Sample records for language classroom research

  1. Second Language Classroom Research. ERIC Digest.

    Nunan, David

    The purpose of second (or foreign) language classroom research is to answer important questions about the learning and teaching of foreign languages. This kind of research collects data from genuine language classrooms or from experimental settings sometimes established to replicate what takes place in the classroom. Classroom research can focus…

  2. Second Language Acquisition Research in the Language Classroom.

    Nunan, David

    The state of second language acquisition research, particularly that which is classroom-oriented, is examined in a review of 50 empirical investigations undertaken over the last 25 years. The studies were analyzed according to the following dimensions: the environment in which the data were collected (classroom, naturalistic, simulated classroom,…

  3. Research in the Language Classroom: State of the Art


    New trends in language teaching have resulted in a move towards research in the language classroom. A brief overview of classroom research reveals three distinct but inter-related research paradigms: classroom-centered research, classroom process research, and qualitative research, respectively.

  4. Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom. Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom.

    Madeleine Youmans


    Full Text Available The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field. The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field.

  5. Taking Strategies to the Foreign Language Classroom: Where Are We Now in Theory and Research?

    Manchon, Rosa M.


    One of the main claims of the research on language learner strategies is that the ultimate aim of the empirical work conducted in this area is to develop knowledge that can be useful in improving language learning and teaching in second and foreign language classrooms. Yet, attempts at making strategy instruction a central component of instructed…

  6. Youth Participatory Action Research in World Language Classrooms

    Bocci, Melissa Cochrane


    Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) requires students to use language in myriad ways as they define a problem, design and conduct an original research project, disseminate their findings, and take change-seeking actions in their community. YPAR embeds language development in community-centered and cross-disciplinary work and empowers youth…

  7. Methods in Second Language Classroom-Oriented Research: A Critical Review.

    Nunan, David


    Analysis of 50 empirical classroom-oriented investigations of second-language learning concludes that there is a need for more contextualized research; extended theoretical bases of research; an extended range of research tools, techniques, and methods; reevaluation of the distinctions between process- and product-oriented research; and more…

  8. Rasch Measurement in Language Research: Creating the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Inventory

    Miranda J. Walker


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to construct a new scale for measuring foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA. It begun with the creation of an extended item pool generated by qualitative methods. Subsequent Rasch and semantic analyses led to the final 18-item Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Inventory (FLCAI. In comparison with the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS, the FLCAI demonstrated more convincing evidence of unidimensionality and the optimal 5-point Likert scale functioned better. The FLCAI, while 55% the length of the FLCAS, thus more practical for classroom practitioners to administer and analyse, maintains its psychometric properties and covers a wider range on the construct continuum thus improving the degree of validity of the instrument. Finally, test anxiety was shown to be a component of FLCA.

  9. Thinking Allowed: Integrating Process and Genre into the Second Language Writing Classroom: Research into Practice

    Racelis, Juval V.; Matsuda, Paul Kei


    The field of second language (L2) writing has moved beyond the false dichotomies between process- and genre-based pedagogies perpetuated in the 1980s and 1990s, but there has still been little research on how the two are actually reconciled in the classroom. Consequently, L2 writing instructors are left with an incomplete picture, unsure how to…

  10. Creating a Low-Anxiety Classroom Environment: What Does Language Anxiety Research Suggest?

    Young, Dolly Jesusita


    Discussion of six potential sources of anxiety in the second language classroom, student manifestations of anxiety, and possible remedies covers such areas as personal and interpersonal anxieties, learner beliefs about language learning, instructor beliefs about language teaching, instructor-learner interactions, classroom procedures, and language…

  11. Analysing language classrooms through classroom interaction

    Müge Gündüz


    Full Text Available This research study focuses on teacher-student and student-student interaction, which are considered very important aspects of classroom life. There has been a growth of interest in the analysis of teacher language and interaction in language classrooms and many (e.g. Ellis, 1994; Tsui, 2001 believe that classroom interaction is one of the major variables affecting SLA in formal settings. This study aims to give some insight into classroom interaction and how this interaction shapes L2 learning and teaching in Turkey and England. Systematic classroom observation along with the field notes taken to record observations is the main research method in this study used to describe and examine interaction patterns and to measure learner production in secondary classes in Turkey and England. The participants are foreign language teachers and non-native speaking students. Over a month, more than 50 lessons were observed in the secondary schools in both Turkey and England at two levels (13-14 and 14-15 year age group. In Turkey, English classes were observed whereas in England, the observation was conducted in German and French classes. English is taught as a foreign language in Turkey; German and French are also taught as a foreign language in England. The findings of this research study are expected to provide a better understanding of instructional practices and procedures in L2 classrooms. The results of this research study, however, should be seen as suggestive rather than conclusive since they are derived from a relatively small sample.

  12. The transformative potential of action research and ICT in the Second Language (L2 classroom

    Farren Margaret


    Full Text Available This study shows the transformative potential of action research and information and communications technology (ICT in the second language (L2 classroom. Two enquiries from teacher-researchers are detailed in the article. Their engagement in a collaborative professional development Masters programme was pivotal in designing and implementing ICT creatively in their classroom. Gee (2008 advocates the use of the preferred media of our classroom students in order to address their learning. Prensky (2001 urges us to feel the fear and do it anyway with our digital native classes. A post-primary teacher and a primary teacher show us how they felt the fear, did it and transformed aspects of their own teaching in the process. The Masters programme required the teachers to engage with innovative practices, informed by their own values, and integrate technologies that were new to them into their repertoire of classroom strategies. Peer validation meetings with colleagues enabled meaningful insights to emerge from the research. The teachers improve and transform their second language (L2 practice in collaboration and validation with others.

  13. Guidelines for Language Classroom Instruction1(Ⅰ)

    Craig Chaudron; Graham Crookes


    @@ In"Guidelines for Language Classroom Instruction,"Crookes and Chaudron review research and practice in both second and foreign language contexts.The main areas of classroom instruction described are:presentational modes and focus on form,types of activities and parameters of tasks and interaction,classroom organization,teacher control of interaction,and corrective feedback.

  14. Bridging Classroom Language Ethnography



    PUBLISHED Paper #5: Bridging Classroom Language Ethnography, New Literacy Studies and Bourdieu?s Social Philosophy: Principles and Practice The purpose of this paper is to analyze and synthesize the various ways that classroom language ethnography, NLS, and Bourdieu?s social philosophy, were integrated. The goal of the analysis and synthesis is to provide a fresh perspective and fruitful insights on literacy in all its manifestations that provides the foundations for a more robust...

  15. English Classroom Language and Teaching Efficiency



    @@ Classroom language is an extremely important form of talk.In a foreign language classroom,the teacher has to organize language teaching by using the target language.Therefore,classroom language in foreign language teaching seems more important.

  16. Classroom Teachers and Classroom Research. JALT Applied Materials.

    Griffee, Dale T., Ed.; Nunan, David, Ed.

    This collection of papers leads classroom language teachers through the process of developing and completing a classroom research project. Arranged in four sections, they include: "Language Teaching and Research" (David Nunan); "Where Are We Now? Trends, Teachers, and Classroom Research" (Dale T. Griffee); "First Things First: Writing the Research…

  17. Classroom Discourse Analysis in Language Teaching



    This paper begins with a brief introduction of discourse analysis,and then it discusses two aspects of traditional classroom teaching discourse: the I-R-F sequence and turn-taking.The emphases of the paper lay on how language teachers can use classroom discourse analysis to do research and create learning environment,and how language learners can use it to achieve language proficiency and cultural competence.

  18. Fostering autonomy, generating motivation and shaping identities in the adolescent language classroom - an experimental research project

    Kelly, Mairin


    This study is concerned with the concepts of learner motivation, autonomy and identity in adolescent language learning. It investigates whether the use of intervention strategies influences adolescent learners’ autonomy and motivation in a language classroom setting. The intervention strategies in question are delegation of material and task selection to the student and promotion of self-evaluation. This study also reflects on the relationship between autonomy and motivation and the notion of...

  19. Foreign Language Classroom Discourse Analysis

    ZHANG Xiao-li


    This paper reviews some works done to classroom discourse analysis and summaries some peculiarities of foreign lan-guage classroom discourse. Some strategies are proposed for the teachers to activate students into communicative teaching activ-ities in classroom for the purpose of improving college English teaching and learning.



    This paper presents practical research on repair mechanismand its four repair trajectories in FL classroom interaction. Thisshows that it is effective and efficient in assisting FL learners todevelop their communicative competence and understand theprocess of language acquisition. Repair strategies that are ofgreat value to FL teachers in FL classroom teaching are also ex-pounded.

  1. Better Policies for Dual Language Learners: Bridging Research, Policy, Implementation, and Classroom Practice

    Williams, Conor P.


    On December 11, 2014, "New America" convened a group of leading experts on dual language learners (DLLs) to launch its new Dual Language Learners National Work Group. The group aimed to address three questions: (1) What are the key best practices for dual language learner instruction, policy, and research?; (2) What are the areas of…

  2. Exploring the Utility of Action Research to Investigate Second-Language Classrooms as Complex Systems

    Ahmadian, Mohammad Javad; Tavakoli, Mansoor


    Action research is geared to changes for the better and has the potential to assist teachers to extend their teaching skills and develop a deeper understanding of themselves, their classroom and their learners. However, in the area of applied linguistics, the viability of action research has been seriously questioned. In this article, we argue…


    Pegan, Tjaša


    The practical action research study in this diploma thesis, Meditation in the English Language Classroom, was performed as a mini-experiment which was initially set up to explore meditation and assess its potential and use in education. Regarding English as a foreign language, language learning combined visual and auditory information, and it was based on visual and verbal memory. One of the objectives in the theoretical part was to find a ‘universal formula’ which could help bring meditation...

  4. Preparing Palestinian Reflective English Language Teachers through Classroom Based Action Research

    Dajani, Majida "Mohammed Yousef "


    This study aimed to describe the implementation of individual action research projects among some forty English language teachers distributed in thirty Palestinian schools in Ramallah and Qabatya districts-Palestine. It aimed to analyze the outcomes of the teachers' action research as part of a broader participatory action research project that is…

  5. Constructivism in the Languages Classroom.

    Harbon, Lesley


    A language education professional examines the ways in which constructivism has been applied in the science classroom, and examines several well-known approaches to language teaching that contain elements of constructivism, including the direct method, Total Physical Response, and the Silent Way. Specific ways in which constructivist principles…

  6. A Probe into Classroom Teaching and Second Language Acquisition

    Li, Zhengdan


    Due to the popularization of foreign language study, more and more people from education field further enhance their exploration and researches in how to apply second acquisition theories into classroom teaching. This paper probes into the orientation, research objects, age, language environment and classroom activities of second language…

  7. Classroom interaction and language learning Classroom interaction and language learning

    Joan Kelly Hall


    Full Text Available Há muito tempo, a área de aprendizagem de uma segunda língua ou língua estrangeira interessa-se pelo papel que a interação possui no aprendizado de língua. Recentemente, pesquisas sobre interação e aprendizado de línguas estão se voltando para uma perspectiva sociocultural, que incorpora percepções teóricas e descobertas de disciplinas tradicionalmente consideradas fora dos limites da área. O objetivo deste trabalho é informar sobre as mais recentes pesquisas nessa área. Após fornecer uma breve visão geral da mais tradicional perspectiva da função da interação no aprendizado de línguas, estudos recentes sobre interação entre professor-aluno e sobre o aprendizado de segunda língua e língua estrangeira que utilizam uma perspectiva sociocultural são revisados. O artigo finaliza com uma discussão sobre implicações para ensino de língua em salas-de-aula e sugestões para pesquisas futuras. The field of second and foreign language learning has long been interested in the role that interaction plays in language learning. Recently, research on interaction and language learning has begun to move toward a sociocultural perspective, which incorporates theoretical insights and findings from disciplines traditionally considered outside the field’s main purview. The aim of this paper is to report on some of these most recent undertakings in the field. After first providing a brief overview of the more traditional perspective of the role of interaction in language learning, several recent studies on teacher-student interaction and second and foreign language learning that take a sociocultural perspective are reviewed. The article concludes with a discussion on implications for language classrooms and suggestions for future research.

  8. Inquiry-Based Projects in the Spanish Heritage Language Classroom: Connecting Culture and Community through Research

    Belpoliti, Flavia; Fairclough, Marta


    This study presents the development and implementation of inquiry-based cultural projects in a Spanish Heritage Language (SHL) Program. Four different inquiry-based curricula are described to illustrate how university students in an SHL program advance their knowledge of Spanish while carrying out research to understand Hispanic cultures. First-,…

  9. Psychology of Language Classroom Practice



    This paper is based on my personal observation and context, as well as some implications inspired trom theones, First, I shall give an evaluation of traditional language classroom practice I am familiar to. Second, relating to some implications in the theories of socialcultural psychology, I shall discuss some principled ways in which the classroom practices I have described and evaluated might be modified in order that we could enhance the effective opportunities for social and individual learning processes. I shall also provide my suggested structure of a lesson, in which some practices are implemented in this language classroom. Last but not the least, I shall give my reflection on how my own psychology of learning has been developed since I arrived at the university to begin my English teaching.

  10. Language Acquisition and the Second/Foreign Language Classroom. Anthology Series 28.

    Sadtono, Eugenius, Ed.

    A selection of papers on second language learning includes: "Second Language Acquisition Research in the Language Classroom" (David Nunan); "A Place for Second Language Acquisition in Teacher Development and in Teacher Education Programmes" (Rod Bolitho); "Dimensions in the Acquisition of Oral Language" (Martin Bygate, Don Porter); "The Learner's…

  11. Elementary Teachers' Perception of Language Issues in Science Classrooms

    Seah, Lay Hoon


    Although the importance of language in science learning has been widely recognized by researchers, there is limited research on how science teachers perceive the roles that language plays in science classrooms. As part of an intervention design project that aimed to enhance teachers' capacity to address the language demands of science, interview…

  12. Use of Native Language in Foreign Language Classroom



    <正>Throughout decades of foreign language(L2) teaching,a recurring issue has been the role of the first language(L1) in the classroom.A long-term and wide-ranging debate persists regarding practical and theoretical questions about the significance of the L1’ s obvious influence on the L2 being learned.Although many feel that the L1 should not be used in the classroom,other researchers, teachers,and learners do see a role for the L1 and support its use as a communication strategy and instructional tool.This article will look at the historical background of this topic,and describe how the L1 is currently being used in the L2 classroom,including in written translation activities.A specific explanation will also be given about the benefits of using translation for assessing reading comprehension.

  13. Researching the Classroom



    This paper explains how any teacher can do their own classroom research as a part of their normal teaching. In order to research the classroom,it reviews some teacher’s questions in the classroom.After introducing two ways of researching :research by thinking and research by experimenting ,the paper analyses the reasons and shows some methods to solve the problems. This will determine the shape of what is done in the classroom exactly.It’s helpful for the teachers to have lessons every day.

  14. Related Services Research for Students With Low-Incidence Disabilities: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists in Inclusive Classrooms.

    Giangreco, Michael F


    When speech-language pathologists provide educationally related services for students with lowincidence disabilities who are placed in inclusive classrooms, they are asked to work with a variety of other adults. The ways in which these adults make decisions about individualizing a student's educational program, determine related services, and coordinate their activities have an impact on educational outcomes for students as well as on interprofessional interactions. This article summarizes a team process for making related services decisions called VISTA (Vermont Interdependent Services Team Approach) and a series of nine research studies pertaining to the use and impact of VISTA. It also addresses related topics, such as team size, consumer perspectives, and paraprofessional supports. Five major implications from these studies are offered concerning (a) developing a disposition of being an ongoing learner, (b) developing a shared framework among team members,

  15. English in the Chinese foreign language classroom

    Wang, Danping


    Chinese is an ancient language, but the present scope of its global study is unprecedented. Comprehending the impacts of worldwide linguistic realities on 'Chinese as a Foreign Language' (CFL) teachers and students will be critical to its long-term success. The most important phenomenon has been the establishment of English as a lingua franca, especially in the expanding marketplaces of Asia. This book examines the role of English as a medium of instruction in CFL classrooms. It begins by integrating existing studies on the global spread of English with research on English as a medium of secon

  16. Opera in the Italian Language Classroom.

    Bruno, Salvatore


    Describes class activities for incorporating and teaching about opera into the Italian language instruction classroom, focusing on the enhancement of cultural knowledge and understanding that opera offers. (CB)

  17. A Classroom Research Project: The Psychological Effects of Standardized Testing on Young English Language Learners at Different Language Proficiency Levels.

    Rotenberg, Anna Markopoulos

    This study investigates whether the growing use of standardized testing methods may impact learners differently across language proficiency levels. Survey and language proficiency data from 22 second grade native (African American) and non-native (Hispanic and Vietnamese) English speakers were analyzed to examine whether worry, or test anxiety,…

  18. The Implementation of A Flipped Classroom in Foreign Language Teaching

    Ahmet BASAL


    Full Text Available Alongside the rise of educational technology, many teachers have been taking gradual but innovative steps to redesign their teaching methods. For example, in flipped learning or a flipped classroom, students watch instructional videos outside the classroom and do assignments or engage in activities inside the classroom. Language teachers are one group of educators exploring the flipped classroom. In foreign language classes, such an approach may offer great benefits for both the teachers and students since classroom time can be applied to more interactive tasks. By extending classroom hours in this way, language teachers can focus on successfully addressing all subjects in the curriculum. The aim of this study is (a to gain insights into the perceptions of prospective English language teachers at a state university in Turkey on flipped classrooms and (b to introduce the implementation of a flipped classroom into an English language class. A total of 47 prospective English teachers participated in the study. Qualitative research design was used and data were collected via an open-ended question. Findings of the study indicated that pre-service English teachers had positive perceptions towards the use of the flipped classroom as an integral part of face-to-face courses. It can be concluded that flipped classroom was beneficial in terms of 4 categories based on the content analysis of the responses: learning at one’s own pace, advance student preparation, overcoming the limitations of class time, increasing the participation in the classroom. The study also provides recommendations towards LMS integration into courses in other English language teaching departments and for implementing flipped classrooms in language teaching.

  19. Present Research on the Flipped Classroom and Potential Tools for the EFL Classroom

    Mehring, Jeff


    The flipped classroom can support the implementation of a communicative, student-centered learning environment in the English as a foreign language classroom. Unfortunately, there is little research which supports the incorporation of flipped learning in the English as a foreign language classroom. Numerous studies have focused on flipped learning…

  20. Identity Construction in Complex Second Language Classrooms

    Hirst, Elizabeth


    In this study of an Indonesian language class in Australia, I propose that students are agentive in adopting, rejecting and deploying discursive positions within the classroom. There are a range of identities made available in the classroom, only some of which are taken up and privileged within specific moments in the classroom. I apply the…



    Visuals are advantageous to language teaching and learning.Effective use of pictures in the lan-guage classroom contributes to stimulate the students’ imagination and creativity,enhance their basic lan-guage skills and heighten their communicative competence.This Paper will present some techniques andactivities with pictures for use in the language class.

  2. Getting Them Speaking: Classroom Social Factors and Foreign Language Anxiety

    Effiong, Okon


    This study, which focuses on foreign language anxiety (FLA) experienced by Japanese learners of English in four universities, explores causative agents by looking into the classroom. The research questions aim to explore how FLA is influenced by classroom social factors. The study adopted qualitative data collection procedures, and the field work…

  3. Review of Studies of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety

    QIN Ci-feng


    Anxiety is considered to be one of the key psychological variables as well as one of the important emotional factors that affect language learning. Taken into account that classroom is the main place in which Chinese college students learn English, it is of great significance to study students’language anxiety in the classroom environment. Based on the previous researches, this paper reviews the relevant studies in this area conducted at home and abroad.

  4. Sociolinguistics Inputs and English as Second Language Classrooms

    Onovughe, Ofodu Graceful


    Sociolinguistic inputs in language acquisition and use of English as Second Language in classrooms is the main focus of this study. A survey research design was adopted. The population consisted of all secondary school students in Akure Local Government of Ondo State, Nigeria. Two hundred and forty (240) students in senior secondary school classes…

  5. What Language Counts in Literature Discussion? Exploring Linguistic Mediation in an English Language Arts Classroom

    DeNicolo, Christina Passos


    As classrooms across the U.S. are becoming increasingly more multilingual and multicultural, there is a need for research that provides insight into literacy instruction that builds on students' linguistic knowledge. The qualitative study of a fourth-grade dual-language classroom examined the ways that peer mediation in Spanish and English…

  6. Second Language Writing in the Mainstream Classroom.

    Turner, Lyn

    The case study of a Bulgarian immigrant child's literacy education in English as a Second Language (ESL) is presented. Focus is on the boy's literacy development within the context of a mainstream kindergarten/first grade classroom in Australia. The report details the teacher's observations in the classroom and particularly in the child's writing…

  7. Causes of reticence: Engendering willingness to speak in language classrooms

    Mohammad Javad Riasati


    Full Text Available A common problem faced by many language teachers, both in EFL and ESL settings, is the students’ unwillingness to speak and participate in classroom activities. The present study delves into this issue by reviewing studies concerning this issue to figure out how different researchers have attempted to identify the causes of students’ reticence and lack of participation. The study aims to come up with some practical techniques and strategies teachers can employ in order to discover causes of reticence among language learners and thus make them more willing to speak in language classrooms.

  8. Language Learning Strategies and Strategic Teaching in the Foreign Language Classroom

    MA Jiang-tao


    The results of a great deal of research have suggested that language learning strategies can be taught and that instructing learning strategies and integrating them into regular instruction can greatly facilitate the learning of a second/foreign language. The aim of this article is to draw the readers’attention to strategic teaching that should be introduced in the foreign language classroom in order to meet the demands of contemporary language education. In particular, it points to the necessity that teachers should change their attitudes towards the roles they play in the classroom to become truly responsible for their learning.

  9. Language use in the EFL classroom : A literature review on the advantages and disadvantages of teachers’ choices of instructional language in the EFL classroom

    Weijnblad, Malin


    This literature review investigates what previous research has found regarding target language use in the Elementary EFL classroom, and what different views there might be on communicating in English during English lessons. The study is conducted with Stephen Krashen’s (1982) Second Language Acquisition Theory as theoretical perspective. Findings show that one important reason for target language use in the EFL classroom is increasing the target language exposure to provide opportunities for ...



    Ⅰ. Introduction Foreign language teachers in China nowadays are well aware that language learning cannot be separated from cultural learning. They start to deal with intercultural communication in the classroom and have undergone significant progress in the past two decades. A lot of excellent work has been done (see Hu Wenzhong 1990, 1997) on raising cultural awareness and pragmatic insights.

  11. Language of Peace in the Peaceful Classroom

    Stomfay-Stitz, Aline; Wheeler, Edyth


    For the past 30 years, peace educators have drawn attention to the vital role of language--the caring, creative words that describe and enhance peace. The language of peace has evolved through several stages of growth and complexity. It also offers a heritage of caring and acceptance for all children who enter through educators' classroom doors.…

  12. Second Language Assessment for Classroom Teachers

    Tran, Thu H.


    The vast majority of second language teachers feels confident about their instructional performance and does not usually have much difficulty with their teaching thanks to their professional training and accumulated classroom experience. Nonetheless, many second language teachers may not have received sufficient training in test development to…

  13. Using Technology in the Languages Classroom from the 20th to the 21st Century: A Literature Review of Classroom Practices and Fundamental Second Language Learning Theories

    Hess, Cherie


    In this paper, the literature related to the use of technology in the languages classroom will be explored. In relation to the teaching and learning methodologies and approaches past and present as well as current research, comparisons are made between the audio-lingual/visual classroom and the digital classroom by way of describing and comparing…

  14. The Changing Face of Language Learning: Learning beyond the Classroom

    Richards, Jack C.


    There are two important dimensions to successful second language learning: what goes on inside the classroom and what goes on outside of the classroom. While language teaching has always been seen as a preparation for out-of-class uses of language, much of the focus in language teaching in the past has typically been on classroom-based language…

  15. Sociocultural Theory on Interaction between Teachers and Learners in a Second Language Classroom

    YUAN Qin


    This article offers an overview of theoretical ideas and recent empirical research by referring to the interactive communi⁃cation between teachers and learners in a second language classroom. Both the interaction of teacher-centered classroom and learn⁃er-centered classroom are reviewed within the context of sociocultural theory. The paper attempts to indicate the better effect of language learning can be achieved by complementing one another in the classroom of teacher-centeredness and learner-centered⁃ness.

  16. Language Anxiety Caused by the Single Mode of Instruction in Multilingual Classrooms: The Case of African Language Learners

    Madonsela, S.


    The capacity to use language is unique from one individual to another. This could also depend on the individual's exposure to a language. This article aims to contribute to the growing area of research on language anxiety by exploring the extent to which language anxiety affects learners' performance in learning in multilingual classrooms,…

  17. Preparing teachers to create a mainstream science classroom conducive to the needs of English-language learners: A feminist action research project

    Buck, Gayle; Mast, Colette; Ehlers, Nancy; Franklin, Elizabeth


    A feminist action research team, which consisted of a science educator, an English-language learner (ELL) educator, a first-year science teacher, and a graduate assistant, set a goal to work together to explore the process a beginning teacher goes through to establish a classroom conducive to the needs of middle-level ELL learners. The guiding questions of the study were answered by gathering a wealth of data over the course of 5 months and taken from the classroom, planning sessions, and researchers and students. These data were collected by observations, semistructured interviews, and written document reviews. The progressive analysis ultimately revealed that: (a) successful strategies a beginning teacher must utilize for teaching middle-level ELL children in a mainstream classroom involve complex structural considerations that are not part of the teacher's preparation; (b) learning increases for all children, but there are differences in learning achievement between ELL and non-ELL children; and (c) student and peer feedback proved to be an effective means of enhancing the growth of a beginning teacher seeking to increase her skills in teaching ELL learners. The experiences and findings from this project have implications for teacher preparation programs committed to preparing educators to teach science to all children.

  18. The Use of First Language in the Second-Language Classroom: A Support for Second Language Acquisition

    Salmona Madriñan, Mara


    This action research project was carried out in order to identify the role of first language in the second-language classroom. This study was conducted in a Colombian international school with an English immersion program for kindergarten students attending their first year of school. The purpose of this study was to identify if the use of the…

  19. Literature in the Language Classroom

    Alan Maley


    @@ Introduction Literature in language teaching has a long pedigree.It was a fundamental part of foreign language teaching in the 'classical humanist'paradigm,where an understanding of the high culture and thought expressed through Literature took precedence over mere competence in using the language.



    Whole language, a relatively new approach emerged in theNorth America about more than thirty years ago, has becomeone of the two major philosophies (Phonics and WholeLanguage) in teaching and learning language. "The future ofwhole language is the future of education." (Goodman, 1992).Whole language is gaining its popularity all over the world andhas found its way into various language settings. It has also beenushered into the field of second language education. Whole lan-guage entails whole learners, whole teachers, whole texts, wholemethods, whole skills and whole environments. This paper at-tempts to introduce its definitions and explore its implications inteaching and learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Italso analyzes its limitations so that instructors, when imple-menting this approach in EFL classrooms, could make necessaryadaptations by taking into consideration the characteristics ofEFL learners, including their linguistic proficiency, sociocultur-al variables, and career orientations, and at the same time makesure that EFL classroom activities reflect wholeness of the majorcomponents underlying this approach.

  1. Role of Focus-on-Form Instruction, Corrective Feedback and Uptake in Second Language Classrooms: Some Insights from Recent Second Language Acquisition Research

    Afitska, Oksana


    A considerable number of studies on focus-on-form instruction, corrective feedback and uptake have been carried out in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the last two decades. These studies have investigated the above-mentioned concepts from different perspectives, in a number of different contexts and in a number of…

  2. EFL Teachers' Language Use for Classroom Discipline: A Look at Complex Interplay of Variables

    Kang, Dae-Min


    The issue of classroom management in the English as a foreign language (EFL) setting has not been addressed adequately despite teachers' views of it as constituting one of their prioritized tasks. Among the aspects of classroom management, in particular, classroom discipline seems to warrant research focus because it contributes to "smooth and…

  3. A Reconsideration of the Instructional Affordances of Classroom Monitoring in English Language Learning

    Towndrow, Phillip A.


    This article explores teachers' classroom monitoring in English language learning and asks if it has a role to play beyond what we know and recognize as mainstream classroom management. As part of a larger study of pedagogical practices in classrooms in Singapore, researchers collected and analyzed videographic data on the types and…

  4. Constructions of Language and Learner Identity in the Classroom: Confessions of a Failure

    Cruickshank, Ken


    Teachers and learners can hold differing ideas about language and goals for language learning which are then played out in classroom interactions. Constructions of what counts as language and learning impact on learner engagement and identity and the outcomes of language learning. This study analyses a researcher's account of the learning of…

  5. Humanism in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Shirkhani, Servat; Ardeshir, Danesh


    Humanistic principles emphasize the importance of the individual and specific human needs. Humanism in education has been in concern during the last few decades. However, there are controversies as whether to use its principles in foreign language classrooms or not. The present paper provides an overview of the major assumptions underlying…

  6. Questioning the Stability of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Motivation across Different Classroom Contexts

    Kim, Sung-Yeon


    This study examined whether foreign language learner anxiety and motivational goal orientations remained stable across two different classroom contexts: a reading course and a conversation course. The researcher measured anxiety and four types of motivational goal orientations by surveying 59 Korean college students learning English in both…

  7. Body Language in the Classroom

    Miller, Patrick W.


    Ralph Waldo Emerson and Mae West would seem to have little in common, but there is one thing they both understood--the importance of body language. Educators, psychologists, anthropologists and sociologists define body language or nonverbal communication as communication without words. It includes overt behaviors such as facial expressions, eye…

  8. Language Policing: Micro-Level Language Policy-in-Process in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Amir, Alia; Musk, Nigel


    This article examines what we call "micro-level language policy-in-process"--that is, how a target--language-only policy emerges "in situ" in the foreign language classroom. More precisely, we investigate the role of "language policing", the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or pupils to (re-)establish the…

  9. Naturalistic acquisition in an early language classroom.

    Dahl, Anne; Vulchanova, Mila D


    This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA) of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in two Norwegian elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed extensive use of English by the teacher during English classes, and also during morning meetings and for simple instructions and classroom management throughout the day. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to facilitate naturalistic acquisition through better quality target language exposure within a normal curriculum. The students' English vocabulary knowledge was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, version 4 (PPVT-IV, Dunn and Dunn, 2007a), at the beginning and the end of the first year of school. Findings are that (1) early-start second-language (L2) programs in school do not in themselves guarantee vocabulary development in the first year, (2) a focus on increased exposure to the L2 can lead to a significant increase in receptive vocabulary comprehension in the course of only 8 months, and (3) even with relatively modest input, learners in such an early-start L2 program can display vocabulary acquisition comparable in some respects to that of younger native children matched on vocabulary size. The overall conclusion is that naturalistic vocabulary acquisition is in fact possible in a classroom setting.

  10. Naturalistic acquisition in an early language classroom

    Anne eDahl


    Full Text Available This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in Norwegian two elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed extensive use of English by the teacher during English classes, and also during morning meetings and for simple instructions and classroom management throughout the day. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to facilitate naturalistic acquisition through better quality target language exposure within a normal curriculum. The students' English vocabulary knowledge was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, version 4 (PPVT-IV, Dunn & Dunn, 2007, at the beginning and the end of the first year of school. Findings are that 1 early-start second-language (L2 programs in school do not in themselves guarantee vocabulary development in the first year, 2 a focus on increased exposure to the L2 can lead to a significant increase in receptive vocabulary comprehension in the course of only eight months, and 3 even with relatively modest input, learners in such an early-start L2 program can display vocabulary acquisition comparable in some respects to that of younger native children matched on vocabulary size. The overall conclusion is that naturalistic vocabulary acquisition is in fact possible in a classroom setting.

  11. The Interactional Architecture of the Language Classroom

    Paul Seedhouse


    Full Text Available This article provides a summary of some of the key ideas of Seedhouse (2004. The study applies Conversation Analysis (CA methodology to an extensive and varied database of language lessons from around the world and attempts to answer the question ‘How is L2 classroom interaction organised?’ The main thesis is that there is a reflexive relationship between pedagogy and interaction in the L2 classroom. This means that there is a two-way, mutually dependent relationship. Furthermore, this relationship is the foundation of the organisation of interaction in L2 classrooms. The omnipresent and unique feature of the L2 classroom is this reflexive relationship between pedagogy and interaction. So whoever is taking part in L2 classroom interaction and whatever the particular activity during which the interactants are speaking the L2, they are always displaying to one another their analyses of the current state of the evolving relationship between pedagogy and interaction and acting on the basis of these analyses. So interaction in the L2 classroom is based on the relationship between pedagogy and interaction. Interactants are constantly analysing this relationship and displaying their analyses in their talk. An example of data analysis is provided, including discussion of socially distributed cognition and learning.

  12. A Classroom-based Research Project on the Use of Group Work in ESL Classroom



    This study focuses on the use of group work in the ESL classroom through the observation of four classes in the language centre of a British university. It is believed that most ESL classroom activities ask for the use of group work. Compared with lockstep teaching, pair or group work show more benefits in a language class. While some researchers argue that group work has a useful but somewhat restricted role in classroom second language acquisition The present study aims to illustrated both the positive impact and the shortage of group work through the analyses and discussion of the data collected.

  13. Attitude Towards Computers and Classroom Management of Language School Teachers

    Jalali, Sara; Panahzade, Vahid; Firouzmand, Ali


    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is the realization of computers in schools and universities which has potentially enhanced the language learning experience inside the classrooms. The integration of the technologies into the classroom demands that the teachers adopt a number of classroom management procedures to maintain a more…

  14. Language in Science Classrooms: An Analysis of Physics Teachers' Use of and Beliefs About Language

    Oyoo, Samuel Ouma


    The world over, secondary school science is viewed mainly as a practical subject. This may be one reason why effectiveness of teaching approaches in science education has often been judged on the kinds of practical activity with which teachers and students engage. In addition to practical work, language—often written (as in science texts) or oral (as in the form of teacher and student talk)—is unavoidable in effective teaching and learning of science. Generally however, the role of (instructional) language in quality of learning of school science has remained out of focus in science education research. This has been in spite of findings in empirical research on difficulties science students encounter with words of the instructional language used in science. The findings have suggested that use of (instructional) language in science texts and classrooms can be a major influence on the level of students' understandings and retention of science concepts. This article reports and discusses findings in an investigation of physics teachers' approaches to use of and their beliefs about classroom instructional language. Direct classroom observations of, interviews with, as well as content analyses of the participant teachers' verbatim classroom talk, were used as the methods of data collection. Evidence is presented of participant physics teachers' lack of explicit awareness of the difficulty, nature, and functional value of different categories of words in the instructional language. In conclusion, the implications of this lack of explicit awareness on the general education (initial and in-service) of school physics teachers are considered.

  15. Classroom Language Environment and Seniors' Oral English



    The current situation of English teaching cannot keep pace with the requirements of the Senior High School Standards (the Ministry of Education, 2003). Due to the influences of the traditional teaching method, some English teachers still insist on the teacher-centered teaching approaches. The result is that there is less target language (TL) input and TL output in class, and senior students are weak in their oral English. This paper attempts to discuss the importance of language environment in classroom and find some appropriate ways to improving seniors' oral English.

  16. Mind the Gap: How a Project in Alberta Attempted to Narrow the Gap between Classroom Teachers and Language Education Research

    Light, Justine; Gnida, Sara


    This article presents the development, rollout, and subsequent uptake of the Alberta Teachers of English as a Second Language (ATESL) document Best Practices for "Adult English as a Second Language (ESL)/Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) Programming" in the light of literature on teacher engagement with second-language…

  17. Research in Language Assessment

    Knoch, Ute


    Since its inception in 1990, the Language Testing Research Centre (LTRC) at the University of Melbourne has earned an international reputation for its work in the areas of language assessment and testing as well as program evaluation. The mission of the centre is: (1) to carry out and promote research and development in language testing; (2) to…

  18. Growing Language Awareness in the Classroom Garden

    Paugh, Patricia; Moran, Mary


    For four years, Pat Paugh, a university teacher educator, and Mary Moran, a teacher researcher, collaborated on action research by systematically studying literacy development connected to the latter's third-grade community gardening and urban farming curriculum. Their goal was to support an existing classroom culture that valued…

  19. The Relationship between Gender and Iranian EFL Learners’ Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA

    Fakhri Mesri


    Full Text Available Foreign language anxiety is widely used to describe the feeling of tension and apprehension, which is specifically associated with foreign language learning contexts, including listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA is related to foreign language anxiety and language-skill-specific anxiety, and fairly recently identified as distinguished from other forms of anxiety. FLCA is a more general type of anxiety in learning a foreign language with a strong speaking anxiety element; and low self-confidence is identified as an important component of its construct. Research shows that FLCA is a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon; it has many potential sources; and it interferes with the acquisition, retention, and production of a foreign language. It seems that in most of English classes in Iran little attention has been paid to the role of the gender on EFL learners' Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA. Hence, this study attempted to investigate the relationship between EFL learners’ Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA with regard to gender. The data were gathered through questionnaire: the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986.The participants were 52 students studying English at Salmas University. The findings revealed a significant relationship between FLCA and females. It was recommended that foreign language teachers should be aware of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA level, its causes and results. The study also offers some context-specific pedagogical implications for Iranian EFL teachers and practitioners.

  20. Research methods for English language teachers

    McDonough, Jo


    This book offers a lively introduction to the research methods and techniques available to English language teachers who wish to investigate aspects of their own practice. It covers qualitative and quantitative methodology and includes sections on observation, introspection, diary studies, experiments, interviews, questionnaires, numerical techniques and case study research. Each method is illustrated with examples in language teaching contexts, and techniques of data collection and analysis are introduced. The authors focus particularly on research in the classroom, on tests, materials, the

  1. Language teaching in the classroom from discourse perspective



    This essay tends to demonstrate the practical application of discourse analysis in language teaching. By exploring the rationale and evaluated the classroom activities, it is easy to see how discourse analysis works in language teaching.



    Anxiety plays a significant role in language learning. This article analyzes the negative effects of anxiety, explores its sources, and proposes a number of strategies for reducing learner anxiety in the language classroom.

  3. Mobile Sign Language Learning Outside the Classroom

    Weaver, Kimberly A.; Starner, Thad


    The majority of deaf children in the United States are born to hearing parents with limited prior exposure to American Sign Language (ASL). Our research involves creating and validating a mobile language tool called SMARTSign. The goal is to help hearing parents learn ASL in a way that fits seamlessly into their daily routine. (Contains 3 figures.)

  4. First Language and Target Language in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Littlewood, William; Yu, Baohua


    For many decades, foreign language teaching has been dominated by the principle that teachers should use only the target language (TL) and avoid using the mother tongue (L1) except as a last resort. However, reports show that teachers make extensive use of the L1. This paper illustrates this discrepancy and considers some main reasons for it. It…

  5. The Implementation of a Flipped Classroom in Foreign Language Teaching

    Basal, Ahmet


    Alongside the rise of educational technology, many teachers have been taking gradual but innovative steps to redesign their teaching methods. For example, in flipped learning or a flipped classroom, students watch instructional videos outside the classroom and do assignments or engage in activities inside the classroom. Language teachers are one…

  6. Strategy Training in a Task-Based Language Classroom

    Lai, Chun; Lin, Xiaolin


    Recent literature that examines the implementation of task-based language teaching (TBLT) in classroom settings has reported various challenges related to educational cultures, classroom management, teacher cognition and learner perceptions. To facilitate the smooth transition of TBLT from laboratory settings to classroom contexts, measures need…

  7. Methodology and Implications of Reconstruction and Automatic Processing of Natural Language of the Classroom.

    Marlin, Marjorie; Barron, Nancy

    This paper discusses in some detail the procedural areas of reconstruction and automatic processing used by the Classroom Interaction Project of the University of Missouri's Center for Research in Social Behavior in the analysis of classroom language. First discussed is the process of reconstruction, here defined as the "process of adding to…

  8. Multilingual classrooms as sites of negotiations of language and literacy

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Daugaard, Line Møller


    Chapter 4, by Daugaard and Laursen, examines a multilingual classroom in Denmark as a site of negotiations of language and literacy. Classrooms have never been homogeneous, in many senses, but in the present era of global fl ows and new forms of mobility the heterogeneous nature of classrooms...... is more prominent than ever. In this chapter, the classroom is characterized as a messy marketplace, in which language ideologies and identity options are maintained, contested and negotiated. The close examination of literacy practices in the classroom in focus in this chapter shows what transitional...

  9. Anxiety and Predictors of Performance in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Matsuda, Sae; Gobel, Peter


    This study is concerned with possible relationships between general foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA), foreign language reading anxiety (FLRA), gender, extended overseas experience, and classroom performance. Versions of previously published measurement scales (the FLCAS and the FLRAS) were administered to three different groups in nine…




    The Singapore Ministry of Education conducted a smallscale pilot study in Y2003 to find out how engaged learning was interpreted and translated into practice by teachers and the role of ICT in facilitating engaged learning. For this study, 6 teachers were involved, of which 2 were English language teachers. A case study methodology incorporating an intervention element was adopted. The analysis of the collected data, in the form of pre-lesson interview, lesson observations/videotaping and post-lesson interviews, surfaced teachers'understanding and implementation of engaged learning in the classroom context. This paper focuses on the 2 case studies in which one primary and secondary English language teachers were observed for the way they designed and implemented ICT-based English lessons to promote engaged learning. Although the insights generated by the 2 case studies are legitimate in their own instances, they may be used to sensitize those involved in professional development to five interdependent factors that influence the way ICT may be used to promote engaged learning in the EL classroom.

  11. Bodies and Language: Process Drama and Intercultural Language Learning in a Beginner Language Classroom

    Rothwell, Julia


    In this article the author draws on classroom video recordings and student commentary to explore ways in which the kinaesthetic elements of a process drama provided the context and the space for beginner additional language learners to engage with intercultural language learning. In the light of student comments in interviews and questionnaires,…

  12. Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety among Iraqi Students and its Relation With Gender and Achievement

    Taha Talib Ali; Wong Fook Fei


    Language anxiety is always seen as debilitative factor that deters learners from successfully learning a foreign language. Although many studies have been reported on foreign language learners’ anxieties, little research, if any, has been undertaken on Iraqi postgraduate EFL learners. The objective of the present study is threefold: a) to investigate the factors contributing to foreign language classroom anxiety among Iraqi postgraduate EFL students, b) to investigate the difference between b...

  13. A Review of Classroom Interaction in Second Language Acquisition



    Interest in classroom interaction has grown steadily both at home and abroad since the 1940s. From the second language acquisition perspective, classroom interaction has the Input Hypothesis, the Interaction Hypothesis and the Output Hypothesis as theory foundation. As to the current state of college English classroom interaction in China, it is still far from satisfaction. Teachers, students and the society should make their efforts to produce more effective classroom interaction.

  14. Students and Teachers’ Reasons for Using the First Language Within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico

    Mora Pablo Irasema; Lengeling M. Martha; Rubio Zenil Buenaventura; Crawford Troy; Goodwin Douglas


    The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the teaching and ...

  15. Understanding L2 French Teaching Strategies in a Non-Target Language Classroom Context

    Sun, Peijian; Yuan, Rui; Teng, Lin


    This research explored the congruence and disparity between teachers' and students' attitudes towards French as a second language (L2) teaching strategies in a non-target language classroom context in the USA. The findings suggest students' and teachers' attitudes towards the direct and indirect teaching strategies were generally consistent, but…

  16. A Look into the Local Pedagogy of an English Language Classroom in Nepal

    Tin, Tan Bee


    English language teaching (ELT) currently occurring in diverse social settings points to the need to locate ELT in its social context. Many researchers have highlighted the need to explore local vernacular practices, in particular ELT practices in peripheral contexts. The present study investigates events in an English language classroom at a…

  17. Feeling the Difference in the Languages Classroom: Explorations of Teacher Understanding of Diversity

    Adams, Helga; Nicolson, Margaret


    In this article, the authors examine the fourth stage of their research into diversity in the languages classroom, focusing specifically on the teacher perspective in planning for and managing diversity in adult student groups. The article discusses findings from a day with experienced Open University language teachers working together on lesson…

  18. Using Songs to Enhance Language Learning and Skills in the Cypriot Primary EFL Classroom

    Diakou, Maria


    Although the role of songs in the primary EFL classroom has attracted the interest of a number of researchers (Newham 1995; McMullen and Saffran 2004; Millington 2011), given the frequency with which songs are being used in English language teaching classrooms, it might have been expected that Cyprus would wish to play a role in extending research findings and applying them to its own educational setting. Yet the lack of research with young learners is particularly acute in the Cypriot Primar...

  19. English Language Classroom Practices: Bangladeshi Primary School Children's Perceptions

    Shrestha, Prithvi Narayan


    English language teaching (ELT) has been investigated from various angles including how English language teachers perceive what happens in an ELT classroom. How primary school English language learners perceive their experiences of ELT is rarely reported in the published literature, particularly from developing countries such as Bangladesh. This…

  20. Facebook Groups as a Supporting Tool for Language Classrooms

    Ekoc, Arzu


    This paper attempts to present a review of Facebook group pages as an educational tool for language learning. One of the primary needs of foreign language learners is to gain the opportunity to use the target language outside the classroom practice. Social media communication provides occasions for learners to receive input and produce output…

  1. Looking Backward and Forward at Classroom-Based Language Assessment

    Stoynoff, Stephen


    In the past few decades, approaches to language assessment and perspectives on learning have changed. This article highlights those developments with the greatest significance for teachers and classroom-based language assessment, including the emergence of new perspectives on the nature of language ability and learning, use of an expanded array of…

  2. Multilingual classrooms, language and literacy learners: Global childhoods

    Christensen, Mette Vedsgaard; Daugaard, Line Møller; Cox, Robyn


    Globalisation processes have resulted in a complex diversification in the group of young language learners in classrooms throughout the world. From Denmark to Australia, learners from multilingual and multiliterate backgrounds are part of everyday life in the classroom, and these global childhoods...... this practice. The children were asked to consider the role of their mulitingualism in their daily classroom experiences. The second paper, based on a linguistic ethnographic case study in Denmark, explores language ideological aspects of global childhoods as they are negotiated in and around ’mother tongue...... on language proficiency were collected, and the paper focuses on how these quantitative data contribute to the understanding of global childhoods....

  3. Language Teaching and Research.

    Nunan, David

    A discussion of the relationship between language teaching and research begins by defining research as a systematic process of inquiry in which the researcher poses a question or questions, collects relevant data, analyzes and interprets it, and makes the results accessible to others. It looks at the simplistic but persistent distinction between…

  4. Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning

    Laura Miccoli


    Full Text Available Este trabalho compara as experiências de sala de aula (ESA de duas universitárias na aprendizagem de língua inglesa. As ESA emergiram de entrevistas individuais, onde vídeos das aulas promoveram a reflexão. A análise revelou que experiências de natureza cognitiva, social ou afetiva influem diretamente no processo de aprendizagem e as que se referem ao contexto, à história, crenças e metas dos alunos influem indiretamente no mesmo. A singularidade de algumas experiências levou à sua categorização como ESA individuais (ESAI. Ao comparar as ESAI de duas informantes, a importância da análise sociocultural do processo de aprendizagem de sala de aula fica evidente. Concluiremos com uma defesa do valor da teoria sociocultural no estudo da aprendizagem de língua estrangeira em sala de aula e com a apresentação das implicações deste estudo para pesquisadores e professores. This paper compares the classroom experiences (CEs of two university students in their process of learning English as a foreign language (EFL. The CEs emerged from individual interviews, where classroom videos promoted reflection. The analysis revealed that cognitive, social and affective experiences directly influence the learning process and that those which refer to setting, learner’s personal background, beliefs and goal influence the learning process indirectly. The analysis also revealed the singularity of some of these CEs that led to their categorization as individual CEs (ICEs. When comparing the ICEs of the two participants, the importance of a sociocultural analysis of the classroom learning process becomes evident. We conclude with an analysis of the value of sociocultural theory in the study of classroom EFL learning and with the implications of this study for teachers and researchers.

  5. Teaching for Transfer: Insights from Theory and Practices in Primary-Level French-Second-Language Classrooms

    Thomas, Reed; Mady, Callie


    This paper illustrates teaching for transfer across languages by synthesizing key insights from theory and previously published research alongside our case study data from primary-level teachers in core French-second-language (CF) classrooms in Ontario, Canada. Drawing on research that redefines language transfer as a resource, this study drew on…

  6. Can Language Classrooms Take the Multilingual Turn?

    Paquet-Gauthier, Myriam; Beaulieu, Suzie


    For the past three decades, momentum has gathered in favour of a multilingual turn in second language acquisition research and teaching. "Multicompetence" has been proposed to replace "nativeness" and "monolingualism" to measure L2 learners' success. This proposed shift has not made its way into L2 teaching settings.…

  7. Developing Language Skills in Science Classrooms

    Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Gomez, Conrado Laborin


    Science teachers need specific strategies to develop writing skills along with science content. Fortunately, research has demonstrated that science-teaching methodology can accomplish both the teaching of science content and various language skills, including writing. A technique suitable for and utilized by science teachers is the "mode…

  8. Related Services Research for Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists in Inclusive Classrooms.

    Giangreco, Michael F.


    This article summarizes a team process for making related services decisions called VISTA (Vermont Interdependent Services Team Approach) and nine research studies on the use and impact of VISTA with students with low incidence disabilities. It also addresses team size, consumer perspectives, and paraprofessional supports. Five major conclusions…

  9. Language Classroom Risk-Taking Behavior in a Performed Culture-Based Program

    Stephen D. Luft


    Full Text Available While several studies have investigated the role of risk-taking in language learning, the findings of these studies may not be generalizable to language learning where the performed culture approach (PCA is used. This study describes the relationship between language learning and risk-taking in PCA, and the relationship between risk-taking and personal study habits, teaching style, daily grading, and classroom dynamics. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire. This study finds that risk-taking behavior has a moderate positive relationship with student performance in PCA. While questionnaire items related to teaching style and classroom dynamics are not found to significantly correlate with students’ risk-taking behavior, some items related to daily grading and personal study habits are found to have a moderate positive relationship with risk-taking behavior. Based on these findings, it is recommended that further research investigate the relationship between assessment and risktaking in language learning. As second language acquisition researchers have investigated the role of affective variables in language learning, risk-taking has frequently been identified as a variable linked with success (Beebe, 1983; Ely, 1986; Naiman, Frolich, Stern, & Todesco, 1978; Rubin, 1975; Samimy & Pardin, 1994; Samimy & Tabuse, 1992. However, it is difficult to apply these findings to language classrooms that use the performed culture approach (PCA, an approach to the teaching of East Asian languages, for two reasons: (a PCA’s focus on the learning of a foreign culture could mean that greater risk is involved in 106 Luft language learning than in a typical language classroom; (b PCA creates a language learning experience for which the risks involved are different than those in language classrooms where other approaches are used.



    Introduction With the rapid growth in international communication, English is becoming more and more important. The urgent task for English teachers, is to apply knowledge gained from educational psychology research to make teaching more efficient. For this purpose, anxiety, an important psychological phenomenon in foreign language learning, is discussed in this article. First anxiety will be defined to build up a clear concept of its origin and its nature. Then its effect on foreign language learning will be analysed. A few suggestions for teachers will be presented at the end.

  11. French-Language Satellite TV in the Classroom.

    Rose, Russell G.


    This article describes the elements of satellite technology, provides information on French and other foreign-language programming, and offers suggestions for using satellite television in the classroom. (Author/JL)

  12. Anxiety over EFL speaking and writing: A view from language classrooms

    Christina Gkonou


    The assumption that foreign language learners experience a high level of anxiety mainly when faced with speaking activities implies that research should focus on those learners prone to anxiety over that skill. Despite not being widely investigated, foreign language writing anxiety also seems to be a concern for a large number of students. Drawing on questionnaire findings, the study reported in this article examined the nature of, and the connection between the English language classroom spe...

  13. A Comparative Study of Body Language in Classroom Teaching between China and America



    Many researches show that the relationship between teachers and students cell be improved if teachers make effective age of body language to communicate.Besides,students'cognitive ability and efficiency in learning will be promoted.Studies on body language are beneficial not only to our linguistic theory hut also to our classroom teaching and learning.And the Successful teaching is such teaching which not only pays attention to verbal communication but also not overlooks communicative function of body language.

  14. Group work in the English language curriculum sociocultural and ecological perspectives on second language classroom learning

    Chappell, Philip


    This book explores how using small groups in second language classrooms supports language learning. Chappell's experience as a language teacher equips him to present a clear, evidence-based argument for the powerful influence group work has upon the opportunities for learning, and how it should therefore be an integral part of language lessons.

  15. Teaching is Communicating: Nonverbal Language in the Classroom.

    Galloway, Charles M.

    Improving the act of teaching in a classroom implies the need to study nonverbal cues and events, for many classroom phenomena serve as communicators of information and tend to either facilitate or inhibit learning. Nonverbal language, a reflection of both cultural and individual differences, includes not only the teacher's facial expressions,…

  16. Harmonious Learning: Yoga in the English Language Classroom

    Morgan, Lisa


    This article looks at one way for teachers to make classrooms emotionally, mentally, and physically healthy places to learn--places where tensions and stresses are lessened and where teachers and students are concentrating, yet relaxed. "Harmonious language learning classroom" is the term the author coined to describe this kind of language…

  17. Classroom Management for Teachers of Japanese and Other Foreign Languages

    Horwitz, Elaine K.


    This article describes the classroom management component of the Professional Development of Japanese Teachers of Texas (PDJT), a certification program for teachers of Japanese. In addition, it offers suggestions in classroom management for teachers of Japanese and other foreign languages as well as guidance for teacher trainers to help new…

  18. Brief Analysis of Group Structure in the Language Classroom



    Group activities are commonly used in second language classroom in recent years mostly because they encourage stu⁃dents to work together, helping each other. However, it is of great importance for teachers to notice the group structures so that this class activity could play its important role in the classroom.

  19. Exploring Bilinguals' Social Use of Language inside and out of the Minority Language Classroom

    Thomas, Enlli Mon; Roberts, Dylan Bryn


    This paper examines bilingual children's use of language inside and out of the minority language classroom. A total of 145 children between 8 and 11 years of age, attending 16 bilingual Welsh-English primary schools in North Wales, responded to questionnaires (supplemented by classroom observations) requesting information about their language…

  20. Teachers' Uses of the Target and First Languages in Second and Foreign Language Classrooms.

    Turnball, Miles; Arnett, Katy


    Reviews recent theoretical and empirical literature regarding teachers' uses of the target (TL) and first languages (L1) in second and foreign language classrooms. Explores several issues related to teachers' use of the L1 and the TL in the classroom; exposure to TL input, student motivation, cognitive considerations, code switching, and…

  1. The Influence of Classroom Drama on English Learners' Academic Language Use during English Language Arts Lessons

    Anderson, Alida; Loughlin, Sandra M.


    Teacher and student academic discourse was examined in an urban arts-integrated school to better understand facilitation of students' English language learning. Participants' discourse was compared across English language arts (ELA) lessons with and without classroom drama in a third-grade classroom of English learning (EL) students (N = 18) with…

  2. Reflective Blogfolios in the Language Classroom: Impact on EFL Tertiary Students’ Argumentative Writing Skills and Ways of Knowing

    Ammar Abdullah Mahmoud Ismial


    The emerging paradigm shift in educational contexts from walled classroom environments to virtual, hybrid, blended, and lately personal learning environments has brought about vast changes in the foreign language classroom practices.  Numerous calls  for experimenting with new instructional treatments to enhance students' language performance in these new learning environments have been voiced by researchers and language educators in different settings. The current study aimed at investigatin...

  3. Research within Reach: Research-Guided Responses to the Concerns of Foreign Language Teachers.

    Altman, Howard B.; And Others

    Based on the questions of second language teachers concerning classroom practice, generated by mail survey in 1983, research on aspects of second language teaching and learning was reviewed and is summarized here. In each case, a question or questions are posed and a brief discussion follows, in layman's language and based on relevant research,…

  4. Examination of the Relationship Between Autonomy and English Achievement as Mediated by Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety.

    Ghorbandordinejad, Farhad; Ahmadabad, Roghayyeh Moradian


    This study investigated the relationship between autonomy and English language achievement among third-grade high school students as mediated by foreign language classroom anxiety in a city in the north-west of Iran. A sample of 400 students (187 males, and 213 females) was assessed for their levels of autonomy and foreign language anxiety using the Autonomy Questionnaire and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS), respectively. Participants' scores on their final English exam were also used as the measurement of their English achievement. The results of Pearson correlation revealed a strong correlation between learners' autonomy and their English achievement (r [Formula: see text] .406, n [Formula: see text] 400, [Formula: see text]). Also, foreign language classroom anxiety was found to be significantly and negatively correlated with English achievement (r [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text].472, n [Formula: see text] 400, [Formula: see text]). Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess the ability of autonomy to predict language learning achievement, after controlling for the influence of anxiety. In sum, the results of hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that foreign language classroom anxiety significantly mediates the relationship between autonomy and English language achievement. Implications for both teachers and learners, and suggestions for further research are provided.

  5. Climate Setting in Second-Language Classrooms.

    Evans-Harvey, Cher


    Discusses the creation of a positive classroom climate, examines four dimensions of classroom climate (physical, academic, organizational, and social-emotional), and reviews techniques that teachers can use to promote a positive classroom climate. Teachers need to get to know their students, discuss the course objectives with their students, and…

  6. The Organization of Second Language Classroom Repair.

    Jung, Euen Hyuk (Sarah)


    Explores classroom pedagogy through a focus on classroom interaction. Takes ideas from conversation analysis as a foundation and starts to unravel some of the structures used for classroom pedagogy. Uses the notion of repair, but takes it one step further by understanding repair to be a pedagogical tool used in the English-as-a-Second-Language…


    Yuyun Yulia


    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper critically describes the main challenges English language teachers face in teaching in Indonesia. The subjects of the research were students and English teachers in twelve randomly selected junior high schools in government and private schools in five districts in Yogyakarta Province. A survey schedule, interviews with English language teachers, focus group discussions with students and class observation were used to gather the data. The results show that students’ motivation is more of an instrumental motivation, due to the requirements of the mandated national examination though English now is a global language and the 2006 curriculum targets communicative competence. On the other hand, the data indicated that teachers found English difficult to use in class. The classroom instruction was conducted mostly in the low variety of Bahasa Indonesia and in Javanese. The teachers claimed that it was due to students’ low motivation; in fact, the students’ eagerness to listen to the teachers as the models of English language expressions was good. Teachers need to motivate students to learn English by improving their teaching techniques as well as their speaking competence in class to achieve student integrative motivation as English is valuable for them.

  8. Quality of Language and Literacy Instruction in Preschool Classrooms Serving At-Risk Pupils.

    Justice, Laura M; Mashburn, Andrew; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert


    Policy-makers, administrators, researchers, and teachers are increasingly vested in ensuring the quality of preschool instruction, particularly in the areas of language and literacy. This research was conducted to characterize the quality of language and literacy instruction in 135 publicly-funded preschool classrooms serving at-risk pupils. As all teachers in these classrooms were implementing the same language and literacy curriculum, we also studied the interrelationships among procedural fidelity to a prescribed curriculum and the quality of language and literacy instruction, determining whether procedural fidelity is associated or disassociated with quality instruction. Results showed that the quality of language and literacy instruction in classrooms was low, with few teachers delivering high quality instruction. Although teachers were able to implement a prescribed language and literacy curriculum with a high degree of procedural fidelity, this was not associated with quality instruction. Few structural characteristics of classrooms of teachers were systematically associated with quality of instruction. Findings have important implications for professional development of teachers by suggesting a need for a sustained and coherent focus on the process of instruction to elevate instructional quality in language and literacy.

  9. Gendered Teacher–Student Interactions in English Language Classrooms

    Jaleh Hassaskhah


    Full Text Available Being and becoming is the ultimate objective of any educational enterprise, including language teaching. However, research results indicate seemingly unjustified differences between how females and males are treated by EFL (English as a Foreign Language teachers. The overall aim of this study is to illustrate, analyze, and discuss aspects of gender bias and gender awareness in teacher–student interaction in the Iranian college context. To this end, teacher–student interactions of 20 English teachers and 500 students were investigated from the perspective of gender theory. The data were obtained via classroom observations, a seating chart and the audio-recording of all classroom interactions during the study. The findings, obtained from the quantitative descriptive statistics and chi-square methods, as well as the qualitative analysis by way of open and selective coding, uncovered that there were significant differences in the quantity and quality of the interaction for females and males in almost all categories of interaction. The study also revealed teachers’ perception of “gender,” the problems they associate with gender, and the attitudes they have to gender issues. Apparently, while positive incentives are able to facilitate learner growth, the presence of any negative barrier such as gender bias is likely to hinder development. This has implications for teachers, and faculty members who favor healthy and gender-neutral educational climate.

  10. Classroom Currency as a Means of Formative Feedback, Reflection, and Assessment in the World Language Classroom

    Bachelor, Jeremy W.; Bachelor, Robin Barnard


    This study examines the formative aspects of teaching in the World Language community college classroom: formative feedback, reflection, and assessment, and then recommends a new educational technique that applies the aforementioned formative elements into the classroom. To this end, in the fall semester of 2015, three sections of Spanish I at the…

  11. Authenticity in the Language Classroom and Beyond: Children and Adolescent Learners. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    Dantas-Whitney, Maria, Ed.; Rilling, Sarah, Ed.


    This volume in the TESOL Classroom Practice Series presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with children and adolescent language learners. These practices take into account the unique needs and characteristics of these age groups and reflect a wide range of educational contexts, goals, and challenges from classrooms in…

  12. Talk in the Second and Foreign Language Classroom:A Review of the Literature



    Classroom interaction has long been a rich site for scholarly research , as attested by the sizable body of literature surrounding classroom discourse . This paper reviews three frameworks currently informing studies of L 2 and FL classroom talk , with a focus on qualitative analyses of turn-by-turn talk between teachers and students , and amongst students themselves . Findings from studies working within ( 1 ) language socialization and sociocultural theory , ( 2 ) critical discourse analysis , and ( 3 ) conversation analysis are explored , along with the ways in which these frameworks complement and complicate one another . Finally , we briefly consider possible areas of further research and implications for teacher training .

  13. Phonetics and Technology in the Classroom: A Practical Approach to Using Speech Analysis Software in Second-Language Pronunciation Instruction

    Olsen, Daniel J.


    While speech analysis technology has become an integral part of phonetic research, and to some degree is used in language instruction at the most advanced levels, it appears to be mostly absent from the beginning levels of language instruction. In part, the lack of incorporation into the language classroom can be attributed to both the lack of…

  14. Culture in the Elementary School Foreign Language Classroom.

    Pesola, Carol Ann


    Explores ways in which elementary school foreign language programs can fully integrate cultural insights, skills, and understanding through an examination of instructional models and developmental factors in the teaching of culture, goal setting for teaching culture, and culture and curriculum in the foreign language classroom and in other areas.…

  15. Socialization to Academic Language in a Kindergarten Classroom

    Gallagher, Colleen


    Recognizing the importance of academic language for students' success in schools, this article reports on an investigation of how narrative-focused literacy events in the classroom provide opportunities for academic language socialization. Data were collected from one public elementary school in a major metropolitan area in the Mid-Atlantic region…

  16. Interactive Language Teaching in the Intensive English Classroom



    In the traditional intensive English classroom, the teacher plays the dominant role; he is the lecturer who is interested in presenting language items, the organizer of teaching and learning activities, and the assessor of learners' performance.Students are usually bench-bound listeners. They watch the teacher explaining language points and giving samples, take

  17. A Queer Learner's Identity Positioning in Second Language Classroom Discourse

    Nguyen, Hanhthi; Yang, Lajlim


    This case study examines the classroom participation of a Korean queer (transgender) learner of English as a second language at a language institute for international adult students in the United States. To understand the dynamics of this learner's participation, we focus on how she constructed gender identity and learner identity in interaction.…

  18. Language Ideologies in Practice: Repair and Classroom Discourse

    Razfar, Aria


    This article seeks to explore the practice of repair in classroom discourse from an ideological perspective of language and literacy. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in an urban high school with a predominant English Language Learner (ELL) population, this paper outlines the theoretical foundations of repair from a "conversation…

  19. Making Culture Happen in the English Language Classroom

    Yakup, Doganay; Ashirimbetova, Madina; Davis, Brent


    The issue of introducing the target culture into language classroom practice has long been an object of debates as well as the opinions of the learners towards it. Eventually, modern practitioners found a way of having the language learners acquainted with the target culture and introducing culture through culture-based textbook activities.…

  20. Researching Language and Neoliberalism

    Shin, Hyunjung; Park, Joseph Sung-Yul


    This special issue aims to develop a research agenda that brings language to the centre of our inquiry and critique of neoliberalism. Based on empirical case studies from across diverse contexts in Europe, North America, and East Asia, contributors to this special issue address two issues: (1) What can be said about the nature of neoliberalism…

  1. Action Research to Support Teachers' Classroom Materials Development

    Edwards, Emily; Burns, Anne


    Language teachers constantly create, adapt and evaluate classroom materials to develop new curricula and meet their learners' needs. It has long been argued (e.g. by Stenhouse, L. [1975]. "An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development." London: Heinemann) that teachers themselves, as opposed to managers or course book writers,…

  2. Recent Research on Language Maintenance.

    Garcia, MaryEllen


    Describes recent research on language maintenance to provide broad, worldwide coverage of different language contact situations. Surveys various countries in which research within ethnic and minority language communities illuminates language maintenance or shift, or revitalization, for that group. (Author/VWL)

  3. Classroom assessment of the use of compact language drills: a technique borrowed from foreign language teaching.

    White, A H; Tripoli, L J


    Many deaf children have great difficulty learning how to use irregular English verbs. This research study seeks to exemplify how a single-case, ABA design can be used by classroom teachers in making a determination about the usefulness of classroom teaching strategies, and in the case of this study, to explore the use of compact language drills (CLDs) as a technique for helping a deaf child improve his ability to use 4 irregular verbs. The CLDs were conducted 5-10 minutes each day for five weeks at the close of school. The drills engaged the child in immediate recall of simple sentences loaded with semantic/syntactic clues which signalled the need for a past, present or future irregular verb within the target sentence. The results suggest that CLDs, when used systematically, can significantly improve a child's ability to use irregular verbs correctly, both immediately following treatment, and across time.

  4. The Identity, Second Language, and the Classroom Dynamic: Participant Observation in a Beginning Korean as a Second Language Classroom

    Diamond, Joel S.


    The goal of this qualitative study was to explore the nexus between second language acquisition, identity, and the beginning second language classroom. Using a social constructionist framework, the study utilizes ethnographic methodology incorporating both narrative and autoethnographic elements. Specifically the author acted as a participant…

  5. Students' Language Learning Strategy Use and Achievement in the Korean as a Foreign Language Classroom

    Murray, Bokyung


    This study examined the relationship between student strategy use and the development of proficiency in a Korean as a Foreign Language classroom. A total of 66 English native speakers learning Korean as a Foreign Language were administered the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL), Version 5.1. Findings indicated a low positive…

  6. Investigating the Perceptions of Pakistani English Language Learners on Language Learning Anxiety in EFL Classroom

    Bhatti, Nasreen; Memon, Shumaila


    This quantitative study aims to investigate the perceptions of English Language Learners on Language learning Anxiety in EFL classroom. Participants of the study were 145 Intermediate level students of different public colleges of Hyderabad, Sindh who are learning English as a foreign language. The data was collected through the modified form of…

  7. The Relationship between Global Competence and Language Learning Motivation: An Empirical Study in Critical Language Classrooms

    Semaan, Gaby; Yamazaki, Kasumi


    This article examines the relationship between global competence and second language learning motivation in critical language classrooms. Data were collected from 137 participants who were studying critical languages (Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Persian) at two universities on the East and West Coasts of the United States, using a 30-item…

  8. Classroom noise and children learning in a second language

    Nelson, Peggy; Kohnert, Kathryn; Sabur, Sabina; Shaw, Daniel


    The presence of background noise affects children more negatively than adults. Understanding speech in noise is a skill that continues to develop well into a child's adolescent years. Childrens' experience with a specific language also may affect their ability to make sense of incoming speech. Research suggests that even for adults the presence of background noise negatively affects the ability to listen in a second language. Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of classroom noise on attention and speech perception in native Spanish-speaking second graders learning English as their second language (L2), as compared to English-only speaking peers (EO). In Study 1 we measured childrens' on-task behavior during instructional activities with and without soundfield amplification. In Study 2 we measured the effects of noise (+10 dB signal-to-noise ratio) using an experimental English word-recognition task. Findings indicate although there were no effects of amplification on on-task behavior, word-recognition performance declined significantly for both EO and L2 groups in the noise condition. In particular, the impact of the noise was disproportionately greater for the L2 group. Children learning in their L2 appear to be at a distinct disadvantage when listening in rooms with typical noise and reverberation.

  9. Accelerated learning techniques for the foreign language classroom

    W. Jane Bancroft


    Full Text Available Recently researchers and teachers have noticed that more and more students have trouble learning. The causes for poor student learning are many and varied. To remedy the situation, programmes have been implemented in many educational institutions to reduce stress and improve· concentration, and to accelerate learning. The author suggests accelerated learning techniques for the foreign language classroom. In die jongste tyd het navorsers en onderwysers opgemerk dat steeds meer studente probleme het met leer. Die oorsake hiervoor is menigvuldig en uiteenlopend van aard. In 'n poging om die situasie te verbeter, is daar met programme begin om spanning in die opvoedingsituasie te verminder, sowel as om konsentrasie te verbeter en die leerproses te versnel. Die skrywer bespreek enkele tegnieke vir versnelde leerprosesse in vreemdetaalonderrig.

  10. Pre-Service Teachers: An Analysis of Reading Instruction in High Needs Districts Dual Language Classrooms

    Michael Whitacre


    Full Text Available Pre-service teachers need opportunities to apply theory and connect to best practices as they teach in classroom settings be it, whole or small group. For many pre-service teachers often times their experience is limited to simply watching instruction or working with small groups of students (Pryor & Kuhn, 2004. The student teaching experience is a critical component of the teacher preparation program. Through the use of the English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI, and researcher observation the hope is that these will aid in bringing to light the instructional activities used by pre-service teachers during reading instruction with ELLs. This study explores how pre-service bilingual teachers connect theory into practice by examining their instruction in the following categories: Instructional Practices, Interactive Teaching, English-Language Development, and Content Specific to Reading as listed in The English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI developed by Haager, Gersten, Baker, and Graves (2003. To capture these instructional events video tape recordings of eight South Texas pre-service teachers were taken during a reading language arts lesson in order to observe instruction in high need districts’ dual language/bilingual classrooms. Data were compiled to capture the nature and quality of instruction on key essential elements, as well as reading instructional practices specific to the teaching/learning process in the dual language classroom. The findings portray the results of the ELLCOI with bilingual/ESL pre- service teachers and how they make sense of their instructional practices as a means to instruction in one-way dual language public school classrooms.

  11. Attitudes of Second Language Learners towards Code-switching in L2 Classroom



    This paper chiefly examines the attitudes of second language learners, specifically, Chinese postgraduate students study⁃ing in the UK, towards code-switching between English and Mandarin in group discussion in L2 classroom. Questionnaire is im⁃plemented as the data collection method and yields some corresponding findings based on research questions. Meanwhile, recent research on code-switching in classroom is introduced briefly. Moreover, limitations and pedagogical implication of the original research mentioned above are elaborated, as well as the implied future research is presented in this area.




    Full Text Available The article analyzes the notions of plurilingualism and plurilingual identity through the prism of the concepts of multilingualism and multilingual identity and the perspective of the theories of bilingualism. The article suggests that plurilingual identity can be viewed as an objective in third language (second foreign language teaching and contemplates specific characteristic imposed on a third language learner by the process of third language acquisition and the necessity of managing a certain imbalance between the degrees of language command and culture experience in different target languages.




    Full Text Available The article analyzes the notions of plurilingualism and plurilingual identity through the prism of the concepts of multilingualism and multilingual identity and the perspective of the theories of bilingualism. The article suggests that plurilingual identity can be viewed as an objective in third language (second foreign language teaching and contemplates specific characteristic imposed on a third language learner by the process of third language acquisition and the necessity of managing a certain imbalance between the degrees of language command and culture experience in different target languages.

  14. Storytelling as a teaching strategy in the English language classroom in Iceland

    Patience Adjahoe Karlsson 1974


    This thesis takes sources from existing literature, personal experiences and a classroom-based study aimed at discovering how storytelling can be adapted in the ninth and tenth grade to help achieve the goals of the National Curriculum (2007) of Iceland in regards to English language teaching, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), and specifically, to improve students’ skills in writing and speaking. My findings are based on action research design targeted at exploring the benefits of st...

  15. Moodle-based Distance Language Learning Strategies: An Evaluation of Technology in Language Classroom

    Majid Khabbaz; Rasool Najjar


    English language teaching curriculum developers now turn to the heavy use of technology in classrooms. Computer technology, specifically, has brought about many changes in the strategies of language leaning. One of the new computer programs which has recently attracted the attention of language teachers is called Moodle. It is an open-source Course Management System (CMS) which delivers online courses as well as supplement traditional face-to-face language courses. Since there is little infor...



    Students’ individual differences pose a challenge to language teachers and influence the way in which a foreign language is learned. We are therefore invited to consider the role of our students’ personalities,motivation and cognitive styles in the language classroom. LANGUAGE teaching would be much easier if all students were alike. The number of instructional decisions would be greatly reduced; teaching methods would be rather simpler; lesson designs would not have to be modified; teachers would not have to consider alternative procedures; teacher-student interaction

  17. Teaching Sociolinguistic Variation in the Intermediate Language Classroom: "Voseo" in Latin America

    Shenk, Elaine M.


    The acquisition of sociolinguistic variation by second language learners has gained increased attention. Some research highlights the value of naturalistic exposure through study abroad while other studies point out that classroom input can facilitate the acquisition of particular features of variation. Nevertheless, said attention to the…

  18. Academic Language in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Barnes, Erica M.; Grifenhagen, Jill F.; Dickinson, David K.


    This article defines academic language by examining the central features of vocabulary, syntax, and discourse function. Examples of each feature are provided, as well as methods of identifying them in oral language and printed text. We describe a yearlong study that found teachers used different types of academic language based on instructional…

  19. The Use of English in the Chinese Language Classroom: Perspectives from American College Students

    Henrietta Yang


    Full Text Available For a long time, whether learners' first language (L1 should be used in the foreign language classroom has been a controversial issue in the foreign language education field. The focus has been mostly on the use of L1 in the English language classroom (e.g.,Atkinson, 1987; Brooks-Lewis, 2009; Kieu, 2010; Krashen, 1981; Miles, 2004; Nazary, 2008; Prodromou, 2002; Schweers, 1999; Tang,2002. The debate centers on two diverse pedagogical approaches: the monolingual approach and the bilingual approach. The supporters of the monolingual approach contend that only the target language that learners are acquiring (i.e. English in most of the study should be allowed in the classroom, and Krashen (1981, 1985 was a pivotal supporter of this approach. However, other researchers and language teachers argue that the monolingual approach is not practical, particularly in lower-level classes (e.g., Atkinson, 1987; BrooksLewis, 2009; Schweers, 1999; Tang, 2002. They believe that using L1 in the classroom can be very effective when explaining difficult grammar points and linguistic elements that are language specific. The supporters of the bilingual approach do not deny the advantages of maximizing target language exposure and practice. However, they suggest that when learners' L1 is applied strategically, it can actually be a very important learning tool (e.g., Atkinson, 1987; Brooks-Lewis,2009; Schweers, 1999. Furthermore, both Schweers (1999 and Miles (2004 point out that the use of L1 provides students a more relaxed atmosphere and makes them less anxious and more confident in the classroom.

  20. The Influence of Classroom Drama on Teachers' Language and Students' On-Task Behavior

    Anderson, Alida; Berry, Katherine


    Teacher language and students' on-task behavior were examined in language arts lessons with and without classroom drama in two self-contained third grade classrooms for students with learning disabilities and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Language arts lessons that integrated classroom drama were associated with significantly higher…

  1. Potential Prometheus Effects of Sign Language as Research Language.

    Mason, David G.


    This article promotes the utilization of Sign Language of the Deaf as a primary and secondary research language. The article discusses English as the traditional research language, the role of sign language in bilingualism, possible uses for American Sign Language (ASL) as a research language, and the availability of ASL-based literature for…

  2. Towards criterion validity in classroom language analysis: methodological constraints of metadiscourse and inter-rater agreement

    Douglas Altamiro Consolo


    Full Text Available

    This paper reports on a process to validate a revised version of a system for coding classroom discourse in foreign language lessons, a context in which the dual role of language (as content and means of communication and the speakers' specific pedagogical aims lead to a certain degree of ambiguity in language analysis. The language used by teachers and students has been extensively studied, and a framework of concepts concerning classroom discourse well-established. Models for coding classroom language need, however, to be revised when they are applied to specific research contexts. The application and revision of an initial framework can lead to the development of earlier models, and to the re-definition of previously established categories of analysis that have to be validated. The procedures followed to validate a coding system are related here as guidelines for conducting research under similar circumstances. The advantages of using instruments that incorporate two types of data, that is, quantitative measures and qualitative information from raters' metadiscourse, are discussed, and it is suggested that such procedure can contribute to the process of validation itself, towards attaining reliability of research results, as well as indicate some constraints of the adopted research methodology.

  3. Reflections on Native Language Use in Adult ESL Classrooms

    Huerta-Macias, Ana; Kephart, Kerrie


    This paper explores the issue of native language (L1) use in adult English-as-a-second-language (ESL) classes, re-examining the belief that use of the students' L1 is detrimental to target language learning. We discuss research that (a) documents language use in several adult ESL classes in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands, and (b) presents survey…

  4. "Experiential" Professional Development: Improving World Language Pedagogy inside Spanish Classrooms

    Burke, Brigid Moira


    "Experiential" professional development (EPD), influenced by Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound design, was integrated in the classrooms of secondary Spanish teachers to create opportunities for them to learn to use communicative language teaching (CLT) through experience. Teachers collaborated with colleagues, students, and a…

  5. Assessing English-Language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms

    Lenski, Susan Davis; Ehlers-Zavala, Fabiola; Daniel, Mayra C.; Sun-Irminger, Xiaoqin


    Increasingly, mainstream U.S. classrooms include children who are English-language learners (ELLs). As a result, teachers need to become more aware of ways to assess the literacy progress of their ELL students. The first type of assessment that teachers need to make is to determine ELLs' literacy backgrounds. Teachers can use predictability logs…

  6. Literature and language learning in the EFL classroom

    Teranishi, Masayuki; Wales, Katie


    This book examines how literary texts can be incorporated into teaching practices in an EFL classroom. It takes a multi-faceted approach to how English language teaching and learning can best be developed through presentation and exploration of literary texts.

  7. Twenty Ideas for Using Mobile Phones in the Language Classroom

    Reinders, Hayo


    These days it seems mobile phones are used everywhere by everyone, which leads to the obvious question: How can mobile phone technology support learning in the second language classroom? The answer is "in a number of ways" because mobile phones come with ever-increasing functions that most students are adept at using. In this article the author…

  8. A Sociocognitive Perspective on Second Language Classroom Willingness to Communicate

    Cao, Yiqian


    This article reports on a multiple case study that investigated the dynamic and situated nature of learners' willingness to communicate (WTC) in second language (L2) classrooms. Framed within a sociocognitive perspective on L2 learning which draws together social, environmental, and individual factors, this study traced WTC among six learners of…

  9. Language Policy for the Multilingual Classroom: Pedagogy of the Possible

    Helot, Christine; Laoire, Muiris O.


    With contributions from leading scholars all around the world, this volume underlines the ever-pressing need for new language in education policies to include all learners' voices in the multilingual classroom and to empower teachers to develop responsive and transformative pedagogies. Using testimonies, narratives and examples from different…

  10. Meaningful Literacy: Writing Poetry in the Language Classroom

    Hanauer, David I.


    This paper develops the concept of meaningful literacy and offers a classroom methodology--poetry writing--that manifests this approach to ESL/EFL literacy instruction. The paper is divided into three sections. The first deals with the concept of meaningful literacy learning in second and foreign language pedagogy; the second summarizes empirical…

  11. Negotiating Language, Culture and Pupil Agency in Complementary School Classrooms

    Lytra, Vally


    In this paper, I examine the teaching of language and culture and in particular the use of songs as curriculum in two London Turkish complementary schools. Drawing on a series of interconnected classroom vignettes, I look at how children weave together their semiotic resources to negotiate and transform two songs and the talk and action around…

  12. Spoken Grammar and Its Role in the English Language Classroom

    Hilliard, Amanda


    This article addresses key issues and considerations for teachers wanting to incorporate spoken grammar activities into their own teaching and also focuses on six common features of spoken grammar, with practical activities and suggestions for teaching them in the language classroom. The hope is that this discussion of spoken grammar and its place…

  13. Silence in the Second Language Classrooms of Japanese Universities

    King, Jim


    Japanese language learners' proclivity for silence has been alluded to by various writers (e.g. Anderson 1993; Korst 1997; Greer 2000) and is supported by plenty of anecdotal evidence, but large-scale, empirical studies aimed at measuring the extent of macro-level silence within Japanese university L2 classrooms are notably lacking. This article…

  14. First Language Composition Pedagogy in the Second Language Classroom: A Reassesment.

    Ross, Steven; And Others


    Evaluated the effectiveness of using native language (Japanese) based writing methods in English as a second language (ESL) classrooms. The methods compared included sentence combining and structural grammar instruction with journal writing, controlled composition writing with feedback on surface error, and peer reformulation. Journal writing, but…

  15. Effect of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety on Turkish University Students' Academic Achievement in Foreign Language Learning

    Tuncer, Murat; Dogan, Yunus


    This study was carried out in order to identify to what extent the Turkish students' English classroom anxiety affects their academic achievement in English language. In this quantitative descriptive study, a correlational survey model was employed, and the convenience sampling was done. In order to collect data, the Foreign Language Classroom…

  16. Practice Output in College Language Classroom



    <正>Practice output constitutes an indispensable part in second language learning.Relevant theories like"Interface Position"and"Comprehensible Output"are discussed in order to analyze in detail how this practice can actually facilitate acquisition and finally pave the way for communicative output—a goal all language learners are striving for.

  17. Technology in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Karen Wolz Verkler


    Full Text Available Although national standards such as the Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century (National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project, 1999and the National Educational Technology Standards (ISTE, 2000 advocate the need for enhanced curricular integration of technology, the reality is that colleges of education nationally are inconsistent in the technology requirements demanded of its preservice teachers. In addition, current foreign language pedagogy supports the use of technology to increase the opportunities for communicative practice in three contexts: interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational modes. To prepare its majors for the increasingly technologically complex demands of the field of education, the foreign language education program at a large, metropolitan Central Florida university developed and implemented a technology course that uniquely addressed concerns of foreign language educators. In this article, the author details the course objectives, content, activities, and assignments.

  18. Challenges in Teaching Culture along with Language in the Foreign Lan-guage (FL) Classroom

    WANG Rui-qi


    Teaching culture along with language in the foreign language classroom is not an easy job. The definition of culture varies from different context, and non-native speakers do not share the same background with native speakers, thus it brings many difficulties to those who want to learn or teach culture along with a foreign language. Challenges in teaching culture along with English will be discussed as an exemplar in this essay. Meanwhile, suggestion on how to teach culture in the English class-room will be proposed at the end of this work.

  19. Teaching Language through Literature in the EFL Classroom



    English language education takes place as a general school subject in colleges in China. There are many approaches to language teaching. Generally, literature course in foreign country has two equal tasks- literature appreciation and language learning. In literature instruction, it has to cove r these two aspects and fulfills these two tasks. This paper aims to help students in EFL classroom students find out how messages in texts convey ideas of ideologies by designing a literature course- analyze the same story in different genres.

  20. Dynamic Assessment in the Language Classroom

    Poehner, Matthew E.; Lantolf, James P.


    The focus of this paper is on the implementation of Dynamic Assessment (henceforth, DA) in the L2 classroom setting. DA is an approach to assessment and instruction derived from Vygotsky's theory of the Zone of Proximal Development (henceforth, ZPD). In what follows, we will first discuss briefly the concept of the ZPD and its realization in DA…

  1. Games for the Foreign Language Classroom.

    McMillan, Nancy; Madaras, Susan W.

    Two marketing games are described, "Le Marche Francais" and "El Mercado: The Mexican Market Comes to Life in the Spanish Classroom." Both are patterned after a published game entitled "Market: A Simulation Game." The adaptation in each instance relied on simplifying the original game and presenting it in a form understandable to middle school…

  2. Teachers' and Students' Amount and Purpose of L1 Use: English as Foreign Language (EFL) Classrooms in Iran

    Bozorgian, Hossein; Fallahpour, Sediqe


    A surge of interest in using First Language (L1) in English as Second/Foreign Language (L2/EFL) learning has recently been developed. Despite this upsurge, the concern about using L1 by teachers and students in L2/EFL classrooms is still important for researchers to consider in the field. The focus of this study is to investigate the amount and…

  3. Effects of Feedback Intervention on Team-Teaching in English Language Classrooms in Nigeria

    Anani, Oluwabunmi Ahoefa; Badaki, Jude Valentine; Kamai, Richard


    The typical Nigerian English language classroom has a large class size and lacks qualified language teachers. These factors reflect in the quality and quantity of teaching in the English as a Second Language classroom. Team teaching or co-teaching is an intervention strategy which language teachers can use to address these issues. Not only does…

  4. Communication in the Classroom: Research and Observation. ERIC Report.

    Boileau, Don M.


    Presents an annotated bibliography of ERIC resources on the following topics: teacher communication; research on classroom interaction; using systematic observations to improve teaching; different systems of classroom observations; and research on classroom observation techniques. (PD)

  5. Competing Desires and Realities: Language Policies in the French-Language Classroom

    Angela Giovanangeli


    Full Text Available French language policy has historically centred on ways French can be considered a dominant and influential language. It has done this since the Middle Ages, by allowing the French language to serve as a political tool. On an international level, language was a way of subjugating conquered peoples (former colonies. It promoted France’s international status (by the 18th century French was the diplomatic language of Europe. On a national level, the French language was one of the ways governments were able to centralise political power (suppression of regional languages. One of the ways French language authorities have promoted the use of language has been through education policies and the way language is taught in schools. For example, the French language was imposed on the colonised territories of France through teaching in missionary schools. Within France, stringent laws were adopted, in particular during the nineteenth century, allowing the French language to replace local languages in schools. In France today, language policies continue to exist and to have an influence on the way we view language and society. One of the main priorities of French language policy is to protect the status of the national language in particular with respect to the increasing use of English as a global dominant language in areas such as science, technology, tourism, entertainment and the media (Nunan: 2007, 178. Consequently, France has adopted policies to respond to this linguistic climate. This has implications on the way the French language is taught both within France as well as outside of France. This paper will examine some of the policies and agencies created over recent years that affect the French language. It will also identify some of the consequences these policies have on the teaching of language. Finally it will argue that a space has been created within the language classroom that attempts to find a compromise between the language policies of

  6. Anxiety over EFL speaking and writing: A view from language classrooms

    Christina Gkonou


    Full Text Available The assumption that foreign language learners experience a high level of anxiety mainly when faced with speaking activities implies that research should focus on those learners prone to anxiety over that skill. Despite not being widely investigated, foreign language writing anxiety also seems to be a concern for a large number of students. Drawing on questionnaire findings, the study reported in this article examined the nature of, and the connection between the English language classroom speaking and writing anxiety of 128 Greek EFL learners in private language school settings. Speaking anxiety was operationalised by Horwitz, Horwitz, and Copeʼs (1986 Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale, and writing anxiety was measured by Gungle and Taylorʼs (1989 ESL version of the Daly and Millerʼs (1975 Writing Apprehension Test. Interconstruct and intraconstruct associations between the two instruments were examined through principal components analysis with varimax rotation and correlations check. A significant and high correlation was found between classroom anxiety and speaking anxiety, thus indicating that the English language classroom context is a source of speaking anxiety. Writing anxiety was found to load primarily on items relating to attitudes towards writing in English followed by self-derogation for the process and fear of negative evaluation by the teachers and/or by fellow students. On the basis of the findings, suggestions are made concerning the reassessment of the influence that writing anxiety exerts on classroom performance and the adoption of teaching techniques that promote topic-centred process writing.

  7. Language Awareness and Second Language Pronunciation: A Classroom Study

    Kennedy, Sara; Trofimovich, Pavel


    We examined the relationship between the quality of second language (L2) learners' language awareness (as shown through dialogue journal entries) and the quality of their L2 pronunciation (as assessed through listener-based ratings of accentedness, comprehensibility, and fluency). The participants were 10 students enrolled in a 13-week…

  8. Language, Literacy, Literature: Using Storytelling in the Languages Classroom

    Morgan, Anne-Marie


    Stories and storytelling have been used for millennia to entertain, challenge and educate. As a shared form of language interaction, storytelling has engaged communities in developing and perpetuating common understandings of both language and culture, as critical foundations to harmonious societies. Stories and storytelling provide a rich source…

  9. The use of English language outside the classroom

    Sargsyan Mane


    Full Text Available This article presents a study which aimed to explore in what ways Armenian EFL students use their English language knowledge outside the classroom. The study involved 38 EFL learners of different English proficiency levels, ages, and genders. Data were collected using surveys and in-depth interviews. Findings indicate that most of the Armenian EFL learners use English out of the class very often, especially with social media, listening to songs, watching movies and clips, as well as travelling and searching on the Internet. Based on the findings, specific recommendations are offered to bring the students’ interests into the classroom.

  10. Investigating the Perceptions of Pakistani English Language Learners on Language Learning Anxiety in EFL Classroom

    Nasreen Bhatti


    Full Text Available This quantitative study aims to investigate the perceptions of English Language Learners on Language learning Anxiety in EFL classroom. Participants of the study were 145 Intermediate level students of different public colleges of Hyderabad, Sindh who are learning English as a foreign language.  The data was collected through the modified form of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS by Horwitz et al., (1986.  Findings of this study reveal the causes of foreign language anxiety from the learners’ perceptions such as communication apprehension was identified as the main cause of anxiety followed by the learners’ self-perceived proficiency, fear of being negatively evaluated and nervousness as other sources of anxiety. However, their motivational intensity is higher to learn English. Based on the findings of the study, many of the suggestions are recommended for language teacher however it is also considered that language anxiety is a multi-faceted and complicated in nature which needs further exploration. Keywords: Perceptions, Pakistani language learners, EFL classroom

  11. Creative classroom strategies for teaching nursing research.

    Phillips, Regina Miecznikoski


    Faculty are constantly challenged to find interesting classroom activities to teach nursing content and engage students in learning. Nursing students and graduates need to use research skills and evidence-based practice as part of their professional care. Finding creative and engaging ways to teach this material in undergraduate nursing programs are essential. This article outlines several successful strategies to engage nursing students in research content in the time and space constraints of the classroom.

  12. Guidelines for Language Classroom Instruction(Ⅲ)

    Graham Crookes; Craig Chaudron


    continued from Issue 10 4.FacilitationA major role of the instructor is to arrange matters so the material presented gets used and thereby learned.This may be far more critical in the learning of a cognitive skill,in which practice assumes major dimensions,than in the learning of most school subjects,in which declarative knowledge(Anderson 1982;O'Malley,Chamot,and Walker 1987)is being presented and clear presentation may be sufficient in itself to ensure learning(of.West 1960).We need,therefore,to give some consideration to such matters as the overall organization of the classroom.

  13. Language in use intermediate : classroom book

    Doff, Adrian


    ach of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  14. Early-Adolescents' Reading Comprehension and the Stability of the Middle School Classroom-Language Environment

    Gámez, Perla B.; Lesaux, Nonie K.


    This study examined teachers' language use across the school year in 6th grade urban middle-school classrooms (n = 24) and investigated the influence of this classroom-based linguistic input on the reading comprehension skills of the students (n = 851; 599 language minority learners and 252 English-only) in the participating classrooms. Analysis…

  15. Reconstructing Miscommunications for the Language Classroom

    Ryan, Jonathon


    Miscommunications appear to offer powerful L2 learning opportunities. In particular, they often arouse emotions that facilitate event recall, and may motivate learners by providing implicit evidence of the communicative importance and personal relevance of underlying language features. This article reports on a pedagogical approach to utilizing…

  16. Influencing Motivation in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Nicholson, Simon James


    Motivation is one of the main determining factors of success in developing a second or foreign language. However, motivation is a complex phenomenon and the more its constructs are understood the better we are able to understand the extent to which we can influence it. Teachers can cultivate student motivation to varying degrees and play a central…

  17. Exploitation of Songs in Foreign Language Classrooms

    Halil AYTEKİN


    Full Text Available Music holds a very important place in human life. People spend their days and free time listening to music. Music calms and relaxes the soul. Music is the best way to express one's feelings. Music is an important medium for teaching and educating as well. Music attracts the attention of students with its rhythm, singing style, emphasis on the target language and culture and provokes their desire to listen to it all the time. In the last few years music is basically a tool that many foreign language teachers have started to use. Music is used as a game to motivate students. This enables the class to remain energetic and lively. The song enables students to use the target language and learn about a new culture. Teachers must choose a song according to the objective of the class. These songs contribute to the student's oral and writing skills. Music also serves a special function of teaching student's the four basic language skills. Songs creates the opportunity to do many different types of activities in the class according to interest and age.

  18. Crossroads: Literature and Language in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Classrooms.

    Cox, Carole; Boyd-Batstone, Paul

    This book is an exploration of the crossroads of reader-response and second language acquisition theories and research as a foundation for practice. It provides a model for teaching with literature that supports language and literacy development for students learning English as a first or second language. The book is organized in three parts. Part…

  19. Improving Pronunciation Instruction in the Second Language Classroom

    Counselman, David


    Researchers in second language acquisition (SLA) have increasingly discussed the role that attention plays in the learning of a second language (L2). This discussion has led to research on proposed pedagogical strategies aimed at directing L2 learners' attention to aspects of the L2 grammar that are difficult to learn or acquire. Research on one…



    This article takes a close look at Towards Reflective Teach-ing, by Jack C. Richards. His article first explains what reflec-tive teaching is, and then presents the various reflective ap-proaches such as peer observation, self-reports, auto-biographies, journals and collaborative diary keeping. This arti-cle then goes on and draws from actual teaching experience toconclude that these approaches are extremely useful for the im-provement of foreign language teaching.


    A. I. Levinson


    Full Text Available Corpora have not yet become an everyday tool of a Russian language teacher in Russia. My goal is to demonstrate a wide range of usagebased approaches which can be applied in the teaching of L1 to children. I present the benefits of exploiting Russian National Corpus as a valuable pedagogical resource, as well as obstacles which can be caused by using data-based teaching methods.

  2. Formative assessment in the foreign language classroom

    Barbosa, Matheus de Almeida


    Full Text Available The objective of every good teacher is that students can have a successful and progressive performance throughout the course. However, there are times when what is taught in the classroom is not enough for the proper outcome of some students who may have some learning difficulties. “What should we do with these students?”, “how can we find the source of their real difficulty?” and “how to deal with such problems?” are common questions among teachers and about which we intend to reflect in this work. In order to do so, we decided to compare our students with a patient looking for medical care, in order to show him the steps to overcome the difficulties he might face

  3. Language-as-resource and language-as-political: tensions in the bilingual mathematics classroom

    Planas, Núria; Civil, Marta


    In this article we reflect on the learning of mathematics in bilingual settings from a social and a political perspective. In particular we highlight two concepts that are key to our work: language-as-resource and language-as-political. To do so, we draw on classroom data from students of Mexican origin in Tucson, USA, and students from Latin America in Barcelona, Spain. The language policies in our contexts share a message of privileging the language of instruction (English or Catalan) over other languages. Our analysis of the two sets of data points to differences in the mathematical participation of students on the basis of which language they use. We develop the argument that, even if languages other than Catalan and English are accepted and certain pedagogies may be close to a language-as-resource approach, the use of the students' languages is politically mediated in such a way that its pedagogical value (as a medium of communication and learning) is not always taken into account in the bilingual mathematics classroom.

  4. Research Making Its Way into Classroom Practice

    Johnston, Peter; Goatley, Virginia


    Identifying researchers whose work has influenced classroom practice, raises questions about the nature of research and its relationship with practice, and the means through which knowledge is distributed. We argue that normally, influence arises through lines of research more than individuals, that knowing-in-practice distribution systems should…

  5. Moving beyond Communicative Language Teaching: A Situated Pedagogy for Japanese EFL Classrooms

    Lochland, Paul W.


    This article questions the appropriateness of communicative language teaching (CLT) in classrooms teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) to Japanese students. The four main criticisms of CLT are the ambiguity of its description, the benefits of CLT for language learning, the amalgamation of CLT methods with local classroom practices, and the…

  6. The Multifaceted Ecology of Language Play in an Elementary School EFL Classroom

    Kang, Dae-Min


    Language play (LP) in second language (L2) classrooms has attracted increasing attention in recent years, but descriptions and explanations of LP construction in English as a foreign language (EFL) settings remain insufficient. This paper reports the discursive processes of LP construction in an elementary school EFL classroom in Korea. I found…

  7. The prediction of undergraduates’ self-regulation strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes towards English, and speaking anxiety on foreign language classroom anxiety

    Mehtap Bademcioglu


    Full Text Available Individual differences are considered as important factors in the language learning process. Apart from individual differences, affective factors such as attitudes and motivation of individuals and their anxiety levels which affect the individuals’ language learning directly or indirectly are also believed as significant impacts in this process. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship between self-regulation strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes, speaking anxiety and foreign language classroom anxiety and to investigate the predictive power of these variables for foreign language classroom anxiety. The relational model was used in the current study. The research group included 320 male (65.6 % and 168 female (34.4 % English preparatory students at Istanbul Technical University. Attitudes toward English Lesson Scale, Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety Questionnaire, The Motivational Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale were used as the data collection tool. The statistical methods used for analyses were correlation and multiple regression. The findings indicated that there is a significant positive correlation between foreign language classroom anxiety and self-regulation, test anxiety, and foreign language speaking anxiety. Also, there is significant negative correlation between foreign language classroom anxiety and self-efficacy intrinsic value perception, and attitude towards English. Moreover, self-efficacy, test anxiety, attitude towards English, and foreign language speaking anxiety are predictors of the university students’ foreign language classroom anxiety.

  8. Language Practices in the Ci-Classroom

    Mourtou, Eleni


    Prelingually deafened children are nowadays likely to receive a cochlear implant (ci). As these children do their language acquisition with a cochlear implant they require a constant rehabilitation and support. Educational staff is instructed on how to work with children with ci in form...... during the storytelling activity: repeat requests and questions. Whereas repeat requests are used in ci-therapy, questions have been shown to be instrumentalized for educational purposes in the setting of a school. I will reveal the educational/rehabilitational issues that are linked to these practices....

  9. Schools of language teaching methodology and teacher's roles in SL/FL classroom



    This paper presents the teaching methods employed by different schools of language teaching respectively and the historical trend of the roles of language teacher in SL/FL classroom. The purpose of this paper is to survey the dif-ferent roles language teachers play with the advent of a new teaching method so as to supply a better interpretation of the language teachers' behaviors in the SL/FL classroom and to indicate the likely developments in language pedagogy in the future.

  10. Researches on Foreign Language Learning Anxiety



      Foreign language anxiety is one of the factors of affecting foreign language achievement. It is negatively associated with language skill learning. This article will show some researches on foreign language anxiety from certain aspects.

  11. Conflicting Ideologies and Language Policy in Adult ESL: Complexities of Language Socialization in a Majority-L1 Classroom

    Mori, Miki


    This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…

  12. 交际教学法降低高职学生课堂焦虑的实证研究%Empirical Research on Communicative Language Teaching Reducing Higher Vocational Students' Classroom Anxiety



    The empirical research on communicative language teaching(CLT) reducing higher vocational students' anxiety is carried out in two parallel classes in Linfen Vocational and Technical College in which the students' anxiety is at the same level.During the experiment,communicative English language teaching is applied in the model class while traditional teaching in the control class.With SPSS and Excel processing the data of pre-and post-questionnaires and oral tests,the experiment shows:1.EFL classroom anxiety is common among higher vocational students; is negatively related to students' oral English proficiency;3.communicative language teaching helps to reduce anxiety and improve oral English.%本实验是在临汾职业技术学院两个焦虑水平相当的平行班进行的,一个为实验班,将交际法运用于其英语教学,一个为控制班,采用传统的英语教学。实验通过前测和后测问卷调查、口语测试来收集数据,实验数据经SPSS和Excel软件处理,结果表明:高职学生中普遍存在着外语课堂焦虑;外语课堂焦虑与口语水平呈负相关;交际教学法能够降低外语课堂焦虑,有助于提高学生口语水平。

  13. Empowering the Language Learner: Language Learning Strategy Training and Self-Regulation in an EFL Classroom

    Torres, Gabriella


    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how an understanding of the Good Language Learner models described in the SLA literature can be used to tailor and implement a program of learning strategy training and self-regulatory practices in the classroom to empower L2 learners in an EFL context. The paper begins by reviewing the various…

  14. Language Awareness in Language Learning and Teaching: A Research Agenda

    Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.


    Following on from my state-of-the-art article on "Language Awareness and language learning" (Svalberg 2007), in this paper I will discuss specific research tasks which are centrally concerned with different aspects of language awareness (LA): "explicit knowledge about language, and conscious perception and sensitivity in language learning,…

  15. Factor Structure of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale: Comment on Park (2014).

    Horwitz, Elaine K


    By employing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Park has provided an important contribution to understanding the underlying constructs of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale. To Park's concerns about previous research on the components of the measure, this article adds the necessity of considering the specific learner populations and learning contexts where foreign language anxiety (FLA) is being examined since the components of FLA likely vary in different learner populations, especially with respect to cultural and proficiency differences. It is particularly important to consider that FLA has different triggers and manifestations in different cultures.

  16. Understanding language use in the classroom a linguistic guide for college educators

    Behrens, Susan J


    It is clear that a proper understanding of what academic English is and how to use it is crucial for success in college, and yet students face multiple obstacles in acquiring this new 'code', not least that their professors often cannot agree amongst themselves on a definition and a set of rules. Understanding Language Use in the Classroom aims to bring the latest findings in linguistics research on academic English to educators from other disciplines, and to help them help their students learn and achieve. Behrens combines a powerful argument for the importance of explicit teaching of languag

  17. Expectations in the Foreign Language Classrooms: A Case Study

    Ketsman, Olha


    Research shows the strong correlation between expectations and student achievement across different disciplines. However, little research has been conducted regarding the role of discipline specific classroom expectations in student academic achievement. This multiple instrumental case study discusses expectations in two rural Spanish high school…

  18. Teachers' Classroom-Based Action Research

    Cain, Tim


    Teachers' classroom-based action research is sometimes misunderstood by those who undertake it and support it, in three respects. First, it is wrongly assumed to fall into either positivist or interpretive paradigms (or perhaps a mixture of both) or to be critical. Second, there is little understanding as to why action research is necessarily…

  19. The Impact of a Professional Development Program on English Language Teachers’ Classroom Performance

    Frank Giraldo


    Full Text Available This article reports the findings of an action research study on a professional development program and its impact on the classroom performance of in-service English teachers who worked at a language institute of a Colombian state university. Questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, class observations, and a researcher’s journal were used as data collection instruments. Findings suggest that these in-service teachers improved their classroom performance as their teaching became more communicative, organized, attentive to students’ needs, and principled. In addition, theory, practice, reflection, and the role of the tutor combined effectively to help the in-service teachers improve classroom performance. It was concluded that these programs must be based on teachers’ philosophies and needs and effectively articulate theory, practice, experience, and reflection.

  20. Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe, and do\\ud

    Borg, S.


    This paper reviews a selection of research from the field of foreign and second language teaching into what is referred to here as teacher cognition – what teachers think, know, and believe and the relationships of these mental constructs to what teachers do in the language teaching classroom. Within a framework suggested by more general mainstream educational research on teacher cognition, language teacher cognition is here discussed with reference to three main themes: (1) cognition and pri...

  1. Transforming Language Ideologies through Action Research: A Case Study of Bilingual Science Learning

    Yang, Eunah

    This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed how one teacher and I, the researcher, collaboratively reflected on classroom language practices during the video analysis meetings and focus groups. Further, I analyzed twelve videos that we coded together to see the changes in the teacher's language practices over time. My unit of analysis was the discourse practice mediated by additive language ideologies. Throughout the collaborative action research process, we both critically reflected on the classroom language use. We also developed a critical consciousness about the participatory shifts and learning of focal English Learner (EL) students. Finally, the teacher made changes to her classroom language practices. The results of this study will contribute to the literacy education research field for theoretical, methodological, and practical insights. The integration of language ideologies, CHAT, and action research can help educational practitioners, researchers, and policy makers understand the importance of transforming teachers' language ideologies in designing additive learning contexts for ELs. From a methodological perspective, the transformative language ideologies through researcher and teacher collaborated video analysis process provide a unique contribution to the language ideologies in education literature, with analytic triangulation. As a practical implication, this study suggests action research can be one of the teacher education tools to help the teachers transform language ideologies for EL education.

  2. A Brief Analysis of Discrimination in Language Classroom--from the Perspecti ve of Soci oli ngui sti cs



    It is widely acknowledged that sociolinguistics is the study of language in certain context concerned with our soci-ety. Sociolinguistics and linguistics are intrinsically related to each other, but there has been difference as well. Linguistics research deals with language system itself, which belongs to the micro lev-el on the one hand; many phenomena reflect discrimination in language classroom, these discrimination are caused by social fac-tors to a certain degree. This paper makes a brief analysis of dis-crimination in language classroom from the perspective of socio-linguistics, which deals with many issues such as depiction of lan-guage discrimination、analysis of phenomenon and accordingly-solved measures.

  3. Directing Attention to Pronunciation in the Second Language Classroom

    Counselman, David


    Motivated by predictions of the theory of Input Processing, this study adds to previous research on second language (L2) Spanish pronunciation learning by investigating the impact of two distinct types of pronunciation assignments on first language (L1) English L2 Spanish students' improvement in pronunciation of the vowels /e, o/. Two sections of…

  4. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.


    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  5. Investigating Pragmatic Language Learning in Foreign Language Classrooms

    Soler, Eva Alcon


    A lot of research addressing learners' development of pragmatics has recently been conducted (Kasper and Schmidt 1996; Bardovi-Harlig, 2002; Kasper and Rose 2002). From this same approach, a review of theoretical perspectives on pragmatic learning and how they have been operationalised in interlanguage pragmatic research is presented. Second, by…

  6. Research in the Language of Art of Classroom Teaching Management%中职语文课堂教学管理艺术的探究



    语文作为一门综合性的学科,学好语文对于学生来说,具有重要的意义。在新课改下,如何教好中职语文,如何在教学中引入艺术化教学模式,成为当下中职语文老师探究的难题。%Language as a comprehensive discipline,learn the language for the students,has the vital significance. Changes in the new class,how to teach Chinese in secondary vocational school,how to introduce the art teaching mode in teaching,become the problem for exploring the current secondary vocational school language teacher.

  7. Effects of Teaching Literature on Culture Learning in the Language Classroom

    Chittra Muthusamy


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The role of literature in enhancing readers cultural understanding in the language classroom was explored. It was a part of an extensive research which focused mainly on language learning and creativity. It is argued that the interface of language, literature and culture are at the forefront of present-day language and literature learning and this facilitates inter-racial, intra-racial and global understanding. Approach: As method, a quasi-experimental study was conducted on two intact groups; the control (n = 30 and experimental (n = 30 groups. Both groups underwent an eight week experiment whereby one short story, The Burden of Sin by S. Karthigesu was taught to both groups. The control group was taught using the routine and traditional reading and comprehension teaching approach while the experimental group was taught using the reader response approach adapting Ibsens the I Model text exploration and literary devices. Results: Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted on the data collected using two non-parametric tests: The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test to determine the significant difference between the experimental groups pretest and posttest scores and the Mann-Whitney U test to determine the significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control groups. Conclusion: The results proved to be substantially significant. The findings revealed that cultural understanding can be taught through literature in a language classroom and it is a valuable instructional medium in the learning of culture.

  8. 幼儿园大班语言课堂教学的开放生成性对策研究%Research on Strategies for the Openness and Generation of Language Classroom Teaching for Kindergarten Senior ;Class



    The language classroom teaching for kindergarten se-nior class should be an open and dynamic process of teach-er-child communication, which is the very reflection of the open-ness and generation of language classroom teaching for kinder-garten senior class. In kindergarten teacher-student communica-tion, the teachers should strengthen their ideological and lan-guage communications with children, actively guide children to answer and inquire questions in language class, so as to give full play to the role of generative education in routine language teach-ing.%幼儿园大班语言课堂教学应该是一个开放的、动态的教师与儿童进行交流的过程,当然这也是幼儿园大班语言课堂教学的开放生成性所在。在幼儿园教师与儿童进行交流的过程中,教师应加强与儿童之间的思想及语言交流,积极引导儿童对语言课堂中的问题进行回答和询问,继而在日常的语言教学过程中充分发挥生成性教育的作用。

  9. Teaching english through spanish: a secondary school EFL teachers`s language choices in the foreign language classroom


    The present study examines the language used by a Spanish secondary school teacher of English. Taking as a basic premise that exposure to the foreign language is conducive to language learning, transcripts of classroom discourse were analysed to identify the pedagogical functions present in the teacher???s speech and the language used to express them. The results show an overwhelming reliance by the teacher on the students??? first language for all of the most frequently occurring functions. ...

  10. A dynamic discourse approach to classroom research

    Bannink, A.; Van Dam, J.


    In this paper we propose a theoretical reassessment of the discourse-analytic tools that are used in classroom research and of the data that are addressed. To that end we present in-depth analyses of 1) an IRE structure in a first English (EFL) lesson in a Dutch secondary school; 2) episodes from Du

  11. Othering: Towards a Critical Cultural Awareness in the Language Classroom

    Sthephanny Moncada Linares


    Full Text Available Due to the need of decentering language learners’ conceptions and practices of “othering” against the target culture, it has become necessary to help them grow in critical cultural understanding and positive appreciation towards the richness of difference and plurality, as a transversal dimension of their intercultural competence. Thus, this paper seeks to summarize the literature on the notion of othering and its pedagogical possibilities to promote critical cultural awareness raising in the language classroom. It initially presents some theoretical contributions on the concepts of the “Other” and the “Self” and its dialectical relation, and later, it proposes four pedagogical tools that could enable learners to achieve the already mentioned objective.

  12. Pedagogical uses of authentic video in ESP classrooms for developing language skills and enriching vocabulary

    Violeta Jurkovič


    Full Text Available Authentic video has an established role in the teaching of General English (GE in conventional language classrooms. What has been under-researched, however, is the role of authentic video in the Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL setting, where despite being common, video is still considered a peripheral product. In the teaching of English for Specific Purposes (ESP, which also draws onto findings made in the field of GE, little research has been made into the use of authentic video in both conventional and virtual language environments (VLEs. In order to better understand the role of video in ESP teaching in general and to identify potential areas that call for further research, this paper will explore how authentic video is used to develop the four language skills, audiovisual reception, and vocabulary, in the Slovene higher education area. The research is based on qualitative research methodology, more specifically on semi-structured interviews with ESP teachers and textbook authors, and a textual analysis of ESP textbooks published in Slovenia. The results indicate that most ESP teachers are aware of the benefits of using video materials for the development of the four skills, in particular the productive skills of writing and speaking, and vocabulary. However, teachers are reluctant to include video-related tasks into printed textbooks. Instead, these tasks are migrating to VLEs, which highlights the need to further explore the relationship between traditional textbooks and VLE instructional materials used in conventional language teaching.

  13. Principles for Code Choice in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Focus on Grammaring

    Levine, Glenn S.


    The social and cultural "turn" in language education of recent years has helped move language teaching and curriculum design away from many of the more rigid dogmas of earlier generations, but the issue of the roles of the learners' first language (L1) in language pedagogy and classroom interaction is far from settled. Some follow a…

  14. The Benefits of Management and Organisation: A Case Study in Young Language Learners' Classrooms

    Giannikas, Christina Nicole


    This study focuses on primary language education within a Greek region: specifically, on the positive effects of classroom management and organisation on a student-centred approach of teaching. In the case of the Greek education system, language teachers are encouraged to adopt student-centred approaches in their classroom but have not received…

  15. Flipping the Classroom for English Language Learners to Foster Active Learning

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting


    This paper describes a structured attempt to integrate flip teaching into language classrooms using a WebQuest active learning strategy. The purpose of this study is to examine the possible impacts of flipping the classroom on English language learners' academic performance, learning attitudes, and participation levels. Adopting a…

  16. EFL (English as a Foreign Language) Classroom Discourse Analysis of a Vocational College and Some Reflections

    Xin, Liu; Luzheng, Lou; Biru, Shi


    The application of classroom discourse analysis of foreign language teaching and learning can reveal much about how teachers perform in their teaching practice and how to make improvement. In this paper, the author tries to reveal the present state of EFL (English as a foreign language) classrooms in a vocational college from the angle of…

  17. Developing Learner Autonomy in the Language Class in Turkey: Voices from the Classroom

    Inozu, Julide


    This article draws on qualitative interview data from a case study of an English teacher in Turkey. It explores the implementation of learner autonomy in English as a foreign language classroom and identifies the challenges, such as students' negative attitudes towards classroom practices, dissatisfaction with the language learning activities and…

  18. Motivation in Learning a Second Language: Exploring the Contributions of Family and Classroom Processes

    Tam, Frank Wai-ming


    This study looks at how family and classroom factors influence second-language learning at the junior secondary level in schools in Hong Kong. It employed an ecological perspective to look at how family-level factors and classroom-level factors uniquely combine to influence students' learning motivations in second-language learning. Nineteen…

  19. Examination of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Achievement in Foreign Language in Turkish University Students in Terms of Various Variables

    Dogan, Yunus; Tuncer, Murat


    This correlational survey study aimed to investigate whether the Turkish prep-class students' foreign language classroom anxiety levels and foreign language achievement significantly differ in terms of such variables as their gender, their experience abroad, perceived level of income and any third language (other than Turkish and English) they…

  20. "Why in This Bilingual Classroom … Hablamos Más Español?" Language Choice by Bilingual Science Students

    Stevenson, Alma D.


    This qualitative sociolinguistic research study examines Latino/a students' use of language in a science classroom and laboratory. This study was conducted in a school in the southwestern United States that serves an economically depressed, predominantly Latino population. The object of study was a 5th-grade bilingual (Spanish/English) class. The…

  1. Practices of Other-Initiated Repair in the Classrooms of Children with Specific Speech and Language Difficulties

    Radford, Julie


    Repair practices used by teachers who work with children with specific speech and language difficulties (SSLDs) have hitherto remained largely unexplored. Such classrooms therefore offer a new context for researching repairs and considering how they compare with non-SSLD interactions. Repair trajectories are of interest because they are dialogic…

  2. Making Sense of Power Relations in a Malaysian English-as-a-Second-Language Academic Writing Classroom

    Abraham, Alison


    The role of power in an English-as-a-second-language classroom has yet to be fully explored by an action research practitioner, especially in a Malaysian higher education setting. This study aims to contribute to this gap by working within an academic literacies perspective to teaching academic writing, which propagates the understanding of…

  3. Language Development Subcontexts in Head Start Classrooms: Distinctive Patterns of Teacher Talk During Free Play, Mealtime, and Book Reading

    Gest, Scott D.; Holland-Coviello, Rebecca; Welsh, Janet A.; Eicher-Catt, Deborah L.; Gill, Sukhdeep


    Research findings: Language development subcontexts within 20 Head Start classrooms were studied by observing teachers' child-directed talk during free play, mealtime, and book reading. In each context, observers coded all child-directed statements, directives, and questions, noted instances of pretend talk and decontextualized talk, and rated the…

  4. Classroom Research and Cargo Cults.

    Hirsch, E. D., Jr.


    Outlines fundamental reasons why educational research has not provided dependable guidelines for policy, suggesting how to repair what it lacks. Notes that there already exists some reliable research on which to base educational policy, found mainly in cognitive psychology. Asserts that naturalistic and laboratory research in education have a duty…

  5. Research and Reflective Practice in the ESL Classroom: Voices from Sri Lanka

    Cirocki, Andrzej; Tennekoon, Sujeewa; Calvo, Alicia Pena


    Modern language education favours the model of a reflective teacher-researcher who is engaged in both individual and collaborative curriculum revision and teaching-learning environment improvement. The present paper addresses the issue of classroom research and reflective practice in current ESL pedagogy and teacher professional development. The…

  6. New Proposals for Educational Development of Disciplines Taught in Foreign Languages in Multicultural Classrooms

    Roberto Birch Gonçalves


    Full Text Available This study discusses the current trend of offering courses in the undergraduate programs, taught in foreign languages, as a fundamental aspect for the formation of new global professionals who require different skills to work in multicultural markets. To do so, the research highlights some concepts of internationalization, academic mobility and curricula internationalization. A longitudinal case study was conducted over a period of three years (2010-2013, describing the trajectory of the Intercultural Communication discipline, taught in English in a multicultural classroom, in a Higher Education Institution. For the analysis, it was used the data provided by online assessment system. The results show the degree of satisfaction by students who attended this course and emphasizes the strong responsibility of professionals who teach courses in foreign languages where language proficiency is essential, however the content domain and the use of proper methodologies are no less important.

  7. Classroom Management: A Persistent Challenge for Pre-Service Foreign Language Teachers

    Diego Fernando Macías; Jesús Ariel Sánchez


    This qualitative descriptive study aimed to ascertain the extent to which classroom management constituted a problem among pre-service foreign language teachers in a teacher education program at a public university in Colombia. The study also sought to identify classroom management challenges, the approaches to confronting them, and the alternatives for improving pre-service teachers’ classroom management skills. The results revealed that classroom management is a serious problem with challen...

  8. The link between Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety, Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity and Self-rated English proficiency among Chinese learners

    Jean-Marc Dewaele


    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that high levels of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA have a negative effect on foreign language learning (Horwitz, 2001; Lu & Liu, 2011 while moderate levels of Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity (SLTA are believed to boost foreign language learning (Ely, 1995. There is prima facie evidence that both dimensions are inversely related as Foreign Language Learning contexts are full of ambiguities which may contribute to anxiety. However, the relationship between FLCA and SLTA has been under-researched. The present study is an attempt to fill this gap by investigating the link between SLTA and FLCA in English of 73 secondary school students in Hong Kong. They filled out an online questionnaire consisting of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986 and the Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale (Ely, 1995. Statistical analyses revealed that FLCA, SLTA and Self-rated English proficiency predict half of the variance in each other; in other words, students who were more tolerant of second language ambiguity were less anxious in their EFL classes and they also felt more proficient.

  9. Corrective feedback, learner uptake, and feedback perception in a Chinese as a foreign language classroom

    Tingfeng Fu


    Full Text Available The role of corrective feedback in second language classrooms has received considerable research attention in the past few decades. However, most of this research has been conducted in English-teaching settings, either ESL or EFL. This study examined teacher feedback, learner uptake as well as learner and teacher perception of feedback in an adult Chinese as a foreign language classroom. Ten hours of classroom interactions were videotaped, transcribed and coded for analysis. Lyster and Ranta’s (1997 coding system involving six types of feedback was initially used to identify feedback frequency and learner uptake. However, the teacher was found to use a number of additional feedback types. Altogether, 12 types of feedback were identified: recasts, delayed recasts, clarification requests, translation, metalinguistic feedback, elicitation, explicit correction, asking a direct question, repetition, directing question to other students, re-asks, and using L1-English. Differences were noted in the frequency of some of the feedback types as well as learner uptake compared to what had been reported in some previous ESL and EFL studies. With respect to the new feedback types, some led to noticeable uptake. As for the students’ and teacher’s perceptions, they did not match and both the teacher and the students were generally not accurate in perceiving the frequency of each feedback type. The findings are discussed in terms of the role of context in affecting the provision and effectiveness of feedback and its relationship to student and teacher perception of feedback.

  10. Students and Teachers’ Reasons for Using the First Language Within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English in Central Mexico

    Mora Pablo Irasema


    Full Text Available

    The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the teaching and learning process. A small number of students do not like the use of the first language in the classroom and prefer that their teachers use the target language only.


    La presente investigación explora el uso de la lengua materna en un contexto de enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Esta investigación cualitativa presenta la práctica docente y los puntos de vista de maestros y alumnos de francés e inglés en el contexto de una universidad pública del centro de México, mediante el uso de las técnicas del cuestionario y la entrevista semiestructurada. Los resultados muestran que tanto los maestros como la mayoría de los alumnos perciben el uso de la lengua materna como algo positivo en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Un número reducido de estudiantes rechaza el uso de la lengua materna y prefiere que su clase de lengua extranjera sea dirigida exclusivamente en la lengua meta. Palabras clave: investigación cualitativa, puntos de vista de alumnos y maestros, uso de la lengua materna.

  11. Psycholinguistically Oriented Second Language Research.

    Juffs, Alan


    Reviews recent research that investigates second language performance from the perspective of sentence processing (on-line comprehension studies) and word recognition. Concentrates on describing methods that employ reaction time measures as correlates of processing difficulty or knowledge representation. (Author/VWL)

  12. AFL Research in the L2 Classroom and Evidence of Usefulness: Taking Formative Assessment to the Next Level

    Colby-Kelly, Christian; Turner, Carolyn E.


    Recent trends in classroom evaluation seek innovative formative assessment intended to benefit learning, called assessment for learning (AFL), largely unresearched in the second language (L2) classroom (Rea-Dickins, 2004). This paper calls for taking L2 testing research to the next level, investigating the "usefulness" (Bachman & Palmer, 1996;…

  13. Developing communicative competence through thinking tasks: Experimenting with Thinking Approach in Danish as Second Language Classroom

    Maslo, Elina

    Developing communicative competence through thinking tasks - Experimenting with Thinking Approach in Danish as Second Language ClassroomSession on Innovations in the classroom, a presentation. Abstract for the conference Creativity & Thinking Skills in Learning, teaching & Management. Riga 19......-20 September 2014 Elina Maslo, Aarhus University, Department of Education, Summary: The goal of this presentation is to present some of the experiences with thinking tasks in the Danish language classroom, conducted in the Nordplus Nordic Language Project “Problem solving tasks for learning...... of Danish as second and foreign language in transformative learning spaces”. Two teachers have developed and tried out some thinking tasks in their classrooms, with the aim to foster the development of students´ communicative competence. The learning processes from two classrooms will be analysed...

  14. Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety among Iraqi Students and its Relation With Gender and Achievement

    Taha Talib Ali


    Full Text Available Language anxiety is always seen as debilitative factor that deters learners from successfully learning a foreign language. Although many studies have been reported on foreign language learners’ anxieties, little research, if any, has been undertaken on Iraqi postgraduate EFL learners. The objective of the present study is threefold: a to investigate the factors contributing to foreign language classroom anxiety among Iraqi postgraduate EFL students, b to investigate the difference between both genders in the level of anxiety and c to investigate the relationship between the level of anxiety and the academic achievement of the students based on GPA. The study employed a mixed mode approach using survey questionnaire (AFLAQand semi-structured interview. The study reported that three factors such as communication apprehension, negative evaluation and test anxiety are anxiety-arousing factors with test anxiety has the greatest contribution. The study also reported that females show more anxiety compared to males. It was also shown that there is a negative correlation between language anxiety and academic achievement which means that students with high level of FL anxiety tend to yield lower grades and vice-versa. Keywords: Arabic Foreign Language Anxiety Questionnaire (AFLAQ, Anxiety factors, Gender differences, Academic achievement

  15. 素质教育下外语课堂教学艺术探讨%A Research on the Classroom Teaching Art of Foreign Language Based on Quality Education



    课堂教学是外语教学各环节中最基本、最重要的一环,是实现素质教育的前沿阵地。教师只有提高自身素质,掌握备课艺术和课堂教学语言艺术,师生之间的教与学才能最好地、最和谐地体现出来。%Classroom teaching is the most basic part of language teaching. The implementation of quality education can be reflected in English teaching. Only when the teacher has improved his professional qualities and mastered the art of classroom teaching can teacher' s teaching and students' learning be in harmony.

  16. Virtual Classrooms in Brazil: teachers' difficulties and anxieties towards technology in language learning

    Andréa Machado de Almeida Mattos


    Full Text Available Many researchers, nowadays, have been enthusiastic in promoting the advantages of introducing technology in the language classroom, but few have been worried with the problems and anxieties that result from changes in a long-lasting culture such as the culture of language learning. This paper aims at discussing the problems faced by teachers who have been working with technology in their language classrooms. The research design was based on theoretical and empirical studies both in the areas of Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teacher Development. The main objective of this paper is, thus, to achieve a global understanding of the teachers' anxieties in relation to the virtual environment of language learning. Data was gathered through interviews with the teachers, leading to a qualitative analysis of the findings.Atualmente, muitos pesquisadores têm promovido entusiasticamente as vantagens de se introduzir tecnologia na sala de aula de língua estrangeira (LE, mas poucos têm-se preocupado com os problemas e as ansiedades que resultam de mudanças numa cultura tão antiga quanto a da sala de aula de LE. Este trabalho visa a discutir os problemas enfrentados por professores que trabalham com tecnologia em suas salas de aula de língua. A pesquisa foi baseada em estudos teóricos e empíricos tanto na área de ensino mediado por computador quanto no campo de desenvolvimento de professores. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é, assim, obter um entendimento global das ansiedades do professor em relação ao ambiente virtual de aprendizagem de língua. Os dados foram coletados mediante entrevistas com os professores informantes, levando a uma análise qualitativa dos resultados.

  17. Foreign Language Anxiety in the Classroom and in an Online Environment

    Baez-Holley, Monica


    This study compared the levels of anxiety that students experienced when taking a foreign language in the classroom with those taking a foreign language at a distance. It also aimed to determine if the student's academic performance in the course could be predicted by his or her foreign language anxiety level. The sample consisted of 107…

  18. Examination of the Relationship between Autonomy and English Achievement as Mediated by Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety

    Ghorbandordinejad, Farhad; Ahmadabad, Roghayyeh Moradian


    This study investigated the relationship between autonomy and English language achievement among third-grade high school students as mediated by foreign language classroom anxiety in a city in the north-west of Iran. A sample of 400 students (187 males, and 213 females) was assessed for their levels of autonomy and foreign language anxiety using…

  19. The Benefits of Management and Organisation: A Case Study in Young Language Learners’ Classrooms

    Christina Nicole Giannikas


    Full Text Available This study focuses on primary language education within a Greek region: specifically, on the positive effects of classroom management and organisation on a student-centred approach of teaching. In the case of the Greek education system, language teachers are encouraged to adopt student-centred approaches in their classroom but have not received any guidance on how to do so. Language educators are reluctant to abandon their teacher-centred ways, because they have not been trained to apply classroom management and organisation techniques that could support a student-centred environment.

  20. Reflective Blogfolios in the Language Classroom: Impact on EFL Tertiary Students’ Argumentative Writing Skills and Ways of Knowing

    Ammar Abdullah Mahmoud Ismial


    Full Text Available The emerging paradigm shift in educational contexts from walled classroom environments to virtual, hybrid, blended, and lately personal learning environments has brought about vast changes in the foreign language classroom practices.  Numerous calls  for experimenting with new instructional treatments to enhance students' language performance in these new learning environments have been voiced by researchers and language educators in different settings. The current study aimed at investigating the impact of using reflective blogfolios in teaching argumentation to EFL tertiary students on their argumentative essay writing skills and ways of knowing. As well, the study investigated the relationship between student's ways of knowing and their argumentative writing capabilities. The participants of the study were fifty one EFL tertiary students in the Emirati context. Two assessment instruments were used, including a ways-of-knowing scale and a rubric for tapping EFL students' argumentative writing skills. Results of the study indicated that using reflective blogfolios in the foreign language classroom brought about significant changes in EFL tertiary students' argumentative writing skills and their ways of knowing. Results of the study also indicated that connected ways of knowing were better predictors of EFL tertiary students' argumentative writing performance than separate ways of knowing. Details of the instructional intervention, the assessment instruments, results of the study, implications for foreign language instruction in virtual learning environments, and suggestions for further research are discussed. Keywords: Reflective blogfolios, argumentative writing skills, ways of knowing


    Eva Alcón


    Full Text Available Taking into account severa1 limitations of communicative language teaching (CLT, this paper calls for the need to consider research on language use and learning through communication as a basis for language teaching. It will be argued that a reflective approach towards language teaching and learning might be generated, which is explained in terms of the need to develop a context-sensitive pedagogy and in terms of teachers' and learners' development.

  2. Connecting Science and Literacy in the Classroom: Using Space and Earth Science to Support Language Arts

    Wessen, A. S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.


    The connections between science and literacy in the classroom have received increasing attention over the last two decades, as more and more evidence demonstrates that science provides an exciting vehicle in which to engage students on the path to literacy improvement. Combining literacy with science allows students to creatively explore the world or universe, and it. Combining science and literacy improves both reading and science scores, and increases students’ interest in science. At a time when over 40% of students beyond the 5th grade are reading two or more levels below grade level and are struggling with their current materials, finding ways to excite and engage them in the reading process is key. Literacy programs incorporating unique space science content can help prepare children for standardized language arts tests. It also engages our nation’s youngest learners and their teachers with the science, math, and technology of exploration in a language arts format. This session focuses on programs and products that bring the excitement of earth and space science into the literacy classroom, with a focus on research-based approached to combining science and language arts. Reading, Writing and Rings! Grades 1-2

  3. Classroom Management: A Persistent Challenge for Pre-Service Foreign Language Teachers

    Diego Fernando Macías


    Full Text Available This qualitative descriptive study aimed to ascertain the extent to which classroom management constituted a problem among pre-service foreign language teachers in a teacher education program at a public university in Colombia. The study also sought to identify classroom management challenges, the approaches to confronting them, and the alternatives for improving pre-service teachers’ classroom management skills. The results revealed that classroom management is a serious problem with challenges ranging from inadequate classroom conditions to explicit acts of misbehavior. Establishing rules and reinforcing consequences for misbehavior were the main approaches to classroom management, although more contact with actual classrooms and learning from experienced others were alternatives for improving classroom management skills.

  4. Does Biliteracy + Mathematical Discourse = Binumerate Development? Language Use in a Middle School Dual-Language Mathematics Classroom

    Rubinstein-Ávila, Eliane; Sox, Amanda A.; Kaplan, Suzanne; McGraw, Rebecca


    Few studies on the role of bilingualism in mathematics classrooms explore the intersection of biliteracy, language use, mathematical discourse, and numeracy--especially at the middle school level. Drawing from biliteracy development theory and reform mathematics education literature, this qualitative case study of a dual-language mathematics…

  5. Increasing Academic Oral Language Development: Using English Language Learner Shadowing in Classrooms

    Soto-Hinman, Ivannia


    According to Diane August (2002), a senior research scientist at the Center for Applied Linguistics, English Language Learners (ELLs) spend less than two percent of their school day in oral language development. Worse yet, when ELLs are speaking in school, it is often not about academic topics or rigorous content. This lack of academic oral…

  6. Writing through Two Languages: First Language Expertise in a Language Minority Classroom

    Kibler, Amanda


    Language minority students' writing is often measured solely in terms of its distance from native speaker norms, yet doing so may ignore the process through which these texts are realized and the role that the first language plays in their creation. This study analyzes oral interactions among adolescent second language writers during an extended…

  7. Social Trust and Types of Classroom Activities: Predictors of Language Learning Motivation

    Hossein Khodabakhshzadeh


    Full Text Available The present study examined the role of social trust and types of classroom activities as some probable significant predictors of language learning motivation on a sample of 200 Iranian EFL upper-intermediate learners who have been selected randomly. Consequently, the participants completed three questionnaires, Language Learning Motivation Inventory, Classroom and school Community Inventory, and Classroom Activities Inventory, the reliability and validity of each have been checked previously. After running Multiple Regression through SPSS Software, the results revealed that social trust and types of classroom activities accounted for 16.7% of the variance in language learning motivation. Although each of them had a unique impact on language learning motivation, "Deep Language Use" as one of the types of classroom activities had a greater contribution to English as a foreign language learning motivation (002< .05, outweighing social trust as a more important predictor, (.005 < .05. Finally, pedagogical implications along with suggestions for further studies are discussed. Keywords: Types of classroom activities, Social trust, Language learning motivation, EFL learners

  8. Classroom Management: What Does Research Tell Us?

    Postholm, May Britt


    The article reviews studies that focus on classroom management. The aim of classroom management is twofold. The first is to establish a quiet and calm environment in the classroom so that the pupils can take part in meaningful learning in a subject. The second aim is that classroom management contributes to the pupils' social and moral…

  9. Assessment practices in the English language classroom of Greek Junior High School

    Stavroula Vlanti


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare teacher and student perceptions concerning assessment in the English language classroom of Greek Junior High Schools. It focuses on exploring teacher assessment practices and students’ view of these. The degree of agreement between teacher and student views can affect the results of instruction and learning. The central finding of the study was that English language teachers follow an approach that keeps a balance between the requirements of the Cross-Thematic Curriculum (DEPPS for performance assessment and the official specifications which define final achievement tests. Students understand the purpose of assessment and the importance of attitudes towards learning and have a clear picture of methods and tasks used for their assessment. On the basis of these research findings, a series of suggestions about teachers and teacher trainers are put forward, focusing on teacher professional development, which, in turn, will promote student involvement and responsibility for learning.

  10. Translanguaging in a Latin@ Bilingual Community: Negotiations and Mediations in a Dual-Language Classroom

    Garza, Armando; Langman, Juliet


    Considering a Latin@ fifth-grade dual-language classroom (Spanish/English) as a community of practice, this paper explores how a bilingual teacher and her bilingual students, as members of such community, utilize translanguaging (García, 2009) as a learning and teaching tool in social studies and science classes. In this particular classroom, the…

  11. Cultivating Multivocality in Language Classrooms: Contribution of Critical Pedagogy-Informed Teacher Education

    Khatib, Mohammad; Miri, Mowla


    Transmission-based language classrooms have been mostly dominated by teachers' authority, as reflected in IRF (Teacher Initiation, Student Response, Teacher Follow up/Feedback) architecture of their discourses. By contrast, Critical Pedagogy (CP) has been after fostering multivocality in and out of classroom borders. Which qualities of teacher…

  12. International Students' Attitudes toward L2-English Classroom Activities and Language Skills in the USA

    Weger, Heather


    Pedagogical proponents of both communicative language teaching and the postmethod philosophy argue for the importance of considering learners' needs in classroom planning. This requires understanding learners' attitudes toward a variety of classroom realities. The present study reports on the attitudes of 131 adult, international learners of…

  13. Predicting Language Teachers' Classroom Management Orientations on the Basis of Their Computer Attitude and Demographic Characteristics

    Jalali, Sara; Panahzade, Vahid


    The advent of modern technologies has had a remarkable role in revolutionizing the classroom setting. It is, therefore, incumbent on teachers to utilize strategies for effective managing of the change. The aim of the present study was to find out English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers' beliefs regarding classroom management. In so doing, the…

  14. Using Focus-on-Form Instruction in the Second Language classroom



    As applied teaching, it refers to focus-on-form instruction and focus-on-meaning instruction which have been used in the second language classroom. By analyzing what the effectiveness of focus-on-form instruction is, what the disadvantages of focus-on-meaning instruction are? Therefore, it makes the conclusion: focus-on-form instruction is better than focus-on-meaning instruction within the second language classroom.

  15. The two faces of Janus? Anxiety and enjoyment in the foreign language classroom

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc; MacIntyre, P.


    The present study investigates Foreign Language Enjoyment (FLE) and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) in the classroom. Participants were 1746 current FL learners from around the world. We used a measure of FLE, based on Likert scale ratings of 21 items (Dewaele & MacIntyre, 2014), and a measure of FLCA based on 8 items extracted from the FLCAS (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986). Statistical analyses revealed that levels of FLE were significantly higher than those of FLCA. FLE a...

  16. 任务型语言教学的特点及其课堂应用研究%Research on the Characteristics of Task-based Language Teaching and Application of TBLT in the Language Classroom



      任务型语言教学以学生为主体,完成真实、具体的任务,培养学生综合语言运用能力,其教学特点是在用中学,学中用,创设真实的语境,注重学习过程,转变教师角色。在设计活动时立足于真实、形式、功能、阶梯性及中学的原则。%  Task-based Language Teaching focuses on the students and gets them to accomplish authentic and concrete tasks so as to develop their comprehensive language abilities .Task-based Language Teaching is typ-ical of learning by using and using by learning;establishing authentic situations;emphasizing learning process as well as changing teachers'roles.Designing the task-based activities is based on the principles of authentic-ity, form-function, dependency and learning by doing.

  17. The dynamic nature of motivation in language learning: A classroom perspective

    Mirosław Pawlak


    Full Text Available When we examine the empirical investigations of motivation in second and foreign language learning, even those drawing upon the latest theoretical paradigms, such as the L2 motivational self system (Dörnyei, 2009, it becomes clear that many of them still fail to take account of its dynamic character and temporal variation. This may be surprising in view of the fact that the need to adopt such a process-oriented approach has been emphasized by a number of theorists and researchers (e.g., Dörnyei, 2000, 2001, 2009; Ushioda, 1996; Williams & Burden, 1997, and it lies at the heart of the model of second language motivation proposed by Dörnyei and Ottó (1998. It is also unfortunate that few research projects have addressed the question of how motivation changes during a language lesson as well as a series of lessons, and what factors might be responsible for fluctuations of this kind. The present paper is aimed to rectify this problem by reporting the findings of a classroom-based study which investigated the changes in the motivation of 28 senior high school students, both in terms of their goals and intentions, and their interest and engagement in classroom activities and tasks over the period of four weeks. The analysis of the data collected by means of questionnaires, observations and interviews showed that although the reasons for learning remain relatively stable, the intensity of motivation is indeed subject to variation on a minute-to-minute basis and this fact has to be recognized even in large-scale, cross-sectional research in this area.



    This paper argues for the need for authentic listening materials in the ELT classroom in China,discussing the selection of those materials,and their adaptation for classroom use,whilst outlinig theirconstraints.

  19. "I've Got an Idea": A Social Semiotic Perspective on Agency in the Second Language Classroom

    Pinnow, Rachel J.


    This paper addresses the role of multimodal fluency in establishing agency in the second language classroom. The focus of the paper is on the semiotic resourcefulness of an English Language Learner in an English as a Second Language classroom in the United States. Framed from a social semiotic perspective, fine grained multimodal analysis of…

  20. Students, language, and physics: Discourse in the science classroom

    Kowalski, Susan Marie

    Women and minorities do not enter science professions at rates consistent with their populations (Rosser, 2000). A variety of theoretical frameworks and associated interventions have been cited in the literature; yet, the gender and racial gaps remain. Theoretical frameworks and the associated interventions to promote the success of women and minorities in the sciences have primarily been one dimensional: they address issues of Self (associated with experiential and psychoanalytical framings) or Language (categorical and deconstructive framings) (Grumet & Stone, 2000). Furthermore, research in science education with few exceptions (Hanson, 2004), has failed to address race and gender through an intersectional analysis. This study investigates the inclusion and exclusion of girls and minorities in the sciences by examining the connections between Self and Language in physics group work conversations. Critical Discourse Analysis was used to explore the connections between Self and Language. Eight students in two groups were the focus of the study. Transcription of conversations and coding of transcripts with students' subject positions, genres, and registers provided evidence of the reflexivity of Self and Language. Furthermore, the study demonstrated how group discourse and power imbalances within groups serve to simultaneously facilitate and constrain learning opportunities and learning itself.

  1. Language, Access, and Power in the Elementary Science Classroom

    Schoerning, Emily; Hand, Brian; Shelley, Mack; Therrien, William


    The Next Generation Science Standards call for the adoption of many aspects of scientific inquiry in the classroom. The ways in which classroom talk and classroom environment change as students and teachers learn to utilize inquiry approaches are underexplored. This study examines the frequency with which linguistic markers related to access and…

  2. Using authentic materials in the foreign language classrooms: Teachers’ perspectives in EFL classes

    Omid Akbari


    Full Text Available The idea of using authentic material in language teaching is supported among references and many professionals in the field of language pedagogy. Authentic material provides the learners with many significant advantages and promotes them with high motivation and interest in language learning and lead to improving communicative competence (Guariento & Morley, 2001; Wilcox et al., 1999. This paper attempted to investigate Iranian EFL teachers’ attitudes and beliefs regarding the use of authentic materials at high school level in Iran according to communicative language principles, focusing on both reading and listening skills. Fifty-seven (57 female and male English teachers, who teach in high schools and took apart in teacher training course (TTC with CLT framework, completed a survey questionnaire for the purpose of this study. The questionnaires were analyzed in terms of frequency and percentage by means of the statistical package SPSS. The results indicate that English teachers have a positive attitude toward presenting authentic materials in the classroom. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  3. Second language writing anxiety, computer anxiety, and performance in a classroom versus a web-based environment


    This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that involved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxiety only yielded a positive correlation with performance...

  4. Second language writing anxiety, computer anxiety, and performance in a classroom versus a web-based environment


    This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that in-volved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxie-ty only yielded a positive correlation with performan...

  5. Learning and researching in the classroom

    Playa, E.; Travé, A.


    A new method in the course "Carbonate rocks diagenesis" has been tested. This is an optional course in the year 4 of a four year degree in Geology (University of Barcelona, Spain). The number of students in the course is generally reduced (less than ten), and duration of the course is 3 one-hour lecture and 1 three-hour practical per week during 5 weeks. This course has been selected to test a new learning method because is given in the last year of the undergraduate degree and also because the number of students is low, thus achieving a great degree of motivation of the students and favouring the communication in the classroom. The new model implies a general change in the development of the course: students will be trained in scientific research, working in group and using available analytical techniques. Nevertheless, this method does not invalidate the pre-existing educational resources; both new and classic teaching materials coexist in the course. Traditionally, the course was divided in lectures and practical work. The practical work is done on rock specimens and on thin sections using the petrological microscope, which is essentially invariable every course, and which is related with the theoretical concepts explained in the corresponding lecture. The students describe and interpret the material in a "passive" way, only with minor student-teacher feed-back when specific questions are asked by the student. The real learning in Sciences is not learning of isolate subjects, but to understand the relationships between all these subjects. Therefore, the student must learn science and how to do science. In the new tested method, the students carry out by themselves a scientific research project from a basic material provided by the teacher. This research work, which is done along the 5 weeks course, consists on a single project developed from all the students as a single group, thus observing the evolution in the student's knowledge and opening a continuous feed

  6. Aida and Her Mainstream Classroom: A Case Study of a Young English Language Learner's Literacy Development

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono


    Full Text Available This article reports a nine-month study of literacy development of Aida, a young English language learner from Indonesia, who was mainstreamed in a Grade 2 classroom in a primary school in the south-eastern part of Australia. This article initially reviews the literature concerning features of the mainstream classroom conducive for second language learning and for literacy development. Following the presentation of methodological issues, it examines English learning activities in Aida's classroom and highlights her literacy development with examples of her work. The results from this study show that Aida developed literacy skills considered important for her second language and learning development. The variety of English learning activities and the encouraging environment in her classroom contributed much to her literacy development.

  7. ELT Teacher Trainees' Attitudes towards Environmental Education and Their Tendency to Use It in the Language Classroom

    Gursoy, Esim; Saglam, Gulderen T.


    With the change of focus in language teaching from grammar-based approaches to more communicative approaches, contextual language learning gained importance and found body in the English Language classroom. Global issues constitute one of the most popular contexts for purposeful language learning and meaningful language use. Increasing number of…

  8. Applied Literacy in Second Language Education: (Re)Framing Discourse in Literature-Based Classrooms

    Mantero, Miguel


    The present investigation explores and presents a theoretical model of instruction--applied literacy in second language education (ALL2E)--and suggests a contemporary view of the roles of grammar and formal evaluation within literature-based second language (L2) classrooms. Essentially, this article addresses the question "How can instruction and…

  9. Between the Lines: When Culture, Language and Poetry Meet in the Classroom

    Melin, Charlotte


    Teaching poetry in second language (L2) classrooms raises theoretical and practical questions about how best to treat literature when target language and culture is also being negotiated. Current pedagogy derives from disparate sources, including the experientially-driven practices of individual teachers, the quantitative and qualitative research…

  10. Student and Teacher Perceptions of First Language Use in Secondary French Immersion Mathematics Classrooms

    Culligan, Karla


    This phenomenological study (Creswell, 2003, 2007; van Manen, 1997) explores student and teacher perceptions of first language use in French immersion mathematics classrooms at a large, urban high school in Canada. During individual interviews, participants discussed their perceptions and experiences of French immersion mathematics, language use,…

  11. Translanguaging in an Infant Classroom: Using Multiple Languages to Make Meaning

    Garrity, Sarah; Aquino-Sterling, Cristian R.; Day, Ashley


    Numerous theories of development position infants as inherently driven to make sense of the world around them, and the acquisition of language is a fundamental developmental milestone of this period. The purpose of this study was to document the first year of implementation of a Spanish/English dual language program in an infant classroom, using a…

  12. Literacy and Text Reading in Middle and High School Social Studies and English Language Arts Classrooms

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; McCulley, Lisa; Stillman-Spisak, Stephanie; Vaughn, Sharon; Simmons, Deborah; Fogarty, Melissa; Hairrell, Angela


    This study reports vocabulary and reading comprehension instructional practices implemented in middle and high school social studies and language arts classrooms. It also describes text reading practices. We conducted 137 observations of 11 social studies and 9 language arts teachers over the course of 1 academic year. We observed instructional…

  13. Implementing Tasks with Interactive Technologies in Classroom Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL): Towards a Developmental Framework

    Whyte, Shona; Alexander, Julie


    Classroom foreign language teachers using technology in task-based language teaching (TBLT) may experience pedagogical regression during technological development (Fullan, 2001), and fail to transform pedagogy because tools like interactive whiteboards (IWBs) support traditional as well as newer approaches (Avvisati et al., 2013). IWB-supported…

  14. Teachers' Implicit Theories and Use of ICTs in the Language Classroom

    Cárdenas-Claros, Mónica; Oyanedel, Marianna


    This qualitative and exploratory case study sought to examine if and how implicit theories influence the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the language classroom in Chile. To achieve this goal, data was gathered from nine experienced university instructors in English as a Second Language. Based on…

  15. Teaching English as a Global Language in Smart Classrooms with PowerPoint Presentation

    Oommen, Abraham


    The current study, as part of an ongoing investigation to examine teacher perceptions about the teaching of English as a global language at the tertiary level education, aims at examining learner perceptions about PowerPoint presentations used in English classroom instruction for enhancement and integration of four language skills and effective…

  16. Managing the Foreign Language Classroom: Reflections from the Preservice Field and Beyond

    Evans, Elizabeth Julie


    Each day, foreign language teachers are faced with issues that render the control of the K-12 classroom challenging, at best, and virtually impossible at worst. Even preservice foreign language teachers, those going through a teacher education program towards K-12 licensure, understand that no content can be taught or learned if there is mayhem in…

  17. Teaching Pragmatics in the Foreign Language Classroom: Grammar as a Communicative Resource

    Felix-Brasdefer, J. Cesar; Cohen, Andrew D.


    This article focuses on the teaching of pragmatics in the Spanish as a Foreign Language classroom and examines the role of grammar as a communicative resource. It also aims to highlight the importance of teaching pragmatics from beginning levels of language instruction, with the spotlight on speech acts at the discourse level. After the concept of…

  18. The effect of enhanced lexical retrieval on second language writing : A classroom experiment

    Snellings, P; de Glopper, Kees; van Gelderen, A.


    Lexical retrieval is an essential subprocess in language production, and its efficiency is crucial for writing. To improve writing quality in a second language, we developed an experimental, computerized training for improving fluency of lexical retrieval in a classroom setting, applying techniques

  19. Teacher Characteristics, Classroom Instruction, and Student Literacy and Language Outcomes in Bilingual Kindergartners

    Cirino, Paul T.; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.


    This study investigated the relation of teacher characteristics, including ratings of teacher quality, to classroom instructional variables and to bilingual students' literacy and oral language outcomes at the end of the kindergarten year. Teacher characteristics included observational measures of oral language proficiency, quality, and classroom…

  20. Language and Social Development in a Multilingual Classroom: A Dinosaur Project Enriched with Block Play

    Pate, Monique


    With the implementation of the natural approach, the dinosaur study and facilitated block play gave dual language learners many opportunities to acquire a new language, develop social skills, and improve communication abilities. Once teachers identified the barriers to children playing and talking together, they created a classroom environment…

  1. Preschool Classroom Conversations as Long-Term Resources for Second Language and Literacy Acquisition

    Aukrust, Vibeke Grover; Rydland, Veslemoy


    This study investigated relations between preschool talk exposure and immigrant first graders' second language literacy and oral skills outcomes. Participants in the study were 25 children with Turkish as their first language and Norwegian as their second, attending various multilingual and ethnically diverse preschool classrooms in Norway and…

  2. A Diary Study on the Causes of English Language Classroom Anxiety

    Gkonou, Christina


    Drawing on learners' diaries, the study reported in this article focused on the English language classroom anxiety (ELCA) of eight Greek EFL learners in private language school settings. The study investigated the extent to which anxiety is amenable to change and the factors contributing to the creation and increase in students' anxiety in class.…

  3. The Relationship between Language Learners' Anxiety and Learning Strategy in the CLT Classrooms

    Wu, Kun-huei


    This paper intends to explore how Taiwanese students perceive the relationship between their language learning strategy and anxiety in the foreign language classroom. Due to their previous learning experience, most of the participants hold an unfavorable attitude toward a grammar-translation teaching approach. Consequently, learner-centered…

  4. Gesture, Meaning-Making, and Embodiment: Second Language Learning in an Elementary Classroom

    Rosborough, Alessandro


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediational role of gesture and body movement/positioning between a teacher and an English language learner in a second-grade classroom. Responding to Thibault's (2011) call for understanding language through whole-body sense making, aspects of gesture and body positioning were analyzed for…

  5. Language Identities in Students' Writings about Group Work in Their Mathematics Classroom

    Planas, Nuria


    In this article, I explore language identities and processes of negotiation concerning parts of these identities as seen by a group of students from a bilingual mathematics classroom. A collection of 10 students' individual writings on the questions "What language do you use during group work in your mathematics class and why?" is…

  6. Talk or Chat? Chatroom and Spoken Interaction in a Language Classroom

    Hamano-Bunce, Douglas


    This paper describes a study comparing chatroom and face-to-face oral interaction for the purposes of language learning in a tertiary classroom in the United Arab Emirates. It uses transcripts analysed for Language Related Episodes, collaborative dialogues, thought to be externally observable examples of noticing in action. The analysis is…

  7. Gesture, Meaning-Making, and Embodiment: Second Language Learning in an Elementary Classroom

    Rosborough, Alessandro


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediational role of gesture and body movement/positioning between a teacher and an English language learner in a second-grade classroom. Responding to Thibault's (2011) call for understanding language through whole-body sense making, aspects of gesture and body positioning were analyzed…

  8. Teaching English Language Learners: 43 Strategies for Successful K-8 Classrooms

    Colombo, Michaela


    Ideal as a supplementary text for a variety of courses and as a guide for in-service teachers and for professional development settings, "Teaching English Language Learners: 43 Strategies for Successful K-8 Classrooms" provides teachers of all content areas with a broad, practical approach to teaching English language learners in the regular…

  9. Code-Switching in English as a Foreign Language Classroom: Teachers' Attitudes

    Ibrahim, Engku Haliza Engku; Shah, Mohamed Ismail Ahamad; Armia, Najwa Tgk.


    Code-switching has always been an intriguing phenomenon to sociolinguists. While the general attitude to it seems negative, people seem to code-switch quite frequently. Teachers of English as a foreign language too frequently claim that they do not like to code-switch in the language classroom for various reasons--many are of the opinion that only…

  10. Recycle, Reformulate, Reevaluate: The Three R's for Writing in the Language Classroom.

    Swenson, Barbara E.

    A discussion of second language writing instruction illustrates how writing activities can be incorporated into regular classroom activities and outlines strategies for providing purpose, feedback, and assessment while integrating language skills and culture. Three stages in the writing process are identified: (1) recycling previous information…

  11. Universal Grammar in the Classroom: The Effects of Formal Instruction on Second Language Acquisition.

    Felix, Sasha W.; Weigl, Wilfried


    Discusses whether second-language learners have access to universal grammar by looking at the acquisition of German English-as-a-Second-Language high school students. The students were exposed to English exclusively during classroom hours. Results of the study suggest that these students did not have access to universal grammar. (16 references)…

  12. Social Positioning, Participation, and Second Language Learning: Talkative Students in an Academic ESL Classroom

    Kayi-Aydar, Hayriye


    Guided by positioning theory and poststructural views of second language learning, the two descriptive case studies presented in this article explored the links between social positioning and the language learning experiences of two talkative students in an academic ESL classroom. Focusing on the macro- and micro-level contexts of communication,…

  13. On techniques to integrate cultural learning within English language teaching classrooms



    Culture is inseparable from language teaching and learning. Learning the target culture may arouse students’cultural awareness and avoid cultural misunderstanding in cross-cultural communications. It is important to integrate cultural learning within English language classrooms. This essay discusses the techniques of achieving this integration.

  14. Elementary English Language Instruction: Colombian Teachers’ Classroom Practices

    Cadavid Múnera Isabel Cristina


    Full Text Available An in-progress ethnographic research project about teachers who are facing the complex task of teaching English to children in 7 public elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Medellin is presented in this article. First, the need for this research is outlined by researchers; second, the methodology of the project is described; third, up-to-date findings which include a profile of the 12 teachers who are participating in this study, and an analysis of their class methodology in terms of activities, materials, teacher and student roles are reported. Lastly, implications of this research project related to early foreign language instruction are highlighted. Key words: Public Elementary-English-Language Instruction, English-Foreign Language, Ethnography-Research-Method, Teaching-Methodology Este artículo presenta los resultados preliminares de una investigación etnográfica acerca de las estrategias metodológicas utilizadas por profesores de básica primaria que enseñan inglés como lengua extranjera en 7 escuelas públicas del área metropolitana del municipio de Medellín. En la primera parte se resalta la importancia de esta investigación en nuestro medio y en la segunda, de los 12 profesores participantes y un análisis de la metodología empleada por ellos con respecto a las actividades de clase, los materiales y el rol del estudiante y del profesor. Finalmente, se discuten algunas de las implicaciones de este proyecto de investigación en la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras a niños. Palabras claves: Inglés-Enseñanza-Básica Primaria, Lengua Extranjera-Inglés, Estudio Etnográfico-Investigación, Enseñanza-Metodología

  15. COML (Classroom Orchestration Modelling Language) and Scenarios Designer: Toolsets to Facilitate Collaborative Learning in a One-to-One Technology Classroom

    Niramitranon, Jitti; Sharples, Mike; Greenhalgh, Chris


    In a one-to-one collaborative learning classroom supported by ubiquitous computing, teachers require tools that allow them to design of learning scenarios, and to manage and monitor the activities happening in the classroom. Our project proposes an architecture for a classroom management system and a scenarios designer tool, both based on a Classroom Orchestration Modelling Language (COML), to support these requirements. We are developing and testing this with the GroupScribbles software usin...

  16. A sociolinguistics of the utopian and the use of language in classrooms

    Hermann, Jesper


    The notion of the Utopian use of language in classrooms was developed and applied as a theoretical tool during the empirical study of language in classrooms. It is claimed that a notion like this may turn out to be particularly profitable when the purpose is to interpret and characterize the cont......, and the conclusion is ventured that it is necessary to anchor the sociolinguistic descriptions of actual language use in a sociological conception of the relevant social praxis - in our case taken from the sociology of education....

  17. Based on the“Eight Words”Teaching Method of High School Language Classroom Research on Rurnover%基于“八字”教学法的高中语文翻转课堂研究



    “Flipped classroom”is a new teaching mode originated in the America,and widely used in the world. This teaching method is mainly through the preclass for students to watch video to learn knowledge,knowledge of classroom teaching methods,the traditional classroom teaching reform. In recent years,in the promotion of the development of the information technology,the educational circles of China have gradually realized the value of the flipped classroom. Many schools use the“Eight words”teaching method in the teaching process,and has carried on the research and practice. Firstly,it has elaborated the advantages of the flipped classroom,analyzes the present situation of our country at the present stage of high school Chinese classroom of turnover,and finally puts forward some perfect our high school Chinese classroom measures flip.%“翻转课堂”是起源于美国的一种新的教学模式,并在全世界广泛使用。这种教学方式主要是通过课前给学生观看视频学习知识、课堂上进行知识内化的教学方式,实现了对传统课堂教学的革新。近几年来,在信息化技术发展的推动下,我国教育界也逐渐认识到了翻转课堂的价值。很多学校在教学过程中使用了“八字”教学法,并对其进行了研究和实践。首先阐述了翻转课堂的优点,分析了现阶段我国高中语文翻转课堂的现状,最后提出了一些完善我国高中语文翻转课堂的措施。

  18. Teaching a Second Language to “Newcomers” In a Mainstream Classroom

    Hassan, Ahmad Husam Ahmad Al, 1993-


    Today, many teachers get newcomers in their classes, but many of them might not have the experience to teach newcomers. This paper examines some methods for teaching a second language to newcomers in a mainstream classroom. The paper is based on my experience of learning a second language and supported with views of a teacher of Icelandic as a second language. The teachers’ role is important in the lives of newcomers and consequently, teachers need special training in working with them. In ma...

  19. The Research of Java Language

    SI Bei-bei


    This paper describes the origin of the Java language, then introduce the basic ideas and principles of Java programming language, and then briefly describes the implementation process and application development Java language are involved in the main technology applications, followed by more detailed the analysis of the characteristics of the Java language and its advantage compared with other programming languages, finally introduces its application in network security management and embedded systems, and future prospects of the Java language development direction and trends. Java language with its multi-threading, cross-platform, object-oriented features to obtain a wide range of applications and has been a computer programmer and industry recognition.I believe that with the development of computer technology, Java language will make a greater contribution to computer technology.

  20. Exploring Content Teachers' Knowledge of Language Pedagogy: A Report on a Small-Scale Research Project in a Dutch CLIL Context

    Koopman, Gerrit Jan; Skeet, Jason; de Graaff, Rick


    The relationship between language pedagogy and the content and language integrated learning (CLIL) classroom is a key issue for research into CLIL. In the Netherlands, as in other European contexts, non-native speakers of a target language with a non-language teaching background teach CLIL content lessons. Whilst CLIL teachers teaching their…

  1. Exploring Content Teachers' Knowledge of Language Pedagogy: A Report on a Small-Scale Research Project in a Dutch CLIL Context

    Koopman, Gerrit Jan; Skeet, Jason; de Graaff, Rick


    The relationship between language pedagogy and the content and language integrated learning (CLIL) classroom is a key issue for research into CLIL. In the Netherlands, as in other European contexts, non-native speakers of a target language with a non-language teaching background teach CLIL content lessons. Whilst CLIL teachers teaching their…

  2. Exploring content teachers’ knowledge of language pedagogy: a report on a small-scale research project in a Dutch CLIL context

    Koopman, G.J.; Skeet, J.A.; de Graaff, H.C.J.


    The relationship between language pedagogy and the content and language integrated learning (CLIL) classroom is a key issue for research into CLIL. In the Netherlands, as in other European contexts, non-native speakers of a target language with a non-language teaching background teach CLIL content l

  3. The Application of Virtual Simulations using Second Life in a Foreign Language Classroom

    Tecnam Yoon


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of virtual simulation-based language learning in a foreign language class in Korea. Total 35 1st-year university students in Korea participated in this research to figure out the effect of simulations. A virtual English learning community, ‘Cypris Chat’ in Second Life was selected as a learning tool. For the data collection, a survey questionnaire was distributed and analysed quantitatively. The result shows that the majority of the students had a positive attitude toward using a virtual simulation in English learning and had better understanding in learning English by experiencing an authentic practice. The first section of this paper provides a general overview of simulations in educational settings through an insightful literature review of the current research in the area. The review includes a comprehensive outlook on simulations, an example of successful classroom integration and some of the considerations researchers have found for their implementation. The latter section addresses the research method, results and conclusions.

  4. Classroom Labels That Young Children Can Use: Enhancing Biliteracy Development in a Dual Language Classroom

    Salinas-Gonzalez, Irasema; Arreguin-Anderson, Maria G.; Alanís, Iliana


    This article focuses on biliteracy development of English and Spanish through the practical strategy of systematically labeling the classroom within the context of daily classroom activities and providing children with various opportunities to use the words throughout the day. Using the foundational work related to classroom labels from Pinnell…

  5. Attitudes towards Teachers’ Motivation, and Classroom Strategy, in English Language classrooms

    Samira Pahlavanpoorfard; Afshin Soori


    This study aimed at investigating the attitudes of Iranian EFL students towards teachers’ motivation and classroom strategy in English classroom. The subjects of the study included a sample of 235 students in their classes. The findings of this study revealed that teachers’ motivation and classroom strategy used by teachers have effects on the students’ motivation.

  6. Attitudes towards Teachers' Motivation, and Classroom Strategy, in English Language Classrooms

    Pahlavanpoorfard, Samira; Soori, Afshin


    This study aimed at investigating the attitudes of Iranian EFL students towards teachers' motivation and classroom strategy in English classroom. The subjects of the study included a sample of 235 students in their classes. The findings of this study revealed that teachers' motivation and classroom strategy used by teachers have effects on the…

  7. Reframing the Debate on Language Separation: Toward a Vision for Translanguaging Pedagogies in the Dual Language Classroom

    Palmer, Deborah K.; Martínez, Ramón Antontio; Mateus, Suzanne G.; Henderson, Kathryn


    The policy of strict separation of languages for academic instruction dominates dual language bilingual education programming. This article explores the dynamic bilingual practices of two experienced bilingual teachers in a two-way dual language public school in Texas and contributes to current research problematizing language separation. Data…

  8. A Critical Review of Motivation in Second Language Acquisition Research



    As one of the major factors affecting second language learners' success to their acquisition achievement, motivation has been examined in a wide variety of research papers. It is thus instructive to conduct a critical review of both theoretical and empirical developments in SLA research from over the last few decades. This approach will provide a broad, and integrated perspective onto the current understanding of the complex topic of motivation. Such an undertaking is valuable for teachers, and researchers alike, in developing useful teaching methods, and finding future avenues of SLA motivation research respectively.The following paper provides an overview of recent theoretical and empirical findings, examines some of the problems and contradictions found/11 current SLA research, and gives an initial departure point for future directions of research in the area of motivation. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the implications for teachers, and possible classroom strategies that axe drawn from the current body of motivation research.

  9. Creating an Authentic Learning Environment in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Nikitina, Larisa


    Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation…

  10. Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction for English Language Learners, Grades K-4

    Vaughn, Sharon; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia


    At last, a truly helpful, practical guide for K-4 teachers who want to ensure that their approach to teaching young English language learners is based on research and grounded in proven classroom practices. The authors of ASCD's best-selling book "Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction, Grades K-3" explain how you can help the English…

  11. Relation between language experiences in preschool classrooms and children's kindergarten and fourth-grade language and reading abilities.

    Dickinson, David K; Porche, Michelle V


    Indirect effects of preschool classroom indexes of teacher talk were tested on fourth-grade outcomes for 57 students from low-income families in a longitudinal study of classroom and home influences on reading. Detailed observations and audiotaped teacher and child language data were coded to measure content and quantity of verbal interactions in preschool classrooms. Preschool teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary during free play predicted fourth-grade reading comprehension and word recognition (mean age=9; 7), with effects mediated by kindergarten child language measures (mean age=5; 6). In large group preschool settings, teachers' attention-getting utterances were directly related to later comprehension. Preschool teachers' correcting utterances and analytic talk about books, and early support in the home for literacy predicted fourth-grade vocabulary, as mediated by kindergarten receptive vocabulary.

  12. Introducing blended learning in the English language classroom: Students’ attitudes and perceptions before and after the course

    Natalya Emelyanova


    Full Text Available The increased demands for foreign language learning and the dwindling number of contact hours have urged teachers to look for innovative methods of instruction such as blended learning (BL. A study was conducted at a Russian university (The National Research University Higher School of Economics in order to explore the attitudes and perceptions of the students toward blended learning in the English language classroom. The research instruments were tests and questionnaires administered to students before and after the course. The online portion of the course was realized through the corporate learning management system (LMS. The study revealed a noticeable evolution in students’ perceptions and attitudes towards using blended learning in foreign language instruction. This shift and the consequential outcomes of the study are discussed.

  13. Students' Social Positioning in the Language Classroom: Implications for Interaction

    Stone, Paul; Kidd, Andrew


    This paper outlines some findings of a three-month investigation into the effects of students' interpersonal relationships on communication in two EFL classrooms in a Japanese university. Data was collected to identify and describe the various social subgroups that existed within the classes, and samples of classroom discourse were then analysed…

  14. Vygotskian Approaches to Second Language Research.

    Lantolf, James P., Ed.; Appel, Gabriela, Ed.

    The collection of essays on aspects of Vygotskian theory focuses on the theory's application to research on second language learning. Articles include: "Theoretical Framework: An Introduction to Vygotskian Perspectives on Second Language Research" (James P. Lantolf, Gabriela Appel); Collective Scaffolding in Second Language…

  15. Research Ethics in Sign Language Communities

    Harris, Raychelle; Holmes, Heidi M.; Mertens, Donna M.


    Codes of ethics exist for most professional associations whose members do research on, for, or with sign language communities. However, these ethical codes are silent regarding the need to frame research ethics from a cultural standpoint, an issue of particular salience for sign language communities. Scholars who write from the perspective of…

  16. Second Language Research Using Magnetoencephalography: A Review

    Schmidt, Gwen L.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.


    In this review we show how magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a constructive tool for language research and review MEG findings in second language (L2) research. MEG is the magnetic analog of electroencephalography (EEG), and its primary advantage over other cross-sectional (e.g. magnetic resonance imaging, or positron emission tomography) functional…

  17. The Evaluation of Classroom Teacher Candidates’ Attitudes Regarding Turkish Language I: Phonetics and Morphology Course

    Çavuş ŞAHİN


    Full Text Available This study has been carried out to determine the attitudes of the classroom teacher candidates regarding Turkish language I: Phonetics and morphology courses. The attitude scale consists of 28 items. The scale has been applied for the total 255 teacher candidates attending the third and fourth grades in the department of the classroom teaching of the educational faculty at Onsekiz Mart University in the academic year 2009-2010. According to the results, the attitudes of classroom teacher candidates regarding Turkishlanguage I: Phonetics and morphology courses have been determined to have revealed significant differences according to gender, age and education type and success grade. On the other hand, the attitudes of the classroom teacher candidates regarding Turkish language I: Phonetics and morphology courses have been determined not to have revealed a significant difference according to the region where they are from, the high school and class type they attend.

  18. Learners Involvement in Materials Selection for Teaching English in Language Classroom at Aligarh Muslim University

    Sheema Fatima


    Full Text Available The onset of the present paper throws light on materials selection and traditional outlook. Then the paper discusses four types of materials, more specifically, instructional, experiential, exploratory and elicitative materials and their use in language classroom. It discusses the role relationship between teachers, learners and materials in the present scenario at Aligarh Muslim University, keeping in consideration the requirements of the changing times. The paper aims to highlight the positive effects of learner’s involvement in Materials Selection process. The researcher has tried to analyze the findings on the basis of a questionnaire distributed among teachers and students at Undergraduate level. Some suggestions are recommended, on the basis of the findings from the data collected.

  19. Flipped Classroom Research and Trends from Different Fields of Study

    Zainuddin, Zamzami; Halili, Siti Hajar


    This paper aims to analyse the trends and contents of flipped classroom research based on 20 articles that report on flipped learning classroom initiatives from 2013-2015. The content analysis was used as a methodology to investigate methodologies, area of studies, technology tools or online platforms, the most frequently used keywords and works…

  20. Pragmatic Competence in Classroom Teaching



    Pragmatic competence is a branch of language education studies within the overall framework of linguistics. The paper discusses relationship between pragmatics and classroom teaching from the perspectives of pragmatic competence, features of class-room teaching and how to cultivate pragmatics competence in classroom teaching. It is argued that there are positive role of prag-matics in classroom teaching. This thesis tries to finally give some advise from pragmatics for further language education research.

  1. Forty Per Cent French: Intercultural Competence and Identity in an Australian Language Classroom

    Moloney, Robyn


    In the development of intercultural language learning, limited research has been conducted on language learners' negotiation of identity and cultural memberships. There is little research in particular on intercultural identity in young (primary school) language learners. With the global growth of languages in the primary school, it is timely to…

  2. Relationship of L1 Skills and L2 Aptitude to L2 Anxiety on the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon


    The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) has been challenged on the grounds that it may also assess language learning skills. In this study, 128 students who had been administered measures of first language (L1) skills in elementary school were followed from 1st to 10th grade. Fifty-three students had completed second language (L2)…

  3. Language Attrition Research: An Introduction.

    Weltens, Bert; Cohen, Andrew D.


    Reviews key issues generally addressed in studies of language attrition, including the effects of instructional methods on long-term retention, the effects of proficiency level on attrition, attrition's different effects on various language skills, typical forgetting curves, and typical attrition orders. 26 references.(CB)

  4. Reflective Blogfolios in the Language Classroom: Impact on EFL Tertiary Students' Argumentative Writing Skills and Ways of Knowing

    Ammar, Abdullah Mahmoud Ismial


    The emerging paradigm shift in educational contexts from walled classroom environments to virtual, hybrid, blended, and lately personal learning environments has brought about vast changes in the foreign language classroom practices. Numerous calls for experimenting with new instructional treatments to enhance students' language performance in…

  5. Evaluating Classroom Communication: In Support of Emergent and Authentic Frameworks in Second Language Assessment.

    Miguel Mantero


    Full Text Available This paper addresses sociocultural theory and pedagogy (Vygotsky 1978, Lantolf 2000 in the..second language classroom, particularly as it relates to student assessment. While teaching..practices may be evolving to reflect the theory, methods of assessment are still largely the..same: based on a priori structures and grammar (Hopper and Thompson 1993. Authentic..assessment (Wiggins 1990 and instructional conversations (Tharp and Gallimore 1988 are..introduced as better methods for student assessment in language classrooms that operate..within the sociocultural framework.

  6. Language Anxiety and Its Affect on Oral Performance in Classroom



    Language anxiety is a state of apprehension occurring in the process of a second / foreign Language use owing to the user's incompetence in communication with that Language. It is a distinct complex of self-perceptions, beliefs, feelings and behaviors.., arising from the uniqueness of the language learning process. It consists of three components: (1) communication apprehension; (2) test anxiety; (3) fear of negative evaluation.

  7. Towards an Understanding of the Role of Language in the Science Classroom and Its Association with Cultural Identity Development in the Context of Mozambique

    Cupane, Alberto Felisberto


    I am reflecting here my struggle to understand the issue of language in the science classroom and in our lives from three different perspectives: before and after Mozambican independence and after completion of my doctoral research. The main method used is auto|ethnographic inquiry in which I use the events in my life to question what is happening…

  8. A Reader Responds to Guilloteaux and Dornyei's "Motivating Language Learners: A Classroom-Oriented Investigation of the Effects of Motivational Strategies on Student Motivation"

    Ellis, Rod


    There is a wealth of literature examining the role of motivation in second language (L2) learning but remarkably little research that has examined how teachers can foster motivation in the classroom. For this reason alone Guilloteaux and Dornyei's (2008) correlational study of the relationship between motivational strategies and student motivation…

  9. Exploring the Main Barriers of Technology Integration in the English Language Teaching Classroom: A Qualitative Study

    Rouholllah Khodabandelou


    Full Text Available The abundance of technology in recent years has contributed to development in the societies, industries, and education. It is proven from the current trend of technology such as the emergence and rise of smart phones, tablets, laptops and wireless internet connection that the present and future world will be heralded by technology. The integration of technology into the teaching and learning process is idealistic with the existence of vast information and multimedia on the internet and innovative inventions of devices that serve as great assistance. However, the available technology has not been put to good use in the English language teaching and learning classroom for some reasons, especially in developing countries like Malaysia. Thus, this research is conducted to determine the hindrances faced by the education community in Malaysia. The current qualitative research involved seven individuals who discussed issues relating to the hindrances of technology integration in English language teaching and learning. This paper presents the results of the discussion and provides suggestions on some possible solutions to the identified obstacles faced by the education community in using technology in a more efficient and resourceful manner for the teaching and learning development. Keywords: TESL, barriers, technology, integration, higher education

  10. Teaching Nonverbal Communication in the Second Language Classroom.

    Corbett, Stephen S.; Moore, Jean

    Because the nonverbal component of communication is culture-specific, effective communication in a second language requires knowledge of the body language typical of speakers of that language. For example, Americans and Hispanics have a different sense of proxemics, Hispanics favoring closeness during conversation. Instruction in nonverbal…

  11. Sign Language: Meeting Diverse Needs in the Classroom

    Simpson, Cynthia G.; Lynch, Sharon A.


    For a number of years, sign language has been used in special education settings for learners with disabilities. Children with hearing loss, autism, cognitive disabilities, and language disorders have demonstrated improved communication skills with the use of signs. Recently, however, teachers have begun to use sign language with typical learners…

  12. Researcher Identity, Narrative Inquiry, and Language Teaching Research

    Norton, Bonny; Early, Margaret


    Whereas there has been much research on language and identity with respect to learners, teachers, and teacher educators, there has been little focus on the identity of the researcher, an important stakeholder in language education. Our research therefore addresses the following question: To what extent can narrative inquiry illuminate the ways in…

  13. Culture and the Language Classroom. Challenging Expectations of Cultural Behavior


    Culture is generally considered to be a necessary part of language teaching. The term embraces not only the way we present background information about native speakers of the foreign language, but also the methodology we employ and our concept of who is best qualified to teach the language. lt also has pragmatic implications for the functions and behavior we emphasize when we teach. lt is part of a whole ideology of language teaching. As long as we consider languages to be associated with the...

  14. The Intersection of Inquiry-Based Science and Language: Preparing Teachers for ELL Classrooms

    Weinburgh, Molly; Silva, Cecilia; Smith, Kathy Horak; Groulx, Judy; Nettles, Jenesta


    As teacher educators, we are tasked with preparing prospective teachers to enter a field that has undergone significant changes in student population and policy since we were K-12 teachers. With the emphasis placed on connections, mathematics integration, and communication by the New Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (Achieve in Next generation science standards, 2012), more research is needed on how teachers can accomplish this integration (Bunch in Rev Res Educ 37:298-341, 2013; Lee et al. in Educ Res 42(4):223-233, 2013). Science teacher educators, in response to the NGSS, recognize that it is necessary for pre-service and in-service teachers to know more about how instructional strategies in language and science can complement one another. Our purpose in this study was to explore a model of integration that can be used in classrooms. To do this, we examined the change in science content knowledge and academic vocabulary for English language learners (ELLs) as they engaged in inquiry-based science experience utilizing the 5R Instructional Model. Two units, erosion and wind turbines, were developed using the 5R Instructional Model and taught during two different years in a summer school program for ELLs. We analyzed data from interviews to assess change in conceptual understanding and science academic vocabulary over the 60 h of instruction. The statistics show a clear trend of growth supporting our claim that ELLs did construct more sophisticated understanding of the topics and use more language to communicate their knowledge. As science teacher educators seek ways to prepare elementary teachers to help preK-12 students to learn science and develop the language of science, the 5R Instructional Model is one pathway.

  15. Classroom Currents: Interrupting the Single Story: LGBT Issues in the Language Arts Classroom

    Hermann-Wilmarth, Jill; Ryan, Caitlin L.


    Two literacy leaders acknowledge the challenges of teaching LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) issues in the classroom. While children come from a variety of family structures, it is necessary to acknowledge that a gay individual was once a child sitting in a classroom. An argument against marginalization and an advocacy for inclusion of…

  16. Exploring a Flipped Classroom Approach in a Japanese Language Classroom: A Mixed Methods Study

    Prefume, Yuko Enomoto


    A flipped classroom approach promotes active learning and increases teacher-student interactions by maximizing face-to-face class time (Hamdan, McKnight, Mcknight, Arfstrom, & Arfstrom, 2013). In this study, "flipped classroom" is combined with the use of technology and is described as an instructional approach that provides lectures…

  17. 外语课堂教学与管理现状及策略研究%Present Situation and Strategies for Foreign Language Teaching and Classroom Management

    李科峰; 李仑


    Foreign language teaching and classroom management have a close relationship with college students' foreign language ability.In a long time researches on foreign language teaching have mainly focused on methodology,ignoring classroom management strategies.This paper studies the present situation of foreign language teaching in order to find out its problems and corresponding strategies for classroom management.Effective classroom teaching and management can create a relaxing,positive and harmonious classroom atmosphere,thus improving college students' overall English ability.%外语课堂教学与管理直接关系着当代大学生外语水平的高低。长期以来,我国有关外语教学的研究主要集中在对教学方法的探讨上,而在一定程度上忽略了课堂管理方法。目前国内的外语教学现状存在着自身的问题。本文将探究这些现状及问题,并提出相应的管理策略。期望此举能够为高校大学生营造出一个宽松、积极而又和谐的教学氛围,使大学生更好的增强自身英语综合水平。

  18. Narrative Research in Language Teaching and Learning

    Barkhuizen, Gary


    Narrative research in language teaching and learning (LTL) is concerned with the stories teachers and learners tell about their lived and imagined experiences. Teachers typically tell about their professional development and their practices, and learners about their experiences of learning and using languages. What stories are, and indeed what…

  19. Learning over Time: Uses of Intercontextuality, Collective Memories, and Classroom Chronotopes in the Construction of Learning Opportunities in a Ninth-Grade Language Arts Classroom

    Bloome, David; Beierle, Marlene; Grigorenko, Margaret; Goldman, Susan


    Framed within interactional sociolinguistics, microethnographic discourse analysis, and cognitive science, we examine how intercontextuality, collective memories, and classroom chronotopes were used in generating learning opportunities in a ninth-grade language arts classroom. Five consecutive videorecorded lessons were analyzed focusing on how…

  20. Developing Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) in Diverse Classrooms


    The process of second language acquisition was studied by examining the distinction between basic interpersonal conversation skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). This distinction, originally proposed by linguist Jim Cummins, relates to current trends in the U.S public education system. A review of the literature was conducted and integrated with information obtained by interviewing local language arts teachers. The primary goal of the study was to learn how public...

  1. Exploring Researchers in Dialogue: Linguistic and Educational Perspectives on Observational Data from a Sixth Grade Classroom

    Helg Fottland


    Full Text Available This article reflects on a collaborative process between two researchers from different backgrounds conducting a joint-venture classroom observation project focusing on language, communication and special education. Focusing on the connection between explorative learning situations and dialogue in relation to children's learning and identity development, the researchers cooperate on all levels in the research process. The article compares findings when approaching data from two different professional traditions, linguistics and education. The main focus is how each of the researchers approaches the data analysis. The combining of approaches in interpreting and writing is also discussed. Narratives and spoken dialogues are vital in this work; transcripts of video material from a primary school classroom are used as illustrations.

  2. Documentation in the Visual Arts: Embedding a Common Language from Research

    Hetland, Lois; Cajolet, Sharron; Music, Louise


    This article illustrates the effects of embedding a common language derived from research, conducted through Project Zero at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, into teachers' documentations of classroom experiences. It suggests that documentation can be enhanced by using shared professional vocabularies that describe categories important in…

  3. Increasing Confidence to Decrease Reticence: A Qualitative Action Research in Second Language Education

    Doqaruni, Vahid Rahmani


    This study reports on an action research on increasing the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students' confidence in speaking. Participants involved in this study were 16 male university students who had an upper-intermediate level of English. Extra speaking activities were incorporated into the classroom for 8 successive weeks. Insights into…

  4. A Constructive Teaching Model in Learning Research Concept for English Language Teaching Students

    Anwar, Khoirul


    This is a study to focus on analyzing the use of constructive teaching method toward the students' motivation in learning content subject of Introduction to Research of English Language Teaching. By using a mix-method of qualitative and quantitative analysis, the data are collected by using questionnaire and classroom observation. The…

  5. Gay as classroom practice: A study on sexuality in a secondary language classroom

    Angelica Simonsson


    Full Text Available In this study conceptions of sexuality in classroom praxis are investigated. Sexuality and education is a growing field of research, in Sweden as well as internationally, something which has been recently represented also in Confero, not least in the contributions in the special issue "Queering School, Queers in School". In the introduction to an anthology on gender, sexuality and education, Carlson and Meyer point out that school, as an institution, plays an important role in society when it comes to regulating gender and sexuality since school is a producer of differences in terms of "separable binary oppositions" such as man-woman and straight-gay, that are easily understood within the dominating culture and where one in each couple is usually more highly valued than the other. Carlson and Meyer further assert that school as an institution, in this way, produces gender and sexuality. One example of this is presented by Dalley and Campbell, who in their study of pupil interaction in high school conclude that the male pupils produce heterosexuality, whether actual or pretended, as normal by referencing homosexuality as abnormal. Our reading of these studies indicates that within both formal and informal schooling, meaning and knowledge is produced through everyday practices in which conceptions of gender and sexuality are crucial. In these practices, heterosexuality holds a position as taken-for-granted and normative.

  6. Brain-Based Research & Language Teaching.

    Christison, MaryAnn


    Introduces brain-based teaching and learning. Reviews basic biological facts about the human brain and discusses seven principles based on recent research that have practical benefits for English-as-a-Foreign-Language teachers. (Author/VWL)

  7. Generative Research on Second Language Acquisition.

    Eubank, Lynn


    Reviews recent trends in generative research on second language acquisition, focusing on the role of universal grammar, parameter resetting, and anaphoric binding. An annotated bibliography discusses five important works in the field. (61 references) (MDM)

  8. Biliteracy and Language Development in Samoan Bilingual Classrooms: The Effects of Increasing English Reading Comprehension

    Toloa, Meaola; McNaughton, Stuart; Lai, Mei


    This article addresses an area of international concern, the need to enhance the development in reading comprehension for English Language Learners. We report results of an intervention to raise achievement in English (L2) in Samoan bilingual classrooms for 9-13 year old Samoan children. The general aim was to examine patterns of biliteracy and…

  9. Teachers' Beliefs about English Language Learners in the Mainstream Classroom: A Review of the Literature

    Pettit, Stacie Kae


    This literature review on teachers' beliefs about English language learners (ELLs) in mainstream classrooms is organized into three sections: (a) inservice teachers' existing beliefs, (b) predictors of inservice teachers' beliefs, and (c) the connection between inservice teachers' beliefs and practices. This body of literature points to a clear…

  10. Working for and with Latino/Latina Immigrant Newcomers in the English Language Arts Classroom

    Musetti, Bernadette; Salas, Spencer; Perez, Theresa


    "Newcomers" are English learners who are new to the United States and arrive with limited or interrupted formal schooling. These students have below-grade-level literacy skills in their home language and do not speak English. Newcomers' arrivals to the middle school and high school classrooms often present a formidable "what to do" for classroom…

  11. Contrasting Identities: A Language Teacher's Practice in an English for Specific Purposes Classroom

    Okada, Yusuke


    For language teachers who are concerned about referring to their own and students' identities other than in the roles of "teacher" and "student" in the classroom, this conversation analytic study aims to give insights into the use of identity. Detailed analysis of the data of English for a Specific Purpose (ESP) classrooms…

  12. Improving the Classroom Language Proficiency of Non-Native Teachers of English: What and How?

    Nakata, Yoshiyuki


    The present paper attempts to examine the possibilities of the Classroom Language Assessment Benchmark (CLAB) as a professional development tool for EFL teachers in Japan. Two questionnaire surveys were carried out several months after the last day of the graduate course (both in 2006 and 2007) where CLAB was used as a self- and peer-assessment…

  13. A Case Study on the Influence of Organizational Culture on Language Classroom

    Liu, Zhihui


    This paper tries to probe the influence of the organizational culture on language classroom at a newly-established local college. It firstly reviews the knowledge of the organizational culture and finds out its features, and then discusses how the organizational culture was greatly influenced by the host educational environment. On the basis of…

  14. The Interactional Management of Claims of Insufficient Knowledge in English Language Classrooms

    Sert, Olcay; Walsh, Steve


    This paper primarily investigates the interactional unfolding and management of "claims of insufficient knowledge" (Beach and Metzger 1997) in two English language classrooms from a multi-modal, conversation-analytic perspective. The analyses draw on a close, micro-analytic account of sequential organisation of talk as well as on various…

  15. Using Portfolio to Assess Rural Young Learners' Writing Skills in English Language Classroom

    Aziz, Muhammad Noor Abdul; Yusoff, Nurahimah Mohd.


    This study aimed at discussing the benefits of portfolio assessment in assessing students' writing skills. The study explores the use of authentic assessment in the classroom. Eleven primary school children from Year 4 in a rural school in Sabah participated in this study. Data were collected by observing them during the English Language lessons…

  16. Using Cogenerative Dialogues to Improve Coteaching for Language Learner (LL) Students in an Inclusion Science Classroom

    Im, Sungmin; Martin, Sonya N.


    This paper presents findings from a study conducted in an urban elementary school in the United States with an English language learner (ELL) student and two teachers engaged in collaborative teaching in an inclusion science classroom. This study examines the efficacy of utilising cogenerative dialogues between an ELL student and his science…

  17. Investigating foreign language anxiety in Iranian classrooms: The effect of gender

    Mahmoodzadeh, Masoud


    Full Text Available In an attempt to delve into the issue of affective variables related to language learning, the present study focuses on the influence of gender on learners' foreign language anxiety in the Iranian context. The objective of this case study is first to determine the extent to which Iranian EFL learners perceive foreign language anxiety in matched-gender and mixed-gender classrooms and second to see if there is any significant difference between the two types of the investigated classrooms. To this end, a 16 items self-reporting questionnaire with a five Likert-type scale was designed. The developed questionnaire was then given to 96 Iranian lower intermediate EFL learners to complete it. After analyzing the collected data, the findings indicated that mixed-gender classrooms can be considered as an anxiety-provoking teaching context in Iran, since the presence of the opposite gender in EFL classrooms was found to cause statistically significant amount of language anxiety among Iranian learners. The study also offers some context-specific pedagogical implications for Iranian EFL teachers and practitioners.

  18. Developing Interactional Competence by Using TV Series in "English as an Additional Language" Classrooms

    Sert, Olcay


    This paper uses a combined methodology to analyse the conversations in supplementary audio-visual materials to be implemented in language teaching classrooms in order to enhance the Interactional Competence (IC) of the learners. Based on a corpus of 90.000 words (Coupling Corpus), the author tries to reveal the potentials of using TV series in …

  19. Code-Switching: L1-Coded Mediation in a Kindergarten Foreign Language Classroom

    Lin, Zheng


    This paper is based on a qualitative inquiry that investigated the role of teachers' mediation in three different modes of coding in a kindergarten foreign language classroom in China (i.e. L2-coded intralinguistic mediation, L1-coded cross-lingual mediation, and L2-and-L1-mixed mediation). Through an exploratory examination of the varying effects…

  20. Mediating Language Learning: Teacher Interactions with ESL Students in a Content-Based Classroom.

    Gibbons, Pauline


    Draws on constructs of "mediation" from sociocultural theory and "mode continuum" from systemic functional linguistics to investigate how student-teacher talk in a content-based classroom contributes to learners' language development. Shows how teachers mediate between students' linguistic levels in English and their…

  1. Friendships and Group Work in Linguistically Diverse Mathematics Classrooms: Opportunities to Learn for English Language Learners

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki


    This ethnographic study examined students' opportunities to learn in linguistically diverse mathematics classrooms in a Canadian elementary school. I specifically examined the contextual change of group work, which influenced opportunities to learn for newly arrived English language learners (ELLs). Based on analyses of video-recorded…

  2. Interactive Alignment of Multisyllabic Stress Patterns in a Second Language Classroom

    Trofimovich, Pavel; McDonough, Kim; Foote, Jennifer A.


    The current study explored the occurrence of stress pattern alignment during peer interaction in a second language (L2) classroom. Interactive alignment is a sociocognitive phenomenon in which interlocutors reuse each other's expressions, structures, and pronunciation patterns during conversation. Students (N = 41) enrolled in a…

  3. "We Don't Believe Media Anymore": Mapping Critical Literacies in an Adult Immigrant Language Classroom

    Waterhouse, Monica


    This article maps critical literacies conceptually and empirically in the context of adult immigrant language classrooms. It begins by describing Deleuze and Guattari's cartographic approach. Then it traces critical literacies situated conceptually within a Freirean paradigm before mapping them differently through the Deleuzian-informed Multiple…

  4. Diverse Voices in a Second Language Classroom: Burlesque, Parody, and Mimicry.

    Hirst, Elizabeth


    Examines how students in a second language classroom deploy linguistic and cultural resources to both resist and appropriate aspects of the teachers' voices. A key episode is analyzed to show the nuances of students' ventriloquation of diverse voices to construct a complex social order and shifting strategic identities. (Author/VWL)

  5. Using Original Methods in Teaching English Language to Foreign Students (Chinese) in Indian Classroom

    Devimeenakshi, K.; Maheswari, C. N. Baby


    The article gives information on English language teaching schemes in Indian classrooms for foreign students. The teacher monitors as facilitator and instructor. The trainees were trained in the four macro skills, LSRW. I taught some topics in three skills, namely, writing, listening and reading (just three, not speaking skills) to Chinese…

  6. Classroom Dimensions Predict Early Peer Interaction when Children Are Diverse in Ethnicity, Race, and Home Language

    Howes, Carollee; Guerra, Alison Wishard; Fuligni, Allison; Zucker, Eleanor; Lee, Linda; Obregon, Nora B.; Spivak, Asha


    The purpose of this study was to test a model for predicting preschool-age children's behaviors with peers from dimensions of the classroom and teacher-child relationship quality when the children were from diverse race, ethnic, and home language backgrounds. Eight hundred children, (M=age 63 months, SD=8.1 months), part of the National Evaluation…

  7. Mobile Technology in Second Language Classrooms: Insights into Its Uses, Pedagogical Implications, and Teacher Beliefs

    Van Praag, Benjamin; Sanchez, Hugo Santiago


    Adopting a multiple-case, multiple-method design, this study investigates mobile technology use in the practices of three experienced second language teachers. The findings, based on an analysis of the teachers' rationales, stated beliefs and classroom actions, show that the teachers tend to prohibit or reluctantly tolerate mobile device usage,…

  8. Functions of Repetition in Learners' Private Speech in Japanese Language Classrooms

    Yoshida, Reiko


    Studies investigating repetition in SL/FL learners' private speech have focused mainly on its cognitive and metacognitive functions. In the present study, the classroom observations, video-recordings of lessons, audio-recordings of six learners and two teachers and simulated recall interviews were conducted in Japanese language classes over two…

  9. How Do Teachers and Learners Perceive Corrective Feedback in the Japanese Language Classroom?

    Yoshida, Reiko


    This study examined Japanese language teachers' and learners' perceptions of corrective feedback (CF), focusing on the cases in which the learners responded to the teachers' CF. Data were collected from the second-year course of an Australian university for 1 semester by classroom observation and audio recording and stimulated recall interviews.…

  10. Laughing and Smiling to Manage Trouble in French-Language Classroom Interaction

    Petitjean, Cécile; González-Martínez, Esther


    This article deals with communicative functions of laughter and smiling in the classroom studied using a conversation analytical approach. Analysing a corpus of video-recorded French first-language lessons, we show how students sequentially organise laughter and smiling, and use them to preempt, solve or assess a problematic action. We also focus…

  11. Galaxy Classroom Project Evaluation, Language Arts, Grades 3-5. Final Report.

    Guth, Gloria J. A.; Block, Clifford

    The GALAXY Language Arts Demonstration Program is a package of integrated curricular and instructional approaches that features the organization of instruction around themes presented through television broadcasts, children's literature, classroom activities, and the use of interactive technology. During the GALAXY Project demonstration phase for…

  12. Measures of classroom quality in prekindergarten and children's development of academic, language, and social skills.

    Mashburn, Andrew J; Pianta, Robert C; Hamre, Bridget K; Downer, Jason T; Barbarin, Oscar A; Bryant, Donna; Burchinal, Margaret; Early, Diane M; Howes, Carollee


    This study examined development of academic, language, and social skills among 4-year-olds in publicly supported prekindergarten (pre-K) programs in relation to 3 methods of measuring pre-K quality, which are as follows: (a) adherence to 9 standards of quality related to program infrastructure and design, (b) observations of the overall quality of classroom environments, and (c) observations of teachers' emotional and instructional interactions with children in classrooms. Participants were 2,439 children enrolled in 671 pre-K classrooms in 11 states. Adjusting for prior skill levels, child and family characteristics, program characteristics, and state, teachers' instructional interactions predicted academic and language skills and teachers' emotional interactions predicted teacher-reported social skills. Findings suggest that policies, program development, and professional development efforts that improve teacher-child interactions can facilitate children's school readiness.

  13. Factors Influencing Student Nurses’ Perceptions of Success and Failure in Second Language Writing – A Classroom-based Study

    Hung-Cheng TAI


    Full Text Available This article applies attribution theory to identify the factors that influence nursing students’ perceptions of success and failure in learning English writing skills. The study took place in a language classroom in southern Taiwan involving fifty-one female nursing students, a writing teacher, and the researcher. Teaching activities included five writing cycles based on an online writing platform, process approach, and multiple revisions. Evidence data has been collected from learners’ questionnaires and interviews, teacher’s interviews, classroom observations, teaching materials, and researcher’s diaries. The data has been analysed quantitatively using SPSS and qualitatively with the aid of QSR NVivo software. Results reveal the major factors given by learners involve the amount writing practice given and their perceptions of their competence in vocabulary and with grammar. The work is supported by observations made by the language teacher and the researcher on issues which have emerged on the students’ writing skills, psychology, language competence, and learning context. This article concludeswith the implications for teaching.

  14. CA for SLA: Arguments from the Chinese Language Classroom

    He, Agnes Weiyun


    When the seminal article on the organization of turn-taking by Sacks, Schegloff, and Jefferson (1974) was published 30 years ago, I started learning English as a foreign language. In addition to being a learner of the English language for many years, I was also trained in the traditions of Conversation Analysis (CA) and linguistic anthropology…

  15. Multilingualism in the English-Language Classroom: Pedagogical Considerations

    Cummins, Jim


    This article addresses the issue of whether TESOL should clearly articulate a set of pedagogical principles that challenge the assumption that English language teaching (ELT) should be conducted monolingually through English. This "monolingual principle" emphasizes instructional use of the target language (TL) to the exclusion of students' home…

  16. Constructivist Approaches in a Dual-Language Classroom

    González-Carriedo, Ricardo; Bustos, Nancy; Ordóñez, Jorge


    Dual-language programs are becoming increasingly popular among educators and the public in general. In these programs, students aim at attaining full proficiency in English and another language while reaching an academic achievement at or above grade level. This article describes a series of pedagogical practices in the context of dual-language…

  17. Bringing One Language to Another: Multilingualism as a Resource in the Language Classroom

    Milambiling, Joyce


    Students who study English as a Foreign Language (EFL) often already speak two or more languages. Knowing more than one language is a necessity for many people worldwide, whether it is because their parents come from different language backgrounds, because their home, regional, national, or school languages are different, or for a variety of other…

  18. Research, Perspectives, and Recommendations on Implementing the Flipped Classroom.

    Rotellar, Cristina; Cain, Jeff


    Flipped or inverted classrooms have become increasingly popular, and sometimes controversial, within higher education. Many educators have touted the potential benefits of this model and initial research regarding implementation has been primarily positive. The rationale behind the flipped classroom methodology is to increase student engagement with content, increase and improve faculty contact time with students, and enhance learning. This paper presents a summary of primary literature regarding flipped classrooms, discusses concerns and unanswered questions from both a student and faculty member perspective, and offers recommendations regarding implementation.

  19. The Research of College Students’English Classroom Behavior Investigations



    By employing quantitative research methods, the paper investigates college students ’preferences to English classroom behaviors and the relations between behaviors and achievements. The results indicate that there are significant differences among the subjects’behavior, cognitive and emotional elements, and their classroom behaviors are mainly visual, individual, imitative and exterior-motivated;there are significant differences in behavior element and emotional element between high-result group and low-result group;confident and oral classroom behaviors have prominent relations with CET-4 achievements, and different teaching methods may make learning behaviors produce good or bad effects to achievements.

  20. Internationalizing General Education from Within: Raising the Visibility of Heritage Language Students in the Classroom

    Evguenia Davidova, PhD


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the findings of a pilot project conducted in 2008–2009 as a partnership between University Studies, Portland State University’s interdisciplinary general education program, and the University’s Russian Flagship Language Partner Program. The project proposes a new approach of integrating non-English speakers’ language skills, culture, and life experiences into classroom activities of general education courses. By engaging the students as facilitators in the exploration of their own cultures and languages, the project offers a model of enriching collaborative student teaching and learning that could be applied to various interdisciplinary courses.

  1. Transfronterizo Literacies and Content in a Dual Language Classroom

    de la Piedra, Maria Teresa; Araujo, Blanca


    The purpose of this article is to discuss the ways in which young transfronterizo students who live between the two worlds of El Paso (USA) and Ciudad Juarez (Mexico) bring their literacy practices and content to the classroom. Drawing on the data gathered during a 3-year ethnographic study, we illustrate how transfronterizo texts and content are…

  2. Teaching about the Environment in the Foreign Language Classroom.

    Grossman, Lois


    Discusses an approach to teaching about the environment in the Spanish classroom. The approach incorporates oral proficiency goals and is based on authentic materials that are accompanied by worksheets that include prereading exercises, small-group discussion activities and structured conversation and composition suggestions. (VWL)

  3. Language Communication and Communicative Competence: A View from Contemporary Classrooms

    Leung, Constant; Lewkowicz, Jo


    In this paper, we examine some of the tenets of the current conceptualisations of communicative competence. Drawing on the empirical data collected in linguistically diverse university classrooms, we show that meaning-making in social interaction is considerably more complex and fluid than is envisaged in theoretical models of communicative…

  4. Fostering Ecological Literacy: A Case Study of the Saint John Harbour in Two High School English Language Arts Classrooms

    Douglas, Velta

    Integrating environmental education into curriculum in a way that tackles the holistic and complicated nature of multi-dimensional issues continues to be a challenge for educators and administrators. There is potential in using ecological literacy to introduce local environmental case studies into English Language Arts high school classrooms. This research examines the experiences of two ELA classrooms in one Saint John, NB, high school with a two-week unit based on stakeholder relationships within the Saint John Harbour. Through presentations by guest speakers and research sourced from local community groups, students learned about the highly complex environmental issues that inform management decisions for the Harbour. Using these materials as background, students participated in a mock stakeholders meeting. Case study methodology was used to explore student learning in both a higher-level and a lower-level grade 10 ELA class. Data for the analysis included: cognitive mapping exercises; oral and written classroom assignments and activities; a videotape of the mock stakeholder meetings; a focus group interview with selected students; and researcher field notes. Data demonstrated significant student learning about environmental issues including increased sophistication in describing links between and among environmental issues affecting the harbour, and much more complex understandings of the positions and roles of the various stakeholder groups. Some important areas of resistance to new learning were also evident. Implications for practice and policy and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  5. Towards an understanding of the role of language in the science classroom and its association with cultural identity development in the context of Mozambique

    Cupane, Alberto Felisberto


    I am reflecting here my struggle to understand the issue of language in the science classroom and in our lives from three different perspectives: before and after Mozambican independence and after completion of my doctoral research. The main method used is auto|ethnographic inquiry in which I use the events in my life to question what is happening in my society. I have used Maria Rivera Maulucci's paper, Language experience narratives and the role of autobiographical reasoning in becoming an urban science teacher as a reference. This paper helps me to show how isolated and generalized is the Mozambican situation and the value of our struggle in giving value to local languages.

  6. Research in Natural Language Understanding


    general recognition automata. The normal decomposition of natural language description into levels of phonology , lexicon, syntax, semantics, and...GTN’S) have potential applications in scene analysis, acoustic phonetic analysis of speech, medical diagnosis, discourse analysis, and data base...use of a network ♦•.hat consumed successive phonemes from the output of an - 34 - i Report No. 3963 Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. acoustic phonetic

  7. Investigating the emotional and physical aspects of the language classroom

    Simpson, Adam John


    What exactly do we mean by classroom management? The way I see it, we have to split this particular subject right down the middle: we have the emotional side (the people) and we have the physical side (arranging furniture, placement of the whiteboard, seating plans, etc.). The various theories I’ll be introducing and discussing over the course of several chapters in the first half of this book focus on the former, encompassing the methods of organization, administration, teaching and ...

  8. Class size reduction in the second language classroom

    García Bayonas, Mariche; Gottschall, Holli


    In this study, class size reduction (CSR) was implemented in six sections of second semester, university level Spanish classes in which the enrollment cap was lowered from 27 to 20 students. The methodology for the study included a student opinion questionnaire, classroom observations, and student course grades. The study aimed at finding the effect of CSR on student participation, motivation, passing rates and dropout rates. Results showed that students in smaller classes have a higher numbe...

  9. · Attitude towards Computers and Classroom Management of Language School Teachers

    Sara Jalali


    Full Text Available Computer-assisted language learning (CALL is the realization of computers in schools and universities which has potentially enhanced the language learning experience inside the classrooms. The integration of the technologies into the classroom demands that the teachers adopt a number of classroom management procedures to maintain a more learner-centered and conducive language learning environment. The current study explored the relationship between computer attitudes and behavior and instructional classroom management approaches implemented by English institute teachers. In so doing, a total of 105 male (n = 27 and female (n = 78 EFL teachers participated in this study. A computer attitude questionnaire adapted from Albirini (2006 and a Behavior and Instructional Management Scale (BIMS adopted from Martin and Sass (2010 were benefitted from for the purpose of collecting the data. The results of the Pearson Correlation Coefficient revealed that there were no significant relationships between attitude and behavior and instructional management across gender. However, it was found that the more male teachers experience tendency toward using computers in their classes, the more teacher-centered their classes become. In addition, the more female teachers are prone to use computers in their classes, the more student-centered and lenient their classes become.

  10. Non-Native English Language Teachers' Perspective on Culture in English as a Foreign Language Classrooms

    Bayyurt, Yasemin


    This article examines the importance of raising non-native English language teachers' awareness of different dimensions of culture in the teaching of English as an international language. The author believes that the more critical English language teachers become about the involvement of culture in their English language teaching, the more they…

  11. Living Language and Culture: Concordia Language Villages--One Example of Learning outside the Classroom

    Phillippe, Denise E.


    At Concordia Language Villages, language and culture are inextricably intertwined, as they are in life. Participants "live" and "do" language and culture 16 hours per day. The experiential, residential setting immerses the participants in the culture of the country or countries where the target language is spoken through food, music, sports,…

  12. Discourse Markers in Second Language Research.

    Demirci, Mahide; Kleiner, Brian


    Investigates the use of discourse markers by advanced Turkish learners of English. The research discussed here aims to make an initial contribution to the study of how discourse markers are used by second-language learners, and to illustrate why such research should be valuable and necessary component of interlanguage pragmatics. (Author/VWL)

  13. Factor analysis of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale in Korean learners of English as a foreign language.

    Park, Gi-Pyo


    This study examined the latent constructs of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) using two different groups of Korean English as a foreign language (EFL) university students. Maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis with direct oblimin rotation was performed among the first group of 217 participants and produced two meaningful latent components in the FLCAS. The two components of the FLCAS were closely examined among the second group of 244 participants to find the extent to which the two components of the FLCAS fit the data. The model fit indexes showed that the two-factor model in general adequately fit the data. Findings of this study were discussed with the focus on the two components of the FLCAS, followed by future study areas to be undertaken to shed further light on the role of foreign language anxiety in L2 acquisition.

  14. Affordances for Language Awareness in a Middle School Transitional Classroom: Multi-Competent L1/L2 Users Under No Child Left Behind


    This dissertation examines affordances for Language Awareness within a classroom serving English learners in a coastal California middle school under the policy context of No Child Left Behind. As an ecologically inspired account, this study contributes to understanding how students use and learn language in classroom settings. Affordances for Language Awareness represent possibilities available to students for accessing relevant information to make meaning of language within a classroom. Af...

  15. Sign language perception research for improving automatic sign language recognition

    ten Holt, Gineke A.; Arendsen, Jeroen; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink-van Doorn, Andrea J.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; Hendriks, Emile A.


    Current automatic sign language recognition (ASLR) seldom uses perceptual knowledge about the recognition of sign language. Using such knowledge can improve ASLR because it can give an indication which elements or phases of a sign are important for its meaning. Also, the current generation of data-driven ASLR methods has shortcomings which may not be solvable without the use of knowledge on human sign language processing. Handling variation in the precise execution of signs is an example of such shortcomings: data-driven methods (which include almost all current methods) have difficulty recognizing signs that deviate too much from the examples that were used to train the method. Insight into human sign processing is needed to solve these problems. Perceptual research on sign language can provide such insights. This paper discusses knowledge derived from a set of sign perception experiments, and the application of such knowledge in ASLR. Among the findings are the facts that not all phases and elements of a sign are equally informative, that defining the 'correct' form for a sign is not trivial, and that statistical ASLR methods do not necessarily arrive at sign representations that resemble those of human beings. Apparently, current ASLR methods are quite different from human observers: their method of learning gives them different sign definitions, they regard each moment and element of a sign as equally important and they employ a single definition of 'correct' for all circumstances. If the object is for an ASLR method to handle natural sign language, then the insights from sign perception research must be integrated into ASLR.

  16. Educating educators about second language idiomaticity through action research

    John I. Liontas


    Full Text Available Idiomaticity is central to linguistic theory. Despite the pervasiveness of idioms in language, pedagogical articles in professional journals have yet to pay attention to the benefits of idiom instruction in the second language (SL classroom. Addressing this concern, this article reports the results of an exploratory qualitative research study conducted with sixteen SL university instructors and two Language Program Directors (LPDs at two large universities in the Southwest (United States of America that explored teachers’ own knowledge and theories about SL idiomaticity. Survey and interview data indicate that university instructors and LPDs share beliefs and assumptions about how best to teach idioms and assess students’ knowledge of SL idiomaticity. It was concluded that both university instructors and LPDs have an important role to play in the development of idiom pedagogy and that such pedagogy can be greatly enhanced through action research. Recommendations are included for further study of the issues surrounding SL idiomaticity, and teaching implications are considered for the development of meaningful pedagogical practices suitable for the promotion of idiomatic learning.

  17. Exploring the Amount and Type of Writing Instruction during Language Arts Instruction in Kindergarten Classrooms.

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana


    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners' writing performance.

  18. Total Physical Response in Storytelling and the Second Language Classroom



    Total Physical Response Storytelling(TPRS) is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action:it attempts to teach language through physical activity.Developed in the 1990’s by Blaine Ray of Bakersfield,California,it draws on several traditions including developmental psychology,learning theory,and humanistic pedagogy.It provides the critical vehicle of storytelling;_-to utilize andéxpand ’acquired vocabulary by contextualizing it in high-interest,stories which students can hear,see,act out,retell,revise and rewrite.

  19. Hearing the voices of alternatively certified teachers in Texas: Narratives of teaching English language learners in urban secondary mainstream classrooms

    Zannou, Yetunde Mobola

    In Texas, nearly half of all new teachers are alternatively certified (AC) whilst English language learners (ELL) are over one-third of the public school population in some districts. As this trend continues, the likelihood that AC teachers will teach ELLs increases and alters what Texas teachers must know upon entering the classroom. This research explores teacher knowledge and beliefs about teaching ELLs through constructivist and narrative lenses. Four AC science teachers in two diverse school districts participated in in-depth interviews and reflective interviews following classroom observations to answer the research questions: (1) how do AC teachers describe and interpret their acts of teaching ELLs in mainstream classrooms; and (2) how do AC teachers describe and interpret their learning to teach ELLs in mainstream classrooms. Data were transcribed and analyzed using thematic narrative methods. This study found that participants saw ELL instruction as: (1) "just good teaching" strategies, (2) consisting primarily of cultural awareness and consideration for student comfort, and (3) less necessary in science where all students must learn the language. The most experienced teacher was the only participant to reference specific linguistic knowledge in describing ELL instruction. Many of the teachers described their work with ELL students as giving them an opportunity to improve their lives, which was consistent with their overall teaching philosophy and reason for entering the profession. Participant narratives about learning to teach ELLs described personal experience and person-to-person discussions as primary resources of knowledge. District support was generally described as unhelpful or incomplete. Participants portrayed their AC program as helpful in preparing them to work with ELL students, but everyone desired more relevant information from the program and more grade-appropriate strategies from the district. Participant narratives reveal AC teachers

  20. Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Among China Chinese Students Undergoing The Laureate English Programme in INTI International University, Malaysia

    Meghavaani d/o Ampalagan


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between foreign language classroom anxiety (communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation among  Mainland Chinese students undergoing the Laureate English Programme

  1. Students' Source Misuse in Language Classrooms: Sharing Experiences

    Fazel, Ismaeil; Kowkabi, Nasrin


    In this article we first provide a brief discussion of what is generally referred to as "student plagiarism," which we prefer to call "source misuse" or "inappropriate textual borrowing," and then provide some of the factors that may contribute to this problem in language classes. Moreover, we provide our views and…

  2. Telecollaboration and Sociopragmatic Awareness in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Martí, Natalia Morollón; Fernández, Susana S.


    This paper discusses the design and implementation of a pedagogical intervention aimed at raising sociopragmatic awareness in the context of Spanish as a foreign language in Denmark. The intervention consists of a blended-learning environment where the three main components are synchronous telecollaboration via Skype, reflection sessions in groups…

  3. Towards a Bernsteinian Language of Description for Mathematics Classroom Discourse

    Straehler-Pohl, Hauke; Gellert, Uwe


    This article aims at developing an external language of description to investigate the problem of why particular groups of students are systematically not provided access to school mathematical knowledge. Based on Basil Bernstein's conceptualisation of power in classification, we develop a three-dimensional model that operationalises the…

  4. Suggestopedia and Memory Training in the Foreign Language Classroom.

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    Based on observations made in Bulgaria in the 1970s, it is proposed that the original version of Suggestopedia for second language training, used in Bulgaria and other Eastern European countries in the late 1960s and early 1970s, differs significantly from the techniques developed later, in particular in concentration on and memorization of…

  5. Raising Cultural Awareness in the English Language Classroom

    Frank, Jerrold


    This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.

  6. The Many Faces of Language Teaching in the English Classroom.

    Donelson, Ken, Ed.


    This issue of the "Arizona English Bulletin" contains 29 articles related to language teaching in high school English classes. Among the subjects covered are: grammar; signs, symbols, and metaphors; linguistic analysis in the teaching of composition; bilingualism; dialect study; semantics; generative rhetoric and the teaching of composition;…

  7. Beyond the Classroom: Maintaining and Improving Teachers' Language Proficiency

    Fraga-Canadas, Cynthia P.


    The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education and the ACTFL suggest that a high proficiency in the Spanish language is essential for all Spanish teachers. With the growth of the Spanish-speaking population in the United States and the diversity of Hispanic culture, teacher education programs need to ensure that teacher candidates are…

  8. Student Perceptions of Oral Participation in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Tepfenhart, Karen L.


    This study attempts to determine which factors students find most influential in their oral participation in a foreign language class and their thoughts on what actions the teacher should take to encourage more oral participation in class. Participants were 38 students in Spanish 1 and 2 at a rural middle school and high school. Students completed…

  9. Videoconferencing Improves Students' Language Learning in the EFL Classroom

    Jung, Mi-Young


    The aim of this study is to analyze a videoconferencing class for English as a foreign language (EFL), and to investigate how learners can develop their linguistic competence via videoconferencing. It examines the benefits and drawbacks of using videoconferencing systems in class. Forty-five students (19 graduates and 26 undergraduates) in a…

  10. Equity for English Language Learners in Mathematics Classrooms

    Borgioli, Gina M.


    Although English Language Learners (ELLs) quickly acquire basic interpersonal communication skills, most struggle for several years with reading and writing academic content in English. In particular, in English-only mathematics classes, children are likely to have difficulty reading and comprehending text, reading word problems, and giving…

  11. Program Evaluation: English Grammar in the Language Classroom

    Azimi, Mozhgan


    The present study wants to find out the reasons for choosing the current methods/techniques for teaching grammar and it also wants to investigate whether there is a relation between teachers' thinking and their actions in the class or not. For this reason, four language teachers were selected. The subjects were selected by non-random sampling.…

  12. Extensive Writing in Foreign-Language Classrooms: A Blogging Approach

    Sun, Yu-Chih


    A weblog (blog or Web log) has recently become one of the most widely used Internet applications. The current study concerns developing a blog specifically designed for learners learning English as a foreign language. The study investigated the effects of extensive writing by comparing the writing performance in the first three and the last three…

  13. 浅谈对外汉语教学中教师的课堂语言%Teachers' Classroom Language in Foreign Chinese Language Teaching



    对外汉语教学中教师的课堂语言既是教学工具又是教学目的,这样的双重属性使得对外汉语教学中教师的课堂语言在语速、词汇、语法上具有受限性,此外教师的课堂语言还具有示范性以及在教学过程中表现出来的可变性的特征。本文还讨论了在对外汉语课堂教学中,教师课堂语言经常会出现的问题以及解决方法。%Foreign language teachers in classroom language teaching is a teaching tool and also the purpose of teaching,so that the dual properties make the teaching of foreign language teachers in the classroom language in speech rate,vocabulary,grammar with a limited nature,in addition to classroom teachers,language also has a demonstration as well as in the teaching process shown by the variability of characteristics.This article also discusses the foreign language classroom,teachers classroom language problems often occur,and solutions.

  14. Hands-on tasks in CLIL science classrooms as sites for subject-specific language use and learning


    This paper is concerned with content and language integrated learning (CLIL), i.e. classrooms where a foreign or second language (L2) is used as the means of instruction and where content and language learning objectives merge. More specifically, it explores the potential of hands-on tasks in CLIL chemistry and physics lessons to serve as sites for using and learning subject-specific language, conceptualised as both special concepts and terminology as well as subject-specific ways of construc...

  15. Creatively Encountering Languages in Caregiving and in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Madera, Piña


    For years, research has shown that language learning at an early age has great benefits. Most recently, a May 2015 study published in "Science Daily" suggests that exposure to multiple languages in childhood produces better communicators ("Children exposed to multiple languages"). A 2014 study in Singapore showed that infants…

  16. Is Teaching Sign Language in Early Childhood Classrooms Feasible for Busy Teachers and Beneficial for Children?

    Brereton, Amy Elizabeth


    Infants' hands are ready to construct words using sign language before their mouths are ready to speak. These research findings may explain the popularity of parents and caregivers teaching and using sign language with infants and toddlers, along with speech. The advantages of using sign language with young children go beyond the infant and…

  17. L1 Use in FL Classrooms: Graduate Students' and Professors' Perceptions of English Use in Foreign Language Courses

    Gaebler, Patrick


    This report explores participant perspectives on L1 (English) use in foreign language classrooms. The study includes data collected from 25 participants, 23 students and 2 professors, from the Monterey Institute of International Studies (MIIS). A combination of classroom observations, interviews, and questionnaires were used to collect data. The…

  18. Incorporating Competency-Based Blended Learning in a Chinese Language Classroom: A Web 2.0 Drupal Module Design

    Huang, Chung-Kai; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chiang, Yueh-Hui


    This study aims to create a blended learning environment, based on the concept of competency-based training, in a Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) classroom at an American university. Drupal platform and web 2.0 tools were used as supplements to traditional face-to-face classroom instruction. Students completed various selective tasks and…

  19. Five Board Games for the Language Classroom: Uvas, Montana Rusa, El Futbol, La Corrida de Verbos, Paso a Paso.

    Snyder, Barbara

    A collection of five board games for the Spanish language classroom contains gameboards, game markers, and directions for each game. It also contains general instructions for the teacher about the classroom use of board games. The games include: "Uvas," for use in vocabulary development and cultural awareness; "Montana Rusa," for general…

  20. Foreign Language Research in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Volume 2.

    de Bot, Kees, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from a conference on empirical research on foreign language instruction in Europe and the United States include: "Foreign Language Instruction and Second Language Acquisition Research in the United States" (Charles A. Fergurson, Thom Huebner); "Empirical Foreign Language Research in Europe" (Theo van Els, Kees de Bot, Bert Weltens);…

  1. English as a scientific and research language debates and discourses

    Plo Alastrué, Ramón


    This volume examines the role of English in academic and research settings in Europe and provides recommendations on the challenges posed by the dominance of English over national languages as languages of science and research dissemination; the need for language support for academics that need to disseminate their research in English; and the effect of past and present language policies.

  2. 点亮语文课堂%Lit the Language Classroom



    随着新课程改革的不断深化,中学阶段的语文教学理念和教学模式都发生了重大的变化,尤其要对课堂教学进行创新,点亮语文课堂。对如何实现语文课堂教学效率的提升,谈一些自己的观点和认识。%With the continuous deepening of the new curriculum reform, middle school Chinese teaching idea and teaching mode have changed greatly, especially to the innovation of classroom teaching, lit the language classroom. This paper will improve on how to realize the efficiency of classroom teaching, to talk about their own views and understanding.

  3. Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico (Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés) en el centro de México)

    Mora Pablo, Irasema; Lengeling, M. Martha; Rubio Zenil, Buenaventura; Crawford, Troy; Goodwin, Douglas


    The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews.…

  4. Can Working Memory and Inhibitory Control Predict Second Language Learning in the Classroom?

    Jared A. Linck


    Full Text Available The role of executive functioning in second language (L2 aptitude remains unclear. Whereas some studies report a relationship between working memory (WM and L2 learning, others have argued against this association. Similarly, being bilingual appears to benefit inhibitory control, and individual differences in inhibitory control are related to online L2 processing. The current longitudinal study examines whether these two components of executive functioning predict learning gains in an L2 classroom context using a pretest/posttest design. We assessed 25 university students in language courses, who completed measures of WM and inhibitory control. They also completed a proficiency measure at the beginning and end of a semester and reported their grade point average (GPA. WM was positively related to L2 proficiency and learning, but inhibitory control was not. These results support the notion that WM is an important component of L2 aptitude, particularly for predicting the early stages of L2 classroom learning.

  5. Creative use of Twitter for Dynamic Assessment in Language Learning classroom at the university

    Annamaria Cacchione


    Full Text Available This contribution describes an experimentation involving two classes of basic Italian as L2 during the A. Y. 2014-15 I term at the University Complutense of Madrid. Within a general MALL and BYOD approach, Twitter was adopted as in-classroom tool for language learning Dynamic and Authentic Assessment, aiming at boosting the learning success and overall language proficiency. Students’ satisfaction, engagement factors and levels have been measured via a post-intervention questionnaire, showing general positive outcomes. Final formal summative assessment also showed very positive general results and opened the way for further investigations.

  6. Spanish as a Second Language when L1 Is Quechua: Endangered Languages and the SLA Researcher

    Kalt, Susan E.


    Spanish is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Quechua is the largest indigenous language family to constitute the first language (L1) of second language (L2) Spanish speakers. Despite sheer number of speakers and typologically interesting contrasts, Quechua-Spanish second language acquisition is a nearly untapped research area,…

  7. The role of culture in the foreign language classroom

    Küçükönal, Hatice


    Ankara : The Faculty of Letters and The Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 1989. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1989. Includes bibliographical references leaves 37-40. Communication like many human activities is constrained by individual and cultural factors- It is not enough to learn only the form of a language to communicate. Moreover, many commun ica t ion faiJures are the result of lack of cross-cultural understanding rather than a lack of ling...

  8. Is There a Role for Engineering Teachers in the Language Classroom?

    Nagano, Robin; KOYAMA, Yukie


    This paper focuses on collaborative teaching between foreign language (primarily English) and discipline teachers. The focus is on team teaching, but other examples of collaboration are given. Benefits for students include increased relevance, which positively affects motivation and interest. Teachers also benefit from the interaction with their co-teachers. Team teaching is still relatively uncommon in higher-education EFL contexts, but is recommended in ESP classrooms as an approach to inte...

  9. Can Task-based language learning be implemented in the Chinese EFL secondary school classroom?



    @@ Ⅰ.Introducfion In the history of ELT in China,great changes have taken place in the late 1990s since communicative language teaching(CLT)was accepted as a main teaching method(Xiao,2000)in China where it has made a great impact.In the Chinese so-called communicative classroom.teachem generally abandon traditional methods,avoid using the Ll,paying little attention to grammar(Huang,2002).

  10. The two faces of Janus? Anxiety and enjoyment in the foreign language classroom

    Jean-Marc Dewaele


    Full Text Available The present study investigates Foreign Language Enjoyment (FLE and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA in the classroom. Participants were 1746 current FL learners from around the world. We used a measure of FLE, based on Likert scale ratings of 21 items (Dewaele & MacIntyre, 2014, and a measure of FLCA based on 8 items extracted from the FLCAS (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986. Statistical analyses revealed that levels of FLE were significantly higher than those of FLCA. FLE and FLCA were linked to a number of independent variables: participants’ perception of their relative level of proficiency within the FL classroom, number of languages known, education level, number of FLs under study, age group and general level of the FL (ranging from lower-intermediate to advanced. Female participants reported both more FLE and more FLCA. Cultural background of participants also had a significant effect on their scores. Participants’ views on episodes of enjoyment in the FL class revealed the importance of teachers’ professional and emotional skills and of a supportive peer group. Many participants mentioned the moment at which they realised that their long effort in mastering an aspect of the FL paid off.

  11. Language Teacher Action Research: Achieving Sustainability

    Edwards, Emily; Burns, Anne


    Action research (AR) is becoming increasingly popular in ELT contexts as a means of continuous professional development. The positive impacts of AR on language teacher development are well documented, but the important question of how those impacts can be sustained over time is virtually unexplored. Drawing on findings from a study of teachers in…

  12. Language Testing--SLA Research Interfaces.

    Bachman, Lyle F.


    Discusses three research/testing interfaces in second-language (L2) testing: the covariance structure analysis of ex post facto correlational data, the qualitative investigation of test-taking processes, and the development of L2 assessment instruments based on developmental sequences in L2 acquisition. (61 references) (GLR)

  13. Integrating Neurolinguistics into Second Language Acguisition Research



    The cognitive neuroscience of second language acquisition has been described as being associated with 'excitement' and a ' sense of momentum' (Indefrey and Gullberg 2006 : 7). This article recognizes the enormous potential of the neuroscientific contribution to second language research, but it also points to problems and uncertainties which currently attend neurolinguistics. The article makes some comments in respect of some particular neurolinguistic studies relating to the over-interpretation of evidence, the failure to design studies in such a way as to take account of key variables, and the ignoring of facts about language that have been established for decades. The essential point of the article is that, if neuroscientific research is to be integrated into second language acquisition research, it has to operate on the basis of the same ground-rules as more 'traditional' research--specifically with reference to: the acknowledgment of methodological and technical limitations, the restriction of conclusions to what is licensed by the data, controlling for possible confounding variables, and the incorporation of established linguistic and psycholinguistic facts into the analysis of findings.

  14. Research into Practice: Listening Strategies in an Instructed Classroom Setting

    Graham, Suzanne


    This paper considers research and practice relating to listening in instructed classroom settings, limiting itself to what might be called unidirectional listening (Macaro, Graham & Vanderplank 2007)--in other words, where learners listen to a recording, a TV or radio clip or lecture, but where there is no communication back to the speaker(s).…

  15. A Classroom Research Study on Oral Error Correction

    Coskun, Abdullah


    This study has the main objective to present the findings of a small-scale classroom research carried out to collect data about my spoken error correction behaviors by means of self-observation. With this study, I aimed to analyze how and which spoken errors I corrected during a specific activity in a beginner's class. I used Lyster and Ranta's…

  16. Improving Instruction in the Mathematics Methods Classroom through Action Research

    Mostofo, Jameel; Zambo, Ron


    There is a continuing emphasis in the United States on improving students' mathematical abilities, and one approach is to better prepare teachers. To investigate the potential usefulness of Lesson Study to better prepare teachers, one author set out to conduct action research on his classroom practice. Specifically, he sought to determine whether…

  17. Review Article: Second Language Acquisition of Bantu Languages--A (Mostly) Untapped Research Opportunity

    Spinner, Patti


    This review article presents a summary of research on the second language acquisition of Bantu languages, including Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa and Lingala. Although second language (L2) research on these languages is currently very limited, work in morphosyntax and phonology suggests promising directions for future study, particularly on noun class,…

  18. ``Science Talks'' in Kindergarten Classrooms: Improving Classroom Practice Through Collaborative Action Research

    Zhang, Meilan; Passalacqua, Susan; Lundeberg, Mary; Koehler, Matthew J.; Eberhardt, Jan; Parker, Joyce; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Zhang, Tianyi; Paik, Sunhee


    In this study we described an action research project enacted by a veteran Kindergarten teacher (Sarah) in the context of a professional development program. Over the course of a year, Sarah collaborated with other teachers in a small group to investigate how to use “Science Talks” to promote student learning in Kindergarten classrooms. A Problem-Based Learning approach was adopted to guide the collaborative action research. Based on a rich set of data sources, we concluded that Sarah’s action research improved student learning and led to her own professional growth. We also identified important conditions in support of action research.

  19. Teaching culture in the Japanese language classroom: A NSW case study

    Caroline Mahoney


    Full Text Available This study examines, through a qualitative case study approach, how non-native- speaking (NNS Japanese language teachers in New South Wales (NSW teach culture and why. The study seeks to understand the pedagogy used to teach culture, teachers’ attitudes and beliefs on teaching culture and how these attitudes and beliefs have been influenced by past experiences. This study also explores how the NSW K-10 Japanese syllabus and concepts of Intercultural Language Learning (IcLL are being implemented in teachers’ classrooms. Two non-native-speaking (NNS Japanese language teachers from a selective secondary school in NSW were interviewed and their classes observed over three days. Analysis of interview and observation data shows that these teachers teach culture as determined by language content, integrate language and culture teaching and teach culture as observable and factual. The study shows that both teachers view culture teaching as easier than language teaching, however their views on the influence of the syllabus differ. The study explores the teachers’ past experiences and how these affect how they feel towards, and teach culture. Finally, this study looks at how the teachers’ practices reflect concepts of IcLL such as integrating language and culture, student-centered learning and how their status as NNS teachers affects their culture teaching.

  20. Teaching English as an Additional Language In The Global Classroom: A Transnational Study In The United States and United Kingdom

    Gail McEachron


    Full Text Available Abstract Global research has shown the persistence of inequality with regard to accessing curriculum with a view to obtaining suitable work and making useful contributions to society. The intersection of race, gender, language and low socio-economic levels creates situations which often marginalize ethnic minorities in school settings (Freire, 1968; Nieto & Turner, 2012. The graduation rates in the United States for Native American, African American and Hispanic students are lower than the graduation rates of Whites and Asian Americans. In addition, Bangladeshis and African Caribbeans currently living in the UK are under-represented in higher education, particularly young men in those communities. The research questions that guide this inquiry are: (1 According to databases, how does the academic performance of language minority groups compare to the academic performance of non-linguistic minority groups at the elementary and secondary levels of education? (2 According to language support teachers and university students, what are the strengths and weaknesses of the instructional practices for language minorities who are learning English in the United Kingdom (UK (Bristol and the United States (US (Henrico? Participants were: five UK teachers, four UK university students, five US teachers, four US university students. Data collection supervised by lead researchers included interviews, focus groups, classroom observation, and performance documents. Data analysis utilized a mixed-methods approach. Overall, linguistic minority groups performed lower than their English proficient peers. Culturally, UK teachers provided a greater emphasis on religious instruction, whereas US teachers addressed patriotic topics more frequently. Teachers in the United States and the United Kingdom were culturally supportive with slight variation in the encouraged use of the students’ heritage languages.

  1. Technology-Supported Classroom for Collaborative Learning: Blogging in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Domalewska, Dorota


    This study examined the phenomenon of blogging as a technologically enhanced support to develop interaction and interrelatedness among learners in a foreign language course. A corpus of 62 blog entries and 30 comments the bloggers left on each other's blogs were analysed to find out whether blog may be used to promote connectivity and…

  2. Research Informing Practice--Practice Informing Research: Innovative Teaching Methologies for World Language Teachers. Research in Second Language Learning

    Schwarzer, David, Ed.; Petron, Mary, Ed.; Luke, Christopher, Ed.


    "Research Informing Practice--Practice Informing Research: Innovative Teaching Methodologies for World Language Educators" is an edited volume that focuses on innovative, nontraditional methods of teaching and learning world languages. Using teacher-research projects, each author in the volume guides readers through their own personal…

  3. Corrective Feedback in Classrooms at Different Proficiency Levels: A Case Study of Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Liu Li


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study investigating the relationship between corrective feedback, students’ language proficiency and classroom communication orientation in classrooms of Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL at a US university. Inspired by Lyster and Mori (2006, this comparative analysis of teacher-student interaction investigates the immediate effects of prompt, recast, and explicit correction on learner uptake and repair across three different Chinese proficiency levels. By use of two measurement tools—Error Treatment Model and COLT coding scheme, the study attempts to seek the distribution pattern of feedbacks and the sequent uptakes, as well as the impact of learners’ proficiency levels on the pattern of feedback and uptakes in CFL classrooms. Results show that recasts still remain the most common feedback type across the classes in this study. The uptake of feedback is influenced both by classroom communication orientation and the students’ language proficiency.

  4. 语言课堂中的文学教学%Teaching Literature in Language Classroom



    Literature is a popular resource of material used in language classroom. In this essay the author attempts to find a new way to teach literature in language classroom--stylistic approach. The aim of this effort is to enable the students to learn how language is used for conveying contents and developing the skills needed to extract the contents from the language that expresses them.%英美文学是英语阅读课堂中常见的阅读材料。如何利用好这一载体有效提高学生的阅读能力是所有英语教师共同关注的事情。本文是作者借鉴前人的理论经验,并从自身教学实际出发进行的教学尝试:从语言学,文体学的角度讲授文学;把文学植入语言课堂。

  5. Fostering Intercultural Communicative Competence in the Foreign Language Classroom: Pedagogical Implications

    Vicente Beltrán-Palanques


    Full Text Available The development of learners' communicative competence has been regarded as the major goal of foreign and second language teaching. Several authors have advanced various communicative models in order to better explain how language teaching and learning work (e.g. Canale & Swain, 1980; Canale, 1983; Bachman, 1990; Celce-Murcia et al. 1995; Usó-Juan & Martínez-Flor 2006. One of the elements of the communicative model is that of intercultural competence (Byram, 1997; Usó-Juan & Martínez-Flor, 2008. This competence has been defined by Meyer (1991, p. 137 as "the ability of a person to behave adequately in a flexible manner when confronted with actions, attitudes and expectations of representatives of foreign cultures". Cultural dimensions play a paramount role in learners' learning process; however, there is not apparently a particular approach for its integration in the language classroom. Taken into account those aspects, in this paper, I attempt to provide an instructional approach for the integration of culture in the language classroom so as to foster learners' communicative competence. The present paper presents first a revision of different communicative models, then, a description of the notion intercultural competence is provided. Finally, an instructional approach for the teaching of this particular competence is proposed.

  6. Doing Culture, Doing Race: Everyday Discourses of "Culture" and "Cultural Difference" in the English as a Second Language Classroom

    Lee, Ena


    While current conceptualisations of the inextricable connection between language and culture in English language education are largely informed by complex sociocultural theories that view culture as constructed in and through social practices among people, classroom practices continue to be influenced by mainstream discourses of culture that…

  7. Mind the Gap between Form and Function. Teaching Pragmatics with the British Sitcom in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Mansfield, Gillian


    This article intends to show how situation comedies may be used in the English language classroom to develop awareness-raising activities aimed at soliciting an understanding of essentially pragmatic and cultural aspects of everyday language. After a brief overview of studies on pragmatic teachability (Rose and Kasper 2001, 2002) and learnability…

  8. Enhancing Literacy Practices in Science Classrooms through a Professional Development Program for Canadian Minority-Language Teachers

    Rivard, Léonard P.; Gueye, Ndeye R.


    'Literacy in the Science Classroom Project" was a three-year professional development (PD) program supporting minority-language secondary teachers' use of effective language-based instructional strategies for teaching science. Our primary objective was to determine how teacher beliefs and practices changed over time and how these were enacted…

  9. The application of language-game theory to the analysis of science learning: Developing an interpretive classroom-level learning framework

    Ahmadibasir, Mohammad

    In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the

  10. Human Subjects Research and the Physics Classroom

    Kubitskey, Beth W.; Thomsen, Marshall


    Physics Education Research is a form of social science research in that it uses human subjects. As physicists we need to be aware of the ethical and legal ramifications of performing this research, taking into account the fundamental differences between working with substances and working with people. For several decades, the federal government…

  11. 基于创新教学理论的小学低年段母语课堂读写教学研究%Research on Native Language Classroom Reading and Writing Teaching Based on the Theory of Innovation Teaching in the Elementary School Low Section



    在小学低年段的母语教学中,阅读和写作在课堂教学中占据着重要的地位。在创新教学理论的背景下,构建以母语课堂为基础的小学低年段课堂读写教学,对当前的新课程教学改革来说具有十分显著的意义。基于此,将在小学课堂中提出构建母语课堂读写教学的构想,并观察读写教学的效果,从而提升小学低年段学生的读写质量以及母语教学质量。%In the elementary school low section of native language tea ching,reading and writing occupies the important position in the classroom teaching. Under the background of innovation of teaching theory,and build on the basis of the language classroom teaching in the elementary school low section of the classroom,speaking,reading and writing,and for the current new curriculum teaching reform has the significant significance. Based on this,the teacher will read and write the language classroom is proposed in the primary school classroom in the teaching idea,and observe the effect of the reading and writing teaching,to improve the quality of speaking,reading and writing of students in the elementary school low section as well as the native language teaching quality.

  12. Hypothesis in Language Learning Research

    Mohammad Adnan Latief


    Full Text Available Hypothesis is very often inevitable in research activities. Hypothesis is of at least three kinds, each of which should not be confused. A study trying to measure the relationship between variables can predict the finding based on theory or logical common sense. This prediction is called theoretical hypothesis. In testing hypothesis quantitatively, the theoretical hypothesis should be transformed into statistical hypothesis, which takes the form of Null hypothesis and its alternatives. It is the Null hypothesis that is to be tested to justify its rejection or otherwise its acceptance. In qualitative study, the result of first data analysis is called temporal empirical hypothesis that should be validated with more data. This cycle of rechecking the result with more data is done again and again until the hypothesis becomes the final conclusion.

  13. Use of Research Articles in the EAP Classroom

    Mirna Varga; Dubravka Kuna


    The central idea of genre-based EAP teaching is assisting students to become more competent users of genres identified as key to their disciplines. As reading research articles in English is a substantial component of target courses syllabi in university settings in Croatia, a student assignment was designed to implement research articles in the EAP classroom. The assignment presented in this paper aimed to raise students' awareness of the rhetorical, metadiscoursal, and lexical features of a...

  14. The Impact of a Professional Development Program on English Language Teachers' Classroom Performance (El impacto de un programa de desarrollo profesional en el desempeño en clase de profesores de lengua inglesa)

    Giraldo, Frank


    This article reports the findings of an action research study on a professional development program and its impact on the classroom performance of in-service English teachers who worked at a language institute of a Colombian state university. Questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, class observations, and a researcher's journal were used as…

  15. Enhancing student schematic knowledge of culture through literature circles in a foreign language classroom

    Graham-Marr Alastair


    Full Text Available Improving student understanding of a foreign language culture is anything but a peripheral issue in the teaching of a foreign language. This pilot study reports on a second year required English course in a university in Japan that took a Literature Circles approach, where students were asked to read short stories out of class and then discuss these stories in class. Although students reported that they did not gain any special insights into the target language culture presented, they did report that reading fiction as source material for classroom activity helps with the acquisition of a vocabulary set that is more closely associated with lifestyle and culture. The results suggest that further study is warranted. Procedures of this pilot study are described and interpreted in the context of the English education system in Japan.

  16. Planned Alternation of Languages (PAL): Language Use and Distribution in Bilingual Classrooms.

    Romero, Migdalia; Parrino, Angela


    Following a brief discussion of legal and academic statements on mandatory bilingual education and mainstreaming, three models of the Planned Alternation of Languages (PAL) approach are described as a way to prepare students for mainstreaming. PAL allows for both languages to have feasible functions and support learners through acquisition of…

  17. Language effects in second-language learners: A longitudinal electrophysiological study of spanish classroom learning.

    Soskey, Laura; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J


    How do the neural mechanisms involved in word recognition evolve over the course of word learning in adult learners of a new second language? The current study sought to closely track language effects, which are differences in electrophysiological indices of word processing between one's native and second languages, in beginning university learners over the course of a single semester of learning. Monolingual L1 English-speakers enrolled in introductory Spanish were first trained on a list of 228 Spanish words chosen from the vocabulary to be learned in class. Behavioral data from the training session and the following experimental sessions spaced over the course of the semester showed expected learning effects. In the three laboratory sessions participants read words in three lists (English, Spanish and mixed) while performing a go/no-go lexical decision task in which event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. As observed in previous studies there were ERP language effects with larger N400s to native than second language words. Importantly, this difference declined over the course of L2 learning with N400 amplitude increasing for new second language words. These results suggest that even over a single semester of learning that new second language words are rapidly incorporated into the word recognition system and begin to take on lexical and semantic properties similar to native language words. Moreover, the results suggest that electrophysiological measures can be used as sensitive measures for tracking the acquisition of new linguistic knowledge.

  18. Learning about Language Learners: The Case for Informal Assessment in the Whole Language Classroom.

    Gutknecht, Bruce


    Maintains that continued over reliance on traditional skills-based assessment of reading abilities provides the whole-language teacher with little, if any, useful information for instructional planning. Suggests informal assessment procedures that focus on the language learner and provide a rich information source on which to base instructional…

  19. Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language Within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés) en el centro de México

    Irasema Mora Pablo; M. Martha Lengeling; Buenaventura Rubio Zenil; Troy Crawford; Douglas Goodwin


    The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the teaching and learning ...

  20. Conducting Classroom Design Research with Teachers

    Stephan, Michelle. L.


    Design research is usually motivated by university members with experience and interest in building theory and instructional designs in collaboration with one teacher. Typically, the teacher is considered as a member of the research team, with the primary responsibility of implementing instruction. However, in this chapter, I describe a Classroom…

  1. Predicting Language Teachers’ Classroom Management Orientations on the Basis of Their Computer Attitude and Demographic Characteristics

    Sara Jalali


    Full Text Available The advent of modern technologies has had a remarkable role in revolutionizing the classroom setting. It is, therefore, incumbent on teachers to utilize strategies for effective managing of the change. The aim of the present study was to find out English as a Foreign Language (EFL teachers’ beliefs regarding classroom management. In so doing, the relationship between EFL teachers’ demographic variables (age and years of teaching experience, computer attitude, and their classroom instructional and behavior management orientations was explored. The participants of the study comprised a total of 105 male and female EFL language school teachers in Iran. The data for the current study were collected through two questionnaires. The results of the multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the independent variables of participants’ computer attitude, age, and teaching experience are not suitable predictors of both behavioral and instructional management. The results also showed that as the age and teaching experience of the participants increased their attitudes towards computers became more negative

  2. How word decoding, vocabulary and prior topic knowledge predict reading comprehension. A study of language-minority students in Norwegian fifth grade classrooms.

    Rydland, Veslemøy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grøver; Fulland, Helene


    This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global Warming Test) consisting of multiple lengthy texts. The sample included 67 language-minority students (native Urdu or native Turkish speakers) from 21 different fifth grade classrooms in Norway. Multiple regression analyses revealed that word decoding and different facets of L2 vocabulary explained most of the variance in Woodcock Passage Comprehension, but a smaller proportion of variance in the Global Warming Test. For the Global Warming Test, prior topic knowledge was the most influential predictor. Furthermore, L2 vocabulary depth appeared to moderate the contribution of prior topic knowledge to the Global Warming Test in this sample of language minority students.

  3. The Mediational Role of Classroom Practices during the Silent Period: A New-Immigrant Student Learning the English Language in a Mainstream Classroom

    Iddings, Ana Christina DaSilva; Jang, Eun-Young


    For this article we aimed to understand the emergence of English as a second language for a newly immigrated Mexican student, a native speaker of Spanish, enrolled in a mainstream kindergarten classroom, who was undergoing the "silent period" (Krashen, 1981). Applying ecological approaches that emphasize learners in relationship with their…

  4. Aspects of Classroom Discourse Analysis



    One influential approach to the study of spoken discourse is developed at the University of Birmingham in which the researchers initially concerned themselves with the strueture of discourse in school classroom. One of the interaction features of teacher-talk is to ask questions. They have attracted considerable attention from researchers of language classroom teaching.

  5. From the field to the classroom: Connecting climate research to classroom lessons

    Brinker, R.; Steiner, S. M.; Coleman, L.


    Improving scientific literacy is a goal in the United States. Scientists from the United States are often expected to present research findings in ways that are meaningful and accessible to the general public, including K-12 students. PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program funded by the National Science Foundation, partners teachers with scientists in the Arctic and Antarctica. Teachers communicate the research to general audiences on a regular basis. After the field experience, they then create classroom-ready lessons to relay the science exploration into science curriculum. In this presentation, secondary level educators, will share their experiences with being part of field research teams in the Arctic and Antarctica, and their strategies for bringing current science research into the classroom and aligning lessons with Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Topics include an overview on using polar science to teach about climate change, application of field research techniques to improve students' understanding of scientific investigation methodology, phenology observations, soil porosity and permeability, litter decomposition, effect of sunlight on release of carbon dioxide from thawing permafrost, and understanding early life on Earth by studying stromatolites in Antarctica.

  6. On Teachers’ Classroom Language:A Case Study of Language Teachers%浅谈教师的课堂用语--以语文教师为例



    Suhomlinski said:“The language teacher training students in the classroom determines the efficiency of mental great extent in the language classroom.Chinese teachers’ classroom language should have humor,accuracy,emotional,vivid image,fun and other arts to activate brain cells excitement of students,so that let students have learning interest.%苏霍姆林斯基指出:教师的语言修养在极大的程度上决定着学生在课堂上的脑力劳动的效率。语文教师的课堂用语应具备规范性、准确性、情感性、生动性、形象性、趣味性等艺术,才能激活学生大脑细胞的兴奋点,使学生产生学习兴趣。

  7. A Self-evaluation of Classroom Language Used When Teaching Grammar



    In the attempt to evaluate the quality of teacher talk, recent communicative approaches have suggested that the modifi-cation of teacher classroom speech and the functional distribution of teacher talk in terms of pedagogical goals should be consid-ered (Seedhouse:1996). This study investigates the relationship between language use and pedagogic purpose from an analysis of a lesson transcript of a grammar lesson, and evaluates the quality of the teacher talk based on the Self-Evaluation of Teacher Talk (SETT) Grid. The purpose is to examine whether the teacher talk is appropriate in the classroom context or mode and to bring about a more conscious and effective use of teacher talk in her teaching profession in the future.

  8. Predicting Acceptance of Diversity in Pre-Kindergarten Classrooms. Research Brief

    Sanders, Kay; Downer, Jason T.


    Given the increasing ethnic and language diversity within the United States, this study examined practices that acknowledge and promote diversity in pre-Kindergarten classrooms. Findings indicate that acceptance of diversity is a component of positive environments for young children, particularly in classrooms with high poverty levels where there…

  9. A Research on Foreign Language Anxiety among Vocational School Students



    Foreign language anxiety is a negative emotion of fear or apprehension occurring in the specific situation of foreign language learning influencing language learning. The author made a research among vocational school students to investigate the level and sources of foreign language anxiety.

  10. Bringing Earth Magnetism Research into the High School Physics Classroom

    Smirnov, A. V.; Bluth, G.; Engel, E.; Kurpier, K.; Foucher, M. S.; Anderson, K. L.


    We present our work in progress from an NSF CAREER project that aims to integrate paleomagnetic research and secondary school physics education. The research project is aimed at quantifying the strength and geometry of the Precambrian geomagnetic field. Investigation of the geomagnetic field behavior is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of field generation, and the development of the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere, and can serve as a focus for connecting high-level Earth science research with a standard physics curriculum. High school science teachers have participated in each summer field and research component of the project, gaining field and laboratory research experience, sets of rock and mineral samples, and classroom-tested laboratory magnetism activities for secondary school physics and earth science courses. We report on three field seasons of teacher field experiences and two years of classroom testing of paleomagnetic research materials merged into physics instruction on magnetism. Students were surveyed before and after dedicated instruction for both perceptions and attitude towards earth science in general, then more specifically on earth history and earth magnetism. Students were also surveyed before and after instruction on major earth system and magnetic concepts and processes, particularly as they relate to paleomagnetic research. Most students surveyed had a strongly positive viewpoint towards the study of Earth history and the importance of studying Earth Sciences in general, but were significantly less drawn towards more specific topics such as mineralogy and magnetism. Students demonstrated understanding of Earth model and the basics of magnetism, as well as the general timing of life, atmospheric development, and magnetic field development. However, detailed knowledge such as the magnetic dynamo, how the magnetic field has changed over time, and connections between earth magnetism and the development of an atmosphere remained largely

  11. Using Conversation Analysis in the Second Language Classroom to Teach Interactional Competence

    Barraja-Rohan, Anne-Marie


    This article focuses on the use of conversation analysis (CA) to help teaching interactional competence in English to adult second language learners from lower to intermediate levels. To set the context, this article gives a brief overview on the use of CA in second language research as well as considering the construct of interactional competence…

  12. Reenvisioning Language Anxiety in the Globalized Classroom through a Social Imaginary Lens

    De Costa, Peter I.


    The last three decades have witnessed a notable growth in research on affect. Among the various affective variables, foreign language anxiety has been heavily studied. This interest in foreign language anxiety is consistent with increased attention to emotions in the neurosciences, cognitive psychology, and the social sciences. Instead of…

  13. MALL Technology: Use of Academic Podcasting in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Abdous, M'hammed; Camarena, Margaret M.; Facer, Betty Rose


    Integrating Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) technology (personal multimedia players, cell phones, and handheld devices) into the foreign language curriculum is becoming commonplace in many secondary and higher education institutions. Current research has identified both pedagogically sound applications and important benefits to students.…

  14. Postsecondary Learning: Recognizing the Needs of English Language Learners in Mainstream University Classrooms

    Bifuh-Ambe, Elizabeth


    Acquiring proficiency in the various English language skills and the ability to utilize those skills as a medium of learning is a daunting task. Research suggests that children who do not speak English as their first language (L1) need five to seven years in school before they can perform as well in English as their English peers who are native…

  15. Getting Used to Content and Language Integrated Learning: What Can Classroom Interaction Reveal?

    Lo, Yuen Yi; Macaro, Ernesto


    Bilingual programmes in which an L2 is used as the medium of instruction are becoming popular in different parts of the world, and content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is one variant of such programmes. Recent research on CLIL has gradually shifted from product-oriented (i.e. evaluating the effectiveness of CLIL in terms of language and…

  16. Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Learners’ and Teachers’ Beliefs toward FLL: A Case Study of Iranian Undergraduate EFL Learners

    Tina Toghraee


    Full Text Available This study was an attempt to determine the beliefs of undergraduate female and male EFL learners at Shahreza University, Isfahan, Iran, about foreign language classroom anxiety, and compare students’ and teachers’ attitudes toward FLL. For this purpose sixty linguistically homogeneous female and male students were selected after administering the QPT, and were given BALLI and FLCAS questionnaires designed by Horwitz (1987. Fifteen EFL instructors were selected to answer the BALLI questionnaire, and then the data from the two questionnaires were statistically analyzed with correlational analysist-tests. The findings revealed hat, first, there was a positive and statistically significant correlation between Iranian university students’ beliefs about FLL and their level of class anxiety; second, that teachers and students hold mostly different beliefs about FLL, despite some similar beliefs; and finally, male and female participants did not hold the same ideas regarding class anxiety and beliefs about FLL. The results of this study confirmed previous research findings in this area. Keywords: foreign language anxiety, beliefs about language learning, FLCAS, BALLI, university EFL learners.

  17. Heritage and Non-Heritage Language Learners in Arabic Classrooms: Inter and Intra-group Beliefs, Attitudes and Perceptions

    Ghazi Abuhakema


    Full Text Available This study examines how Arabic heritage language learners (HLLs and non-heritage language learners (non-HLLs perceive each other, and the class dynamics in a combined classroom setting. Two groups of HLLs and non-HLLs completed a separate questionnaire and answered follow-up open-ended questions. The results show that learners do not feel strongly about mixing or separation, but they also acknowledge that just as there are disadvantages to combining, there are advantages as well. While instructors need to capitalize on the advantages to create a more engaging and more successful teaching environment for both groups, they also need to be aware of the disadvantages in order to counteract them. The study also shows that the particular diglossic situation of Arabic seems to have impacted students’ perceptions and attitudes. The implications and recommendations of the study are quite relevant to schools similar to where the study was conducted. The study makes it possible for the voices of HLLs and non-HLLs to reach educators and administrators and empower them in their research processes to inform the teaching of heritage languages.

  18. The Articulation of Formative Research and Classrooms Projects in the Language and Culture Class in an Undergraduate English Teaching Program (Articulación de Prácticas de Investigación Formativa con los Proyectos de Aula de las Clases de Lengua y Cultura Anglófona en un Programa de Licenciatura en Lengua Extranjera)

    Marroquín, Paula Ramírez


    This article shows the results of a research project which searched to answer how to articulate formative research with classroom projects in an undergraduate English teaching program. To accomplish the purpose of this paper, the document will focus on the two specific objectives of this qualitative research: document revision, and knowing about…

  19. Korean as a Heritage Language in the U.S. University Classroom

    Hyun-Sook Kang


    Full Text Available As one of the less-commonly-taught foreign languages in U.S. universities, Korean-language classes are often taken by students of Korean descent. Many Korean Americans with long-term exposure to the target language in a combination of naturalistic and instructional settings have developed proficiency in their heritage language through parental and community support, such as Saturday schools (Lee, 2002. However, upon closer examination, the bilingualism that many Korean-American learners achieve is unbalanced. These heritage learners often lack grammatical accuracy and precision despite high fluency, as the moniker "kitchen Korean" implies. As a way to facilitate the accuracy aspect of the heritage learners' language, this article suggests the benefits of corrective feedback, explicit and implicit, in the forms of metalinguistic comments, provision of an alternative correct form contingent on the learner's ill-formed utterance, and partial or full repetitions or reformulations of the learner's output when interacting with them in the classroom and beyond.

  20. The Power of Story in the ESL Classroom

    Nicholas, Bonnie J.; Rossiter, Marian J.; Abbott, Marilyn L.


    Although considerable research has examined the use of literature in the second language (L2) classroom, there has been less investigation into the integration of learners' personal stories in the English as a second language (ESL) classroom. Following Wajnryb's (2003) categorizations of story as language learning, genre, and the creation of what…