, Emily J.

    2012-01-01

    It is well-documented that students' prior knowledge, cultural background, and language proficiency play a role in how they read, interpret, and respond to writing tasks (Barkaoui, 2007; Connor & Kramer, 1995; Hinkel, 2002). Essays written by students from different language backgrounds often differ in their linguistic, stylistic, and…

  8. Writing Life 1 in Language 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Linda

    2005-01-01

    What is second language acquisition like from the learner's perspective? I examined published autobiographies authored by those who have documented their language learning journeys. One theme that recurred across the texts was Writing; a sub-theme was Writing life 1 in language 2. Some narrativists/learners described the dissonance, while others…

  9. Thai EFL Students' Writing Errors in Different Text Types: The Interference of the First Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharapunyawong, Somchai; Usaha, Siriluck

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing writing errors caused by the interference of the Thai language, regarded as the first language (L1), in three writing genres, namely narration, description, and comparison/contrast. 120 English paragraphs written by 40 second year English major students were analyzed by using Error Analysis (EA).The results revealed…

  10. Critical contrastive rhetoric: The influence of L2 letter writing instruction on L1letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Fakharzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed critical contrastive rhetoric to investigate the L2 to L1 transfer of organizational pattern and directness level of speech acts in business complaint letters. By examining the L1 complaint letters of 30 tourism university students in two phases of study, pre and post instruction of English complaint letter, the study revealed that the rhetorical organization of Persian letters are in a state of hybridity. The post instruction comparison of letters, however, showed a tendency towards applying English conventions both in organization and directness level of complaint speech act in the L1 complaint letters. The results also revealed that after instruction the expert in the field of tourism viewed some letters as inappropriate in terms of politeness which is reflected through some lexical items.

  11. Cerebral mechanisms for different second language writing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Maki S; Stein, John F; Stoodley, Catherine J; Hansen, Peter C

    2013-09-01

    In this fMRI study, we examined the cerebral processing associated with second language (L2) reading in different writing systems in late L2 learners. To examine the impacts of cross-linguistic differences between the first language (L1) and L2 on learning to read in L2, we employed a bidirectional approach and compared brain activation during single word processing in two groups of late L2 readers: (1) L2 readers of English whose L1 was Japanese (Japanese-L1/English-L2) and (2) L2 readers of Japanese (of syllabic Kana only) whose L1 was English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). During English reading, the L2 readers of English (Japanese-L1/English-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the left superior parietal lobule/supramarginal gyrus, relative to the L1 readers of English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). This is a region considered to be involved in phonological processing. The increased activation in the Japanese-L1/English-L2 group likely reflects the increased cognitive load associated with L2 English reading, possibly because L1 readers of Kana, which has an extremely regular orthography, may need to adjust to the greater phonological demands of the irregular L2 English orthography. In contrast, during Kana reading, the L2 readers of Japanese Kana (English-L1/Japanese-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the lingual gyrus in both the left and right hemispheres compared to the L1 readers of Kana (Japaese-L1/English-L2). This additional activation is likely to reflect the lower level of visual familiarity to the L2 symbols in the English-L1/Japanese-L2 group; Kana symbols are uniquely used only in Japan, whereas Roman alphabetic symbols are seen nearly everywhere. These findings, bolstered by significant relationships between the activation of the identified regions and cognitive competence, suggest that the cerebral mechanisms for L2 reading in late learners depends both on which language is their L1 and which language is to be learnt as their L2. Educational implications

  12. First language and second language writing: the role of linguistic knowledge, speed of processing, and metacognitive knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Schoonen; A. van Gelderen; K. de Glopper; J. Hulstijn; A. Simis; P. Snellings; M. Stevenson

    2003-01-01

    In this study the relative importance of linguistic knowledge, metacognitive knowledge, and fluency or accessibility of this linguistic knowledge in both first language (L1; Dutch) and second language (L2; English) writing was explored. Data were collected from 281 grade 8 students. Using structural

  13. First language and second language writing : The role of linguistic knowledge, speed of processing, and metacognitive knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; van Gelderen, A.; de Glopper, C.M.; Hulstijn, J.; Snellings, P.; Simis, A.; Stevenson, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this study the relative importance of linguistic knowledge, metacognitive knowledge, and fluency or accessibility of this linguistic knowledge in both first language (L1; Dutch) and second language (L2; English) writing was explored. Data were collected from 281 grade 8 students. Using structural

  14. The Impact of First and Second Languages on Azerbaijani EFL Learners’ Writing Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Shabani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a debate whether or not the learners’ first language (L1 can facilitate the process of learning foreign language. Since foreign language writing (FL is a complicated process, it seems that the role of the learners’ L1 and its effect on FL writing is of great importance in this regard. The present study aimed at investigating the role of Azerbaijani EFL learners’ L1 and L2 (Persian on their FL writing. To meet the purposes of the study, 30 female EFL upper-intermediate students were selected (through running an OPT, who were native speakers of Azerbaijani, with Persian as their L2 and official language of Iranian context. The data were collected through running three writing sessions (in which the participants wrote three essays in each session using Azerbaijani as L1, Persian as L2, and direct writing using the think-aloud protocol, through which they were asked to report their thoughts loudly to record using a tape recorder. In addition, a survey was used to ask their perceptions towards each writing task. The analysis of the data obtained from the evaluation of learners’ writings indicated that the mere use of their L1 or L2 in foreign language writing was by no means helpful for them and they performed better on direct writing task in comparison with the two other ones. It was also found that the majority of the learners (70% had difficulty in generating their ideas using Azerbaijani as their L1. In addition, nearly 77% of them claimed that even in direct writing mode, they made use of their L2 (Persian on the occasions they could not find a proper word or phrase in English. As the implications of the study, it seems that the present study can bring helpful insights for both FL teachers and learners about the roles that Azerbaijani and Persian languages play as the students’ L1 and L2 in FL writing.Keywords: Writing ability, first language, second language, foreign language

  15. Writing Kurdish Alphabetics in Java Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Rebwar Mala Nabi; Sardasht M-Raouf Mahmood; Mohammed Qadir Kheder; Shadman Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, Kurdish programmers usually suffer when they need to write Kurdish letter while they program in java. More to say, all the versions of Java Development Kits have not supported Kurdish letters. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop Java Kurdish Language Package (JKLP) for solving writing Kurdish alphabetic in Java programming language. So that Kurdish programmer and/or students they can converts the English-alphabetic to Kurdish-alphabetic. Furthermore, adding Kurdish langua...

  16. Code-Switching: L1-Coded Mediation in a Kindergarten Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a qualitative inquiry that investigated the role of teachers' mediation in three different modes of coding in a kindergarten foreign language classroom in China (i.e. L2-coded intralinguistic mediation, L1-coded cross-lingual mediation, and L2-and-L1-mixed mediation). Through an exploratory examination of the varying effects…

  17. Feedback on second language students' writing

    OpenAIRE

    Hyland, K; Hyland, F.

    2006-01-01

    Feedback is widely seen as crucial for encouraging and consolidating learning, and this significance has also been recognised by those working in the field of second language (L2) writing. Its importance is acknowledged in process-based classrooms, where it forms a key element of the students' growing control over composing skills, and by genre-oriented teachers employing scaffolded learning techniques. In fact, over the past twenty years, changes in writing pedagogy and research have transfo...

  18. Activation Patterns throughout the Word Processing Network of L1-dominant Bilinguals Reflect Language Similarity and Language Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, Yulia; Conrad, Markus; Aryani, Arash; Spalek, Katharina; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2015-11-01

    A crucial aspect of bilingual communication is the ability to identify the language of an input. Yet, the neural and cognitive basis of this ability is largely unknown. Moreover, it cannot be easily incorporated into neuronal models of bilingualism, which posit that bilinguals rely on the same neural substrates for both languages and concurrently activate them even in monolingual settings. Here we hypothesized that bilinguals can employ language-specific sublexical (bigram frequency) and lexical (orthographic neighborhood size) statistics for language recognition. Moreover, we investigated the neural networks representing language-specific statistics and hypothesized that language identity is encoded in distributed activation patterns within these networks. To this end, German-English bilinguals made speeded language decisions on visually presented pseudowords during fMRI. Language attribution followed lexical neighborhood sizes both in first (L1) and second (L2) language. RTs revealed an overall tuning to L1 bigram statistics. Neuroimaging results demonstrated tuning to L1 statistics at sublexical (occipital lobe) and phonological (temporoparietal lobe) levels, whereas neural activation in the angular gyri reflected sensitivity to lexical similarity to both languages. Analysis of distributed activation patterns reflected language attribution as early as in the ventral stream of visual processing. We conclude that in language-ambiguous contexts visual word processing is dominated by L1 statistical structure at sublexical orthographic and phonological levels, whereas lexical search is determined by the structure of both languages. Moreover, our results demonstrate that language identity modulates distributed activation patterns throughout the reading network, providing a key to language identity representations within this shared network. PMID:26226076

  19. US University Learner Attitudes towards Foreign Language Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Language acquisition research strongly suggests that writing is essential to modern language instruction. Current best practice dictates that some form of target language writing be part of almost every type of foreign language (FL) course. However, FL instructors often receive complaints from students concerning the writing required in different FL courses. Many instructors appear to believe that their students have negative attitudes towards FL writing, and that negative attitudes may hurt ...

  20. Genre and Second-Language Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltridge, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The term "genre" first came into the field of second-language (L2) writing and, in turn, the field of English for specific purposes (ESP) in the 1980s, with the research of John Swales, first carried out in the UK, into the introduction section of research articles. Other important figures in this area are Tony Dudley-Evans, Ann Johns…

  1. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  2. Changing Currents in Second Language Writing Research: A Colloquium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Paul Kei; Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Harklau, Linda; Hyland, Ken; Warschauer, Mark

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on an invited colloqium on second language (L) writing presented at the 200 meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics. The colloquium featured five second language writing researchers two discussed some of the important currents that have shaped the field of second language writing. (Author/VWL)

  3. Enhancing Foreign Language Learning through Listening Strategies Delivered in L1: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hitendra Pillay; Hossein Bozorgian

    2013-01-01

    Listening used in language teaching refers to a complex process that allows us to understand spoken language. The current study, conducted in Iran with an experimental design, investigated the effectiveness of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1 (Persian) and its effect on listening comprehension in L2. Five listening strategies: Guessing, making inferences, identifying topics, repetition, and note-taking were taught over 14 weeks during a semester. Sixty lower intermediate female p...

  4. The impact of language co-activation on L1 and L2 speech fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Christopher; Sprenger, Simone A; Schmid, Monika S

    2015-10-01

    Fluent speech depends on the availability of well-established linguistic knowledge and routines for speech planning and articulation. A lack of speech fluency in late second-language (L2) learners may point to a deficiency of these representations, due to incomplete acquisition. Experiments on bilingual language processing have shown, however, that there are strong reasons to believe that multilingual speakers experience co-activation of the languages they speak. We have studied to what degree language co-activation affects fluency in the speech of bilinguals, comparing a monolingual German control group with two bilingual groups: 1) first-language (L1) attriters, who have fully acquired German before emigrating to an L2 English environment, and 2) immersed L2 learners of German (L1: English). We have analysed the temporal fluency and the incidence of disfluency markers (pauses, repetitions and self-corrections) in spontaneous film retellings. Our findings show that learners to speak more slowly than controls and attriters. Also, on each count, the speech of at least one of the bilingual groups contains more disfluency markers than the retellings of the control group. Generally speaking, both bilingual groups-learners and attriters-are equally (dis)fluent and significantly more disfluent than the monolingual speakers. Given that the L1 attriters are unaffected by incomplete acquisition, we interpret these findings as evidence for language competition during speech production. PMID:26298087

  5. Reading, Writing, and Reading-Writing in the Second Language Classroom: A Balanced Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jeng-yih

    2004-01-01

    The notion of integrating reading and writing in L1 and L2 literacy education is not new; however, only until recently has the reading-writing connection received enough attention and been implemented in the teaching of L1 and L2. This paper aims to search for the most current, up-to-dated, approach that best incorporates the idea of…

  6. 一语、二语迁移对三语写作的影响%The Effects of L1 and L2 Transfer on L3 Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲玉; 孔德明

    2014-01-01

    从一语作文水平、二语作文水平、一语译三语能力、二语译三语能力四个方面考察一语、二语迁移对三语写作的影响,利用单因素方差分析比较发现,一语作文水平、一、二语译三语水平对三语作文水平的影响存在阀限,超过一定的阀限则影响不明显,而二语写作对三语写作的影响是持久性的。需要保持一定的一语写作水平和翻译能力,发展二语写作能力,力求三语写作能力的提高。%By One-way ANOVAs, this study explores the influential factors on L3 writing including L1 and L2 writing proficiency as well as translation ability from L1 to L3 and from L2 to L3. It is found that there is threshold influencing L3 writing by L1 writing and L1and L2 to L3 translation, though the influence is dimin-ishing if the threshold surpasses a certain level. It is also revealed that L2 writing exerts lasting effect on L3 writing. This paper suggests that L1 writing and translation as well as L2 writing are key to the improvement of writing proficiency using 3 different languages.

  7. Research on L1 Transfer in Second Language Acquisition from the Perspective of Markedness Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲霞

    2016-01-01

    Language transfer has always been an essential part in SLA research. As one of the most important constraints, markedness theory has gained much more attention these days. Researchers have made various studies on markdness from different perspectives, among which Chomsky's theory of Universal Grammar (UG) and Eckman's Markedness Differential Hypothesis (MDH) are the most influential ones. This thesis aims to make a review of previous studies in order to improve readers' understanding of L1 transfer from the perspective of markdness theory.

  8. Relationship of L1 Skills and L2 Aptitude to L2 Anxiety on the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) has been challenged on the grounds that it may also assess language learning skills. In this study, 128 students who had been administered measures of first language (L1) skills in elementary school were followed from 1st to 10th grade. Fifty-three students had completed second language (L2)…

  9. Beliefs and Practices about Writing in a Foreign Language among Economists Working in Two Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    or publishability. Simultaneously language-policy scholars have problematised the predominance of English in many academic fields. There is of course a great deal of individual variation in terms of language choice and publication success. We investigated the writing practices of some 75 Danish academics in various......Product-oriented analyses have shown that academic English (the predominant L2 in their environment: Phillipson and Skuttnab-Kongas 1995) written by Scandinavian writers differs from that of L1 English writers in ways that might work to the disadvantage of the writers in terms of recognition...... fields of economics and business studies by means of a questionnaire, and then interviewed a proportion of the respondents to get a richer sense of their practices, the intertextuality that lies behind them, the factors that lead to differential language choice and success, and the academics´ attitude...

  10. Reading, Writing, and Language: Young Children Solving the Written Language Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Anne Haas

    1982-01-01

    Reviews literature defining the characteristics of the complex puzzle children encounter moving from oral language to print. Illustrates that, by reading their own writing, children discover the precise connection between reading, writing, and language. (HTH)

  11. Writing through Two Languages: First Language Expertise in a Language Minority Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Language minority students' writing is often measured solely in terms of its distance from native speaker norms, yet doing so may ignore the process through which these texts are realized and the role that the first language plays in their creation. This study analyzes oral interactions among adolescent second language writers during an extended…

  12. Conceptualisations of "Grammar Teaching": L1 English Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Grammar for Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Annabel Mary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of L1 English teachers' conceptual and evaluative beliefs about teaching grammar, one strand of a larger Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded investigation into the impact of contextualised grammar teaching [RES-062-23-0775]. Thirty-one teachers in English secondary schools were interviewed…

  13. Spanish-English Writing Structure Interferences in Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Urdaneta, Julio Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have drawn some results concerning the way in which second language (L2) students use their first language (L1) when producing texts in their L2. Therefore, this study examines the influence L1 written structure has on L2 written structure when students are asked to carry out assignments in the L2. To answer this question, twenty…

  14. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  15. Multilingualism, Language Policy and Creative Writing in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbithi, Esther K

    2014-01-01

    Language use and creative writing go hand in hand. In the process of exploring language, we also engage in the study of literature. An engagement with literature is, indeed, a continuing process of improving our capacity to use language and refining our sensibility to good language use. In Kenya, there are clearly discernible patterns of creative…

  16. CROSS-CULTURAL ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC WRITING: A STUDY OF HUNGARIAN AND NORTH AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS L1 ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes M. Godó

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the findings and implications of a contrastive rhetorical study of Hungarian and North American college students’ L1 argumentative writing. With the help of the refined version of Mann &Thompson’s Rhetorical Structure Analysis, the investigation highlights potentially culture-bound differences in the positioning and function of nuclear or thesis statements, logical organisation in terms of rhetorical structure relations on different levels of text and the representation of alternative viewpoints. Differing argumentative schemata are related to different underlying intellectual traditions, and suggestions are made for the pedagogical integration of findings.

  17. Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…

  18. Vague Language and Its Application in Business English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张识谱

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, busines let er is one of the most important means of communication. The purpose of this paper is to study how vague language is exploited in writing business let ers, focusing on the application of vague language in Business English writing, and elaborate upon the realization of vagueness.

  19. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  20. Personal Narratives: A Pedagogical Proposal to Stimulate Language Students’ Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Fredy Orlando Salamanca González

    2015-01-01

    In a public university in Tunja (Colombia), undergraduate language students mentioned that writing was important and yet, they kept at a distance from it due to its requirements. The aim of this pedagogical intervention was to find a strategy to encourage students to write and, more importantly, to feel an identity with their texts. For this pedagogical intervention, students were required to write narratives that allowed them to portray their experiences using the target language and to look...

  1. Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological and Orthographic Processing Skills from Spanish L1 to English L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Alperin, M. Kendra; Wang, Min

    2011-01-01

    Previous cross-language research has focused on L1 phonological processing and its relation to L2 reading. Less extensive is the research on the effect that L1 orthographic processing skill has on L2 reading and spelling. This study was designed to investigate how reading and spelling acquisition in English (L2) is influenced by phonological and…

  2. RESEARCH STUDIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING AND IN CONTRASTIVE RHETORIC

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2001-01-01

    The major aim of this article is to review studies of second language writing. The first part deals mainly with the process of writing in the second and first languages. The second part concerns contrastive rhetoric. In this second part, the findings of research studies on the relationship of first and second language rhetoric will be presented. Included in the discussion are research studies on contrastive rhetoric in the Indonesian context. The last section of this article concludes the dis...

  3. Collaborative Writing: Fostering Foreign Language and Writing Conventions Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elola Idoia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of social technologies, such as wikis and chats, has brought a renewed attention to L2 collaborative writing. Yet, a question that still remains to be answered is the extent to which learners’ writing is enhanced when using these tools. By analyzing learners’ individual and collaborative writing, this study (a explores L2 learners’ approaches to the writing task in the wikis, (b examines learners’ collaborative synchronous interactions when discussing content, structure and other aspects related to the elaboration of the writing task, and (c describes learners’ perceptions of individual and collaborative writing and their impressions of the use of social tools in the FL writing class. Analysis of the data showed that while statistically significant differences were not evident in terms of fluency, accuracy and complexity when comparing the individual and collaborative assignments, there were observable trends that inform us about how learners’ interactions with the text differ when working individually or collaboratively. Further, an analysis of learners’ approaches to collaborative writing through the use of social tools shows that wikis and chats allowed them to concentrate on writing components in a different, yet complementary, manner depending on whether they interacted in the wikis or in the chats.

  4. Personal Narratives: A Pedagogical Proposal to Stimulate Language Students’ Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Orlando Salamanca González

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a public university in Tunja (Colombia, undergraduate language students mentioned that writing was important and yet, they kept at a distance from it due to its requirements. The aim of this pedagogical intervention was to find a strategy to encourage students to write and, more importantly, to feel an identity with their texts. For this pedagogical intervention, students were required to write narratives that allowed them to portray their experiences using the target language and to look for the most accurate words and descriptions. From a pedagogical perspective, writing the narratives provided the teacher with the possibility of knowing his students better and to feel an affiliation towards them.

  5. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Ferris, Dana R.

    2011-01-01

    What should language and writing teachers do about giving students written corrective feedback? This book surveys theory, research, and practice on the important and sometimes controversial issue of written corrective feedback, also known as "error/grammar correction," and its impact on second language acquisition and second language writing…

  6. Second Language Writing System Word Recognition (with a focus on Lao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning a second language (L2 with a script different from the learner’s first language (L1 presents unique challenges for both student and teacher. This paper looks at current theory and research examining issues of second language writing system (L2WS acquisition, particularly issues pertaining to decoding and word recognition1 by adult learners. I argue that the importance of word recognition and decoding in fluent L1 and L2 reading has been overshadowed for several decades by a focus on research looking at top-down reading processes. Although top-down reading processes and strategies are clearly components of successful L2 reading, I argue that more attention needs to be given to bottom-up processing skills, particularly for beginning learners of an L2 that uses a script that is different from their L1. I use the example of learning Lao as a second language writing system where possible and suggest preliminary pedagogical implications.

  7. Writing between languages how English language learners make the transition to fluency, grades 4-12

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Danling

    2009-01-01

    With Writing Between Languages, Danling Fu shows that by beginning with the literacy students bring from their native language and putting writing at the center of the curriculum, we can help them transition to English and support academic literacy. You'll learn the crucial and helpful role native literacy plays in building written English fluency, assess where ELLs are in their development as writers, use movement between languages to scaffold writing-no matter whether you know a student's home language-and implement instructional strategies to support development in writing.

  8. Acquiring native-like intonation in Dutch and Spanish : Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    ACQUIRING NATIVE-LIKE INTONATION IN DUTCH AND SPANISH Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners Introduction Learning more about the interaction between the native language (L1) and the target language (L2) has been the aim of many studies on second language acquisition

  9. Do L1 Reading Achievement and L1 Print Exposure Contribute to the Prediction of L2 Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The study examined whether individual differences in high school first language (L1) reading achievement and print exposure would account for unique variance in second language (L2) written (word decoding, spelling, writing, reading comprehension) and oral (listening/speaking) proficiency after adjusting for the effects of early L1 literacy and…

  10. Suggestions on Writing for Publication in Language Learning Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, George M.

    1999-01-01

    This article provides suggestions on writing for journals in the field of language learning. These suggestions are presented in three sections. The first section discusses how to begin. Suggestions in this section are that we appreciate the benefits of writing for publication, develop good ideas, work efficiently, ponder options as to what type of writing to do, choose a good topic, consider replication of other's research, and cooperate with others. The second section presents suggestions on...

  11. Assessing Academic Writing in Foreign and Second Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Alister

    2009-01-01

    Academic writing and education in foreign and second languages both have lengthy histories. Their histories have diverged but also intersected. Matsuda (2005), for example, described the convergence in policies that led to a distinctive discipline of "L2 writing" in higher education in the U.S.A. during the latter part of the 20th century.…

  12. The Writing Development of English Language Learners from Two Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xun

    2012-01-01

    The current study is a qualitative case study that investigated the writing development of seven Chinese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) from kindergarten and 3rd-grade ESL classes in an elementary school in the Midwest and intended to discover the factors that affect students' English writing development in a one-year period.…

  13. Language Supports for Journal Abstract Writing across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, H.-C.; Yang, P.-C.; Chang, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Various writing assistance tools have been developed through efforts in the areas of natural language processing with different degrees of success of curriculum integration depending on their functional rigor and pedagogical designs. In this paper, we developed a system, WriteAhead, that provides six types of suggestions when non-native graduate…

  14. Extensive Writing in Foreign-Language Classrooms: A Blogging Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    2010-01-01

    A weblog (blog or Web log) has recently become one of the most widely used Internet applications. The current study concerns developing a blog specifically designed for learners learning English as a foreign language. The study investigated the effects of extensive writing by comparing the writing performance in the first three and the last three…

  15. Teachers' attitudes towards (the alignment between) grammar in the L1 language curricula of primary and secondary education

    OpenAIRE

    Devos, Filip; Van Vooren, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Dutch grammar education (L1) in Flemish primary (PE) as well as secondary education (SE) has been the subject of much debate. Research into the grammatical knowledge of students in SE (n=359) suggests that this expertise falls short of the final attainment targets. Additional research now tries to pinpoint the reasons underlying this trend, focusing on the attitude of teachers, which is an 'understudied' aspect of language teaching. This research, centring around L1 t...

  16. Preparing Language Teachers for Blended Teaching of Summary Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Research on preparing language teachers for blended teaching of summary writing, a mix of on-site and online instruction for college students to grasp the gist of the texts, is scarce in higher education. This study examined the problems encountered and solutions proposed by six language teachers, who altogether instructed 214 college students on…

  17. Academic Language Socialization in High School Writing Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Betsy

    2014-01-01

    This study examines multilingual high school writers' individual talk with their teachers in two advanced English language development classes to observe how such talk shapes linguistically diverse adolescents' writing. Addressing adolescent writers' language socialization through microethnographic discourse analysis, the author…

  18. The effectiveness of comprehensive corrective feedback in second language writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. van Beuningen

    2011-01-01

    Corrective feedback (CF) or error correction is a widely used method of targeting linguistic problems in second language (L2) learners’ writing. The role of CF in the process of acquiring an L2, however, is an issue of considerable controversy in the field of second language acquisition (SLA). Quest

  19. Sentence Reading and Writing for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichette, Francois; de Serres, Linda; Lafontaine, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for…

  20. The use of L1 and L2 in prewriting discussions in EFL writing and students' attitudes towards L1 and L2 use in prewriting discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Karim, Hemn Adil

    2010-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2010. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2010. Includes bibliographical references leaves 73-75. Karim, Hemn Adil Master's

  1. RESEARCH STUDIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING AND IN CONTRASTIVE RHETORIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this article is to review studies of second language writing. The first part deals mainly with the process of writing in the second and first languages. The second part concerns contrastive rhetoric. In this second part, the findings of research studies on the relationship of first and second language rhetoric will be presented. Included in the discussion are research studies on contrastive rhetoric in the Indonesian context. The last section of this article concludes the discussion and proposes the implementation of more research on the relationship between Indonesian rhetoric and English rhetoric in essays written by Indonesian learners of English.

  2. L1 Use in FL Classrooms: Graduate Students' and Professors' Perceptions of English Use in Foreign Language Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebler, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This report explores participant perspectives on L1 (English) use in foreign language classrooms. The study includes data collected from 25 participants, 23 students and 2 professors, from the Monterey Institute of International Studies (MIIS). A combination of classroom observations, interviews, and questionnaires were used to collect data. The…

  3. A Suggested Syllabus for Advanced Writing Skills at English Language Teaching Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Ismail Firat

    2010-01-01

    As is known, writing is an indispensable part of language education. As far as English Language Teaching Departments are concerned, writing courses, especially Advanced Writing Skills, are taken as a course of higher importance. However, forming a syllabus for Advanced Writing Course for English Language Teaching Departments is not an easy matter.…

  4. LEXICAL RETRIEVAL PROCESSES AND STRATEGIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A SYNTHESIS OF EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Manchon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lexical access and retrieval are essential processes in fluent and efficient second language (L2 oral and written productive uses of language. In the case of L2 writing, attention to vocabulary is of paramount importance, although the retrieval of relevant lexis while composing in an L2 frequently entails different degrees of problem-solving activity given the lack of (automatic access to the necessary linguistic resources characteristic of L2 communication. When engaged in this problem-solving behaviour, L2 writers have been reported to deploy a range of L1-based and L2-based lexical retrieval strategies. After situating lexical retrieval processes in cognitive views of written production, the main part of this paper is devoted to a review of the available empirical evidence on lexical retrieval processes and strategies in L2 writing. The paper finishes with some conclusions at the levels of theory and research.

  5. Writing Strategy Instruction: Its Impact on Writing in a Second Language for Academic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    Writing for academic purposes in a second/foreign language is a major challenge faced by many students at both secondary and tertiary levels. This suggests that displaying content knowledge and understanding of a subject through a second language is a very complex process. This article discusses the findings of a longitudinal intervention study…

  6. Chinese-English biliteracy acquisition: cross-language and writing system transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A; Liu, Ying

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated cross-language and writing system relationship in biliteracy acquisition of children learning to read two different writing systems-Chinese and English. Forty-six Mandarin-speaking children were tested for their first language (Chinese-L1) and second language (English-L2) reading skills. Comparable experiments in Chinese and English were designed focusing on two reading processes-phonological and orthographic processing. Word reading skills in both writing systems were tested. Results revealed that Chinese onset matching skill was significantly correlated with English onset and rime matching skills. Pinyin, an alphabetic phonetic system used to assist children in learning to read Chinese characters, was highly correlated with English pseudoword reading. Furthermore, Chinese tone processing skill contributed a moderate but significant amount of variance in predicting English pseudoword reading even when English phonemic-level processing skill was taken into consideration. Orthographic processing skill in the two writing systems, on the other hand, did not predict each other's word reading. These findings suggest that bilingual reading acquisition is a joint function of shared phonological processes and orthographic specific skills.

  7. Genre-Based Tasks in Foreign Language Writing: Developing Writers' Genre Awareness, Linguistic Knowledge, and Writing Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how novice foreign language (FL) writers develop their genre awareness, linguistic knowledge, and writing competence in a genre-based writing course that incorporates email-writing tasks. To define genre, the study draws on systemic functional linguistics (SFL) that sees language as a resource for making meaning in a particular…

  8. Impacts of Online Technology Use in Second Language Writing: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Show Mei; Griffith, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on computer-supported collaborative learning in second language and foreign language writing. While research has been conducted on the effects of online technology in first language reading and writing, this article explores how online technology affects second and foreign language writing. The goal of this…

  9. An L1-script-transfer-effect fallacy: a rejoinder to Wang et al. (2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Jun

    2004-09-01

    Do different L1 (first language) writing systems differentially affect word identification in English as a second language (ESL)? Wang, Koda, and Perfetti [Cognition 87 (2003) 129] answered yes by examining Chinese students with a logographic L1 background and Korean students with an alphabetic L1 background for their phonological and orthographic processing skills on English word identification. Such a conclusion is premature, however. We propose that the L1 phonological system (rather than the L1 writing system) of the learner largely accounts for cognitive processes in learning to read a second language (L2).

  10. Longitudinal Relationships of Levels of Language in Writing and between Writing and Reading in Grades 1 to 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia W.; Fayol, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal structural equation modeling was used to evaluate longitudinal relationships across adjacent grade levels 1 to 7 for levels of language in writing (Model 1, subword letter writing, word spelling, and text composing) or writing and reading (Model 2, subword letter writing and word spelling and reading; Model 3, word spelling and…

  11. Approaching Pedagogical Language Knowledge through Student Teachers: Assessment of Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Eija; Tarnanen, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    The article examines student teachers' pedagogical language knowledge. The analysis is based on data from an applied task in which Finnish student teachers (n = 221) of 16 school subjects assessed second language (SL) learners' writing skills. First, we briefly discuss subject teachers' role in language and literacy teaching in the multilingual…

  12. Language to Language: Nurturing Writing Development in Multilingual Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagoury, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The author spent four years embedded in a multilingual kindergarten classroom in which children spoke six different languages and several more years observing multilingual Head Start classrooms. She shares numerous examples of young dual language learners actively figuring out the way written language works in their first and second languages.…

  13. Developing the Writing Ability of Intermediate Language Learners by Blogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hajiannejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the widespread use of blogs during recent years, the present study explored how blogging can affect the writing skill of Iranian language learners. Besides, the learners' perception of blogging was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively to see whether learners showed enthusiasm to blogging and how it motivated them to write. Two intermediate English classes were selected as the Control and Experimental Groups. Six writing topics were selected and were assigned to both groups. The writing activities in the Control Group were done on paper-based method while the Blogging Group used a selected website to do so. To evaluate the writing activities, four criteria were taken into account: a length of the writing activities, b use of verb forms, c use of articles, and d use of prepositions. Based on the results of the chi-square tests, in terms of the frequency of missed articles and prepositions the performances of both groups were significantly different. Also the compositions in the Blogging Group were longer than those of the Control Group. However, the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the learners' perception towards blogging revealed that students believed blogging had encouraged them to write more accurately. They also considered that blogging had remarkably improved their writing ability as compared to the time they did not use blogging.

  14. Adaptation Analysis of L1 Negative Transfer in L2 Writing%大学英语写作母语负迁移现象的顺应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟红

    2012-01-01

    With the framework of the linguistic theory of adaptation,the study intends to analyze L1 negative transfer of linguistic structures and that of discourse thinking patterns in L2 writing based on L2's physical and cognitive factors.The study finds that L1 negative transfer in L2 writing is caused by language users' failure of dynamic adaptation to L2 writing context factors(including physical,social and mental factors,etc.)%本文以顺应论为理论框架,从二语物理语境因素和二语社会认知语境因素两方面分别展开大学英语写作的语言结构母语负迁移和语篇思维模式母语负迁移现象的定性分析。研究发现,二语写作母语负迁移问题是由于语言使用者忽视了二语写作语境相关因素(如物理因素、文化思维因素等)的动态顺应而导致的。

  15. Writing and reading: connections between language by hand and language by eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D; Abbott, Sylvia P; Graham, Steve; Richards, Todd

    2002-01-01

    Four approaches to the investigation of connections between language by hand and language by eye are described and illustrated with studies from a decade-long research program. In the first approach, multigroup structural equation modeling is applied to reading and writing measures given to typically developing writers to examine unidirectional and bidirectional relationships between specific components of the reading and writing systems. In the second approach, structural equation modeling is applied to a multivariate set of language measures given to children and adults with reading and writing disabilities to examine how the same set of language processes is orchestrated differently to accomplish specific reading or writing goals, and correlations between factors are evaluated to examine the level at which the language-by-hand system and the language-by-eye system communicate most easily. In the third approach, mode of instruction and mode of response are systematically varied in evaluating effectiveness of treating reading disability with and without a writing component. In the fourth approach, functional brain imaging is used to investigate residual spelling problems in students whose problems with word decoding have been remediated. The four approaches support a model in which language by hand and language by eye are separate systems that interact in predictable ways.

  16. IMPLICATION FOR SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND LANGUAGE PEDAGOGY BY ANALYZING ERRORS IN COLLEGE STUDENTS' WRITINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanLidong

    2004-01-01

    Many linguists and teachers have become more aware of thelong-term value of Error Analysis as a chief means of assessinglearner's language. The present paper will focus on analyzing theerrors in college students' compositions. Firstly, it describes indetail the errors in students' writings, then analyzes the maintypes and causes of errors in students' writing, and then isconcerned with the implication for second language learning onthe basis of error analysis. In addition, it discusses theappropriate attitude toward students' errors and error correction.

  17. Modeling the Process of Summary Writing of Chinese Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiuliang

    2016-01-01

    In language learning contexts, writing tasks that involve reading of source texts are often used to elicit more authentic integrative language use. Thus, interests in researching these read-to-write tasks in general and as assessment tasks keep growing. This study examined and modeled the process of summary writing as a read-to-write integrated…

  18. The Interactional Approach to The Teaching Of Writing and Its Implications for Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Amin Lestari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing is a language skill which is relatively difficult to acquire. A number of efforts have been made to develop the students’ writing skill, among others is by applying different approaches to the teaching of writing. This article discusses the interactional approach to the teaching of writing and its implications for second language acquisition.

  19. Language Simulations: The Blending Space for Writing and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalik, Doina L.; Kovalik, Ludovic M.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a language simulation involving six distinct phases: an in-class quick response, a card game, individual research, a classroom debate, a debriefing session, and an argumentative essay. An analysis of student artifacts--quick-response writings and final essays, respectively, both addressing the definition of liberty in a…

  20. Writing Learning Outcomes for English Language Lessons in Multilingual Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sally Ann

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a pedagogic innovation in teacher education by articulating a method for writing learning outcomes for English language lessons in multilingual school contexts. The argument for this approach is founded on curriculum studies; however, the practice also draws specifically on applied psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic…

  1. Meaningful Literacy: Writing Poetry in the Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, David I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of meaningful literacy and offers a classroom methodology--poetry writing--that manifests this approach to ESL/EFL literacy instruction. The paper is divided into three sections. The first deals with the concept of meaningful literacy learning in second and foreign language pedagogy; the second summarizes empirical…

  2. An Analysis of the CET English Writing Tests from the Perspective of Language Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽娜

    2014-01-01

    This article is mainly talked about CET English writing tests from the perspective of language testing. Writing tests de-signed to test the language proficiency, have direct and integrative characteristics. Writing requires the candidates to use language accurately, fluently and appropriately.

  3. Mastering Academic Language: Organization and Stance in the Persuasive Writing of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccelli, Paola; Dobbs, Christina L.; Scott, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Beyond mechanics and spelling conventions, academic writing requires progressive mastery of advanced language forms and functions. Pedagogically useful tools to assess such language features in adolescents' writing, however, are not yet available. This study examines language predictors of writing quality in 51 persuasive essays produced by high…

  4. How Much L1 Is Too Much? Teachers' Language Use in Response to Students' Abilities and Classroom Interaction in Content and Language Integrated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yuen Yi

    2015-01-01

    In Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) classrooms where students' L2 proficiency has not reached the threshold level, teachers have been observed to use L1 to assist students in grasping specific technical terms and abstract concepts. It is argued to be a 'realistic' approach to the learning problems caused by students' limited L2…

  5. Second Language Data Analysis——From three pieces of Chinese students’ writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Through analyzing the collected samples which are from three Chinese-English learners in ICLE project(Portsmouth Chinese-English learner corpus),this analysis project aims to describe the grammatical status of some non-native features in Chinese students’ writing and answer the following two questions:①Do these features seem to be performance mistakes(i.e.are they random) or is there evidence that they reflect an interlanguage grammar(ILG)(i.e.where they appear to be systematic errors)?②In the case of systematic errors,do they seem to be errors transferred from the L1(first language of the students) or do they seem to be developmental errors(shared by learners from other L1 backgrounds)?

  6. Suggestions on Writing for Publication in Language Learning Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Jacobs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides suggestions on writing for journals in the field of language learning. These suggestions are presented in three sections. The first section discusses how to begin. Suggestions in this section are that we appreciate the benefits of writing for publication, develop good ideas, work efficiently, ponder options as to what type of writing to do, choose a good topic, consider replication of other's research, and cooperate with others. The second section presents suggestions on doing the actual writing. Here, it is suggested that we connect ideas, delve deeply into the ideas we present, strive to write the reader friendly manner, use visuals, and improve our writing by noticing how other journal authors write. The third section concerns relations with editors. The advice given is that we choose carefully the journal to which we submit our work, follow that journal's directions to contributors, include a cover letter, be prepared to wait patiently, welcome critical feedback from editors and reviewers, and view editors as colleagues.

  7. Writing to Read and Reading to Write: Teaching Literature in the Foreign Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Ruth A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the use of writing assignments to improve the capacity of literature students to read and analyze assigned texts in the foreign language. The approach provides a higher level of motivation for self-correction that will enable students to overcome, rather than formalize, their errors. (Author/JL)

  8. Scientific writing training for academic physicians of diverse language backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Deming, Stephanie P; Notzon, Beth; Cantor, Scott B; Broglio, Kristine R; Pagel, Walter

    2009-04-01

    Research articles are the coin of the realm for anyone working in academia, and success or failure to publish determines a biomedical researcher's career path. At the same time, the dramatic increase in foreign faculty and trainees in U.S. academia, as well as in international scientific collaboration, adds another dimension to this developmental vacuum: limited English-language skills. Paradoxically, few programs exist to develop and support the skills needed to accomplish the vital task of writing English-language research articles, which does not come naturally to most. To better prepare all trainees for research careers, editors in the Department of Scientific Publications at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center created an in-depth training program that would target the writing skills gap effectively. Instruction focused on structure, rhetorical organization, and the conventions of biomedical publishing. More than 300 trainees have participated in 22 workshops. Results of a survey of 46 participants at 6 months to 2.5 years after workshop completion indicated that participants from all language backgrounds believed the course to have improved their writing (97.8% strongly agreed or agreed), made it easier to begin a manuscript (80.4%), and helped them to get published (56.8%), with nonnative speakers of English reporting somewhat greater perceived benefit than native English speakers. On the basis of these results, the authors conclude that researchers of varied linguistic backgrounds appreciate the need for, and benefit from, instruction in the conventions of scientific writing.

  9. Wikipedia Writing as Praxis: Computer-Mediated Socialization of Second-Language Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the writing of Wikipedia articles as a form of authentic writing for learners of English in Hong Kong. Adopting "Second Language Socialization and Language Learning & Identity" approaches to language learning inquiry, it responds to an identified shortage of research on computer-mediated language socialization.…

  10. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

  11. The “Magnet Effect” – A Powerful Source of L1 Dialect Interference in the Pronunciation of English as a Foreign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Klementina Jurančič Petek

    2014-01-01

    Wieden and Nemser (1991) carried out a study investigating the development of pronunciation of English as a foreign language in Austria. One of the main issues in this research was L1 dialect interference. Individual studies have proven that the pronunciation of a second (L2) or foreign language (FL) is not influenced only by the standard variety of the first language (L1), but also by the L1 dialect of the speaker’s place of origin (Karpf et al. 1980). Wieden and Nemser’s study wished to pro...

  12. Second Language Acquisition of Reflexive Verbs in Russian by L1 Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexieva, Petia Dimitrova

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the process of acquisition of semantic classes of reflexive verbs (RVs) in Russian by L2 learners with a native language English. The purpose of this study is to bridge the gap between current linguistic knowledge and the pedagogical literature existing in English on reflexives in Russian. RVs are taught partially and…

  13. Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Dorte; Haastrup, Kirsten; Henriksen, Birgit

    Book description: Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language is based on a large-scale empirical study. The innovative feature of the research was that the same students were asked to do the same tasks in both languages while reporting their thinking as they went along. Furthermore......-depth approach useful in understanding the processes of both first and second language performance...... the relationship between the skills and describe the level of development for individual learners within the three areas. In all cases, statistical and qualitative analyses are offered, the latter being based on the learners' own 'think-aloud' reports. Both researchers and teachers of language will find this in...

  14. Impact of peer revision on second language writing

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürk, Burcu

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This study investigates the characteristics and effectiveness of peer revision on second language writing as an aid to teacher feedback. It compares peer revision with the individual revision, helping analyze the former in a more controlled way in terms of its general usefulness. The study was conducted at Middle East Technical University. The data was collected through peer revision processes, in which peers reviewed each other’s writi...

  15. The Potential Role(s) of Writing in Second Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Writing is often seen as having a minor role in second language learning. This article explores recent research that suggests that writing can have a facilitative role in language development. In particular, it focuses on three features of writing: (1) its slower pace, and (2) the enduring record that it leaves, both of which can encourage…

  16. Using a Genre-Based Approach for Writing Instruction in a Less-Commonly-Taught Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigitoglu, Nur; Reichelt, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    Although a great majority of the L2 writing literature focuses on teaching English-language writing, scholars have begun to explore the teaching of writing in other second and foreign languages (FLs), including French, Spanish, German, Arabic, Japanese, and Chinese. However, to our knowledge, no work exists exploring the exigencies of teaching…

  17. Creative Writing Assignments in a Second Language Course: A Way to Engage Less Motivated Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshavskaya, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for using creative writing in a second language course. Creative writing increases students' enthusiasm for writing skills development and supports students' creativity, which is a fundamental aspect of education. In order to engage less motivated students, a series of creative writing assignments was implemented in a…

  18. On Negative Transfer of L1 Thinking in English Writing%从英汉语言差异看母语思维对英语写作负迁移

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李侠

    2011-01-01

    针对大学英语写作中母语思维普遍存在的现象,从词、词组和句子的角度比较英汉语言差异并在学生英语习作中实证观察母语思维负迁移在这些层面常出现的错误,目的是从语言根源上发现一些摆脱母语思维的对应策略,提高学生英语语言构建能力。%This paper compares the language differences between Chinese and English in words,phrases and clauses and demonstrates the mistakes students often make in these aspects due to the negative transfer of L1 thinking as it is commonly observed in students' English writing,aiming to find some measures to get rid of the habit of L1 thinking to improve students' language constructing ability.

  19. Learning to write in science: A study of English language learners' writing experience in sixth-grade science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yang

    Writing is a predictor of academic achievement and is essential for student success in content area learning. Despite its importance, many students, including English language learners (ELLs), struggle with writing. There is thus a need to study students' writing experience in content area classrooms. Informed by systemic functional linguistics, this study examined 11 ELL students' writing experience in two sixth grade science classrooms in a southeastern state of the United States, including what they wrote, how they wrote, and why they wrote in the way they did. The written products produced by these students over one semester were collected. Also collected were teacher interviews, field notes from classroom observations, and classroom artifacts. Student writing samples were first categorized into extended and nonextended writing categories, and each extended essay was then analyzed with respect to its schematic structure and grammatical features. Teacher interviews and classroom observation notes were analyzed thematically to identify teacher expectations, beliefs, and practices regarding writing instruction for ELLs. It was found that the sixth-grade ELLs engaged in mostly non-extended writing in the science classroom, with extended writing (defined as writing a paragraph or longer) constituting roughly 11% of all writing assignments. Linguistic analysis of extended writing shows that the students (a) conveyed information through nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbial groups and prepositional phrases; (b) constructed interpersonal context through choices of mood, modality, and verb tense; and (c) structured text through thematic choices and conjunctions. The appropriateness of these lexicogrammatical choices for particular writing tasks was related to the students' English language proficiency levels. The linguistic analysis also uncovered several grammatical problems in the students' writing, including a limited range of word choices, inappropriate use of mood

  20. Rhetorical Meta-Language to Promote the Development of Students' Writing Skills and Subject Matter Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language--a meta-language--for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and…

  1. A Systemic-Functional Analysis of English Language Learners' Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. DE OLIVEIRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a systemic-functional linguistic analysis of two writing samples of the University of California Analytical Writing Placement (AWP Examination written by English language learners (ELLs. The analysis shows the linguistic features utilized in the two writing samples, one that received a passing score and one that received a failing score. The article describes some of the grammatical resources which are functional for expository writing, which are divided under three main categories: textual, interpersonal, and ideational resources. Following this brief description is the analysis of both essays in terms of these resources.. The configuration of grammatical features used in the essays make up the detached style of essay 1 and the more personal style of essay 2. These grammatical features include the textual resources of thematic choices and development, clause-combining strategies (connectors, and lexical cohesion; interpersonal resources of interpersonal metaphors of modality; and ideational resources of nominalization and abstractions as ideational metaphors. Implications for educational practice and recommendations for educators based on the analysis are provided.

  2. A Study of L1 Transfer on the Use of Attributive Clauses In English Writing%A Study of L1 Transfer on the Use of Attributive Clauses In English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边宛

    2011-01-01

    This study is carried out to find out the role of LI transfer on the problems of attributive clauses. By the application of Contrastive Analysis and Error Analysis, the study shows, Chinese belongs to the left-branching language, while English is the right- branching one in terms of the structure of attributive clauses.

  3. Enlightenment from Rethinking Writing Teaching Approaches——From Second Language Acquisition Aspect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李堂英

    2012-01-01

      English writing is a complex integrative process of compres-sive skil , which is dif icult to master in a short period, especial y for middle school students. However, writing teaching is an essential part in language learning process. The paper tries to rethinking the writing teaching process, and gives some advice for writing teaching in class so as to help student’s improve their English writing level.

  4. Enlightenment from Rethinking Writing Teaching Approaches——From Second Language Acquisition Aspect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李堂英

    2012-01-01

    English writing is a complex integrative process of compressive skill,which is difficult to master in a short period,especially for middle school students.However,writing teaching is an essential part in language learning process.The paper tries to rethinking the writing teaching process,and gives some advice for writing teaching in class so as to help student’s improve their English writing level.

  5. Natural language processing in an intelligent writing strategy tutoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Danielle S; Crossley, Scott A; Roscoe, Rod

    2013-06-01

    The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system that provides writing strategy training. A large part of its artificial intelligence resides in the natural language processing algorithms to assess essay quality and guide feedback to students. Because writing is often highly nuanced and subjective, the development of these algorithms must consider a broad array of linguistic, rhetorical, and contextual features. This study assesses the potential for computational indices to predict human ratings of essay quality. Past studies have demonstrated that linguistic indices related to lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity are significant predictors of human judgments of essay quality but that indices of cohesion are not. The present study extends prior work by including a larger data sample and an expanded set of indices to assess new lexical, syntactic, cohesion, rhetorical, and reading ease indices. Three models were assessed. The model reported by McNamara, Crossley, and McCarthy (Written Communication 27:57-86, 2010) including three indices of lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity accounted for only 6% of the variance in the larger data set. A regression model including the full set of indices examined in prior studies of writing predicted 38% of the variance in human scores of essay quality with 91% adjacent accuracy (i.e., within 1 point). A regression model that also included new indices related to rhetoric and cohesion predicted 44% of the variance with 94% adjacent accuracy. The new indices increased accuracy but, more importantly, afford the means to provide more meaningful feedback in the context of a writing tutoring system. PMID:23055164

  6. Cooperative Writing Response Groups: Revising Global Aspects of Second-Language Writing in a Constrained Educational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Melina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a cooperative writing response initiative designed to develop writing skills in foreign/second-language contexts (hereafter L2). The strategy originated from my desire to cater for my learners' need to become better writers in English within a constrained educational environment in Argentina. In this article I describe this…

  7. Genetic and environmental influences on writing and their relations to language and reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Richard K; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Christopher, Micaela; Keenan, Janice M; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik G; Pennington, Bruce F; DeFries, John C

    2013-04-01

    Identical and fraternal twins (N=540, age 8 to 18 years) were tested on three different measures of writing (Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement-Writing Samples and Writing Fluency; Handwriting Copy from the Group Diagnostic Reading and Aptitude Achievement Tests), three different language skills (phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary), and three different reading skills (word recognition, spelling, and reading comprehension). Substantial genetic influence was found on two of the writing measures, writing samples and handwriting copy, and all of the language and reading measures. Shared environment influences were generally not significant, except for Vocabulary. Non-shared environment estimates, including measurement error, were significant for all variables. Genetic influences among the writing measures were significantly correlated (highest between the speeded measures writing fluency and handwriting copy), but there were also significant independent genetic influences between copy and samples and between fluency and samples. Genetic influences on writing were significantly correlated with genetic influences on all of the language and reading skills, but significant independent genetic influences were also found for copy and samples, whose genetic correlations were significantly less than 1.0 with the reading and language skills. The genetic correlations varied significantly in strength depending on the overlap between the writing, language, and reading task demands. We discuss implications of our results for education, limitations of the study, and new directions for research on writing and its relations to language and reading.

  8. A case study exploring oral language choice between the target language and the l1s in mainstream CLIL and EFL secondary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gené Gil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study explores the purposes for which the target language (TL and the L1s were used orally by students (N=60 and teachers (N=3 in a mainstream CLIL secondary education context compared to EFL instruction in the Balearic Islands (Spain. Data were gathered by means of questionnaires addressed to students and teachers, oral interviews to instructors and observations of class sessions. The findings show some differences in the languages chosen to speak according to pedagogical functions –i.e. planned subject-based discourse– and real functions –i.e. unplanned discourse such as disciplinary or organizational matters– (Chavez 2003, with the TL being much more spoken in the former and with much lesser presence of the TL in the latter, especially in the case of the pupils. Moreover, specialized subject-matter terminology was almost always used in the TL by both the students and the teachers, even when speaking in the L1.

  9. How Can the Use of Blog Software Facilitate the Writing Process of English Language Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Recep S.; Sahin-Kizil, Aysel

    2010-01-01

    Blog use may offer instructors a helpful tool for teaching writing at the tertiary level in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) classrooms. This article reports on a quasi-experimental study regarding the effect of blog-centered writing instruction on students' writing performance. Fifty intermediate English students at a Turkish…

  10. Students' Perceptions of Wiki-Based Collaborative Writing for Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Chuan Joni; Lo, Hao-Chang

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a Wiki-based collaborative writing approach to the writing process for EFL (English as a foreign language) learners. A five-stage computer-mediated collaborative writing project including collaborative planning, partitioned drafting, peer-revising, peer-editing, and individual publishing was blended with on-campus English…

  11. Mediation Strategies in L2 Writing Processes: A Case Study of Two Korean Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yon-Soo; Pyun, Danielle Ooyoung

    2013-01-01

    With the recent rise of sociocultural theory in second-language acquisition, attempts have been made to understand L2 learners' uses of different resources in writing, based on their cultural, historical, and institutional contexts. In line with L2 writing research within the sociocultural paradigm, this study investigates the writing strategies…

  12. Signaled Stopping and Cognitive, Language Principles Applied to Public Relations Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Shirley A.

    To investigate the hypothesis that cognitive rules govern writing behavior, Carter's signaled stopping technique was used to study language and cognitive effects in public relations messages. Principles from Grunig, et al (1985) Axiomatic Theory of Cognition and Writing, which proposed premises, axioms and definitions about writing, were applied…

  13. Longitudinal Relations between Parental Writing Support and Preschoolers' Language and Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibbe, Lori E.; Bindman, Samantha W.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2013-01-01

    Parental writing support was examined over time and in relation to children's language and literacy skills. Seventy-seven parents and their preschoolers were videotaped writing an invitation together twice during one year. Parental writing support was coded at the level of the letter to document parents' graphophonemic support…

  14. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Writing and Their Relations to Language and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Richard K.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Christopher, Micaela; Keenan, Janice M.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Identical and fraternal twins (N = 540, age 8 to 18 years) were tested on three different measures of writing (Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement--Writing Samples and Writing Fluency; Handwriting Copy from the Group Diagnostic Reading and Aptitude Achievement Tests), three different language skills (phonological awareness, rapid naming, and…

  15. An Automated Essay-Evaluation Corpus of English as a Foreign Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaoyi

    2015-01-01

    The Report of Chinese Students' English Writing Ability (2014) focuses on the Chinese students' English writing in the automated essay-evaluation context. The data and samples are primarily from a national-wide writing project involving 300,814 English as a Foreign Language participants from 452 schools in China during a period of April 10 to May…

  16. Integrated Reading and Writing: A Case of Korean English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyonsuk; Brutt-Griffler, Janina

    2015-01-01

    This study reports Korean English language learners' perceived needs concerning their learning of reading and writing and how the integrated reading and writing instruction impacts their reading comprehension and summary-writing abilities. The study also delineates teacher's challenges faced during the instruction. A total of 93 students in a…

  17. Dynamic Development of Complexity and Accuracy: A Case Study in Second Language Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of complexity and accuracy in English as a Second Language (ESL) academic writing. Although research into complexity and accuracy development in second language (L2) writing has been well established, few studies have assumed the multidimensionality of these two constructs (Norris & Ortega, 2009) or…

  18. A Practice-Oriented Definition of Post-Process Second Language Writing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalan, Amir

    2014-01-01

    This article is a synthesis of the scholarly literature on the post-process approach to teaching second language (L2) writing, particularly college and university composition in English as an additional language. This synthesis aims to offer a definition of post-process L2 writing that can readily lend itself to practice and be more accessible to…

  19. The Influence of Process Approach on English as Second Language Students' Performances in Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwamide, Timothy Kolade

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of Process Approach on English as second language Students' performances in essay writing. The purpose was to determine how far this current global approach could be of assistance to the writing skill development of these bilingual speakers of English language. The study employed the pre-test post-test control…

  20. An Investigation into Metaphor Use at Different Levels of Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlemore, Jeannette; Krennmayr, Tina; Turner, James; Turner, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in linguistics have shown that metaphor is ubiquitous. This has important consequences for language learners who need to use it appropriately in their speech and writing. This study aims to provide a preliminary measure of the amount and distribution of metaphor used by language learners in their writing across Common European…

  1. The effect of enhanced lexical retrieval on second language writing : A classroom experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellings, P; de Glopper, Kees; van Gelderen, A.

    2004-01-01

    Lexical retrieval is an essential subprocess in language production, and its efficiency is crucial for writing. To improve writing quality in a second language, we developed an experimental, computerized training for improving fluency of lexical retrieval in a classroom setting, applying techniques

  2. The Negative Transfer of Mother Language in Middle School Students’English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲理英

    2014-01-01

    The negative transfer of mother language has always been obstructing students in their English writing.This paper attempts to reveal the phenomenon of negative transfer in students’ English writing and briefly gives some suggestions to reduce the negative transfer of mother language.

  3. The Negative Transfer of Mother Language in Middle School Students’ English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲理英

    2014-01-01

    The negative transfer of mother language has always been obstructing students in their English writing.This paper attempts to reveal the phenomenon of negative transfer in students’ English writing and briefly gives some suggestions to reduce the negative transfer of mother language.

  4. The Crucial Point in Time Where Thai Students Are Introduced English Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueraman, Bayatee

    2015-01-01

    There have been interests in finding appropriate ways in which students learn to write in English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL). Educators should be aware that ESL/EFL learners are less privileged in terms of exposure to the target language when compared to their English native speaker counterparts. Ironically, writing instructions to…

  5. Academic Vocabulary, Writing and English for Academic Purposes: Perspectives from Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxhead, Averil

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on vocabulary and writing at university level from the perspectives of 14 English as an additional language students studying at a New Zealand university. The students individually carried out an integrated reading and writing task and then participated in an interview which focused on their language learning background and…

  6. Second Language Writers' Strategy Use and Performance on an Integrated Reading-Listening-Writing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Chun; Plakans, Lia

    2012-01-01

    Integrated writing tasks that involve different language modalities such as reading and listening have increasingly been used as means to assess academic writing. Thus, there is a need for understanding how test-takers coordinate different skills to complete these tasks. This study explored second language writers' strategy use and its…

  7. Reading, Writing, and Animation in Character Learning in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Chang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Juan; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that writing helps reading development in Chinese in both first and second language settings by enabling higher-quality orthographic representation of the characters. This study investigated the comparative effectiveness of reading, animation, and writing in developing foreign language learners' orthographic knowledge…

  8. Quantifying the Burden of Writing Research Articles in a Second Language: Data from Mexican Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, David I.; Englander, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article provides quantitative data to establish the relative, perceived burden of writing research articles in English as a second language. Previous qualitative research has shown that scientists writing English in a second language face difficulties but has not established parameters for the degree of this difficulty. A total of 141…

  9. Developing Second Language Writing through Scaffolding in the ZPD: A Magazine Project for an Authentic Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieter, John W.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, Vygotsky's (1978, 1986) sociocultural framework of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) and scaffolding writing (Bodrova & Leong, 1995, 1996; Ross, 1976) are used as the theoretical basis to study the development of second language writing. A course project is presented in which advanced English language learners of Spanish…

  10. Multilingual dyslexia in university students: Reading and writing patterns in three languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgrén, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

    2011-09-01

    We investigated reading and writing in two domestic languages (Swedish and Finnish) and one foreign language (English) among multilingual university students with (n = 20) versus without dyslexia (n = 20). Our analyses encompassed overall speed and accuracy measures and an in-depth analysis of grapheme-phoneme-grapheme errors and inflectional errors. Dyslexic impairments were most conspicuous in word and sentence segmentation, accuracy in oral text reading, single word writing to dictation and free writing across the three languages, most prominently in English. The writing tasks exhibited significantly higher proportions of phoneme-to-grapheme errors in the dyslexia group, especially in English, and marginal differences in inflectional errors, again discernible in English. The results indicate that language proficiency and orthographic depth modulate the appearance of high-performing multilinguals' dyslexic problems in reading and writing. These problems surfaced most clearly in a less proficient foreign, orthographically opaque language.

  11. Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom. Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Youmans

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field. The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field.

  12. Interpretation of language transfer L2 →L1 from the perspective of intercultural communication%跨文化交际视域下的L2→L1语言迁移模式解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金梅

    2012-01-01

    语言迁移通常被理解为一种跨语言影响,即目的语与任何其它先前已经习得的语言之间的异同导致的影响。很多研究者都比较关注第一语言对第二语言的负迁移或者干扰,对国内外语学习者而言即是第一语言(母语亦即汉语)对第二语言(目的语亦即英语)的;童面影响,也就是汉语负迁移如何妨碍英语习得和交际的问题。随着英语和汉语广泛的接触和不断发展,两种语言相互间产生的影响越来越明显,这些影响体现了汉语书面语和口语中的英语化特征。本文试图从跨文化交际视角解读L2→L1迁移模式,将英语对汉语的影响置于“跨语言影响”的概念下进行理解和解释,从词汇、句法、语用三个层面探讨目的语(英语)对母语(汉语)的影响,以验证L2→L1迁移模式的广泛存在,拓展对英汉语用迁移的理解。%Language transfer has been defined as the cross -linguistic influence, i.e. influence resulted from the differences and similarities between the target language and any other previously learned language which is usually one's first languageL1 ). Many researchers have focused their research on the negative transfer or interference of ihe first language to the second language ( L2 ) . As for the EFL in China, it is the negative effect of learners'native language Chinese----on learners'acquisition and use of the foreign language English, the LI→L2 transfer. With the integration and development of the two languages, the mutual influence is becoming more and more evident, which is well reflected in the English - based features in Chinese writing and speaking. This paper aims to interpret L2→L1 transfer from the perspective of intercultural communication, to explain and understand the effects of English on Chinese in terms of the cross - linguistic influence, and to explore the effects at the morphological, grammatical and

  13. WORD PROCESSING AND SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A LONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister Cumming

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2 leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 composing displayed by a 29-year-old, male Mandarin leamer of English with intermediate proficiency in English while he wrote, over 8 months, 14 compositions grouped into 7 comparable pairs of topics altemating between uses of a lap-top computer and of pen and paper. Al1 keystrokes were recorded electronically in the computer environrnent; visual records of al1 text changes were made for the pen-and paper writing. Think-aloud protocols were recorded in al1 sessions. Analyses indicate advantages for the word-processing medium over the pen-and-paper medium in terms ofi a greater frequency of revisions made at the discourse level and at the syntactical level; higher scores for content on analytic ratings of the completed compositions; and more extensive evaluation ofwritten texts in think-aloud verbal reports.

  14. Blog writing integration for academic language learning purposes: towards an assessment framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Murray

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results from ongoing research in the area of academic blog writing and language learning which began over four years ago. Initially, the research examined the area of micropublishing, virtual writing and blogs for academic purposes (Murray & Hourigan, 2006, then moved on to identify specific pedagogical roles for blogs in language teaching and learning (Murray & Hourigan, 2008 forthcoming. The third phase of this research now examines the areas of creative expression, reflection and language acquisition in mandatory blog writings by students at a Third Level Institution. Previously in this research, students were asked, but not required, to keep a personal blog for up to five months; writing only about their language learning strategies and experiences with the declared aim of improving student language learning strategies through self-reflection and self-expression. Students are, this time, required to write and ‘complete’ their academic blog as it represents one compulsory element –with due weighting, given its importance– of a language module assessment. This compulsory blog writing task has raised a number of pedagogical questions which will be explored, such as: effective integration, assessing and rewarding student creative expression within the blog medium, self-reflection as a language learner and ultimately the role and value of academic blog writing in language acquisition.

  15. Exploring interactional metadiscourse markers in the teaching of foreign language writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    This articles mainly explores the use of interactional metadiscourse markersin foreign language writing after discussing the model of metadiscourse (interactive metadiscourse and interactional metadiscourse)by Hyland and Tse, fol owed by looking particularly at the interactional metadiscourse and its definition,categories, and effects. Concerning the difficulties in foreign language writing, it stresses the importance of interactional metadiscourse markers in foreign language teaching, It also suggests some activities and exercises in practical teaching.

  16. ON THE TNTERFERENCE IN ENGLISH WRITING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    <正> English writing is the most difficuh skill for students learning English as for-eign language to achieve because of the cultural influence on language andthe interferences from L1.In this paper,the interferences from L1 on differ-ent 1evels are discussed and the ways to minimize the interferences are sup-plied.

  17. Reading and Writing Connections in the Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Reading and writing are interrelated. What has been read provides material for writing. This paper focuses on reading endeavors that provide subject matter for writing. The paper first recommends reading poetry to the class and states that the teacher should have ready for use an anthology of children's literature. Children can write poems for…

  18. Writing skills and strategies of bilingual immigrant students learning Greek as a second language and English as a foreign language

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Griva; Dora Chostelidou

    2013-01-01

    The present study was concerned with eliciting information about the problems that bilingual or immigrant students’ encounter and the strategies that they employ whilst writing in Greek as a second language (GL2) and in English as a foreign language (EFL). The sample consisted of a total of 32 bilingual students, aged between 10 and 12 from Albanian, Russian and Georgian families. The study followed a qualitative and quantitative method of data collection and analysis: (1) a screening writing...

  19. How does language distance between L1 and L2 affect the L2 brain network? An fMRI study of Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Say Young; Qi, Ting; Feng, Xiaoxia; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Cao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that language distance between first language (L1) and second language (L2) influences the assimilation and accommodation pattern in Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals. The distance between English and Korean is smaller than that between Chinese and Korean in terms of orthographic transparency, because both English and Korean are alphabetic, whereas Chinese is logographic. During fMRI, Korean trilingual participants performed a visual rhyming judgment task in three languages (Korean: KK, Chinese: KC, English: KE). Two L1 control groups were native Chinese and English speakers performing the task in their native languages (CC and EE, respectively). The general pattern of brain activation of KC was more similar to that of CC than KK, suggesting accommodation. Higher accuracy in KC was associated with decreased activation in regions of the KK network, suggesting reduced assimilation. In contrast, the brain activation of KE was more similar to that of KK than EE, suggesting assimilation. Higher accuracy in KE was associated with decreased activation in regions of the EE network, suggesting reduced accommodation. Finally, an ROI analysis on the left middle frontal gyrus revealed greater activation for KC than for KE, suggesting its selective involvement in the L2 with more arbitrary mapping between orthography and phonology (i.e., Chinese). Taken together, the brain network involved in L2 reading is similar to the L1 network when L2 and L1 are similar in orthographic transparency, while significant accommodation is expected when L2 is more opaque than L1.

  20. The “Magnet Effect” – A Powerful Source of L1 Dialect Interference in the Pronunciation of English as a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klementina Jurančič Petek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wieden and Nemser (1991 carried out a study investigating the development of pronunciation of English as a foreign language in Austria. One of the main issues in this research was L1 dialect interference. Individual studies have proven that the pronunciation of a second (L2 or foreign language (FL is not influenced only by the standard variety of the first language (L1, but also by the L1 dialect of the speaker’s place of origin (Karpf et al. 1980. Wieden and Nemser’s study wished to prove this on a larger scale. A similar study was carried out also for Slovenia (Jurančič Petek 2007. Contrastive analysis (CA of the Slovene Standard pronunciation and English was performed as well as that of the sound systems of individual Slovene dialects and the English one. Error analysis (EA of the obtained results showed that L1 dialect interference did not occur in the instances predicted by contrastive analysis; however the study in itself did prove the existence of such influence (“magnet effect” in vowels.

  1. Effects of a Language-Minority Family's Activities in Early Second Language Writing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Michael; Zhou, Yalun

    2012-01-01

    The impact of social dimensions (e.g., parental involvement) on second language literacy acquisition is not well studied in the field (August & Shanahan, 2008). Although quite a few studies report immigrant parents' belief and perspectives of their children's second language reading and writing, it remains unknown for school teachers…

  2. Rhetorical and Lexico-Grammatical Features of Argumentative Writing in Spanish as a Heritage Language and as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Sofia M.

    2011-01-01

    Student academic writing in higher education is a central component of language programs whose purpose is to promote advanced literacy in the target language. At this level, students are required to produce texts that are analytical-argumentative in nature. This type of genre requires writers to formulate an interpretative statement or thesis and…

  3. Task-Modality and L1 Use in EFL Oral Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkarai, Agurtzane; del Pilar García Mayo, María

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether task-modality (speaking vs. speaking+writing) influences first language (L1) use in task-based English as a foreign language (EFL) learner-learner interaction. Research on the topic has shown that different task-modality triggers different learning opportunities with collaborative speaking tasks drawing learners'…

  4. Expanding Audiences for Online Writing Labs: OWLs in the English as a Foreign Language Context

    OpenAIRE

    Paiz, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    This presentation from the 2014 Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) discusses online writing labs (OWLs), specifically the Purdue OWL, in the traditionally-defined English as a foreign language (EFL) context. The ELF context often presents unique challenges for the teaching of English writing, including challenges of finding appropriate resources. This may lead EFL writing practitioners to rely on the information presented by OWLs to supplement their teaching. However, ...

  5. Smart Teaching and Learning Strategies in Pre-writing Activities in Bahasa Melayu (Malay Language)

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Suria; Aziz, Zahara Abdul

    2009-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of four smart schools’ teachers using purposive sampling. The study unveils the implementation of smart teaching and learning strategies in pre-writing activities in Bahasa Melayu (Malay Language). Pre-writing activities include reading, free writing, brainstorming, mind mapping, and listening. These activities revolve around student centered learning, thoughtful learning, group work, and also media in the implementation of teaching and learning. There is Int...

  6. The Skills of A Practical Writing for a Tour Guide(Ⅰ)--Language Differentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静研; 陈忱

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is about the skills of practical writing for Tour Guide.In this article,the differences between English and Chinese are discussed.As a Tour Guide,one needs to grasp these characteristics of the two languages,and has ability of describing sceneries beautifully and accurately by writing.

  7. Effective Strategies for Improving Writing Skills of Elementary English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jenny; Feng, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Reaching proficient levels of literacy is a universal goal for all children in the elementary classroom. This objective is especially challenging for English language learners particularly in the domain of writing. Writing has been identified as one of the most essential skills because the world has become so text-oriented. Due to this change,…

  8. Integrating Feedback into Prospective English Language Teachers' Writing Process via Blogs and Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Recep Sahin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of blogging and portfolio keeping on a group of pre-service teachers' writing skill in a compulsory writing course at a tertiary level English language teaching (ELT) programme in Turkey. The study specifically looked into to what extent receiving feedback from course instructor and…

  9. Thinking Allowed: Integrating Process and Genre into the Second Language Writing Classroom: Research into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racelis, Juval V.; Matsuda, Paul Kei

    2013-01-01

    The field of second language (L2) writing has moved beyond the false dichotomies between process- and genre-based pedagogies perpetuated in the 1980s and 1990s, but there has still been little research on how the two are actually reconciled in the classroom. Consequently, L2 writing instructors are left with an incomplete picture, unsure how to…

  10. Extending the Flipped Classroom Model: Developing Second Language Writing Skills through Student-Created Digital Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a project that aimed to leverage the students' interest and experience of technology and multimodal environments to develop their academic writing skills and second language learning. Students were expected to follow a model, research a topic, and craft a digital video tutorial on an aspect of academic writing which would…

  11. Capitalising on Learner Agency and Group Work in Learning Writing in English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the roles of learner agency and group work in learning writing in English as a foreign language (EFL). Through exploratory and participatory action research, this study examines how learner agency and group work function amidst the activity system of task-based EFL writing, especially how they influence and are influenced…

  12. A Qualitative Research on Portfolio Keeping in English as a Foreign Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami

    2010-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the problems about portfolio keeping in English as a foreign language (EFL) writing, while the existing literature mostly focuses on the effects of portfolios on writing skills of learners, rather than those of teachers or pre-service teachers. This study aims to investigate the problems encountered and…

  13. Reading-Writing Relationships in First and Second Language Academic Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, William; Zhang, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Reading and writing relations, as this concept applies to academic learning contexts, whether as a major way to learn language or academic content, is a pervasive issue in English for academic purposes (EAP) contexts. In many cases, this major link between reading/writing and academic learning is true even though explicit discussions of this…

  14. Ways to help Chinese Students in Senior High School improve language accuracy in writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘惠红

    2015-01-01

    <正>Introduction In Chinese ELT(English language teaching),as in other countries,both fluency and accuracy are considered important either in the teaching or assessment of writing.In this respect,the last decade has seen reforms in the College Entrance Examination in Guangdong Province.With two writing tasks being set as assessment,task one requires students to summarise Chinese language information into five English sentences while the

  15. SMS Language and College Writing :The languages of the College Texters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norizul Azida Darus

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many students have become avid texters and are seriously reinventing language to accommodate the 160-character limit of short messages. They are more interested in getting their messages across and thus becoming less concerned about correct spelling, grammar and punctuation. Since texting has become a way of life of many students, it is feared that the SMS language can affect students’ written performance. This research examines the effects of frequent usage of text messaging (SMS on undergraduates academic writing. For the purpose of the study, 264 Diploma students of UiTM Perlis were selected as participants. They were 94 male texters and 170 female texters aged between 18 – 22 years old who were taking three different English courses namely Preparatory English, Mainstream English 1 and Mainstream English 2. The data includes participants’ SMS messages, class assignments and examinations scripts which were analyzed in order to detect the existence of SMS language by using measuring instruments of Orthographic forms (Shortis, 2001. The findings reveal that there were few occurrences of SMS language in students’ examinations scripts among weak students.

  16. Longitudinal Relations Between Parental Writing Support and Preschoolers' Language and Literacy Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibbe, Lori E; Bindman, Samantha W; Hindman, Annemarie H; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J

    2013-10-01

    Parental writing support was examined over time and in relation to children's language and literacy skills. Seventy-seven parents and their preschoolers were videotaped writing an invitation together twice during one year. Parental writing support was coded at the level of the letter to document parents' graphophonemic support (letter-sound correspondence), print support (letter formation), and demand for precision (expectation for correcting writing errors). Parents primarily relied on only a couple print (i.e., parent writing the letter alone) and graphophonemic (i.e., saying the word as a whole, dictating letters as children write) strategies. Graphophonemic and print support in preschool predicted children's decoding skills, and graphophonemic support also predicted children's future phonological awareness. Neither type of support predicted children's vocabulary scores. Demand for precision occurred infrequently and was unrelated to children's outcomes. Findings demonstrate the importance of parental writing support for augmenting children's literacy skills.

  17. Exploring the Amount and Type of Writing Instruction during Language Arts Instruction in Kindergarten Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners' writing performance.

  18. English language writing centres in Japanese universities: What do students really need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McKinley

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The installation of English language writing centres in Japanese universities is a relatively recent event—the first ones established with funding from the Ministry of Education in 2004. Because of the EFL writing context, setting up a writing centre requires consideration of students’ needs and cultural expectations of writing and writing centres. In general, writing centres that have been established in Japanese universities follow a structure similar to those in the US. This raises the question as to whether or not this is appropriate for the particular needs of EFL students and the obstacles they face. For this study, in order to explore students’ attitudes toward writing centres and the role they play in writing education, interview data was collected from students of English composition in two different departments at a university in Japan well known for its English language education: the English department, which does not have a writing centre, and the liberal arts department, which has one of the first writing centres established in Japan.

  19. Theoretical and Practical Linguistic Shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and Recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in Teaching Writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Mourssi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Writing is a complex cognitive activity in which foreign language learners are required to pay attention simultaneously to content, sentence structure, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling and letter formation. Therefore, there can be no guarantee that an effective teaching method in one context would result in effective student learning in another. It is proved that Product/Guided Writing resulting in poor writers, and Process Writing dos not provide much care for metalinguistic feedback or enough time for negotiation as well. Following the stages of Innovated Writing Process (IWP, the instructor may be able to teach students many skills that may improve the quality of their writing as well as speaking. This paper presents the theoretical and practical linguistic shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in teaching writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners. It is indicated that metalinguistic feedback, error/contrastive analysis and the communicative interaction negotiating of meaning and form provided by the teacher lead to remarkable improve in second/foreign language learners’ written accuracy and fluency as well.

  20. Linguistic, reading, and transcription influences on kindergarten writing in children with English as a second language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina L. Harrison, Keira C. Ogle & Megan Keilty

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of linguistic, reading, and transcription processes to writing in kindergarten English as a second language (ESL children and their native-English speaking peers (EL1 were examined. ESL and EL1 performed similarly on one of the two measures of phonological awareness (PA and on measures of early reading, spelling, and writing. EL1 outperformed ESL on a pseudoword repetition task and on the English vocabulary and syntactic knowledge tasks. ESL outperformed EL1 on a writing fluency measure. Correlation and hierarchical regression results varied as a function of the writing tasks (procedural or generative and language status. Across language groups, writing tasks that captured children's developing graphophonemic knowledge were associated with a breadth of cognitive, linguistic, and early literacy skills. PA, reading, and transcription skills, but not oral vocabulary and syntactic knowledge contributed the most variance to writing irrespective of language status. The results suggest that parallel component skills and processes underlie ESL and EL1 children's early writing when formal literacy instruction begins in kindergarten even though ESL children are developing English oral and literacy proficiency simultaneously.

  1. Effects of Reading Strategies and the Writing Process with Written Recasts on Second Language Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Helen; Jones, Don

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of teaching methods used with a second language reading and writing unit. This investigation addressed discrepancies between assessment scores in the four communicative language skill areas of students in beginning-level Spanish classes at a suburban middle school. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to…

  2. Language Identities in Students' Writings about Group Work in Their Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I explore language identities and processes of negotiation concerning parts of these identities as seen by a group of students from a bilingual mathematics classroom. A collection of 10 students' individual writings on the questions "What language do you use during group work in your mathematics class and why?" is examined from a…

  3. Demystifying Digitalk: The What and Why of the Language Teens Use in Digital Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kristen Hawley; Abrams, Sandra Schamroth; Katíc, Elvira; Donovan, Meredith Jeta

    2014-01-01

    The language teens use in digital spaces--from social network posts to instant message chats to text messages--often does not adhere to Standard Written English (SWE). Their digital writing involves a combination of written and conversational languages and often has a digital thumbprint that distinguishes the writer. As a means to understand this…

  4. Teaching Young Dual Language Learners to Be Writers: Rethinking Writing Instruction through the Lens of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Although young dual language students (DLLs) learn to write and use language expressively in ways that differ from monolingual English speakers, these differences are rarely addressed in curricula and instruction. In particular, despite a recent shift in attention to how identities shape literacy practices and motivations, common frameworks for…

  5. The Heterogeneous Second-Language Population in US Colleges and the Impact on Writing Program Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Gennaro, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    To effectively address the needs of second language (L2) learners in college writing courses, many postsecondary institutions, especially those located in cities with high concentrations of immigrants, offer college-level courses for L2 students. Such courses include noncredit English language courses in an intensive English program, developmental…

  6. Developing Literary Reading Skills through Creative Writing in German as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlaub, Per

    2011-01-01

    Literary reading skills in a second language (L2) are essential for student success at the advanced levels of collegiate language instruction. This article introduces an instructional approach that fosters the development of L2 literary reading skills through creative writing activities. First, the article identifies those skills that language…

  7. Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

  8. Integrating Content and Mechanics in New Language Learners' Writing in the Primary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Writing and literacy development are crucial for the academic and social success of new language learners in the primary grades. Over the last 25 years, several terms have been used to describe the talents and needs of children learning new languages in early childhood settings. The term that the author prefers, and which he uses in this article,…

  9. Relations between Early Reading and Writing Skills among Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Farrington, Amber L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature on the development of reading skills of Spanish-speaking language minority children, little research has focused on the development of writing skills in this population. This study evaluated whether children's Spanish early reading skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness, oral language)…

  10. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language - a meta-language - for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and feedback-giving. Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore students' perception of teachers' feedback given on their texts in two genres, and to suggest how writing training and feedback-giving could become more efficient. Sample: In this study were included 44 degree project students in biology and molecular biology, and 21 supervising teachers at a Swedish university. Design and methods: The study concerned students' writing about their degree projects in two genres: scientific writing and popular science writing. The data consisted of documented teacher feedback on the students' popular science texts. It also included students' and teachers' answers to questionnaires about writing and feedback. All data were collected during the spring of 2012. Teachers' feedback, actual and recalled - by students and teachers, respectively - was analysed and compared using the so-called Canons of rhetoric. Results: While the teachers recalled the given feedback as mainly positive, most students recalled only negative feedback. According to the teachers, suggested improvements concerned firstly the content, and secondly the structure of the text. In contrast, the students mentioned language style first, followed by content. Conclusions: The disagreement between students and teachers regarding how and what feedback was given on the students texts confirm the need of improved strategies for writing training and feedback-giving in science education. We suggest that the rhetorical meta-language might play a crucial role in overcoming the difficulties observed in this study. We also discuss how training of writing skills may contribute to

  11. Impact of early English language teaching on L1 and L2 development in children in Dutch schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke; de Bot, Kees

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of a project aimed at the evaluation of early English language teaching (EELT) in Dutch primary education, starting at age 4. Between 2003 and 2008 four cohorts of first- and second-grade children receiving one to three hours of English language teaching per week

  12. Notation Systems for Reading and Writing Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    Without written forms, signed languages do not permit the type of textual record available to speakers of English and other written languages. Deaf signers have generally relied on the language of the dominant hearing culture for this purpose. Because of their visual-gestural modality, signed languages present a unique set of challenges for…

  13. Compiler writing system detail design specification. Volume 1: Language specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Construction within the Meta language for both language and target machine specification is reported. The elements of the function language as a meaning and syntax are presented, and the structure of the target language is described which represents the target dependent object text representation of applications programs.

  14. Adolescents' Use of Academic Language in Historical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ting

    2011-01-01

    Despite its importance of academic language, research on academic language is often limited to academic vocabulary and focused on the English language learners. Informed by systemic functional linguistics, this study examined adolescents' use of academic language and the relationships between its use and students' reading ability and…

  15. Artful Language: Academic Writing for the Art Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Linda; Mamchur, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The task of writing about the process of making and contextualising art can be overwhelming for some graduate students. While the challenge may be due in part to limited time and attention to the practice of writing, in a practice-based arts thesis there is a deeper issue: how the visual and written components are attended to in a manner that…

  16. Notation systems for reading and writing sign language

    OpenAIRE

    McCarty, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    Without written forms, signed languages do not permit the type of textual record available to speakers of English and other written languages. Deaf signers have generally relied on the language of the dominant hearing culture for this purpose. Because of their visual-gestural modality, signed languages present a unique set of challenges for developing written forms. These issues are considered from a behavioral perspective, and two sign language notation systems, Stokoe Notation and Sutton Si...

  17. Writing skills and strategies of bilingual immigrant students learning Greek as a second language and English as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Griva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was concerned with eliciting information about the problems that bilingual or immigrant students’ encounter and the strategies that they employ whilst writing in Greek as a second language (GL2 and in English as a foreign language (EFL. The sample consisted of a total of 32 bilingual students, aged between 10 and 12 from Albanian, Russian and Georgian families. The study followed a qualitative and quantitative method of data collection and analysis: (1 a screening writing test was used for student selection and their categorisation into skilled and less skilled writers; (2 student think-aloud reports and retrospective interviews were used to collect data whilst students were writing in GL2 and EFL. The findings indicated that the skilled bilingual writers held a much broader and complex view of their own writing process and showed more strategic knowledge compared to less-skilled writers. In particular, they were more flexible in using both cognitive and metacognitive strategies and employed a wider range of more ‘elaborated’ strategies. In contrast, the less-skilled writers had a more limited knowledge of the writing task, and they adopted lower-level processes and strategies. However, they had adequate awareness of their own writing problems related to word level, and they employed certain compensation strategies to overcome writing weaknesses. Some suggestions are made about the creation of educational and teaching conditions for developing bilingual students’ linguistic cognitive and metacognitive skills and expanding opportunities for them to become autonomous writers.

  18. Anxiety over EFL speaking and writing: A view from language classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Gkonou, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The assumption that foreign language learners experience a high level of anxiety mainly when faced with speaking activities implies that research should focus on those learners prone to anxiety over that skill. Despite not being widely investigated, foreign language writing anxiety also seems to be a concern for a large number of students. Drawing on questionnaire findings, the study reported in this article examined the nature of, and the connection between the English language classroom spe...

  19. T(w)o and fro: using the L1 as a language teaching tool in the CLIL classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Fiona; Colohan, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a small in-class study which sought to explore the effectiveness (or not) of using the emerging bilingual skills of the students as a teaching and learning tool in a Geography through English CLIL classroom in Northern Italy. In particular, the study sought to examine whether and to what extent the use of codeswitching / translanguaging between the native language and the language of instruction during content-related tasks might prove a useful technique for highlighti...

  20. Knowledge, Writing, and Language Outcomes for a Reading Comprehension and Writing Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Linda H.; Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Miller, Carol A.; Glutting, J. James

    2013-01-01

    Many students struggle with gaining knowledge and writing about content text material and therefore require effective intervention. In a randomized controlled trial study, 77 low-achieving fourth-grade students received reading comprehension instruction or reading comprehension plus writing instruction or were assigned to a no-treatment control.…

  1. The Search for a Common Language: Environmental Writing and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Graulich, Melody; Crumbley, Paul

    2005-01-01

    A stellar group of writers, scientists, and educators illuminate the intersections between environmental science, creative writing, and education, considering ways to strengthen communication between differing fields with common interests.

  2. Speed in cognitive tasks as an indicator of second/foreign language reading and writing skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Olkkonen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-sectional study 823 Finnish school children were tested to examine the relation between speed of performance in cognitive and linguistic tasks and second/foreign language reading and writing. Participants were Finnish-speakers with English as foreign language and Russian-speakers with Finnish as second language which made it possible to compare the results across these two language groups. The Finnish group was furthermore divided into three groups by age to see how speed develops with age and education. Groups were tested with a number of cognitive instruments that included measures of speed of performance. Overall, performance on the speed measures improved with age; often, the second language learners outperformed their foreign language peers of the same age. Regression analyses indicated that speed measures could predict from 20% to over 40% of performance in second/foreign language reading and writing tasks. Prediction was somewhat stronger for writing than reading. The best predictors were also somewhat different for the foreign and second language learners, as well as for the different age groups.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.13

  3. Similar and/or Different Writing Processes? A Study of Spanish Foreign Language and Heritage Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elola, Idoia; Mikulski, Ariana M.

    2016-01-01

    Following a cognitively-oriented framework, this study builds upon the authors' previous work (Elola and Mikulski 2013; Mikulski and Elola 2011), which analyzed writing processes (planning time, execution time, revision time), fluency, and accuracy of Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners when composing in English and in Spanish. By analyzing…

  4. Multiple goals, writing strategies, and written outcomes for college students learning English as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tung-Hsien; Chang, Shan-Mao; Chen, Shu-Hui Eileen

    2011-04-01

    This study examined relations of achievement goals of writers who are speakers of English as a foreign language (EFL), the frequency of their writing strategy use, and the quality of their writing from a multiple goals perspective. The goal profiles of 57 EFL college students with similar writing proficiency were based on rating items of an unpublished scale; Group 1 had strong mastery and strong performance-approach goals, and two groups included students with only one strong mastery (Group 2) or performance (Group 3) goal. Think-aloud protocols indicated that the participants adopted 21 strategies in an argumentative writing task, classified into five categories. Group 1 was found to use writing strategies of monitoring or evaluating, revising, and compensating significantly more often than the other two groups, and produced better essays. Strong mastery and performance-approach goals might be beneficial for EFL college writers.

  5. An Experimental Study on the Influence of L1 Thinking Transfer in the L2 Writing%二语写作中母语思维迁移影响实例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付欣友

    2011-01-01

    母语思维产生的负迁移会阻碍学习者二语写作水平的提高,许多教育研究者主张学习者在二语写作中避免母语思维而直接运用二语思维,从而规避负迁移对写作产生的阻碍。通过实例调查和分析,发现在二语写作中母语思维负迁移影响并不显著,因此"避免母语思维"的要求不能一概而论,应因人而异、合理要求。%The negative transfer of L1 Thinking baffles the improvement of the learners' L2 Writing levels,which is approved by many researchers.They insist that learners use L2 Thinking directly and avoid L1 Thinking in L2 Writing.This study investigates some students who major in Business English and gets a conclusion that negative transfer of L1 Thinking is not distinct,so the writer brings forward the idea that the requirement of avoiding L1 Thinking is not suitable for all level learners,but for proper ones.

  6. Learning Strategies in Alleviating English Writing Anxiety for English Language Learners (ELLs) with Limited English Proficiency (LEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Pei; Lin, Huey-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This study utilized the Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an English writing anxiety scale to examine the relationship between learning strategies and English writing anxiety in 102 university-level English language learners (ELLs) with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in a university in Taiwan. Kruskal Wallis Test…

  7. Modular Sequence: English as a Second Language, Methods and Techniques. TTP 001.11 Writing. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alberto; Melnick, Susan L.

    This learning module is designed to provide the prospective teacher of English as a second language with suggestions for practical applications of sound linguistic theory for teaching writing to second-language learners. After completing the module, the student is expected to be able to: (a) define the role of writing in foreign and…

  8. Creative Writing for Language, Content and Literacy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, María Teresa Fleta; Bermejo, María Luisa García

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on pedagogies that promote language, content and literacy in English by stimulating learners' creativity. The starting point to promote creativity among learners was music and art. There seems to be a natural connection between music, language and thinking which suggests that incorporating musical experiences into daily…

  9. Writing Government Policies and Procedures in Plain Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Don

    2008-01-01

    Plain language involves more than just a few simple techniques, such as using everyday words, short sentences, and active voice. Although there is no single definition, "plain language" basically stands for several dozen well-established principles of clear communication. In this article, the author discusses the significance of plain language…

  10. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Dana R.

    2012-01-01

    Written corrective feedback, referred to hereafter as "written CF" and also known as "grammar correction" or "error correction", has been a controversial topic in second language studies over the past fifteen years. Inspired by John Truscott's thought-provoking 1996 essay in "Language Learning", many different researchers have undertaken new…

  11. Rewriting and Paraphrasing Source Texts in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ling

    2012-01-01

    The present study is based on interviews with 48 students and 27 instructors in a North American university and explores whether students and professors across faculties share the same views on the use of paraphrased, summarized, and translated texts in four examples of L2 student writing. Participants' comments centered on whether the paraphrases…

  12. English-Language Creative Writing in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the background, purpose and components of a creative writing course conducted in the Department of English at Sun Yat-sen University as part of the reform in the teaching of English in China. It explains and demonstrates the different components of the course and argues, drawing on evidence from students' work and reflections,…

  13. "Writing For the enemy" : Kurdish Language standardization online

    OpenAIRE

    Dehqan, Agri

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study some of the challenges that the Kurdish language and its standardization face, and offer a bottom-up solution through the “collective intelligence” and “good faith collaboration” of Wikipedia. Therefore, the fragmentation in the Kurdish language—caused by both external factors and those that are inherent to the language itself— is discussed and analyzed. Furthermore, this thesis describes some of the efforts that have been made to unify the Kurdish language,...

  14. Is it differences in language skills and working memory that account for girls being better at writing than boys?

    OpenAIRE

    Lorna Bourke; Anne-Marie Adams

    2012-01-01

    Girls are more likely to outperform boys in the development of writing skills. This study considered gender differences in language and working memory skills as a possible explanation for the differential rates of progress. Sixty-seven children (31 males and 36 females) (M age 57.30 months) participated. Qualitative differences in writing progress were examined using a writing assessment scale from the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile (EYFSP). Quantitative measures of writing: number of w...

  15. Researching Aptitude in a Process-based Approach to Foreign Language Writing Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Zare-ee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the study reported here, we explored writing processes employed by 70 undergraduate learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL through questionnaires and think-aloud protocols. Then we looked for possible differences in the writing processes employed by high- and low-aptitude learners. We observed that learners with higher aptitude scores devoted more attention to clausal complexity than those with lower levels of aptitude. Moreover, they resorted less frequently to their mother tongue while writing texts in English. High-aptitude EFL learners also used more global planning strategies than their low-aptitude peers and edited while writing much more frequently. Our review showed that even though aptitude has been extensively researched in second language acquisition and shown to correlate with the level of success in different skills, it has rarely been considered in relation to writing processes. We suggest that, as classroom teachers, EFL writing instructors accumulate and incorporate knowledge of their students’ aptitude in deploying their teaching strategies. 

  16. Language policy, 'Asia's world city' and anglophone Hong Kong writing

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, EYL

    2010-01-01

    Hong Kong's official language policy of 'biliteracy' (Chinese and English) and 'trilingualism' (Cantonese, Putonghua, English), announced after the reversion to China in 1997, claims to address actualities of language use in the territory, remove inequities between English and Chinese, and consolidate the linguistic platform to launch Hong Kong as 'Asia's World City'. Public discussion of and controversy over this policy immediately followed, and have continued in the past decade. But they ha...

  17. Writing processes, text quality, and task effects; empirical studies in first and second language writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weijen, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to advance our understanding of the writing process by linking process and product characteristics to each other. The underlying question was: how does the way in which writers use different cognitive activities, such as planning, generating ideas, and formulating

  18. Using Portfolio to Assess Rural Young Learners' Writing Skills in English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Noor Abdul; Yusoff, Nurahimah Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at discussing the benefits of portfolio assessment in assessing students' writing skills. The study explores the use of authentic assessment in the classroom. Eleven primary school children from Year 4 in a rural school in Sabah participated in this study. Data were collected by observing them during the English Language lessons…

  19. The Impact of Dictation Practice on Turkish as a Foreign Language Learners' Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükikiz, K. Kaan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to learn about the impact of dictation practice on B1 level Turkish as a foreign language learners' writing skills. In this study, a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design with control group was used. The study was carried out with 24 B1 level students enrolled in Gaziantep University Turkish and Foreign Languages…

  20. Predictors of Spelling and Writing Skills in First- and Second-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gina L.; Goegan, Lauren D.; Jalbert, Rachel; McManus, Kelly; Sinclair, Kristin; Spurling, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive and linguistic components related to spelling and writing in English as a second language (ESL) and native-English speaking (EL1) third graders were examined. ESL and EL1 children performed similarly on rapid naming, phonological awareness (PA), verbal short-term and working memory, reading fluency, single-word spelling, text spelling,…

  1. A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for English Language Learners in Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carol Booth; Land, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted by members of a site of the California Writing Project in partnership with a large, urban, low-SES school district where 93% of the students speak English as a second language and 69% are designated Limited English Proficient. Over an eight-year period, a relatively stable group of 55 secondary teachers engaged in ongoing…

  2. The Application of Readers Theater to FLES (Foreign Language in the Elementary Schools) Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Wenli

    2011-01-01

    This study used a mixed-method approach to investigate the effectiveness of Readers Theater (RT) in promoting English as a foreign language children's reading and writing proficiency after a participation period of one semester. In addition, the researcher recorded and analyzed children's learning motivation and feedback toward RT. The…

  3. Developing Foreign Language Skills, Competence and Identity through a Collaborative Creative Writing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, Avital

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a collaborative creative writing project on identity formation and overall language proficiency development among advanced Hebrew students. In an exercise called "The Zoning Committee", college students created the fictional Israeli-American town of Beit Shemesh, located in northern Michigan. Qualitative data…

  4. Improving EFL Writing through Study of Semantic Concepts in Formulaic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Andrew D.; Choi, Wonkyung

    2015-01-01

    Within Asian EFL contexts such as South Korea, large class sizes, poor sources of input and an overreliance on the Grammar-Translation Method may negatively impact semantic and pragmatic development of writing content. Since formulaic language is imbued with syntactic, semantic and pragmatic linguistic features, it represents an ideal means to…

  5. Dovetailing Language and Content: Teaching Balanced Argument in Legal Problem Answer Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Nigel

    2002-01-01

    Describes an approach to teaching first-year law students in an English for academic purposes course on how to write the academic genre of the legal problem answer. Offers students rhetorical tools to translate legal reasoning moves into effective written response to legal problems. The dovetailing of language and content involved considerable…

  6. The Effects of Planning on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy in Second Language Narrative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod; Yuan, Fangyuan

    2004-01-01

    Building on previous studies of the effects of planning on second language (L2) learners' oral narratives and drawing on Kellog's (1996) model of writing, this article reports a study of the effects of three types of planning conditions (pretask planning, unpressured on-line planning, and no planning) on 42 Chinese learners' written narratives…

  7. Issues of Cultural Appropriateness and Pedagogical Efficacy: Exploring Peer Review in a Second Language Writing Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangwei; Lam, Sandra Tsui Eu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a study designed to investigate (a) whether peer review is an effective pedagogical activity with adult Chinese students in the teaching of second language (L2) academic writing and (b) how factors such as perceptions of the influence of peer reviewers' L2 proficiency, previous experience with peer review, feedback…

  8. Concentrated Language Encounter Instruction Model III in Reading and Creative Writing Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promnont, Piyapong; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2015-01-01

    The research is aimed to study the development of eleventh grade students' reading, creative writing abilities, satisfaction taught through the concentrated language encounter instruction method, CLE model III. One experimental group time series design was used, and the data was analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures, t-test for one-group…

  9. From Novice to Expert: Implications of Language Skills and Writing-Relevant Knowledge for Memory during the Development of Writing Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCutchen, D.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a theory of the development of writing expertise illustrated by a review of relevant research. An argument is made for two necessary (although not sufficient components in the development of writing expertise: fluent language generation processes and extensive knowledge relevant to writing. Fluent language processes enable the developing writer (especially the young developing writer to begin to manage the constraints imposed by working memory, whereas extensive knowledge allows the writer to move beyond the constraints of short-term working memory and take advantage of long-term memory resources by relying instead on long-term working memory.

  10. Evaluating an academic writing program for nursing students who have English as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Roslyn; Jackson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Academic writing skills are essential to the successful completion of preregistration nursing programs, yet the development of such skills is a challenge for many nursing students, particularly those who speak English as a second language (ESL). It is vital to develop and evaluate strategies that can support academic writing skills for ESL nursing students. This qualitative study evaluated a four-day academic writing intervention strategy designed to support ESL first-year nursing students. Data from the program showed two major areas of difficulty for participants relating to academic writing: problems understanding course content in English, and problems expressing their understanding of that content in English. The participants noted a key benefit of this program was the provision of individual feedback. Programs such as this intervention successfully meet the demands of ESL nursing students, although ongoing support is also needed.

  11. Argumentation Text Construction by Japanese as a Foreign Language Writers: A Dynamic View of Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnert, Carol; Kobauashi, Hiroe; Katayama, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a dynamic view of transfer as reusing and reshaping previous knowledge in new writing contexts to investigate how novice Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) writers draw on knowledge across languages to construct L1 and L2 texts. We analyzed L1 English and L2 Japanese argumentation essays by the same JFL writers (N = 19) and L1

  12. English Language Writing Anxiety among Final Year Engineering Undergraduates in University Putra Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Sing Min

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Second Language Writing Anxiety (SLWA is considered one of the most crucial factors affecting all second language learning. This study focused on a group of final year Engineering students’ English Language writing anxiety (N=93 in relation to their gender, race and MUET results. The findings showed that the the male gender, Chinese and MUET band 4 participants faced higher levels of anxiety as compared to the other groups respectively. Somatic anxiety was recorded to be the highest subscale of anxiety faced by most of the participants. The findings of this study can help in making suitable amendments in the engineering programme course structure, especially in determining the suitable English papers to be offered to the students.

  13. Transfer of L1 Visual Word Recognition Strategies during Early Stages of L2 Learning: Evidence from Hebrew Learners Whose First Language Is Either Semitic or Indo-European

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined visual word recognition processes in Hebrew (a Semitic language) among beginning learners whose first language (L1) was either Semitic (Arabic) or Indo-European (e.g. English). To examine if learners, like native Hebrew speakers, exhibit morphological sensitivity to root and word-pattern morphemes, learners made an…

  14. Language, Violence, and the State: Writing Tamil Dalits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Roberts

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the Dalit movement in Maharastra having grown stagnant, and Uttar Pradesh’s Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party possibly reaching the limits of its potential development, the vital forefront of Dalit politics has now shifted to Tamil Nadu. So writes Gail Omvedt in her introduction to Thol. Thirumavalan’s Talisman. Whether the recent upsurge of intellectual and political energy among Tamil Dalits shall indeed prove a model for Dalits elsewhere in India—or whether, on the contrary, there are not...

  15. Il fattore "eta'" nell'acquisizione linguistica (L1 e L2): dimensioni di un "meta-problema" (The "Age" Factor in Language Acquisition [L1 and L2]: The Dimensions of a "Meta-Problem").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titone, Renzo

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes and comments on two recent books, one by Birgit Harley and the other by David Singleton, that review the language research carried out to determine the importance of age in learning a second language. (CFM)

  16. "If I write like a scientist, then soy un cientifico": Differentiated Writing Supports and the Effects on Fourth-Grade English Proficient Students' and English Language Learners' Science Content Knowledge and Explanatory Writing About Magnetism and Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichon, Kathryn A.

    The purpose of this pre-post quasi-experimental dissertation was to investigate the effects of differentiated writing supports on English Proficient Students' (EPSs) and English Language Learners' (ELLs) science content knowledge and explanatory writing about magnetism and electricity. Eighty-seven fourth-grade students (EPSs = 35; ELLs = 52) were randomly assigned to two groups based on two differentiated writing: guided questions ( n = 43) or targeted writing frames (n = 44). In the guided questions condition, students completed four question sets after a science investigation, and in the targeted writing frames condition, students completed the same four question sets, but with explicit support for vocabulary, transitions, and relational language in the form of if-then statements. Over the course of the four week intervention, students completed a total of nine writing tasks, and were pretested and posttested on six variables: magnetism and electricity content knowledge test, explanatory writing task, total number of words written, total number of sentences written, number of if-then statements, and number of content-based vocabulary words. Results indicate that EPSs and ELLs in both writing conditions improved significantly from pretest to posttest on six content and explanatory writing variables, with statistically significant gain scores occurring for the magnetism and electricity content knowledge test in which the targeted writing frames condition had a larger rate of gain. ANCOVA results indicated that in comparing writing conditions, a statistically significant difference was found for magnetism and electricity content knowledge posttests, when controlling for pretests. No statistically significant effects for language classification on the six variables were found when controlling for pretest scores. Interaction effects between writing condition and language classification were statistically significantly different for the interaction effect found on if

  17. Machine Translation-Assisted Language Learning: Writing for Beginners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ignacio; Pena, Maria Isabel

    2011-01-01

    The few studies that deal with machine translation (MT) as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, never by beginners. Yet, freely available MT engines (i.e. Google Translate) and MT-related web initiatives (i.e. Gabble-on.com) position themselves to cater precisely to the needs of learners with a limited command of a…

  18. Evaluating the English language scientific writing skills of Saudi dental students at entry level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tantawi, M; Al-Ansari, A; Sadaf, S; AlHumaid, J

    2016-04-28

    Better knowledge is needed about the effectiveness of preparatory English language courses for the health professions. This study evaluated the scientific writing skills of students finishing their preparatory year of a bachelor of dentistry programme in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014-15 among first-year dental students at the University of Dammam. Students were asked to write a 150-word English language assignment that was analysed for writing statistics and problems using Microsoft Word and plagiarism detection software. Of the 89 respondents, female students used a significantly greater number of words than did male students and their assignments had significantly lower Flesch reading ease scores. Male students had significantly lower odds of using references (OR 0.04) and higher odds of making punctuation and grammar mistakes (OR 2.63 and 3.91 respectively). One course of scientific writing in the preparatory year may not be enough to develop adequate writing skills among undergraduate dental students.

  19. Evaluating the English language scientific writing skills of Saudi dental students at entry level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tantawi, M; Al-Ansari, A; Sadaf, S; AlHumaid, J

    2016-02-01

    Better knowledge is needed about the effectiveness of preparatory English language courses for the health professions. This study evaluated the scientific writing skills of students finishing their preparatory year of a bachelor of dentistry programme in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014-15 among first-year dental students at the University of Dammam. Students were asked to write a 150-word English language assignment that was analysed for writing statistics and problems using Microsoft Word and plagiarism detection software. Of the 89 respondents, female students used a significantly greater number of words than did male students and their assignments had significantly lower Flesch reading ease scores. Male students had significantly lower odds of using references (OR 0.04) and higher odds of making punctuation and grammar mistakes (OR 2.63 and 3.91 respectively). One course of scientific writing in the preparatory year may not be enough to develop adequate writing skills among undergraduate dental students. PMID:27180743

  20. Communicative Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭燕

    2016-01-01

    Writing, like all other aspects of language , is communicative.Communicative writing takes an important part in English learn-ing.Communicative writing assignments train students to turn personal observations into impersonal prose , avoid value judgments unwelcome in the sciences, and write with economy and precision .In the English language classroom , however, writing often lacks this.Why?There are lots of reasons , as there are lots of ways to make the writing we do with students more communicative .

  1. Recognizing Syntactic Errors in the Writing of Second Language Learners

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, D A; Schneider, David A.; Coy, Kathleen F. Mc

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the recognition component of an intelligent tutoring system that is designed to help foreign language speakers learn standard English. The system models the grammar of the learner, with this instantiation of the system tailored to signers of American Sign Language (ASL). We discuss the theoretical motivations for the system, various difficulties that have been encountered in the implementation, as well as the methods we have used to overcome these problems. Our method of capturing ungrammaticalities involves using mal-rules (also called 'error productions'). However, the straightforward addition of some mal-rules causes significant performance problems with the parser. For instance, the ASL population has a strong tendency to drop pronouns and the auxiliary verb `to be'. Being able to account for these as sentences results in an explosion in the number of possible parses for each sentence. This explosion, left unchecked, greatly hampers the performance of the system. We discuss how this ...

  2. Levels of aggregation: Identification of sociolinguistic determinants of L1 proficiency in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Tummers, José; Deveneyns, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    We will investigate sociolinguistic determinants of written L1 proficiency of students in higher education in Flanders. Firstly, higher education institutions set up various support initiatives to improve the academic writing skills of incoming students (Peters & Van Houtven 2010). Secondly, research identified a correlation between first year students’ language proficiency and their study progress (De Wacher et al. 2013). To support evidence-based language policy, the following research ...

  3. Is it differences in language skills and working memory that account for girls being better at writing than boys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Bourke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Girls are more likely to outperform boys in the development of writing skills. This study considered gender differences in language and working memory skills as a possible explanation for the differential rates of progress. Sixty-seven children (31 males and 36 females (M age 57.30 months participated. Qualitative differences in writing progress were examined using a writing assessment scale from the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile (EYFSP. Quantitative measures of writing: number of words, diversity of words, number of phrases/sentences and grammatical complexity of the phrases/sentences were also analysed. The children were also assessed on tasks measuring their language production and comprehension skills and the visuo-spatial, phonological, and central executive components of working memory. The results indicated that the boys were more likely to perform significantly less well than the girls on all measures of writing except the grammatical complexity of sentences. Initially, no significant differences were found on any of the measures of language ability. Further, no significant differences were found between the genders on the capacity and efficiency of their working memory functioning. However, hierarchical regressions revealed that the individual differences in gender and language ability, more specifically spoken language comprehension, predicted performance on the EYFSP writing scale. This finding accords well with the literature that suggests that language skills can mediate the variance in boys’ and girls’ writing ability.

  4. Spanish Interference in EFL Writing Skills: A Case of Ecuadorian Senior High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Solano, Paola Alexandra; Gonzalez Torres, Paul Fernando; Ochoa Cueva, Cesar Augusto; Quinonez Beltran, Ana Lucia; Castillo Cuesta, Luz Mercedes; Solano Jaramillo, Lida Mercedes; Espinosa Jaramillo, Franklin Oswaldo; Arias Cordova, Maria Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Extensive studies have been conducted regarding mother tongue (L1) interference and developing English writing skills. This study, however, aims to investigate the influence of the Spanish language on second language (L2) writing skills at several Ecuadorian senior high schools in Loja. To achieve this, 351 students and 42 teachers from second…

  5. Writing fluency and quality in kindergarten and first grade: The role of attention, reading, transcription, and oral language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students' reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language component skills. Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that a model including attention was better fitting than a model with only language and literacy factors. Attention, a higher-order literacy factor related to reading and spelling proficiency, and automaticity in letter-writing were uniquely and positively related to compositional fluency in kindergarten. Attention and higher-order literacy factor were predictive of both composition quality and fluency in first grade, while oral language showed unique relations with first grade writing quality. Implications for writing development and instruction are discussed.

  6. Integrating the Genre-Based Approach into Teaching Writing in Arabic As a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Azaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on teaching writing in Arabic as a less commonly taught language is still in its infancy. Motivated by the dearth of research on the integration of the genre-based approach into teaching writing in Arabic and the absence of such an approach, this paper proposes a genre-based framework for teaching writing in Arabic. Building on conclusions drawn from recent research, it proposes four specific guiding principles. Furthermore, it offers a model lesson plan that shows an instructional sequence of how a single genre, which is congratulation letters, both personal and formal, can be effectively taught. Moreover, results of a survey onducted on a selected group of instructors of Arabic (n = 10 showed that they responded very positively to the proposed model. The guiding principles and the lesson plan are aimed to offer the underlying theoretical knowledge and a practical example for teaching this genre and other relevant ones in Arabic.

  7. A translator writing system for microcomputer high-level languages and assemblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, W. R.; Knight, J. C.; Noonan, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    In order to implement high level languages whenever possible, a translator writing system of advanced design was developed. It is intended for routine production use by many programmers working on different projects. As well as a fairly conventional parser generator, it includes a system for the rapid generation of table driven code generators. The parser generator was developed from a prototype version. The translator writing system includes various tools for the management of the source text of a compiler under construction. In addition, it supplies various default source code sections so that its output is always compilable and executable. The system thereby encourages iterative enhancement as a development methodology by ensuring an executable program from the earliest stages of a compiler development project. The translator writing system includes PASCAL/48 compiler, three assemblers, and two compilers for a subset of HAL/S.

  8. Between freedom and self-subjection: the dilemma of writing in an African language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Maake

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of the dilemmas that confront an author who chooses to write in an African language. (Language choice remains a particularly vexing issue in African literature. On the one hand a language that he is a master of gives him the freedom to assert himself and oppose the imperial way of thinking, which is liberating. On the other hand choice of language confines his work to a specific audience and a particular set of literary canons. Sometimes certain influential gatekeepers overtly prescribe boundaries and limit the possibilities of transcending them. On the other hand, as a case study of Sesotho literature shows, the literature itself manifests generic and thematic propensities that limit the freedom of literary expression. From the subjective and privileged position of being a writer in Sesotho himself the author in the end makes a number of suggestions on how to overcome this stifling status quo.

  9. High School Teacher Perspectives and Practices: Second Language Writing and Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' understandings of second language learning influence their practices in the classroom. This paper analyzes interview and classroom data collected during a year-long ethnographic study of two high school English language development classes to identify (1) what the teachers understood about second language (L2) development and L2 academic…

  10. Second language writing anxiety, computer anxiety, and performance in a classroom versus a web-based environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dracopoulos, Effie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that in-volved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxie-ty only yielded a positive correlation with performan...

  11. Improving English as a Foreign Language Writing in Elementary Schools Using Mobile Devices in Familiar Situational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Chen, Holly S. L.; Shadiev, Rustam; Huang, Ray Yueh-Min; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This research proposed a situational learning system to help elementary school students practice and improve their English as a foreign language (EFL) writing skills. Students carried out assigned writing tasks using the support of mobile devices in situations deemed to be familiar to the students, such as on the school playground, within…

  12. Learner Characteristics and Writing Performance in a Community College English as a Second Language Course: Some Unexpected Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olga D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between individual learner characteristics and gain in writing performance as measured by a standardized writing assessment in a sample of community college academic English as a Second Language (ESL) students in the United States. The ethnically and linguistically diverse convenience sample included 76…

  13. Language style matching in writing: synchrony in essays, correspondence, and poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Molly E; Pennebaker, James W

    2010-09-01

    Each relationship has its own personality. Almost immediately after a social interaction begins, verbal and nonverbal behaviors become synchronized. Even in asocial contexts, individuals tend to produce utterances that match the grammatical structure of sentences they have recently heard or read. Three projects explore language style matching (LSM) in everyday writing tasks and professional writing. LSM is the relative use of 9 function word categories (e.g., articles, personal pronouns) between any 2 texts. In the first project, 2 samples totaling 1,744 college students answered 4 essay questions written in very different styles. Students automatically matched the language style of the target questions. Overall, the LSM metric was internally consistent and reliable across writing tasks. Women, participants of higher socioeconomic status, and students who earned higher test grades matched with targets more than others did. In the second project, 74 participants completed cliffhanger excerpts from popular fiction. Judges' ratings of excerpt-response similarity were related to content matching but not function word matching, as indexed by LSM. Further, participants were not able to intentionally increase style or content matching. In the final project, an archival study tracked the professional writing and personal correspondence of 3 pairs of famous writers across their relationships. Language matching in poetry and letters reflected fluctuations in the relationships of 3 couples: Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning, and Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes. Implications for using LSM as an implicit marker of social engagement and influence are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Potential Problematic Rhetorical Style Transfer from First Language to Foreign Language: A Case of Indonesian Authors Writing Research Article Introductions in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsyad, Safnil; Arono

    2016-01-01

    Rhetorical style transfer from first language to a foreign language can be serious problems in academic writing, such as Research Articles (RAs). This study is aimed at analyzing the rhetorical style of Indonesian RA introductions in multiple disciplines written by Indonesian authors and published in Indonesian research journals especially on the…

  15. Students of the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra as Object of the Research Results in Developing Foreign Language Writing Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra MORAVCOVÁ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the foreign language is one of the most important language skills students develop and improve at the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra. Strong writing skills are essential to their future success, whether they are related to writing general reports on agricultural issues at home or in the world as well as to working-out some research papers aimed at agriculture, but also at some other areas of the business world. We have to state that writing is perhaps one of the most difficult skills students can develop and improve at our University. They learn how to write effectively, they are encouraged to develop an awareness of themselves as students - writers and essay authors. This paper deals with the essay writing analysis in teaching foreign languages at the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, particularly from the point of their final results. The research was carried out in the Department of Languages and we present in our paper the results students achieved in writing essays in the two compared years, 2007 and 2010.

  16. Reflective Blogfolios in the Language Classroom: Impact on EFL Tertiary Students’ Argumentative Writing Skills and Ways of Knowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Abdullah Mahmoud Ismial

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The emerging paradigm shift in educational contexts from walled classroom environments to virtual, hybrid, blended, and lately personal learning environments has brought about vast changes in the foreign language classroom practices.  Numerous calls  for experimenting with new instructional treatments to enhance students' language performance in these new learning environments have been voiced by researchers and language educators in different settings. The current study aimed at investigating the impact of using reflective blogfolios in teaching argumentation to EFL tertiary students on their argumentative essay writing skills and ways of knowing. As well, the study investigated the relationship between student's ways of knowing and their argumentative writing capabilities. The participants of the study were fifty one EFL tertiary students in the Emirati context. Two assessment instruments were used, including a ways-of-knowing scale and a rubric for tapping EFL students' argumentative writing skills. Results of the study indicated that using reflective blogfolios in the foreign language classroom brought about significant changes in EFL tertiary students' argumentative writing skills and their ways of knowing. Results of the study also indicated that connected ways of knowing were better predictors of EFL tertiary students' argumentative writing performance than separate ways of knowing. Details of the instructional intervention, the assessment instruments, results of the study, implications for foreign language instruction in virtual learning environments, and suggestions for further research are discussed.Keywords: Reflective blogfolios, argumentative writing skills, ways of knowing

  17. "Brilliant, Bright, Boiling Words": Literary Disability, Language and the Writing Body in the Work of Christopher Nolan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This article uses theory on disability, embodiment and language to explore the production, context and presentation of two pieces of life-writing by Christopher Nolan. It examines Nolan's unusual use of language and form in his presentations of an experience of disability, and considers its literary and political significance. Consideration is…

  18. An Exploration into the Writing Ability of Generation 1.5 and International Second Language Writers: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gennaro, Kristen K.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the writing ability of international second language learners (IL2) and US-resident second language learners, also referred to as Generation 1.5 (G1.5), differs, despite a dearth of substantial empirical evidence supporting such claims. The present study provides much-needed empirical evidence concerning…

  19. Transfer of L1 Cohesive Devices and Transition Words into L2 Academic Texts: The Case of Arab Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed-Sayidina, Aisha

    2010-01-01

    This study claims that Arab ESL students writing in English transfer L1 rhetorical modes of text organization into their English compositions. Fifty academic research papers were analysed in terms of the transition words and cohesive devices used, on the assumption that differences at the level of these language forms reflect differences at the…

  20. Approaches to Writing Instruction for Adolescent English Language Learners: A Discussion of Recent Research and Practice Literature in Relation to Nationwide Standards on Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panofsky,Carolyn; Pacheco, Maria; Smith, Sara; Santos, Janet; Fogelman, Chad; Harrington, Margaret; Kenney, Erica

    2005-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) in today's U.S. middle schools and high schools face significant challenges from state writing assessments, and data suggest that they do not fare well. This paper seeks to uncover some of the reasons by posing the question: What is the available research base and practice literature to help teachers prepare ELLs…

  1. Measuring affective language in known peer feedback on L2 Academic writing courses: A novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Michael Alan Yallop

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Publishing scientific articles in English is often a prerequisite for academic success. Thus, developing effective pedagogies to support Estonian university students develop writing skills in L2 (English is becoming increasingly more important. One such method is by forming small writing groups where each member periodically gives written feedback on their colleague’s writing. Here, the affective language used in the written communication between the reviewer and writer may strongly influence their relationship. This in turn may have a significant impact on the writing process. This study describes the development of a novel taxonomy to measure the cumulative effect of affective factors by accounting for the uniqueness of each individual, and how they project their distinct personalities or ‘social presence’ to build rapport within the group. The hypothesis is that individuals exhibiting a high social presence are more likely to produce higher-quality feedback and more improved subsequent texts than those with a lower social presence. The paper concludes by illustrating how this taxonomy can be used to both test this hypothesis and gain further insight into the peer feedback process in future studies.

  2. The Effect of Virtual Language Learning Method on Writing Ability of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the effect of virtual language learning method on Iranian intermediate EFL learners writing ability. The study was conducted with 20 English Translation students at Chabahar Maritime University who were assigned into two groups, control and experimental, after ensuring of their homogeneity by administering a TOEFL proficiency. The participants of the experimental group received virtual learning i.e. sending PowerPoint through their e-mails. The participants of the experimental group did not have to attend the classes, however they had to study the PowerPoint and send the assigned task on the mentioned deadline. A writing posttest was administered to find the impacts of both methods. A paired sample t-test and an independent sample t-test were run to analyze the posttest scores using SPSS. The findings of the study indicated that both groups showed some improvements in terms of their writing ability since the obtained p value of both groups were 0.000 which is smaller than 0.05. However using virtual method appeared to be a more fruitful tool since the mean score of the experimental group (12.75 was much higher than the mean score of the control group (9.8.Keywords: writing ability; virtual learning; product approach; process approach; virtual environment

  3. Alphabetic and nonalphabetic L1 effects in English word identification: a comparison of Korean and Chinese English L2 learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Koda, Keiko; Perfetti, Charles A

    2003-03-01

    Different writing systems in the world select different units of spoken language for mapping. Do these writing system differences influence how first language (L1) literacy experiences affect cognitive processes in learning to read a second language (L2)? Two groups of college students who were learning to read English as a second language (ESL) were examined for their relative reliance on phonological and orthographic processing in English word identification: Korean students with an alphabetic L1 literacy background, and Chinese students with a nonalphabetic L1 literacy background. In a semantic category judgment task, Korean ESL learners made more false positive errors in judging stimuli that were homophones to category exemplars than they did in judging spelling controls. However, there were no significant differences in responses to stimuli in these two conditions for Chinese ESL learners. Chinese ESL learners, on the other hand, made more accurate responses to stimuli that were less similar in spelling to category exemplars than those that were more similar. Chinese ESL learners may rely less on phonological information and more on orthographic information in identifying English words than their Korean counterparts. Further evidence supporting this argument came from a phoneme deletion task in which Chinese subjects performed more poorly overall than their Korean counterparts and made more errors that were phonologically incorrect but orthographically acceptable. We suggest that cross-writing system differences in L1s and L1 reading skills transfer could be responsible for these ESL performance differences.

  4. Alphabetic and nonalphabetic L1 effects in English word identification: a comparison of Korean and Chinese English L2 learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Koda, Keiko; Perfetti, Charles A

    2003-03-01

    Different writing systems in the world select different units of spoken language for mapping. Do these writing system differences influence how first language (L1) literacy experiences affect cognitive processes in learning to read a second language (L2)? Two groups of college students who were learning to read English as a second language (ESL) were examined for their relative reliance on phonological and orthographic processing in English word identification: Korean students with an alphabetic L1 literacy background, and Chinese students with a nonalphabetic L1 literacy background. In a semantic category judgment task, Korean ESL learners made more false positive errors in judging stimuli that were homophones to category exemplars than they did in judging spelling controls. However, there were no significant differences in responses to stimuli in these two conditions for Chinese ESL learners. Chinese ESL learners, on the other hand, made more accurate responses to stimuli that were less similar in spelling to category exemplars than those that were more similar. Chinese ESL learners may rely less on phonological information and more on orthographic information in identifying English words than their Korean counterparts. Further evidence supporting this argument came from a phoneme deletion task in which Chinese subjects performed more poorly overall than their Korean counterparts and made more errors that were phonologically incorrect but orthographically acceptable. We suggest that cross-writing system differences in L1s and L1 reading skills transfer could be responsible for these ESL performance differences. PMID:12590041

  5. Research in L1 Transfer in Second Language Acquisition from the Perspective of Markedness Theory%标记理论视角下二语习得中的母语迁移研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑞红

    2012-01-01

    L1 transfer refers to the influence exerted on second language acquisition because of the similarities and differ- ences between L1 and 1.2. As an important constraint on L1 transfer, markedness is an asymmetrical and contrasting phe- nomenon in language. From the perspective of mark.edness theory, the study of L1 transfer in second language acquisition is favorable for realizing where L1 transfer will happen and predicting difficulties in language acquisition and provides reasona- ble explanation to the L1 transfer.%母语迁移是指由于母语与二语的差异和相同从而对第二语言习得所产生的影响。作为母语迁移的重要制约因素之一的语言标记性是指语言中的一种不对称同时又相对立的现象。从标记理论的视角来研究二语习得中的母语迁移,有利于预先了解母语迁移发生的区域,同时可预测语言习得中困难出现的相对程度,把母语迁移的研究纳入了认知研究的范畴,为母语迁移的发生提供了较强和合理的解释。

  6. SMS Language and College Writing :The languages of the College Texters

    OpenAIRE

    Norizul Azida Darus; Nazira Osman; Latisha Asmaak Shafie

    2010-01-01

    Many students have become avid texters and are seriously reinventing language to accommodate the 160-character limit of short messages. They are more interested in getting their messages across and thus becoming less concerned about correct spelling, grammar and punctuation. Since texting has become a way of life of many students, it is feared that the SMS language can affect students’ written performance. This research examines the effects of frequent usage of text messaging (SMS) on undergr...

  7. Revitalising and preserving endangered indigenous languages in South Africa through writing and publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ngulube

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Libraries and librarians play a central role in organising and communicating knowledge. They are an important part of theknowledge production and use chain. The development and sustenance of a knowledge-based economy hinges on theirability to facilitate the accessibility, retrievability and usability of the knowledge and information that permeates theinformation society. Writers and publishers as part and parcel of the knowledge chain are central to the production anddistribution of ideas. Language is fundamental to their ability to communicate and get their literal messages, expressionsand ideas through. Their preferred language of writing and publishing may mean a difference between the growth anddemise of a language of a society and its culture and civilisation. Many indigenous languages around the globe arestruggling to survive because of various reasons including neglect by writers and publishers. Publishers and writers as majorrole players in the knowledge production and reproduction chain may assist in promoting and preserving indigenouslanguages in general and in South Africa in particular. This may ensure that South Africa’s knowledge economy developswithout sidelining or discriminating against any culture or language. There are challenges and opportunities that writersand publishers are likely to face in attempting to revitalise and empower indigenous languages in South Africa, but theyare not insurmountable. Using a theoretical approach, the purpose of this article is to highlight the role that writers andpublishers may play in revitalising and preserving endangered indigenous languages in South Africa. Recommendations aremade on how the role players may deal with the challenges that have culminated in the neglect of the endangeredindigenous languages.

  8. Self-efficacy, foreign language anxiety as predictors of academic performance among professional program students in a general English proficiency writing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M C; Lin, Huey-Ju

    2009-10-01

    Questionnaires were administered to 120 students. Cluster analysis was used to examine whether specific groups could be described by a writing self-efficacy scale, English writing anxiety scale, and a written General English Proficiency Test. Three clusters were observed. Demographic variables were compared for each cluster, including age, sex, program of study, years of English instruction, native language, and number of English speaking acquaintances. Efforts to reduce writing anxiety and promote writing self-efficacy could enhance writing scores of participants.

  9. "I was born full deaf." Written language outcomes after 1 year of strategic and interactive writing instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbers, Kimberly A; Dostal, Hannah M; Bowers, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Nonstandard grammatical forms are often present in the writing of deaf students that are rarely, if ever, seen in the writing of hearing students. With the implementation of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI) in previous studies, students have demonstrated significant gains in high-level writing skills (e.g., text structure) but have also made gains with English grammar skills. This 1-year study expands on prior research by longitudinally examining the written language growth (i.e., writing length, sentence complexity, sentence awareness, and function words) of 29 deaf middle-school students. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with a between-subjects variable for literacy achievement level was used to examine gains over time and the intervention's efficacy when used with students of various literacy levels. Students, whether high or low achieving, demonstrated statistically significant gains with writing length, sentence complexity, and sentence awareness. Subordinate clauses were found to be an area of difficulty, and follow up strategies are suggested. An analysis of function word data, specifically prepositions and articles, revealed different patterns of written language growth by language group (e.g., American Sign Language users, oral students, users of English-based sign).

  10. Periodicity and Its Use in Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriyasilpa, Yupaporn

    2009-01-01

    Writing in English is often a problem for EFL learners in part because students may translate literally from their L1, and also because they may organise their writing by focusing on the grammatical structure at the level of clause or sentence. However, many studies argue that language is meaningful at a unit larger than a clause or sentence…

  11. An analyses of feedback styles in the assessment of creative writing by grade 10 teachers in SeSotho Home Language: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Sibeko, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the assessment of creative essays in grade 10 Sesotho home language. Nine participants from a total of six schools took part in the research. For the purpose of this study, no literature was found on the assessment of Sesotho essays (or essay writing in any other African language) in general or specific to creative writing in high schools in South Africa. The literature on English first language teaching and English second language teaching were then used to theoretica...

  12. ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Higareda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1 in English Language Teaching (ELT, critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1 de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI , un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1 parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido.

  13. Learners between Childhood and Adulthood: Assessing Writing Competences of Teens Learning French as a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Lah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces learners between two age groups: childhood and adulthood. The aim of the author is to analyse the writing skills of French primary school learners – mostly 14 years old – and to determine which descriptors could be used to assess them. The article begins with a presentation of the learners’ characteristics and continues with a review of the position of the French language in Slovenian primary schools, where French is taught as a second foreign language and an elective subject. Since French is a rather infrequent subject in primary schools, it is difficult to obtain comparable materials. Finally, 36 written compositions from the national French competition serve as the basis for analysis. The detailed analysis is accompanied by a presentation of the CEFR and AYLLIT descriptors for writing, as well as reflection on which descriptors are appropriate for assessing compositions and placing them on the CEFR levels. The AYLLIT descriptors seem more relevant, as they are more explicit and appropriate for the target group.

  14. Factors Influencing Student Nurses’ Perceptions of Success and Failure in Second Language Writing – A Classroom-based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng TAI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article applies attribution theory to identify the factors that influence nursing students’ perceptions of success and failure in learning English writing skills. The study took place in a language classroom in southern Taiwan involving fifty-one female nursing students, a writing teacher, and the researcher. Teaching activities included five writing cycles based on an online writing platform, process approach, and multiple revisions. Evidence data has been collected from learners’ questionnaires and interviews, teacher’s interviews, classroom observations, teaching materials, and researcher’s diaries. The data has been analysed quantitatively using SPSS and qualitatively with the aid of QSR NVivo software. Results reveal the major factors given by learners involve the amount writing practice given and their perceptions of their competence in vocabulary and with grammar. The work is supported by observations made by the language teacher and the researcher on issues which have emerged on the students’ writing skills, psychology, language competence, and learning context. This article concludeswith the implications for teaching.

  15. The Effect of Six Different Corrective Feedback Strategies on Iranian English Language Learners’ IELTS Writing Task 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Vahdani Sanavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have long studied the effect of corrective feedback strategies on the writing ability of language learners, but few have formed designs in which more than three feedback strategies have been used. In this research, the ultimate goal was to discover how International English Language Testing System (IELTS- candidates could be helped to perform better in the writing component of the test with the feedback they get. To this end, 186 learners attending IELTS preparation classes in three different English language institutes participated in this quasi-experimental study. A one-way ANOVA was run to discover the significant difference among the six groups. The findings proposed that Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL students’ writing ability improved as a result of the employment of writing feedback strategies but that reformulation strategy was the most effective one. Teachers can, thus, benefit from the finding of this research by studying the way they should tackle the learners’ inaccurate productions as far as different writing score band descriptors are concerned.

  16. Affordances for Language Awareness in a Middle School Transitional Classroom: Multi-Competent L1/L2 Users Under No Child Left Behind

    OpenAIRE

    Gage-Serio, Ondine Angelique

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines affordances for Language Awareness within a classroom serving English learners in a coastal California middle school under the policy context of No Child Left Behind. As an ecologically inspired account, this study contributes to understanding how students use and learn language in classroom settings. Affordances for Language Awareness represent possibilities available to students for accessing relevant information to make meaning of language within a classroom. Af...

  17. Cognitive Retroactive Transfer (CRT) of Language Skills among Bilingual Arabic-English Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Shakkour, Wael; Siegel, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention helping struggling readers improve their reading and writing skills in English as a foreign language (L2), and those same skills in Arabic, which was their first language (L1). Transferring linguistic skills from L2 to L1 is termed "cognitive retroactive transfer". Tests were administered to the…

  18. The Impact of Promoting Transcription on Early Text Production: Effects on Bursts and Pauses, Levels of Written Language, and Writing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rui A.; Limpo, Teresa; Fidalgo, Raquel; Carvalhais, Lénia; Pereira, Luísa Álvares; Castro, São Luís

    2016-01-01

    Writing development seems heavily dependent upon the automatization of transcription. This study aimed to further investigate the link between transcription and writing by examining the effects of promoting handwriting and spelling skills on a comprehensive set of writing measures (viz., bursts and pauses, levels of written language, and writing…

  19. Modeling the Relationship between Lexico-Grammatical and Discourse Organization Skills in Middle Grade Writers: Insights into Later Productive Language Skills That Support Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Emily Phillips; Uccelli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Learning to write in middle school requires the expansion of sentence-level and discourse-level language skills. In this study, we investigated later language development in the writing of a cross-sectional sample of 235 upper elementary and middle school students (grades 4-8) by examining the use of (1) lexico-grammatical forms that support…

  20. Exploring the Reading-Writing Connection: A Yearlong Classroom-Based Experimental Study of Middle School Students Developing Literacy in a New Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhee; Schallert, Diane L.

    2016-01-01

    A yearlong classroom-based intervention was designed to explore the reading-writing connection in second-language literacy by examining whether the development of reading improves writing and vice versa. Middle school learners of English as a foreign language (N = 300) in South Korea were assigned to three treatments that involved extensive…

  1. Students' Argumentative Writing Skills in Science and First-Language Education: Commonalities and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Patricia; Hecht, Martin; Schwanewedel, Julia; Schipolowski, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    The ability to build arguments is a crucial skill and a central educational goal in all school subjects including science as it enables students to formulate reasoned opinions and thus to cope with the increasing complexity of knowledge. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the domain-specificity of argumentative writing in science by comparing it with a rather general type of argumentation as promoted in first-language education and with formal reasoning to gain insight into different forms of argumentation on theoretical and empirical levels. Using a paper-and-pencil test, we analyzed written argumentations and the reasoning abilities of 3,274 Grade-10 students in German secondary schools. Correlation and multiple regression analyses as well as a qualitative analysis of students' answers to a subset of tasks in the domains of science and first-language education were conducted. Results showed moderate relations between argumentation in science, argumentation in first-language education, and reasoning. Half of the variance in argumentation in science was explained by individual differences in argumentation in first-language education and reasoning. Furthermore, the examination of written arguments revealed differences, for example, in students' weighing of pros and cons. We assume that the familiarity of the underlying scientific information may play an essential role in the argumentation process and posit that it needs to be investigated in more detail. Overall, the study indicates that investigating the argumentational abilities of learners in first-language education and reasoning abilities can help to shed light on the domain-specificity of argumentation in science.

  2. The Case of Chichewa and English in Malawi: The Impact of First Language Reading and Writing on Learning English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaran; Sailors, Misty; McClung, Nicola; Pearson, P. David; Hoffman, James V.; Chilimanjira, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between Chichewa (L1) and English (L2) literacies in Malawi. Through our use of hierarchical linear modeling, we found that cross-language literacy transfer between Chichewa and English did occur, but that the pattern and the strength of the relationships varied depending on the literacy domain (i.e., reading or…

  3. A Study of the Relationship between Persian and English Writing Skills among Adult EFL Learners in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Javadi-Safa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at investigating the relationship between writing skill and sub-skills of first language (Persian and foreign language (English. Therefore, 50 upper-intermediate EFL learners in Iran who were majoring in the English language were asked to write on two different topics in Persian and English. Then, the compositions were evaluated based on ESL Composition Profile. Subsequently, using Pearson product-moment correlation, the correlation between the compositions overall scores in L1 and L2, as well as the correlations between each of five major components of writing, including content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanics in the two languages were examined. The results displayed large correlations between the compositions overall scores as well as between the four writing sub-skills in L1 and L2. The highest correlations were observed between writing sub-skills of vocabulary, mechanics, language use, and content respectively. These findings entail some pedagogical implications for effective language learning in both L1 and L2, utilizing the enhancing effect of cross-linguistic transfer of writing. Key words: L1-L2 Relationship, Cross-linguistic Transfer, Writing, Adult EFL Learners, Persian

  4. Can Learning a Foreign Language Foster Analytic Thinking?—Evidence from Chinese EFL Learners' Writings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingyang; Ouyang, Jinghui; Liu, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software—Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007—was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) can foster Chinese high school students’ English analytic thinking (EAT) through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1) learning English can foster Chinese learners’ EAT. Chinese EFL learners’ ability of making distinctions, degree of cognitive complexity and degree of thinking activeness have all improved along with the increase of their English proficiency and their age; (2) there exist differences in Chinese EFL learners’ EAT and that of English native speakers, i. e. English native speakers are better in the ability of making distinctions and degree of thinking activeness. These findings suggest that the best EFL learners in high schools have gained native-like analytic thinking through six years’ English learning and are able to switch their cognitive styles as needed. PMID:27741270

  5. Helping Taiwanese Graduate Students Help Themselves: Applying Corpora to Industrial Management English as a Foreign Language Academic Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2015-01-01

    Lack of knowledge in the conventional use of vocabulary and multiword patterns in one's respective field of expertise causes Taiwanese students to produce academic writing that is markedly "non-nativelike." This is because Taiwanese students are first and foremost second language readers and often have difficulty "picking up…

  6. Taking a Reading/Writing Intervention for Secondary English Language Learners on the Road: Lessons Learned from the Pathway Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carol Booth; Land, Robert

    2008-01-01

    These two recipients of this year's Alan C. Purves Award reflect on their work (reported in "RTE" Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 269-303) on "A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for English Language Learners in Secondary School" and the lessons they learned from their original research study as they tried to replicate the…

  7. Adopting Social Networking Sites (SNSs) as Interactive Communities among English Foreign Language (EFL) Learners in Writing: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Norizan Abdul; Saeed, Murad; Ahmad, Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    As most traditional classroom environments in English as Foreign Language (EFL) still restrict learners' collaboration and interaction in college writing classes, today, the majority of EFL learners are accessing Social Networking Sites (SNSs) as online communities of practice (CoPs) for adopting informal collaborative learning as a way of…

  8. Word-Processor or Pencil-and-Paper? A Comparison of Students' Writing in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Mark Shum, Shiu-Kee; Brian Tse, Shek-Kam; Liu, Jinghui Jack

    2016-01-01

    A study is reported of the performance and attainment of 32 students from overseas studying elementary Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in a Chinese university. With an AB-BA design, they were asked to use two forms of writing media to present two essays: one a word-processed essay entitled "My Favourite Female" and the other a…

  9. Virtual Task-Based Situated Language-Learning with "Second Life": Developing EFL Pragmatic Writing and Technological Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.; Mansour, Marian M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an experimental research study that aimed at investigating the effectiveness of employing a virtual task-based situated language learning (TBSLL) environment mediated by Second Life (SL) in developing EFL student teachers' pragmatic writing skills and their technological self-efficacy. To reach this goal, a control-only…

  10. Analysis of the Impacts of the Negative Transfer of the Mother Language in English Writing in Junior Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隆梅

    2014-01-01

    Because of the differences between Chinese and English culture, many English learners always try to use Chinese language rules in writing English expressions,and thus result in the errors,which we cal Chinglish.This paper firstly analyzes errors and probes into the possible reasons which result in the errors,and brings out some solutions related to the errors.

  11. Teaching Creative Writing Skills to Primary School Children in Hong Kong: Discordance between the Views and Practices of Language Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Wai Ming; Tse, Shek Kam; Tsang, Hector WH

    2003-01-01

    Responding to a definition of creativity, 449 Chinese language teachers identified imagination foremost, followed by inspiration and original ideas as a component of effective writing. Teachers identified developing student confidence and providing an open atmosphere as essential means of fostering creativity. The majority of teachers, however,…

  12. The Impact of Executive Functions on the Written Language Process: Some Evidence from Children with Writing Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevriadou, Anastasia; Giaouri, Stergiani

    2015-01-01

    Written language is a difficult endeavour as the demands of transcription require self-regulatory skills from a motor, cognitive and attention perspective. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between the Test of Writing Difficulties (Porpodas et al., 2007) and the Test of Detection and Investigation of Executive…

  13. Influence of Spoken Language on the Initial Acquisition of Reading/Writing: Critical Analysis of Verbal Deficit Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Sanchez, Jose Luis; Cuadrado-Gordillo, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the results of a quasi-experimental study of whether there exists a causal relationship between spoken language and the initial learning of reading/writing. The subjects were two matched samples each of 24 preschool pupils (boys and girls), controlling for certain relevant external variables. It was found that there was no…

  14. Making Sense of Power Relations in a Malaysian English-as-a-Second-Language Academic Writing Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The role of power in an English-as-a-second-language classroom has yet to be fully explored by an action research practitioner, especially in a Malaysian higher education setting. This study aims to contribute to this gap by working within an academic literacies perspective to teaching academic writing, which propagates the understanding of…

  15. Cantonese English as a Second Language Learners' Perceived Relations between "Similar" L1 and L2 Speech Sounds: A Test of the Speech Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a research study that investigated Cantonese English as a second language (ESL) learners' perception of English speech sounds, their perceived relations between "similar" English and Cantonese sounds, as well as the applicability of the claims of the Speech Learning Model (SLM) to second language (L2)…

  16. A Study of Students’ Assessment in Writing Skills of the English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Javed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses to evaluate and assess the students’ competency in writing skills at Secondary school level in the English Language focusing five major content areas: word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/ grammar and handwriting. The target population was the male and female students of grade 10 of urban and rural Secondary schools from public and private sector. Forty (40 Secondary schools of District Bahawalnagar, Pakistan were taken using stratified sampling. A sample consisting of 440 students (11students from each school was randomly selected using a table of random numbers. An achievement test consisting of different items was developed to assess the students’ competency and capability in sub-skills of writing such as word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/grammar and handwriting. Mean score and standard deviation were used to analyze the students’ proficiency in each sub-skill. The t-test was applied to make the comparison on the bases of gender, density and public and private sector. The overall performance of all the students was better in comprehension as compared to other sub-skills namely word completion, sentence making/syntax, tenses/grammar and handwriting. The analysis, based on t-value, revealed no significant difference between the performance of male and female students and the students of public and private schools, whereas there was a significant difference between the performance of urban and rural students.

  17. Technology in L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elf, Nikolaj Frydensbjerg; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Skaar, Håvard;

    2015-01-01

    no systematic overview of the documented possibilities and challenges related to the use of technology in L1. At the same time, there is terminological confusion in use of ‘technology’ and related concepts in L1. Finally, there is a general lack of critical reflection on the relation between technological...... developments, political rhetoric, and the development of L1 teaching and learning as a social practice related to specific contexts and actors. Thus, the paper attempts to answer three interrelated research questions: 1) what do we mean when we talk about ‘technology’ in L1?; 2) based on a systematic review...

  18. LANGUAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ The word"language"comes from the Latin(拉丁语)word"lingua",which means"tongue".The tongue is used in more sound combinations(结合)than any other organ(器官)of speech.A broader(概括性的)interpretation(解释)of"language"is that it is any form of expression.This includes(包括)writing,sign(手势)language,dance,music,painting,and mathematics.But the basic(基本的)form of language is speech.

  19. Developing and Improving:A Study of the Middle School Students’ Writing Ability in the Second Language Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing WANG

    2016-01-01

    With the development and advancement of social and cultural communication between China and other countries in the world, the second language education is very popular with Chinese people. And usually, it will take the young for nearly 16 years to learn a second language, especially English. Most of them learn English from primary school until university. Besides having routine English classes at school, they also pay extra time and money to learn English in their spare time in many training companies. And now, English education has already become an industry in China and some training companies such as New Oriental English, are familiar to common people. And a crucial problem is that, after so many years of hard work, most of them are even having basic writing difficulties. The systemic and effective teaching method of writing in a second language education in China is being researched. This thesis attempts to cultivate the students’ subjective initiative in second language education activities, raise the students’ learning consciousness, and enhance their lasting interests in learning so as to reach the goal to improve the students’ writing ability in second language education.

  20. Academic writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.

    2003-10-01

    The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.

  1. Ngelidin Sétra, Nepukin Sema? Thoughts on Language and Writing in Contemporary Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Fox

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractRecent decades have seen a shift in Balinese sensibilitiesregarding the use of the island’s traditional script, andof the texts that are written in that script; and this shiftappears to be linked to a series of wider-reaching changesin the way people set about embodying, cultivating andcontesting shared ideals of agency, community and thecollective good.1 That is to say there seems to be a linkbetween, on the one hand, the material practices of scriptand writing and, on the other, broader styles of what Iwould call social and practical reasoning. I wish to suggestthat this empirical observation may have some ratherimportant implications for how we think about culturalpreservation, and perhaps especially the challengesfacing those working to safeguard the future of Balineselanguage, script and literature. I would like to present thisargument with specific reference to the idea of ‘languageendangerment’, not only on account of its prominence incurrent debates on language and cultural heritage, but alsoas the questions it raises have special bearing on the issues at stake in contemporary Bali. The recent controversy overthe place of Balinese language instruction in the NationalCurriculum offers a useful way into the problem.

  2. Teaching the Writing Process as a First and Second Language Revisited: Are They the Same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Felicia; Ben Idris, Anisa

    2015-01-01

    Research on the second writing process is not recent. Both first and second writing processes have been in the area of argument among scholars. It has been confirmed that both first and second writers nearly all practice similar physical activities pre-writing, during, and post writing stages; however, they still differ in the inner extra thinking…

  3. THE WRITING PROBLEMS OF IRANIAN STUDENTS IN THE BASIC LEVEL WHO LEARNS TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Boylu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available At all levels of education as well as teaching Turkish to foreigners is an issue to be dealt with on the importance of input and output. In this respect, the work of writing and language learning that is possible to determine the level of their writing skills. In this context, at the end of term exams and courses, as well as on the data obtained, the detection and correction of errors, both in terms of the potential students and the teacher guiding the student is. In addition, the students already know their mistakes, to gain the ability to write in the future is important to minimize errors. At this work we identified the Iranian students writing problems and presented their recommendations for the solution. The study designed as a survey. The Data collected about the students problems on writing from the exams which the centre done on writing part and the students composition papers during the period. The mistakes of the students made in written expression, grouped audio information, morphology, the syntax and orthography.

  4. The "magnet effect" - a powerful source of L1 dialect interference in the pronunciation of English as a foreign language: "Magnetni učinek" - močan vir vpliva narečja materinščine na izgovorjavo angleščine kot tujega jezika:

    OpenAIRE

    Jurančič, Klementina

    2014-01-01

    Wieden and Nemser (1991) carried out a study investigating the development of pronunciation of English as a foreign language in Austria. One of the main issues in this research was L1 dialect interference. Individual studies have proven that the pronunciation of a second (L2) or foreign language (FL) is not influenced only by the standard variety of the first language (L1), but also by the L1 dialect of the speaker's place of origin (Karpf et al. 1980). Wieden and Nemser's study wished to pro...

  5. “Remedying the remedy. An education development project for broadening language support to include 21st Century writing skills”

    OpenAIRE

    Lievens, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Flemish minister of Education sounded the alarm on language and writing skills. He felt that students were getting “sloppy”, and teachers displayed an “all too accepting didactic attitude”. Furthermore, the minister worried over the 2006 PISA results, which showed that nowhere in Europe the school performance gap between low and high SES students was as wide as in Flanders. A lack of language competencies, the minister argued, was at the root of the problem. He urged the institut...

  6. 英汉跨语言学习中L1与L2双向性语言迁移模式研究%Research into the two-way language transfer pattern of L1 and L2 in Englih and Chinese cross-language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军

    2015-01-01

    在跨语言学习与研究中,语言迁移现象时常发生,学习者在语言学习过程中常受到第一语言(L1)与第二语言(L2)之间的迁移影响,即L1→L2、L2→L1的语言正迁移与负迁移影响.以“概念整合理论”与“跨语言影响理论”为理论指导,对英汉跨语言学习中的L1与L2双向性语言迁移模式进行了深入研究.

  7. Constructing Writer Identity in Developing Second Language Writer ’s Academic Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yun-wen

    2014-01-01

    Writer identity in academic writing has long been ignored by developing L2 writers. Moreover, research has much fo-cused on the reader in shaping writing, and treated the role of the writer as unproblematic. In this essay, the construction of writ-er identity in developing writers’academic writing practice will be explored through a review of some relevant literature research and gain insights for the development of writer apprentices and writing instruction.

  8. Supporting the Development of Autonomous Learning Skills in Reading and Writing in an Independent Language Learning Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Hazel L. W. Chiu

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on observations, examples and findings from previous action research and teaching experiences gathered in an independent language learning centre in a university in Hong Kong to explore strategies for supporting independent learning. The learning centre offers one-to-one and small-group learning sessions to support the development of independent learning skills in various areas. This discussion will explore particularly the focuses of reading and writing skills development....

  9. Writing Teachers' Perceptions of the Presence and Needs of Second Language Writers: An Institutional Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Paul Kei; Saenkhum, Tanita; Accardi, Steven

    2013-01-01

    First-year composition in U.S. higher education has been a major site of L2 writing research. Despite the historical division between mainstream first-year composition and L2 writing, there has been an increasing interest in integrating insights from L2 writing research into the professional literature in rhetoric and composition and writing…

  10. The Teaching of Reading, Writing and Language in a Clinical Speech and Language Setting: A Blended Therapy Intervention Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammons, Kerrie Allen

    2013-01-01

    With a growing body of research that supports a link between language and literacy, governing bodies in the field of speech and language pathology have recognized the need to reconsider the role of speech-language pathologists in addressing the emergent literacy needs of preschoolers who struggle with literacy and language concepts. This study…

  11. Executive functions, oral language and writing in preschool children: Development and correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita de Cassia Batista Pazeto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF and oral language (OL are important for learning reading and writing (RW and for the development of other skills in preschool. The study investigated the progression and the relationships between the performances in these competences in pre-schoolers. Participants were 90 children, mean age 4.91 years, students from Kindergarten years I and II of a private school in SP, assessed, individually, with a battery with nine instruments for EF, OL, and RW. There was increase of the performances as a result of educational level for all OL and RW measures, but only for attention in the field of EF. Significant correlations were found between the measurements assessing the same cognitive domain, as well as inter-domain, although portraying a different pattern. The results indicate that OL and RW seem to develop rapidly in the course of preschool, while the EF have slower development. The fields of OL and RW, EF and RW are more interdependent, and EF and OL are relatively independent.

  12. The Effects of Wiki-Based Recursive Process Writing on Chinese Narrative Essays for Chinese as a Second Language (CSL) Students in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chee Kuen; Gong, Cheng; Tay, Boon Pei

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of using wiki-based process writing in Singapore's Chinese as a Second Language (CSL) scenarios. A group of 32 Secondary 1 (Seventh Grade) students ("Students") received various forms of online scaffolding at different steps of the writing process over two years. A whole set of teaching materials on 45…

  13. The Nature of Error in Adolescent Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Kristen Campbell; Yagelski, Robert; Yu, Fang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the nature and frequency of error in high school native English speaker (L1) and English learner (L2) writing. Four main research questions were addressed: Are there significant differences in students' error rates in English language arts (ELA) and social studies? Do the most common errors made by students differ in ELA…

  14. ATG16L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Mohammad; Ammitzboell, Mette; Nys, Kris;

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations in the autophagic pathway influence genetic predispositions to Crohn disease. Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for degrading and recycling cytoplasmic material, constitutes an important homeostatic cellular process. Of interest, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ATG16L1...... (autophagy-related 16-like 1 [S. cerevisiae]), a key component in the autophagic response to invading pathogens, have been associated with an increased risk of developing Crohn disease. The most common and well-studied genetic variant of ATG16L1 (rs2241880; leading to a T300A conversion) exhibits a strong...

  15. On the development of a colloquial writing style: Examining the language of Indonesian teen literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Noverini Djenar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The last few years have seen a boom in the publication of teen fiction in Indonesia. Particularly since the publication of the highly successful novel Eiffel ... I’m in love (Arunita 2001, numerous fiction works targeted at a youthful readership have appeared. This genre of popular literature has been so successful in attracting its audience that it currently constitutes the largest growing market in the Indonesian publishing industry (Simamora 2005. One of its striking characteristics is the predominant use of colloquial Indonesian, an informal variety of Indonesian that is closely identified with speakers from the capital Jakarta, particularly young people. Over a decade ago, scholars noted the increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in popular literature (see for example Adelaar and Prentice 1996:678. The implication is that this language variety has spread into domains previously dominated by standard Indonesian, the formal variety used in government administration, formal education, and most printed mass media. Indeed, contemporary Indonesian written literature is largely associated with standard Indonesian, such that the increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in popular literature has invited much criticism from language gatekeepers. Despite such criticism, however, teen fiction continues to flourish. The increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in teen fiction, though noted by scholars, has not been subject to any detailed linguistic study. Linguistic studies of colloquial Indonesian – at least those published in English – have focused so far on its use in speech, or in written texts intended to resemble speech, such as internet chatting and advice columns for young people. Prior to the recent surge in teen fiction, use of colloquial Indonesian in contemporary written literature was largely limited to dialogues. Writers such as Putu Wijaya, for example, are known to incorporate colloquialism to render dialogues more natural

  16. Your language or mine? or English as a lingua franca? Comparing effectiveness in English as a lingua franca and L1–L2 interactions: implications for corporate language policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulken, M.J.P. van; Hendriks, B.C.

    2014-01-01

    For multinational corporations, the need for efficiency and control has motivated the choice for a corporate language. However, increasing internationalisation has forced corporations to rethink their language policies to cater to the changing demands of the multicultural and multilingual workplace.

  17. Your language or mine? or English as a lingua franca? Comparing effectiveness in English as a lingua franca and L1–L2 interactions: implications for corporate language policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulken, M.J.P. van; Hendriks, B.C.

    2015-01-01

    For multinational corporations, the need for efficiency and control has motivated the choice for a corporate language. However, increasing internationalisation has forced corporations to rethink their language policies to cater to the changing demands of the multicultural and multilingual workplace.

  18. Writing Is a Foreign Language, and a Senior Writing Workshop Is a Tower of Babel Whose Many Languages Need to Be Translated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This paper, presented at the CCCC 2008 Senior Citizens Writing session, draws upon my experiences as a senior workshop member and past teacher. Addressing workshop leaders, it emphasizes the need for the many-faceted seniors' voices to be "translated" and tested within a workshop's microcosm before entering the outside world's macrocosm.

  19. The Role of Grammar Teaching in Writing in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Li

    2008-01-01

    "Grammar is the sound, structure, and meaning system of language. All languages have grammar, and each language has its own grammar" (Beverly, 2007, p.1). People who speak the same language are able to communicate with each other because they all know the grammar system and structure of that language, that is, the meaningful rules of grammar.…

  20. Is Speking Easier than Writing?: Exploring the Coplexity of Spoken Language

    OpenAIRE

    Luh Putu Artini

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to demonstrate the complexity of spoken language. First of all, the general characteristics of both varieties of language are dissussed, followed by an analysis of the differences between the spoken and written language. As spoken language is usually associated with non-standard language, the notion of standard and non-standard English will also be dissussed. The spoken and written language dissussed here refers to English only. In addition, spoken data were taken from s...

  1. Polish as a foreign language at elementary level of instruction : crosslinguistic influences in writing

    OpenAIRE

    Danuta Gabrys-Barker

    2007-01-01

    Being a minority European language, Polish has not attracted the attention of second language research (SLA) very much. Most studies in the area focus on English and other major languages describing variables and process observed in learners’ interlanguage development. This article looks at the language performance of elementary learners of Polish as a foreign language with a view to diagnosing areas of difficulty at the initial stages of language instruction. It is a case study of five learn...

  2. An Analysis on Deep-structure Language Problems in Chinese Students' English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贝贝

    2014-01-01

    Most Chinese students have something in common in English writing. That is,they first think in Chinese before writing and then translate what they think in Chinese into English. Therefore,a lot of Chinglish has come into being. This paper is aimed at analyzing this kind of problems and in particular instructing teachers how to deal with deep-structure problems in English writing.

  3. Diversified Styles of Language Used in the Practical Writing%应用文书语言的多元化特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉石

    2013-01-01

      应用文书的表达手段非常丰富,其语言具有精确性和模糊性的统一,文雅性与平实性的统一,委婉性与直接性的统一的特征。在写作中需恰当地使用不同的语言表述方式,以提高文书的表达效果。%Expressions used in the partial writing are very rich, the features of language style of the practical writing can be summarized as the unity between vagueness and precision;unified elegant and plain of euphemism;unity and directly.In the writing , proper use of different language expressions help to improve the effect of language used in the practical writing.

  4. Understanding EFL Students' Participation in Group Peer Feedback of L2 Writing: A Case Study from an Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shulin; Lee, Icy

    2015-01-01

    While the last three decades have witnessed a growing body of research on peer feedback in first language (L1) and second language (L2) writing, research about students' motives for participating in group peer feedback has remained underexplored. In order to fill this important gap, this case study, guided by the constructs of activity and motive…

  5. The Effect of Arabism of Romanic Alphabets on the Development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language Students' Writing Skills at Secondary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhair, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the effect of Arabization of Romanic Alphabets on the development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language students' composition writing skills at secondary school level. This experimental study includes 25 secondary school students in their 9th Grade in which English is taught as a foreign language at…

  6. Effective Utilization of ICT in English Language Learning--The Case of University of Botswana Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umunnakwe, Ngozi; Sello, Queen

    2016-01-01

    The study investigates the effective utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by first year undergraduates of the University of Botswana (UB) in their reading and writing skills. The first year students are not first language (L1) learners of English. They have not utilized computers for learning reading and writing in their…

  7. Public Internet Forums: Can They Enhance Argumentative Writing Skills of Second Language Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Mathy; Black, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Improving university students' writing skills is always a challenge. In a third-year French composition course, the researchers introduced the use of public Internet discussion forums to see if that would help achieve the argumentative writing skills goals that were set for this study. The results show that participation in the forums had a…

  8. Academic Writing for Graduate-Level English as a Second Language Students: Experiences in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman-Taveau, Rebekah; Karathanos-Aguilar, Katya

    2015-01-01

    Graduate-level ESL students in Education are future multicultural educators and promising role models for our diverse K-12 students. However, many of these students struggle with academic English and, in particular, writing. Yet little research or program development addresses the specific writing-support needs of this group. This article shares…

  9. Perceptions and Beliefs about Textual Appropriation and Source Use in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polio, Charlene; Shi, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Perceptions and judgments on plagiarism or acceptable use of source texts are contingent on one's interpretations and experiences in reading and writing academic texts in a specific disciplinary context. The lack of consensus on what is acceptable textual appropriation in student writing has led to the scholarship on perceptions of textual…

  10. Does foreign language writing benefit from increased lexical fluency? Evidence from a classroom experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Gelderen; R. Oostdam; E. van Schooten

    2011-01-01

    We report a classroom experiment directed at increasing lexical fluency in writing. Participants were 107 Dutch students in bilingual (EFL) education (Grades 10 and 11). According to current theories of writing such fluency allows writers to devote more attention to higher order aspects of text prod

  11. Contrasting Rhetorical Patterns: Discovering Effects of First and Second Language Writing Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inceçay, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: In this qualitative small-scale study, I aimed at investigating why students have difficulties in adjusting themselves to English writing conventions. I also examined the possible bilateral effects of Turkish and English writing conventions to determine whether engaging learners in contrastive rhetoric exercises can elucidate…

  12. Mapping Disciplinary Values and Rhetorical Concerns through Language: Writing Instruction in the Performing and Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anicca

    2015-01-01

    Via interview data focused on instructor practices and values, this study sought to describe some of what performing and visual arts instructors do at the university level to effectively teach disciplinary values through writing. The study's research goals explored how relationships to writing process in visual and performing arts support…

  13. An Investigation of Four Writing Traits and Two Tasks across Two Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jungok; Bachman, Lyle F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of four theoretically motivated traits of writing ability across English and Korean, based on elementary school students' responses to letter- and story-writing tasks. Their responses were scored analytically and analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. The findings include the following. A model of writing…

  14. Legislative drafting guidelines: How different are they from controlled language rules for technical writing?

    OpenAIRE

    Höfler, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    While human-oriented controlled languages developed and applied in the domain of technical documentation have received considerable attention, language control exerted in the process of legislative drafting has, until recently, gone relatively unnoticed by the controlled language community. This paper considers existing legislative drafting guidelines from the perspective of controlled language. It presents the results of a qualitative comparison of the rule sets of four German-language legis...

  15. Your Language or Mine? Or English as a Lingua Franca? Comparing Effectiveness in English as a Lingua Franca and L1-L2 Interactions: Implications for Corporate Language Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mulken, Margot; Hendriks, Berna

    2015-01-01

    For multinational corporations, the need for efficiency and control has motivated the choice for a corporate language. However, increasing internationalisation has forced corporations to rethink their language policies to cater to the changing demands of the multicultural and multilingual workplace. This paper explores two related issues. First,…

  16. 二语写作过程研究简述%A Brief Introduction to the Process of Second Language Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永文

    2015-01-01

    写作是一项重要的语言技能,二语写作过程中使用母语是一种普遍现象。二语写作研究主要集中在对写作结果和过程的分析,目前越来越多的研究开始关注写作过程。关于母语思维对二语写作的影响,学术界尚未取得共识,有待进一步研究。%Writing is an important language skill. It is a common phenomenon to use the mother tongue in the process of second language writing. Second language writing research mainly focuses on the analysis of the result and the process of writing, and now more and more research is focused on the writing process. The academic circles have not yet achieved a consensus on the influence of mother tongue thinking on second language writing, pending further study.

  17. L1 and L2 Distance Effects in Learning L3 Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens, Job J.; der Slik, Frans; Hout, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    Many people speak more than two languages. How do languages acquired earlier affect the learnability of additional languages? We show that linguistic distances between speakers' first (L1) and second (L2) languages and their third (L3) language play a role. Larger distances from the L1 to the L3 and from the L2 to the L3 correlate with lower…

  18. Polish as a foreign language at elementary level of instruction : crosslinguistic influences in writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Gabrys-Barker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a minority European language, Polish has not attracted the attention of second language research (SLA very much. Most studies in the area focus on English and other major languages describing variables and process observed in learners’ interlanguage development. This article looks at the language performance of elementary learners of Polish as a foreign language with a view to diagnosing areas of difficulty at the initial stages of language instruction. It is a case study of five learners’ written production after a year of intensive language instruction in the controlled conditions of a classroom. The objective of the study presented here is: 1. to determine the types of error produced in a short translation task at different levels of language (morphosyntactic, lexical 2. to observe manifestations of crosslinguistic influences between languages the subjects know (interlingual transfer as well as those related to the language learnt itself (intralingual transfer.The small sample of texts produced does not allow for any generalized observations and conclusions, however, at the level of elementary competence in any foreign language, as other research shows, the amount of individual variation is not the most significant factor. Thus the incorrect forms produced may testify to some more universally error-prone areas of language. The value of this kind of analysis lies in this direct application to the teaching of Polish as a synthetic language. The study also demonstrates the fact that communicative teaching has a limited contribution to make in the case of this family of languages. It suggests that overt and explicit teaching of a synthetic language will give a sounder basis for further development of language competence in its communicative dimension

  19. Reading, Living, and Writing Bilingual Poetry as ScholARTistry in the Language Arts Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahnmann, Melisa

    2006-01-01

    Language arts educators who teach Latino English language learners know that part of their job is to help students learn to distinguish between the vernacular varieties of Spanish (or Mandarin, or Portuguese, or Swahili), English they use at home, and the school varieties of language expected in the classroom and in other professional and…

  20. Parental Writing Support and Preschoolers' Early Literacy, Language, and Fine Motor Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Bindman, Samantha W.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the nature and variability of parents' aid to preschoolers in the context of a shared writing task, as well as the relations between this support and children's literacy, vocabulary, and fine motor skills. In total, 135 preschool children (72 girls) and their parents (primarily mothers) in an ethnically diverse, middle-income community were observed while writing a semi-structured invitation for a pretend birthday party together. Children's phonological awareness, a...

  1. The impact of science notebook writing on ELL and low-SES students' science language development and conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Margarita

    the first two domains. These differences, however, were not statistically significant in the last domain. Last, correlations between language and concept scores were overall, positive, large, and significant across domains and groups. The study presents a rubric useful for quantifying diverse students' science notebook entries, and findings add to the sparse research on the impact of writing in diverse students' language development and conceptual understanding in science.

  2. Parental Writing Support and Preschoolers' Early Literacy, Language, and Fine Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindman, Samantha W; Skibbe, Lori E; Hindman, Annemarie H; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the nature and variability of parents' aid to preschoolers in the context of a shared writing task, as well as the relations between this support and children's literacy, vocabulary, and fine motor skills. In total, 135 preschool children (72 girls) and their parents (primarily mothers) in an ethnically diverse, middle-income community were observed while writing a semi-structured invitation for a pretend birthday party together. Children's phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, word decoding, vocabulary, and fine motor skills were also assessed. Results revealed that parents provided variable, but generally low-level, support for children's approximation of sound-symbol correspondence in their writing (i.e., graphophonemic support), as well as for their production of letter forms (i.e., print support). Parents frequently accepted errors rather than asking for corrections (i.e., demand for precision). Further analysis of the parent-child dyads (n = 103) who wrote the child's name on the invitation showed that parents provided higher graphophonemic, but not print, support when writing the child's name than other words. Overall parental graphophonemic support was positively linked to children's decoding and fine motor skills, whereas print support and demand for precision were not related to any of the child outcomes. In sum, this study indicates that while parental support for preschoolers' writing may be minimal, it is uniquely linked to key literacy-related outcomes in preschool.

  3. Exploring the impact of different task-based language teaching scaffolding approaches in Wikispaces collaborative writing

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shu-ling; 黃淑玲

    2012-01-01

    Task-based Language Teaching is the process of experiential learning. Learners’ active involvement is central to this approach, i.e. Learning by Doing (Nunan, 2004). Technology is able to provide individual remedial/tutorial assistance, allow differentiation, offer enriched content, enhance motivation and encourage involvement (Branden, 2006). With technology, students can enjoy more self-learning chances for improving language skills. The implementation of Task-based Language Teaching an...

  4. The L1=L2 Hypotheses: A Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the L1=L2 hypothesis which states that, all other things except knowledge of language being equal, first language acquisition is the same as second language acquisition. Reviews the evidence for and against the hypothesis, looks at current research and considers the general distinction between formal and informal learning. (SED)

  5. Raising Learners' Awareness through L1-L2 Teacher Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Pamela; White, Joanna; Busque, Christine

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in teacher collaboration across mother tongue and second language curricula. However, cross-curricular collaboration in reading strategy instruction has seldom been investigated. We report a two-year study involving collaboration between the French first language (L1) and English second language (L2) teachers in an…

  6. Linguagem escrita e subjetividade: implicações do trabalho grupal Writing language and subjective quality: implications of group work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letícia Cautela de Almeida Machado

    2009-12-01

    using the written language and how this process can constitute an opportunity to recreate their meanings. The data for this clinical study was collected in a group therapy involving 9 teenager students from public schools of Curitiba, with the complaint of reading and writing disorders. The group therapy was realized during one year inside the Speech language therapy clinic in Tuiuti University of Paraná. The meetings occurred every week during two hours totalizing 48 meetings. All data were video recorded and also written in a session diary. Six episodes considered very expressive were selected in order to analyze this theme. RESULTS: the research indicated that these individuals had a suffering relation with the written language and that they assumed incapacity positions towards it. It could be possible to observe that the clinical practices inside the group helped to recreate these relations, so that the individuals began to feel capable and assume responsibility positions in reading and writing practices. CONCLUSION: the speech language therapy group was built as a place where the individuals could set up a significant relation with reading and writing, providing key conditions for the re-significance of the symptoms and for interacting with different written texts, promoting thus changes between the individual and his own language.

  7. Future directions in feedback on second language writing: Overview and research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Hyland

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the contributions made to this special issue on feedback by the seven papers, examining how they reflect both the growing interest in different areas of research into feedback on writing and the continuing search by teachers for more effective feedback practices. Focusing first on the papers by Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn and Allen, it discusses how these papers situate written corrective feedback research in the wider area of second language acquisition research and contribute to the debate in feedback research on research design issues. This is followed by an examination of the major findings of the four situated empirical studies by Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary and Windeatt, and Martinez and Roca, which make up the second section. Echoing the authors of these papers, this article argues that we need more longitudinal naturalistic studies, adopting both cognitive and socio-cultural SLA frameworks to investigate the role of feedback and its impact on individual learners in more depth. Finally some pedagogic implications are discussed, including the need for feedback practices which facilitate students’ abilities to self regulate and evaluate their performance, and the need to raise teachers’ awareness of the different feedback sources and modes of delivery available to them.Este artículo ofrece una revisión de las siete aportaciones incluidas en este número especial sobre feedback, constatando cómo reflejan tanto el creciente interés por el tema en las distintas áreas de investigación como la continua búsqueda de técnicas más efectivas por parte del profesorado. Centrándose en primer lugar en las contribuciones de Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn y Allen, analiza cómo estos artículos sitúan la investigación sobre feedback en la corrección de trabajos escritos dentro del área más amplia de adquisición de segundas lenguas, contribuyendo al debate, dentro de la investigaci

  8. The Write Stuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarnati, James T.; Weller, Cyril J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of science process skills to help students think positively about writing assignments. Examines the four language arts skills of narration, description, explanation, and persuasion, as used in writing about hands-on science activities. (MDH)

  9. Evaluating the Role of Writing in the First and Second Year University Foreign Language Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to foreign language (FL) instruction have changed a great deal in the past fifty years, the most fundamental change being the shift from a focus solely on language form to a focus on communicative competence (CC). Although most FL instructors now appear to focus on CC in the teaching of speaking, they do not necessarily apply CC to…

  10. Understanding the Conceptual and Language Challenges Encountered by Grade 4 Students When Writing Scientific Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Lay Hoon

    2016-01-01

    This study is an attempt to examine the use of linguistic resources by primary science students so as to understand the conceptual and language demands encountered by them when constructing written explanations. The students' written explanations and the instructional language (whole-class discussion and textbook) employed over the topic, the life…

  11. Reading and Writing the World Using Beautiful Books: Language Experience Re-Envisioned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, James V.; Roser, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Through this article, we describe an instructional strategy termed "Beautiful Books." This strategy involves the creation of images and texts to be used in the development of oral and literacy skills. We explore the historical roots of the strategy in Language Experience Approach (LEA) and Whole language and consider how dictation and early…

  12. Meaning Making, Agency, and Languaging in Dialogic Interactions on Academic Writing Tasks: A Sociocultural Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmand Saadi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    For Vygotsky, language is a cultural-psychological concept emerged from social interactions and is applied for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, meaning making, and knowledge construction. In this study, a sociocultural perspective was applied to analyze the language produced by 40 sophomore Iranian EFL learners during dialogic…

  13. Exploring Associations among Writing Self-Perceptions, Writing Abilities, and Native Language of English-Spanish Two-Way Immersion Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Sabina R.; Howard, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    The current study, with 409 fourth graders in two-way immersion programs, explored the writing self-perceptions of native English and native Spanish speakers and the relationship between self-perceptions and writing performance. An adapted version of the Writer Self-Perception Scale (WSPS) was administered along with a writing task. Native English…

  14. Students' Argumentative Writing Skills in Science and First-Language Education: Commonalities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Patricia; Hecht, Martin; Schwanewedel, Julia; Schipolowski, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The ability to build arguments is a crucial skill and a central educational goal in all school subjects including science as it enables students to formulate reasoned opinions and thus to cope with the increasing complexity of knowledge. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the domain-specificity of argumentative writing in science by…

  15. Teaching Reading and Writing in Local Language Using the Child-Centred Pedagogy in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akello, Dora Lucy; Timmerman, Greetje; Namusisi, Speranza

    2016-01-01

    Uganda introduced the use of mother tongue as medium of instruction in primary schools in 2007. This was meant to promote interaction and participation in the learning process and improve children's proficiency in reading and writing. Drawing elements of interaction and participation from the socio-cultural theory, the child-centred pedagogy was…

  16. On Schema Theory and Structure of Foreign Language Writing Ability%图式理论与外语写作能力结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安洪; 张安律; 杜荣芳

    2011-01-01

    The thesis analyzed the psychological structure of a person's foreign language writing ability, and displayed the key elements and their internal mechanism. In the analysis of the psychological structure of the foreign language writing ability, schemata is found playing a very important role in forming foreign language writing ability. It is schemata, mainly including complete text schemata, paragraph schemata and sentence schemata, that function to bridge a person's foreign language knowledge and writing skills (practical writing performance). The thesis points out that schemata theory can be also applied to the language's encoding processing as in language writing, or productive language learning, in stead of that, as in the past, only applied to language's decoding processing. In foreign language writing course, in addition to teaching relevant knowledge and training writing skills, it is important to promote the generation and storage of schemata.%文章分析和探讨了外语写作能力的心理结构,回顾了图式理论的运用情况,并在外语写作能力心理结构的分析中发现,正是外语学习者大脑中存储的各种语言图式(其中主要包括文本图式、语段图式和语句图式)才把外语学习者所学到的有关写作的一些外语语言知识和写作知识与写作技能联系在一起.并构成了一个人的写作能力。该发现揭示了图式在写作能力中的重要性,以及图式理论在写作能力培养方面的应用价值和前景。在写作能力的教学和培养上,除了有关知识和技能的教学和练习之外,还应促进图式的生成和积累。

  17. Writing Concepts in Chinese Writing Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on how Chinese writing instruction can cause negative interference for Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language students writing in English. The study shows that in Chinese writing, the main idea can be more general, as a theme, or specific, as a thesis statement. It can also come at the beginning or end of a paper, and the writer…

  18. Contribution of L1 in EFL Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahjuningsih Usadiati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted in a classroom action research to improve the students’ achievement in writing English sentences in Present Perfect Tense in Structure 1 lessons. The subject consisted of 20 Semester II students who took Structure I lessons in English Education Department of Palangka Raya University, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The data were taken from the results of pre test and post test after the action was done. The results show that in cycle 1, in which the explanations were fully in English, only 40% of the students got a good achievement; 5-7 out of 20 test items were correct. After cycle 2 was done using L1 interchangeably with English in the explanations, the students’ achievement of writing English sentences in Present Perfect Tense increased to 75%, in which 15-18 out 20 test items were correct.

  19. Paper Partners: A Peer-Led Talk-Aloud Academic Writing Program for Students Whose First Language of Academic Study Is Not English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vechter, Andrea; Brierley, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the Paper Partners program at Ryerson University, Toronto. This peer-mentoring program was developed to support the academic writing skills of students whose first language of academic study was not English. The program integrated a team of student-facilitators, a talk-aloud co-editing process, and a reflective feedback…

  20. Language, Literacy, and the Institutional Dynamics of Racism: Late-1960s Writing Instruction for "High-Risk" African American Undergraduate Students at One Predominantly White University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamos, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This essay analyzes the ways in which subtly but powerfully racist ideologies of language and literacy shaped the institutional development of one writing program for "high-risk" African American college students during the late 1960s and early 1970s. It further theorizes the value of such institutional analysis for counteracting racism within…

  1. Supporting the Development of Autonomous Learning Skills in Reading and Writing in an Independent Language Learning Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel L. W. Chiu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on observations, examples and findings from previous action research and teaching experiences gathered in an independent language learning centre in a university in Hong Kong to explore strategies for supporting independent learning. The learning centre offers one-to-one and small-group learning sessions to support the development of independent learning skills in various areas. This discussion will explore particularly the focuses of reading and writing skills development. These learner-centred support sessions aim to develop awareness of different types of learning strategies to suit individual learning needs, and cultivate interest and ability for continuous self-learning. The benefits of a semi-structured scaffolding format with attention to individual learning differences and supported by technology will be highlighted.

  2. Assessment Model for Language Learners’ Writing Practice (in Preparing for TOEFL iBT Based on Comparing Structure, Vocabulary, and Identifying Discrepant Essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Huu Pham

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate if learners of English can improve computer-assisted writing skills through the analysis of the data from the post test. In this study, the focus was given to intermediate-level students of English taking final writing tests (integrated and independent responses in preparation for TOEFL iBT. We manually scored and categorized the students’ writing responses into five-point levels for the data to make the software. The results of the study showed that the model could be suitable for computerized scoring for language instructors to grade in a fair and exact way and for students to improve their writing performance through practice on the computer

  3. Investigation of Writing Strategies, Writing Apprehension, and Writing Achievement among Saudi EFL-Major Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Asmari, AbdulRahman

    2013-01-01

    The tenet of this study is to investigate the use of writing strategies in reducing writing apprehension and uncovering its effect on EFL students' writing achievement. It also attempts to explore associations between foreign language apprehension, writing achievement and writing strategies. The primary aims of the study were to explore the…

  4. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family's native language) is taught as the child's second language through reading, writing, speech, and use of residual ... that parents can use to help their child learn language. There are many types of building blocks, and ...

  5. 写作策略知识在小学语文教学中应用状况的分析%Analysis of the Situation of Writing Strategies Applied Knowledge in Language Teaching in Primary Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋萍

    2014-01-01

    In primary school language teaching, writing is an important part. The level of writing and language learning level have a direct link, through writing, students are observed the overall quality of the language.Therefore, this paper describes the importance of writing strategies, and explore writing strategies knowledge application status of language teaching in primary schools, for reference.%在小学语文教学中,写作是重要组成部分。写作水平的高低与语文学习水平有直接的联系,通过写作,可以观察学生的整体语文素质。因此,主要探究写作策略知识的重要性及在小学语文教学中的应用状况,以供参考。

  6. «The Write Stuff»: The importance of language for medical writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Langdon-Neuner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available «The Write Stuff (TWS» is the journal of the European Medical Writers Association (EMWA. It is a vibrant, well-read journal that has been published continuously for over 17 years. The journal publishes a balance of feature articles, regular columns, items to entertain, and reports on the association's activities. This article describes the journal and explains its success in meeting the needs of its readers, in particular by publishing articles on English grammar and style and devoting a section of the journal to translation. The article further discusses why there should be a need among medical writers to learn more about English and about translation. ---------------------------------- «The Write Stuff»: la importancia del lenguaje para los redactores médicos. «The Write Stuff (TWS», revista oficial de la European Medical Writers Association (EMWA, es una publicación muy vital que cuenta con numerosos lectores y se mantiene activa ininterrumpidamente desde hace más de 17 años. En ella se ofrece una equilibrada combinación de artículos de fondo, columnas habituales y elementos de carácter lúdico, y se informa de las actividades de la asociación. El presente artículo describe la revista y su capacidad para atender satisfactoriamente las necesidades de sus lectores, que radica en gran medida en la publicación de artículos sobre gramática y estilo del inglés y la existencia de una sección dedicada a la traducción. Asimismo, se comenta por qué los redactores médicos deberían sentir la necesidad de ampliar sus conocimientos de inglés y de traducción.

  7. Critique of Erotic Writing in Colloquial Language Poems%口语诗的情色书写批判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向天渊

    2014-01-01

    情色书写介于色情与情爱书写之间,伟大的情色书写,往往能在灵、肉之关系上达成微妙的平衡,处理不当,则很容易忽视“情”而滑向“色”,落入铺陈肉体欲望与行为的色情陷阱;口语诗中以下半身写作为代表的凸显肉体感、在场感的理论主张,虽然对趋于僵硬、虚伪的体制化写作产生了一定的冲击,但他们的作品却没能担当这种叛逆美学的重任;他们凭借回到动物性肉体体验以获得艺术审美体验的希望,恰如南辕北辙无法实现。同样,通过表现生殖器快感去返回诗歌的本质,最终也只能是竹篮打水一场空;口语诗中的情色之作仅仅处于“物之诗”、“欲之诗”的阶段,必须经过情与美的洗涤与转换,才有可能上升为存在之诗、真理之诗,进而才配称为“人之诗”。%Erotic writing stays between pornographic and love ones.Great erotic writing could get a delicate balance between spirit and body,but if it couldn’t be dealt with properly,it may get into the por-nographic trap of carnal desire and behavior easily from love to pornography.Although the theories of col-loquial language poems,represented by the lower-body writing which highlights body and the presence of feeling,have a certain impact on rigid,false and institutionalized writing,colloquial language poems have failed to take a leading role in this rebellion.They hope to get aesthetic experience through carnal animal experience,but this is useless.So does the attempt to get back to the poem essence by expressing genital pleasant sensation.Erotic poems in colloquial language ones j ust stay at the stage of the poem of the animal and carnal poem.They must be transformed by love and beauty to become poem of existence and truth. Only in this way,could they be called the poem of human being.

  8. Composition Studies and Second-Language Writing: A History of the Disciplinary Division of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Paul Kei

    Just like their native-English-speaking peers, the many international students participating in United States higher education are subject to the institutional practices of composition studies. Those international students who are also English as a Second Language (ESL) students have special needs. In addition to the obvious grammar problems, many…

  9. Developing the Second Language Writing Process through Social Media-Based Interaction Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Julian Esteban Zapata

    2015-01-01

    This paper depicts the results from a qualitative research study focused on finding out the effect of interaction through social media on the development of second language learners' written production from a private school in Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia. The study was framed within concepts such as "social interaction," "digital…

  10. Bilingualism, Writing, and Metalinguistic Awareness: Oral-Literate Interactions between First and Second Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a study of the development of literacy, bilingualism, and metalinguistic awareness. Subjects were speakers of Spanish and Nahuatl from Central Mexico. Assessments of metalinguistic awareness related to different aspects of the children's consciousness of the languages they spoke or understood were compared to a series of assessments of…

  11. A Pedagogical Perspective on Promoting English as a Foreign Language Writing through Online Forum Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaron, Jose; Abidin, Mohammed Jafre Zainol

    2016-01-01

    Use of educational technologies has become increasingly significant in the field of English Language Learning. Both the teachers and students are dependent on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its different tools for teaching and learning in particular, and socialization in general. The scope and significance of the study on the…

  12. Politeness Strategies in Thai Graduate Research Paper Discussions: Implications for Second/Foreign Language Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getkham, Kunyarut

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of politeness strategies in 32 discussion sections of research papers produced by Thai graduate students at Graduate School of Language and Communication, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA), Bangkok, Thailand. The study reported in this paper adopts Brown and Levinson's (1978, 1987) and Myers'…

  13. Effect of Instruction on English as a Second Language Students' Discourse Synthesis Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the number of English as a second language (ESL) students who study in the United States has rapidly increased. This increase poses serious challenges for the U.S. universities in which the students are enrolled as well as for the students themselves. One of the challenges the students face is a lack of training in one type of writing…

  14. Understanding the Conceptual and Language Challenges Encountered by Grade 4 Students When Writing Scientific Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Lay Hoon

    2016-06-01

    This study is an attempt to examine the use of linguistic resources by primary science students so as to understand the conceptual and language demands encountered by them when constructing written explanations. The students' written explanations and the instructional language (whole-class discussion and textbook) employed over the topic, the life cycle of plants, in four grade 4 classrooms (age 10) taught by three teachers constitute the data for this study. Students' written explanations were subjected to a combination of content and linguistic analysis. The linguistic analysis was conducted using selected analytical tools from the systemic functional linguistics framework. A diversity of linguistic resources and meanings were identified from the students' explanations, which reveal the extent to which the students were able to employ linguistic resources to construct written scientific explanations and the challenges involved. Both content and linguistic analyses also illuminate patterns of language use that are significant for realising scientific meanings. Finally, a comparison is made in the use of linguistic resources between the students' explanations and the instructional language to highlight possible links. This comparison reveals that the teachers' expectations of the students' written explanations were seldom reflected in their oral questioning or made explicit during the instruction. The findings of this study suggest that a focus on conceptual development is not sufficient in itself to foster students' ability to construct explanations. Pedagogical implications involving the support needed by primary students to construct scientific explanations are discussed.

  15. Reading, Writing, and Rhetoric: An Inquiry into the Art of Legal Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Frances J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes research creating a feminist, rhetorical analysis of legal language by examining in detail both the "Plain English" and the "Law and Literature" movements. Examines legal texts that construct the "reasonable woman," asking how that hypothetical legal subject is construed by judicial discourse and what its impact may be on everyday…

  16. Evidence on the effectiveness of comprehensive error correction in second language writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. van Beuningen; N.H. de Jong; F. Kuiken

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of direct and indirect comprehensive corrective feedback (CF) on second language (L2) learners’ written accuracy (N = 268). The study set out to explore the value of CF as a revising tool as well as its capacity to support long-term accuracy development. In additio

  17. Rocking Your Writing Program: Integration of Visual Art, Language Arts, & Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poldberg, Monique M.,; Trainin, Guy; Andrzejczak, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the integration of art, literacy and science in a second grade classroom, showing how an integrative approach has a positive and lasting influence on student achievement in art, literacy, and science. Ways in which art, science, language arts, and cognition intersect are reviewed. Sample artifacts are presented along with their…

  18. "The English Is Not the Same": Challenges in Thesis Writing for Second Language Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Pat

    2012-01-01

    In this article I describe my interaction as an English for academic purposes (EAP) practitioner with a supervisor and her two postgraduate international students, both of whom were second language speakers of English (L2). Because of linguistic and relationship issues the supervisory experience for the parties was challenging and frustrating. I…

  19. Enhancing Writing Skills through Blogging in an Advanced English as a Foreign Language Class in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurdien, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Today Web 2.0 technologies, including blogs, are presenting both teachers and learners with new horizons in the field of language teaching and learning. A blog is an online journal which can be continuously updated by its users [Matheson, D. (2004). Weblogs and the epistemology of the news: Some trends in online journalism. "New Media & Society,…

  20. Reading and Writing Files of Case Teaching in C Language%C语言案例教学之文件读写

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林智勇

    2014-01-01

    鉴于C语言的重要性,许多高校都将它作为计算机相关专业的编程入门语言。文件读写是C语言的一个关键知识模块,针对该模块抽象难学的问题,提出运用案例教学法以帮助学生更好地掌握其中的原理和要点,给出完整的教学案例,讨论案例教学的实施过程。通过案例教学,学生能对文件读写有直观和深刻的理解。%Due to its importance, C language is taken as an introductory programming language for computer-related majors in numerous universities. File reading/writing is a key knowledge module of C language, and is most difficult to learn and grasp. To help students better understand and grasp the principles and key points respective to file reading/writing, proposes employ case teaching method. Designs a complete teaching case about file reading/writing, and discusses the process of implementing the case teaching. It is verified that case teaching facilitates the students to have an intuitive and in-depth understanding of file reading/writing.

  1. Language Planning and the Practice of Newly Created Writing Systems for Ethnic Minority Languages in China%中国少数民族新创文字的语言规划及其实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海路

    2012-01-01

    20世纪50年代以来,中国共产党和中国政府先后帮助10个民族创制了14种拼音文字。考察半个世纪以来中国少数民族新创文字语言规划的实践,对新中国的少数民族语言规划和民族语文教育,对世界上其他国家和地区有语言无文字的民族创制和推行新文字,都具有重要的参考价值。%Since 1950s, the Chinese Communist Party and the central government have helped to create 14 kinds of alphabetic writing systems for 10 ethnic groups. The review of language planning and the practice of newly created writing systems for Chinese minorities is of very important reference value to language planning for Chinese minorities, minority language teaching, and the creation and implementation of new writing systems for ethnic groups without writing systems in countries and areas elsewhere in the world.

  2. Alienation, language and freedom. A note on Bildung in Hegel's writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asger Sørensen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Bildung occupies a central place in the work of Hegel. In the Phenomenology of Spirit from 1807 it is clear that Bildung has a general meaning, which transcends educational contexts. Soon after the publication of the Phenomenology, however, Hegel became the rector of the humanistic Gymnasium in Nürnberg, and this position he kept until 1816. From this period we have some less well known writings, which explicitly discuss Bildung and relate it to educational use. These texts were written at the hight of his philosophical maturity from, when he was working on The Science of Logic and the Encyclopedia, and they therefore deserve being taken seriously. When all these sources are brought together, however, an idea of Bildung often associated with Hegel, namely that Bildung is the result of productive work, seems to be mistaken. I first give a brief account of the general argument, secondly add some details from the Phenomenology to support the argument, and finally conclude with a few general remarks.

  3. The Effects of L2 Reading Skills on L1 Reading Skills through Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether transfer from L2 to L1 in reading occurs, and if so, which reading sub-skills are transferred into L1 reading. The aim is to identify the role of second language reading skills in L1 reading skills by means of transfer. In addition, the positive effects of the second language transfer to the first language in the…

  4. Toward a Theory of Adaptive Transfer: Expanding Disciplinary Discussions of "Transfer" in Second-Language Writing and Composition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePalma, Michael-John; Ringer, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition studies have focused primarily on the reuse of past learning and thus have not adequately accounted for the adaptation of learned writing knowledge in unfamiliar situations. In an effort to expand disciplinary discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition…

  5. The L2 Acquisition of Spanish Rhotics by L1 English Speakers: The Effect of L1 Articulatory Routines and Phonetic Context for Allophonic Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a fine-grained investigation of how first-language (L1) phonetics involving English rhotics affect Spanish rhotic production by second-language (L2) learners. Specifically, this study investigates how different L1 English rhotic articulatory routines (retroflex-like and bunched-like) and the phonetic context that produces…

  6. Considerations on Writing Test Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣

    2005-01-01

    Writing test , wins its popularity in measuring the mastery of one's language ability. In view of the significant role writing playing in a test , some considerations on writing test construction are presented in this paper which anticipates the effective ways for measuring one's complex language ability of application.

  7. Teaching Multicultural Awareness and Understanding through the Language Arts--"Creative Writing." Suggested Topics for Creative and Expository Writing Based on the Haitian Culture for Use with Haitian Children, The Children of the Antilles, and Others Who are Interested in Understanding Their Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Zola Jiles

    As part of a series of documents providing language arts materials adapted for use by children in refugee populations, this list offers 200 topics for creative and expository writing based on the Haitian culture. These topics, which can also be used as stimuli for writing activities by children from the Antilles and students interested in…

  8. Phraseology and Frequency of Occurrence on the Web: Native Speakers' Perceptions of Google-Informed Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geluso, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Usage-based theories of language learning suggest that native speakers of a language are acutely aware of formulaic language due in large part to frequency effects. Corpora and data-driven learning can offer useful insights into frequent patterns of naturally occurring language to second/foreign language learners who, unlike native speakers, are…

  9. Writing and University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Andrade Calderón

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reports on the exploratory-descriptive investigation carried out to explain the writing behavior of the students of the Universidad Colegio Mayor of Cundinamarca. To this effect, it refers to the results of the project that are based on the state of the art of writing in higher education; it is supported by various conceptualizations about its technique throughout time, orality and writing at the University, the act of writing, and references about specific didactics. Furthermore, the article proposes theoretical approaches concerned with the process of writing, such as constructivism, meaningful learning, metacognition, social practices of language and new writing tendencies in information media. Through all this, the article present a profile of the University students on the level of writing and it evaluates their editing skills and the level of writing productiveness. This allows offering an academic proposal with possible guidelines for the institution to strengthen writing ability in their students.

  10. MATERIAL, EDUCATIONAL, AND IDEOLOGICAL CHALLENGES OF TEACHING EFL WRITING AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Leki

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of literature on teaching English writing focuses primarily on English dominant contexts. The particular situation of writing instruction in non-English dominant countries has received insufficient attention, especially in light of some of the claims for the role of writing coming from the "center" countries. English language teachers, particularly those teaching in non-English dominant countries, who give substantial attention in their courses to teaching writing in English face a number of challenges. This article discusses two main categories of challenges. In the first group are challenges writing teachers face daily, such as class size, time constraints, accommodating local needs, and coping with problems connected to lack of both teacher experience in teaching L2 writing and student training in L1 writing. In the second group are challenges of a more ideological nature that are perhaps less obvious but more powerful and far-reaching, including the need to justify the large investment required on the part of institutions and individuals in order to teach L2 writing, the right to resist center imposed materials and methods, the need for dialogue with students about the role of writing in their lives, and the need to make L2 writing enhance learner options rather than limit them so that for learners, writing in L2 becomes not a pointless additional burden but a powerful means of accomplishing personal goals.

  11. The Role of L1 in Second Language Learning--Taking Phonetic Transfer as an Example%母语迁移对二语习得的影响--以语音迁移为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀英

    2014-01-01

    Language transfer in foreign language learning is a prevalent phenomenon, which occupies an important position in second language acquisition theory .It is also one of the most important factors in the whole process of second language acquisition. Language transfer can be divided into positive transfer and nega-tive transfer. Positive transfer can promote foreign language learning, while negative transfer makes trouble in foreign language learning.The analysis of the native language transfer to foreign language learning is of far-reaching significance.%语言迁移是外语学习中的一种普遍现象,在二语习得理论研究中占有重要的位置,也是第二语言习得整个过程中的一个重要的因素,它分为正迁移和负迁移。正迁移能促进外语学习,而负迁移增加了外语学习的难度。分析母语迁移对外语学习具有深远的意义。

  12. Developing Cultural Awareness in English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹强珍

    2014-01-01

    Language and culture have an intimate relationship,and cultural awareness plays an important role in language learning,involving aural comprehension,speaking,reading,writing and translation.This paper mainly discusses cultural awareness in English writing.

  13. Developing Cultural Awareness in English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹强珍

    2014-01-01

    Language and culture have an intimate relationship, and cultural awareness plays an important role in language learning, involving aural comprehension, speaking, reading, writing and translation. This paper mainly discusses cultural awareness in English writing.

  14. Learners’ L1 Use in a Task-based Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Rui; Du, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades, strong theoretical and pedagogical arguments have been made advocating for task-based activities in the language-learning context. However, many teachers have been reluctant to in- corporate task-based activities into their teaching practices due to concerns about learners......’ extensive L1 use and off-task talk. Informed by sociocultural theory, this study explored the extent to which L1s and their func- tions were used when performing tasks. The subjects were beginner-level lower-secondary school learners of Chinese. The data shows that learners have a high amount of L1 use...

  15. 语言学能对二语写作水平的影响%The Influence of Foreign Language Aptitude on the L2 Writing Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚建国

    2012-01-01

    In China, the results of the investigations of Chinese college students' foreign language aptitude and the relat- ed factors' influence on L2 writing skills show that only gender is highly correlated with foreign language aptitude, while the other individual difference factors, such as cognitive style, learning strategy and ambiguity tolerance are not obviously correlated with foreign language aptitude.%在中国语境下,对非英语专业学生的英语语言学能及其相关因素对二语写作水平的影响的调查结果显示,语言学能与只与性别相关,而与其它个体差异因素,如认知风格、学习策略、歧义容忍度等无明显相关。

  16. Explanatory Variables for EFL Students' Expository Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Miyuki; Hirose, Keiko

    1996-01-01

    Investigates factors influencing Japanese university students' expository writing in English. Quantitative analysis revealed that students' second-language (L2) proficiency, first-language writing ability, and metaknowledge were significant in explaining L2 writing ability variance. An explanatory model for writing ability in English as a Foreign…

  17. Immediate Web-Based Essay Critiquing System Feedback and Teacher Follow-Up Feedback on Young Second Language Learners' Writings: An Experimental Study in a Hong Kong Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cynthia; Cheung, William Kwok Wai; Wong, Kelvin Chi Kuen; Lee, Fion Sau Ling

    2013-01-01

    This article is an effort to add to computer-assisted language learning by extending a study on an essay critiquing system (ECS) feedback to secondary school language learners' writing. The study compared two groups of participants' performance, namely the treatment group which received both the system feedback and teacher feedback (i.e., blended…

  18. 西方二语写作主流教学法及其理据%The Principal Teaching Approaches of Western Second Language Writing and Their Rationales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷晓东

    2013-01-01

    对西方国家二语写作领域的六种主流教学法进行了回顾和简要介绍。针对以往同类型研究的不足,给予各种教学法的相关理据以特别的关注,重点突出二语写作各种主流教学法的本质和内涵,有助于在教学实践中科学合理地选择使用、整合及创新写作教学方法。%The paper makes a brief introduction to six principal ESL (English as Second Language)writing approaches.This research particularly explores and elaborates on the theoretical bases of each approach, which gives prominence to the essence and connotation of these writing approaches,contributing to the op-timization,integration and innovation of second language writing approach in practice.

  19. Sampling an Inner DJ with Hip Hop Hopes: (ReWriting Immigrant Identities for English Language Learners in Classroom Third Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Habana Hafner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores theoretical and pedagogical implications of hip hop culture in (renegotiating identity for immigrant English Language Learners (ELLs in secondary writing classrooms. Analysis focuses on how spoken and written language and discourse shape the production of third spaces in ways that (renegotiate immigrant student identity in the ELL writing classroom. The theoretical framework draws on constructs of social space to reconsider the production of third space in an intermediate ELL writing classroom designed around developing academic and critical literacy grounded in the lived experiences of oppression of immigrant youth. Methods of ethnography and critical discourse analysis of critical spatial events and classroom texts center on a focal immigration unit in which students compose and share immigration narratives. Findings from ethnographic case study of one immigrant Latino male who aspires to become a hip hop DJ illustrate how hip hop discourses frame the chronotope of immigration and represent a classroom third space that promotes academic and critical literacy. This study draws implications for hip hop culture as valuable to curriculum and instruction rooted in the lived spaces of immigrant youth experience and for critical reflective practice for educators.

  20. Word Reduction Editing in Second-Language Scientific Writing by East Asian and South Asian Chemistry Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, David G.

    2006-01-01

    A recursive scientific writing project was undertaken in a second-year, graduate-level course to teach students who were non-native English speakers to write scientific communications clearly and concisely in English. The instructor returned students' brief texts with editorial revisions marked to show how increased clarity may be achieved through…

  1. Long-Term Crosslinguistic Transfer of Skills from L1 to L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) skills in elementary school and second language (L2) learning in high school. Students classified as high-, average-, and low-proficiency L2 learners were compared on L1 achievement measures of reading, spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, and listening comprehension…

  2. The Role of L1 Literacy on L2 Literacy Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁

    2014-01-01

    A native language can be learned effortlessly, while a second language is always difficult for people to learn. L1 literacy may impede or promote L2 literacy learning. This paper discusses the role L1 Literacy on L2 Literacy Learning.

  3. An ESL Audio-Script Writing Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla

    2012-01-01

    The roles of dialogue, collaborative writing, and authentic communication have been explored as effective strategies in second language writing classrooms. In this article, the stages of an innovative, multi-skill writing method, which embeds students' personal voices into the writing process, are explored. A 10-step ESL Audio Script Writing Model…

  4. L2 Acquisition of Prosodic Properties of Speech Rhythm: Evidence from L1 Mandarin and German Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aike; Post, Brechtje

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the development of speech rhythm in second language (L2) learners of typologically different first languages (L1s) at different levels of proficiency. An empirical investigation of durational variation in L2 English productions by L1 Mandarin learners and L1 German learners compared to native control values in English and the…

  5. Language-Based Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Language-Based Learning Disabilities (Reading, Spelling, and Writing) What ... a language-based learning disability ? What is a language-based learning disability? Language-based learning disabilities are ...

  6. Using L1 in Teaching English to Advanced Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Hariri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using L1 in the English classroom has long been considered as an unforgivable wrongdoing. Many English teachers who use L1 in the classroom feel guilty about it and in many cases do not admit it. Recent researchers started to question the validity of this claim suggesting contexts and situations in which using L1 can be very helpful in ELT and refuting, on the other hand, the claims upon which the idea of using L2 solely were built.  My paper will examine the attitudes of advanced English language learners toward using L1 in the class of English where the students and the teacher speak the same first language and will also examine the attitudes of a group of EFL and ESL teachers toward the same practice. The same questionnaire given to the students will be redesigned and given to a number of teachers so that the study will look at the viewpoints from both perspectives.Keywords:  L1, Code Switching, Interference of L1, ELT, TESOL

  7. The Application of Post-reading Rewriting to Improve Second Language Writing Coherence%将读后续写应用于提高二语写作连贯性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭红英

    2016-01-01

    As the strongest predictor of the quality of writing, coherence is difficult to quantify and improve. After-reading writing tasks are popular for the content creation and language imitation. The application of after-reading writing in second language writing teaching can improve the students' second language writing coherence and promote the quality of second language writing.%作为写作质量的最强预测因子,写作连贯难以量化和提高。读后续写任务以其内容创造、语言模仿、创造模仿紧密结合的促学思路大受欢迎。将读后续写应用于二语写作教学、准确把握具体教学中应注意的方面,有助于提高学生二语写作连贯,提高二语写作质量。

  8. Research on the teaching of practical writing in teaching Chinese as a second language%对外汉语教学中写作的实用性教学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娟娟

    2011-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the existing problems in the teaching of practical writing in teaching Chinese as a second language and comes up with the pragmatic teaching methods.The teaching of practical writing in teaching Chinese as a second language should be performed according to the learner's Chinese language level and different learning needs.A pragmatic textbook for writing is needed to be written and compiled.On one hand,the design of general writing books should be improved and,on the other hand,the writing of specialized writing books should be attached importance to so as to improve the level of teaching chinese as a second language.%分析目前对外汉语写作教学中存在的问题,提出实用性教学方法,根据不同汉语水平、不同学习需求进行教学,并从实用性角度对写作教材的编写提出设想,改进一般写作教材的设计,注重专业汉语写作教材的编写,选择合适的教材提高对外汉语写作教学水平。

  9. Conceptualising the Potential Role of L1 in CLIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angel M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is a rapidly growing area of both research and practice in all parts of the world, especially in Europe and Asia. As a young discipline, CLIL has a good potential of distinguishing itself from monolingual L2 immersion education models by becoming more flexible and balanced about the role of L1 in…

  10. 语言迁移研究的新视角:二语对母语的迁移%The Other Side of Language Transfer: from L2 to L1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东志

    2009-01-01

    在二语习得领域,二语对母语的迁移(L2>L1)是一个长期被忽视的问题,这方面的研究非常少见,但它又是迁移问题不可回避的一个方面.本文旨在探讨这一新的研究视角的理论价值和现实意义,为迁移研究开辟新的思路.文章首先追根溯源,梳理了二语对母语迁移研究的发展脉络,然后深入剖析了复合能力模型对L2>L1的理论指导意义,并介绍了这方面的主要研究成果,最后阐述了这个新视角对二语教学和二语习得研究的启示,指出其未来的研究潜力.

  11. An empirical study on the effects of lexical chunks input on the second language writing%词块输入对学生二语写作效度影响的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周腾英

    2013-01-01

    This paper reveals the correlation between chunks input and storage and the effects of second language writing, which enriches the study of second language acquisition. Chunks enhance the language output. The input of chunks enables second language learners to utilize chunks consciously and thus helps to improve the writing, which has a positive significance for language output and teaching.%通过实证研究,论证出词块输入和存储量对英语写作效度的相关性,丰富二语习得的研究。词块对语言输出有促进作用。词块输入能促使二语学习者有意识使用词块,提高写作水平,对于语言产出和教学都有积极的意义。

  12. Writing Music Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Helena Rykov

    2011-01-01

    Communicating about music therapy is problematic because discursive language fails to convey the nonverbal, embodied essence of experience. I explore the emergence of this problem in the music therapy literature. I discuss the scholarship of phenomenological writing. I provide examples of nondiscursive music therapy writing. I introduce the genre of poetic inquiry.

    Poetry is the most musical form of language. Poetry and music, linked throughout history, share many ...

  13. Learning Strategies Under the Process Writing Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖青芝

    2008-01-01

    Learning strategies play an important role in second language writing.It is even believed by some linguists that experienced writers and novice writers differ mainly in their writing strategies instead of language proficiency.Within the theoretical framework of the process writing approach,this article introduces the writing strategies with all attempt to increase students'awareness of strategy use and improve their English writing.

  14. Scaffolding EFL Students' Writing through the Writing Process Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    This research reports a study conducted at Koya University/English Language Department, and it aims at presenting the effect of scaffolding on EFL students' writing ability through the writing process. In this study, the students have taken the role of writers, so they need to follow the same steps that writers apply during their writing process.…

  15. 第二语言书写的功能神经影像学研究%The neural substrates underlying the writing: a second language PET study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴毅; 刘晓加; 吴湖炳

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨中国人以英语为第二语言进行书写的神经基础.方法 利用PET-CT对6例健康受试者行假写作业和英语文字书写作业的18氟脱氧葡萄糖(18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose,18F-FDG)脑 功能成像,用统计参数图(Statistical parametric mapping,SPM)方法对假写、书写的脑PET图像进行配对t检验分析,获得英语文字书写引起的脑内葡萄糖代谢变化区域.结果 左侧顶下小叶、中央后回、扣带回、壳核和右侧额上回、运动前回、丘脑背侧内核、小脑半球葡萄糖代谢增加(P<0.05).结论 第二语言书写涉及多个脑区,左侧顶下小叶、右侧额叶及小脑半球参与词汇的产牛和加工过程,左侧壳核在语言学习上发挥了一定的作用.%Objective To research the neural substracts for the processing of the discourse-level English writing using PET-CT.Method Six healthy people underwent 18F-FDG PET examination in the pseudo-writing condition and the discourse-level English writing condition.statistical parametric mapping(SPM)was used to investigate the activicated focus in english writing thruugh pared-t test.Results The activated foci were observed in left inferior parietal lobule,left postcentral gyrus,left cingulate gyrus,left putamen,fight frontal precentral gyrus,right superior frontal gyrus,right thalamus medial dorsal nucleus,both cerebellum(P<0.05).Conclusions The writing of English as a second language implicates conical and subcortical structures.Left inferior parietal lobule,right frontal and both cerebellum participate in the language production and processes,and left putamen is more engaged in English learning.

  16. 浅谈规范公文写作语言的途径%On the Way to Standardize Document Writing Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代泽兰

    2014-01-01

    公文在政府工作中起着上传下达的桥梁作用,语言规范的公文更能准确地体现本级意图,达到发文目的。而本文主要论述了公文写作中,要从“抓住本质,表述准确”、“删繁就简,善于概括”、“平实质朴,谨慎修辞”、“庄重严肃,规范严谨”四个方面下手,有效规范公文写作语言。%Document plays a role as a bridge to upload in government work;the language specification documents more ac-curately reflect the intent of this level, to dispatch purposes. The article discusses the document writing, from"capturing the essence, accurate representation,""delete the complicated, good generalization","plain and simple, cautious rhetoric","seri-ous and solemn, strict norms,"four start, effectively regulate the document writing language.

  17. Strategies for Teaching Writing to Primary Students Using the Writing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Casey Nicolle

    The challenge of effective writing instruction was investigated by means of a literature review. Writing, as a part of the field of Language Arts, comprising reading, writing, listening and speaking, takes more than teaching spelling, grammar, and other writing conventions for students to develop as writers. The writing process--prewriting,…

  18. Discourse Approaches to Writing Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connnor, Ulla; Mbaye, Aymerou

    2002-01-01

    Discusses assessment of English-as-a-Foreign/Second-Language (EFL/ESL) writing. Suggests there is a considerable gap between current practices in writing assessment and criteria suggested by advances in knowledge of discourse structure. Illustrates this by contrasting current practices in the scoring of two major EFL/ESL writing tests with…

  19. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  20. Reflective Blogfolios in the Language Classroom: Impact on EFL Tertiary Students’ Argumentative Writing Skills and Ways of Knowing

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar Abdullah Mahmoud Ismial

    2016-01-01

    The emerging paradigm shift in educational contexts from walled classroom environments to virtual, hybrid, blended, and lately personal learning environments has brought about vast changes in the foreign language classroom practices.  Numerous calls  for experimenting with new instructional treatments to enhance students' language performance in these new learning environments have been voiced by researchers and language educators in different settings. The current study aimed at investigatin...

  1. Revisiting Plain Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

  2. The Chinese Input Challenges for Chinese as Second Language Learners in Computer-Mediated Writing: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chai, Ching-Sing; Gao, Ping

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an exploratory study on Singapore secondary and primary school students' perceptions and behaviors on using a variety of Chinese input methods for Chinese composition writing. Significant behavioral patterns were uncovered and mapped into a cognitive process, which are potentially critical to the training of students in…

  3. Teaching and Assessing Academic Writing via the Portfolio: Benefits for Learners of English as an Additional Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romova, Zina; Andrew, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the use of portfolios as pedagogical tools for developing academic writing. In particular, it considers the value of multi-drafting, where learners reflect on the learning of a text type as well as focusing on micro and macro aspects. The paper outlines a situated pedagogical approach, where students come to understand their…

  4. Curriculum: Foreign language learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, AMY

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of various issues related to curriculum in foreign language learning, and in particular focuses on learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Foreign language learning is taken to mean the learning of a language other than the learner’s first language (L1), and this language is not ordinarily used in the learner’s everyday life. Thus, foreign language learning contexts are very different from second language learning contexts, for in second language learni...

  5. Language Switching and Language Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

  6. Main: L1BOXATPDF1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L1BOXATPDF1 S000386 05-November-2005 (last modified) kehi L1 box found in promoter ...of Arabidopsis thaliana (A.t.) PROTODERMAL FACTOR1 (PDF1) gene; Located between -134 and -127; Involved in L...ding motif (Wang et al., 2004); HDZip IV; See also S000371; PDF1; L1 box; L1 layer-specific expression; Shoo

  7. An Approach to the Teaching of Continuous Writing in ESL Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Brian

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for teaching writing of English as a second language that emphasizes exposure to genuine, useful language and opportunities to use it. Sample exercises are provided that illustrate seven stages of writing: free writing, analysis, presentation, controlled writing, guided writing, free writing, and modelling. (MSE)

  8. WRITING ANXIETIES OF PEOPLE WHO LEARN TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE/TÜRKÇEYİ YABANCI DİL OLARAK ÖĞRENENLERİN YAZMA KAYGILARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat MADEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Latin proverb “verba volant scripta manent” meaning “spoken words fly away, written words remain” best shows the importance of writing skill which is one of the basic language skills. When it comes to writing skills of foreign students, making plans in target language in regards to this skill and develop a habit of writing are more difficult and exhausting compared to those for native speakers of a language. The aim of the study is to investigate writing anxieties of foreign students in Turkish universities according to such variables; “their gender, nationality, academic department, other foreign language they speak, their aim of learning Turkish, their level of Turkish and their reading habits and to explore whether there are any significant differences between the students’ writing anxieties with respect to these variables. For the study, 172 foreign students who study in different departments of Giresun University in 2014-2015 education year participated. The study is a survey type research study. The data was gathered through “Writing Anxiety Scale” which was created by the researchers in order to determine writing anxieties of foreign students. It was found that foreign students usually felt anxiety about writing in Turkish and their level of anxiety differentiated according to such variables; nationality, alphabet of their native language and their reading habits. Temel dil becerilerinden birisi olan yazma becerisinin önemini “Söz uçar, yazı kalır.” atasözü en güzel şekilde ifade etmektedir. Yabancı uyruklu öğrencilere yazma becerisi kazandırma söz konusu olduğunda, bu becerinin hedef dilde planlanması ve alışkanlık hâline dönüştürülmesi zahmetli ve zor olmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, ülkemizde öğrenim gören yabancı uyruklu üniversite öğrencilerinin yazma kaygılarını cinsiyet, uyruk, öğrenim gördüğü fakülte/yüksekokul, bildiği diğer yabancı diller, Türkçeyi

  9. Genetics Home Reference: L1 syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A, Gal A. Intronic mutations in the L1CAM gene may cause X-linked hydrocephalus by aberrant splicing. Hum Mutat. 2004 May;23(5):526. Citation on PubMed Kanemura Y, Okamoto N, Sakamoto H, Shofuda T, ... (L1 disease): Mutations in the L1CAM gene. Hum Mutat. 2001;18(1):1-12. Review. ...

  10. PD-L1-specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Shamaila Munir; Borch, Troels Holz; Hansen, Morten;

    2016-01-01

    -specific T cells that recognize both PD-L1-expressing immune cells and malignant cells. Thus, PD-L1-specific T cells have the ability to modulate adaptive immune reactions by reacting to regulatory cells. Thus, utilization of PD-L1-derived T cell epitopes may represent an attractive vaccination strategy...... for targeting the tumor microenvironment and for boosting the clinical effects of additional anticancer immunotherapy. This review summarizes present information about PD-L1 as a T cell antigen, depicts the initial findings about the function of PD-L1-specific T cells in the adjustment of immune responses...

  11. 英汉二语写作指称偏误比较分析%Comparisons of Reference Errors between Writings in English and Chinese as Second Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓玲

    2012-01-01

    指称偏误影响着作文的连贯性和语篇的质量。文章选取部分中外学生的英汉二语作文中的作文例句作为范例,对六种指称偏误进行比较,并分析其成因。文章指出,指称词的可及度影响着指称手段的选择;英汉二语学习者在进行二语写作时所产生的指称偏误,是由于不了解英汉两种语言之间在指称语码转换表现形式上的不同所造成的;六种指称偏误的误用程度有所不同;指称偏误类型,在一定程度上,能反映学生的语言表达水平。%Reference errors influence the coherence and quality of a text. Comparisons of six reference errors and analyses of causes are made, based on samples of writings in English and Chinese respectively written by Chinese and foreign students as second lan- guage learners. It is pointed out that the accessibility of reference words influences the choice of reference means ,reference errors in English and Chinese writings made by second language learners are caused by learners'not understanding different reprehensive forms of the conversion of reference codes between English and Chinese. The degree of six reference errors varies, to some extent, the type of reference errors can show students'writing levels.

  12. 浅析二语习得对大学生写作方式的影响%The Impact of the Second Language Acquisition on the Writing Styles of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晨

    2015-01-01

    College English Writing is the compulsory course for the learning level of English majors,which fundamentally deter-mines the quality of university students'English level.Improving the English writing ability of college students needs to combine the theory and practice and the students are required to not only have good language skills,but also a certain amount of theoret-ical knowledge of writing to strengthen learning and exercise of writing skills.In this regard speaking,second language acquisi-tion theory provides a good theoretical basis for improving writing skills and writing mode of the students.This passage will fo-cus on talking about the impact of second language acquisition theory on College Students'writing mode from this point.%大学英语写作是英语专业学习的必修课,写作水平的高低从根本决定了大学生英语素质的高低。提高大学生的英语写作能力,需要做到理论与实践相结合,要求学生不仅仅具备良好的语言功底,同时还要掌握一定的写作理论知识,强化写作技巧的学习和锻炼。在这方面上讲,二语习得理论为大学生写作能力和写作方式的提高提供了良好的理论依据,本文将重点从这个角度谈一谈二语习得理论对大学生写作方式的影响。

  13. Integration of second language writing theories and practice:On the Fifth Symposium on Second Language Writing%二语写作理论与实践的整合——记第五届第二语言写作国际研讨会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐浩

    2007-01-01

    @@ 一、背景介绍 第二语言写作国际研讨会(SSLW,即Symposium on Second Language Writing)于1998年举办第一届,之后每两年召开一次.该研讨会由第二语言写作领域的国际权威期刊Journal of Second Language Writing主办.每届研讨会的主题均与当时二语写作界较为关注的热门话题有关,研讨会还邀请国际知名的专家学者到会宣读论文、发表看法、参与讨论.

  14. L1 acquisition of noun ellipsis in French and in Dutch: Consequences for linguistic theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Sleeman; A. Hulk

    2011-01-01

    In the literature several theoretical analyses of nominal ellipsis of various languages have been proposed. In this exploratory and comparative study the L1 French and Dutch acquisition of noun ellipsis is analyzed. The L1 data suggest that a theoretical analysis of the licensing mechanisms of nomin

  15. Multilingual Acquisition of Vowels in L1 Polish, L2 Danish and L3 English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypianska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine whether all languages in the linguistic repertoire of a multilingual speaker manifest cross-linguistic influence (CLI) and establish the directions of CLI on the basis of chosen vowels from the linguistic repertoire of two groups: the Bilingual group (L1 Polish/L2 Danish) and the Multilingual group (L1

  16. A Study of Language Simplification in Second Language Writing from the Perspective of Psycholinguistics%从心理语言学角度看二语写作中的简单化现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦

    2012-01-01

    在对大学一年级学生的英语写作测试中显示,非熟练的二语学习者在写作中大量使用高频词,简单句和并列小句。从心理语言学的词汇通达理论和句型通达理论来看,正是由于测试时间和工作记忆的双重制约,导致非熟练的二语学习者放弃需要间接通达的低频词和嵌入式小句,选择可以直接通达的简单词汇和句型,从而造成了二语写作中的语言简单化现象。解决这一问题的关键在于在写作教学中结果教学法和过程教学法并重,同时借助提纲和范文来缓解学习者工作记忆的负担,提高遣词造句的能力。%A L2 writing test among college freshmen is conducted to analyze the phenomenon of language simplification.It is found that unfamiliar bilinguals tend to use a larger proportion of high-frequency words,simplex and parataxis compared to familiar bilinguals.According to the theory of lexical access and syntax access in psycholinguistics,it is the limit of test time and working memory that forces unfamiliar bilinguals to abandon indirectly accessed low-frequency words and embedded clauses in language formation,and resort to familiar words and syntax,which consequently leads to language simplification in L2 writing.In order to solve this problem,product approach and process approach should both be adopted in L2 writing course;meanwhile,outline and sample text will help to alleviate the burden of working memory and increase word and syntax diversity.

  17. Enhancing EFL Learners' Writing Skill via Journal Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Luu Trong

    2010-01-01

    "Frequently accepted as being the last language skill to be acquired for native speakers of the language as well as for foreign/second language learners" (Hamp-Lyons and Heasly, 2006: 2), English writing, for a number of EFL learners, appears to be challenging. This paper sought to investigate if learners can grow out of the writing…

  18. Integrated Lyrical Writing: Addressing Writing via Ballads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Using songs in a language class takes advantage of the natural connection between students and music. This article describes a project that develops writing and speaking through song, using technology to help build students' knowledge of U.S. culture as well as their ability to communicate using descriptive, narrative, and expository rhetorical…

  19. On the Effective Language Writing of English Prepared Speeches%英文命题演讲写作的语言问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦

    2012-01-01

    英文命题演讲的写作比其他演讲写作对语言表达的要求更高,容错度更低。词汇使用不精确、句子结构不合理、语篇衔接不自然、缺乏修辞手段的润色是学生演讲稿常见的语言问题。发现并解决这些语言问题是提升演讲稿的语言面貌和整体质量的关键。%Unlike other types of speech writing, English prepared speeches are expected to be highly-polished and error-free. Inaccurate words, illogical sentence structure, abrupt cohesion between paragraphs and no employment of rhetorical devices-all these are detriments to effective and appropriate speech language. It is vital for the speakers to address these problems in speech language so as to create memorable speeches.

  20. Integrated Reading and Writing Tasks and ESL Students' Reading and Writing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Hameed

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether content knowledge from reading would affect the processes and the products of adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students' writing and reading performance on a simulated English language test that made use of reading and writing modules. Revealed that the thematic connection between reading and writing enhanced both the…

  1. Analyzing contrastive features in English and Persian argumentative writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiyeh Kamyabi Gol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Having the ability to write effectively is important to both achieve and also to demonstrate academic success. With the growing number of Iranian students studying overseas, it is necessary to see whether the Persian rhetorical culture influences students’ English writing. In this study, the researcher aimed to investigate the style differences between English and Persian writing and the possibility of transfer. A total of 65 university students took part in the study. Data was collected through two argumentative writing tasks and a 15-20 minute interview. A total of 130 argumentative essays (65 Persian and 65 English were analyzed according to the five contrastive features framework provided by Xing, Wang, and Spencer (2008. Inter-rater reliability was used in order to enhance the precision in essay correction. The results show that there is a great possibility of transfer from the participants’ L1 into L2 in the areas of number of topic sentences per paragraph, and also figurative language usage. Traces of backward transfer were also detected in inductive/deductive use of thesis statement in writing. Practical implications for teachers, professors and also students have been provided at the end of the paper.

  2. Analyzing contrastive features in English and Persian argumentative writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiyeh Kamyabi Gol

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Having the ability to write effectively is important to both achieve and also to demonstrate academic success. With the growing number of Iranian students studying overseas, it is necessary to see whether the Persian rhetorical culture influences students’ English writing. In this study, the researcher aimed to investigate the style differences between English and Persian writing and the possibility of transfer. A total of 65 university students took part in the study. Data was collected through two argumentative writing tasks and a 15-20 minute interview. A total of 130 argumentative essays (65 Persian and 65 English were analyzed according to the five contrastive features framework provided by Xing, Wang, and Spencer (2008. Inter-rater reliability was used in order to enhance the precision in essay correction. The results show that there is a great possibility of transfer from the participants’ L1 into L2 in the areas of number of topic sentences per paragraph, and also figurative language usage. Traces of backward transfer were also detected in inductive/deductive use of thesis statement in writing. Practical implications for teachers, professors and also students have been provided at the end of the paper.

  3. Reading, Writing, and Repetition: Performance on Nonword Measures by Students with and without Language-Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    The central purpose of this three-paper dissertation was to explore the ability of school-age children with and without language-learning disabilities (LLD) to apply sound/word level structure knowledge when performing speaking, spelling, and reading tasks. Data came from a larger investigation that used stratified sampling to create two ability…

  4. Differences between Academic and Business Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez, Félix S.

    2013-01-01

    Most upper-division courses taken by foreign language majors and minors in US colleges and universities involve some form of academic writing. Students who transpose this writing style to the business setting risk being unsuccessful. The purpose of this article is to highlight how these styles of writing differ so that language instructors teaching business courses in departments of modern languages can better prepare students for the needs of the twenty-first-century workplace. Our students ...

  5. Senior High School English Writing Teaching under the Guidance of Language Transfer Theory%语言迁移理论指导下的高中英语写作教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凤玉

    2011-01-01

    英语写作能力作为学习者实际语言运用能力即输出能力的体现,其重要性不可忽视。本文以语言迁移理论为依据,对高中学生在英语写作中出现的相关迁移现象进行分析,并提出具体的英语写作教学策略,以期在教学中促进语言的正迁移,减少负迁移的影响,从而提高学生的写作能力。%As the embodiment of learners' language applying ability, namely output ability, the importance of English writing ability can' t be neglected. This paper makes an analysis of corresponding transfer phenomena in English writing on the basis of language transfer theory and rises specific English writing teaching strategies, hoping to promote language positive transfer and reduce negative transfer, thus to improve students' writing ability.

  6. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-11-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands.

  7. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-11-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands. PMID:21767061

  8. Book Review: Stop, Write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thulesius

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This book on writing grounded theory is intended for the empirical GT researcher who wants to pursue his/her research until publication. It is the first book devoted entirely to such a crucial issue as writing grounded theory. Thus, Stop, Write: Writing Grounded Theory, is a practical book that fills a gap in GT methodology. In the first chapter of the book, Dr. Glaser says, “Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long”. The book teaches the reader how to actually write a grounded theory by “simply” writing up the sorted memos. This requires efficient sorting that is dealt with in chapter two on Sorting Memos, which includes precious repetition from Theoretical Sensitivity (1978. How writing can be done effectively is outlined in chapter three The Working Paper. Then follows chapter four on how to rework the first draft with the different tasks of editing for language and professionalism. Thereafter Dr. Glaser discusses Writing Problems in chapter five where he gives useful guidance on how to overcome writing blocks and problems with supervisors and dissertation committees. The book also deals with publishing and with collaboration as experienced between Barney Glaser and the cofounder of grounded theory, Anselm Strauss.

  9. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  10. Faculty Feelings as Writers: Relationship with Writing Genres, Perceived Competences, and Values Associated to Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pilar Gallego Castaño, Liliana; Castelló Badia, Montserrat; Badia Garganté, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to relate faculty feelings towards writing with writing genres, perceived competences and values associated to writing. 67 foreign languages faculty in Colombia and Spain voluntarily filled in a four-section on-line questionnaire entitled "The Writing Feelings Questionnaire." All the sections were Likert Scale type.…

  11. Teaching Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Z.; Kostka, I.; Mott-Smith, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors of "Teaching Writing" draw on their years of teaching and their knowledge of theory and research to present major concepts in teaching L2 writing. These concepts encompass how cultural differences affect the writing class, planning instruction, text-based writing, writing strategies, modeling, and responding to student…

  12. Dutch gender in specific language impairment and second language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Orgassa; F. Weerman

    2008-01-01

    In this article we compare five groups of learners acquiring Dutch gender as marked on determiners and adjectival inflection. Groups of L1 (first language) children and L1-SLI (first-language specific-language-impairment) children are compared to three Turkish-Dutch L2 (second language) groups: adul

  13. Online corpus-assisted second language writing for English majors%网络语料库在英语专业学生写作中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏秸; 陶非奇; 薛嘉蕾; 郭建

    2015-01-01

    With the development of computer and Internet technology,online corpus have become a powerful tool in English writing,which provides students with a new approach to English study.With examples from the writing practice,this paper studies the applications of online corpus in second language writing.Studies show that in the pre-writing state,students can use the online corpus Sentbase and CLEC to brainstorm and read model composi-tions;while in the post-writing stage,students can correct the mistakes in diction,vocabulary collocation and gram-mar with the help of such online corpus as COCA,sentbase and Pigai website.The application of online corpus to second language writing is conducive to the enhancement of students' English writing competence and the ability of autonomous learning.%随着计算机和网络技术的发展,网络语料库已成为写作的有力工具,学生在写作前的准备阶段,可以运用Sentbase、CLEC等网络语料库进行作文构思和范文阅读;作文完成后,学生可以借助多种网络语料库,如COCA、Sentbase和句酷批改网等,完成作文中选词、词汇搭配及语法等问题。将网络语料库运用到写作中,有利于提高学生的英语写作水平及自主学习能力。

  14. Linguistic aspects of writing for professional purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Përgjegji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing for Professional Purposes is considered as a means of communication between professionals who belong to two communities that have different languages, but share the same knowledge or expertise. The article gives a hint on how writing for specific purposes evolved to give rise to the creation of Writing for Professional Purposes. The social, cultural and cognitive aspects are an essential part of Writing for Professional Purposes since the physical act of writing cannot be considered only a result or product of the knowledge the individual possesses but also a social and cultural act. Therefore, the social and cultural aspects of writing explains the specificities and the intricacies of the effects these aspects have on writing for it is considered as an inseparable part of social and cultural groups. On the other hand, the cognitive aspect of writing explains and emphasizes the mental activities of the individual during the decision-making process while he/she is writing planning and editing their material having in mind the audience. On the same line of reasoning, writing for professional purposes in a second language means that the writer has to consider the audience twice; first, there is an audience who shares the same knowledge or expertise and second, the audience does not have the same language. Consequently, writing in another language that is not the first language with a specific jargon as well as a specific grammatical structure brings about a lot of difficulties. Hence, writing in professional contexts in the mother tongue implies only writing in a specialized version of a language already known to the writer, but writing in a target language means that the writer has to learn the target language and the specialized version of that language.

  15. An Investigation of L2 Learners' Writing Self-Efficacy, Writing Anxiety and Its Causes at Higher Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmizi, Özkan; Kirmizi, Gülin Dagdeviren

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating higher education L2 learners in a Turkish context in terms of writing self-efficacy, writing anxiety, and the causes of writing anxiety. The data have been collected through the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI), developed by Cheng, (2004), and Causes of Writing Anxiety Inventory (CWAI), and…

  16. Negative Transfer of L1 on English Grammar Learning in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秀琳

    2015-01-01

    At present,many scholars pay more attention to the positive transfer of native language on the English learning,while ignoring the negative transfer of L1 on English grammar learning. Therefore native transfer of L1 often appears on English grammar learning.This paper aims to point out that the negative transfer of L1 has a profound and vast influence on the English grammar learning,to find out the countermeasures to reduce the influence of negative transfer of L1 and finally to bring the benefits to the following relative studies.

  17. Negative Transfer of L1 on English Grammar Learning in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秀琳

    2015-01-01

    At present,many scholars pay more attention to the positive transfer of native language on the English learning,while ignoring the negative transfer of L1 on English grammar learning.Therefore native transfer of L1 often appears on English grammar learning.This paper aims to point out that the negative transfer of L1 has a profound and vast influence on the English grammar learning,to find out the countermeasures to reduce the influence of negative transfer of L1 and finally to bring the benefits to the following relative studies.

  18. Writing for the web

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Susannah

    2007-01-01

    Enables you to organize the information on your site to create maximum impactLanguage-centred approach helps you to communicate effectively with usersClear and straightforward explanationsHandy checklists at the end of each section summarize the information Writing for the Web offers simple and effective advice for anyone who has to write copy for a website. It shows you how language works and how to select the right words and arrange them effectively to create a site that users can navigate easily and will visit again.

  19. A Brief Discussion on the Favorable Interaction between Reading and Writing Training in Chinese Language Teaching of Junior High School%浅谈初中语文阅读与写作训练的良性互动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于春婷

    2014-01-01

    随着素质教学的不断深入,语文课程的教学内容不断拓展,阅读与写作训练在教材和练习题中以更加丰富的形式出现,考查比重也在逐步加大。因此,在初中语文教学中应该把握住阅读教学、写作训练两者之间的关系,在当下初中语文考核体系下,使学生的读写能力得到切实提升。本文在分析初中语文阅读和写作相互关系的基础上,对促进两者之间良性互动的方法进行分别探讨,以期对当前初中语文教学起到借鉴作用。%With the continuous deepening of quality-oriented teaching, the teaching content of the Chinese language course is also unceasingly expanding, and reading and writing training have appeared richer forms in textbooks and exercises and the proportion of test is also gradually increasing. Therefore, the rela-tionship between reading teaching and writing training should be grasped in junior high school Chinese language teaching, so as to feasibly improve students' reading and writing ability under the current Chinese language test system. Based on analyzing the in-terrelation between reading and writing in junior high school Chinese language course, this paper explores methods for their favorable interaction, hoping to provide a reference for the current Chinese language teaching in junior high school.

  20. Componential skills of beginning writing: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Wagner, Richard K

    2011-10-01

    The present study examined the components of end of kindergarten writing, using data from 242 kindergartners. Specifically of interest was the importance of spelling, letter writing fluency, reading, and word- and syntax-level oral language skills in writing. The results from structural equation modeling revealed that oral language, spelling, and letter writing fluency were positively and uniquely related to writing skill after accounting for reading skills. Reading skill was not uniquely related to writing once oral language, spelling, and letter writing fluency were taken into account. These findings are discussed from a developmental perspective.

  1. Passionate Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte

    With care of writing as a method of inquiry, this paper engages in academic writing such as responsible knowledge development drawing on emotion, thought and reason. The aim of the paper is to better understand emancipatory knowledge development. Bodily experiences and responses shape academic...... writing and there are possibilities for responsible academic writing in that iterative process. I propose that academic writing can be seen as possibilities of passionate as well as passive writing....

  2. Collaborative Writing to Enhance Academic Writing Development Through Project Work

    OpenAIRE

    Alma Milena Robayo Luna; Luz Stella Hernandez Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Advanced students at university level struggle with many aspects of academic writing in English as a foreign language. The purpose of this article is to report on an investigation aimed at analyzing what collaborative writing through project work tells us about students’ academic writing development at the tertiary level. The compositions written by students before the implementation of our research project showed that their command of written English was weak in form and content. The finding...

  3. Using L1 to Enhance the Grammar Learning and Having Only English Policy in EFL Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the differences of grammar learning, if any, between the EFL classes in which native language (L1) is sometimes used and only target language (L2) is used. Participants were 42 prep year students from one of the universities in Turkey. They have been studying English for 9 months, and now they are in level…

  4. A Prerequisite to L1 Homophone Effects in L2 Spoken-Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…

  5. Processing Focus Structure in L1 and L2 French: L2 Proficiency Effects on ERPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Robert V.; Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by focus processing among first language (L1) speakers and second language (L2) learners of French. Participants read wh-questions containing explicit focus marking, followed by responses instantiating contrastive and informational focus. We hypothesized that L2 proficiency would…

  6. Using Automated Writing Evaluation to Reduce Grammar Errors in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hui-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent development of automated writing evaluation (AWE) technology and the growing interest in applying this technology to language classrooms, few studies have looked at the effects of using AWE on reducing grammatical errors in L2 writing. This study identified the primary English grammatical error types made by 66 Taiwanese…

  7. L1CAM whole gene deletion in a child with L1 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidsey, Brandalyn A; Baldwin, Erin E; Toydemir, Reha; Ahles, Lauren; Hanson, Heather; Stevenson, David A

    2014-06-01

    L1 syndrome is a group of overlapping, X-linked disorders caused by mutations in L1CAM. Clinical phenotypes within L1 syndrome include X-linked hydrocephalus with stenosis of the aqueduct of sylvius (HSAS); mental retardation, adducted thumbs, shuffling gait, and aphasia (MASA) syndrome; spastic paraplegia type 1; and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Over 200 mutations in L1CAM have been reported; however, only a few large gene deletions have been observed. We report on a 4-month-old male with a de novo whole gene deletion of L1CAM presenting with congenital hydrocephalus, aqueductal stenosis, and adducted thumbs. Initial failure of L1CAM gene sequencing suggested the possibility of a whole gene deletion of L1CAM. Further investigation through chromosome microarray analysis showed a 62Kb deletion encompassing the first exon of the PDZD4 gene and the entire L1CAM gene. Investigations into genotype-phenotype correlations have suggested that mutations leading to truncated or absent L1 protein cause more severe forms of L1 syndrome. Based on the presentation of the proband and other reported patients with whole gene deletions, we provide further evidence that L1CAM whole gene deletions result in L1 syndrome with a severe phenotype, deletions of PDZD4 do not cause additional manifestations, and that X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus reported in a subset of patients with large L1CAM deletions results from the loss of AVPR2. PMID:24668863

  8. Writing Anxiety: A Case Study on Students’ Reasons for Anxiety in Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Selma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, the present study set out to investigate the learners‟ attitudes towards academic writing courses that they have to take as part of their curriculum, whether they experience second language writing anxiety and what reasons they report for their anxiety and failure in academic writing courses. Second, the study aimed to develop a selfreport measure of second language writing anxiety reasons

  9. Socio-semiotics-based Study on Negative Transfer and Countermeasures of Mother Language in English Writing%社会符号学理论下英语写作母语负迁移现象研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义

    2011-01-01

    二语写作中母语负迁移现象可从社会符号学的角度归纳为指称负迁移、言内负迁移和语用负迁移。这种分类方式在理论上具有可行性,且有助于找出每类负迁移的原因,对英语写作教学有所启发,能帮助学生提高英语写作水平。%The negative transfer in the second language writing can be classified into designative negative transfer,inner-linguistic negative transfer,and pragmatic negative transfer.This classification is feasible theoretically,conducive to analyzing the causes of the above-mentioned mistakes and will help be meaningful to English writing teaching as well as students' writing.

  10. 美国高中母语写作能力表现标准及启示%Standard of Writing Ability on American Native Language and its Enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹达

    2015-01-01

    The performance standard of writing ability in native language in America intensively represents the requirements and rules of writing in native language , which makes it convenient for teachers and students to teach and learn according to the reference standard .The enlightenments to the teaching of composition in China given by the performance standard of writing ability in native language in America are: the teaching objective of writing should highlight “personal mind”, guidance should be strengthened during the teaching process , and teaching strategy should extrude the personal life .It has been an urgent task for the teachers of Chinese to develop the standard of writing ability in China .%美国高中母语写作能力表现标准集中体现了对学生母语写作能力的要求与规则,便于教师和学生参照标准进行教学与学习活动。作文教学目标应突出“我的思维”、教学过程应加强有效的引导、教学策略突出个人生活化是美国高中母语写作能力表现标准对我国作文教学的启示,研制写作能力表现标准成为摆在我国语文教育工作者面前的一项紧迫的任务。

  11. Application of Memetics Theory to English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许静

    2014-01-01

    Memetics also shed new light for linguists who begin to study the mechanism of language development from a brand new perspective:the combi-nation of language learning and language memes. The current essay attempts to apply the memetics to teaching of English writing,and to helping students con-struct knowledge and develop skills of writing by recitation and imitation of language memes.

  12. Writing Excel Macros with VBA

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the maximum control and flexibility from Microsoft® Excel often requires careful custom programming using the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) language. Writing Excel Macros with VBA, 2nd Edition offers a solid introduction to writing VBA macros and programs, and will show you how to get more power at the programming level: focusing on programming languages, the Visual Basic Editor, handling code, and the Excel object model.

  13. The Effect of Journal Writing on Students' Cognitive Critical Thinking Skills: "A Quasi-Experimental Research on an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Undergraduate Classroom in Egypt"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaarawy, Hanaa Youssef

    2014-01-01

    Based on writing weekly academic journals and on Bloom's (1984) taxonomy of cognitive critical thinking skills, this article reports on a quasi-experiment where journal writing was an additional task to an academic writing course. The experiment was carried out with first year university students (semester two) in one of the Egyptian private…

  14. Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. Appendix C: Samples of Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This document presents writing samples that have been annotated to illustrate the criteria required to meet the Common Core State Standards for particular types of writing--argument, informative/explanatory text, and narrative--in a given grade. Each of the samples exhibits at least the level of quality required to meet the Writing standards for…

  15. The Writing System of Modern Persian. American Council of Learned Societies Program in Oriental Languages, Publication Series B - Aids - Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paper, Herbert H.; Jazayery, Mohammad Ali

    This manual describes and illustrates the writing system of modern Persian. It is modelled after Frank A. Rice's "Classical Arabic: The Writing System." Five sections concerning the writing system are provided: (1) printed Persian, (2) typewritten Persian, (3) handwritten Persian, (4) the combination of words, and (5) punctuation. (RL)

  16. Writing Inspired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischhauser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…

  17. LANGUAGE TEACHING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanchick, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some strategies of teaching English language. Special attention was paid to adult learning, writing problem and some others. The aim of the paper is to show advantages of intensive learning of English language

  18. 综合运用多种方法,有效培养学生应用写作语言风格%Comprehensive use of various methods, effectively cultivate students' practical writing language style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖

    2013-01-01

    In the application writing teaching, the language style is the difficult point of teaching, its reason is no concept of applied writing language style of students in learning, in order to solve this problem, in this paper, the theory of implicit learning and explicit learning are introduces into the teaching, and put forward comprehensive use of reading method, comparative method and practice method in teaching links, in order to cultivate students' practical writing language style.%  在应用写作的教学中,应用文的语言风格是教学的难点,其原因是学生在学习中往往对应用写作的语言风格没有概念,针对这一问题,本文将内隐学习和外显学习的相关理论引入教学,并提出在教学的前、中、后等环节,综合运用阅读法、比较法和实践训练法,以期有效培养学生的应用写作语言风格。

  19. L1-norm minimization for quaternion signals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiasong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Senhadji, Lotfi; Shu, Huazhong

    2012-01-01

    The l1-norm minimization problem plays an important role in the compressed sensing (CS) theory. We present in this letter an algorithm for solving the problem of l1-norm minimization for quaternion signals by converting it to second-order cone programming. An application example of the proposed algorithm is also given for practical guidelines of perfect recovery of quaternion signals. The proposed algorithm may find its potential application when CS theory meets the quaternion signal processing.

  20. University writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Zabalza Beraza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done. The article also discusses the contributions of writing for both students and teachers together: writing to investigate. Finally, going beyond what writing is as academic tool, we conclude with a more playful and creative position: writing for pleasure and enjoyment.

  1. Intonational differences between L1 and L2 english in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerts, Marc; Zerbian, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that characteristics of a person's first language (L1) may transfer to a second language (L2). The current study looks at the extent to which this holds for aspects of intonation as well. More specifically, we investigate to what extent traces of the L1 can be discerned in the way intonation is used in the L2 for two functions: (1) to highlight certain words by making them sound more prominent and (2) to signal continuation or finality in a list by manipulating the speech melody. To this end, the article presents an explorative study into the way focus and boundaries are marked prosodically in Zulu, and it also compares such prosodic functions in two variants of English in South Africa, i.e., English spoken as an L1, and English spoken as an L2/additional language by speakers who have Zulu as their L1. The latter language is commonly referred to as Black South African English. This comparison is interesting from a typological perspective, as Zulu is intonationally different from English, especially in the way prosody is exploited for signalling informationally important stretches of speech. Using a specific elicitation procedure, we found in a first study that speakers of South African English (as L1) mark focused words and position within a list by intonational means, just as in other L1 varieties of English, whereas Zulu only uses intonation for marking continuity or finality. A second study focused on speakers of Black South African English, and compared the prosody of proficient versus less proficient speakers. We found that the proficient speakers were perceptually equivalent to L1 speakers of English in their use of intonation for marking focus and boundaries. The less proficient speakers marked boundaries in a similar way as L1 speakers of English, but did not use prosody for signalling focus, analogous to what is typical of their native language. Acoustic observations match these perceptual results.

  2. Writing a Thesis Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honan, Eileen; Bright, David

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore the contributions that Deleuze and Guattari have made to thinking/writing language and how these ideas can be put to work in producing a doctoral thesis. We contribute to the field of work within what Patti Lather and Elizabeth St Pierre have called the "post-qualitative" movement, where researchers attempt to…

  3. Looking, Writing, Creating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzive, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Describes how a middle school language arts teacher makes analyzing and creating visual art a partner to reading and writing in her classroom. Describes a project on art and Vietnam which shows how background information can add to and influence interpretation. Describes a unit on Greek mythology and Greek vases which leads to a related visual…

  4. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  5. Writing a Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sue; And Others

    A unit used in an Australian school to teach English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students how to write a discussion is described. The 3-week unit was planned and implemented jointly by an ESL resource teacher, class teacher, and teacher librarian. The class was divided into three heterogeneous groups, two of which were observed for this study and…

  6. On Cognitive Approach to Process Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胤辛

    2014-01-01

    Based on its theoretical foundation of psychology, linguistics and pedagogy, cognitive approach aims to develop the practical and comprehensive ability of employing foreign language. Viewed as a complex process, writing can be regarded as a cognitive activity which focuses on the process of writing rather than its final product. This paper intends to discuss the effects of cognitive approach on English writing.

  7. Interlanguage and EST Writing: Some Syntactic Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulijn, Jan M.; Strother, Judith B.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-eight American (L1) and 48 Dutch students (L2), half of whom had computer science backgrounds and half of whom did not, were tested for their use of either scientific text (ST) syntactic structures or the less difficult common syntax when writing technical discourse (in Appendix). Results indicate that both L1 and L2 technical writers wrote…

  8. Writing successful UX proposals

    CERN Document Server

    Hass, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Bringing new project funding and business opportunities to your organization is a vital part of UX professionals' growth and success. Writing Successful UX Proposals teaches the proven techniques for assessing proposal requests, writing successful commercial and government funding proposals, and enhancing your business development skills. This book will teach UX practitioners how to succeed in UX business development by mastering the following goals: * Understand how to assess a request for proposals* Understand the "anatomy" of a proposal response * Speak the business language of those who will be evaluating the proposed approach* Recognize the successes of others and build upon their advice Complete with case studies, tricks and tips, and real-world examples throughout, this is a must-have resource for UX professionals interested in honing their proposal writing skills and setting themselves up for success. * Provides unique sales and proposal writing insights tailored to the UX arena (including both resear...

  9. Discourse Features of African American Students' Writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norment, Nathaniel, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between culture/language background and rhetorical style by examining the degree of similarity in the writings of Black students in two rhetorical modes: narration and exposition. Results from 30 high school students show culture/language background influences students' writings and suggests that written language…

  10. Empower ESL Writing Students: Keep It Simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This case study started when I noticed that my ESL (English as a Second Language) students from all over the world had a hard time not only adjusting their writing/textual production to the language but also to the organizational structures of the paragraph I was presenting to them in my intermediate writing class. Considering that my students…

  11. Writing Games in the Bayeux Tapestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John Marshall

    1985-01-01

    Describes how teachers can use the Bayeux Tapestry as the basis for writing games in many disciplines. Offers guidelines for conducting introductory lectures and preliminary investigations. Presents a series of writing games for the following disciplines: Art, Communications, English/Language Arts/Foreign Languages, History/Social Sciences, Home…

  12. Using Wikis to Promote Collaborative EFL Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Zelilha; Yildiz, Senem

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the use of wikis in collaborative writing projects in foreign language learning classrooms. A total of 34 intermediate level university students learning English as a foreign language (EFL) were asked to accomplish three different wiki-based collaborative writing tasks, (argumentative, informative and decision-making) working…

  13. The Role of L1 Conceptual and Linguistic Knowledge and Frequency in the Acquisition of L2 Metaphorical Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how figurative language is processed by learners of a second language (L2). With an experiment testing L2 comprehension of figurative expressions in three categories, each combining shared and unshared first language (L1) and L2 lexical representations and conceptual representations in a different way, the study…

  14. Enhancing Content Knowledge in Essay Writing Classes: A Multimedia Package for Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Tahmouresi Majelan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate empirically if promoting a multimedia package enhances content knowledge in essay writing of 80 junior English translation students at a University in Karaj, Iran; plus, whether the learners’ writing content improve due to the presence of the multimedia package or not. The multimedia was considered to be a CD, containing recordings both in first language (L1=Farsi and in second language (L2=English along with manipulative and task-based activities. A homogenizing test, the pre-posttests, and the material in a form of a CD (treatment including forty of the most common TOEFL essays both in L1 and L2 plus manipulative tasks to fulfill provided by the researcher, were the instruments in the study.  After 14 weeks, both the experimental and control groups sat for the posttest with exactly the same characteristics of pretest except for the topics. When the collected data was analyzed, a mean difference of t-test along with a paired t-test showed a significant difference between the performance of the control and the experimental groups, regarding the content. Consequently, the statistics proved that enhancing content knowledge by means of a multimedia package containing recordings plus manipulative and task-based activities would improve students’ writing ability while the control group in which a current traditional rhetoric approach was used, the placebo, did not show any statistically significant improvement regarding content.

  15. Acquisition of Japanese contracted sounds in L1 phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Chiharu

    2002-05-01

    Japanese possesses a group of palatalized consonants, known to Japanese scholars as the contracted sounds, [CjV]. English learners of Japanese appear to treat them initially as consonant + glide clusters, where there is an equivalent [Cj] cluster in English, or otherwise tend to insert an epenthetic vowel [CVjV]. The acquisition of the Japanese contracted sounds by first language (L1) learners has not been widely studied compared with the consonant clusters in English with which they bear a close phonetic resemblance but have quite a different phonological status. This is a study to investigate the L1 acquisition process of the Japanese contracted sounds (a) in order to observe how the palatalization gesture is acquired in Japanese and (b) to investigate differences in the sound acquisition processes of first and second language (L2) learners: Japanese children compared with English learners. To do this, the productions of Japanese children ranging in age from 2.5 to 3.5 years were transcribed and the pattern of misproduction was observed.

  16. Structural and magnetic properties of L1(0)/A1, FePt nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannopoulos, G; Speliotis, T; Li, WF; Hadjipanayis, G; Niarchos, D

    2013-01-01

    In this work structural and magnetic properties of (L1(0)-FePt/A1-FePt) exchange coupled nanocomposites are presented. Semi spherical "dome-like" nanocomposites with L1(0) FePt isolated nanoparticles and A1 FePt (fcc) cap layers were obtained by depositing A1-FePt on type L1(0) FePt nanoparticles in order to understand the influence of the soft magnetic layer thickness on the magnetic properties of the system. Epitaxial growth is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and TEM, while the coercivity decreases dramatically for the L1(0)/A1-FePt system when the thickness of the A1-FePt cap layers is increased. This result can be used to realize ultrahigh magnetic recording media with tunable coercivity, suitable for conventional write heads. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Face recognition with L1-norm subspaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritato, Federica; Liu, Ying; Colonnese, Stefania; Pados, Dimitris A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of representing individual faces by maximum L1-norm projection subspaces calculated from available face-image ensembles. In contrast to conventional L2-norm subspaces, L1-norm subspaces are seen to offer significant robustness to image variations, disturbances, and rank selection. Face recognition becomes then the problem of associating a new unknown face image to the "closest," in some sense, L1 subspace in the database. In this work, we also introduce the concept of adaptively allocating the available number of principal components to different face image classes, subject to a given total number/budget of principal components. Experimental studies included in this paper illustrate and support the theoretical developments.

  18. Writing, Literacy, and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leki, Ilona

    2000-01-01

    Discusses writing and literacy in the domain of applied linguistics. Focus is on needs analysis for literacy acquisition; second language learner identity; longitudinal studies as extensions of identity work; and applied linguistics contributions to second language literacy research. (Author/VWL)

  19. Thesis Writing Challenges for Non-Native MA Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Karim; Shirzad Khajepasha, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Writing in a second (L2)/foreign language is generally a challenging activity, and writing an MA thesis, as an example of academic enterprise, can be daunting when done in a language in which the writer is not fully competent. The challenge such a genre of writing poses for L2 writers has not been properly addressed. To fill in the gap in this…

  20. A Reviewing on English Writing Researching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军莉

    2015-01-01

    English writing is also a crucial means of evaluating the language proficiency of a learner of English as second language. As a result, it is essential to review English writing researching in terms of contents, number, methods, process, feedback and as⁃sessment which can guide our English writing teaching effectively.