Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali
New trends in language teaching have resulted in a move towards research in the language classroom. A brief overview of classroom research reveals three distinct but inter-related research paradigms: classroom-centered research, classroom process research, and qualitative research, respectively.
Reviews topical and methodological trends in the past 85 years of research on language classrooms in "The Modern Language Journal." Focus is on empirical investigations into oral classroom instruction in post-secondary classes, which include comparisons of language teaching methodology, observational procedures in classrooms, examinations of…
Full Text Available The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field. The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field.
Miranda J. Walker
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to construct a new scale for measuring foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA. It begun with the creation of an extended item pool generated by qualitative methods. Subsequent Rasch and semantic analyses led to the final 18-item Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Inventory (FLCAI. In comparison with the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS, the FLCAI demonstrated more convincing evidence of unidimensionality and the optimal 5-point Likert scale functioned better. The FLCAI, while 55% the length of the FLCAS, thus more practical for classroom practitioners to administer and analyse, maintains its psychometric properties and covers a wider range on the construct continuum thus improving the degree of validity of the instrument. Finally, test anxiety was shown to be a component of FLCA.
Racelis, Juval V.; Matsuda, Paul Kei
The field of second language (L2) writing has moved beyond the false dichotomies between process- and genre-based pedagogies perpetuated in the 1980s and 1990s, but there has still been little research on how the two are actually reconciled in the classroom. Consequently, L2 writing instructors are left with an incomplete picture, unsure how to…
Full Text Available This research study focuses on teacher-student and student-student interaction, which are considered very important aspects of classroom life. There has been a growth of interest in the analysis of teacher language and interaction in language classrooms and many (e.g. Ellis, 1994; Tsui, 2001 believe that classroom interaction is one of the major variables affecting SLA in formal settings. This study aims to give some insight into classroom interaction and how this interaction shapes L2 learning and teaching in Turkey and England. Systematic classroom observation along with the field notes taken to record observations is the main research method in this study used to describe and examine interaction patterns and to measure learner production in secondary classes in Turkey and England. The participants are foreign language teachers and non-native speaking students. Over a month, more than 50 lessons were observed in the secondary schools in both Turkey and England at two levels (13-14 and 14-15 year age group. In Turkey, English classes were observed whereas in England, the observation was conducted in German and French classes. English is taught as a foreign language in Turkey; German and French are also taught as a foreign language in England. The findings of this research study are expected to provide a better understanding of instructional practices and procedures in L2 classrooms. The results of this research study, however, should be seen as suggestive rather than conclusive since they are derived from a relatively small sample.
Young, Dolly Jesusita
Discussion of six potential sources of anxiety in the second language classroom, student manifestations of anxiety, and possible remedies covers such areas as personal and interpersonal anxieties, learner beliefs about language learning, instructor beliefs about language teaching, instructor-learner interactions, classroom procedures, and language…
Full Text Available This study shows the transformative potential of action research and information and communications technology (ICT in the second language (L2 classroom. Two enquiries from teacher-researchers are detailed in the article. Their engagement in a collaborative professional development Masters programme was pivotal in designing and implementing ICT creatively in their classroom. Gee (2008 advocates the use of the preferred media of our classroom students in order to address their learning. Prensky (2001 urges us to feel the fear and do it anyway with our digital native classes. A post-primary teacher and a primary teacher show us how they felt the fear, did it and transformed aspects of their own teaching in the process. The Masters programme required the teachers to engage with innovative practices, informed by their own values, and integrate technologies that were new to them into their repertoire of classroom strategies. Peer validation meetings with colleagues enabled meaningful insights to emerge from the research. The teachers improve and transform their second language (L2 practice in collaboration and validation with others.
Craig Chaudron; Graham Crookes
@@ In"Guidelines for Language Classroom Instruction,"Crookes and Chaudron review research and practice in both second and foreign language contexts.The main areas of classroom instruction described are:presentational modes and focus on form,types of activities and parameters of tasks and interaction,classroom organization,teacher control of interaction,and corrective feedback.
@@ Classroom language is an extremely important form of talk.In a foreign language classroom,the teacher has to organize language teaching by using the target language.Therefore,classroom language in foreign language teaching seems more important.
Escalante, Lora Beth
The study investigates how language is used among 17 children in a dual language classroom as they create academic-based one-act plays in conjunction with social studies instruction. Examining over 20 hours of video, the teacher researcher analyzes students' use of translanguaging during cooperative groupings in order to co-accomplish an…
This paper begins with a brief introduction of discourse analysis,and then it discusses two aspects of traditional classroom teaching discourse： the I-R-F sequence and turn-taking.The emphases of the paper lay on how language teachers can use classroom discourse analysis to do research and create learning environment,and how language learners can use it to achieve language proficiency and cultural competence.
While others have focused on gender-based language and the workplace, this research study explores gender-based language, in this case women's language, and the classroom. The study specifically examines examples of women's language and how this language affects student response in the classroom. Five variables have been identified as…
This paper reviews some works done to classroom discourse analysis and summaries some peculiarities of foreign lan-guage classroom discourse. Some strategies are proposed for the teachers to activate students into communicative teaching activ-ities in classroom for the purpose of improving college English teaching and learning.
This paper presents practical research on repair mechanismand its four repair trajectories in FL classroom interaction. Thisshows that it is effective and efficient in assisting FL learners todevelop their communicative competence and understand theprocess of language acquisition. Repair strategies that are ofgreat value to FL teachers in FL classroom teaching are also ex-pounded.
Ahmadian, Mohammad Javad; Tavakoli, Mansoor
Action research is geared to changes for the better and has the potential to assist teachers to extend their teaching skills and develop a deeper understanding of themselves, their classroom and their learners. However, in the area of applied linguistics, the viability of action research has been seriously questioned. In this article, we argue…
Goshi, Masahiko||郷司, 正彦||ゴウシ, マサヒコ
Foreign language anxiety has long been recognized by both classroom teachers and researchers in second/foreign language education, but it is far from completely understood.It has been reported that some types of anxiety debilitate learners' language learning. By examining the research results in foreign/second language anxiety, some implications for classroom teachers and learners can be drawn. Also a small-scale study was carried out to find the relationship between students' language anxiet...
Dajani, Majida "Mohammed Yousef "
This study aimed to describe the implementation of individual action research projects among some forty English language teachers distributed in thirty Palestinian schools in Ramallah and Qabatya districts-Palestine. It aimed to analyze the outcomes of the teachers' action research as part of a broader participatory action research project that is…
While approaching second language acquisition from a complex dynamic systems perspective makes a lot of intuitive sense, it is difficult for a number of reasons to operationalise such a dynamic approach in research terms. For example, the most common research paradigms in the social sciences tend to examine variables in relative isolation rather…
Due to the popularization of foreign language study, more and more people from education field further enhance their exploration and researches in how to apply second acquisition theories into classroom teaching. This paper probes into the orientation, research objects, age, language environment and classroom activities of second language…
Against the background of increasing linguistic diversity in classrooms worldwide, we aimed to provide scientifically grounded insight into how language-oriented mathematics education can be designed, enacted and evaluated. We addressed the following main research question: How can teachers in multi
Morgan, Mindy J.
Indigenous languages are powerful symbols of self-determination and sovereignty for tribal communities in the United States, and many community-based programs have been developed to support and maintain them. The successes of these programs, however, have been difficult to replicate at large research institutions. This article examines the issues…
Belpoliti, Flavia; Fairclough, Marta
This study presents the development and implementation of inquiry-based cultural projects in a Spanish Heritage Language (SHL) Program. Four different inquiry-based curricula are described to illustrate how university students in an SHL program advance their knowledge of Spanish while carrying out research to understand Hispanic cultures. First-,…
This paper is based on my personal observation and context, as well as some implications inspired trom theones, First, I shall give an evaluation of traditional language classroom practice I am familiar to. Second, relating to some implications in the theories of socialcultural psychology, I shall discuss some principled ways in which the classroom practices I have described and evaluated might be modified in order that we could enhance the effective opportunities for social and individual learning processes. I shall also provide my suggested structure of a lesson, in which some practices are implemented in this language classroom. Last but not the least, I shall give my reflection on how my own psychology of learning has been developed since I arrived at the university to begin my English teaching.
This book discusses how second language acquisition (SLA) research can illuminate language pedagogy, and suggests four main roles for the SLA researcher: developing relevant theories; conducting classroom research; making research accessible to teachers; and facilitating action research. The first chapter outlines a number of different…
Collins, Laura; Muñoz, Carmen
"The Modern Language Journal" has long been an important venue for the publication of research and reflection on the teaching and learning of foreign languages (FL) in classroom contexts. In this article, we offer a perspective on the contemporary FL classroom, informed by a descriptive survey of all studies that took place in FL classes…
The author spent four years embedded in a multilingual kindergarten classroom in which children spoke six different languages and several more years observing multilingual Head Start classrooms. She shares numerous examples of young dual language learners actively figuring out the way written language works in their first and second languages.…
<正>Throughout decades of foreign language(L2) teaching,a recurring issue has been the role of the first language(L1) in the classroom.A long-term and wide-ranging debate persists regarding practical and theoretical questions about the significance of the L1’ s obvious influence on the L2 being learned.Although many feel that the L1 should not be used in the classroom,other researchers, teachers,and learners do see a role for the L1 and support its use as a communication strategy and instructional tool.This article will look at the historical background of this topic,and describe how the L1 is currently being used in the L2 classroom,including in written translation activities.A specific explanation will also be given about the benefits of using translation for assessing reading comprehension.
This paper explains how any teacher can do their own classroom research as a part of their normal teaching. In order to research the classroom,it reviews some teacher’s questions in the classroom.After introducing two ways of researching :research by thinking and research by experimenting ,the paper analyses the reasons and shows some methods to solve the problems. This will determine the shape of what is done in the classroom exactly.It’s helpful for the teachers to have lessons every day.
Chinese is an ancient language, but the present scope of its global study is unprecedented. Comprehending the impacts of worldwide linguistic realities on 'Chinese as a Foreign Language' (CFL) teachers and students will be critical to its long-term success. The most important phenomenon has been the establishment of English as a lingua franca, especially in the expanding marketplaces of Asia. This book examines the role of English as a medium of instruction in CFL classrooms. It begins by integrating existing studies on the global spread of English with research on English as a medium of secon
Full Text Available Alongside the rise of educational technology, many teachers have been taking gradual but innovative steps to redesign their teaching methods. For example, in flipped learning or a flipped classroom, students watch instructional videos outside the classroom and do assignments or engage in activities inside the classroom. Language teachers are one group of educators exploring the flipped classroom. In foreign language classes, such an approach may offer great benefits for both the teachers and students since classroom time can be applied to more interactive tasks. By extending classroom hours in this way, language teachers can focus on successfully addressing all subjects in the curriculum. The aim of this study is (a to gain insights into the perceptions of prospective English language teachers at a state university in Turkey on flipped classrooms and (b to introduce the implementation of a flipped classroom into an English language class. A total of 47 prospective English teachers participated in the study. Qualitative research design was used and data were collected via an open-ended question. Findings of the study indicated that pre-service English teachers had positive perceptions towards the use of the flipped classroom as an integral part of face-to-face courses. It can be concluded that flipped classroom was beneficial in terms of 4 categories based on the content analysis of the responses: learning at one’s own pace, advance student preparation, overcoming the limitations of class time, increasing the participation in the classroom. The study also provides recommendations towards LMS integration into courses in other English language teaching departments and for implementing flipped classrooms in language teaching.
Rotenberg, Anna Markopoulos
This study investigates whether the growing use of standardized testing methods may impact learners differently across language proficiency levels. Survey and language proficiency data from 22 second grade native (African American) and non-native (Hispanic and Vietnamese) English speakers were analyzed to examine whether worry, or test anxiety,…
In this study of an Indonesian language class in Australia, I propose that students are agentive in adopting, rejecting and deploying discursive positions within the classroom. There are a range of identities made available in the classroom, only some of which are taken up and privileged within specific moments in the classroom. I apply the…
Visuals are advantageous to language teaching and learning.Effective use of pictures in the lan-guage classroom contributes to stimulate the students’ imagination and creativity,enhance their basic lan-guage skills and heighten their communicative competence.This Paper will present some techniques andactivities with pictures for use in the language class.
The flipped classroom can support the implementation of a communicative, student-centered learning environment in the English as a foreign language classroom. Unfortunately, there is little research which supports the incorporation of flipped learning in the English as a foreign language classroom. Numerous studies have focused on flipped learning…
This article examines how learning an additional language can positively affect children's opinions and feelings about languages and how this process can be enriched when different languages--namely, the additional language and the children's L1s--are present and used in the classroom in an informed way. It is hypothesised that this will benefit…
Anxiety is considered to be one of the key psychological variables as well as one of the important emotional factors that affect language learning. Taken into account that classroom is the main place in which Chinese college students learn English, it is of great significance to study students’language anxiety in the classroom environment. Based on the previous researches, this paper reviews the relevant studies in this area conducted at home and abroad.
Onovughe, Ofodu Graceful
Sociolinguistic inputs in language acquisition and use of English as Second Language in classrooms is the main focus of this study. A survey research design was adopted. The population consisted of all secondary school students in Akure Local Government of Ondo State, Nigeria. Two hundred and forty (240) students in senior secondary school classes…
Smith, Philip D.
Uses of shortwave radio in the language classroom are discussed. Benefits are increased language skills and familiarity with the target language and country. Problems of transmission and reception are discussed; obtaining a license is explained. Advice is given on purchasing a radio set. (CHK)
Mohammad Javad Riasati
Full Text Available A common problem faced by many language teachers, both in EFL and ESL settings, is the students’ unwillingness to speak and participate in classroom activities. The present study delves into this issue by reviewing studies concerning this issue to figure out how different researchers have attempted to identify the causes of students’ reticence and lack of participation. The study aims to come up with some practical techniques and strategies teachers can employ in order to discover causes of reticence among language learners and thus make them more willing to speak in language classrooms.
The results of a great deal of research have suggested that language learning strategies can be taught and that instructing learning strategies and integrating them into regular instruction can greatly facilitate the learning of a second/foreign language. The aim of this article is to draw the readers’attention to strategic teaching that should be introduced in the foreign language classroom in order to meet the demands of contemporary language education. In particular, it points to the necessity that teachers should change their attitudes towards the roles they play in the classroom to become truly responsible for their learning.
Stomfay-Stitz, Aline; Wheeler, Edyth
For the past 30 years, peace educators have drawn attention to the vital role of language--the caring, creative words that describe and enhance peace. The language of peace has evolved through several stages of growth and complexity. It also offers a heritage of caring and acceptance for all children who enter through educators' classroom doors.…
Ⅰ. Introduction Foreign language teachers in China nowadays are well aware that language learning cannot be separated from cultural learning. They start to deal with intercultural communication in the classroom and have undergone significant progress in the past two decades. A lot of excellent work has been done (see Hu Wenzhong 1990, 1997) on raising cultural awareness and pragmatic insights.
Tran, Thu H.
The vast majority of second language teachers feels confident about their instructional performance and does not usually have much difficulty with their teaching thanks to their professional training and accumulated classroom experience. Nonetheless, many second language teachers may not have received sufficient training in test development to…
Richards, Jack C.
There are two important dimensions to successful second language learning: what goes on inside the classroom and what goes on outside of the classroom. While language teaching has always been seen as a preparation for out-of-class uses of language, much of the focus in language teaching in the past has typically been on classroom-based language…
Salmona Madriñan, Mara
This action research project was carried out in order to identify the role of first language in the second-language classroom. This study was conducted in a Colombian international school with an English immersion program for kindergarten students attending their first year of school. The purpose of this study was to identify if the use of the…
@@ Introduction Literature in language teaching has a long pedigree.It was a fundamental part of foreign language teaching in the 'classical humanist'paradigm,where an understanding of the high culture and thought expressed through Literature took precedence over mere competence in using the language.
Whole language, a relatively new approach emerged in theNorth America about more than thirty years ago, has becomeone of the two major philosophies (Phonics and WholeLanguage) in teaching and learning language. "The future ofwhole language is the future of education." (Goodman, 1992).Whole language is gaining its popularity all over the world andhas found its way into various language settings. It has also beenushered into the field of second language education. Whole lan-guage entails whole learners, whole teachers, whole texts, wholemethods, whole skills and whole environments. This paper at-tempts to introduce its definitions and explore its implications inteaching and learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Italso analyzes its limitations so that instructors, when imple-menting this approach in EFL classrooms, could make necessaryadaptations by taking into consideration the characteristics ofEFL learners, including their linguistic proficiency, sociocultur-al variables, and career orientations, and at the same time makesure that EFL classroom activities reflect wholeness of the majorcomponents underlying this approach.
Mohamad Azrien Mohamed Adnan; Shukeri Mohamad; Mohd Alwee Yusoff; Zamri Ghazali
The use of the target language has long been considered an important principle of second language (L2) instruction. Previous research has attempted to quantify the amount of the first language (L1) used in the classroom and has explored the purposes or functions of teachers' ‘lapses’ into their students' L1. The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the teachers’ attitudes towards the use of Bahasa Indonesia in Arabic language classroom. Data was collected based on th...
In-class communication mostly occurs non-verbally by means of “body language”. During a classroom lesson, we can observe an increase of “non-verbal” signals of abstract terms rather than concrete terms even when the content of the lesson is verbal to a great extent. Here in this work, the following points will be dealt with regarding their consequences on the lesson: the way the teacher “looks” at the students, the teacher\\'s posture in the classroom, his “procsemic”-behavior in the clo...
The issue of classroom management in the English as a foreign language (EFL) setting has not been addressed adequately despite teachers' views of it as constituting one of their prioritized tasks. Among the aspects of classroom management, in particular, classroom discipline seems to warrant research focus because it contributes to "smooth and…
Towndrow, Phillip A.
This article explores teachers' classroom monitoring in English language learning and asks if it has a role to play beyond what we know and recognize as mainstream classroom management. As part of a larger study of pedagogical practices in classrooms in Singapore, researchers collected and analyzed videographic data on the types and…
Miller, Patrick W.
Ralph Waldo Emerson and Mae West would seem to have little in common, but there is one thing they both understood--the importance of body language. Educators, psychologists, anthropologists and sociologists define body language or nonverbal communication as communication without words. It includes overt behaviors such as facial expressions, eye…
Teachers and learners can hold differing ideas about language and goals for language learning which are then played out in classroom interactions. Constructions of what counts as language and learning impact on learner engagement and identity and the outcomes of language learning. This study analyses a researcher's account of the learning of…
A considerable number of studies on focus-on-form instruction, corrective feedback and uptake have been carried out in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the last two decades. These studies have investigated the above-mentioned concepts from different perspectives, in a number of different contexts and in a number of…
Halai, Anjum; Karuku, Simon
In this paper, we examine selected literature on classroom-based research to understand how students and teachers (re)negotiate the language of interaction in a mathematics classroom when the official medium of instruction is different from the students' dominant language. We identify the tensions and dilemmas associated with the implementation of…
Amir, Alia; Musk, Nigel
This article examines what we call "micro-level language policy-in-process"--that is, how a target--language-only policy emerges "in situ" in the foreign language classroom. More precisely, we investigate the role of "language policing", the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or pupils to (re-)establish the…
Christensen, Mette Vedsgaard; Daugaard, Line Møller; Cox, Robyn
Globalisation processes have resulted in a complex diversification in the group of young language learners in classrooms throughout the world. From Denmark to Australia, learners from multilingual and multiliterate backgrounds are part of everyday life in the classroom, and these global childhoods...... childhoods of young multilingual and multiliterate learners, but explore globalised classrooms from various perspectives: the perspectives of learners, teachers and policymakers. In combination, the papers in the symposium offer a nuanced description of the tensions and dilemmas in contemporary multilingual...... classrooms across the globe and a multifaceted analysis of the multilingual nature of global childhoods. The first paper reports on research study conducted in primary schools in Sydney, Australia which investigated how multilingual children understand their own linguistic practices and how they report...
Full Text Available This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in Norwegian two elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed extensive use of English by the teacher during English classes, and also during morning meetings and for simple instructions and classroom management throughout the day. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to facilitate naturalistic acquisition through better quality target language exposure within a normal curriculum. The students' English vocabulary knowledge was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, version 4 (PPVT-IV, Dunn & Dunn, 2007, at the beginning and the end of the first year of school. Findings are that 1 early-start second-language (L2 programs in school do not in themselves guarantee vocabulary development in the first year, 2 a focus on increased exposure to the L2 can lead to a significant increase in receptive vocabulary comprehension in the course of only eight months, and 3 even with relatively modest input, learners in such an early-start L2 program can display vocabulary acquisition comparable in some respects to that of younger native children matched on vocabulary size. The overall conclusion is that naturalistic vocabulary acquisition is in fact possible in a classroom setting.
Dahl, Anne; Vulchanova, Mila D
This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA) of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in two Norwegian elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed extensive use of English by the teacher during English classes, and also during morning meetings and for simple instructions and classroom management throughout the day. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to facilitate naturalistic acquisition through better quality target language exposure within a normal curriculum. The students' English vocabulary knowledge was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, version 4 (PPVT-IV, Dunn and Dunn, 2007a), at the beginning and the end of the first year of school. Findings are that (1) early-start second-language (L2) programs in school do not in themselves guarantee vocabulary development in the first year, (2) a focus on increased exposure to the L2 can lead to a significant increase in receptive vocabulary comprehension in the course of only 8 months, and (3) even with relatively modest input, learners in such an early-start L2 program can display vocabulary acquisition comparable in some respects to that of younger native children matched on vocabulary size. The overall conclusion is that naturalistic vocabulary acquisition is in fact possible in a classroom setting.
Mohebbi, Hassan; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad
Recently the issue of having recourse to second language (L2) learners’ first language (L1) in second language acquisition (SLA) is receiving a great amount of attention in SLA research. There has been a great deal of claims and counter-claims with respect to L1 use in L2 learning. The findings of L2 research to date cast doubt on the rationales of proponents of exclusive use of L2. Researchers and practitioners who have observed L2 classrooms have identified different functions of L1 in L2 l...
The purpose of this study is to investigate what five primary teachers in five different schools with many second language students have for an idea about inclusion, language development, practices and environment of the multilingual classrooms. In my study I discusses teachers 'views on the multilingual classroom, inclusion, development of language in a language developing classroom environment and the importance of language skills has for multilingual pupils' language development and learni...
Jalali, Sara; Panahzade, Vahid; Firouzmand, Ali
Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is the realization of computers in schools and universities which has potentially enhanced the language learning experience inside the classrooms. The integration of the technologies into the classroom demands that the teachers adopt a number of classroom management procedures to maintain a more…
Full Text Available This paper attempts to present a review of Facebook group pages as an educational tool for language learning. One of the primary needs of foreign language learners is to gain the opportunity to use the target language outside the classroom practice. Social media communication provides occasions for learners to receive input and produce output while engaging in negotiation of meaning. In line with this point, teachers can instigate class group pages in the social media in an attempt to provide a space for practice and communication free of the traditional pedagogic concerns of a typical classroom. The distinctive discursive behaviour of Facebook group pages helps one to achieve that attempt. In light of these views, the researcher, in this study, formed a group page to understand the dynamics of social media environment as a supporting tool for language classrooms. This paper addresses various features which make social media a unique place to contribute to the sense of class community and collaboration outside the classroom. The face-to face classroom is a controlled communication event, that is, teachers and students are required to be in the classroom at the same time but a teacher’s use of Facebook is an attempt to communicate with students outside of that controlled environment where teachers can meet students in their territory. When compared to its disadvantages, the advantages of setting a class group page on the social media outweigh. Students can feel motivated to contribute to an online community if they subsequently receive support or help. It also leads students to feel that they are being supported by a whole portion of their class community and promotes students’ desire to maintain a valued relationship with others. Students continue developing and strengthening relationships with others.
This study focuses on the use of group work in the ESL classroom through the observation of four classes in the language centre of a British university. It is believed that most ESL classroom activities ask for the use of group work. Compared with lockstep teaching, pair or group work show more benefits in a language class. While some researchers argue that group work has a useful but somewhat restricted role in classroom second language acquisition The present study aims to illustrated both the positive impact and the shortage of group work through the analyses and discussion of the data collected.
Light, Justine; Gnida, Sara
This article presents the development, rollout, and subsequent uptake of the Alberta Teachers of English as a Second Language (ATESL) document Best Practices for "Adult English as a Second Language (ESL)/Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) Programming" in the light of literature on teacher engagement with second-language…
Alongside the rise of educational technology, many teachers have been taking gradual but innovative steps to redesign their teaching methods. For example, in flipped learning or a flipped classroom, students watch instructional videos outside the classroom and do assignments or engage in activities inside the classroom. Language teachers are one group of educators exploring the flipped classroom. In foreign language classes, such an approach may offer great benefits for both the teachers and ...
For heritage speakers, the Spanish classroom is not the first point of contact with their native language. Though such learners would benefit from an educational philosophy that affirms the heritage language as a springboard for learning and increased self-awareness, there has been little support for non-dominant language research in the USA. This…
Paugh, Patricia; Moran, Mary
For four years, Pat Paugh, a university teacher educator, and Mary Moran, a teacher researcher, collaborated on action research by systematically studying literacy development connected to the latter's third-grade community gardening and urban farming curriculum. Their goal was to support an existing classroom culture that valued…
Full Text Available Foreign language anxiety is widely used to describe the feeling of tension and apprehension, which is specifically associated with foreign language learning contexts, including listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA is related to foreign language anxiety and language-skill-specific anxiety, and fairly recently identified as distinguished from other forms of anxiety. FLCA is a more general type of anxiety in learning a foreign language with a strong speaking anxiety element; and low self-confidence is identified as an important component of its construct. Research shows that FLCA is a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon; it has many potential sources; and it interferes with the acquisition, retention, and production of a foreign language. It seems that in most of English classes in Iran little attention has been paid to the role of the gender on EFL learners' Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA. Hence, this study attempted to investigate the relationship between EFL learners’ Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA with regard to gender. The data were gathered through questionnaire: the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986.The participants were 52 students studying English at Salmas University. The findings revealed a significant relationship between FLCA and females. It was recommended that foreign language teachers should be aware of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA level, its causes and results. The study also offers some context-specific pedagogical implications for Iranian EFL teachers and practitioners.
Achu Charles Tante
Full Text Available Assessment has a huge impact on ESL primary pupils, in part, because on the curriculum English is both a subject and also a language of learning all the other subjects. For children still acquiring L1 it is daunting sometimes to be expected to understand concepts in L2. It may be difficult then to gather information to make an impartial judgement with regards to a pupil’s language level. This study is a preliminary inquiry that attempts to find out teachers’ approaches to classroom assessment in Cameroon primary schools. Using a qualitative open-ended question the researcher finds out three main categories of assessment approaches used by teachers. From the categories extrapolations on possible assumptions that guide teachers’ choices of assessment procedures are described and suggested for future study. Keywords Classroom assessment approach, Cameroon, scheme of work, ESL/EFL, Young Learners
This book offers a lively introduction to the research methods and techniques available to English language teachers who wish to investigate aspects of their own practice. It covers qualitative and quantitative methodology and includes sections on observation, introspection, diary studies, experiments, interviews, questionnaires, numerical techniques and case study research. Each method is illustrated with examples in language teaching contexts, and techniques of data collection and analysis are introduced. The authors focus particularly on research in the classroom, on tests, materials, the
Hill, Jane D.; Bjork, Cynthia Linnea
Everyone who participates in your workshop on "Classroom Instruction That Works with English Language Learners" needs this participant's workbook to gain expertise in strategies that are effective with ELL (English Language Learners) students.
Anxiety plays a significant role in language learning. This article analyzes the negative effects of anxiety, explores its sources, and proposes a number of strategies for reducing learner anxiety in the language classroom.
This essay tends to demonstrate the practical application of discourse analysis in language teaching. By exploring the rationale and evaluated the classroom activities, it is easy to see how discourse analysis works in language teaching.
Weaver, Kimberly A.; Starner, Thad
The majority of deaf children in the United States are born to hearing parents with limited prior exposure to American Sign Language (ASL). Our research involves creating and validating a mobile language tool called SMARTSign. The goal is to help hearing parents learn ASL in a way that fits seamlessly into their daily routine. (Contains 3 figures.)
Alongside the rise of educational technology, many teachers have been taking gradual but innovative steps to redesign their teaching methods. For example, in flipped learning or a flipped classroom, students watch instructional videos outside the classroom and do assignments or engage in activities inside the classroom. Language teachers are one…
Laursen, Helle Pia; Daugaard, Line Møller
Chapter 4, by Daugaard and Laursen, examines a multilingual classroom in Denmark as a site of negotiations of language and literacy. Classrooms have never been homogeneous, in many senses, but in the present era of global fl ows and new forms of mobility the heterogeneous nature of classrooms...... is more prominent than ever. In this chapter, the classroom is characterized as a messy marketplace, in which language ideologies and identity options are maintained, contested and negotiated. The close examination of literacy practices in the classroom in focus in this chapter shows what transitional...
Cincotta, Madeline Strong
Outlines the preferred learning styles of students studying second languages, offering suggestions for their application in second-language classrooms. The paper describes the right-brain/left-brain theory and how the two brain hemispheres are involved in learning; presents four classroom strategies (diversification, contextualization,…
The technology of the Information Age depends on programming languages for functionality. Because programming languages ultimately affect the production of language digitally, programming languages will inevitably demonstrate a lasting effect on the process of writing. Hence it is important to recognize the impact of programming languages on the production of language. It may well be the necessary first step in understanding technology’s reverberating presence in the classroom.
The Singapore Ministry of Education conducted a smallscale pilot study in Y2003 to find out how engaged learning was interpreted and translated into practice by teachers and the role of ICT in facilitating engaged learning. For this study, 6 teachers were involved, of which 2 were English language teachers. A case study methodology incorporating an intervention element was adopted. The analysis of the collected data, in the form of pre-lesson interview, lesson observations/videotaping and post-lesson interviews, surfaced teachers'understanding and implementation of engaged learning in the classroom context. This paper focuses on the 2 case studies in which one primary and secondary English language teachers were observed for the way they designed and implemented ICT-based English lessons to promote engaged learning. Although the insights generated by the 2 case studies are legitimate in their own instances, they may be used to sensitize those involved in professional development to five interdependent factors that influence the way ICT may be used to promote engaged learning in the EL classroom.
In this article the author draws on classroom video recordings and student commentary to explore ways in which the kinaesthetic elements of a process drama provided the context and the space for beginner additional language learners to engage with intercultural language learning. In the light of student comments in interviews and questionnaires,…
Mohamad Azrien Mohamed Adnan
Full Text Available The use of the target language has long been considered an important principle of second language (L2 instruction. Previous research has attempted to quantify the amount of the first language (L1 used in the classroom and has explored the purposes or functions of teachers' ‘lapses’ into their students' L1. The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the teachers’ attitudes towards the use of Bahasa Indonesia in Arabic language classroom. Data was collected based on the interviews of the teachers. The respondents of this study were two experienced teachers who have more than 15 years of teaching experience. The findings indicated that teachers prefer using Arabic language itself in Arabic language classroom. The Direct Method was applied as teaching strategies. As a result, students are able to speak Arabic without any sense of shame and fear.
Sun, Peijian; Yuan, Rui; Teng, Lin
This research explored the congruence and disparity between teachers' and students' attitudes towards French as a second language (L2) teaching strategies in a non-target language classroom context in the USA. The findings suggest students' and teachers' attitudes towards the direct and indirect teaching strategies were generally consistent, but…
This paper attempts to present a review of Facebook group pages as an educational tool for language learning. One of the primary needs of foreign language learners is to gain the opportunity to use the target language outside the classroom practice. Social media communication provides occasions for learners to receive input and produce output…
Daugaard, Line Møller; Laursen, Helle Pia
Chapter 4, by Daugaard and Laursen, examines a multilingual classroom in Denmark as a site of negotiations of language and literacy. Classrooms have never been homogeneous, in many senses, but in the present era of global fl ows and new forms of mobility the heterogeneous nature of classrooms...... processes take place when people move across spaces and how the sociolinguistic reality of the classroom clashes with the educational conceptualization of ‘the bilingual student’. The analysis also shows how multilingual children actively claim – and transform – linguistic space in the classroom....
Full Text Available A synthesis of reasons for the production of this monograph is presented with a focus on contemporary research in the context of the Ninth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education. Within the domain of mathematics and language, three lines of concern are addressed: (1 classroom discourse, (2 language diversity, and (3 conceptualization through language. Each line of concern is respectively illustrated by pioneering results from Ruthven and Hofmann, Barwell, and Edmonds-Wathen. An argument is made about the wide scope, depth and richness of this domain as well as the challenges involved in its development.
Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning
Full Text Available Este trabalho compara as experiências de sala de aula (ESA de duas universitárias na aprendizagem de língua inglesa. As ESA emergiram de entrevistas individuais, onde vídeos das aulas promoveram a reflexão. A análise revelou que experiências de natureza cognitiva, social ou afetiva influem diretamente no processo de aprendizagem e as que se referem ao contexto, à história, crenças e metas dos alunos influem indiretamente no mesmo. A singularidade de algumas experiências levou à sua categorização como ESA individuais (ESAI. Ao comparar as ESAI de duas informantes, a importância da análise sociocultural do processo de aprendizagem de sala de aula fica evidente. Concluiremos com uma defesa do valor da teoria sociocultural no estudo da aprendizagem de língua estrangeira em sala de aula e com a apresentação das implicações deste estudo para pesquisadores e professores. This paper compares the classroom experiences (CEs of two university students in their process of learning English as a foreign language (EFL. The CEs emerged from individual interviews, where classroom videos promoted reflection. The analysis revealed that cognitive, social and affective experiences directly influence the learning process and that those which refer to setting, learner’s personal background, beliefs and goal influence the learning process indirectly. The analysis also revealed the singularity of some of these CEs that led to their categorization as individual CEs (ICEs. When comparing the ICEs of the two participants, the importance of a sociocultural analysis of the classroom learning process becomes evident. We conclude with an analysis of the value of sociocultural theory in the study of classroom EFL learning and with the implications of this study for teachers and researchers.
Paquet-Gauthier, Myriam; Beaulieu, Suzie
For the past three decades, momentum has gathered in favour of a multilingual turn in second language acquisition research and teaching. "Multicompetence" has been proposed to replace "nativeness" and "monolingualism" to measure L2 learners' success. This proposed shift has not made its way into L2 teaching settings.…
高校外语教学是跨文化教育的重要领域;翻转课堂的新型教学模式改变了传统的教学流程和思维方式,符合外语的人文及工具特性、契合大学生探索与自主的学习特点,有助于实现跨文化外语的有效教学. 新媒体技术、高校环境为翻转课堂的开展创造了有利条件. 综合课程的教学实验和调查研究结果表明:本土化的跨文化外语翻转课堂流程图、教学结构图及总体教学设计优化了高校跨文化外语教学,但仍须改进臻于完善,以助于加强高等教育生产力.%College foreign language teaching is an effective channel for intercultural education.Flipped classroom teaching model, which has inverted the traditional teaching arrangement and thinking mode, coincides with the humanistic and instrumental nature of foreign language, also with college students' exploring and autonomous learning.Thanks to the new media technology and educational condi-tions in universities, the flipped classroom model can be applied to foreign language education and has achieved the effectiveness of classroom teaching by intercultural approach.The findings of research in integrated college English course indicate that intercultural col-lege foreign language education has been optimized by the indigenized flipped classroom model and the adaptive instructional design. The newly introduced teaching mode needs to be perfected, making it be of significance for further improvement of productive forces in higher education.
Thomas, Reed; Mady, Callie
This paper illustrates teaching for transfer across languages by synthesizing key insights from theory and previously published research alongside our case study data from primary-level teachers in core French-second-language (CF) classrooms in Ontario, Canada. Drawing on research that redefines language transfer as a resource, this study drew on…
Stephen D. Luft
Full Text Available While several studies have investigated the role of risk-taking in language learning, the findings of these studies may not be generalizable to language learning where the performed culture approach (PCA is used. This study describes the relationship between language learning and risk-taking in PCA, and the relationship between risk-taking and personal study habits, teaching style, daily grading, and classroom dynamics. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire. This study finds that risk-taking behavior has a moderate positive relationship with student performance in PCA. While questionnaire items related to teaching style and classroom dynamics are not found to significantly correlate with students’ risk-taking behavior, some items related to daily grading and personal study habits are found to have a moderate positive relationship with risk-taking behavior. Based on these findings, it is recommended that further research investigate the relationship between assessment and risktaking in language learning. As second language acquisition researchers have investigated the role of affective variables in language learning, risk-taking has frequently been identified as a variable linked with success (Beebe, 1983; Ely, 1986; Naiman, Frolich, Stern, & Todesco, 1978; Rubin, 1975; Samimy & Pardin, 1994; Samimy & Tabuse, 1992. However, it is difficult to apply these findings to language classrooms that use the performed culture approach (PCA, an approach to the teaching of East Asian languages, for two reasons: (a PCA’s focus on the learning of a foreign culture could mean that greater risk is involved in 106 Luft language learning than in a typical language classroom; (b PCA creates a language learning experience for which the risks involved are different than those in language classrooms where other approaches are used.
Giangreco, Michael F.
This article summarizes a team process for making related services decisions called VISTA (Vermont Interdependent Services Team Approach) and nine research studies on the use and impact of VISTA with students with low incidence disabilities. It also addresses team size, consumer perspectives, and paraprofessional supports. Five major conclusions…
Explores the benefits in using textbook dialogue as script to be performed in the second language classroom. Teachers, in the role of director, can use theatrical techniques and suggest appropriate pantomime, gestures, and voice inflections to enhance the script. (CB)
This book explores how using small groups in second language classrooms supports language learning. Chappell's experience as a language teacher equips him to present a clear, evidence-based argument for the powerful influence group work has upon the opportunities for learning, and how it should therefore be an integral part of language lessons.
Group activities are commonly used in second language classroom in recent years mostly because they encourage stu⁃dents to work together, helping each other. However, it is of great importance for teachers to notice the group structures so that this class activity could play its important role in the classroom.
This article looks at one way for teachers to make classrooms emotionally, mentally, and physically healthy places to learn--places where tensions and stresses are lessened and where teachers and students are concentrating, yet relaxed. "Harmonious language learning classroom" is the term the author coined to describe this kind of language…
Turnball, Miles; Arnett, Katy
Reviews recent theoretical and empirical literature regarding teachers' uses of the target (TL) and first languages (L1) in second and foreign language classrooms. Explores several issues related to teachers' use of the L1 and the TL in the classroom; exposure to TL input, student motivation, cognitive considerations, code switching, and…
Many researches show that the relationship between teachers and students cell be improved if teachers make effective age of body language to communicate.Besides,students'cognitive ability and efficiency in learning will be promoted.Studies on body language are beneficial not only to our linguistic theory hut also to our classroom teaching and learning.And the Successful teaching is such teaching which not only pays attention to verbal communication but also not overlooks communicative function of body language.
The assumption that foreign language learners experience a high level of anxiety mainly when faced with speaking activities implies that research should focus on those learners prone to anxiety over that skill. Despite not being widely investigated, foreign language writing anxiety also seems to be a concern for a large number of students. Drawing on questionnaire findings, the study reported in this article examined the nature of, and the connection between the English language classroom spe...
Ammar Abdullah Mahmoud Ismial
The emerging paradigm shift in educational contexts from walled classroom environments to virtual, hybrid, blended, and lately personal learning environments has brought about vast changes in the foreign language classroom practices. Numerous calls for experimenting with new instructional treatments to enhance students' language performance in these new learning environments have been voiced by researchers and language educators in different settings. The current study aimed at investigatin...
Discusses the creation of a positive classroom climate, examines four dimensions of classroom climate (physical, academic, organizational, and social-emotional), and reviews techniques that teachers can use to promote a positive classroom climate. Teachers need to get to know their students, discuss the course objectives with their students, and…
Ghorbandordinejad, Farhad; Ahmadabad, Roghayyeh Moradian
This study investigated the relationship between autonomy and English language achievement among third-grade high school students as mediated by foreign language classroom anxiety in a city in the north-west of Iran. A sample of 400 students (187 males, and 213 females) was assessed for their levels of autonomy and foreign language anxiety using the Autonomy Questionnaire and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS), respectively. Participants' scores on their final English exam were also used as the measurement of their English achievement. The results of Pearson correlation revealed a strong correlation between learners' autonomy and their English achievement (r [Formula: see text] .406, n [Formula: see text] 400, [Formula: see text]). Also, foreign language classroom anxiety was found to be significantly and negatively correlated with English achievement (r [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text].472, n [Formula: see text] 400, [Formula: see text]). Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess the ability of autonomy to predict language learning achievement, after controlling for the influence of anxiety. In sum, the results of hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that foreign language classroom anxiety significantly mediates the relationship between autonomy and English language achievement. Implications for both teachers and learners, and suggestions for further research are provided.
Ghorbandordinejad, Farhad; Ahmadabad, Roghayyeh Moradian
This study investigated the relationship between autonomy and English language achievement among third-grade high school students as mediated by foreign language classroom anxiety in a city in the north-west of Iran. A sample of 400 students (187 males, and 213 females) was assessed for their levels of autonomy and foreign language anxiety using the Autonomy Questionnaire and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS), respectively. Participants' scores on their final English exam were also used as the measurement of their English achievement. The results of Pearson correlation revealed a strong correlation between learners' autonomy and their English achievement (r [Formula: see text] .406, n [Formula: see text] 400, [Formula: see text]). Also, foreign language classroom anxiety was found to be significantly and negatively correlated with English achievement (r [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text].472, n [Formula: see text] 400, [Formula: see text]). Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess the ability of autonomy to predict language learning achievement, after controlling for the influence of anxiety. In sum, the results of hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that foreign language classroom anxiety significantly mediates the relationship between autonomy and English language achievement. Implications for both teachers and learners, and suggestions for further research are provided. PMID:25941040
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper critically describes the main challenges English language teachers face in teaching in Indonesia. The subjects of the research were students and English teachers in twelve randomly selected junior high schools in government and private schools in five districts in Yogyakarta Province. A survey schedule, interviews with English language teachers, focus group discussions with students and class observation were used to gather the data. The results show that students’ motivation is more of an instrumental motivation, due to the requirements of the mandated national examination though English now is a global language and the 2006 curriculum targets communicative competence. On the other hand, the data indicated that teachers found English difficult to use in class. The classroom instruction was conducted mostly in the low variety of Bahasa Indonesia and in Javanese. The teachers claimed that it was due to students’ low motivation; in fact, the students’ eagerness to listen to the teachers as the models of English language expressions was good. Teachers need to motivate students to learn English by improving their teaching techniques as well as their speaking competence in class to achieve student integrative motivation as English is valuable for them.
Full Text Available Being and becoming is the ultimate objective of any educational enterprise, including language teaching. However, research results indicate seemingly unjustified differences between how females and males are treated by EFL (English as a Foreign Language teachers. The overall aim of this study is to illustrate, analyze, and discuss aspects of gender bias and gender awareness in teacher–student interaction in the Iranian college context. To this end, teacher–student interactions of 20 English teachers and 500 students were investigated from the perspective of gender theory. The data were obtained via classroom observations, a seating chart and the audio-recording of all classroom interactions during the study. The findings, obtained from the quantitative descriptive statistics and chi-square methods, as well as the qualitative analysis by way of open and selective coding, uncovered that there were significant differences in the quantity and quality of the interaction for females and males in almost all categories of interaction. The study also revealed teachers’ perception of “gender,” the problems they associate with gender, and the attitudes they have to gender issues. Apparently, while positive incentives are able to facilitate learner growth, the presence of any negative barrier such as gender bias is likely to hinder development. This has implications for teachers, and faculty members who favor healthy and gender-neutral educational climate.
Bachelor, Jeremy W.; Bachelor, Robin Barnard
This study examines the formative aspects of teaching in the World Language community college classroom: formative feedback, reflection, and assessment, and then recommends a new educational technique that applies the aforementioned formative elements into the classroom. To this end, in the fall semester of 2015, three sections of Spanish I at the…
Dantas-Whitney, Maria, Ed.; Rilling, Sarah, Ed.
This volume in the TESOL Classroom Practice Series presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with children and adolescent language learners. These practices take into account the unique needs and characteristics of these age groups and reflect a wide range of educational contexts, goals, and challenges from classrooms in…
Yakup, Doganay; Ashirimbetova, Madina; Davis, Brent
The issue of introducing the target culture into language classroom practice has long been an object of debates as well as the opinions of the learners towards it. Eventually, modern practitioners found a way of having the language learners acquainted with the target culture and introducing culture through culture-based textbook activities.…
Recognizing the importance of academic language for students' success in schools, this article reports on an investigation of how narrative-focused literacy events in the classroom provide opportunities for academic language socialization. Data were collected from one public elementary school in a major metropolitan area in the Mid-Atlantic region…
In the traditional intensive English classroom, the teacher plays the dominant role; he is the lecturer who is interested in presenting language items, the organizer of teaching and learning activities, and the assessor of learners' performance.Students are usually bench-bound listeners. They watch the teacher explaining language points and giving samples, take
Nguyen, Hanhthi; Yang, Lajlim
This case study examines the classroom participation of a Korean queer (transgender) learner of English as a second language at a language institute for international adult students in the United States. To understand the dynamics of this learner's participation, we focus on how she constructed gender identity and learner identity in interaction.…
Altman, Howard B.; And Others
Based on the questions of second language teachers concerning classroom practice, generated by mail survey in 1983, research on aspects of second language teaching and learning was reviewed and is summarized here. In each case, a question or questions are posed and a brief discussion follows, in layman's language and based on relevant research,…
CATHERINE DIFELICE BOX; SARAH CHEPKIRUI CREIDER; HANSUN ZHANG WARING
Classroom interaction has long been a rich site for scholarly research , as attested by the sizable body of literature surrounding classroom discourse . This paper reviews three frameworks currently informing studies of L 2 and FL classroom talk , with a focus on qualitative analyses of turn-by-turn talk between teachers and students , and amongst students themselves . Findings from studies working within ( 1 ) language socialization and sociocultural theory , ( 2 ) critical discourse analysis , and ( 3 ) conversation analysis are explored , along with the ways in which these frameworks complement and complicate one another . Finally , we briefly consider possible areas of further research and implications for teacher training .
Al-Saraj, Taghreed M.
With the increase in globalization, the study of English has become common in Saudi Arabia, but students’ experiences of foreign language anxiety (FLA) have been underexamined. Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries are culturally distinct from the Western world, where the most popular assessments of FLA were developed. Through a qualitative and then quantitative study, the current research examined the suitability of the most popular existing FLA questionnaire, the Foreign Language Classroom ...
Evseeva, Arina Mikhailovna; Solozhenko, Anton
The flipped classroom as a key component of blended learning arouses great interest among researchers and educators nowadays. The technology of flipped classroom implies such organization of the educational process in which classroom activities and homework assignments are reversed. The present paper gives the overview of the flipped classroom technology and explores its potential for both teachers and students. The authors present the results obtained from the experience of the flipped class...
This paper attempts to present a review of Facebook group pages as an educational tool for language learning. One of the primary needs of foreign language learners is to gain the opportunity to use the target language outside the classroom practice. Social media communication provides occasions for learners to receive input and produce output while engaging in negotiation of meaning. In line with this point, teachers can instigate class group pages in the social media in an attempt to provide...
There is debate on the use of authenticity in language classrooms in terms of language, task, and situation. “Authenticity of language” spans a continuum that begins with inauthentic materials - wholly created by a teacher or materials developer - to constructed materials, modified from real-world materials, to those materials created for non-pedagogical L1 purposes. “Authenticity of task” questions whether students are engaging with language materials in a way that would appear natu...
White, A H; Tripoli, L J
Many deaf children have great difficulty learning how to use irregular English verbs. This research study seeks to exemplify how a single-case, ABA design can be used by classroom teachers in making a determination about the usefulness of classroom teaching strategies, and in the case of this study, to explore the use of compact language drills (CLDs) as a technique for helping a deaf child improve his ability to use 4 irregular verbs. The CLDs were conducted 5-10 minutes each day for five weeks at the close of school. The drills engaged the child in immediate recall of simple sentences loaded with semantic/syntactic clues which signalled the need for a past, present or future irregular verb within the target sentence. The results suggest that CLDs, when used systematically, can significantly improve a child's ability to use irregular verbs correctly, both immediately following treatment, and across time.
Diamond, Joel S.
The goal of this qualitative study was to explore the nexus between second language acquisition, identity, and the beginning second language classroom. Using a social constructionist framework, the study utilizes ethnographic methodology incorporating both narrative and autoethnographic elements. Specifically the author acted as a participant…
Semaan, Gaby; Yamazaki, Kasumi
This article examines the relationship between global competence and second language learning motivation in critical language classrooms. Data were collected from 137 participants who were studying critical languages (Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Persian) at two universities on the East and West Coasts of the United States, using a 30-item…
Describes recent research on language maintenance to provide broad, worldwide coverage of different language contact situations. Surveys various countries in which research within ethnic and minority language communities illuminates language maintenance or shift, or revitalization, for that group. (Author/VWL)
Edwards, Emily; Burns, Anne
Language teachers constantly create, adapt and evaluate classroom materials to develop new curricula and meet their learners' needs. It has long been argued (e.g. by Stenhouse, L. . "An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development." London: Heinemann) that teachers themselves, as opposed to managers or course book writers,…
W. Jane Bancroft
Full Text Available Recently researchers and teachers have noticed that more and more students have trouble learning. The causes for poor student learning are many and varied. To remedy the situation, programmes have been implemented in many educational institutions to reduce stress and improve· concentration, and to accelerate learning. The author suggests accelerated learning techniques for the foreign language classroom. In die jongste tyd het navorsers en onderwysers opgemerk dat steeds meer studente probleme het met leer. Die oorsake hiervoor is menigvuldig en uiteenlopend van aard. In 'n poging om die situasie te verbeter, is daar met programme begin om spanning in die opvoedingsituasie te verminder, sowel as om konsentrasie te verbeter en die leerproses te versnel. Die skrywer bespreek enkele tegnieke vir versnelde leerprosesse in vreemdetaalonderrig.
Full Text Available Pre-service teachers need opportunities to apply theory and connect to best practices as they teach in classroom settings be it, whole or small group. For many pre-service teachers often times their experience is limited to simply watching instruction or working with small groups of students (Pryor & Kuhn, 2004. The student teaching experience is a critical component of the teacher preparation program. Through the use of the English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI, and researcher observation the hope is that these will aid in bringing to light the instructional activities used by pre-service teachers during reading instruction with ELLs. This study explores how pre-service bilingual teachers connect theory into practice by examining their instruction in the following categories: Instructional Practices, Interactive Teaching, English-Language Development, and Content Specific to Reading as listed in The English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI developed by Haager, Gersten, Baker, and Graves (2003. To capture these instructional events video tape recordings of eight South Texas pre-service teachers were taken during a reading language arts lesson in order to observe instruction in high need districts’ dual language/bilingual classrooms. Data were compiled to capture the nature and quality of instruction on key essential elements, as well as reading instructional practices specific to the teaching/learning process in the dual language classroom. The findings portray the results of the ELLCOI with bilingual/ESL pre- service teachers and how they make sense of their instructional practices as a means to instruction in one-way dual language public school classrooms.
Majid Khabbaz; Rasool Najjar
English language teaching curriculum developers now turn to the heavy use of technology in classrooms. Computer technology, specifically, has brought about many changes in the strategies of language leaning. One of the new computer programs which has recently attracted the attention of language teachers is called Moodle. It is an open-source Course Management System (CMS) which delivers online courses as well as supplement traditional face-to-face language courses. Since there is little infor...
This paper chiefly examines the attitudes of second language learners, specifically, Chinese postgraduate students study⁃ing in the UK, towards code-switching between English and Mandarin in group discussion in L2 classroom. Questionnaire is im⁃plemented as the data collection method and yields some corresponding findings based on research questions. Meanwhile, recent research on code-switching in classroom is introduced briefly. Moreover, limitations and pedagogical implication of the original research mentioned above are elaborated, as well as the implied future research is presented in this area.
Students’ individual differences pose a challenge to language teachers and influence the way in which a foreign language is learned. We are therefore invited to consider the role of our students’ personalities,motivation and cognitive styles in the language classroom. LANGUAGE teaching would be much easier if all students were alike. The number of instructional decisions would be greatly reduced; teaching methods would be rather simpler; lesson designs would not have to be modified; teachers would not have to consider alternative procedures; teacher-student interaction
Barnes, Erica M.; Grifenhagen, Jill F.; Dickinson, David K.
This article defines academic language by examining the central features of vocabulary, syntax, and discourse function. Examples of each feature are provided, as well as methods of identifying them in oral language and printed text. We describe a yearlong study that found teachers used different types of academic language based on instructional…
Moore, Tara Sheehan
Although researchers have investigated teachers' perceptions of their preparedness to instruct English language learners (ELLs) and value student culture in the classroom, there has been a lack of studies at an elementary school level. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the perceptions of elementary teachers about their use…
Shenk, Elaine M.
The acquisition of sociolinguistic variation by second language learners has gained increased attention. Some research highlights the value of naturalistic exposure through study abroad while other studies point out that classroom input can facilitate the acquisition of particular features of variation. Nevertheless, said attention to the…
This article reviews research on English language arts teachers' use of digital tools in the classroom to remediate print literacies. Specifically, this review focuses on the affordances of digital tools to foster uses of digital literacies of informational/accessibility, collaboration knowledge construction, multimodal communication, gaming…
Dohan, Margaret; Schulz, Henry
A survey of 253 Canadian school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) found that they use classroom-based approaches primarily for language intervention with early elementary students, judge classroom-based approaches generally successful for intervention with language, articulation, fluency, and voice disorders, and use classroom-based…
Anderson, Alida; Berry, Katherine
Teacher language and students' on-task behavior were examined in language arts lessons with and without classroom drama in two self-contained third grade classrooms for students with learning disabilities and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Language arts lessons that integrated classroom drama were associated with significantly higher…
Douglas Altamiro Consolo
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This paper reports on a process to validate a revised version of a system for coding classroom discourse in foreign language lessons, a context in which the dual role of language (as content and means of communication and the speakers' specific pedagogical aims lead to a certain degree of ambiguity in language analysis. The language used by teachers and students has been extensively studied, and a framework of concepts concerning classroom discourse well-established. Models for coding classroom language need, however, to be revised when they are applied to specific research contexts. The application and revision of an initial framework can lead to the development of earlier models, and to the re-definition of previously established categories of analysis that have to be validated. The procedures followed to validate a coding system are related here as guidelines for conducting research under similar circumstances. The advantages of using instruments that incorporate two types of data, that is, quantitative measures and qualitative information from raters' metadiscourse, are discussed, and it is suggested that such procedure can contribute to the process of validation itself, towards attaining reliability of research results, as well as indicate some constraints of the adopted research methodology.
Leonardo Véliz C
Full Text Available In this paper I attempt to analyse and survey the role of corrective feedback -more specifically recasts- in the interaction between teachers and L2 students in a classroom. Thus, I explore the effects of recasts on students' self-correction in order to finally come to the conclusión whether or not students are able to no tice this type of underlying correction and, therefore, reformulate their ill-formed utterances. Besides, I also undertake a comprehensive survey of the literature on the topic. Two different groups of students from the English Teaching Trainig Programme at Universidad Católica Raúl Silva Henrríquez are studied. Five students taking English courses at an intermedíate level and five taking advanced English courses. Intermedíate and advanced students have been categorised on the basis of their number of English language courses they have taken. Intermedíate students have taken four, whereas advanced have taken seven. In this paper the point at issue is whether harmful and ineffective or essential and rather effective, and whether recasts are noticeable for students to 'read between lines' and figure out the underlying correction. I take the stand that recasts are only effective when using them with advanced students as they are more cognitively advanced and, therefore, able to make inferences and interpret the implicit message to reformulate their mistakes.The results as well as the tests on the whole, clearly demónstrate that recasts as a corrective technique happen to be a bit more effective with advanced students than with intermedíate students, though the difference is not striking.En el presente trabajo procuro analizar el rol de la asesoría remedial o retroalimentación correctiva, precisamente Recasts (corrección implícita, en la interacción entre profesores y alumnos de una segunda lengua. De esta manera, analizo los efectos de la corrección implícita en la auto-corrección de los alumnos para finalmente
This article addresses key issues and considerations for teachers wanting to incorporate spoken grammar activities into their own teaching and also focuses on six common features of spoken grammar, with practical activities and suggestions for teaching them in the language classroom. The hope is that this discussion of spoken grammar and its place…
In this paper, I examine the teaching of language and culture and in particular the use of songs as curriculum in two London Turkish complementary schools. Drawing on a series of interconnected classroom vignettes, I look at how children weave together their semiotic resources to negotiate and transform two songs and the talk and action around…
This article reports on a multiple case study that investigated the dynamic and situated nature of learners' willingness to communicate (WTC) in second language (L2) classrooms. Framed within a sociocognitive perspective on L2 learning which draws together social, environmental, and individual factors, this study traced WTC among six learners…
The use of newspaper and magazine advertisements for teaching foreign language skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing as well as vocabulary, idiomatic expressions, grammar, pronunciation, and culture is encouraged and discussed. Suggested lessons and classroom activities are presented in four categories: vocabulary, grammatical rules…
These days it seems mobile phones are used everywhere by everyone, which leads to the obvious question: How can mobile phone technology support learning in the second language classroom? The answer is "in a number of ways" because mobile phones come with ever-increasing functions that most students are adept at using. In this article the author…
This dissertation consists of two manuscripts to examine student motivation and engagement in the foreign language classroom. The purpose of the first paper is to propose a model that distinguishes between motivation and engagement. The paper highlights the connections and differences between motivation and engagement in order to point out issues…
Helot, Christine; Laoire, Muiris O.
With contributions from leading scholars all around the world, this volume underlines the ever-pressing need for new language in education policies to include all learners' voices in the multilingual classroom and to empower teachers to develop responsive and transformative pedagogies. Using testimonies, narratives and examples from different…
Formulaic speech, expressions learned as unanalyzed wholes and used on particular occasions by native speakers, is contrasted to "grammatical" sentences using novel combinations of words in the second language classroom. The speech produced by three limited English-speaking children in an English program suggests that formulaic speech enables…
Teranishi, Masayuki; Wales, Katie
This book examines how literary texts can be incorporated into teaching practices in an EFL classroom. It takes a multi-faceted approach to how English language teaching and learning can best be developed through presentation and exploration of literary texts.
Hanauer, David I.
This paper develops the concept of meaningful literacy and offers a classroom methodology--poetry writing--that manifests this approach to ESL/EFL literacy instruction. The paper is divided into three sections. The first deals with the concept of meaningful literacy learning in second and foreign language pedagogy; the second summarizes empirical…
Pottle, Jean; Rutley, Mary
This book contains information on a wide range of books for interdisciplinary teaching and makes connections with science, math, language, social studies, music, and art. The items referenced contain book summaries, lists of objectives, ideas for connecting the subjects taught in elementary and middle school, field and classroom activities,…
Houston, Richard; Grubaugh, Steven
Describes the types of violence found in school and classroom contexts and recommends guidelines to form proactive and reactive strategies for teachers and administrators. Demonstrates the language for rules to establish order and deter violence and to use with students exhibiting violent behavior. (FMW)
Tuncer, Murat; Dogan, Yunus
This study was carried out in order to identify to what extent the Turkish students' English classroom anxiety affects their academic achievement in English language. In this quantitative descriptive study, a correlational survey model was employed, and the convenience sampling was done. In order to collect data, the Foreign Language Classroom…
<正>Practice output constitutes an indispensable part in second language learning.Relevant theories like"Interface Position"and"Comprehensible Output"are discussed in order to analyze in detail how this practice can actually facilitate acquisition and finally pave the way for communicative output—a goal all language learners are striving for.
Teaching culture along with language in the foreign language classroom is not an easy job. The definition of culture varies from different context, and non-native speakers do not share the same background with native speakers, thus it brings many difficulties to those who want to learn or teach culture along with a foreign language. Challenges in teaching culture along with English will be discussed as an exemplar in this essay. Meanwhile, suggestion on how to teach culture in the English class-room will be proposed at the end of this work.
Karen Wolz Verkler
Full Text Available Although national standards such as the Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century (National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project, 1999and the National Educational Technology Standards (ISTE, 2000 advocate the need for enhanced curricular integration of technology, the reality is that colleges of education nationally are inconsistent in the technology requirements demanded of its preservice teachers. In addition, current foreign language pedagogy supports the use of technology to increase the opportunities for communicative practice in three contexts: interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational modes. To prepare its majors for the increasingly technologically complex demands of the field of education, the foreign language education program at a large, metropolitan Central Florida university developed and implemented a technology course that uniquely addressed concerns of foreign language educators. In this article, the author details the course objectives, content, activities, and assignments.
McMillan, Nancy; Madaras, Susan W.
Two marketing games are described, "Le Marche Francais" and "El Mercado: The Mexican Market Comes to Life in the Spanish Classroom." Both are patterned after a published game entitled "Market: A Simulation Game." The adaptation in each instance relied on simplifying the original game and presenting it in a form understandable to middle school…
English language education takes place as a general school subject in colleges in China. There are many approaches to language teaching. Generally, literature course in foreign country has two equal tasks- literature appreciation and language learning. In literature instruction, it has to cove r these two aspects and fulfills these two tasks. This paper aims to help students in EFL classroom students find out how messages in texts convey ideas of ideologies by designing a literature course- analyze the same story in different genres.
Friedman, Debra A.
This study uses a language socialization approach to explore the role of Ukrainian language instruction in the revitalization of Ukrainian as the national language. Based on 10 months ethnographic observation and videotaping of classroom interaction in two fifth-grade Ukrainian language and literature classrooms, it focuses on corrective feedback…
This study explored how Thai learners of English as a foreign language, engaged in English activities outside of classrooms to learn and practice the English language. Three research questions of this study include: (a) How do the participants perceive access and availability of out of class English activities in local environments?, (b) How do…
Full Text Available French language policy has historically centred on ways French can be considered a dominant and influential language. It has done this since the Middle Ages, by allowing the French language to serve as a political tool. On an international level, language was a way of subjugating conquered peoples (former colonies. It promoted France’s international status (by the 18th century French was the diplomatic language of Europe. On a national level, the French language was one of the ways governments were able to centralise political power (suppression of regional languages. One of the ways French language authorities have promoted the use of language has been through education policies and the way language is taught in schools. For example, the French language was imposed on the colonised territories of France through teaching in missionary schools. Within France, stringent laws were adopted, in particular during the nineteenth century, allowing the French language to replace local languages in schools. In France today, language policies continue to exist and to have an influence on the way we view language and society. One of the main priorities of French language policy is to protect the status of the national language in particular with respect to the increasing use of English as a global dominant language in areas such as science, technology, tourism, entertainment and the media (Nunan: 2007, 178. Consequently, France has adopted policies to respond to this linguistic climate. This has implications on the way the French language is taught both within France as well as outside of France. This paper will examine some of the policies and agencies created over recent years that affect the French language. It will also identify some of the consequences these policies have on the teaching of language. Finally it will argue that a space has been created within the language classroom that attempts to find a compromise between the language
Stories and storytelling have been used for millennia to entertain, challenge and educate. As a shared form of language interaction, storytelling has engaged communities in developing and perpetuating common understandings of both language and culture, as critical foundations to harmonious societies. Stories and storytelling provide a rich source…
Full Text Available This article presents a study which aimed to explore in what ways Armenian EFL students use their English language knowledge outside the classroom. The study involved 38 EFL learners of different English proficiency levels, ages, and genders. Data were collected using surveys and in-depth interviews. Findings indicate that most of the Armenian EFL learners use English out of the class very often, especially with social media, listening to songs, watching movies and clips, as well as travelling and searching on the Internet. Based on the findings, specific recommendations are offered to bring the students’ interests into the classroom.
ELT Journal, 1993
Rod Ellis discusses contribution, past, present, and future, of second-language acquisition (SLA) studies to English language teaching. Considers two primary issues: conditions that facilitate and promote SLA in classroom; and how teachers can create those conditions. Role of grammar in English classroom is discussed, recent research is described,…
Graham Crookes; Craig Chaudron
continued from Issue 10 4.FacilitationA major role of the instructor is to arrange matters so the material presented gets used and thereby learned.This may be far more critical in the learning of a cognitive skill,in which practice assumes major dimensions,than in the learning of most school subjects,in which declarative knowledge(Anderson 1982;O'Malley,Chamot,and Walker 1987)is being presented and clear presentation may be sufficient in itself to ensure learning(of.West 1960).We need,therefore,to give some consideration to such matters as the overall organization of the classroom.
ach of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.
Chua, Siew Lian; Wong, Angela F. L.; Chen, Der-Thanq V.
This article reports findings from a classroom environment study which was designed to investigate the nature of Chinese Language classroom environments in Singapore secondary schools. We used a perceptual instrument, the Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory, to investigate teachers' and students' perceptions towards their Chinese…
Gámez, Perla B.; Lesaux, Nonie K.
This study examined teachers' language use across the school year in 6th grade urban middle-school classrooms (n = 24) and investigated the influence of this classroom-based linguistic input on the reading comprehension skills of the students (n = 851; 599 language minority learners and 252 English-only) in the participating classrooms. Analysis…
Elting, Stephen; Firkins, Arthur
Poetry performance is an approach to learning where students can use theatrical techniques to develop a response to the poem. This paper argues that ELL students can explore the aesthetic function of language and, more widely, develop confidence in using English as a communicative tool through the dramatization of poetry. We describe the process…
Full Text Available Music holds a very important place in human life. People spend their days and free time listening to music. Music calms and relaxes the soul. Music is the best way to express one's feelings. Music is an important medium for teaching and educating as well. Music attracts the attention of students with its rhythm, singing style, emphasis on the target language and culture and provokes their desire to listen to it all the time. In the last few years music is basically a tool that many foreign language teachers have started to use. Music is used as a game to motivate students. This enables the class to remain energetic and lively. The song enables students to use the target language and learn about a new culture. Teachers must choose a song according to the objective of the class. These songs contribute to the student's oral and writing skills. Music also serves a special function of teaching student's the four basic language skills. Songs creates the opportunity to do many different types of activities in the class according to interest and age.
Nicholson, Simon James
Motivation is one of the main determining factors of success in developing a second or foreign language. However, motivation is a complex phenomenon and the more its constructs are understood the better we are able to understand the extent to which we can influence it. Teachers can cultivate student motivation to varying degrees and play a central…
This ethnographic study investigates identity and participation in a workplace English language training classroom in Thailand. As a practitioner’s enquiry, the research methods of participation observation, interviews and questionnaires were employed in exploring a 40-hour training classroom which acts as a workplace community of practice for both the teacher and the student participants. Through the lens of communities of practice (Lave and Wenger, 1991), the research shows the significance...
This assignment seeks to explore and reflect on the process of educational action research, and will critically evaluate current theory and practice into the use of the target language in the classroom. I aim to develop effective strategies to encourage the use of spontaneous speech in the classroom and engage with arguments for and against the use of the foreign language by teachers and pupils. I aim to carry out a systematic enquiry into how pupils feel about the use of target language and ...
This article takes a close look at Towards Reflective Teach-ing, by Jack C. Richards. His article first explains what reflec-tive teaching is, and then presents the various reflective ap-proaches such as peer observation, self-reports, auto-biographies, journals and collaborative diary keeping. This arti-cle then goes on and draws from actual teaching experience toconclude that these approaches are extremely useful for the im-provement of foreign language teaching.
Matos, Ana Gonçalves
In the history of language teaching, literary texts have gradually been reduced to a source for linguistic learning, as an informative representation of cultural traits or even dismissed from the foreign language classroom. This paper aims to add reasons that justify considering literary texts a vital presence in the foreign language classroom.…
Lochland, Paul W.
This article questions the appropriateness of communicative language teaching (CLT) in classrooms teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) to Japanese students. The four main criticisms of CLT are the ambiguity of its description, the benefits of CLT for language learning, the amalgamation of CLT methods with local classroom practices, and the…
Examines whether communication occurring in a second-language classroom setting sufficiently ensures development of full target language competence. The ability of 2 English-as-a-Second-Language students to "request" in English was followed over 15-21 months. Results indicated that the classroom did not provide the conditions necessary for…
Prelingually deafened children are nowadays likely to receive a cochlear implant (ci). As these children do their language acquisition with a cochlear implant they require a constant rehabilitation and support. Educational staff is instructed on how to work with children with ci in form...... during the storytelling activity: repeat requests and questions. Whereas repeat requests are used in ci-therapy, questions have been shown to be instrumentalized for educational purposes in the setting of a school. I will reveal the educational/rehabilitational issues that are linked to these practices....
Karjalainen, Katri; Pörn, Michaela; Fredrik RUSK; Linda BJÖRKSKOG
The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the nat...
This paper presents the teaching methods employed by different schools of language teaching respectively and the historical trend of the roles of language teacher in SL/FL classroom. The purpose of this paper is to survey the dif-ferent roles language teachers play with the advent of a new teaching method so as to supply a better interpretation of the language teachers' behaviors in the SL/FL classroom and to indicate the likely developments in language pedagogy in the future.
Full Text Available English language teaching curriculum developers now turn to the heavy use of technology in classrooms. Computer technology, specifically, has brought about many changes in the strategies of language leaning. One of the new computer programs which has recently attracted the attention of language teachers is called Moodle. It is an open-source Course Management System (CMS which delivers online courses as well as supplement traditional face-to-face language courses. Since there is little information about the feasibility of such a program, this study is an effort to examine it through its adaptability to Language Learning Strategies (LLSs. The data is gathered from 60 Moodle-based EAP users as a purposeful sample of the EAP population through a questionnaire. The participants were also observed and interviewed (6 participants. It was found out that there were no relationships between LLSs and language achievement at Moodle-based distance language learning contexts. The findings imply that learning language through Moodle-based teaching materials impede the process of being autonomous language learners, which is a prerequisite for language learning at distance contexts.Keywords: distance learning, language learning strategies, learner autonomy, Computer-Assisted Language Learning, English for Academic Purposes (EAP
Thompson, David R.
In recent years numerous studies on language learning strategies have signaled the importance of developing students' metacognitive skills. This article communicates findings from a classroom research project that sought to stimulate metacognitive self-monitoring practices among college students in an intermediate-level Spanish language course.…
Johnston, Peter; Goatley, Virginia
Identifying researchers whose work has influenced classroom practice, raises questions about the nature of research and its relationship with practice, and the means through which knowledge is distributed. We argue that normally, influence arises through lines of research more than individuals, that knowing-in-practice distribution systems should…
Foreign language anxiety is one of the factors of affecting foreign language achievement. It is negatively associated with language skill learning. This article will show some researches on foreign language anxiety from certain aspects.
Behrens, Susan J
It is clear that a proper understanding of what academic English is and how to use it is crucial for success in college, and yet students face multiple obstacles in acquiring this new 'code', not least that their professors often cannot agree amongst themselves on a definition and a set of rules. Understanding Language Use in the Classroom aims to bring the latest findings in linguistics research on academic English to educators from other disciplines, and to help them help their students learn and achieve. Behrens combines a powerful argument for the importance of explicit teaching of languag
Horwitz, Elaine K
By employing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Park has provided an important contribution to understanding the underlying constructs of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale. To Park's concerns about previous research on the components of the measure, this article adds the necessity of considering the specific learner populations and learning contexts where foreign language anxiety (FLA) is being examined since the components of FLA likely vary in different learner populations, especially with respect to cultural and proficiency differences. It is particularly important to consider that FLA has different triggers and manifestations in different cultures. PMID:27287268
Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.
Following on from my state-of-the-art article on "Language Awareness and language learning" (Svalberg 2007), in this paper I will discuss specific research tasks which are centrally concerned with different aspects of language awareness (LA): "explicit knowledge about language, and conscious perception and sensitivity in language learning,…
Full Text Available This article reports the findings of an action research study on a professional development program and its impact on the classroom performance of in-service English teachers who worked at a language institute of a Colombian state university. Questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, class observations, and a researcher’s journal were used as data collection instruments. Findings suggest that these in-service teachers improved their classroom performance as their teaching became more communicative, organized, attentive to students’ needs, and principled. In addition, theory, practice, reflection, and the role of the tutor combined effectively to help the in-service teachers improve classroom performance. It was concluded that these programs must be based on teachers’ philosophies and needs and effectively articulate theory, practice, experience, and reflection.
This portfolio is a compilation of the author’s research-supported ideas on what good language teaching looks like. The central component is the teaching philosophy, in which the author explains that respect for individuality, use of technology, and use of culture as context for learning are the three elements seen as most important for successful language learning.The teaching philosophy is supported by artifacts about peer feedback in language learning, literacy in adult English as a Second...
Soler, Eva Alcon
A lot of research addressing learners' development of pragmatics has recently been conducted (Kasper and Schmidt 1996; Bardovi-Harlig, 2002; Kasper and Rose 2002). From this same approach, a review of theoretical perspectives on pragmatic learning and how they have been operationalised in interlanguage pragmatic research is presented. Second, by…
This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed how one teacher and I, the researcher, collaboratively reflected on classroom language practices during the video analysis meetings and focus groups. Further, I analyzed twelve videos that we coded together to see the changes in the teacher's language practices over time. My unit of analysis was the discourse practice mediated by additive language ideologies. Throughout the collaborative action research process, we both critically reflected on the classroom language use. We also developed a critical consciousness about the participatory shifts and learning of focal English Learner (EL) students. Finally, the teacher made changes to her classroom language practices. The results of this study will contribute to the literacy education research field for theoretical, methodological, and practical insights. The integration of language ideologies, CHAT, and action research can help educational practitioners, researchers, and policy makers understand the importance of transforming teachers' language ideologies in designing additive learning contexts for ELs. From a methodological perspective, the transformative language ideologies through researcher and teacher collaborated video analysis process provide a unique contribution to the language ideologies in education literature, with analytic triangulation. As a practical implication, this study suggests action research can be one of the teacher education tools to help the teachers transform language ideologies for EL education.
An international school (BES) in Greece, overwhelmingly attended by Greek origin children, has adopted, as its language policy, English as the ‘official’ medium of interaction, including in the Reception classroom, the target of this research. That is, through its language policy, the school aims to promote the learning and use of English throughout school. At the same time, the school has adopted ‘free interaction’ in designated play areas as its pedagogical approach. The aim ...
Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.
Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…
Full Text Available Problem statement: The role of literature in enhancing readers cultural understanding in the language classroom was explored. It was a part of an extensive research which focused mainly on language learning and creativity. It is argued that the interface of language, literature and culture are at the forefront of present-day language and literature learning and this facilitates inter-racial, intra-racial and global understanding. Approach: As method, a quasi-experimental study was conducted on two intact groups; the control (n = 30 and experimental (n = 30 groups. Both groups underwent an eight week experiment whereby one short story, The Burden of Sin by S. Karthigesu was taught to both groups. The control group was taught using the routine and traditional reading and comprehension teaching approach while the experimental group was taught using the reader response approach adapting Ibsens the I Model text exploration and literary devices. Results: Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted on the data collected using two non-parametric tests: The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test to determine the significant difference between the experimental groups pretest and posttest scores and the Mann-Whitney U test to determine the significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control groups. Conclusion: The results proved to be substantially significant. The findings revealed that cultural understanding can be taught through literature in a language classroom and it is a valuable instructional medium in the learning of culture.
Jeanpierre, Bobby Jo
This research study reports the results of school-based staff development models used at three urban elementary schools that had liaison teachers assisting classroom teachers in implementing instructional strategies in science teaching from "Language of Poverty," a curriculum framework designed to address the academic needs of disadvantaged students. The case study of two urban elementary schools and six classroom teachers, and survey and interview data results of a third school, uncovered insights into several areas of science teaching in urban settings. One conclusion is that in spite of substantial allocation of resources and assistance, teachers did not translate instructional strategies from "Language of Poverty" curriculum into their classroom practices in a way that would foster urban disadvantaged students' understanding of "big science concepts." A second conclusion is that the school-based staff development models were limited in their ability to address the diverse professional needs of all of its staff. Third, as it relates to students, discipline issues occurred in these urban classrooms across ethnicity and gender. And in addition to teachers being knowledgeable of relevant social and cultural group norms' application of this knowledge in an appropriate and consistent manner is needed to effectively address discipline concerns.
Sthephanny Moncada Linares
Full Text Available Due to the need of decentering language learners’ conceptions and practices of “othering” against the target culture, it has become necessary to help them grow in critical cultural understanding and positive appreciation towards the richness of difference and plurality, as a transversal dimension of their intercultural competence. Thus, this paper seeks to summarize the literature on the notion of othering and its pedagogical possibilities to promote critical cultural awareness raising in the language classroom. It initially presents some theoretical contributions on the concepts of the “Other” and the “Self” and its dialectical relation, and later, it proposes four pedagogical tools that could enable learners to achieve the already mentioned objective.
Levine, Glenn S.
The social and cultural "turn" in language education of recent years has helped move language teaching and curriculum design away from many of the more rigid dogmas of earlier generations, but the issue of the roles of the learners' first language (L1) in language pedagogy and classroom interaction is far from settled. Some follow a…
Dogan, Yunus; Tuncer, Murat
This correlational survey study aimed to investigate whether the Turkish prep-class students' foreign language classroom anxiety levels and foreign language achievement significantly differ in terms of such variables as their gender, their experience abroad, perceived level of income and any third language (other than Turkish and English) they…
This paper presents an argument that language-use in multilingual mathematics classrooms in South Africa is as much a function of politics as it is of cognition and communication. It draws from a wider study focusing on language practices in intermediate multilingual mathematics classrooms in South Africa. In the study the notion of cultural…
Tam, Frank Wai-ming
This study looks at how family and classroom factors influence second-language learning at the junior secondary level in schools in Hong Kong. It employed an ecological perspective to look at how family-level factors and classroom-level factors uniquely combine to influence students' learning motivations in second-language learning. Nineteen…
Foreign language anxiety is widely used to describe the feeling of tension and apprehension, which is specifically associated with foreign language learning contexts, including listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) is related to foreign language anxiety and language-skill-specific anxiety, and fairly recently identified as distinguished from other forms of anxiety. FLCA is a more general type of anxiety in learning a foreign language with a stron...
Gest, Scott D.; Holland-Coviello, Rebecca; Welsh, Janet A.; Eicher-Catt, Deborah L.; Gill, Sukhdeep
Research findings: Language development subcontexts within 20 Head Start classrooms were studied by observing teachers' child-directed talk during free play, mealtime, and book reading. In each context, observers coded all child-directed statements, directives, and questions, noted instances of pretend talk and decontextualized talk, and rated the…
The role of power in an English-as-a-second-language classroom has yet to be fully explored by an action research practitioner, especially in a Malaysian higher education setting. This study aims to contribute to this gap by working within an academic literacies perspective to teaching academic writing, which propagates the understanding of…
This paper outlines five methods of research on sex bias in the classroom: one-time survey, one class/one treatment, two class/two treatment, one class/random assignment to treatment, and analysis of differentiated effect. It shows how each method could be used in attempting to measure the effect of a unit on Norma Klein's "Mom, the Wolfman and…
This study aims at examining the concept of ‘international mindedness’ as it is evidenced in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) in a Chinese as a second language classroom in an international school. The research methodology includes in‐depth semi-structured interviews, classroom observation, classroom discourse analysis (Christie, 2008), and text analysis of students’ work by using Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) (Halliday, 1994), Appraisal Theory (Martin and Whit...
Roberto Birch Gonçalves
Full Text Available This study discusses the current trend of offering courses in the undergraduate programs, taught in foreign languages, as a fundamental aspect for the formation of new global professionals who require different skills to work in multicultural markets. To do so, the research highlights some concepts of internationalization, academic mobility and curricula internationalization. A longitudinal case study was conducted over a period of three years (2010-2013, describing the trajectory of the Intercultural Communication discipline, taught in English in a multicultural classroom, in a Higher Education Institution. For the analysis, it was used the data provided by online assessment system. The results show the degree of satisfaction by students who attended this course and emphasizes the strong responsibility of professionals who teach courses in foreign languages where language proficiency is essential, however the content domain and the use of proper methodologies are no less important.
Mora Pablo Irasema
Full Text Available
The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the teaching and learning process. A small number of students do not like the use of the first language in the classroom and prefer that their teachers use the target language only.
La presente investigación explora el uso de la lengua materna en un contexto de enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Esta investigación cualitativa presenta la práctica docente y los puntos de vista de maestros y alumnos de francés e inglés en el contexto de una universidad pública del centro de México, mediante el uso de las técnicas del cuestionario y la entrevista semiestructurada. Los resultados muestran que tanto los maestros como la mayoría de los alumnos perciben el uso de la lengua materna como algo positivo en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Un número reducido de estudiantes rechaza el uso de la lengua materna y prefiere que su clase de lengua extranjera sea dirigida exclusivamente en la lengua meta. Palabras clave: investigación cualitativa, puntos de vista de alumnos y maestros, uso de la lengua materna.
Hirsch, E. D., Jr.
Outlines fundamental reasons why educational research has not provided dependable guidelines for policy, suggesting how to repair what it lacks. Notes that there already exists some reliable research on which to base educational policy, found mainly in cognitive psychology. Asserts that naturalistic and laboratory research in education have a duty…
Christina Nicole Giannikas
This study focuses on primary language education within a Greek region: specifically, on the positive effects of classroom management and organisation on a student-centred approach of teaching. In the case of the Greek education system, language teachers are encouraged to adopt student-centred approaches in their classroom but have not received any guidance on how to do so. Language educators are reluctant to abandon their teacher-centred ways, because they have not been trained to apply clas...
Cirocki, Andrzej; Tennekoon, Sujeewa; Calvo, Alicia Pena
Modern language education favours the model of a reflective teacher-researcher who is engaged in both individual and collaborative curriculum revision and teaching-learning environment improvement. The present paper addresses the issue of classroom research and reflective practice in current ESL pedagogy and teacher professional development. The…
Reviews recent research that investigates second language performance from the perspective of sentence processing (on-line comprehension studies) and word recognition. Concentrates on describing methods that employ reaction time measures as correlates of processing difficulty or knowledge representation. (Author/VWL)
Colby-Kelly, Christian; Turner, Carolyn E.
Recent trends in classroom evaluation seek innovative formative assessment intended to benefit learning, called assessment for learning (AFL), largely unresearched in the second language (L2) classroom (Rea-Dickins, 2004). This paper calls for taking L2 testing research to the next level, investigating the "usefulness" (Bachman & Palmer, 1996;…
Spada, Nina; Lyster, Roy
Describes the development and organization of the Colt (Communicative Orientation of Language Teaching) observation scheme and Lyster and Ranta's (1997) error treatment model, instruments including predetermined categories to describe features of instructional input and interaction in second language classrooms. Concludes that the choice of…
Developing communicative competence through thinking tasks - Experimenting with Thinking Approach in Danish as Second Language ClassroomSession on Innovations in the classroom, a presentation. Abstract for the conference Creativity & Thinking Skills in Learning, teaching & Management. Riga 19...... of Danish as second and foreign language in transformative learning spaces”. Two teachers have developed and tried out some thinking tasks in their classrooms, with the aim to foster the development of students´ communicative competence. The learning processes from two classrooms will be analysed...... in the presentation. Extended summaryIn the Nordplus Nordic Language Project “Problem solving tasks for learning of Danish as second and foreign language in transformative learning spaces” (2012-2014) a group of teachers of Danish as a second and foreign language have had the possibility to develop and try out some...
Arendt, Jermaine D., Ed.; Scanlan, William J., Ed.
Descriptions of such facilities for modern foreign language classes as the foreign language classroom, the language laboratory, and the electronic classroom are supplemented by illustrations and schematic plans of each type of installation. Specifications for equipment and furniture, room plans, and explanations of possible variations are offered.…
Language arts educators who teach Latino English language learners know that part of their job is to help students learn to distinguish between the vernacular varieties of Spanish (or Mandarin, or Portuguese, or Swahili), English they use at home, and the school varieties of language expected in the classroom and in other professional and…
Andréa Machado de Almeida Mattos
Full Text Available Many researchers, nowadays, have been enthusiastic in promoting the advantages of introducing technology in the language classroom, but few have been worried with the problems and anxieties that result from changes in a long-lasting culture such as the culture of language learning. This paper aims at discussing the problems faced by teachers who have been working with technology in their language classrooms. The research design was based on theoretical and empirical studies both in the areas of Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teacher Development. The main objective of this paper is, thus, to achieve a global understanding of the teachers' anxieties in relation to the virtual environment of language learning. Data was gathered through interviews with the teachers, leading to a qualitative analysis of the findings.Atualmente, muitos pesquisadores têm promovido entusiasticamente as vantagens de se introduzir tecnologia na sala de aula de língua estrangeira (LE, mas poucos têm-se preocupado com os problemas e as ansiedades que resultam de mudanças numa cultura tão antiga quanto a da sala de aula de LE. Este trabalho visa a discutir os problemas enfrentados por professores que trabalham com tecnologia em suas salas de aula de língua. A pesquisa foi baseada em estudos teóricos e empíricos tanto na área de ensino mediado por computador quanto no campo de desenvolvimento de professores. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é, assim, obter um entendimento global das ansiedades do professor em relação ao ambiente virtual de aprendizagem de língua. Os dados foram coletados mediante entrevistas com os professores informantes, levando a uma análise qualitativa dos resultados.
Christina Nicole Giannikas
Full Text Available This study focuses on primary language education within a Greek region: specifically, on the positive effects of classroom management and organisation on a student-centred approach of teaching. In the case of the Greek education system, language teachers are encouraged to adopt student-centred approaches in their classroom but have not received any guidance on how to do so. Language educators are reluctant to abandon their teacher-centred ways, because they have not been trained to apply classroom management and organisation techniques that could support a student-centred environment.
Ammar Abdullah Mahmoud Ismial
Full Text Available The emerging paradigm shift in educational contexts from walled classroom environments to virtual, hybrid, blended, and lately personal learning environments has brought about vast changes in the foreign language classroom practices. Numerous calls for experimenting with new instructional treatments to enhance students' language performance in these new learning environments have been voiced by researchers and language educators in different settings. The current study aimed at investigating the impact of using reflective blogfolios in teaching argumentation to EFL tertiary students on their argumentative essay writing skills and ways of knowing. As well, the study investigated the relationship between student's ways of knowing and their argumentative writing capabilities. The participants of the study were fifty one EFL tertiary students in the Emirati context. Two assessment instruments were used, including a ways-of-knowing scale and a rubric for tapping EFL students' argumentative writing skills. Results of the study indicated that using reflective blogfolios in the foreign language classroom brought about significant changes in EFL tertiary students' argumentative writing skills and their ways of knowing. Results of the study also indicated that connected ways of knowing were better predictors of EFL tertiary students' argumentative writing performance than separate ways of knowing. Details of the instructional intervention, the assessment instruments, results of the study, implications for foreign language instruction in virtual learning environments, and suggestions for further research are discussed.Keywords: Reflective blogfolios, argumentative writing skills, ways of knowing
Wessen, A. S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.
The connections between science and literacy in the classroom have received increasing attention over the last two decades, as more and more evidence demonstrates that science provides an exciting vehicle in which to engage students on the path to literacy improvement. Combining literacy with science allows students to creatively explore the world or universe, and it. Combining science and literacy improves both reading and science scores, and increases students’ interest in science. At a time when over 40% of students beyond the 5th grade are reading two or more levels below grade level and are struggling with their current materials, finding ways to excite and engage them in the reading process is key. Literacy programs incorporating unique space science content can help prepare children for standardized language arts tests. It also engages our nation’s youngest learners and their teachers with the science, math, and technology of exploration in a language arts format. This session focuses on programs and products that bring the excitement of earth and space science into the literacy classroom, with a focus on research-based approached to combining science and language arts. Reading, Writing and Rings! Grades 1-2
This study, one in a continuing series of concise reports each dealing with a problem in foreign language teaching and learning, discusses the teaching of songs in the foreign language classroom. Commentary on the cultural, esthetic, and academic value of singing introduces an enumerated series of general suggestions on teaching the song. Other…
Language minority students' writing is often measured solely in terms of its distance from native speaker norms, yet doing so may ignore the process through which these texts are realized and the role that the first language plays in their creation. This study analyzes oral interactions among adolescent second language writers during an extended…
According to Diane August (2002), a senior research scientist at the Center for Applied Linguistics, English Language Learners (ELLs) spend less than two percent of their school day in oral language development. Worse yet, when ELLs are speaking in school, it is often not about academic topics or rigorous content. This lack of academic oral…
Taking into account severa1 limitations of communicative language teaching (CLT), this paper calls for the need to consider research on language use and learning through communication as a basis for language teaching. It will be argued that a reflective approach towards language teaching and learning might be generated, which is explained in terms of the need to develop a context-sensitive pedagogy and in terms of teachers' and learners' development.
Full Text Available Taking into account severa1 limitations of communicative language teaching (CLT, this paper calls for the need to consider research on language use and learning through communication as a basis for language teaching. It will be argued that a reflective approach towards language teaching and learning might be generated, which is explained in terms of the need to develop a context-sensitive pedagogy and in terms of teachers' and learners' development.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare teacher and student perceptions concerning assessment in the English language classroom of Greek Junior High Schools. It focuses on exploring teacher assessment practices and students’ view of these. The degree of agreement between teacher and student views can affect the results of instruction and learning. The central finding of the study was that English language teachers follow an approach that keeps a balance between the requirements of the Cross-Thematic Curriculum (DEPPS for performance assessment and the official specifications which define final achievement tests. Students understand the purpose of assessment and the importance of attitudes towards learning and have a clear picture of methods and tasks used for their assessment. On the basis of these research findings, a series of suggestions about teachers and teacher trainers are put forward, focusing on teacher professional development, which, in turn, will promote student involvement and responsibility for learning.
Jalali, Sara; Panahzade, Vahid
The advent of modern technologies has had a remarkable role in revolutionizing the classroom setting. It is, therefore, incumbent on teachers to utilize strategies for effective managing of the change. The aim of the present study was to find out English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers' beliefs regarding classroom management. In so doing, the…
Khatib, Mohammad; Miri, Mowla
Transmission-based language classrooms have been mostly dominated by teachers' authority, as reflected in IRF (Teacher Initiation, Student Response, Teacher Follow up/Feedback) architecture of their discourses. By contrast, Critical Pedagogy (CP) has been after fostering multivocality in and out of classroom borders. Which qualities of teacher…
Bambang Yudi Cahyono
This article reports a nine-month study of literacy development of Aida, a young English language learner from Indonesia, who was mainstreamed in a Grade 2 classroom in a primary school in the south-eastern part of Australia. This article initially reviews the literature concerning features of the mainstream classroom conducive for second language learning and for literacy development. Following the presentation of methodological issues, it examines English learning activities in Aida's class...
As applied teaching, it refers to focus-on-form instruction and focus-on-meaning instruction which have been used in the second language classroom. By analyzing what the effectiveness of focus-on-form instruction is, what the disadvantages of focus-on-meaning instruction are? Therefore, it makes the conclusion: focus-on-form instruction is better than focus-on-meaning instruction within the second language classroom.
This paper argues for the need for authentic listening materials in the ELT classroom in China,discussing the selection of those materials,and their adaptation for classroom use,whilst outlinig theirconstraints.
Pinnow, Rachel J.
This paper addresses the role of multimodal fluency in establishing agency in the second language classroom. The focus of the paper is on the semiotic resourcefulness of an English Language Learner in an English as a Second Language classroom in the United States. Framed from a social semiotic perspective, fine grained multimodal analysis of…
Full Text Available When we examine the empirical investigations of motivation in second and foreign language learning, even those drawing upon the latest theoretical paradigms, such as the L2 motivational self system (Dörnyei, 2009, it becomes clear that many of them still fail to take account of its dynamic character and temporal variation. This may be surprising in view of the fact that the need to adopt such a process-oriented approach has been emphasized by a number of theorists and researchers (e.g., Dörnyei, 2000, 2001, 2009; Ushioda, 1996; Williams & Burden, 1997, and it lies at the heart of the model of second language motivation proposed by Dörnyei and Ottó (1998. It is also unfortunate that few research projects have addressed the question of how motivation changes during a language lesson as well as a series of lessons, and what factors might be responsible for fluctuations of this kind. The present paper is aimed to rectify this problem by reporting the findings of a classroom-based study which investigated the changes in the motivation of 28 senior high school students, both in terms of their goals and intentions, and their interest and engagement in classroom activities and tasks over the period of four weeks. The analysis of the data collected by means of questionnaires, observations and interviews showed that although the reasons for learning remain relatively stable, the intensity of motivation is indeed subject to variation on a minute-to-minute basis and this fact has to be recognized even in large-scale, cross-sectional research in this area.
Ms. Mayer, a recently retired English language arts teacher, frequently used strategies described in John Golden's book "Reading in the Dark: Using Film as a Tool in the English Classroom." In this book, Golden suggests that ELA teachers "reverse the order: use a film clip to practice the reading and analytical skills that we want our students to…
Full Text Available The idea of using authentic material in language teaching is supported among references and many professionals in the field of language pedagogy. Authentic material provides the learners with many significant advantages and promotes them with high motivation and interest in language learning and lead to improving communicative competence (Guariento & Morley, 2001; Wilcox et al., 1999. This paper attempted to investigate Iranian EFL teachers’ attitudes and beliefs regarding the use of authentic materials at high school level in Iran according to communicative language principles, focusing on both reading and listening skills. Fifty-seven (57 female and male English teachers, who teach in high schools and took apart in teacher training course (TTC with CLT framework, completed a survey questionnaire for the purpose of this study. The questionnaires were analyzed in terms of frequency and percentage by means of the statistical package SPSS. The results indicate that English teachers have a positive attitude toward presenting authentic materials in the classroom. Recommendations for future research are provided.
Bambang Yudi Cahyono
Full Text Available This article reports a nine-month study of literacy development of Aida, a young English language learner from Indonesia, who was mainstreamed in a Grade 2 classroom in a primary school in the south-eastern part of Australia. This article initially reviews the literature concerning features of the mainstream classroom conducive for second language learning and for literacy development. Following the presentation of methodological issues, it examines English learning activities in Aida's classroom and highlights her literacy development with examples of her work. The results from this study show that Aida developed literacy skills considered important for her second language and learning development. The variety of English learning activities and the encouraging environment in her classroom contributed much to her literacy development.
This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that in-volved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxie-ty only yielded a positive correlation with performan...
Martínez Lirola, María
This article shows the importance of teaching with texts from Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in which women from other cultures are represented in order to bring global issues in a language classroom and to deepen in the visual representation of women from other cultures so that students develop their gender perspective. Our main objectives with the research presented in this paper are to introduce students to visual grammar and to work with texts that allow students at tertiary level ...
This paper describes a study comparing chatroom and face-to-face oral interaction for the purposes of language learning in a tertiary classroom in the United Arab Emirates. It uses transcripts analysed for Language Related Episodes, collaborative dialogues, thought to be externally observable examples of noticing in action. The analysis is…
Cajkler, Wasyl; Hall, Bernadette
This study explored the language capability of two groups of new teachers in a multilingual city: the first in their initial teacher education year, and the second near the end of their induction year. Almost all teachers in the city face the challenge of teaching English as an additional language in classrooms characterised by super-diversity and…
With the implementation of the natural approach, the dinosaur study and facilitated block play gave dual language learners many opportunities to acquire a new language, develop social skills, and improve communication abilities. Once teachers identified the barriers to children playing and talking together, they created a classroom environment…
Ideal as a supplementary text for a variety of courses and as a guide for in-service teachers and for professional development settings, "Teaching English Language Learners: 43 Strategies for Successful K-8 Classrooms" provides teachers of all content areas with a broad, practical approach to teaching English language learners in the regular…
In this article, I explore language identities and processes of negotiation concerning parts of these identities as seen by a group of students from a bilingual mathematics classroom. A collection of 10 students' individual writings on the questions "What language do you use during group work in your mathematics class and why?" is examined from a…
Snellings, P; de Glopper, Kees; van Gelderen, A.
Lexical retrieval is an essential subprocess in language production, and its efficiency is crucial for writing. To improve writing quality in a second language, we developed an experimental, computerized training for improving fluency of lexical retrieval in a classroom setting, applying techniques
Evans, Elizabeth Julie
Each day, foreign language teachers are faced with issues that render the control of the K-12 classroom challenging, at best, and virtually impossible at worst. Even preservice foreign language teachers, those going through a teacher education program towards K-12 licensure, understand that no content can be taught or learned if there is mayhem in…
Aukrust, Vibeke Grover; Rydland, Veslemoy
This study investigated relations between preschool talk exposure and immigrant first graders' second language literacy and oral skills outcomes. Participants in the study were 25 children with Turkish as their first language and Norwegian as their second, attending various multilingual and ethnically diverse preschool classrooms in Norway and…
This article is the result of a year-long study into the effects of sign language use on participation in one mainstream preschool setting. Observations and interviews were the primary data-collection tools used during this investigation. This article focuses on how the use of sign language in the classroom affected the learning community's…
Cárdenas-Claros, Mónica; Oyanedel, Marianna
This qualitative and exploratory case study sought to examine if and how implicit theories influence the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the language classroom in Chile. To achieve this goal, data was gathered from nine experienced university instructors in English as a Second Language. Based on…
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediational role of gesture and body movement/positioning between a teacher and an English language learner in a second-grade classroom. Responding to Thibault's (2011) call for understanding language through whole-body sense making, aspects of gesture and body positioning were analyzed…
The current study, as part of an ongoing investigation to examine teacher perceptions about the teaching of English as a global language at the tertiary level education, aims at examining learner perceptions about PowerPoint presentations used in English classroom instruction for enhancement and integration of four language skills and effective…
Teaching poetry in second language (L2) classrooms raises theoretical and practical questions about how best to treat literature when target language and culture is also being negotiated. Current pedagogy derives from disparate sources, including the experientially-driven practices of individual teachers, the quantitative and qualitative research…
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the native language. We aim to give an overview description of the interaction in classroom tandem practice. The empirical data consists of longitudinal video recordings of meetings of one tandem dyad within a co-located Swedish-medium and Finnish-medium school. Focus in the analysis is on the language aspects the informants orient to and topicalize in their interaction. The language aspects vary depending on what classroom activities they are engaged in, text-based or oral activities.
Ibrahim, Engku Haliza Engku; Shah, Mohamed Ismail Ahamad; Armia, Najwa Tgk.
Code-switching has always been an intriguing phenomenon to sociolinguists. While the general attitude to it seems negative, people seem to code-switch quite frequently. Teachers of English as a foreign language too frequently claim that they do not like to code-switch in the language classroom for various reasons--many are of the opinion that only…
Gursoy, Esim; Saglam, Gulderen T.
With the change of focus in language teaching from grammar-based approaches to more communicative approaches, contextual language learning gained importance and found body in the English Language classroom. Global issues constitute one of the most popular contexts for purposeful language learning and meaningful language use. Increasing number of…
Cadavid Múnera Isabel Cristina
Full Text Available An in-progress ethnographic research project about teachers who are facing the complex task of teaching English to children in 7 public elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Medellin is presented in this article. First, the need for this research is outlined by researchers; second, the methodology of the project is described; third, up-to-date findings which include a profile of the 12 teachers who are participating in this study, and an analysis of their class methodology in terms of activities, materials, teacher and student roles are reported. Lastly, implications of this research project related to early foreign language instruction are highlighted. Key words: Public Elementary-English-Language Instruction, English-Foreign Language, Ethnography-Research-Method, Teaching-Methodology Este artículo presenta los resultados preliminares de una investigación etnográfica acerca de las estrategias metodológicas utilizadas por profesores de básica primaria que enseñan inglés como lengua extranjera en 7 escuelas públicas del área metropolitana del municipio de Medellín. En la primera parte se resalta la importancia de esta investigación en nuestro medio y en la segunda, de los 12 profesores participantes y un análisis de la metodología empleada por ellos con respecto a las actividades de clase, los materiales y el rol del estudiante y del profesor. Finalmente, se discuten algunas de las implicaciones de este proyecto de investigación en la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras a niños. Palabras claves: Inglés-Enseñanza-Básica Primaria, Lengua Extranjera-Inglés, Estudio Etnográfico-Investigación, Enseñanza-Metodología
Niramitranon, Jitti; Sharples, Mike; Greenhalgh, Chris
In a one-to-one collaborative learning classroom supported by ubiquitous computing, teachers require tools that allow them to design of learning scenarios, and to manage and monitor the activities happening in the classroom. Our project proposes an architecture for a classroom management system and a scenarios designer tool, both based on a Classroom Orchestration Modelling Language (COML), to support these requirements. We are developing and testing this with the GroupScribbles software usin...
Hassan, Ahmad Husam Ahmad Al, 1993-
Today, many teachers get newcomers in their classes, but many of them might not have the experience to teach newcomers. This paper examines some methods for teaching a second language to newcomers in a mainstream classroom. The paper is based on my experience of learning a second language and supported with views of a teacher of Icelandic as a second language. The teachers’ role is important in the lives of newcomers and consequently, teachers need special training in working with them. In ma...
“Flipped classroom”is a new teaching mode originated in the America,and widely used in the world. This teaching method is mainly through the preclass for students to watch video to learn knowledge,knowledge of classroom teaching methods,the traditional classroom teaching reform. In recent years,in the promotion of the development of the information technology,the educational circles of China have gradually realized the value of the flipped classroom. Many schools use the“Eight words”teaching method in the teaching process,and has carried on the research and practice. Firstly,it has elaborated the advantages of the flipped classroom,analyzes the present situation of our country at the present stage of high school Chinese classroom of turnover,and finally puts forward some perfect our high school Chinese classroom measures flip.%“翻转课堂”是起源于美国的一种新的教学模式，并在全世界广泛使用。这种教学方式主要是通过课前给学生观看视频学习知识、课堂上进行知识内化的教学方式，实现了对传统课堂教学的革新。近几年来，在信息化技术发展的推动下，我国教育界也逐渐认识到了翻转课堂的价值。很多学校在教学过程中使用了“八字”教学法，并对其进行了研究和实践。首先阐述了翻转课堂的优点，分析了现阶段我国高中语文翻转课堂的现状，最后提出了一些完善我国高中语文翻转课堂的措施。
The notion of the Utopian use of language in classrooms was developed and applied as a theoretical tool during the empirical study of language in classrooms. It is claimed that a notion like this may turn out to be particularly profitable when the purpose is to interpret and characterize the cont......The notion of the Utopian use of language in classrooms was developed and applied as a theoretical tool during the empirical study of language in classrooms. It is claimed that a notion like this may turn out to be particularly profitable when the purpose is to interpret and characterize...... the content and consequences of a certain use of language. It enables us to present the results of the interpretation in a form that facilitates the proposal of alternative ways of using language by the persons involved - in this case, by the teachers. A sample from the interpretations is presented......, and the conclusion is ventured that it is necessary to anchor the sociolinguistic descriptions of actual language use in a sociological conception of the relevant social praxis - in our case taken from the sociology of education....
This paper describes the origin of the Java language, then introduce the basic ideas and principles of Java programming language, and then briefly describes the implementation process and application development Java language are involved in the main technology applications, followed by more detailed the analysis of the characteristics of the Java language and its advantage compared with other programming languages, finally introduces its application in network security management and embedded systems, and future prospects of the Java language development direction and trends. Java language with its multi-threading, cross-platform, object-oriented features to obtain a wide range of applications and has been a computer programmer and industry recognition.I believe that with the development of computer technology, Java language will make a greater contribution to computer technology.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of virtual simulation-based language learning in a foreign language class in Korea. Total 35 1st-year university students in Korea participated in this research to figure out the effect of simulations. A virtual English learning community, â€˜Cypris Chatâ€™ in Second Life was selected as a learning tool. For the data collection, a survey questionnaire was distributed and analysed quantitatively. The result shows that the majority of the students had a positive attitude toward using a virtual simulation in English learning and had better understanding in learning English by experiencing an authentic practice. The first section of this paper provides a general overview of simulations in educational settings through an insightful literature review of the current research in the area. The review includes a comprehensive outlook on simulations, an example of successful classroom integration and some of the considerations researchers have found for their implementation. The latter section addresses the research method, results and conclusions.
Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation…
Koopman, Gerrit Jan; Skeet, Jason; de Graaff, Rick
The relationship between language pedagogy and the content and language integrated learning (CLIL) classroom is a key issue for research into CLIL. In the Netherlands, as in other European contexts, non-native speakers of a target language with a non-language teaching background teach CLIL content lessons. Whilst CLIL teachers teaching their…
Koopman, G.J.; Skeet, J.A.; de Graaff, H.C.J.
The relationship between language pedagogy and the content and language integrated learning (CLIL) classroom is a key issue for research into CLIL. In the Netherlands, as in other European contexts, non-native speakers of a target language with a non-language teaching background teach CLIL content l
Palmer, Deborah K.; Martínez, Ramón Antontio; Mateus, Suzanne G.; Henderson, Kathryn
The policy of strict separation of languages for academic instruction dominates dual language bilingual education programming. This article explores the dynamic bilingual practices of two experienced bilingual teachers in a two-way dual language public school in Texas and contributes to current research problematizing language separation. Data…
Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation where the real world becomes a part of the educational experience and necessitates the use of an authentic language by the learners. This article descr...
Full Text Available This study has been carried out to determine the attitudes of the classroom teacher candidates regarding Turkish language I: Phonetics and morphology courses. The attitude scale consists of 28 items. The scale has been applied for the total 255 teacher candidates attending the third and fourth grades in the department of the classroom teaching of the educational faculty at Onsekiz Mart University in the academic year 2009-2010. According to the results, the attitudes of classroom teacher candidates regarding Turkishlanguage I: Phonetics and morphology courses have been determined to have revealed significant differences according to gender, age and education type and success grade. On the other hand, the attitudes of the classroom teacher candidates regarding Turkish language I: Phonetics and morphology courses have been determined not to have revealed a significant difference according to the region where they are from, the high school and class type they attend.
Full Text Available The onset of the present paper throws light on materials selection and traditional outlook. Then the paper discusses four types of materials, more specifically, instructional, experiential, exploratory and elicitative materials and their use in language classroom. It discusses the role relationship between teachers, learners and materials in the present scenario at Aligarh Muslim University, keeping in consideration the requirements of the changing times. The paper aims to highlight the positive effects of learner’s involvement in Materials Selection process. The researcher has tried to analyze the findings on the basis of a questionnaire distributed among teachers and students at Undergraduate level. Some suggestions are recommended, on the basis of the findings from the data collected.
Elena Nikolaevna GORBUNOVA
Full Text Available Written language is a mental process, without which it is impossible to imagine the presence of a modern man in cultural space. The formation of the written language made it possible to overcome the spatial and temporal discontinuities of communication, created conditions for the integration of extensive cultural spaces, which include people belonging to different cultures, communities and generations. Written language appeared when people had the need for long-term storage of information and its transfer without personal contacts. Its psychological mechanisms differ considerably from the mechanisms of the oral speech. Modern feature of the written language is the gradual disappearance of its individual graphics component. The bulk of text (written communications is implemented by means of technical devices (computers. The article considers the essence, structure and content of written language in terms of psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics and neuropsychology. The author also highlights the psychological essence of written language, the role of analytic systems, inter-analytic links and cognitive processes in the written language. The author concludes that the written language is a complex, systemic and optional mental activity which is ensured by various structural and functional components and many mental functions. Written language is closely connected with spoken language and is based only on a sufficiently high level of its development.
Vaughn, Sharon; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia
At last, a truly helpful, practical guide for K-4 teachers who want to ensure that their approach to teaching young English language learners is based on research and grounded in proven classroom practices. The authors of ASCD's best-selling book "Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction, Grades K-3" explain how you can help the English…
As one of the major factors affecting second language learners' success to their acquisition achievement, motivation has been examined in a wide variety of research papers. It is thus instructive to conduct a critical review of both theoretical and empirical developments in SLA research from over the last few decades. This approach will provide a broad, and integrated perspective onto the current understanding of the complex topic of motivation. Such an undertaking is valuable for teachers, and researchers alike, in developing useful teaching methods, and finding future avenues of SLA motivation research respectively.The following paper provides an overview of recent theoretical and empirical findings, examines some of the problems and contradictions found/11 current SLA research, and gives an initial departure point for future directions of research in the area of motivation. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the implications for teachers, and possible classroom strategies that axe drawn from the current body of motivation research.
Sara Jalali; Vahid Panahzade
The advent of modern technologies has had a remarkable role in revolutionizing the classroom setting. It is, therefore, incumbent on teachers to utilize strategies for effective managing of the change. The aim of the present study was to find out English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers’ beliefs regarding classroom management. In so doing, the relationship between EFL teachers’ demographic variables (age and years of teaching experience), computer attitude, and their ...
Harris, Raychelle; Holmes, Heidi M.; Mertens, Donna M.
Codes of ethics exist for most professional associations whose members do research on, for, or with sign language communities. However, these ethical codes are silent regarding the need to frame research ethics from a cultural standpoint, an issue of particular salience for sign language communities. Scholars who write from the perspective of…
Schmidt, Gwen L.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.
In this review we show how magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a constructive tool for language research and review MEG findings in second language (L2) research. MEG is the magnetic analog of electroencephalography (EEG), and its primary advantage over other cross-sectional (e.g. magnetic resonance imaging, or positron emission tomography) functional…
Andersen, Roger W., Ed.
The following papers are included: (1) "Some Common Goals for Second and First Language Acquisition Research" by Kenji Hakuta; (2) "Research on the Measurement of Affective Variables: Some Remaining Questions" by John W. Oller, Jr.; (3) "The Effects of Neurological Age on Nonprimary Language Acquisition" by Thomas Scovel; (4) "Exceptions to…
Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon
The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) has been challenged on the grounds that it may also assess language learning skills. In this study, 128 students who had been administered measures of first language (L1) skills in elementary school were followed from 1st to 10th grade. Fifty-three students had completed second language (L2)…
Pragmatic competence is a branch of language education studies within the overall framework of linguistics. The paper discusses relationship between pragmatics and classroom teaching from the perspectives of pragmatic competence, features of class-room teaching and how to cultivate pragmatics competence in classroom teaching. It is argued that there are positive role of prag-matics in classroom teaching. This thesis tries to finally give some advise from pragmatics for further language education research.
In the development of intercultural language learning, limited research has been conducted on language learners' negotiation of identity and cultural memberships. There is little research in particular on intercultural identity in young (primary school) language learners. With the global growth of languages in the primary school, it is timely to…
Describes the use of advertisements in language instruction, with particular attention to the language of advertisements, including the conative and emotive functions, linguistic shock, translation, humor, and cultural information. (AM)
Zainuddin, Zamzami; Halili, Siti Hajar
This paper aims to analyse the trends and contents of flipped classroom research based on 20 articles that report on flipped learning classroom initiatives from 2013-2015. The content analysis was used as a methodology to investigate methodologies, area of studies, technology tools or online platforms, the most frequently used keywords and works…
Preiss, David Daniel; Calcagni, Elisa; Grau, Valeska
The article reviews recent classroom research developed in South America related to child and adolescent development. We review work about three themes: ethnicity, school climate and violence, and the learning process. The few studies found on ethnicity and classroom experiences told a story of invisibility, if not exclusion and discrimination.…
Language anxiety is a state of apprehension occurring in the process of a second / foreign Language use owing to the user's incompetence in communication with that Language. It is a distinct complex of self-perceptions, beliefs, feelings and behaviors.., arising from the uniqueness of the language learning process. It consists of three components: (1) communication apprehension; (2) test anxiety; (3) fear of negative evaluation.
Wacewicz, Sławomir; Żywiczyński, Przemysław
Long abstract for Evolang 8 conference The heterogeneous category of phenomena covered by the term body language (roughly equivalent to nonverbal communication, NVC), although essential to human day-to-day communication, is also largely dissociable from human verbal behaviour. As such, it has received little attention in the area of evolution of language research. In this paper we point to an important factor – signal reliability (honesty) as an elementary constraint on communication as an...
Full Text Available The abundance of technology in recent years has contributed to development in the societies, industries, and education. It is proven from the current trend of technology such as the emergence and rise of smart phones, tablets, laptops and wireless internet connection that the present and future world will be heralded by technology. The integration of technology into the teaching and learning process is idealistic with the existence of vast information and multimedia on the internet and innovative inventions of devices that serve as great assistance. However, the available technology has not been put to good use in the English language teaching and learning classroom for some reasons, especially in developing countries like Malaysia. Thus, this research is conducted to determine the hindrances faced by the education community in Malaysia. The current qualitative research involved seven individuals who discussed issues relating to the hindrances of technology integration in English language teaching and learning. This paper presents the results of the discussion and provides suggestions on some possible solutions to the identified obstacles faced by the education community in using technology in a more efficient and resourceful manner for the teaching and learning development.Keywords: TESL, barriers, technology, integration, higher education
There is a wealth of literature examining the role of motivation in second language (L2) learning but remarkably little research that has examined how teachers can foster motivation in the classroom. For this reason alone Guilloteaux and Dornyei's (2008) correlational study of the relationship between motivational strategies and student motivation…
Moore, Emilee; Dooly, Melinda
This article discusses findings from ongoing research into plurilingual group work interaction in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) teacher training classroom at a university in Catalonia, Spain. We explore how participants make use of available verbal and non-verbal resources--for example, their multilingual verbal repertoires,…
Prefume, Yuko Enomoto
A flipped classroom approach promotes active learning and increases teacher-student interactions by maximizing face-to-face class time (Hamdan, McKnight, Mcknight, Arfstrom, & Arfstrom, 2013). In this study, "flipped classroom" is combined with the use of technology and is described as an instructional approach that provides lectures…
Full Text Available Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation where the real world becomes a part of the educational experience and necessitates the use of an authentic language by the learners. This article describes a video project carried out by Russian language learners at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS. It examines how the work on the project created and supported authenticity of the learning experience. Though the article focuses on the video project done in the context of language learning and teaching this activity could be successfully implemented in teaching various subjects at both secondary and tertiary levels.
Weinburgh, Molly; Silva, Cecilia; Smith, Kathy Horak; Groulx, Judy; Nettles, Jenesta
As teacher educators, we are tasked with preparing prospective teachers to enter a field that has undergone significant changes in student population and policy since we were K-12 teachers. With the emphasis placed on connections, mathematics integration, and communication by the New Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (Achieve in Next generation science standards, 2012), more research is needed on how teachers can accomplish this integration (Bunch in Rev Res Educ 37:298-341, 2013; Lee et al. in Educ Res 42(4):223-233, 2013). Science teacher educators, in response to the NGSS, recognize that it is necessary for pre-service and in-service teachers to know more about how instructional strategies in language and science can complement one another. Our purpose in this study was to explore a model of integration that can be used in classrooms. To do this, we examined the change in science content knowledge and academic vocabulary for English language learners (ELLs) as they engaged in inquiry-based science experience utilizing the 5R Instructional Model. Two units, erosion and wind turbines, were developed using the 5R Instructional Model and taught during two different years in a summer school program for ELLs. We analyzed data from interviews to assess change in conceptual understanding and science academic vocabulary over the 60 h of instruction. The statistics show a clear trend of growth supporting our claim that ELLs did construct more sophisticated understanding of the topics and use more language to communicate their knowledge. As science teacher educators seek ways to prepare elementary teachers to help preK-12 students to learn science and develop the language of science, the 5R Instructional Model is one pathway.
Foreign language teaching and classroom management have a close relationship with college students＇ foreign language ability.In a long time researches on foreign language teaching have mainly focused on methodology,ignoring classroom management strategies.This paper studies the present situation of foreign language teaching in order to find out its problems and corresponding strategies for classroom management.Effective classroom teaching and management can create a relaxing,positive and harmonious classroom atmosphere,thus improving college students＇ overall English ability.%外语课堂教学与管理直接关系着当代大学生外语水平的高低。长期以来,我国有关外语教学的研究主要集中在对教学方法的探讨上,而在一定程度上忽略了课堂管理方法。目前国内的外语教学现状存在着自身的问题。本文将探究这些现状及问题,并提出相应的管理策略。期望此举能够为高校大学生营造出一个宽松、积极而又和谐的教学氛围,使大学生更好的增强自身英语综合水平。
This portfolio is a compilation of the concepts and practices that the author believes constitute effective second language teaching. It is centered on the author’s teaching philosophy, which is based on the teacher’s roles as facilitator and the students’ roles as active participants in a student-centered, communicative classroom. The author claims that as teachers and students understand and carry out their respective roles, student proficiency in the target language will increase. In suppo...
Tevdovska Elena Spirovska
The purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of soft skills in the context of higher education and in the context of the foreign language learning classroom. The article aims to define the notion of soft skills and to offer possible ways of grouping soft skills. It also provides ways of including soft skills instruction in the context of higher education. In addition, the article aims to propose models of implementing soft skills in foreign language learning and teaching situation...
The present study aimed to compare teacher and student perceptions concerning assessment in the English language classroom of Greek Junior High Schools. It focuses on exploring teacher assessment practices and students’ view of these. The degree of agreement between teacher and student views can affect the results of instruction and learning. The central finding of the study was that English language teachers follow an approach that keeps a balance between the requirements of the Cross-Themat...
Employability is increasingly becoming a central aspect of higher education in the United Kingdom and it is becoming imperative that modern foreign languages teachers engage directly and sincerely with the employability agenda. This article proposes the use of feature films as a successful method for developing and promoting employability skills in the language classroom, an approach which has not thus far been adopted. I begin by discussing different models for the delivery of employability ...
Listening, the most frequently used form of language skill, plays a significant role in daily communication and educational process. In spite of its importance, listening ability development has received only slight emphasis in language instruction. Nevertheless, U.S. college classrooms, where comprehensive listening serves as a primary channel for learning, require that students function effectively as listeners. It is therefore important for ESL programs to prepare students for successfu...
According to the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, the interest in second language learning has been increasing in recent years. In the context of primary and secondary education in Slovenia, English language is prominent in the field of foreign languages. A quite similar picture can also be seen in the context of non-formal educational system for adults (http://www.stat.si). Throughout recent years, more and more attention has been given to the importance of a learning env...
Petitjean, Cécile; González-Martínez, Esther
This article deals with communicative functions of laughter and smiling in the classroom studied using a conversation analytical approach. Analysing a corpus of video-recorded French first-language lessons, we show how students sequentially organise laughter and smiling, and use them to preempt, solve or assess a problematic action. We also focus…
Aziz, Muhammad Noor Abdul; Yusoff, Nurahimah Mohd.
This study aimed at discussing the benefits of portfolio assessment in assessing students' writing skills. The study explores the use of authentic assessment in the classroom. Eleven primary school children from Year 4 in a rural school in Sabah participated in this study. Data were collected by observing them during the English Language lessons…
Minchew, Sue S.; Hopper, Peggy F.
The authors, former middle and high school English teachers, review the rationale for using humor and fun in the classroom and provide detailed descriptions for teaching practices and activities that confer enjoyment and learning for language arts students. Although fun activities, these methods foster vocabulary development, grammar instruction,…
Guth, Gloria J. A.; Block, Clifford
The GALAXY Language Arts Demonstration Program is a package of integrated curricular and instructional approaches that features the organization of instruction around themes presented through television broadcasts, children's literature, classroom activities, and the use of interactive technology. During the GALAXY Project demonstration phase for…
This paper tries to probe the influence of the organizational culture on language classroom at a newly-established local college. It firstly reviews the knowledge of the organizational culture and finds out its features, and then discusses how the organizational culture was greatly influenced by the host educational environment. On the basis of…
Full Text Available In an attempt to delve into the issue of affective variables related to language learning, the present study focuses on the influence of gender on learners' foreign language anxiety in the Iranian context. The objective of this case study is first to determine the extent to which Iranian EFL learners perceive foreign language anxiety in matched-gender and mixed-gender classrooms and second to see if there is any significant difference between the two types of the investigated classrooms. To this end, a 16 items self-reporting questionnaire with a five Likert-type scale was designed. The developed questionnaire was then given to 96 Iranian lower intermediate EFL learners to complete it. After analyzing the collected data, the findings indicated that mixed-gender classrooms can be considered as an anxiety-provoking teaching context in Iran, since the presence of the opposite gender in EFL classrooms was found to cause statistically significant amount of language anxiety among Iranian learners. The study also offers some context-specific pedagogical implications for Iranian EFL teachers and practitioners.
Van Praag, Benjamin; Sanchez, Hugo Santiago
Adopting a multiple-case, multiple-method design, this study investigates mobile technology use in the practices of three experienced second language teachers. The findings, based on an analysis of the teachers' rationales, stated beliefs and classroom actions, show that the teachers tend to prohibit or reluctantly tolerate mobile device usage,…
Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki
This ethnographic study examined students' opportunities to learn in linguistically diverse mathematics classrooms in a Canadian elementary school. I specifically examined the contextual change of group work, which influenced opportunities to learn for newly arrived English language learners (ELLs). Based on analyses of video-recorded…
Howes, Carollee; Guerra, Alison Wishard; Fuligni, Allison; Zucker, Eleanor; Lee, Linda; Obregon, Nora B.; Spivak, Asha
The purpose of this study was to test a model for predicting preschool-age children's behaviors with peers from dimensions of the classroom and teacher-child relationship quality when the children were from diverse race, ethnic, and home language backgrounds. Eight hundred children, (M=age 63 months, SD=8.1 months), part of the National Evaluation…
Sauder, Carol R.
A teacher of preschool and kindergarten students with hearing impairments recounts her increasing use of whole language, process-oriented teaching methods. Considers the teacher's new role, the classroom environment, use of thematic units, emergent reading, emergent writing, and evaluation. (DB)
In recent years, a great tendency towards the use of technology and its integration into the curriculum has gained a great importance. Particularly, the use of video as an audio-visual material in foreign language teaching classrooms has grown rapidly because of the increasing emphasis on communicative techniques, and it is obvious that the use of…
Musetti, Bernadette; Salas, Spencer; Perez, Theresa
"Newcomers" are English learners who are new to the United States and arrive with limited or interrupted formal schooling. These students have below-grade-level literacy skills in their home language and do not speak English. Newcomers' arrivals to the middle school and high school classrooms often present a formidable "what to do" for classroom…
Reports on a study of the learning styles of two adult classroom learners of German as a second language. The extent to which, and in what ways, learners' learning style varies, whether one learning style results in more effective learning, and the effect of instructional style on the subjects' learning outcomes are explored. (29 references)…
This paper is based on a qualitative inquiry that investigated the role of teachers' mediation in three different modes of coding in a kindergarten foreign language classroom in China (i.e. L2-coded intralinguistic mediation, L1-coded cross-lingual mediation, and L2-and-L1-mixed mediation). Through an exploratory examination of the varying effects…
Examines how students in a second language classroom deploy linguistic and cultural resources to both resist and appropriate aspects of the teachers' voices. A key episode is analyzed to show the nuances of students' ventriloquation of diverse voices to construct a complex social order and shifting strategic identities. (Author/VWL)
Zhao, XingLong; Wang, MinJuan; Wu, Juan; He, KeKang
This paper reports on a new pedagogy for Chinese language teaching and learning at elementary schools through exploratory classroom instruction using Information and Communication Technologies. The study used quantitative method to collect data from two elementary schools of China. The results showed that: (1) the three-in-one pedagogy of…
Digital storytelling can motivate and engage students and create a community in the classroom. This article lays out a 12-week digital storytelling project, describing the process in detail, including assessment, and pinpointing issues and challenges as well as benefits the project affords English language students.
Meng Yew Tee
Full Text Available Little continues to be known about what actually happens in classrooms, particularly from a national perspective. Descriptions of classroom practices from a national vantage point can provide a bird's eye view of salient patterns and variations within an education system, especially one as centralised as that of Malaysia. With these descriptions, especially if the primary data consists of video recordings, one can also begin to compare movements in classroom practices across time and space; theorise about the nature of practice within the system as well as inform policy deliberations. This paper examines key methodological decisions of conducting a national study to research classroom educational practice within Malaysia's public school system. The case is made for the use of such studies to gain a bird's eye perspective of classroom practices in a national system as well as to lay the foundations for inter-system comparisons. Potential implications and opportunities of these types of studies are also discussed.
González-Carriedo, Ricardo; Bustos, Nancy; Ordóñez, Jorge
Dual-language programs are becoming increasingly popular among educators and the public in general. In these programs, students aim at attaining full proficiency in English and another language while reaching an academic achievement at or above grade level. This article describes a series of pedagogical practices in the context of dual-language…
This article addresses the issue of whether TESOL should clearly articulate a set of pedagogical principles that challenge the assumption that English language teaching (ELT) should be conducted monolingually through English. This "monolingual principle" emphasizes instructional use of the target language (TL) to the exclusion of students' home…
Hopkins, Diana; Nettle, Mark
Two practicing English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL teachers respond to Rod Ellis' January 1993 article in "ELT Journal," which discussed importance of grammar instruction in EFL classrooms. Argues some of Ellis' assumptions about current classroom practices are inaccurate and a number of his "alternative" approaches to teaching grammar, such as…
Students who study English as a Foreign Language (EFL) often already speak two or more languages. Knowing more than one language is a necessity for many people worldwide, whether it is because their parents come from different language backgrounds, because their home, regional, national, or school languages are different, or for a variety of other…
Doqaruni, Vahid Rahmani
This study reports on an action research on increasing the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students' confidence in speaking. Participants involved in this study were 16 male university students who had an upper-intermediate level of English. Extra speaking activities were incorporated into the classroom for 8 successive weeks. Insights into…
This is a study to focus on analyzing the use of constructive teaching method toward the students' motivation in learning content subject of Introduction to Research of English Language Teaching. By using a mix-method of qualitative and quantitative analysis, the data are collected by using questionnaire and classroom observation. The…
Hetland, Lois; Cajolet, Sharron; Music, Louise
This article illustrates the effects of embedding a common language derived from research, conducted through Project Zero at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, into teachers' documentations of classroom experiences. It suggests that documentation can be enhanced by using shared professional vocabularies that describe categories important in…
Full Text Available This article applies attribution theory to identify the factors that influence nursing students’ perceptions of success and failure in learning English writing skills. The study took place in a language classroom in southern Taiwan involving fifty-one female nursing students, a writing teacher, and the researcher. Teaching activities included five writing cycles based on an online writing platform, process approach, and multiple revisions. Evidence data has been collected from learners’ questionnaires and interviews, teacher’s interviews, classroom observations, teaching materials, and researcher’s diaries. The data has been analysed quantitatively using SPSS and qualitatively with the aid of QSR NVivo software. Results reveal the major factors given by learners involve the amount writing practice given and their perceptions of their competence in vocabulary and with grammar. The work is supported by observations made by the language teacher and the researcher on issues which have emerged on the students’ writing skills, psychology, language competence, and learning context. This article concludeswith the implications for teaching.
Batchelor, Katherine E.; Bintz, William P.
Middle level educators around the country aim to create a classroom environment and a way of teaching that is developmentally responsive, challenging, empowering, and equitable for every student. One way to ensure this is to include instruction that promotes creativity. This article offers guiding principles and shares instructional lessons that…
Leung, Constant; Lewkowicz, Jo
In this paper, we examine some of the tenets of the current conceptualisations of communicative competence. Drawing on the empirical data collected in linguistically diverse university classrooms, we show that meaning-making in social interaction is considerably more complex and fluid than is envisaged in theoretical models of communicative…
de la Piedra, Maria Teresa; Araujo, Blanca
The purpose of this article is to discuss the ways in which young transfronterizo students who live between the two worlds of El Paso (USA) and Ciudad Juarez (Mexico) bring their literacy practices and content to the classroom. Drawing on the data gathered during a 3-year ethnographic study, we illustrate how transfronterizo texts and content are…
Reviews recent trends in generative research on second language acquisition, focusing on the role of universal grammar, parameter resetting, and anaphoric binding. An annotated bibliography discusses five important works in the field. (61 references) (MDM)
Introduces brain-based teaching and learning. Reviews basic biological facts about the human brain and discusses seven principles based on recent research that have practical benefits for English-as-a-Foreign-Language teachers. (Author/VWL)
Full Text Available This article reflects on a collaborative process between two researchers from different backgrounds conducting a joint-venture classroom observation project focusing on language, communication and special education. Focusing on the connection between explorative learning situations and dialogue in relation to children's learning and identity development, the researchers cooperate on all levels in the research process. The article compares findings when approaching data from two different professional traditions, linguistics and education. The main focus is how each of the researchers approaches the data analysis. The combining of approaches in interpreting and writing is also discussed. Narratives and spoken dialogues are vital in this work; transcripts of video material from a primary school classroom are used as illustrations.
This symposium report presents a summary of research on the affect of aircraft noise on the classroom environment revealing that aircraft noise can interfere with learning in the following areas: reading, motivation, language and speech acquisition, and memory. The strongest findings are in the area of reading, where more than 20 studies have…
Integrating environmental education into curriculum in a way that tackles the holistic and complicated nature of multi-dimensional issues continues to be a challenge for educators and administrators. There is potential in using ecological literacy to introduce local environmental case studies into English Language Arts high school classrooms. This research examines the experiences of two ELA classrooms in one Saint John, NB, high school with a two-week unit based on stakeholder relationships within the Saint John Harbour. Through presentations by guest speakers and research sourced from local community groups, students learned about the highly complex environmental issues that inform management decisions for the Harbour. Using these materials as background, students participated in a mock stakeholders meeting. Case study methodology was used to explore student learning in both a higher-level and a lower-level grade 10 ELA class. Data for the analysis included: cognitive mapping exercises; oral and written classroom assignments and activities; a videotape of the mock stakeholder meetings; a focus group interview with selected students; and researcher field notes. Data demonstrated significant student learning about environmental issues including increased sophistication in describing links between and among environmental issues affecting the harbour, and much more complex understandings of the positions and roles of the various stakeholder groups. Some important areas of resistance to new learning were also evident. Implications for practice and policy and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Piker, Ruth A.
With dual language learners falling behind their same-age peers at the beginning of kindergarten, understanding how school experiences can enhance language learning is critical. This study demonstrates how play among preschool-aged children can foster English language learning. Using an ethnographic approach, one classroom composed of two teachers…
By employing quantitative research methods, the paper investigates college students ’preferences to English classroom behaviors and the relations between behaviors and achievements. The results indicate that there are significant differences among the subjects’behavior, cognitive and emotional elements, and their classroom behaviors are mainly visual, individual, imitative and exterior-motivated;there are significant differences in behavior element and emotional element between high-result group and low-result group;confident and oral classroom behaviors have prominent relations with CET-4 achievements, and different teaching methods may make learning behaviors produce good or bad effects to achievements.
Rotellar, Cristina; Cain, Jeff
Flipped or inverted classrooms have become increasingly popular, and sometimes controversial, within higher education. Many educators have touted the potential benefits of this model and initial research regarding implementation has been primarily positive. The rationale behind the flipped classroom methodology is to increase student engagement with content, increase and improve faculty contact time with students, and enhance learning. This paper presents a summary of primary literature regarding flipped classrooms, discusses concerns and unanswered questions from both a student and faculty member perspective, and offers recommendations regarding implementation. PMID:27073287
Rotellar, Cristina; Cain, Jeff
Flipped or inverted classrooms have become increasingly popular, and sometimes controversial, within higher education. Many educators have touted the potential benefits of this model and initial research regarding implementation has been primarily positive. The rationale behind the flipped classroom methodology is to increase student engagement with content, increase and improve faculty contact time with students, and enhance learning. This paper presents a summary of primary literature regarding flipped classrooms, discusses concerns and unanswered questions from both a student and faculty member perspective, and offers recommendations regarding implementation.
Rotellar, Cristina; Cain, Jeff
Flipped or inverted classrooms have become increasingly popular, and sometimes controversial, within higher education. Many educators have touted the potential benefits of this model and initial research regarding implementation has been primarily positive. The rationale behind the flipped classroom methodology is to increase student engagement with content, increase and improve faculty contact time with students, and enhance learning. This paper presents a summary of primary literature regar...
This article examines the importance of raising non-native English language teachers' awareness of different dimensions of culture in the teaching of English as an international language. The author believes that the more critical English language teachers become about the involvement of culture in their English language teaching, the more they…
Phillippe, Denise E.
At Concordia Language Villages, language and culture are inextricably intertwined, as they are in life. Participants "live" and "do" language and culture 16 hours per day. The experiential, residential setting immerses the participants in the culture of the country or countries where the target language is spoken through food, music, sports,…
Gerson Araújo de Medeiros
Full Text Available Classroom research is a strategy that proposes linking teaching and research, thereby rendering teachers and students partners in the search for knowledge and combining theory and practice as allies in the educational process. This paper reports on classroom research experience in the subjects of Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Research Metodology, which are disciplines taught in CREUPI’s Environmental Engineering course. The conceptual and methological landmark achieved through this educational approach is discussed, analyzing the process involved in each discipline as well as the results derived from this practice.
This study examined the latent constructs of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) using two different groups of Korean English as a foreign language (EFL) university students. Maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis with direct oblimin rotation was performed among the first group of 217 participants and produced two meaningful latent components in the FLCAS. The two components of the FLCAS were closely examined among the second group of 244 participants to find the extent to which the two components of the FLCAS fit the data. The model fit indexes showed that the two-factor model in general adequately fit the data. Findings of this study were discussed with the focus on the two components of the FLCAS, followed by future study areas to be undertaken to shed further light on the role of foreign language anxiety in L2 acquisition.
Puranik, Cynthia S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana
The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners' writing performance.
Gage-Serio, Ondine Angelique
This dissertation examines affordances for Language Awareness within a classroom serving English learners in a coastal California middle school under the policy context of No Child Left Behind. As an ecologically inspired account, this study contributes to understanding how students use and learn language in classroom settings. Affordances for Language Awareness represent possibilities available to students for accessing relevant information to make meaning of language within a classroom. Af...
Total Physical Response Storytelling(TPRS) is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action:it attempts to teach language through physical activity.Developed in the 1990’s by Blaine Ray of Bakersfield,California,it draws on several traditions including developmental psychology,learning theory,and humanistic pedagogy.It provides the critical vehicle of storytelling;_-to utilize andéxpand ’acquired vocabulary by contextualizing it in high-interest,stories which students can hear,see,act out,retell,revise and rewrite.
ten Holt, Gineke A.; Arendsen, Jeroen; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink-van Doorn, Andrea J.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; Hendriks, Emile A.
Current automatic sign language recognition (ASLR) seldom uses perceptual knowledge about the recognition of sign language. Using such knowledge can improve ASLR because it can give an indication which elements or phases of a sign are important for its meaning. Also, the current generation of data-driven ASLR methods has shortcomings which may not be solvable without the use of knowledge on human sign language processing. Handling variation in the precise execution of signs is an example of such shortcomings: data-driven methods (which include almost all current methods) have difficulty recognizing signs that deviate too much from the examples that were used to train the method. Insight into human sign processing is needed to solve these problems. Perceptual research on sign language can provide such insights. This paper discusses knowledge derived from a set of sign perception experiments, and the application of such knowledge in ASLR. Among the findings are the facts that not all phases and elements of a sign are equally informative, that defining the 'correct' form for a sign is not trivial, and that statistical ASLR methods do not necessarily arrive at sign representations that resemble those of human beings. Apparently, current ASLR methods are quite different from human observers: their method of learning gives them different sign definitions, they regard each moment and element of a sign as equally important and they employ a single definition of 'correct' for all circumstances. If the object is for an ASLR method to handle natural sign language, then the insights from sign perception research must be integrated into ASLR.
Zannou, Yetunde Mobola
In Texas, nearly half of all new teachers are alternatively certified (AC) whilst English language learners (ELL) are over one-third of the public school population in some districts. As this trend continues, the likelihood that AC teachers will teach ELLs increases and alters what Texas teachers must know upon entering the classroom. This research explores teacher knowledge and beliefs about teaching ELLs through constructivist and narrative lenses. Four AC science teachers in two diverse school districts participated in in-depth interviews and reflective interviews following classroom observations to answer the research questions: (1) how do AC teachers describe and interpret their acts of teaching ELLs in mainstream classrooms; and (2) how do AC teachers describe and interpret their learning to teach ELLs in mainstream classrooms. Data were transcribed and analyzed using thematic narrative methods. This study found that participants saw ELL instruction as: (1) "just good teaching" strategies, (2) consisting primarily of cultural awareness and consideration for student comfort, and (3) less necessary in science where all students must learn the language. The most experienced teacher was the only participant to reference specific linguistic knowledge in describing ELL instruction. Many of the teachers described their work with ELL students as giving them an opportunity to improve their lives, which was consistent with their overall teaching philosophy and reason for entering the profession. Participant narratives about learning to teach ELLs described personal experience and person-to-person discussions as primary resources of knowledge. District support was generally described as unhelpful or incomplete. Participants portrayed their AC program as helpful in preparing them to work with ELL students, but everyone desired more relevant information from the program and more grade-appropriate strategies from the district. Participant narratives reveal AC teachers
Sanders, Nathan E; Newton, Elisabeth
Because undergraduate participation in research is a longstanding and increasingly important aspect of the career path for future scientists, students can benefit from additional resources to introduce them to the culture and process of research. We suggest the adoption of the web resource Astrobites as a classroom tool to increase the preparation of undergraduate physics and astronomy students for careers in research. We describe the content and development of the website, discuss previous university courses that have made use of Astrobites, and suggest additional strategies for using Astrobites in the classroom.
Porto, Melina; Daryai-Hansen, Petra; Arcuri, Maria Emilia;
Projektet "Green Kidz. Intercultural environmental citizenship in the English language classroom in Argentina and Denmark" er en del af et internationalt udviklingsprojekt, der er ledet af Michael Byram, Durham University. Projektet belyser, hvordan interkulturelt medborgerskab kan styrkes i...
Donelson, Ken, Ed.
This issue of the "Arizona English Bulletin" contains 29 articles related to language teaching in high school English classes. Among the subjects covered are: grammar; signs, symbols, and metaphors; linguistic analysis in the teaching of composition; bilingualism; dialect study; semantics; generative rhetoric and the teaching of composition;…
Madariaga, José-María; Huguet, Ángel; Janés, Judit
Catalonia is the Autonomous Community of Spain with the highest proportion of immigrant students. This study analyses the language attitudes of Catalan, as well as the possible explanatory variables for such attitudes, for a large sample with a high proportion of immigrant students and a great linguistic diversity. A questionnaire was given to…
The present study wants to find out the reasons for choosing the current methods/techniques for teaching grammar and it also wants to investigate whether there is a relation between teachers' thinking and their actions in the class or not. For this reason, four language teachers were selected. The subjects were selected by non-random sampling.…
This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.
Martí, Natalia Morollón; Fernández, Susana S.
This paper discusses the design and implementation of a pedagogical intervention aimed at raising sociopragmatic awareness in the context of Spanish as a foreign language in Denmark. The intervention consists of a blended-learning environment where the three main components are synchronous telecollaboration via Skype, reflection sessions in groups…
Straehler-Pohl, Hauke; Gellert, Uwe
This article aims at developing an external language of description to investigate the problem of why particular groups of students are systematically not provided access to school mathematical knowledge. Based on Basil Bernstein's conceptualisation of power in classification, we develop a three-dimensional model that operationalises the…
Bancroft, W. Jane
Based on observations made in Bulgaria in the 1970s, it is proposed that the original version of Suggestopedia for second language training, used in Bulgaria and other Eastern European countries in the late 1960s and early 1970s, differs significantly from the techniques developed later, in particular in concentration on and memorization of…
A weblog (blog or Web log) has recently become one of the most widely used Internet applications. The current study concerns developing a blog specifically designed for learners learning English as a foreign language. The study investigated the effects of extensive writing by comparing the writing performance in the first three and the last three…
Demirci, Mahide; Kleiner, Brian
Investigates the use of discourse markers by advanced Turkish learners of English. The research discussed here aims to make an initial contribution to the study of how discourse markers are used by second-language learners, and to illustrate why such research should be valuable and necessary component of interlanguage pragmatics. (Author/VWL)
Neuroimaging techniques are becoming not only more and more sophisticated but are also coming to be increasingly accessible to researchers. One thing that one should take note of is the potential of neuroimaging research within second language acquisition (SLA) to contribute to issues pertaining to the plasticity of the adult brain and to general…
Derrick, Deirdre J.
Second language (L2) researchers often have to develop or change the instruments they use to measure numerous constructs (Norris & Ortega, 2012). Given the prevalence of researcher-developed and -adapted data collection instruments, and given the profound effect instrumentation can have on results, thorough reporting of instrumentation is…
John I. Liontas
Full Text Available Idiomaticity is central to linguistic theory. Despite the pervasiveness of idioms in language, pedagogical articles in professional journals have yet to pay attention to the benefits of idiom instruction in the second language (SL classroom. Addressing this concern, this article reports the results of an exploratory qualitative research study conducted with sixteen SL university instructors and two Language Program Directors (LPDs at two large universities in the Southwest (United States of America that explored teachers’ own knowledge and theories about SL idiomaticity. Survey and interview data indicate that university instructors and LPDs share beliefs and assumptions about how best to teach idioms and assess students’ knowledge of SL idiomaticity. It was concluded that both university instructors and LPDs have an important role to play in the development of idiom pedagogy and that such pedagogy can be greatly enhanced through action research. Recommendations are included for further study of the issues surrounding SL idiomaticity, and teaching implications are considered for the development of meaningful pedagogical practices suitable for the promotion of idiomatic learning.
对外汉语教学中教师的课堂语言既是教学工具又是教学目的,这样的双重属性使得对外汉语教学中教师的课堂语言在语速、词汇、语法上具有受限性,此外教师的课堂语言还具有示范性以及在教学过程中表现出来的可变性的特征。本文还讨论了在对外汉语课堂教学中,教师课堂语言经常会出现的问题以及解决方法。%Foreign language teachers in classroom language teaching is a teaching tool and also the purpose of teaching,so that the dual properties make the teaching of foreign language teachers in the classroom language in speech rate,vocabulary,grammar with a limited nature,in addition to classroom teachers,language also has a demonstration as well as in the teaching process shown by the variability of characteristics.This article also discusses the foreign language classroom,teachers classroom language problems often occur,and solutions.
Huang, Chung-Kai; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chiang, Yueh-Hui
This study aims to create a blended learning environment, based on the concept of competency-based training, in a Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) classroom at an American university. Drupal platform and web 2.0 tools were used as supplements to traditional face-to-face classroom instruction. Students completed various selective tasks and…
This report explores participant perspectives on L1 (English) use in foreign language classrooms. The study includes data collected from 25 participants, 23 students and 2 professors, from the Monterey Institute of International Studies (MIIS). A combination of classroom observations, interviews, and questionnaires were used to collect data. The…
A collection of five board games for the Spanish language classroom contains gameboards, game markers, and directions for each game. It also contains general instructions for the teacher about the classroom use of board games. The games include: "Uvas," for use in vocabulary development and cultural awareness; "Montana Rusa," for general…
Yiakoumetti, Androula; Mina, Marina
The sociolinguistic phenomenon of bidialectism can significantly influence foreign-language learning. This study provides empirical evidence (drawn from the Greek Cypriot bidialectal community) for this influence and it supports the recommendation that foreign-language educators be trained in language-variation issues. The study's methodological…
This article addresses language learner strategy research in the context of second language learning and teaching in the UK. It arises from two sources: firstly, a personal background in research and writing about language learner strategy research in the context of modern foreign language learning and teaching in England and Wales; secondly, a…
This paper on mixed-level language classes includes a brief review of literature on the topic of mixedlevel language education and goes on to present a classroom activity designed to maximize student speaking time in a mixed-level environment while also providing periods of ref lection and peer conversation in L1. This activity is then viewed in the light of Kolb’s (1984) model of experiential learning. In addition, a summary of student response to the speaking activity is presented in the fo...
Bamond Lozano, Victoria; Bamond Lozano, Cristina
In light of the importance being placed on internationalization by the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), universities all over Europe have to find ways of introducing foreign language, particularly English, into their core curricular competences. Student mobility has become a central focus and universities are strongly encouraging students to study and work abroad in order to prepare them for the global world they will soon need to compete in. One of the methodologies currently in use fo...
Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico (Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés) en el centro de México)
Mora Pablo, Irasema; Lengeling, M. Martha; Rubio Zenil, Buenaventura; Crawford, Troy; Goodwin, Douglas
The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews.…
@@ Ⅰ.Introducfion In the history of ELT in China,great changes have taken place in the late 1990s since communicative language teaching(CLT)was accepted as a main teaching method(Xiao,2000)in China where it has made a great impact.In the Chinese so-called communicative classroom.teachem generally abandon traditional methods,avoid using the Ll,paying little attention to grammar(Huang,2002).
T. Volkan YUZER; Belgin AYDIN
This paper reports a synchronous project, “the virtual classroom” prepared for the Distance English Language Teacher Training (DELTT) Program. The process of developing the synchronous project and the interface with its specific components were reported with examples and supported by theoretical background from the related literature. The evaluation of the project concludes that the virtual classroom facilitated increased authentic interaction and encouraged learners to become more autonomous...
de Bot, Kees, Ed.; And Others
Papers from a conference on empirical research on foreign language instruction in Europe and the United States include: "Foreign Language Instruction and Second Language Acquisition Research in the United States" (Charles A. Fergurson, Thom Huebner); "Empirical Foreign Language Research in Europe" (Theo van Els, Kees de Bot, Bert Weltens);…
Plo Alastrué, Ramón
This volume examines the role of English in academic and research settings in Europe and provides recommendations on the challenges posed by the dominance of English over national languages as languages of science and research dissemination; the need for language support for academics that need to disseminate their research in English; and the effect of past and present language policies.
Research indicates that interest in the language of the classroom has grown steadily over a number of years. It has been motivated by the recognition that the type of language used by the teacher and the type of interactions occurring in the classroom may have an influence on Second Language Acquisition. The discourse occurring in the classroom has, however, often been criticized as being rigid and distorted and consequently differs greatly from the discourse that occurs outside the classroom...
Tevdovska Elena Spirovska
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of soft skills in the context of higher education and in the context of the foreign language learning classroom. The article aims to define the notion of soft skills and to offer possible ways of grouping soft skills. It also provides ways of including soft skills instruction in the context of higher education. In addition, the article aims to propose models of implementing soft skills in foreign language learning and teaching situations and to suggest teaching procedures and activities which will facilitate the introduction of soft skills in the EFL (English as a foreign language classroom at South East European University. The article also aims to discuss the need of including soft skills in undergraduate studies curricula and to provide arguments in favour of including soft skills. The article will also present participants’ views and perceptions, collected via survey, of the importance and necessity of soft skills for their future careers and workplaces. The conclusion will offer some practical suggestions regarding soft skill inclusion in the EFL classroom.
Kalt, Susan E.
Spanish is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Quechua is the largest indigenous language family to constitute the first language (L1) of second language (L2) Spanish speakers. Despite sheer number of speakers and typologically interesting contrasts, Quechua-Spanish second language acquisition is a nearly untapped research area,…
Full Text Available This study examines, through a qualitative case study approach, how non-native- speaking (NNS Japanese language teachers in New South Wales (NSW teach culture and why. The study seeks to understand the pedagogy used to teach culture, teachers’ attitudes and beliefs on teaching culture and how these attitudes and beliefs have been influenced by past experiences. This study also explores how the NSW K-10 Japanese syllabus and concepts of Intercultural Language Learning (IcLL are being implemented in teachers’ classrooms. Two non-native-speaking (NNS Japanese language teachers from a selective secondary school in NSW were interviewed and their classes observed over three days. Analysis of interview and observation data shows that these teachers teach culture as determined by language content, integrate language and culture teaching and teach culture as observable and factual. The study shows that both teachers view culture teaching as easier than language teaching, however their views on the influence of the syllabus differ. The study explores the teachers’ past experiences and how these affect how they feel towards, and teach culture. Finally, this study looks at how the teachers’ practices reflect concepts of IcLL such as integrating language and culture, student-centered learning and how their status as NNS teachers affects their culture teaching.
This study examined the phenomenon of blogging as a technologically enhanced support to develop interaction and interrelatedness among learners in a foreign language course. A corpus of 62 blog entries and 30 comments the bloggers left on each other's blogs were analysed to find out whether blog may be used to promote connectivity and…
LI Ru-long: Huang Diancheng's Great Contributions to Chinese Phonology Abstract: Huang Diancheng inherited the essence of traditional Chinese phonology and the research results of the Zhang and Huang School. On the basis of the analysis on the facts of modern dialects, he put forward the principle that Qiangsheng bi ruoyun,
Socrates articulated it best, "Speak, so I may see you." Indeed, language represents an invisible probe into the mind. It is the medium through which we express our deepest thoughts, our aspirations, our views, our feelings, our inner reality. From the beginning of artificial intelligence, researchers have sought to impart human like…
The cognitive neuroscience of second language acquisition has been described as being associated with ＇excitement＇ and a ＇ sense of momentum＇ （Indefrey and Gullberg 2006 ： 7）. This article recognizes the enormous potential of the neuroscientific contribution to second language research, but it also points to problems and uncertainties which currently attend neurolinguistics. The article makes some comments in respect of some particular neurolinguistic studies relating to the over-interpretation of evidence, the failure to design studies in such a way as to take account of key variables, and the ignoring of facts about language that have been established for decades. The essential point of the article is that, if neuroscientific research is to be integrated into second language acquisition research, it has to operate on the basis of the same ground-rules as more ＇traditional＇ research--specifically with reference to： the acknowledgment of methodological and technical limitations, the restriction of conclusions to what is licensed by the data, controlling for possible confounding variables, and the incorporation of established linguistic and psycholinguistic facts into the analysis of findings.
Full Text Available Abstract Global research has shown the persistence of inequality with regard to accessing curriculum with a view to obtaining suitable work and making useful contributions to society. The intersection of race, gender, language and low socio-economic levels creates situations which often marginalize ethnic minorities in school settings (Freire, 1968; Nieto & Turner, 2012. The graduation rates in the United States for Native American, African American and Hispanic students are lower than the graduation rates of Whites and Asian Americans. In addition, Bangladeshis and African Caribbeans currently living in the UK are under-represented in higher education, particularly young men in those communities. The research questions that guide this inquiry are: (1 According to databases, how does the academic performance of language minority groups compare to the academic performance of non-linguistic minority groups at the elementary and secondary levels of education? (2 According to language support teachers and university students, what are the strengths and weaknesses of the instructional practices for language minorities who are learning English in the United Kingdom (UK (Bristol and the United States (US (Henrico? Participants were: five UK teachers, four UK university students, five US teachers, four US university students. Data collection supervised by lead researchers included interviews, focus groups, classroom observation, and performance documents. Data analysis utilized a mixed-methods approach. Overall, linguistic minority groups performed lower than their English proficient peers. Culturally, UK teachers provided a greater emphasis on religious instruction, whereas US teachers addressed patriotic topics more frequently. Teachers in the United States and the United Kingdom were culturally supportive with slight variation in the encouraged use of the students’ heritage languages.
This review article presents a summary of research on the second language acquisition of Bantu languages, including Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa and Lingala. Although second language (L2) research on these languages is currently very limited, work in morphosyntax and phonology suggests promising directions for future study, particularly on noun class,…
Literature is a popular resource of material used in language classroom. In this essay the author attempts to find a new way to teach literature in language classroom--stylistic approach. The aim of this effort is to enable the students to learn how language is used for conveying contents and developing the skills needed to extract the contents from the language that expresses them.%英美文学是英语阅读课堂中常见的阅读材料。如何利用好这一载体有效提高学生的阅读能力是所有英语教师共同关注的事情。本文是作者借鉴前人的理论经验，并从自身教学实际出发进行的教学尝试：从语言学，文体学的角度讲授文学；把文学植入语言课堂。
Full Text Available The development of learners' communicative competence has been regarded as the major goal of foreign and second language teaching. Several authors have advanced various communicative models in order to better explain how language teaching and learning work (e.g. Canale & Swain, 1980; Canale, 1983; Bachman, 1990; Celce-Murcia et al. 1995; Usó-Juan & Martínez-Flor 2006. One of the elements of the communicative model is that of intercultural competence (Byram, 1997; Usó-Juan & Martínez-Flor, 2008. This competence has been defined by Meyer (1991, p. 137 as "the ability of a person to behave adequately in a flexible manner when confronted with actions, attitudes and expectations of representatives of foreign cultures". Cultural dimensions play a paramount role in learners' learning process; however, there is not apparently a particular approach for its integration in the language classroom. Taken into account those aspects, in this paper, I attempt to provide an instructional approach for the integration of culture in the language classroom so as to foster learners' communicative competence. The present paper presents first a revision of different communicative models, then, a description of the notion intercultural competence is provided. Finally, an instructional approach for the teaching of this particular competence is proposed.
While current conceptualisations of the inextricable connection between language and culture in English language education are largely informed by complex sociocultural theories that view culture as constructed in and through social practices among people, classroom practices continue to be influenced by mainstream discourses of culture that…
In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the
Full Text Available Improving student understanding of a foreign language culture is anything but a peripheral issue in the teaching of a foreign language. This pilot study reports on a second year required English course in a university in Japan that took a Literature Circles approach, where students were asked to read short stories out of class and then discuss these stories in class. Although students reported that they did not gain any special insights into the target language culture presented, they did report that reading fiction as source material for classroom activity helps with the acquisition of a vocabulary set that is more closely associated with lifestyle and culture. The results suggest that further study is warranted. Procedures of this pilot study are described and interpreted in the context of the English education system in Japan.
Zhang, Meilan; Passalacqua, Susan; Lundeberg, Mary; Koehler, Matthew J.; Eberhardt, Jan; Parker, Joyce; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Zhang, Tianyi; Paik, Sunhee
In this study we described an action research project enacted by a veteran Kindergarten teacher (Sarah) in the context of a professional development program. Over the course of a year, Sarah collaborated with other teachers in a small group to investigate how to use “Science Talks” to promote student learning in Kindergarten classrooms. A Problem-Based Learning approach was adopted to guide the collaborative action research. Based on a rich set of data sources, we concluded that Sarah’s action research improved student learning and led to her own professional growth. We also identified important conditions in support of action research.
Soskey, Laura; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J
How do the neural mechanisms involved in word recognition evolve over the course of word learning in adult learners of a new second language? The current study sought to closely track language effects, which are differences in electrophysiological indices of word processing between one's native and second languages, in beginning university learners over the course of a single semester of learning. Monolingual L1 English-speakers enrolled in introductory Spanish were first trained on a list of 228 Spanish words chosen from the vocabulary to be learned in class. Behavioral data from the training session and the following experimental sessions spaced over the course of the semester showed expected learning effects. In the three laboratory sessions participants read words in three lists (English, Spanish and mixed) while performing a go/no-go lexical decision task in which event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. As observed in previous studies there were ERP language effects with larger N400s to native than second language words. Importantly, this difference declined over the course of L2 learning with N400 amplitude increasing for new second language words. These results suggest that even over a single semester of learning that new second language words are rapidly incorporated into the word recognition system and begin to take on lexical and semantic properties similar to native language words. Moreover, the results suggest that electrophysiological measures can be used as sensitive measures for tracking the acquisition of new linguistic knowledge.
Soskey, Laura; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J
How do the neural mechanisms involved in word recognition evolve over the course of word learning in adult learners of a new second language? The current study sought to closely track language effects, which are differences in electrophysiological indices of word processing between one's native and second languages, in beginning university learners over the course of a single semester of learning. Monolingual L1 English-speakers enrolled in introductory Spanish were first trained on a list of 228 Spanish words chosen from the vocabulary to be learned in class. Behavioral data from the training session and the following experimental sessions spaced over the course of the semester showed expected learning effects. In the three laboratory sessions participants read words in three lists (English, Spanish and mixed) while performing a go/no-go lexical decision task in which event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. As observed in previous studies there were ERP language effects with larger N400s to native than second language words. Importantly, this difference declined over the course of L2 learning with N400 amplitude increasing for new second language words. These results suggest that even over a single semester of learning that new second language words are rapidly incorporated into the word recognition system and begin to take on lexical and semantic properties similar to native language words. Moreover, the results suggest that electrophysiological measures can be used as sensitive measures for tracking the acquisition of new linguistic knowledge. PMID:27233808
在小学低年段的母语教学中，阅读和写作在课堂教学中占据着重要的地位。在创新教学理论的背景下，构建以母语课堂为基础的小学低年段课堂读写教学，对当前的新课程教学改革来说具有十分显著的意义。基于此，将在小学课堂中提出构建母语课堂读写教学的构想，并观察读写教学的效果，从而提升小学低年段学生的读写质量以及母语教学质量。%In the elementary school low section of native language tea ching,reading and writing occupies the important position in the classroom teaching. Under the background of innovation of teaching theory,and build on the basis of the language classroom teaching in the elementary school low section of the classroom,speaking,reading and writing,and for the current new curriculum teaching reform has the significant significance. Based on this,the teacher will read and write the language classroom is proposed in the primary school classroom in the teaching idea,and observe the effect of the reading and writing teaching,to improve the quality of speaking,reading and writing of students in the elementary school low section as well as the native language teaching quality.
Mohammad Adnan Latief
Full Text Available Hypothesis is very often inevitable in research activities. Hypothesis is of at least three kinds, each of which should not be confused. A study trying to measure the relationship between variables can predict the finding based on theory or logical common sense. This prediction is called theoretical hypothesis. In testing hypothesis quantitatively, the theoretical hypothesis should be transformed into statistical hypothesis, which takes the form of Null hypothesis and its alternatives. It is the Null hypothesis that is to be tested to justify its rejection or otherwise its acceptance. In qualitative study, the result of first data analysis is called temporal empirical hypothesis that should be validated with more data. This cycle of rechecking the result with more data is done again and again until the hypothesis becomes the final conclusion.
The Impact of a Professional Development Program on English Language Teachers' Classroom Performance (El impacto de un programa de desarrollo profesional en el desempeño en clase de profesores de lengua inglesa)
This article reports the findings of an action research study on a professional development program and its impact on the classroom performance of in-service English teachers who worked at a language institute of a Colombian state university. Questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, class observations, and a researcher's journal were used as…
Croft, S. K.; Pompea, S. M.; Walker, C. E.; NOAO Education Outreach Team
Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRBSE) is a teacher professional development program that has been created at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) in Tucson, AZ, for middle and high school science teachers. It integrates several prominent trends in American science education, including the use of technology in the classroom, the development of inquiry-based science curricula closely modeling professional science practice, teacher retention and renewal, and the creation of communities of science learners consisting of both teachers and students. TLRBSE is designed to give middle and high school science teachers experience in working on real astronomy research projects with each other and with professional scientists. The teachers are also trained in research-based pedagogy so that they can effectively take these research projects into their classrooms to share with their students and colleagues. Program elements include: a 14-week graduate-level distance-learning course, a two-week on-site training workshop in Tucson that includes a week's observing at Kitt Peak using world-class telescopes, use of research-based science education in the classroom, and two years mentoring of three inexperienced science teachers. Our current research projects are Nova Search, Active Galactic Nuclei, Variable Stars, and Zeeman Splitting in Sunspots. Students and teachers in the program are also able to publish their research projects in the RBSE Journal. New program elements designed to provide ongoing activity in the learning community and increase teacher and student astronomical research skills include the Remote Telescope Observing Program in which students run telescopes in real time from their classroom, and the Teacher Observing Program in which individual teachers return to Kitt Peak with a small team of students to carry out their own research projects. This project is supported by NSF.
Full Text Available The advent of modern technologies has had a remarkable role in revolutionizing the classroom setting. It is, therefore, incumbent on teachers to utilize strategies for effective managing of the change. The aim of the present study was to find out English as a Foreign Language (EFL teachers’ beliefs regarding classroom management. In so doing, the relationship between EFL teachers’ demographic variables (age and years of teaching experience, computer attitude, and their classroom instructional and behavior management orientations was explored. The participants of the study comprised a total of 105 male and female EFL language school teachers in Iran. The data for the current study were collected through two questionnaires. The results of the multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the independent variables of participants’ computer attitude, age, and teaching experience are not suitable predictors of both behavioral and instructional management. The results also showed that as the age and teaching experience of the participants increased their attitudes towards computers became more negative
This article explores how students’ informal language learning experiences with English find their way into the formal context of content-based language teaching (CLIL). The analysis is focused on stretches of classroom talk in which native Finnish-speaking students draw on their expertise of English-language popular culture, and use their knowledge as a semiotic resource for producing various types of actions. Based on the data, it is argued that the organisation of peer group talk in the la...
Rydland, Veslemøy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grøver; Fulland, Helene
This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global Warming Test) consisting of multiple lengthy texts. The sample included 67 language-minority students (native Urdu or native Turkish speakers) from 21 different fifth grade classrooms in Norway. Multiple regression analyses revealed that word decoding and different facets of L2 vocabulary explained most of the variance in Woodcock Passage Comprehension, but a smaller proportion of variance in the Global Warming Test. For the Global Warming Test, prior topic knowledge was the most influential predictor. Furthermore, L2 vocabulary depth appeared to moderate the contribution of prior topic knowledge to the Global Warming Test in this sample of language minority students.
宮永, 千恵子; Miyanaga, Chieko
It is well known among second/foreign language (L2) teachers and researchers that affective variables are no less important than cognitive variables in L2 learning. According to Gardner and Maclntyre (1992, 1993), affective variables include attitudes, motivation, language anxiety, self-confidence about the language, personality, and learning styles, whereas cognitive variables include intelligence, language aptitude, language learning strategies, previous language training, and experience. O...
Pompea, S. M.; Croft, S. K.; Walker, C. E.; Lockwood, J.; McCarthy, D.; Rector, T.; Howell, S.
The Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRBSE) is an NSF-funded program which has as one of its primary goals the implementation of authentic research in the classroom. To achieve this goal, TLRBSE provides an in-depth professional development experience for teachers which includes a semester-long on-line course on research pedagogy, research tools (such as image processing), and astronomy content knowledge. Participants come to the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) in Tucson in the summer for two weeks in order to hone their skills and interact with scientists. They also pursue research projects led by a TLRBSE leader in one of several astronomy areas including novae, active galactic nuclei, solar magnetic fields, and spectroscopy of variable stars using research telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The teachers have access to the data they have taken at the telescope as well as to extensive archival data sets taken by previous TLRBSE teachers. These ongoing research projects are then brought back to the classroom where teachers and students can continue their research in these areas. The student research results are then submitted for review and publication in NOAO's Research Based Science Education Journal. The TLRBSE model is being extended by providing a variety of additional research experiences for teachers and students during the school year, using the same telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory used in the summer program. Teachers and students from the program apply for additional research time during the school year and can come to the observatory to make observations for new or continuing projects. As remote telescopes become more widely available, the teachers and students will be able to observe from their home locations and access their observations directly over the internet. Some of the key issues in our program are teacher selection, organization and logistics of the distance learning course, workshop
In the attempt to evaluate the quality of teacher talk, recent communicative approaches have suggested that the modifi-cation of teacher classroom speech and the functional distribution of teacher talk in terms of pedagogical goals should be consid-ered (Seedhouse:1996). This study investigates the relationship between language use and pedagogic purpose from an analysis of a lesson transcript of a grammar lesson, and evaluates the quality of the teacher talk based on the Self-Evaluation of Teacher Talk (SETT) Grid. The purpose is to examine whether the teacher talk is appropriate in the classroom context or mode and to bring about a more conscious and effective use of teacher talk in her teaching profession in the future.
Lucía Ramallo Cuesta
This article proposes solutions to put theory into practice in the classroom of Spanish as a foreign language. Key words: interculturality, intercultural skill, social consciousness, cultural shock, foreign language acquisition
Stephan, Michelle. L.
Design research is usually motivated by university members with experience and interest in building theory and instructional designs in collaboration with one teacher. Typically, the teacher is considered as a member of the research team, with the primary responsibility of implementing instruction. However, in this chapter, I describe a Classroom…
Genre studies on intercultural aspects of business languages traditionally focus on established genres, such as print advertisements or annual reports. Despite the growing importance of Web-based business communication, only a few publications have engaged in contrastive Web genre analysis. This article develops a methodology for carrying out cross-cultural research on Web genres by giving ideas for designing a corpus and for choosing parameters of analysis. It also discusses the potential be...
One influential approach to the study of spoken discourse is developed at the University of Birmingham in which the researchers initially concerned themselves with the strueture of discourse in school classroom. One of the interaction features of teacher-talk is to ask questions. They have attracted considerable attention from researchers of language classroom teaching.
Full Text Available As one of the less-commonly-taught foreign languages in U.S. universities, Korean-language classes are often taken by students of Korean descent. Many Korean Americans with long-term exposure to the target language in a combination of naturalistic and instructional settings have developed proficiency in their heritage language through parental and community support, such as Saturday schools (Lee, 2002. However, upon closer examination, the bilingualism that many Korean-American learners achieve is unbalanced. These heritage learners often lack grammatical accuracy and precision despite high fluency, as the moniker "kitchen Korean" implies. As a way to facilitate the accuracy aspect of the heritage learners' language, this article suggests the benefits of corrective feedback, explicit and implicit, in the forms of metalinguistic comments, provision of an alternative correct form contingent on the learner's ill-formed utterance, and partial or full repetitions or reformulations of the learner's output when interacting with them in the classroom and beyond.
Van Orden, Stephen
German language teachers are gaining increased access to smart classrooms and digital technologies that offer teachers and students greater access to authentic cultural and language materials and enable more student target language communication. Teaching with technology changes the teaching and learning environment in many ways. Little is known about how integrating technology into the daily German-language-teaching curriculum changes the implicit power structures embedded in all classroom i...
Abdous, M'hammed; Camarena, Margaret M.; Facer, Betty Rose
Integrating Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) technology (personal multimedia players, cell phones, and handheld devices) into the foreign language curriculum is becoming commonplace in many secondary and higher education institutions. Current research has identified both pedagogically sound applications and important benefits to students.…
Lo, Yuen Yi; Macaro, Ernesto
Bilingual programmes in which an L2 is used as the medium of instruction are becoming popular in different parts of the world, and content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is one variant of such programmes. Recent research on CLIL has gradually shifted from product-oriented (i.e. evaluating the effectiveness of CLIL in terms of language and…
Julie A. Belz
Full Text Available Although corpora have been used in language teaching for some time, few empirical studies explore their impact on learning outcomes. We provide a microgenetic account of learners’ responses to corpus-driven instructional units for German modal particles and pronominal da-compounds. The units are based on developmental corpus data produced by native speakers during interactions with the very learners for whom the units are designed. Thus, we address the issue of authentication in corpus-driven language pedagogy. Finally, we illustrate how an ethnographically supplemented developmental learner corpus may contribute to second language acquisition research via dense documentation of micro-changes in learners’ language use over time.
Sanders, Kay; Downer, Jason T.
Given the increasing ethnic and language diversity within the United States, this study examined practices that acknowledge and promote diversity in pre-Kindergarten classrooms. Findings indicate that acceptance of diversity is a component of positive environments for young children, particularly in classrooms with high poverty levels where there…
Full Text Available The use of the target language to manage a class and organise its work represents one of the few genuinely communicative uses of the target language in many formal foreign-language or bilingual-education teaching situations. It is thus important that both teachers and learners understand and know how to use the key expressions involved. These tend to be highly metaphoric (Low, 2008 with one particularly productive conceptual metaphor involving the JOURNEY (or TRAVEL source domain seemingly standing out. There seems to have been little investigation to date into whether or not learners whose first language is not English actually understand the expressions involved in such classroom management language. Moreover, with the recent growing interest in the area of content-based learning, there is increasing pressure on language teachers, whose first language is not English, to use English as their classroom management language. Our first aim was to look at whether the acceptability judgements for classroom management expressions offered by non-native speaking teachers of English resembled those of native speakers, and whether these judgements reflected corpus findings regarding the frequency of usage in spoken English. To do this, we analysed native and non-native speaker responses to a short questionnaire. Our second aim was to look at how non-native speakers of English perceive the meanings of these expressions, comparing our findings to native speaker judgements and corpus results.
Foreign language anxiety is a negative emotion of fear or apprehension occurring in the specific situation of foreign language learning influencing language learning. The author made a research among vocational school students to investigate the level and sources of foreign language anxiety.
Brinker, R.; Steiner, S. M.; Coleman, L.
Improving scientific literacy is a goal in the United States. Scientists from the United States are often expected to present research findings in ways that are meaningful and accessible to the general public, including K-12 students. PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program funded by the National Science Foundation, partners teachers with scientists in the Arctic and Antarctica. Teachers communicate the research to general audiences on a regular basis. After the field experience, they then create classroom-ready lessons to relay the science exploration into science curriculum. In this presentation, secondary level educators, will share their experiences with being part of field research teams in the Arctic and Antarctica, and their strategies for bringing current science research into the classroom and aligning lessons with Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Topics include an overview on using polar science to teach about climate change, application of field research techniques to improve students' understanding of scientific investigation methodology, phenology observations, soil porosity and permeability, litter decomposition, effect of sunlight on release of carbon dioxide from thawing permafrost, and understanding early life on Earth by studying stromatolites in Antarctica.
Wen, Yun; Looi, Chee-Kit; Chen, Wenli
While the affordances of face-to-face and online environments have been studied somewhat extensively, there is relatively less research on how technology-mediated learning takes place across multiple media in the networked classroom environment where face-to-face and online interactions are intertwined, especially in the context of language…
This definitive book presents the newest research linking graphic narratives and literacy learning, as well as the tools teachers will need to make comic book projects a success in their classrooms. The Comic Book Project (www.comicbookproject.org) is an internationally celebrated initiative where children plan, write, design, and publish original…
The Articulation of Formative Research and Classrooms Projects in the Language and Culture Class in an Undergraduate English Teaching Program (Articulación de Prácticas de Investigación Formativa con los Proyectos de Aula de las Clases de Lengua y Cultura Anglófona en un Programa de Licenciatura en Lengua Extranjera)
Marroquín, Paula Ramírez
This article shows the results of a research project which searched to answer how to articulate formative research with classroom projects in an undergraduate English teaching program. To accomplish the purpose of this paper, the document will focus on the two specific objectives of this qualitative research: document revision, and knowing about…
Mehrak Rahimi; Fatemeh Hosseini Karkami
This study investigated the role of EFL teachers’ classroom discipline strategies in their teaching effectiveness and their students’ motivation and achievement in learning English as a foreign language. 1408 junior high-school students expressed their perceptions of the strategies their English teachers used (punishment, recognition/reward, discussion, involvement, and aggression) to discipline the classroom. The students evaluated their teachers’ teaching effectiveness by completing effecti...
Over the past decades, Chinese students have employed various methods with a large amount of time and enormous ef-forts on learning English. However, the result is still far from satisfaction. Therefore, how to learn English more effectively in the classroom has become a major concern not only for students, but also for teachers and linguists. This paper consists of two sec-tions, and each section has the same three topics, exploring the second language learning issues according to the literature review and my personal English learning context in China. Hopefully, it can help Chinese students and teachers to have a better under-standing of some common issues related to the second language learning.
Smirnov, A. V.; Bluth, G.; Engel, E.; Kurpier, K.; Foucher, M. S.; Anderson, K. L.
We present our work in progress from an NSF CAREER project that aims to integrate paleomagnetic research and secondary school physics education. The research project is aimed at quantifying the strength and geometry of the Precambrian geomagnetic field. Investigation of the geomagnetic field behavior is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of field generation, and the development of the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere, and can serve as a focus for connecting high-level Earth science research with a standard physics curriculum. High school science teachers have participated in each summer field and research component of the project, gaining field and laboratory research experience, sets of rock and mineral samples, and classroom-tested laboratory magnetism activities for secondary school physics and earth science courses. We report on three field seasons of teacher field experiences and two years of classroom testing of paleomagnetic research materials merged into physics instruction on magnetism. Students were surveyed before and after dedicated instruction for both perceptions and attitude towards earth science in general, then more specifically on earth history and earth magnetism. Students were also surveyed before and after instruction on major earth system and magnetic concepts and processes, particularly as they relate to paleomagnetic research. Most students surveyed had a strongly positive viewpoint towards the study of Earth history and the importance of studying Earth Sciences in general, but were significantly less drawn towards more specific topics such as mineralogy and magnetism. Students demonstrated understanding of Earth model and the basics of magnetism, as well as the general timing of life, atmospheric development, and magnetic field development. However, detailed knowledge such as the magnetic dynamo, how the magnetic field has changed over time, and connections between earth magnetism and the development of an atmosphere remained largely
This paper argues for the influence of the distribution of instructional time on group cohesion in the foreign language classroom and postulates that concentrating classroom time enhances group cohesion. To test the hypothesis, a comparative classroom study of two groups of Spanish learners in their second year of learning, one following an…
Full Text Available The paper deals with classroom communication. More specifically, it focuses on issues connected with the usage of English as the target language and Czech as the mother tongue in lessons of English as a foreign language in primary and lowersecondary schools in the Czech Republic. 89 English lessons were analysed and the proportion between English and Czech used in the sample lessons was established in order to show how the two languages are mixed in the lessons. The analysis of the number of words uttered in the lessons showed that teachers used Czech more than English but students said more English words than Czech words. When operationalized in terms of time, the use of language was equally balanced between the target language and the mother tongue. Another perspective described in the paper is one of opportunities that the teacher creates for the students to practice different language skills. Great differences in using the mother tongue and the target language were found between individual teachers, which is in line with the findings of a number of similar research studies. Towards the end of the paper, five typical situations of mixing languages are briefly presented.
@@ Second language (L2), in a broad sense, is a language learned or acquired after the native language.The term has a narrow sense when it contrasts to the term"foreign language"(FL), in which second language"functions as a recognized means of communication among members who speak some other language as their mother tongue", and the foreign language"plays no major role in the community and is primarily learnt only in the classroom."Ignorance of the differences will result in confusion in the practice of language learning, teaching and research work.
This classroom action research study approaches the issue of reading skills based on the role of group work in the classroom. Group work is one of the major activities for generating ideas of any written piece of text. It facilitates EFL learners to read in social perspective, which makes their learning more diverse and informative. Classroom activities should reach learner’s needs and understanding and this action research is performed to make a change of classroom activities since we observ...
Rivard, Léonard P.; Gueye, Ndeye R.
Literacy in the Science Classroom Project was a three-year professional development (PD) program supporting minority-language secondary teachers' use of effective language-based instructional strategies for teaching science. Our primary objective was to determine how teacher beliefs and practices changed over time and how these were enacted in different classrooms. We also wanted to identify the challenges and enablers to implementing these literacy strategies and practices at the classroom, school, and district levels. Data collection involved both qualitative and quantitative methodologies: student questionnaires; interviews with teachers, principals, and mentor; and focus groups with students. The findings suggest that the program had an impact on beliefs and practices commensurate with the workshop participation of individual teachers. These language-enhanced teacher practices also had a positive impact on the use of talking, reading and writing by students in the science classroom. Finally, continuing PD support may be needed in certain jurisdictions for strengthening minority-language programs given the high teacher mobility in content-area classrooms evident in this study.
Hinckson, Erica; Salmon, Jo; Benden, Mark; Clemes, Stacey A; Sudholz, Bronwyn; Barber, Sally E; Aminian, Saeideh; Ridgers, Nicola D
Children spend between 50 and 70 % of their time sitting while at school. Independent of physical activity levels, prolonged sitting is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood. While there is mixed evidence of health associations among children and adolescents, public health guidelines in the USA, UK, Australia and Canada now recommend young people should break up long periods of sitting as frequently as possible. A potentially effective approach for reducing and breaking up sitting throughout the day is changing the classroom environment. This paper presents an overview of a relatively new area of research designed to reduce youth sitting time while at school by changing the classroom environment (n = 13 studies). Environmental changes included placement of height-adjustable or stand-biased standing desks/workstations with stools, chairs, exercise balls, bean bags or mats in the classroom. These 13 published studies suggest that irrespective of the approach, youth sitting time was reduced by between ~44 and 60 min/day and standing time was increased by between 18 and 55 min/day during classroom time at school. Other benefits include increased energy expenditure and the potential for improved management of students' behaviour in the classroom. However, few large trials have been conducted, and there remains little evidence regarding the impact on children's learning and academic achievement. Nevertheless, with an increasing demand placed on schools and teachers regarding students' learning outcomes, strategies that integrate moving throughout the school day and that potentially enhance the learning experience and future health outcomes for young people warrant further exploration. PMID:26626071
Ten Holt, G.A.; Arendsen, J.; De Ridder, H.; Van Doorn, A.J.; Reinders, M.J.T.; Hendriks, E.A.
Current automatic sign language recognition (ASLR) seldom uses perceptual knowledge about the recognition of sign language. Using such knowledge can improve ASLR because it can give an indication which elements or phases of a sign are important for its meaning. Also, the current generation of data-driven ASLR methods has shortcomings which may not be solvable without the use of knowledge on human sign language processing. Handling variation in the precise execution of signs is an example of s...
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS’ ENGLISH LISTENING PROFICIENCY AND INTEREST IN ENGLISH MOVIE: A LINK TO DETERMINE THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ENGLISH MOVIE AS A TEACHING MATERIAL IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSROOM
English movie has been proven to be an effective tool to improve English language learning process in classroom. However, very little empirical research has been carried out to determine students’ interest in this teaching material, especially in the view of the fact that high level of interest in a teaching and learning material aids motivation which is very essential for language learning. Two groups of students were selected for this study. The first group is a Masters of Art degree studen...
Full Text Available Growing attention is being given to young language learners (YLL, following a global trend to introduce foreign languages at earlier stages of the curriculum. This article provides an overview of some recent international YLL research and follows this up by comparing it to current YLL research in Norway. A YLL research network has recently been established in Norway in order to share and promote research in the field. Eight Norwegian YLL research projects, involving both English and other foreign languages, are presented. The scope of this research in Norway is compared with international research being conducted in the field. Although the Norwegian YLL research is active in certain areas, such as starting age of second foreign languages, teachers’ practices and attitudes, the use of extensive reading, vocabulary and the analysis of written texts, there appear to be gaps in other areas. These include research into the effects of story-telling and drama in the classroom, processes in writing, pupils’ cognitive skills, the use of textbooks and the effect of the curriculum. The establishment of a YLL network is considered as an important step in both consolidating current YLL research in Norway and initiating new research projects.
Guided by sociocultural theory and the theory of multiliteracies, learning is perceived as a shifting participation in practices, which is mediated by multiple physical and symbolic tools. Drawing on the situated multiliteracies approach, which integrates these two theories, the purpose of this ethnographic research is to examine the participation…
Alkhateeb, Haitham M
The present study assessed the relations between reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, and readers' self-perception for a sample of Arab-American students in Arabic classes. The effects of sex, grade, and years studying Arabic on academic achievement were examined as well. Measures were administered to 118 middle school students (56 boys, 62 girls; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.8), and teachers reported academic grades in Arabic. Reading anxiety was significantly correlated with classroom anxiety and reader self-perception. Classroom anxiety scores were significantly correlated with motivation and reader self-perception. Significant positive correlations were found between language motivation and reader self-perception scores, and between years studying Arabic and reader self-perception scores. Boys in the second year of Arabic had significantly lower classroom anxiety than girls, and students in Grade 7 had higher reader self-perception than those in Grade 8. Classroom anxiety, language motivation, and reader self-perception significantly predicted Arabic achievement. Pedagogical implications are discussed.
Croft, S. K.; Pompea, S. M.
Two recent trends in American science education are: the use of technology in the classroom, and the development of inquiry-based science curricula that model authentic scientific research in the classroom. Two products have been developed in recent years at the Center for Educational Technology to test the ability of multimedia to put effective research models into the classroom: Astronomy Village: Investigating the Universe (AV-IU), and Astronomy Village: Investigating the Solar System (AV-ISS). AVIU is designed for high school students and deals with topics mostly in stellar and galactic astronomy, while AVISS is designed for middle school students and deals with topics in astrobiology and planetary geology. The objective of both products is to engage students in scientific inquiry by having them acquire, explore, and analyze real scientific data and images drawn from real scientific problems. By doing "hands-on" activities both on and off-line, the students would gain an understanding of scientific concepts and how science works. The challenge is to guide students through an investigation using a stand-alone multimedia CD-ROM. The central device for guidance in both products is the "Research Path Diagram," a visual representation and interactive model of the scientific process. In the earlier AV-IU, the "path" was linear and each investigation was independent. In the later AV-ISS, the path is circular and investigations are linked, so that students can see how research activities are in a sense cyclical and build on one another. While even the AV-ISS version is still not a truly accurate representation of the sometimes tortuous path trod by the research scientist, both models provide a good framework for approximating real research in a multimedia environment. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.
This paper is a review literature on language anxiety. It begins with a discussion of the concepts of general anxiety and language anxiety, and then continues with an introduction of the techniques for identifying language anxiety. Subsequently, litera-ture on the relationships of language anxiety to learner variables and language learning/using are covered. Finally the dispute and theories concerning language anxiety are presented.
Ahmad Nasaruddin Sulaiman
Full Text Available The age of technology has enabled learners to interact with other users outside the four wallsof the classroom. Weblogs, in particular, provide a channel for asynchronous computermediatedcommunication to take place in the learning process. Motivation is one of thelearning aspects that is greatly enhanced by the use of technology. Questionnaires andobservations were carried out to 108 undergraduate engineering students taking ReadingCourse to determine the level of the learners’ motivation to participate in online discussionsand to find out whether interactions through the blog have in any way influenced the level ofmotivation to participate in face-to-face discussions. Findings indicate that students werehighly motivated to participate in discussions through the use of blog, and to use it as alearning tool. However, motivation to participate in class discussions was not affected by thetendency of learners to participate in discussion via the weblog.
Lo, Yuen Yi
In Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) classrooms where students' L2 proficiency has not reached the threshold level, teachers have been observed to use L1 to assist students in grasping specific technical terms and abstract concepts. It is argued to be a 'realistic' approach to the learning problems caused by students' limited L2…
Msimanga, Audrey; Lelliott, Anthony
This paper discusses the nature of learner engagement with science content during small group discussions in which learners use their home languages. We observed that learners reverted to their home languages in small group discussions, yet very little is known about the dynamics of learner engagement when they use their home languages in classroom discussions in South Africa and elsewhere. We analysed transcripts of discussions by three small groups in a Grade 10 Chemistry class. Contrary to teachers' fears that learners may not engage meaningfully with science content when talking in their home languages, all three groups spent over 90% of discussion time on task. Learners made and supported claims, challenged each others' ideas and questioned each others' thinking. Although the levels of critique varied between the groups, there was evidence of negotiation of understandings of the concepts. We argue that use of learners' home languages for engagement with difficult concepts may be a legitimate resource for science teachers to create opportunities for learner conceptual understanding. Further research is needed to understand the dynamics of teacher and learner use of their languages in science lessons, the best teaching strategies to achieve this, how teacher educators may model these strategies without undermining the need by both parents and learners' for English language proficiency to access social goods.
Ten Holt, G.A.; Arendsen, J.; De Ridder, H.; Van Doorn, A.J.; Reinders, M.J.T.; Hendriks, E.A.
Current automatic sign language recognition (ASLR) seldom uses perceptual knowledge about the recognition of sign language. Using such knowledge can improve ASLR because it can give an indication which elements or phases of a sign are important for its meaning. Also, the current generation of data-d
Full Text Available In the teaching of foreign languages, complex-clause syntax does not seem to have had an established role over the last 20 years, especially within the communicative approach and, of course, the CEFR. It was previously part of methods which stressed formal approaches to foreign languages and their being taught, but not of natural, acquisition-based methods. With the communicative approach, two important premises were introduced: authentic texts and grammar as a tool when necessary. This is one probable reason why explicit, complex-clause syntax is hardly mentioned in the CEFR, even though it is implicitly present in descriptors, even though it is particularly recognisable in those for writing skills, and even though we know that it can be used for all four skills, as well as to guide learners towards some self-directed learning about language features. To date, in the era of the communicative approach, not much is known about the role of complex-clause syntax in foreign/second language classrooms, in particular from the learners’ viewpoint. In order to bridge this research gap, the paper analyses a questionnaire among learners in secondary schools that looked at their perspectives regarding the (possible role of syntax. The examined aspects consider its role for the four skills, and the benefits of knowing syntax; implicitly, the paper touches on some affective factors and related methodological approaches, along with problems concerning the teaching of syntax. The findings are based on quantitative data; an evaluation of the need for complex-clause syntax is included, and some pedagogical implications are presented.
Full Text Available Relationships between the challenges of Basic Education, especially those related to contemporary school, and the research-linked educational challenges are investigated, based on theoretical reflections on the employment of research in the classroom as an educational principle. The arguments are foregrounded on the analysis of aspects associated to the genesis of education and school crises. Current paper focuses on the importance of the teachers’ reflective practice and on their constitution as researchers-teachers for the implementation of the language game provided by classroom research, taking into consideration Freire’s dialogue. It underlines the active teaching methodologies that try to bridge the communication gap between school cultures and children’s and young people’s cultures, linked to everyday life dilemmas and with experience-built knowledge.
Patry, J.; Walker, T.
High level research is mainly the focus of trained scientists who possess a science specific background. The Canadian Light Source outreach service has developed a two stage research immersion approach which brings together students, teachers, and renowned scientists: Students on the Beamline. The first stage offers a training session for teachers to develop their professional competencies in regards to authentic science research and the synchrotron facility. During the second stage, students from classrooms apply a research protocol of their own design with the help of their teacher and synchrotron scientists. During this presentation, we will first explain the professional approach of the training. In the second part, two experiments designed by students will be presented which are geophysically based so to speak: Study of the Meteoritic Melt Sheet of the Manicouagan Basin and Effects of Olivine on the capture of NOx. Results have shown that teachers bring in the classroom a more authentic and new experience in research application. As for the students, their unique research has contributed to the increase of our knowledge and a better understanding of the scientific inquiry process.Scientist and teacher working together on the synchrotron
Seimears, C. Matt
The purpose of this exploratory case study was to explore the middle school science classroom of a constructivist teacher and examine how constructivist-based teaching influences ELL students and their learning of science. The researcher's purpose was to discover patterns which emerged after close observations, careful documentation, and thoughtful analysis of the research topic. What was discovered by this exploratory case study was not sweeping generalizations but contextual findings. This case study was conducted in the spring of 2006. The researcher sought to answer the question, "How does constructivist teaching help middle school English Language Learners understand science?" Two variable clusters were examined: (1) the independent variable cluster of the constructivist teaching practices of the one selected teacher; and (2) the dependent variable cluster of the middle school English Language Learners understanding of the science concepts being taught. Four broad categories of data were collected: (1) observations of teaching and learning (including teaching plans and other teaching materials); (2) interviews related to teaching and learning; (3) inventories of teaching and learning; and (4) artifacts of learning. Steve Loos, an eighth grade middle school science teacher, is an expert constructivist-based teacher. His teaching influences English Language Learners understanding of the science concepts being taught. Steve's teaching influenced the English Language Learners through a variety of pedagogical strategies. The researcher concluded in this study that, "Constructivist teaching helps middle school English Language Learners understand science."
Dooly, Melinda; Masats, Dolors
This state-of-the-art review provides a critical overview of research publications in Spain in the last ten years in three areas of teaching and learning foreign languages (especially English): context and language integrated learning (CLIL), young language learners (YLL), and technology-enhanced language learning (TELL). These three domains have…
Lo, Margaret Muann
In the context of social and economic globalisation, the nature and uses of literacy have been profoundly impacted by information technologies, giving rise to an increasing variety of multimodal, digitally mediated texts, practices and relationships called new literacies. This study explores how new literacies were taken up by teachers and students in English Language (English as a Second/Foreign Language) classrooms in Hong Kong primary schools. Set within a government funded project aimed a...
Gallagher, Fiona; Colohan, Gerry
This article describes a small in-class study which sought to explore the effectiveness (or not) of using the emerging bilingual skills of the students as a teaching and learning tool in a Geography through English CLIL classroom in Northern Italy. In particular, the study sought to examine whether and to what extent the use of codeswitching / translanguaging between the native language and the language of instruction during content-related tasks might prove a useful technique for highlighti...
Yore, Larry D.; Bisanz, Gay L.; Hand, Brian M.
This review, written to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the International Journal of Science Education, revealed a period of changes in the theoretical views of the language arts, the perceived roles of language in science education, and the research approaches used to investigate oral and written language in science, science teaching, and learning. The early years were dominated by behavioralist and logico-mathematical interpretations of human learning and by reductionist research approaches, while the later years reflected an applied cognitive science and constructivist interpretations of learning and a wider array of research approaches that recognizes the holistic nature of teaching and learning. The early years focus on coding oral language into categories reflecting source of speech, functional purpose, level of question and response, reading research focused on the readability of textbooks using formulae and the reader's decoding skills, and writing research was not well documented since the advocates for writing in service of learning were grass roots practitioners and many science teachers were using writing as an evaluation technique. The advent of applied cognitive science and the constructivist perspectives ushered in interactive-constructive models of discourse, reading and writing that more clearly revealed the role of language in science and in science teaching and learning. A review of recent research revealed that the quantity and quality of oral interactions were low and unfocused in science classrooms; reading has expanded to consider comprehension strategies, metacognition, sources other than textbooks, and the design of inquiry environments for classrooms; and writing-to-learn science has focused on sequential writing tasks requiring transformation of ideas to enhance science learning. Several promising trends and future research directions flow from the synthesis of this 25-year period of examining the literacy component of science literacy
The flipped, or inverted, classroom has gained popularity in a variety of fields and at a variety of educational levels, from K-12 through higher education. This paper describes the author's positive experience flipping a graduate qualitative research methods classroom. After a review of the current literature on flipped classrooms in higher…
This paper begins with a brief introduction to Task-Based Language Teaching(TBLT).The Task-Based Language Teaching(TBLA) has gained popularity in the field of language teaching since the last decade of the 20th century.This paper mainly il ustrates the definition,importance and approaches of Task-Based Language Teaching(TBLA).
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper proposes the implementation of reading-based classroom activitiesÂ for teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia. Compared to other language skills, reading is viewed to provide a relatively stable foundation for Indonesian students to develop their communicative competenceÂ in English. It is argued that reading-focused activities stimulate confidence for Indonesian learners to get involved in listening, speaking, and writing related-activities in ways that are similar to normal daily lifeÂ communication. The reasons for the proposed implementation of reading-based classroom activitiesÂ in TEFLINÂ and the role of reading and its relation with other language skills are presented.
Short, Deborah J.; Echevarria, Jana; Richards-Tutor, Catherine
This article describes an extended program of research in sheltered instruction and the effects on the academic literacy development of English language learners. It also highlights the challenges of scaling up an instructional intervention. The intervention was the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model, an approach that teaches…
Writing is a predictor of academic achievement and is essential for student success in content area learning. Despite its importance, many students, including English language learners (ELLs), struggle with writing. There is thus a need to study students' writing experience in content area classrooms. Informed by systemic functional linguistics, this study examined 11 ELL students' writing experience in two sixth grade science classrooms in a southeastern state of the United States, including what they wrote, how they wrote, and why they wrote in the way they did. The written products produced by these students over one semester were collected. Also collected were teacher interviews, field notes from classroom observations, and classroom artifacts. Student writing samples were first categorized into extended and nonextended writing categories, and each extended essay was then analyzed with respect to its schematic structure and grammatical features. Teacher interviews and classroom observation notes were analyzed thematically to identify teacher expectations, beliefs, and practices regarding writing instruction for ELLs. It was found that the sixth-grade ELLs engaged in mostly non-extended writing in the science classroom, with extended writing (defined as writing a paragraph or longer) constituting roughly 11% of all writing assignments. Linguistic analysis of extended writing shows that the students (a) conveyed information through nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbial groups and prepositional phrases; (b) constructed interpersonal context through choices of mood, modality, and verb tense; and (c) structured text through thematic choices and conjunctions. The appropriateness of these lexicogrammatical choices for particular writing tasks was related to the students' English language proficiency levels. The linguistic analysis also uncovered several grammatical problems in the students' writing, including a limited range of word choices, inappropriate use of mood
This article reports on the findings of a study conducted to investigate teachers' and students' perceptions of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom and to find out differences of perceptions according to some variables such as gender, level of English proficiency, hours of weekly IWB use,…
Thayer, Kelly Keener
This study explored secondary English Language Arts teachers' experiences using digital technologies in their classrooms, as presented in two key journals in the English Education field: the "Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy" ("JAAL"), sponsored by the International Reading Association, and "English…
Swain, Merrill; Johnson, Robert Keith
Analyzes how Canadian immersion education has developed from its origins to the present in terms of a cycle guided by the interplay between theory and classroom practice of second- language acquisition. Johnson responds by questioning the extent to which bilingual education theory and practices are universal or context specific. (38 references)…
Commander, Millie; de Guerrero, María C. M.
This paper describes shadow-reading, a pedagogical technique aimed at fostering reading comprehension and retention in second (L2) or foreign language (FL) classrooms. The technique is an adaptation of "conversational shadowing," a procedure which requires listeners to repeat what their interlocutors say in an attempt to remember the…
Compton, Lily K. L.
Past studies have identified the impact of situational and enduring variables on second language (L2) learners' willingness to communicate (WTC) in the L2. This qualitative study triangulates data from two classroom observations, semi-structured interviews with four students and class instructor, and personal experiences including communication…
Ziegler, Gudrun; Sert, Olcay; Durus, Natalia
This paper investigates the use of multilingual resources by plurilingual participants in two English language classrooms in Luxembourg. Using Conversation Analysis and drawing on transcriptions of video-recordings, we present three examples of student use of multilingual resources and their respective teacher next turn management (through…
Mokkonen, Alicia Copp
This article investigates how two young newcomers navigate an institutional policy of "English only" in a Finnish primary school and how this policy impacts opportunities for voice. From a discourse analytic and sociolinguistic perspective, the analysis takes an ethnographic path to a focal event of language conflict in the classroom. The analysis…
Lai, Chun; Yeung, Yuk; Hu, Jingjing
Helping students to become autonomous learners, who actively utilize technologies for learning outside the classroom, is important for successful language learning. Teachers, as significant social agents who shape students' intellectual and social experiences, have a critical role to play. This study examined students' and teachers' perceptions of…
Since exploration of thoughts, feelings, attitudes, opinions, and beliefs about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is crucial to teenagers' ability to develop healthy attitudes and behaviors, and since the language arts classroom is a natural arena for such exploration, this sourcebook presents ideas on how to bring this kind of discussion…
Adult education ESOL teachers usually know a lot about learners' lives inside the classroom, but they are less aware of learners' lives outside that space. This article focuses on learner talk about "Ingles Sin Barreras," a heavily advertised English-language program for Spanish-speakers who want to learn English. I analyzed learner talk along…
Gudu, Benter Oseno
There is a general public concern in Kenya that majority of Form Four school leavers lack communicative and linguistic competence and thus cannot sustain conversation in English language without occasionally code switching to "Sheng" or Kiswahili. This study sought to find out the classroom activities used by teachers to promote…
Full Text Available This state of the art review aims at discussing the potential relevance of Finno-Ugric languages in the larger context of second language research. Key results received in the studies conducted in the field of Finno-Ugric languages as second languages are introduced, and some interim conclusions based on them are made. The main areas in focus are cross-linguistic influence, forms and constructions, second language interaction, and motivation, identities and integration. Furthermore, some future lines of investigation are suggested for the researchers of the field. The research activities are recommended to get more closely bound to the internationally established or emerging paradigms, and research activities involving several Finno-Ugric languages are strongly encouraged. To promote international co-operation, some existing gaps or obvious needs for research are pointed out, and preliminary research initiatives are made. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/LV22.14
Teacher talk and teacher-student classroom interaction have always been the central issue among the various classroom researches. Teacher talk is undoubtedly important in EFL (English as a foreign language) classroom in China. This paper attempts to discuss the features of teacher talk in EFL classroom, mainly of NNS (non-native speaker) teachers and the implications and suggestions of how to make teacher talk more appropriate and stimulative.
Naqvi, Rahat; Thorne, Keoma J; Pfitscher, Christina M; Nordstokke, David W; McKeough, Anne
Research has determined that dual language books have a positive effect on literacy achievement, motivation, and family involvement in children’s schooling. In this study we used quantitative methods to complement the largely qualitative extant research. We analyzed the early literacy skills of 105 kindergarten children (45 comparison, 60…
Carla Mayumi Meneghini
Full Text Available Este artigo trata do processo de conscientização desenvolvido pelos alunos em uma sala de aula de espanhol como língua estrangeira de um Centro de Estudos de Línguas do interior do Estado de São Paulo. Considerou-se como arcabouço teórico a pedagogia freireana (FREIRE, 1980, 1984, 1987, 1999, 2000 além de autoras que tiveram como referencial teórico Paulo Freire e relacionaram sua pedagogia ao ensino de línguas estrangeiras (WALLERSTEIN, 1983; SCHLEPPEGRELL, 1997. É uma pesquisa de natureza qualitativa, que focalizou uma prática de pesquisa-ação em uma sala de aula de espanhol, na qual se implementou um planejamento freireano, para verificar como se dava o uso da língua-alvo na sala de aula (MENEGHINI, 2001. Com a análise e a discussão dos dados, realizadas por meio da triangulação desses dados, considerando-se como dados primários as interações em sala de aula, constata-se que as tarefas problematizadoras são o meio para o desenvolvimento da conscientização por parte dos alunos sobre a realidade que os cerca.This article discusses the awareness process of students in a Spanish as a foreign language classroom, at a Centre of Language Studies in a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The frame of reference is Paulo Freire’s pedagogy (FREIRE, 1980, 1984, 1987, 1999, 2000, Wallerstein (1983 and Schleppegrell (1997’s investigations which are important to the comprehension of the relation between Freirean’s pedagogy and the language teaching. This is a qualitative research and it focuses on action research practice in a Spanish language classroom, in which a syllabus based on Paulo Freire’s pedagogy was implemented in order to verify how the target language was used in the classroom (MENEGHINI, 2001. Data analysis and discussion are based on data triangulation and classroom interactions are taken on primary data. The implementation of this research suggests that the problem posing tasks on themes chosen from the
Matsuda, Paul Kei; Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Harklau, Linda; Hyland, Ken; Warschauer, Mark
This article is based on an invited colloqium on second language (L) writing presented at the 200 meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics. The colloquium featured five second language writing researchers two discussed some of the important currents that have shaped the field of second language writing. (Author/VWL)
White, Benjamin; , Fei, Fei; Russell, Marthe
The Second Language Studies (SLS) Program was established in 2005 with the express purpose of providing "a firm foundation in the field of Second Language Acquisition and its application to current second language research and teaching" (http://sls.msu.edu). Under the leadership of Professor Susan Gass, the program has grown to include 12 core…
This is an account of how one class of English language learners compared and contrasted their language learning experiences with English language teaching (ELT) research findings during a five-week Intensive Academic Preparation course at an Australian university. It takes as its starting point the fact that learners, unlike teachers and…
Oh, Phil Seok
Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a
The present article provides a critical review of Randi Reppen’s impressing book Using Corpora in the Language Class⁃room. It’s argued that Randi Reppen’s book, despite a few slight flaws, has a strong practical orientation and is a laudable effort to make English language teachers to realize the importance and practicality of bringing corpora into classroom in digital age. The book is particularly worthy of reading for those language teachers (especially beginner teachers) who want to breathe new life into their English teaching.
Elaine Teixeira da Silva
Full Text Available This article aims to describe the possibilities provided by the use of new digital Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, aided by Web 2.0, on Spanish teaching both inside and outside classroom. We analyzed the social network Facebook because it has a large number of users who spend a significant amount of time on the site chatting with friends, posting comments, liking photos and profiles and participating in groups. This social network also provides teaching tools that will help students to develop their autonomy to (re learn how to think. It is shown that Facebook presents EaD characteristics and therefore can be considered an additional tool on language teaching and education.
N. Besnier; S.U. Philips
Ethnographic approaches to language and gender emphasize the complex yet richly textured relationship between linguistic practices observed in their naturalistic form and their social, cultural, and political context. The relationship between language and gender became the object of ethnographically
CHRISTINE C.M.GOH; LIMEI ZHANG
Listening and reading are two receptive skills in language learning and language use . Although their modalities differ , listening and reading share a number of cognitive processes required for language comprehension this has resulted in some commonalities in research emphases for the two skills . One such focus is the role of metacognition in self-regulated learning and comprehension performance . In this article theory postulated for metacognition and its manifestation in listening and reading are discussed . The article also reviews selected studies conducted in two important dimensions of metacognition , namely metacognitive knowledge and strategy use , and the impact that metacognitive instruction has on listening and reading comprehension performance . Results from the review for each skill are synthesised and compared in order to draw insights into the processes of learning to listen and read in another language . Based on this comparative review , the authors offer suggestions for enhancing process-based instructional practices in the language classroom and identify possible directions for future research into the role of metacognition in listening and reading specifically as well as second language comprehension as a whole .
Nguyen, Thi Nhat Minh
As an emerging movement, due to the influence of business globalisation, there is rarely any job offers without requirements in knowledge of foreign languages nowadays. Hence, foreign language education get lots of attention in order to improve, especially in education institute. The author, through years of studying foreign language at JAMK, has noticed the current JAMK language education’s situation. With major in Facility Management programme background, she hoped to enhance language learn...
Dellenback, Steven W.; Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.
A final report is given on research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center (MCC). The Specification Driven Language research is described. The state of the image processing field and how image processing techniques could be applied toward automating the generation of the language known as COmputation Development Environment (CODE or Comp Builder) are discussed. Also described is the development of a flight certified compiler for Comps.
Bambang Yudi Cahyono
The major aim of this article is to review studies of second language writing. The first part deals mainly with the process of writing in the second and first languages. The second part concerns contrastive rhetoric. In this second part, the findings of research studies on the relationship of first and second language rhetoric will be presented. Included in the discussion are research studies on contrastive rhetoric in the Indonesian context. The last section of this article concludes the dis...
Previous research into willingness to communicate (WTC) in L2 has focused primarily on its trait dispositions that remain stable across contexts and its situated nature is under explored. Framed with an ecological perspective on second language learning, this multiple case study investigated the dynamic and situated nature of WTC in second…
This paper describes a project that aimed to leverage the students' interest and experience of technology and multimodal environments to develop their academic writing skills and second language learning. Students were expected to follow a model, research a topic, and craft a digital video tutorial on an aspect of academic writing which would…
Empirical research into the use of digital games for educational purposes has shown promising results such as increased learner motivation, improved learner retention of information, and increased learner interest in subject matter. Furthermore, in the field of language learning, digital games have been used successfully in a variety of ways such…
Kohler, Karen L.
This action research study explored first and second grade classroom teachers' knowledge of oral language development and interventions for students at-risk of an oral language delay. This was accomplished through collaboration between a speech-language pathologist and classroom teachers. The data was aligned with assessments, the Response to…
Zagal, Jose P.; Tomuro, Noriko; Shepitsen, Andriy
Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science and linguistics devoted to creating computer systems that use human (natural) language as input and/or output. The authors propose that NLP can also be used for game studies research. In this article, the authors provide an overview of NLP and describe some research possibilities…
In this article, a survey of current psycholinguistic techniques relevant to second language acquisition (SLA) research is presented. I summarize many of the available methods and discuss their use with particular reference to two critical questions in current SLA research: (1) What does a learner's current knowledge of the second language (L2)…
There is currently a substantial body of research on second language (L2) learning and this body of knowledge is constantly growing. There are also many attempts in most teacher education programs around the world to inform practicing and prospective L2 teachers about second language acquisition (SLA) research and its findings. However, an…
This paper reviews developments in qualitative research in language teaching since the year 2000, focusing on its contributions to the field and identifying issues that emerge. Its aims are to identify those areas in language teaching where qualitative research has the greatest potential and indicate what needs to be done to further improve the…
Wyatt, Mark; Pasamar Márquez, Carmen
Adopting an "exploratory action research" design and drawing primarily on a reflective journal and interviews, this study recounts the process of supporting first-year Applied Languages students (learning French, German and Spanish) as they started to engage in language research. Certain challenges they faced in engaging with the…
This article argues that Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) is an appropriate theoretical and methodological framework for researchers in English interested in the social contexts of culture and its relationship with the formation of mind and activity in the English classroom. Two key concepts in Vygotsky's thought central to understanding…
Full Text Available This research paper tends to focus on comparison and contrast between first and second language learning. It investigates the different factors that have inhibiting influences on the language learning process of the learners in the two different environments. There are many factors involved in this respect. The age factor is one of the vital factors that influence the progress of learners in the language learning process. The other factor between first and second language learning, which mostly influences the performance of second language learners, is language input in terms of the quantity and quality in both cases of the limitations of the second language learning in classroom. This research study also studies the language input in both cases and limitations of second language learning in classroom. The present research also investigates the individual differences between first and second language learning, covering aptitude of the language learner, motivation of teacher and classmates, language anxiety and language ego. This research paper suggests that motivation of the teacher and other class fellows, aptitude of learner and teacher’s instructions and teaching methodology as well as classroom setting may help the second language learners to overcome their language anxiety and language ego in the classroom.Keywords: First language learning, Second language Learning, Age Factor, Individual Differences, Language Input, Language Anxiety and Language Ego
Henderson, S.; Walker, C. E.; Geary, E.; Pompea, S. M.
Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the traditional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. GLOBE at Night is a new event within The GLOBE Program that provides a mechanism for a nontraditional learning activity involving teachers, students, and their families taking observations of the night sky around the world and reporting their observations via a central data base for analysis. To support activities centered on authentic research experiences such as GLOBE at Night, The GLOBE Program has changed its approach to professional development (PD). The new focus of GLOBE PD efforts is centered on teachers being able to facilitate student research in and out of the classroom reflective of authentic scientific research experiences. It has been recognized that there is a critical need for effective teacher professional development programs that support teacher involvement in meaningful scientific research that encourages partnerships between scientists, teachers, and students. Partnerships promoting scientific research for K-12 audiences provides the foundation for The GLOBE Program, an international inquiry-based program designed to engage teachers with their students in partnership with research scientists to better understand the environment at local, regional, and global scales. GLOBE is an ongoing international science and education program that unites students, teachers, and scientists in the study of the Earth System. Students participating in GLOBE engage in hands-on activities, including the collection, analysis, and sharing of research quality scientific data with their peers around the world. Students interact with members of the science community who use the data collected from locations around the world in their research - data that would often not be available otherwise. As of September 2005, over 30,000 teachers representing over 16,000 schools worldwide have
Naiyer Azam Hashmi
Full Text Available It is very interesting to see how Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL has attracted many Arab students in learning English as a foreign language in the institutions of higher learning. It has great impact on their academic lives especially on teaching-learning process inside the classrooms. As a response to the students’ attraction in call, computer technologies have been brought into classrooms where they are considered to be effective in enhancing students learning and addressing certain education problems. The institutions of higher learning in Saudi Arabia, their students and faculty members have decided to try their best to utilize computer and other related technologies in their EFL classrooms for their fruitful teaching and learning outcomes. Thus, computers have taken centre stage and play an important role when it comes to language instruction in Saudi Arabia.Keywords: CALL, Computer technologies, Foreign Language, Institutions of Higher-learning, Impact, Classrooms, Teaching, Learning, Issue
Kvet, Edward J.
No significant difference was found in sixth-grade reading, language, and mathematics achievement between students who were excused from regular classroom activities for the study of instrumental music and students not studying instrumental music. (Author/RM)
The current political debates in England highlight the role of language in citizenship, social exclusion, and discrimination. Similar debates can also be found around the world. Correspondingly, research addressing different language communities is burgeoning. Service providers and academics are increasingly employing bilingual community researchers or interpreters to carry out research. However, there is very little written about the effect of working with bilingual researchers. What it mean...
Stevenson, Alma R.
This qualitative research study examines how Latino/a bilingual students use their linguistic resources in their homeroom classroom and in the science laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school district located in the southwestern part of the United States. The school was chosen based on the criterion that the school is located in an area considered economically depressed, with a predominantly Latino student, school, and neighborhood population. The object of study was a fifth grade bilingual (Spanish/English) classroom where English was the means of instruction. Classroom interaction was examined from a sociolinguistics perspective. The study was descriptive in nature with the objective of analyzing the students' use of their linguistic resources while participating in science learning. The results of this study suggest that the students used their linguistic resources purposefully in order to facilitate their participation in science leaning. In the same manner, it was observed the students' reliance on Spanish as a foundation to enhance their comprehension of the scientific concepts and the dynamics involved in the science lessons, with the purpose of making sense, and thus, to express their understanding (orally and in writing) using their linguistic resources, especially their English language, as it was expected from them. Further, the findings disclose the students' awareness of their own bilingualism, preference for speaking Spanish, and their conceptualization of English as the language to achieve academic success. It has also been observed how the pressure put upon the teacher and the students by the accountability system brings about an implicit bias against Spanish, causing the teacher to assume a paradoxical stance regarding the students' use of Spanish, and thereby, placing the students in an ambivalent position, that might affect, to a certain extent, how students use their Spanish language as a resource to
Quintero Corzo Josefina
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翻转课堂兴起至今已有不少研究成果，分析已有研究成果，发现研究重点主要集中在翻转课堂教学模式研究、翻转课堂应用研究和翻转课堂相关研究上。现有研究具有一定的价值，但也存在一些不足，未来研究应深化翻转课堂的理论研究，加强对基础教育阶段翻转课堂的应用研究，进行必要的翻转课堂实证研究。%There have been a lot of research results since flipped classroom appeared. The research results focus on teaching mode of flipped classroom, applied research of flipped classroom and related research of lfipped classroom. The research results of lfipped classroom have a certain value, and some disadvantages exist. We should deepen the theoretical study of lfipped classroom, strengthen applied research of lfipped classroom in Basic education, and do the necessary empirical research of lfipped classroom.
Full Text Available There is a significant difference in most language instruction programs concerning the number of hours students spend practicing reading/writing skills versus listening/speaking skills. The primary cause for this is most likely due to the lack of class time that can be feasibly spent on meaningful conversation exchanges. Thus, the most logical answer is to have students practice outside the classroom. However, the transition from in-class learning to out-of-class practice is often not a very successful one. To address this deficiency and present possible options for creating successful learning environments beyond the classroom, this literature review offers an in-depth analysis of the role that guided learning plays in providing learning experiences for students beyond the classroom.
Bernard, Jean S
In the flipped classroom (FC) students view pre-recorded lectures or complete pre-class assignments to learn foundational concepts. Class time involves problem-solving and application activities that cultivate higher-level cognitive skills. A systematic, analytical literature review was conducted to explore the FC's current state of the science within higher education. Examination of this model's definition and measures of student performance, student and faculty perceptions revealed an ill-defined educational approach. Few studies confirmed FC effectiveness; many lacked rigorous design, randomized samples, or control of extraneous variables. Few researchers conducted longitudinal studies to determine sufficiently trends related to FC practice. This study proves relevant to nurse educators transitioning from traditional teaching paradigms to learner-centered models, and provides insight from faculty teaching across disciplines around the world. It reveals pertinent findings and identifies current knowledge gaps that call for further inquiry.
Kramsch, Claire J.
Research on communicative processes in classroom second language use is reviewed, and exercises for developing interactive skills and culturally appropriate conversational behavior are suggested. The inability of students to actively participate in the second language classroom is related less to deficient knowledge of form than to inability to…
Full Text Available Cette contribution, qui relève de la didactique des langues, s’appuie sur l’analyse des interactions verbales et de la communication en classe de langue. Elle repose sur la capacité de l’image à susciter des productions verbales. La photographie d’auteur est ici considérée comme un déclencheur d’interactions orales permettant de communiquer. Nous avons mis en œuvre une tâche dans des cours de français langue étrangère en contexte pluriculturel à Paris avec des apprenants de niveaux A1 à B2. Le projet mené en groupe consiste à commenter des photographies d’auteur sans objectifs langagiers prédéterminés. L’analyse d’une séquence recueillie devant la photographie Rue Mouffetard d’H. Cartier-Bresson révèle l’importance de la communication entre les apprenants. La photographie suscite des enjeux communicatifs qui favorisent l’implication des étudiants. Ces derniers prennent position sur l’image et sont amenés à confronter leurs points de vue avec leurs pairs. Les apprenants peuvent également avoir recours à l’humour et modifier leur rôle conversationnel habituel.The article, in the field of foreign language classroom research, deals with verbal interaction analysis. It is based on the capacity of images to trigger verbal expression. Photography is here considered as a means to induce oral interaction, thus enabling students to communicate. We have implemented a task in a “French as a foreign language” classroom in a multicultural context in Paris, learners’ levels ranging from A1 to B2. In this group project, students were invited to comment on artistic and documentary photographs. We had no predetermined language objectives. The analysis of interactions triggered by the photograph Rue Mouffetard by H. Cartier-Bresson highlights learners’ interactions. The photograph creates communicative needs and induces students to get involved in the activity. They express their views on the image
Exploring Intercultural Awareness in the Primary Modern Language Classroom: The Potential of the New Model of European Language Portfolio Developed by the Irish Modern Languages in Primary Schools Initiative (MLPSI)
Rantz, Frederique; Horan, Pascaline
This paper reflects a key concern for teacher trainers: how can primary language teachers promote the development of intercultural awareness among their pupils? It addresses the concept of intercultural awareness as it applies to young learners and refers more specifically to the context of the Irish primary classroom and its curriculum. It argues…
Music teacher, in addition to constantly improve the level of operations, and serious study materials, also must pay attention to language training, accuracy, artistic, educational pursuit of classroom language teaching, so as to achieve ideal teaching effect.%音乐教师，除了不断提高业务水平和认真钻研教材以外，还必须注重语言修养，追求课堂语言教学的准确性、艺术性、教育性，从而达到理想的教学效果。
Rammala, Mogale J.R.
LRDCs are national structures created by the National Language Service of the Department of Arts and Culture (DAC), to undertake research and development for each of the nine official African languages in the country. The overriding aim is to effectively develop the official indigenous languages to ensure their public usage in important fields such as law, commerce, science, politics and education among others. The centres form the backbone of the institutional infrastructure required for the...
Michailovsky, Boyd; Mazaudon, Martine; Michaud, Alexis; Guillaume, Séverine; François, Alexandre; Adamou, Evangelia
The Pangloss Collection is a language archive developed since 1994 at the Langues et Civilisations à Tradition Orale (LACITO) research group of the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). It contributes to the documentation and study of the world's languages by providing free access to documents of connected, spontaneous speech, mostly in endangered or under-resourced languages, recorded in their cultural context and transcribed in consultation with native speakers. The Co...
Meng Yew Tee; Moses Samuel; Norjoharuddeen Bin Mohd Nor; Shanthi Nadarajan
Little continues to be known about what actually happens in classrooms, particularly from a national perspective. Descriptions of classroom practices from a national vantage point can provide a bird's eye view of salient patterns and variations within an education system, especially one as centralised as that of Malaysia. With these descriptions, especially if the primary data consists of video recordings, one can also begin to compare movements in classroom practices across time and space; t...
Burns, Anne; Freeman, Donald; Edwards, Emily
The overarching project of the conceptual and empirical contributions in this special issue is to redraw boundaries for language teacher cognition research. Our aim in this final article is to complement the foregoing collection of articles by conceptualizing ontologically and methodologically past and current trajectories in language teacher…
The context of this article was that, after researching issues of classroom management for a number of years, I was asked by managers at different institutions to speak to their staff about strategies for helping to counteract the problems tutors faced in many classes on a day-to-day basis. The question that emerged was how might managers in the…
Examines theoretical views of language use, learning, and teaching that underlie the work on tasks. Two broad and disparate views are identified: the psycholinguistic perspective and a perspective based on sociocultural theory. (Author/VWL)