WorldWideScience

Sample records for landsccape ecological research

  1. Research on Ecological Civilization Evaluation Index System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ecological civilization, which refers to the harmonious development of man and the nature, has the connotation of the ecological material civilization, ecological consciousness civilization, ecological institutional civilization and ecological behavior civilization. The research on ecological civilization evaluation index system is important in that it can provide the guidance for the construction of ecological civilization, and besides it can improve public recognition of the importance of ecological civil...

  2. Ecological Research Division, Marine Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    This report presents program summaries of the various projects sponsored during 1979 by the Marine Research Program of the Ecological Research Division. Program areas include the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on the marine environment; a study of the baseline ecology of a proposed OTEC site near Puerto Rico; the environmental impact of offshore geothermal energy development; the movement of radionuclides through the marine environment; the environmental aspects of power plant cooling systems; and studies of the physical and biological oceangraphy of the continental shelves bordering the United States.

  3. Reverse genetics in ecological research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schwachtje

    Full Text Available By precisely manipulating the expression of individual genetic elements thought to be important for ecological performance, reverse genetics has the potential to revolutionize plant ecology. However, untested concerns about possible side-effects of the transformation technique, caused by Agrobacterium infection and tissue culture, on plant performance have stymied research by requiring onerous sample sizes. We compare 5 independently transformed Nicotiana attenuata lines harboring empty vector control (EVC T-DNA lacking silencing information with isogenic wild types (WT, and measured a battery of ecologically relevant traits, known to be important in plant-herbivore interactions: phytohormones, secondary metabolites, growth and fitness parameters under stringent competitive conditions, and transcriptional regulation with microarrays. As a positive control, we included a line silenced in trypsin proteinase inhibitor gene (TPI expression, a potent anti-herbivore defense known to exact fitness costs in its expression, in the analysis. The experiment was conducted twice, with 10 and 20 biological replicates per genotype. For all parameters, we detected no difference between any EVC and WT lines, but could readily detect a fitness benefit of silencing TPI production. A statistical power analyses revealed that the minimum sample sizes required for detecting significant fitness differences between EVC and WT was 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than the 10 replicates required to detect a fitness effect of TPI silencing. We conclude that possible side-effects of transformation are far too low to obfuscate the study of ecologically relevant phenotypes.

  4. Ecological Research Division Theoretical Ecology Program. [Contains abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents the goals of the Theoretical Ecology Program and abstracts of research in progress. Abstracts cover both theoretical research that began as part of the terrestrial ecology core program and new projects funded by the theoretical program begun in 1988. Projects have been clustered into four major categories: Ecosystem dynamics; landscape/scaling dynamics; population dynamics; and experiment/sample design.

  5. Marine ecological reserves research program: research results 1996-2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    This is a collection of results of research done through the Marine Ecological Reserves Research Program, a competitive, peer-review research program focusing on the four new marine ecological reserves...

  6. Social learning research in ecological economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebenhüner, Bernd; Rodela, Romina; Ecker, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Social learning studies emerged as part of the ecological economics research agenda rather recently. Questions of how human societies and organisations learn and transition on the basis of environmental knowledge relate to the core ideas of ecological economics with its pluralistic understanding

  7. Social learning research in ecological economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebenhüner, Bernd; Rodela, Romina; Ecker, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Social learning studies emerged as part of the ecological economics research agenda rather recently. Questions of how human societies and organisations learn and transition on the basis of environmental knowledge relate to the core ideas of ecological economics with its pluralistic understanding

  8. Ecological research at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Research is organized around two major programs: thermal and aquatic stress and mineral cycling. These programs are strengthened by a previously established foundation of basic ecological knowledge. Research in basic ecology continues to be a major component of all SREL environmental programs. Emphasis in all programs has been placed upon field-oriented research relating to regional and local problems having broad ecological significance. For example, extensive research has been conducted in the Par Pond reservoir system and the Savannah River swamp, both of which have received thermal effluent, heavy metals, and low levels of radioisotopes. Furthermore, the availability of low levels of plutonium and uranium in both terrestrial and aquatic environments on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has provided an unusual opportunity for field research in this area. The studies seek to document the effects, to determine the extent of local environmental problems, and to establish predictable relationships which have general applicability. In order to accomplish this objective it has been imperative that studies be carried out in the natural, environmentally unaffected areas on the SRP as a vital part of the overall program. Progress is reported in forty-nine studies.

  9. The ecological research needs of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armsworth, Paul R; Armsworth, Anastasia N; Compton, Natalie; Cottle, Phil; Davies, Ian; Emmett, Bridget A; Fandrich, Vanessa; Foote, Matthew; Gaston, Kevin J; Gardiner, Phil; Hess, Tim; Hopkins, John; Horsley, Nick; Leaver, Natasha; Maynard, Trevor; Shannon, Delia

    2010-04-01

    Businesses have an unrivalled ability to mobilize human, physical and financial capital, often manage large land holdings, and draw on resources and supply products that impact a wide array of ecosystems. Businesses therefore have the potential to make a substantial contribution to arresting declines in biodiversity and ecosystem services. To realize this potential, businesses require support from researchers in applied ecology to inform how they measure and manage their impacts on, and opportunities presented to them by, biodiversity and ecosystem services.We reviewed papers in leading applied ecology journals to assess the research contribution from existing collaborations involving businesses. We reviewed applications to, and grants funded by, the UK's Natural Environment Research Council for evidence of public investment in such collaborations. To scope opportunities for expanding collaborations with businesses, we conducted workshops with three sectors (mining and quarrying, insurance and manufacturing) in which participants identified exemplar ecological research questions of interest to their sector.Ten to fifteen per cent of primary research papers in Journal of Applied Ecology and Ecological Applications evidenced business involvement, mostly focusing on traditional rural industries (farming, fisheries and forestry). The review of UK research council funding found that 35% of applications mentioned business engagement, while only 1% of awarded grants met stricter criteria of direct business involvement.Some questions identified in the workshops aim to reduce costs from businesses' impacts on the environment and others to allow businesses to exploit new opportunities. Some questions are designed to inform long-term planning undertaken by businesses, but others would have more immediate commercial applications. Finally, some research questions are designed to streamline and make more effective those environmental policies that affect businesses

  10. GMOs: The new hotspot in ecological research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Wei; MA Keping; SHI Jicheng

    2003-01-01

    Gene flow is an important ecological and genetic process, and the fitness conferred by the insertion of a foreign gene could be important in ecology after it becomes introgressed into the wild genetic background of organisms, which is the determinative factor for the fate of GMOs or foreign genes in natural ecosystem and for the competition with native species. Trophic interrelation fulfilled by food chains is the most important correlation between species in ecosystem and could be affected by the modified genotypes after the introduction of GMOs. The technology enabling the precise manipulation of genotype is a great opportunity for the study of ecological genetics in an unknown way prior to the biotechnology era. Especially interesting is the impact of genes on ecosystem function when GMOs are released into environment. A variety of ecological terminology has been frequently used in assessment of ecological risks related to the release of GMOs in environment, e.g. gene flow, fitness, interspecific competition and food chain. The value of GMOs in ecological research is illustrated through several examples in biosafety assessment related to those terms here. It is proposed that ecologists should pay attention to the study of gene function in ecosystem and take the opportunity to enrich ecological theory with the release of GMOs.

  11. [Basic theory and research method of urban forest ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Jin, Yingshan; Zhu, Wenquan; Xu, Wenduo; Chen, Wei

    2002-12-01

    With the development of world economy and the increment of urban population, the urban environment problem hinders the urban sustainable development. Now, more and more people realized the importance of urban forests in improving the quality of urban ecology. Therefore, a new subject, urban forest ecology, and correlative new concept frame in the field formed. The theoretic foundation of urban forest ecology derived from the mutual combination of theory relating to forest ecology, landscape ecology, landscape architecture ecology and anthrop-ecology. People survey the development of city from the view of ecosystem, and regard the environment, a colony of human, animals and plants, as main factors of the system. The paper introduces systematically the urban forest ecology as follows: 1) the basic concept of urban forest ecology; 2) the meaning of urban forest ecology; 3) the basic principle and theoretic base of urban forest ecology; 4) the research method of urban forest ecology; 5) the developmental expectation of urban forest ecology.

  12. The research of Chinese karst ecological hydrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Chunqing; Wang Jiajia

    2006-01-01

    Karst environment is very common in southwest China. Soil and vegetation are the most sensitive elements for the variation of karst environment. The weathering of carbonate is important soil formation mechanism in karst area,but its soil forming ability is so poor that the thickness of soil layer becomes thin by the water erosion, though the soil loss is insignificant but serious. The karst process, the ecology process, the hydrology process are three important circulation mechanisms in the karst multiple media environment. In the Chinese North and South karst area, the eco-environmental protection and restoration has already been the important part as the national territorial resources and the environmental comprehensive development and management. The character of karst plants mainly depends on the environmental conditions, i.e. lack of water, richness of Ca, poor soil and shortage of organic matter. The plants have low growth pace and low life-form resource; it is vulnerable under the disturbance of irrational human activities. Therefore, the rocky desertification is the final result of karst ecosystem degradation. But ecological condition is severe in the North and South karst area, especially in the south karst stone mountainous area and the north arid karst area. There are many problems with the eco-environmental protection and restoration. This paper takes the karst multiple media environment as a core,comprehensively discusses the relations of the three processes - karst, hydrology, and ecology, and puts forward the direction of the research on karst ecology hydrology and the future.

  13. Disturbance Dynamics and Ecological Response: The Contribution of Long-Term Ecological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONICA G. TURNER; SCOTT L. COLLINS; ARIEL L. LUGO; JOHN J. MAGNUSON; T. SCOTT RUPP; FREDERICK J. SWANSON

    2003-01-01

    Long-term ecological research is particularly valuable for understanding disturbance dynamics over long time periods and placing those dynamics in a regional context.We highlighted three case studies from Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network sites that have contributed to understanding the causes and consequences of disturbance in ecological systems. The LTER...

  14. [Research advances in chemical ecology of marine microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nianjun; Yan, Xiaojun

    2006-12-01

    Chemical ecology of marine organisms is the highlight of chemical ecology in recent years. Its research will not only benefit the evolution research of marine organisms, but also play an important role in marine aquaculture, marine ecological protection, and sustainable development of marine resources. This paper reviewed the research advances in the chemo-ecological relationships between marine animals, plants and microorganisms, with the focus on the discovery of the chemical structure of signal compounds with chemo-ecological effects. The key issues and further directions in related research were discussed.

  15. Contrastive Research on Domestic and Foreign Ecological Agriculture Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the first place,the definitions of ecological agriculture defined by scholars both at home and abroad are introduced.In the second place,the domestic and foreign ecological agriculture policies are expounded.Through contrastive research on the domestic and foreign ecological agriculture polices,the problems in the development of ecological agriculture in China are found.By mirroring the western experiences in developing ecological agriculture,the countermeasures and relevant suggestions are put forward from the perspective of government.The first one is to increase the subsidies from the government to ecological agriculture.The second one is to clarify the standard of ecological agriculture construction.The third one is to promote the industrialization of ecological agriculture.The fourth one is to strengthen the construction of ecological demonstration region and ecological village.

  16. ECOLOGICAL EXPEDITION AS EFFECTIVE FORM OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Matisovs, Ivars

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with ecological expedition as effective form of environmental research and ecological education. Since 1997 Rēzekne Higher education institution organizes ecological expeditions for study programme “Environmental engineering” students in the Eastern Latvia region. Students realize integrated assessment of environmental quality with different methods. Article summarize experience of 10- years long period. Also show main goals and tasks of ecological expeditions, describe field ...

  17. Twitter Predicts Citation Rates of Ecological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Brandon K; Midway, Stephen R; Sackett, Dana; Lynch, Abigail; Cooney, Patrick B

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between traditional metrics of research impact (e.g., number of citations) and alternative metrics (altmetrics) such as Twitter activity are of great interest, but remain imprecisely quantified. We used generalized linear mixed modeling to estimate the relative effects of Twitter activity, journal impact factor, and time since publication on Web of Science citation rates of 1,599 primary research articles from 20 ecology journals published from 2012-2014. We found a strong positive relationship between Twitter activity (i.e., the number of unique tweets about an article) and number of citations. Twitter activity was a more important predictor of citation rates than 5-year journal impact factor. Moreover, Twitter activity was not driven by journal impact factor; the 'highest-impact' journals were not necessarily the most discussed online. The effect of Twitter activity was only about a fifth as strong as time since publication; accounting for this confounding factor was critical for estimating the true effects of Twitter use. Articles in impactful journals can become heavily cited, but articles in journals with lower impact factors can generate considerable Twitter activity and also become heavily cited. Authors may benefit from establishing a strong social media presence, but should not expect research to become highly cited solely through social media promotion. Our research demonstrates that altmetrics and traditional metrics can be closely related, but not identical. We suggest that both altmetrics and traditional citation rates can be useful metrics of research impact.

  18. Research and Prediction of Ecological Security in Jiangsu Province Based on the Ecological Footprint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the 2000-2010 Jiangsu Statistical Yearbook,per capita ecological footprint and per capita ecological carrying capacity in Jiangsu Province in the years 2001-2009 are analyzed starting from the ecological footprint model.Per capita ecological deficit is measured,as well as the pressure index of ecological footprint in order to judge the grade of ecological security and to objectively evaluate the ecological security of Jiangsu Province.GM(1,1) grey forecasting model is used to forecast the ecological security of Jiangsu Province in the years 2010-2014.Research shows that in the next 5 years,both the per capita ecological footprint and the pressure index of ecological footprint will increase by 4% and 3.7% each year,respectively.And the ecological status in Jiangsu Province will be extremely unsafe.To achieve the coordinated development of ecological security and economy of Jiangsu Province,we should strictly control the population growth,rationally utilize the land resources,and strengthen the ecological restoration and construction.

  19. The Present Situation and Development Research of Recreation Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan; ZHOU; Guoqin; HUANG; Qiguo; ZHAO

    2013-01-01

    With the continuous development of society,the problem of the tourism also appears more outstanding.The article analyzed the relationship between ecotourism and recreation ecology on the basis of the understanding and researching,and put recreation ecology forward a deeper level of request.How to develop the tourism,including ecotourism,is the problem to be solved.Five research methods about recreation ecology were introduced,namely the field survey method,the positioning method,the ecological simulation method,the modern information technology method and the tourism evaluation and planning method,from the point of view of research methods to elaborate the present situation of recreation ecology at home and abroad.The relationship of recreation ecology and landscape ecology,landscape architecture,biological statistics and the potential were discussed at the end of the article.

  20. Priorities for research in soil ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Antunes, Pedro M.; Bennett, Alison E.; Birkhofer, Klaus; Bissett, Andrew; Bowker, Matthew A.; Caruso, Tancredi; Chen, Baodong; Coleman, David C.; Boer, de Wietse; Ruiter, de Peter; DeLuca, Thomas H.; Frati, Francesco; Griffiths, Bryan S.; Hart, Miranda M.; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Haimi, Jari; Heethoff, Michael; Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Kelly, Laura C.; Leinaas, Hans Petter; Lindo, Zoë; Macdonald, Catriona; Rillig, Matthias C.; Ruess, Liliane; Scheu, Stefan; Schmidt, Olaf; Seastedt, Timothy R.; Straalen, van Nico M.; Tiunov, Alexei V.; Zimmer, Martin; Powell, Jeff R.

    2017-01-01

    The ecological interactions that occur in and with soil are of consequence in many ecosystems on the planet. These interactions provide numerous essential ecosystem services, and the sustainable management of soils has attracted increasing scientific and public attention. Although soil ecology

  1. [Ecologic validity of gerontopsychologic memory research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineken, E

    1984-01-01

    Developmental memory research has to consider the role of the recall-material in the context of the learner's life situation. This is a prerequisite for ecological validity. An indicator of such age-specific and achievement relevant context differences is suggested to be the degree of "affection" and "surprise" induced by the particular learning event. The importance of both variables becomes obvious in a study by Brown and Kulick (1977) on long-term memory for context-information of realworld events: recall is proven to be dependent upon the interaction of the experienced "affection" and "surprise". In their study the authors do not control the variable "surprise" explicitly. Their hypothesis of interaction therefore remained unproved. This interaction is empirically studied here. At the same time the hypothesis that recall is dependent on the emotional value of the event is also examined. Two groups participated in the study, 65 students of psychology, age 20 to 42, and 60 seniors, age 60 to 84. The recall of context-information associated with the events of the private and public world, the scores of the experienced degree of affection and surprise, as well as the emotional evaluation of the particular event were measured. The results confirm the hypothesis of interaction: The factor "surprise" has a significant effect only under conditions of high scored "'affection". The main effect of the factor "affection" is significant, whereas no effect for emotional evaluation was discovered.

  2. Ecological hazards of MTBE exposure: A research agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, T.; Hall, L.; Rice, D.

    1997-03-01

    Fuel oxygenates are used in metropolitan areas across the United States in order to reduce the amount of carbon monoxide released into the atmosphere during the winter. The most commonly used fuel oxygenate is Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Its widespread use has resulted in releases into the environment. To date there has been only minimal effort to investigate ecological impacts caused by exposure to concentrations of MTBE typically found in environmental media. Research into the potential for MTBE to adversely affect ecological receptors is essential. Acquisition of such baselines data is especially critical in light of continuing inputs and potential accumulation of MTBE in environmental media. A research Agenda is included in this report and addresses: Assessing Ecological Impacts, Potential Ecological Impacts of MTBE (aquatic organisms, terrestrial organisms), Potential Ecological Endpoints, and A Summary of Research Needs.

  3. Marine Ecology Research Resource Units Grades 7-9. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contra Costa County Dept. of Education, Pleasant Hill, CA.

    Project Marine Ecology Research (MER) is an ecological unit designed to involve secondary students in the study of the marine biome. The teachers are also involved with MER through inservice participation and materials preparation. The unit is designed to be incorporated within the existing science curriculum. Specifically, the activities concern…

  4. Guide to Marine Ecology Research . . . a Curriculum for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Marylynn L., Ed.

    Project Marine Ecology Research (MER) is an ecological curriculum designed to involve secondary students in the study of the marine biome. The background material and learning activities concern the study of the San Francisco Bay Area. The guide is divided into two major parts. In the first part, a history of the Bay Area is given. It includes the…

  5. Guide to Marine Ecology Research . . . a Curriculum for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Marylynn L., Ed.

    Project Marine Ecology Research (MER) is an ecological curriculum designed to involve secondary students in the study of the marine biome. The background material and learning activities concern the study of the San Francisco Bay Area. The guide is divided into two major parts. In the first part, a history of the Bay Area is given. It includes the…

  6. Applied research of landscape ecology in desertification monitoring and assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary research on landscape ecology in desertification monitoring and assessment was reported. Also, this paper laid stress on the study of landscape diversity, dominance, evenness and Markov Matrix model and their respective landscape ecological meanings in the desertification monitoring and assessment. Concurrently, it took Shazhuyu Experimental Area, Qinghai Province as a specific case study.

  7. The Jornada Basin long term ecological research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert landscapes exemplify the ecological conditions, vulnerability, and management challenges in arid and semi-arid regions around the world. The goal of the Jornada Basin Long Term Ecological Research program (JRN LTER) established in 1982 is to understand and quantify the key factors ...

  8. Priorities for research in soil ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Antunes, Pedro M.; Bennett, Alison E.; Birkhofer, Klaus; Bissett, Andrew; Bowker, Matthew A.; Caruso, Tancredi; Chen, Baodong; Coleman, David C.; Boer, Wietse de; De Ruiter, Peter C.; DeLuca, Thomas H.; Frati, Francesco; Griffiths, Bryan S.; Hart, Miranda M.; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Haimi, Jari; Heethoff, Michael; Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Kelly, Laura C.; Leinaas, Hans Petter; Lindo, Zoë; Macdonald, Catriona; Rillig, Matthias C; Rillig, Matthias C; Scheu, Stefan; Schmidt, Olaf; Seastedt, Timothy R.; Straalen, Nico M. van; Tiunov, Alexei V.; Zimmer, Martin; Powell, Jeff R.

    Abstract The ecological interactions that occur in and with soil are of consequence in many ecosystems on the planet. These interactions provide numerous essential ecosystem services, and the sustainable management of soils has attracted increasing scientific and public attention. Although soil

  9. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual technical progress report of ecological research, period ending July 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-31

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA) that is managed in conjunction with the University`s Institute of Ecology. The laboratory`s overall mission is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under an M&O contract with the US Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. Significant accomplishments were made during the year ending July 31, 1994 in the areas of research, education and service. Reviewed in this document are research projects in the following areas: Environmental Operations Support (impacted wetlands, streams, trace organics, radioecology, database synthesis, wild life studies, zooplankton, safety and quality assurance); wood stork foraging and breeding ecology; defence waste processing facility; environmental risk assessment (endangered species, fish, ash basin studies); ecosystem alteration by chemical pollutants; wetlands systems; biodiversity on the SRS; Environmental toxicology; environmental outreach and education; Par Pond drawdown studies in wildlife and fish and metals; theoretical ecology; DOE-SR National Environmental Research Park; wildlife studies. Summaries of educational programs and publications are also give.

  10. Beyond the Blue Marble: Artistic research on space and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Ralo

    2016-11-01

    This paper discusses the relation of space and ecology through examples of artistic research on the closed ecological system experiment Biosphere 2 and the history of space settlements. While the idea of artificial ecological systems in space dates back to the first visions of space exploration, the best known link between ecology and space is probably the Whole Earth photos of the Apollo program. Following recent reconceptualizations of Ecology beyond the nature-culture divide I argue that this popular icon of ecology and space by now has become a limitation to both space exploration and a new ecological understanding in the Anthropocene. By interpreting Biosphere 2 as a model of our world that is not limited to biological relations but also includes socio-political aspects, culture, economy and technology, my performative research supports the idea of "Ecology without Nature" as proposed by Timothy Morton and others. Furthermore, through an artistic exploration of the local history and legacy of 1970s' space settlement enthusiasm in the San Francisco Bay Area and its ties to the later digital frontier and Green Capitalism, the paper discusses the 1990s as a pivotal transformational period for space and ecology. While so-called "globalizations" have often been illustrated by the Whole Earth image, associated developments have essentially revealed vast dimensions of space and time that have unsettled our very concept of world and are characteristic issues of the Anthropocene. At the same time, this "end of the world" could be employed to relate the Anthropocene to space exploration and rethink ecology as a theoretical framework transcending planet Earth.

  11. The Methodology of Psychological Research of Ecological Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Shmeleva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the methodological principles of the psychological study of ecological consciousness as one of the urgent interdisciplinary problems of XX–XXI century, caused by the aggravation of global ecological problems and the need for the realization of the “sustainable development”ideas. Ecological consciousness is considered as multilayered, dynamic, reflexive element of human consciousness, incorporating multivariate, holistic aspects of interaction of the human being as the H.S. and the Humanity representative with the environment and the Planet. The possibility of the more active introduction of Russian psychology in the process is argued for in connection with the existing conceptual approaches, which compose the methodological basis for ecological consciousness research. Among these approaches are considered: the principles of holistic study of the human being by B. Ananyev, the methodology of system psychological description by V. Gansen and G. Sukhodolsky, the idea of reflexivity of consciousness by S. Rubinstein, the humanitarian- ecological imperative of the development of consciousness by V. Zinchenko, the theory of relations by V. Myasishev, consideration of ecological consciousness as relation to nature by S. Deryabo and V. Yasvin, theories of consciousness by V. Petrenko, V. Allakhverdov and other Russian psychologists. The value component of ecological consciousness is distinguished as the most significant. The possibility of applying the Values’ theory of the by S. Schwartz for studying the ecological values is discussed along with the prognostic potential of the universalism value.

  12. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual technical progress report of ecological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.H.

    1996-07-31

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA). The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Significant accomplishments were made during the past year in the areas of research, education and service. The Laboratory`s research mission was fulfilled with the publication of two books and 143 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical and students, and visiting scientists. An additional three books and about 80 journal articles currently are in press. Faculty, technician and students presented 193 lectures, scientific presentations, and posters to colleges and universities, including minority institutions. Dr. J Vaun McArthur organized and conducted the Third Annual SREL Symposium on the Environment: New Concepts in Strewn Ecology: An Integrative Approach. Dr. Michael Newman conducted a 5-day course titled Quantitative Methods in Ecotoxicology, and Dr. Brian Teppen of The Advanced Analytical Center for Environmental Sciences (AACES) taught a 3-day short course titled Introduction to Molecular Modeling of Environmental Systems. Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin co-hosted a meeting of the Crocodile Special Interest Group. Dr. Rebecca Sharitz attended four symposia in Japan during May and June 1996 and conducted meetings of the Executive Committee and Board of the International Association for Ecology (ENTECOL).

  13. Ecological Research of the Voluntary Disclosure about Listed Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing-Jing; Yan, Guang-Le

    In the paper, the research subject is the ecological relationship between the Small and Medium-sized Enterprises(SMEs) and the Large-scale Enterprises(Les). From the perspective of ecology, setting up the competitive model basic on the Logistic model, and carrying out further analysis about the voluntary information disclosure of listed company, then getting the strategic choice about the voluntary information disclosure and the ecological explanation of false information, and the dynamic mechanism and strategy of the voluntary information disclosure of listed company.

  14. The Role of Ecological Research in Great Lakes Water Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    This talk will present some current ecological research in the Great Lakes. It will focus on how research examines aspects of water quality that relate to Basin-Lake and Human-Water interactions in the context of water sustainability issues for the Great Lakes.

  15. School Psychology Research: Combining Ecological Theory and Prevention Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…

  16. Research Summary of Chinese Ecological Anthropology in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shan

    2014-01-01

    The year 2013 was a fruitful year for the study of Ecological Anthropology in China . More than one hundred related papers were been published in 2013 . They can be roughly divided into three categories: research review; theoretical discussion; and case analysis .Among these pa-pers, the research about disaster anthropology was the most significant .However , there are also prob-lems regarding the development of Ecological An-thropology.For example, the concept of the disci-pline is still unclear and theoretical discussion as to what it means continues even today .In addition, the number of results has increased by leaps and bounds, but the areas of study are still unbal-anced.Furthermore, while localized studies have been promoted , professional exchanges with for-eign countries and scholars are still inadequate . Finally, although publishing platforms have in-creased , even one professional journal of Ecologi-cal Anthropology in China is still lacking .With the advancement of the construction of an ecological civilization in China , Ecological Anthropology will usher in a new development opportunity in future .

  17. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory annual technical progress report of ecological research, period ending July 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaitkus, M.R.; Wein, G.R. [eds.; Johnson, G.

    1993-11-01

    This progress report gives an overview of research programs at the Savannah River Site. Topics include; environmental operations support, wood stork foraging and breeding, defense waste processing, environmental stresses, alterations in the environment due to pollutants, wetland ecology, biodiversity, pond drawdown studies, and environmental toxicology.

  18. About the Western Ecology Division (WED) of EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Western Ecology Division (WED) conducts innovative research on watershed ecological epidemiology and the development of tools to achieve sustainable and resilient watersheds for application by stakeholders.

  19. Basic Research Tools for Earthworm Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Butt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are responsible for soil development, recycling organic matter and form a vital component within many food webs. For these and other reasons earthworms are worthy of investigation. Many technologically-enhanced approaches have been used within earthworm-focused research. These have their place, may be a development of existing practices or bring techniques from other fields. Nevertheless, let us not overlook the fact that much can still be learned through utilisation of more basic approaches which have been used for some time. New does not always equate to better. Information on community composition within an area and specific population densities can be learned using simple collection techniques, and burrowing behaviour can be determined from pits, resin-insertion or simple mesocosms. Life history studies can be achieved through maintenance of relatively simple cultures. Behavioural observations can be undertaken by direct observation or with low cost webcam usage. Applied aspects of earthworm research can also be achieved through use of simple techniques to enhance population development and even population dynamics can be directly addressed with use of relatively inexpensive, effective marking techniques. This paper seeks to demonstrate that good quality research in this sphere can result from appropriate application of relatively simple research tools.

  20. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, annual technical progress report of ecological research for the year ending June 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wein, G.; Rosier, B.

    1997-12-31

    This report provides an overview of the research programs and program components carried out by the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Research focused on the following: advanced analytical and spectroscopic techniques for developing novel waste isolation and stabilization technologies as well as cost-effective remediation strategies; ecologically sound management of damaged and remediation of ecological systems; ecotoxicology, remediation, and risk assessment; radioecology, including dose assessments for plants and animals exposed to environmental radiation; and other research support programs.

  1. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, annual technical progress report of ecological research for the year ending June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wein, G.; Rosier, B.

    1998-12-31

    This report provides an overview of the research programs and program components carried out by the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Research focused on the following: advanced analytical and spectroscopic techniques for developing novel waste isolation and stabilization technologies as well as cost-effective remediation strategies; ecologically sound management of damaged and remediation of ecological systems; ecotoxicology, remediation, and risk assessment; radioecology, including dose assessments for plants and animals exposed to environmental radiation; and other research support programs.

  2. The Social Ecology Research Project, 1988-1991. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J. Michael; Minnett, Ann M.

    This report describes the Social Ecology Research Project, which assessed the foundations of personal-social competence in children with mental handicaps (MH). Children with mild MH (n=1,200) and their normally achieving peers (n=2,500), all ages 8-14, were studied over 3 years. Students were assessed in resource and regular classrooms, and…

  3. Making research relevant? Ecological methods and the ecosystem services framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Jaksic, Fabián. M.

    2017-07-01

    We examine some unexpected epistemological conflicts that arise at the interfaces between ecological science, the ecosystem services framework, policy, and industry. We use an example from our own research to motivate and illustrate our main arguments, while also reviewing standard approaches to ecological science using the ecosystem services framework. While we agree that the ecosystem services framework has benefits in its industrial applications because it may force economic decision makers to consider a broader range of costs and benefits than they would do otherwise, we find that many alignments of ecology with the ecosystem services framework are asking questions that are irrelevant to real-world applications, and generating data that does not serve real-world applications. We attempt to clarify why these problems arise and how to avoid them. We urge fellow ecologists to reflect on the kind of research that can lead to both scientific advances and applied relevance to society. In our view, traditional empirical approaches at landscape scales or with place-based emphases are necessary to provide applied knowledge for problem solving, which is needed once decision makers identify risks to ecosystem services. We conclude that the ecosystem services framework is a good policy tool when applied to decision-making contexts, but not a good theory either of social valuation or ecological interactions, and should not be treated as one.

  4. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul M. Bertsch, (Director)

    2002-06-30

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of The University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory's research mission during the 2002 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of 76 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 50 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members, staff, and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section titled Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 51. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, stable isotopes, sandhills ecology, and phytoremediation: (1) A collaborative study between Dr. Tom Hinton at SREL and scientists at SRTC demonstrated the feasibility of using illite clay to sequester 137Cs in sediments along the P and R reactor cooling canal system, where approximately 3,000 acres of land are contaminated. Overall, the study showed significant decreases in cesium concentrations and bioavailability following the addition of illite with no sign of harm to the ecosystem. While the cesium remains sequestered from the biosphere, its radioactivity decays and the process progresses from contaminant immobilization to remediation. (2) SREL's stable isotope laboratory is now fully functional. Stable isotope distributions in nature can provide important insights into many historical and current environmental processes. Dr. Christopher Romanek is leading SREL's research

  5. Diversity within a colony morphotype: Implications for ecological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldeman, D.L.; Amy, P.S. (Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas (United States))

    1993-03-01

    In microbial ecology, accurate identification based on morphotype is often impossible, so the assumption is often made that colonies of the same morphotype represent the same species or biotype. This study examines the validity of using colony morphology as the selection criterion for calculating ecological indices of the diversity and equitability of recoverable microbial communities. Isolates within sets of microbial colonies were very similar in terms of colony morphology, microscopic appearance, resistance to metals, and response to API-rapid-NFT tests. Resistance to antibiotics was variable within sets. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis distinguished between isolates of the same species or biotype. However, isolates belonging to the same biotype can be selected by morhotype. The researchers conclude colony morphology can provide an accurate basis on which to define recoverable diversity.

  6. Ecosystem services – current challenges and opportunities for ecological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus eBirkhofer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ecosystem services was originally developed to illustrate the benefits that natural ecosystems generate for society and to raise awareness for biodiversity and ecosystem conservation. In this article we identify major challenges and opportunities for ecologists involved in empirical or modeling ecosystem service research. The first challenge arises from the fact that the ecosystem service concept has not been generated in the context of managed systems. Ecologists need to identify the effect of anthropogenic interventions in order to propose practices to benefit service-providing organisms and associated services. The second challenge arises from the need to evaluate relationships between indicators of ecosystem services that are collected in ecological studies while accounting for uncertainties of ecological processes that underlie these services. We suggest basing the assessment of ecosystem services on the utilization of sets of indicators that cover aspects of service-providing units, ecosystem management and landscape modification. The third challenge arises from our limited understanding of the nature of relationships between services and a lack of a general statistical framework to address these links. To manage ecosystem service provisioning, ecologists need to establish whether services respond to a shared driver or if services are directly linked to each other. Finally, studies relating biodiversity to ecosystem services often focus on services at small spatial or short temporal scales, but research on the protection of services is often directed towards services providing benefits at large spatial scales. Ecological research needs to address a range of spatial and temporal scales to provide a multifaceted understanding of how nature promotes human well-being. Addressing these challenges in the future offers a unique opportunity for ecologists to act as promoters for the understanding about how to conserve benefits

  7. Research Status and Development Trend of Coastal Wetland Ecological Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-lei; WANG Shu-bo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, with the influenced by both man-made and natural factors. coastal wetlands sharp decline in the area, lack of resources, biological diversity declined, and the ecosystem function damaged. Through on current issues such as pollution and destruction of coastal wetlands analysis of coastal wetlands in research conducted a review and prospect of ecological restoration. So the protection and restoration of coastal wetlands should be brook no delay. The article based on the current pollution and destruction of the coastal wetlands analyses, and reviewed the current effective measures to restore coastal wetlands mainly in china and abroad.

  8. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, Paul M.; Janecek, Laura; Rosier, Brenda

    2001-06-30

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SRS near Aiken, South Carolina. The Laboratory's research mission during the 2001 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of one book and 83 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 77 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 54. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, global reptile decline, phytoremediation, and radioecology. Dr. Domy Adriano authored the second edition of his book ''Trace Elements in Terrestrial Environments: Biogeochemistry, Bioavailability, and Risks of Metals'', which was recently published by Springer-Verlag. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of many important aspects of trace elements in the environment. The first edition of the book, published in 1986, has become a widely acclaimed and cited reference. International attention was focused on the problem of reptile species decline with the publication of an article on this topic in the journal ''Bioscience'' in August, 2000. The article's authors included Dr. Whit Gibbons and a number of other SREL herpetologists who researched the growing worldwide problem of decline of reptile species. Factors related

  9. The Urban Ecology Institute's field studies program: utilizing urban areas for experiential learning and ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starry, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Urban Ecology Institute (UEI) promotes the stewardship of healthy urban ecosystems by improving science and civic education for middle and high school youth and by working with urban communities to protect and transform natural resources. Established in 1999, UEI's field studies program engages over 1000 youth in the greater Boston area. A substantial component of this program involves water quality monitoring. We have recently adapted protocols from published leaf breakdown studies for incorporation into the UEI water quality curriculum. A 2004 pilot study of these leaf breakdown activities, conducted at four sites, compared rates of red maple breakdown to those of Norway maple, a potentially invasive urban street tree. Preliminary data from this successful pilot study suggest that leaf litter inputs from the two different tree species have varying effects on stream ecosystem function. We present this study as an example of how urban areas can be utilized for both ecological research and inclusive experiential learning through which science and mathematic knowledge can be effectively communicated.

  10. An ecological framework for cancer communication: implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Kevin; Intille, Stephen S; Zabinski, Marion F

    2005-07-01

    The field of cancer communication has undergone a major revolution as a result of the Internet. As recently as the early 1990s, face-to-face, print, and the telephone were the dominant methods of communication between health professionals and individuals in support of the prevention and treatment of cancer. Computer-supported interactive media existed, but this usually required sophisticated computer and video platforms that limited availability. The introduction of point-and-click interfaces for the Internet dramatically improved the ability of non-expert computer users to obtain and publish information electronically on the Web. Demand for Web access has driven computer sales for the home setting and improved the availability, capability, and affordability of desktop computers. New advances in information and computing technologies will lead to similarly dramatic changes in the affordability and accessibility of computers. Computers will move from the desktop into the environment and onto the body. Computers are becoming smaller, faster, more sophisticated, more responsive, less expensive, and--essentially--ubiquitous. Computers are evolving into much more than desktop communication devices. New computers include sensing, monitoring, geospatial tracking, just-in-time knowledge presentation, and a host of other information processes. The challenge for cancer communication researchers is to acknowledge the expanded capability of the Web and to move beyond the approaches to health promotion, behavior change, and communication that emerged during an era when language- and image-based interpersonal and mass communication strategies predominated. Ecological theory has been advanced since the early 1900s to explain the highly complex relationships among individuals, society, organizations, the built and natural environments, and personal and population health and well-being. This paper provides background on ecological theory, advances an Ecological Model of Internet

  11. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M.; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. ”Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever.“ (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.) PMID:19060196

  12. Integrating Ecological and Social Knowledge: Learning from CHANS Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Shindler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientists are increasingly called upon to integrate across ecological and social disciplines to tackle complex coupled human and natural system (CHANS problems. Integration of these disciplines is challenging and many scientists do not have experience with large integrated research projects. However, much can be learned about the complicated process of integration from such efforts. We document some of these lessons from a National Science Foundation-funded CHANS project (Forests, People, Fire and present considerations for developing and engaging in coupled human and natural system projects. Certainly we are not the first to undertake this endeavor, and many of our findings complement those of other research teams. We focus here on the process of coming together, learning to work as an integrated science team, and describe the challenges and opportunities of engaging stakeholders (agency personnel and citizen communities of interests in our efforts. Throughout this project our intention was to foster dialogue among diverse interests and, thus, incorporate this knowledge into uncovering primary social and ecological drivers of change. A primary tool was an agent-based model, Envision, that used this information in landscape simulation, visualization models, and scenario development. Although integration can be an end in itself, the proof of value in the approach can be the degree to which it provides new insights or tools to CHANS, including closer interaction among multiple stakeholders, that could not have been reached without it.

  13. Citizen science: integrating scientific research, ecological conservation and public participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science, also known as “public participation in scientific research”, is defined as scientific activities in which non-professional scientists participate as volunteers in data collection, analysis and dissemination within a scientific project. With the advent of the information age, citizen science projects, especially in ecological conservation and environmental monitoring, are rapidly expanding our knowledge of the world around us, and contributing to management and policy decisions. Citizen science projects can be classified into five types of models: contractual, contributory, collaborative, co-created and collegial projects. In China, public participation in science related activities has had a long history, but current contributions in citizen science are limited because of relatively low public participation, and the weaknesses in data quality control, data management and analysis. Recently, citizen science has been applied to bird watching and plant monitoring, with some positive and negative experiences. To better increase citizen science activities and enhance such contributions to academic research, improvements are urgently required in financial support, the development of project platforms, the application of new technology, and international collaboration. We believe that the enhancement of citizen science will greatly promote the development of ecological conservation, environmental monitoring and related research fields. To help with this we have established a platform for China citizen science projects (http://www.gongzhongkexue.org to promote communication and cooperation among scientists, governments, other organizations and the public.

  14. Cyberinfrastructure to Support Collaborative Research Within Small Ecology Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, C.; Jaimes, A.; Cody, R. P.; Kassin, A.; Salayandia, L.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    Increasingly, ecological research programs addressing complex challenges are driving technological innovations that allow the acquisition and analysis of data collected over larger spatial scales and finer temporal resolutions. Many research labs are shifting from deploying technicians or students into the field to setting up automated sensors. These sensors can cost less on an individual basis, provide continuous and reliable data collection, and allow researchers to spend more time analyzing data and testing hypotheses. They can provide an enormous amount of complex information about an ecosystem. However, the effort to manage, analyze, and disseminate that information can be daunting. Small labs unfamiliar with these efforts may find their capacity to publish at competitive rates hindered by information management. Such labs would be well served by an easy to manage cyberinfrastructure (CI) that is organized in a modular, plug-and-play design and is amenable to a wide variety of data types. Its functionality would permit addition of new sensors and perform automated data analysis and visualization. Such a system would conceivably enhance access to data from small labs through web services, thereby improving the representation of smaller labs in scientific syntheses and enhancing the spatial and temporal coverage of such efforts. We present a CI that is designed to meet the needs of a small but heavily instrumented research site located within the USDA ARS Jornada Experimental Range in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. This site was constructed and is operated by the Systems Ecology Lab at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), a relatively small and young lab. Researchers at the site study land-atmosphere carbon, water, and energy fluxes at a mixed creosote (Larrea tridentata) - mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) shrubland. The site includes an eddy covariance tower built to AmeriFlux and FLUXNET specifications, a robotic cart that measures hyperspectral

  15. [Perspectives in researches on grassland ecology for the early 21st century in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cunzhu; Zhu, Tingcheng; Wang, Deli; Lü, Xinlong

    2002-06-01

    Grassland degeneration is a prominent problem in China. More in-depth studies should be carried out on the key problem--grassland degeneration for Chinese grassland ecologists in the early 21st century. Some hot research fields were restoration ecology, interface ecology, grazing ecology, health diagnoses and evaluation for grasslands. Among them, restoration ecology was the foundation for restoring degenerative grasslands; interface ecology involved with the point of contact for analyzing degenerative grasslands; grazing ecology was the effective way to control degenerative grasslands; diagnoses of grassland health benefited accurately appraising degenerative levels of grasslands; and evaluation for grassland was also considered as an estimation on services and benefits of grassland ecosystems.

  16. A data acquisition system for marine and ecological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a self-contained portable data acquisition system for use in marine and ecological research. The compact lightweight data acquisition system is capable of recording 14 variables in its present configuration and is suitable for use in either a boat, pickup truck, or light aircraft. This system will provide the acquisition of reliable data on the structure of the environment and the effect of man-made and natural activities on the observed phenomenon. Utilizing both self-contained analog recording and a telemetry transmitter for real-time digital readout and recording, the prototype system has undergone extensive testing. Currently undergoing component performance upgrading, the prototype system has been utilized in several environmental science investigations associated with air pollution investigations and weather modification and is currently being used for marine data acquisition.

  17. Author contributions to ecological publications: What does it mean to be an author in modern ecological research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John M; Bean, Sarah B; Myers, Andrew E

    2017-01-01

    Authorship is a central element of scientific research carrying a variety of rewards and responsibilities, and while various guidelines exist, actual author contributions are often ambiguous. Inconsistent or limited contributions threaten to devalue authorship as intellectual currency and diminish authors' responsibility for published content. Researchers have assessed author contributions in the medical literature and other research fields, but similar data for the field of ecological research are lacking. Authorship practices in ecological research are broadly representative of a variety of fields due to the cross-disciplinary nature of collaborations in ecological studies. To better understand author contributions to current research, we distributed a survey regarding co-author contributions to a random selection of 996 lead authors of manuscripts published in ecological journals in 2010. We obtained useable responses from 45% of surveyed authors. Reported lead author contributions in ecological research studies consistently included conception of the project idea, data collection, analysis, and writing. Middle and last author contributions instead showed a high level of individual variability. Lead authorship in ecology is well defined while secondary authorship is more ambiguous. Nearly half (48%) of all studies included in our survey had some level of non-compliance with Ecological Society of America (ESA) authorship guidelines and the majority of studies (78%) contained at least one co-author that did not meet International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) requirements. Incidence of non-compliance varied with lead author occupation and author position. The probability of a study including an author that was non-compliant with ESA guidelines was lowest for professor-led studies and highest for graduate student and post doctoral researcher-led studies. Among studies with > two co-authors, all lead authors met ESA guidelines and only 2% failed to

  18. Research on Land Ecological Condition Investigation and Monitoring Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chunyan; Guo, Xudong; Chen, Yuqi

    2017-04-01

    The ecological status of land reflects the relationship between land use and environmental factors. At present, land ecological situation in China is worrying. According to the second national land survey data, there are about 149 million acres of arable land located in forests and grasslands area in Northeast and Northwest of China, Within the limits of the highest flood level, at steep slope above 25 degrees; about 50 million acres of arable land has been in heavy pollution; grassland degradation is still serious. Protected natural forests accounted for only 6% of the land area, and forest quality is low. Overall, the ecological problem has been eased, but the local ecological destruction intensified, natural ecosystem in degradation. It is urgent to find out the situation of land ecology in the whole country and key regions as soon as possible. The government attaches great importance to ecological environment investigation and monitoring. Various industries and departments from different angles carry out related work, most of it about a single ecological problem, the lack of a comprehensive surveying and assessment of land ecological status of the region. This paper established the monitoring index system of land ecological condition, including Land use type area and distribution, quality of cultivated land, vegetation status and ecological service, arable land potential and risk, a total of 21 indicators. Based on the second national land use survey data, annual land use change data and high resolution remote sensing data, using the methods of sample monitoring, field investigation and statistical analysis to obtain the information of each index, this paper established the land ecological condition investigation and monitoring technology and method system. It has been improved, through the application to Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration, the northern agro-pastoral ecological fragile zone, and 6 counties (cities).

  19. Research on green building design based on ecological concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ping Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the protection of the ecological environment and the promotion of green building has been recognized and widely promoted.With the rapid development of the construction industry, Architecture design will inevitably require the resentation of its unique form and charm to reflect the ecological concept and ecological culture, because of the unique nature of the art and the particularity of the environment. To establish the ecological concept of green building design and vigorously develop the green green building has a complementary role to alleviate the pressure on resources,and to speed up the eco city planning design, and to realize the sustainable development of the city, and to protect the urban ecological environmental.

  20. Laying the groundwork for NEON's continental-scale ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethloff, G.; Denslow, M.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is designed to examine a suite of ecological issues. Field-collected data from 96 terrestrial and aquatic sites across the U.S. will be combined with remotely sensed data and existing continental-scale data sets. Field collections will include a range of physical and biological types, including soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater, precipitation, plants, animals, insects, and microbes as well as biological sub-samples such as leaf material, blood and tissue samples, and DNA extracts. Initial data analyses and identifications of approximately 175,000 samples per year will occur at numerous external laboratories when all sites are fully staffed in 2017. Additionally, NEON will archive biotic and abiotic specimens at collections facilities where they will be curated and available for additional analyses by the scientific community. The number of archived specimens is currently estimated to exceed 130,000 per year by 2017. We will detail how NEON is addressing the complexities and challenges around this set of analyses and specimens and how the resulting high-quality data can impact ecological understanding. The raw data returned from external laboratories that is quality checked and served by NEON will be the foundation for many NEON data products. For example, sequence-quality nucleic acids extracted from surface waters, benthic biofilms, and soil samples will be building blocks for data products on microbial diversity. The raw sequence data will also be available for uses such as evolutionary investigations, and the extracts will be archived so others can acquire them for additional research. Currently, NEON is establishing contracts for the analysis and archiving of field-collected samples through 2017. During this period, NEON will gather information on the progress and success of this large-scale effort in order to determine the most effective course to pursue with external facilities. Two areas that NEON

  1. Evolution of collaboration within the US long term ecological research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey C. Johnson; Robert R. Christian; James W. Brunt; Caleb R. Hickman; Robert B. Waide

    2010-01-01

    The US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program began in 1980 with the mission of addressing long-term ecological phenomena through research at individual sites, as well as comparative and synthetic activities among sites. We applied network science measures to assess how the LTER program has achieved its mission using intersite publications as the measure of...

  2. Research for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence of Social and Ecological Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Hall, Emilie; Conder, Emily; Lane, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    The social and ecological validity of a body of research may impact the degree to which interventions will be used outside of research contexts. The purpose of this review was to determine the extent to which social and ecological validity were demonstrated for interventions designed to increase social skills for young children with autism…

  3. Experimental Researches Regarding the Ecological Dyeing with Natural Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budeanu Ramona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ‘environmental awareness’ has recently had a major impact on the textile industry and on the fashion world as well. In this context, the use of natural fibres and the development of natural dyeing processes gradually became important goals of the textile industry. Of all natural textile fibres, hemp is considered to be one of the strongest and most durable. A wide range of natural extracts have been used for natural textile coloration and dyeing. Dyes deriving from natural sources have emerged as an important alternative to synthetic dyes. Ecofriendly, nontoxic, sustainable and renewable natural dyes and pigments have been used for colouring the food substrate, leather, wood, natural fibres and fabrics from the dawn of human history. The purpose of the research is to obtain ecologically coloured fabrics for textiles by using a method of dyeing that relies on natural ingredients extracted from red beet, onion leaves and black tea. The experiments are conducted on three different types of hemp fabrics. This paper presents the results of the studies regarding the dyeing process of hemp fabrics with natural extracts, the colours of the dyed samples inspected with reflectance spectra and the CIE L*a*b* colour space measurements.

  4. [The pathogenic ecology research on plague in Qinghai plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rui-xia; Wei, Bai-qing; Li, Cun-xiang; Xiong, Hao-ming; Yang, Xiao-yan; Fan, Wei; Qi, Mei-ying; Jin, Juan; Wei, Rong-jie; Feng, Jian-ping; Jin, Xing; Wang, Zu-yun

    2013-12-01

    To study the pathogenic ecology characteristics of plague in Qinghai plateau. Applied molecular biology techniques, conventional technologies and geographic information system (GIS) to study phenotypic traits, plasmid spectrum, genotype, infected host and media spectrum etc.of 952 Yersinia pestis strains in Qinghai plateau plague foci, which were separated from different host and media in different regions during 1954 to 2012. The ecotypes of these strains were Qingzang plateau (91.49%, 871/952),Qilian mountain (6.41%, 61/952) and Microtus fuscus (1.26%, 12/952).83.6% (796/952) of these strains contained all the 4 virulence factors (Fr1, Pesticin1,Virulence antigen, and Pigmentation), 93.26% (367/392) were velogenic strains confirmed by virulence test.725 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Qinghai plateau plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, among which 713 strains from Marmot himalayan plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 7×10(6), 23×10(6), 27×10(6), 30×10(6), 45×10(6), 52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6) respectively. 12 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Microtus fuscus plague foci carried only 3 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 45×10(6), 65×10(6). Meanwhile, the strains carrying large plasmid (52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6)) were only distributed in particular geographical location, which had the category property. The research also confirmed that 841 Yersinia pestis strains from two kinds of plague foci in Qinghai plateau had 11 genomovars. The strains of Marmot himalayan plague foci were given priority to genomovar 5 and 8, amounted to 611 strains, genomovar 8 accounted for 56.00% (471/841), genomovar 5 accounted for 23.07% (194/841). Besides, 3 new genomovars, including new 1(62 strains), new 2(52 strains), new 3(48 strains) were newly founded, and 12 strains of Microtus fuscus plague foci were genomovar 14. The main host and media of Qinghai plateau plague foci directly affected the spatial

  5. Research and application of ecological river courses restoration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z. C.; Yang, Y. Z.; Gao, X. L.; Xiao, H.; Liu, H. C.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a practical method of ordered binary comparison determined by weight vector is proposed, as based on correlative concepts of the dualistic relative comparative method in fuzzy mathematics. By taking advantage of the proposed method, subordinated degree of evaluation indicators can be defined, such as weightiness and the degree of importance of ecological restoration of river courses, and a mathematical model can be established. The proposed mathematical model is clear in its physical conception and offers convenient calculations, and provides a theoretical foundation for the ecological restoration of river courses. This paper employs "standard values" of the evaluation index system (EIS) of ecological river networks as derived by previous literature [1] as the theoretical basis for the ecological restoration river courses.

  6. Research on Mining Development in Yunnan under Ecological Environment Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqun Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan province is rich of mineral resources, and the mining industry is the pillar industry in Yunnan. But with the development of mining economy, the problems of the ecological environmental damage have come out. Under the mechanism of ecological environment compensation, the mining economic development in Yunnan needs to deal well with the problems of environmental protection. According to the natural ecological conditions of mining area in Yunnan Province, and combining with the phenomena on economic, social, and environmental development, the paper will analyze the impact on ecological environment in Yunnan in the process of mineral exploitation and utilization. It will also provide the mining development and environmental protection in Yunnan with reasonable proposal and give decision-making references about development plans for government.

  7. International Conference on long-term ecological research convenes in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Organized by the CAS Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNNR), and the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN), the International Conference on Long-Term Ecological Research was held on 20 and 21 August in Beijing. It was jointly sponsored by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, the National Natural Science Foundation of China(NSFC), CAS and the International Long-Term Ecological Research Network (ILTER).

  8. [Heavy metal pollution ecology of macro-fungi: research advances and expectation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi-xing; An, Xin-long; Wei, Shu-he

    2008-08-01

    Macro-fungi are the main component of biosphere and one of the ecological resources, and play very important roles in matter cycling and in maintaining ecological balances. This paper summarized and reviewed the research advances in the eco-toxicological effects of heavy metals on macro-fungi, the bioaccumulation function of macro-fungi on heavy metals, the ecological adaptation mechanisms of macro-fungi to heavy metal pollution, the role of macro-fungi as a bio-indicator of heavy metal pollution, and the potential of macro-fungi in the ecological remediation of contaminated environment. To strengthen the researches on the heavy metal pollution ecology of macro-fungi would be of practical significance in the reasonable utilization of macro-fungi resources and in the ecological remediation of contaminated environment.

  9. A prototype system for multilingual data discovery of International Long-Term Ecological Research (ILTER) Network data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Vanderbilt; John H. Porter; Sheng-Shan Lu; Nic Bertrand; David Blankman; Xuebing Guo; Honglin He; Don Henshaw; Karpjoo Jeong; Eun-Shik Kim; Chau-Chin Lin; Margaret O' Brien; Takeshi Osawa; Éamonn Ó Tuama; Wen Su; Haibo Yang

    2017-01-01

    Shared ecological data have the potential to revolutionize ecological research just as shared genetic sequence data have done for biological research. However, for ecological data to be useful, it must first be discoverable. A broad-scale research topic may require that a researcher be able to locate suitable data from a variety of global, regional and national data...

  10. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory annual technical progress report of ecological research for the year ending July 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.H.

    1995-07-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA). The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. Significant accomplishments were made during the past year in the areas of research, education and service. Major additions to SREL Facilities were completed that will enhance the Laboratory`s work in the future. Following several years of planning, opening ceremonies were held for the 5000 ft{sup 2} multi-purpose conference center that was funded by the University of Georgia Research Foundation (UGARF). The center is located on 68 acres of land that was provided by the US Department of Energy. This joint effort between DOE and UGARF supports DOE`s new initiative to develop partnerships with the private sector and universities. The facility is being used for scientific meetings and environmental education programs for students, teachers and the general public. A 6000 ft{sup 2} office and library addition to S@s main building officially opened this year, and construction plans are underway on a new animal care facility, laboratory addition, and receiving building.

  11. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Ecological Assessment of Kirk Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    provide a constant output of 300-400 V at 5-7 A. One driver and two netters were present for each run, with each site sampled for 300 sec (5 min...Auburn, AL. Titus, J. E. (1977). "The comparative physiological ecology of three submersed macrophytes," Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 195

  12. Understanding Literacy: Theoretical Foundations for Research in Media Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Lori

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the major scholarship of Harold Innis, Eric Havelock, Marshall McLuhan, Jack Goody, Walter Ong and Elizabeth Eisenstein, as they focused on the development of writing systems, and later, printing. Discusses how their theoretical frameworks are central to understanding media ecology, an emerging field of interdisciplinary study for…

  13. Building Interdisciplinary Research Capacity: a Key Challenge for Ecological Approaches in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay P. Galway

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The shortcomings of public health research informed by reductionist and fragmented biomedical approaches and the emergence of wicked problems are fueling a renewed interest in ecological approaches in public health. Despite the central role of interdisciplinarity in the context of ecological approaches in public health research, inadequate attention has been given to the specific challenge of doing interdisciplinary research in practice. As a result, important knowledge gaps exist with regards to the practice of interdisciplinary research. We argue that explicit attention towards the challenge of doing interdisciplinary research is critical in order to effectively apply ecological approaches to public health issues. This paper draws on our experiences developing and conducting an interdisciplinary research project exploring the links among climate change, water, and health to highlight five specific insights which we see as relevant to building capacity for interdisciplinary research specifically, and which have particular relevance to addressing the integrative challenges demanded by ecological approaches to address public health issues. These lessons include: (i the need for frameworks that facilitate integration; (ii emphasize learning-by-doing; (iii the benefits of examining issues at multiple scales; (iv make the implicit, explicit; and (v the need for reflective practice. By synthesizing and sharing experiences gained by engaging in interdisciplinary inquiries using an ecological approach, this paper responds to a growing need to build interdisciplinary research capacity as a means for advancing the ecological public health agenda more broadly.

  14. Trends in ecological research during the last three decades--a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohay Carmel

    Full Text Available It is thought that the science of ecology has experienced conceptual shifts in recent decades, chiefly from viewing nature as static and balanced to a conception of constantly changing, unpredictable, complex ecosystems. Here, we ask if these changes are reflected in actual ecological research over the last 30 years. We surveyed 750 articles from the entire pool of ecological literature and 750 articles from eight leading journals. Each article was characterized according to its type, ecological domain, and applicability, and major topics. We found that, in contrast to its common image, ecology is still mostly a study of single species (70% of the studies; while ecosystem and community studies together comprise only a quarter of ecological research. Ecological science is somewhat conservative in its topics of research (about a third of all topics changed significantly through time, as well as in its basic methodologies and approaches. However, the growing proportion of problem-solving studies (from 9% in the 1980s to 20% in the 2000 s may represent a major transition in ecological science in the long run.

  15. Trends in Ecological Research during the Last Three Decades – A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Yohay; Kent, Rafi; Bar-Massada, Avi; Blank, Lior; Liberzon, Jonathan; Nezer, Oded; Sapir, Gill; Federman, Roy

    2013-01-01

    It is thought that the science of ecology has experienced conceptual shifts in recent decades, chiefly from viewing nature as static and balanced to a conception of constantly changing, unpredictable, complex ecosystems. Here, we ask if these changes are reflected in actual ecological research over the last 30 years. We surveyed 750 articles from the entire pool of ecological literature and 750 articles from eight leading journals. Each article was characterized according to its type, ecological domain, and applicability, and major topics. We found that, in contrast to its common image, ecology is still mostly a study of single species (70% of the studies); while ecosystem and community studies together comprise only a quarter of ecological research. Ecological science is somewhat conservative in its topics of research (about a third of all topics changed significantly through time), as well as in its basic methodologies and approaches. However, the growing proportion of problem-solving studies (from 9% in the 1980s to 20% in the 2000 s) may represent a major transition in ecological science in the long run. PMID:23637740

  16. Long term socio-ecological research across temporal and spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. J.; Haberl, H.

    2012-04-01

    Long term socio-ecological research across temporal and spatial scales Simron Jit Singh and Helmut Haberl Institute of Social Ecology, Vienna, Austria Understanding trajectories of change in coupled socio-ecological (or human-environment) systems requires monitoring and analysis at several spatial and temporal scales. Long-term ecosystem research (LTER) is a strand of research coupled with observation systems and infrastructures (LTER sites) aimed at understanding how global change affects ecosystems around the world. In recent years it has been increasingly recognized that sustainability concerns require extending this approach to long-term socio-ecological research, i.e. a more integrated perspective that focuses on interaction processes between society and ecosystems over longer time periods. Thus, Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research, abbreviated LTSER, aims at observing, analyzing, understanding and modelling of changes in coupled socio-ecological systems over long periods of time. Indeed, the magnitude of the problems we now face is an outcome of a much longer process, accelerated by industrialisation since the nineteenth century. The paper will provide an overview of a book (in press) on LTSER with particular emphasis on 'socio-ecological transitions' in terms of material, energy and land use dynamics across temporal and spatial scales.

  17. About the Atlantic Ecology Division (AED) of EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Atlantic Ecology Division (AED), conducts innovative research and predictive modeling to assess and forecast the risks of anthropogenic stressors to near coastal waters and their watersheds, to develop tools to support resilient watersheds.

  18. Ecological functions of bamboo forest: Research and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUBen-zhi; FUMao-yi; XIEJin-zhong; YANGXiao-sheng_; LIZheng-cai

    2005-01-01

    Bamboo forest is an important forest type in subtropical and tropical areas. Due to its biological characteristic and growth habits,bamboo is not only an ideal economic investment that can be utilized in many different manners but also has enormous potential for alleviating many environmental problems facing the world today. This review describes ecological functions of the bamboo forest on soil erosion control, water conservation, land rehabilitation, and carbon sequestration.

  19. Structural Equation Modeling: Applications in ecological and evolutionary biology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugesek, Bruce H.; von Eye, Alexander; Tomer, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to the methodology of structural equation modeling, illustrates its use, and goes on to argue that it has revolutionary implications for the study of natural systems. A major theme of this book is that we have, up to this point, attempted to study systems primarily using methods (such as the univariate model) that were designed only for considering individual processes. Understanding systems requires the capacity to examine simultaneous influences and responses. Structural equation modeling (SEM) has such capabilities. It also possesses many other traits that add strength to its utility as a means of making scientific progress. In light of the capabilities of SEM, it can be argued that much of ecological theory is currently locked in an immature state that impairs its relevance. It is further argued that the principles of SEM are capable of leading to the development and evaluation of multivariate theories of the sort vitally needed for the conservation of natural systems. Supplementary information can be found at the authors website, http://www.jamesbgrace.com/. • Details why multivariate analyses should be used to study ecological systems • Exposes unappreciated weakness in many current popular analyses • Emphasizes the future methodological developments needed to advance our understanding of ecological systems.

  20. The Invisible and Indeterminable Value of Ecology: From Malaria Control to Ecological Research in the American South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Albert G

    2015-06-01

    This essay tells the story of the Emory University Field Station, a malaria research station in southwest Georgia that operated from 1939 to 1958. Using the tools of environmental history and the history of science, it examines the station's founding, its fieldwork, and its place within the broader history of malaria control, eradication, and research. A joint effort of Emory University, the U.S. Public Health Service, and the Communicable Disease Center (CDC), this station was closely aligned with a broader movement of ideas about tropical diseases across the globe, but it also offers a case study of how science in the field can veer from mainstream thinking and official policy. As the CDC and other disease-fighting organizations were moving toward a global strategy of malaria eradication through the use of DDT, the Emory Field Station developed a postsanitarian approach to malaria. Drawing on resistance among American conservationists to environmental transformation in the name of malaria control, the station's staff embraced the science and worldview of ecology in an effort to lighten public health's hand on the land and to link human health to the environment in innovative, if sometimes opaque, ways. This essay, then, argues that the Emory Field Station represents an early confluence of ecology with the biomedical sciences, something very similar to what is now the important discipline of disease ecology.

  1. Research Review of Post-Evaluation for Comprehensive Benefits of Forestry Ecological Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The paper summarized the meaning of post-evaluation for comprehensive benefits of forestry ecological programs, discussed and reviewed its development process in terms of content, indicators and methodologies, and finally presented its development trend from the perspectives of theoretical research, methodological research and application research.

  2. An overview of ecological and evolutionary research on disease in natural systems: an annotated reference list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen M. Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The Fourth International Workshop on the Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry (July 31-August 5, 2011) included a session on “Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of Resistance and Tolerance, Natural Systems.” Within this session, I gave a talk entitled “An overview of ecological and evolutionary research on disease in ‘natural’ systems” that reviewed...

  3. Accounting for the Ecological Dimension in Participatory Research and Development: Lessons Learned from Indonesia and Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Laurent Pfund

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The lack of understanding on how to integrate ecological issues into so-called social-ecological natural resource management hampers sustainability in tropical forest landscape management. We build upon a comparison of three cases that show inverse gradients of knowledge and perceptions of the environment and human pressure on natural resources. We discuss why the ecological dimension currently lags behind in the management of tropical forest landscapes and to what extent participatory development can enhance the fit among ecological, socio-cultural, and economic systems. For each case study, socio-cultural and anthropological aspects of society and indigenous knowledge of the environment, the distribution of natural resources, classification, and management are documented in parallel with biophysical studies. Our results confirm that the ecological dimension remains weakly addressed and difficult to integrate into development actions when dealing with tropical forested landscape management in developing countries. We discuss three issues to understand why this is so: the disdain for traditional ecological knowledge and practices, the antagonism between economy and ecology, and the mismatch between traditional and modern governance systems. Participatory development shows potential to enhance the fit among ecological, socio-cultural, and economic systems through two dimensions: the generation and sharing of information to understand trends and the generation of new coordination practices that allow stakeholders to voice environmental concerns. In the absence of a "champion," institutions, and financial resources, the expected outcomes remain on paper, even when changes are negotiated. Future research in natural resource management must emphasize better integration at the interface of ecology and governance. Finally, we identify three challenges: the design of operational tools to reconcile ecology with social and economic concerns, the creation

  4. Ecological, Social and Economic Evaluation of Transport Scenarios: An Integral Approach. A Phd research programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs KT; LAE

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a research programme for the development of a methodology for the integral assessment of ecological, economic and social impacts of transport scenarios. The following research activities are planned: (1) a literature study on theories and conceptual models, explaining the funct

  5. Ecological, Social and Economic Evaluation of Transport Scenarios: An Integral Approach. A Phd research programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs KT; LAE

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a research programme for the development of a methodology for the integral assessment of ecological, economic and social impacts of transport scenarios. The following research activities are planned: (1) a literature study on theories and conceptual models, explaining the funct

  6. Social science in the context of the long term ecological research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted L. Gragson; Morgan Grove

    2006-01-01

    This special issue of Society and Natural Resources brings the results of long-term ecological research with an explicit social dimension to the attention of the social scientific research community. Contributions are from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER, the Central Arizona-Phoenix LTER, the Coweeta LTER and the Northern Temperate Lakes LTER The range of practice...

  7. ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AS A NEW STRATEGIC FOCUS FOR USEPA'S ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's Office of Research and Development has made ecosystem services the new strategic focus for its ecological research program (ERP). Recognizing that the protection and enhancement of ecosystem services can help maintain and improve human health, economic vitality and ov...

  8. Ecosystem Services: Priority strategic focus for U.S. EPA’s Ecological Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development has made ecosystem services the new strategic focus for its Ecological Research Program (ERP). Understanding that the protection and enhancement of ecosystem services can help maintain and improve human health, economic vitality, and...

  9. Ecosystem Services: New strategic focus for US EPA’s Ecological Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development has made ecosystem services the new strategic focus for its Ecological Research Program (ERP). Understanding that the protection and enhancement of ecosystem services can help maintain and improve human health, economic vitality, and...

  10. Education Research Australia: A Changing Ecology of Knowledge and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Terri; Bennett, Dawn; Bennett, Sue; Bobis, Janette; Chan, Philip; Harrison, Neil; Shore, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Processes of national research assessment, such as Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) are a type of audit technology that confronts and steers established institutional identities and traditions. This nexus between policy and practice drives boundary work that diffracts prevailing policy logics, organisational practices, and habits of…

  11. Ecological Footprint of Research University Students: A Pilot Case Study in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See Tan Ang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological footprint (EF is potential to be applied in universities to assist building management units to coordinate in order to reduce environmental impact and to achieve sustainable resource consumption from its main activities including teaching-learning, research and operations. As many Malaysian universities declare to become sustainability campus, the adoption of ecological footprint in measuring campus sustainability will provide insight and better understanding about the performance of campus sustainability efforts. The main concept of ecological footprint which convert levels of consumption into the amount of land needed, will able to reveal the average student performance and impacts towards the campus. Further, a study is conducted to determine the average ecological footprint level of students in research universities Malaysia considering students formed the majority of the community in a campus. A pilot study has been conducted in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM among students staying in hostel together with staffs from UTM Office of Student Affairs and Alumni (HEMA and UTM Office of Asset and Development (PHB. Then, Redefining Progress (RP ecological footprint online calculator is used in computing the ecological footprint of UTM students.

  12. How scientific visions matter: insights from three long-term socio-ecological research (LTSER) platforms under construction in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauz, I.; Peltola, T.; Granjou, C.; Bommel, van S.; Buijs, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research (LTSER) has been introduced to change the current approach to ecology and turn it into a big science. LTSER Platforms are currently being created across Europe. They are expected to enhance ecology's capacity to produce useful knowledge for facing global environme

  13. 2001 Gordon Research Conference on Archaea: Ecology [sic], Metabolism. Final progress report [agenda and attendee list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Charles

    2001-08-10

    The Gordon Research Conference on Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism [and Molecular Biology] was held at Proctor Academy, Andover, New Hampshire, August 5-10, 2001. The conference was attended by 135 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field, coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, and included US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate discussion about the key issues in the field today. Session topics included the following: Ecology and genetic elements; Genomics and evolution; Ecology, genomes and gene regulation; Replication and recombination; Chromatin and transcription; Gene regulation; Post-transcription processing; Biochemistry and metabolism; Proteomics and protein structure; Metabolism and physiology. The featured speaker addressed the topic: ''Archaeal viruses, witnesses of prebiotic evolution?''

  14. Assessing bias and knowledge gaps on seed ecology research: implications for conservation agenda and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme V T; Teixido, Alberto L; Barbosa, Newton P U; Silveira, Fernando A O

    2016-10-01

    Sampling biases permeate ecological research and result in knowledge gaps that have vital consequences for conservation planning. The consequences of knowledge gaps on species identity and distribution (the Wallacean and Linnean shortfalls, respectively) have become apparent recently, but we know little about the extent that research biases and knowledge gaps on traits that influence species' niches (the Hutchinsonian shortfall) affect conservation policy. To examine whether knowledge of species' traits based on seed ecology is geographically, phylogenetically, and ecologically biased, we retrieved research data on seed germination, seed dormancy, seed dispersal, seed banks, seed predation, and seed removal from a database of 847 papers, 1648 species, and 5322 cases. Brazil was selected as a model system for megadiverse, undersampled countries. Kernel density maps showed that research was geographically biased towards highly populated sites, with vast areas remaining historically unexplored. We also show that research was clustered into protected areas. We detected a significant positive phylogenetic bias at genus-level, indicating research concentration in few genera and lower relative bias rates for many herbaceous genera. Unexpectedly, information on seed banking was available for only 74 (3.4%) of threatened species, which suggests that information deficits are highest for species with critical needs for ex situ conservation strategies. Tree, fleshy-fruited, and biotic dispersal species were disproportionately overstudied. Our data indicate that information deficits on seed ecology preclude our ability to effectively restore ecosystems and to safeguard endangered species. We call for a systematic improvement of environmental agenda in which policy makers and scientists target sites, clades, and functional groups historically neglected. Lessons from developed countries and collaborative efforts will be important for megadiverse, underdeveloped countries to

  15. Transdisciplinary, Multilevel Action Research to Enhance Ecological and Psychopolitical Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christens, Brian; Perkins, Douglas D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors explore the implications of recent proposals for a focus on power and social change in community psychology research and add needed contextual and methodological specificity. An expanded model of psychopolitical validity is presented that merges Isaac Prilleltensky's (this issue, pp. 116-136) domains, or stages of empowerment…

  16. Ecological Research on South African rivers - a preliminary synthesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Keeffe, JH

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available resource, were deteriorating in the face of overexploitation, led to a coordinated research programme by the NIWR in the 1950's and 1960s, which included in-depth studies on representative rivers such as the Great Berg, the Tugela, the Jukskei...

  17. Food, Fairness & Ecology: An organic research agenda for a sustainable future

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The European Union Group of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM EU Group) and the International Society of Organic Agriculture Research (ISOFAR) are developing a strategic research agenda focussing on ecological intensification, on sustainable rural regions, on high quality food for healthy nutrition and on ethical values of people vis-à-vis technology development in food production. The strategic research agenda (currently in its second draft, Niggli et al., ...

  18. Literature analysis and research progress of the landscape ecology in China in the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper makes analysis of published articles and books on landscape ecology in the 1990s through literature collection. The analytical results showed that the study of landscape ecology had made a great advance during the past decade in China. By incomplete survey, Chinese researchers at home and abroad published 619 scientific articles and 13 monographs on landscape ecology in the 1990s, and most of them (more than 90%) were published in Chinese with English abstracts. The published articles on basic theory accounted for 39.6% (245 articles), and those concerning application and methods accounted for 36.8% (228) and 23.6% (146), respectively. According to the objects of research, the published articles on landscape ecology were classified into nine catalogues. The urban landscape ranks first in terms of number of published articles, accounting for 13.4% of the total, followed by regional and river basin landscape, cold and arid landscape, forest landscape, habitat and bio-diversity landscape, agricultural landscape, wetlands, suburban landscape, and vegetation landscape. Based on the analysis, some discussions were made on the existing problems and development trend of landscape ecology study in China

  19. Social-ecological and regional adaption of agrobiodiversity management across a global set of research regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, L.E.; Pulleman, M.M.; Brussaard, L.; Bawa, K.; Brown, G.G.; Cardoso, I.M.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Garcia-Barrios, L.E.; Hollander, A.D.; Lavelle, P.; Ouedraogo, E.; Pascual, U.; Setty, S.; Smukler, S.M.; Tscharntke, T.; Noordwijk, van M.

    2012-01-01

    To examine management options for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, eight research regions were classified into social-ecological domains, using a dataset of indicators of livelihood resources, i.e., capital assets. Potential interventions for biodiversity-based agriculture were then compared

  20. Program on ecosystem change and society: An international research strategy for integrated social-ecological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpenter, S.R.; Folke, C.; Norström, A.V.; Olsson, O.; Schultz, L.; Agarwal, B.; Balvanera, P.; Campbell, B.; Castilla, J.C.; Cramer, W.; DeFries, R.; Eyzaguirre, P.; Hughes, T.P.; Polasky, S.; Sanusi, Z.A.; Scholes, R.J.; Spierenburg, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Program on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS), a new initiative within the ICSU global change programs, aims to integrate research on the stewardship of social-ecological systems, the services they generate, and the relationships among natural capital, human wellbeing, livelihoods, inequality

  1. Participatory scenario planning in place-based social-ecological research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozas, Elisa Oteros; Martín-López, Berta; Daw, Tim M.

    2015-01-01

    Participatory scenario planning (PSP) is an increasingly popular tool in place-based environmental research for evaluating alternative futures of social-ecological systems. Although a range of guidelines on PSP methods are available in the scientific and grey literature, there is a need to reflect...

  2. Program on ecosystem change and society: An international research strategy for integrated social-ecological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpenter, S.R.; Folke, C.; Norström, A.V.; Olsson, O.; Schultz, L.; Agarwal, B.; Balvanera, P.; Campbell, B.; Castilla, J.C.; Cramer, W.; DeFries, R.; Eyzaguirre, P.; Hughes, T.P.; Polasky, S.; Sanusi, Z.A.; Scholes, R.J.; Spierenburg, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Program on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS), a new initiative within the ICSU global change programs, aims to integrate research on the stewardship of social-ecological systems, the services they generate, and the relationships among natural capital, human wellbeing, livelihoods, inequality a

  3. Ecological research in the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia: early results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, M.; Alencar, A.; Asner, G.P.; Braswell, B.; Bustamante, M.; Davidson, E.; Feldpausch, T.; Fernandes, E.; Goulden, M.; Kabat, P.; Kruijt, B.; Luizão, F.; Miller, S.; Markewitz, D.; Nobre, A.D.; Nobre, C.A.; Priante Filho, N.; Rocha, da H.; Silva Dias, P.; Randow, von C.; Vourlitis, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage,. nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, a

  4. Social-ecological and regional adaption of agrobiodiversity management across a global set of research regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, L.E.; Pulleman, M.M.; Brussaard, L.; Bawa, K.; Brown, G.G.; Cardoso, I.M.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Garcia-Barrios, L.E.; Hollander, A.D.; Lavelle, P.; Ouedraogo, E.; Pascual, U.; Setty, S.; Smukler, S.M.; Tscharntke, T.; Noordwijk, van M.

    2012-01-01

    To examine management options for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, eight research regions were classified into social-ecological domains, using a dataset of indicators of livelihood resources, i.e., capital assets. Potential interventions for biodiversity-based agriculture were then compared

  5. The ecology of cormorants: some research needs and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Nettleship, David N.; Duffy, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Concerns about Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) have arisen because of their rapid population increase across North America and their economic impact on several aquaculture and commercial fish industries. In spite of the concern for cormorants, little published research is available that addresses either basic population biology questions or management issues. Based on a literature review, I recommend that research be conducted in four areas. First, a large-scale banding and marking program should be initiated so that population models can be used to estimate age- and sex-specific survival and fecundity (as has been done for the Shag [P. aristotelis] in Europe). By marking individual birds, survival and movement rates can be estimated between nesting colonies, which will provide information about potential source versus sink colonies. Second, studies of movements during migration and winter are required. Presently, no data are available on habitat use during migration or on the length-of-stay by individual birds. This has important implications to how cormorants interact with other fish and wildlife species over a broad range. Studies of movements during winter with radio-marked birds should indicate whether the 'problem birds' at aquaculture sites are merely a few specialists. Third, limiting factors, such as contaminants and disease, should receive further investigation, especially in light of recent concerns over the outbreak of Newcastle disease. The relationship between contaminant levels and developmental abnormalities in young cormorants in certain areas of the Great Lakes in Canada and the United States remains equivocal. Fourth, further studies are needed to document the economic impacts of cormorants on Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and other cultured fishes and to determine ways to reduce predation by fish-eating birds. Mesocosm experiments should be conducted to evaluate how different fish extraction rates affect final

  6. Long-Term Research in Ecology and Evolution (LTREE): 2015 survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Mark A; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Feinberg, Geoffrey; Rosenthal, Seth A; Lau, Jennifer A

    2017-09-08

    To systematically assess views on contributions and future activities for long-term research in ecology and evolution (LTREE), we conducted and here provide data responses and associated metadata for a survey of ecological and evolutionary scientists. The survey objectives were to: 1) Identify and prioritize research questions that are important to address through long-term, ecological field experiments; and 2) Understand the role that these experiments might play in generating and applying ecological and evolutionary knowledge. The survey was developed adhering to the standards of the American Association for Public Opinion Research. It was administered online using Qualtrics Survey Software. Survey creation was a multi-step process, with questions and format developed and then revised with, for example, input from an external advisory committee comprising senior and junior ecological and evolutionary researchers. The final questionnaire was released to ~100 colleagues to ensure functionality and then fielded two days later (January 7(th) 2015). Two professional societies distributed it to their membership, including the Ecological Society of America, and it was posted to three list serves. The questionnaire was available through February 8(th) 2015 and completed by 1,179 respondents. The distribution approach targeted practicing ecologists and evolutionary biologists in the U.S. Quantitative (both ordinal and categorical) closed-ended questions used a pre-defined set of response categories, facilitating direct comparison across all respondents. Qualitative, open-ended questions, provided respondents the opportunity to develop their own answers. We employed quantitative questions to score views on the extent to which long-term experimental research has contributed to understanding in ecology and evolutionary biology; its role compared to other approaches (e.g. short-term experiments); justifications for and caveats to long-term experiments; and the relative

  7. Reducing uncertainty in regulatory decision-making for transgenic crops: more ecological research or clearer environmental risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Ecological research and environmental risk assessment are similar in that they address interesting problems by formulating and testing hypotheses. They differ in the types of problems that are interesting, the characteristics of good hypotheses to solve those problems, and the methods for rigorous testing of hypotheses. It is important to recognize the differences between environmental risk assessment and basic ecological research because confusing them can lead to ineffective risk assessment and missed opportunities to advance ecological theory. Uncertainty in regulatory decision-making about transgenic crops may be reduced more effectively by clarifying the purpose and structure of environmental risk assessments than by further research on the ecology of the crops.

  8. [African agriculture faced with global changes: researches and innovations based on ecological sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Dominique; Ndour Badiane, Yacine; Hien, Edmond; Akpo, Léonard-Élie; Assigbetsé, Komi; Bilgo, Ablassé; Diédhiou, Ibrahima; Hien, Victor; Lardy, Lydie

    2013-01-01

    In the context of environmental and socio-economic changes, the agriculture of Sub-Saharan African countries will have to ensure food security of the population, while reducing its environmental footprint. The biophysical and social systems of agricultural production are complex. Innovative agricultural practices will be based on an intensification of ecological processes that determine the functioning of the soil-plant system, farmers' fields and agro-ecosystems. This ecological engineering approach is useful to take up the challenge of Sub-Saharan agricultures in the future, as shown in researches conducted by IESOL International Joint Lab "Intensification of agricultural soils in West Africa" (ISRA, UCAD, TU, OU, INERA, IRD).

  9. Avian brood parasitism——a growing research area in behavioral ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eivin; RSKAFT; Wei; LIANG; Brd; G.STOKKE

    2012-01-01

    正We are pleased to be responsible guest editors for the two special issues of Chinese Birds(Vol.3,No.4,2012 and Vol.4,No.1,2013),entitled "Avian Brood Parasitism — a Growing Research Area in Behavioral Ecology".The goal of the two special issues is to publish accumulated knowledge and some of the recent developments in the fascinating research occurring in avian

  10. Demographic Research On the Socio Economic Background of Students of the Ecological University of Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Mihaela Mihăilă

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a socio demographic and economic research performed on the first year students at the Ecological University of Bucharest, where we are focusing on understanding and investigating the conditions inside the families and the social environment in the home towns of these students. This research is a key in understanding the correlations between the socio-economic conditions inside the family geographical area and the actual career options and decisions of the newly admitted students to our faculties.

  11. Enhancing Ecological Thought Through Phenological Observation, Research, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Losleben, M.; Benton, L. M.

    2008-12-01

    Background The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to monitor and understand the influence of seasonal cycles and phenology on the Nation's resources. Phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological phases, the causes of their timing with regard to biotic and abiotic forces, and the interrelation among phases of same or different species. Phenological data and models developed as part of the network can be applied to scientific research, education and outreach, as well as to stakeholders interested in agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management. The goal of the USA-NPN (www.usanpn.org) is to establish a nationwide science and monitoring program to better understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climatic variation, and to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. Results The NPN has a number of programs through which learners of all ages can observe and interpret their environment using phenology as a platform to facilitate understanding through active learning, engagement, and inquiry-based approaches. For example, since February 2008, the NPN-affiliated network Project BudBurst has registered almost 3000 people who are observing nearly 4000 plants across the continental US and are reporting their observations on-line. In addition, we are developing educational programs, modules, and activities applicable to all stages in the educational process from 'K to gray,' and are partnering with local, state, and federal governmental and non- governmental organizations on education/outreach programming. Dissemination of educational materials and information will be facilitated by the creation of an on-line clearing-house for phenology education and outreach. In sum, the NPN is developing a number of programs and products that will capitalize

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2. Ecological sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novich, C.M. (ed.)

    1985-02-01

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: (1) the terrestrial ecology of semi-arid sites; (2) marine sciences; (3) radionuclide fate and effects; (4) waste mobilization, fate and effects; and (5) theoretical research on environmental sampling. (ACR)

  13. [Research progress on remote sensing of ecological and environmental changes in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ming-jun; Zeng, Li-xiong; Xiao, Wen-fa; Zhou, Zhi-xiang; Huang, Zhi-lin; Wang, Peng-cheng; Dian, Yuan-yong

    2014-12-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir area (TGR area) , one of the most sensitive ecological zones in China, has dramatically changes in ecosystem configurations and services driven by the Three Gorges Engineering Project and its related human activities. Thus, understanding the dynamics of ecosystem configurations, ecological processes and ecosystem services is an attractive and critical issue to promote regional ecological security of the TGR area. The remote sensing of environment is a promising approach to the target and is thus increasingly applied to and ecosystem dynamics of the TGR area on mid- and macro-scales. However, current researches often showed controversial results in ecological and environmental changes in the TGR area due to the differences in remote sensing data, scale, and land-use/cover classification. Due to the complexity of ecological configurations and human activities, challenges still exist in the remote-sensing based research of ecological and environmental changes in the TGR area. The purpose of this review was to summarize the research advances in remote sensing of ecological and environmental changes in the TGR area. The status, challenges and trends of ecological and environmental remote-sensing in the TGR area were further discussed and concluded in the aspect of land-use/land-cover, vegetation dynamics, soil and water security, ecosystem services, ecosystem health and its management. The further researches on the remote sensing of ecological and environmental changes were proposed to improve the ecosystem management of the TGR area.

  14. Solving problems in social-ecological systems: definition, practice and barriers of transdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments.

  15. Multiple Stressors and Ecological Complexity Require A New Approach to Coral Reef Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linwood Hagan Pendleton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification, climate change, and other environmental stressors threaten coral reef ecosystems and the people who depend upon them. New science reveals that these multiple stressors interact and may affect a multitude of physiological and ecological processes in complex ways. The interaction of multiple stressors and ecological complexity may mean that the negative effects on coral reef ecosystems will happen sooner and be more severe than previously thought. Yet, most research on the effects of global change on coral reefs focus on one or few stressors and pathways or outcomes (e.g. bleaching. Based on a critical review of the literature, we call for a regionally targeted strategy of mesocosm-level research that addresses this complexity and provides more realistic projections about coral reef impacts in the face of global environmental change. We believe similar approaches are needed for other ecosystems that face global environmental change.

  16. Advance in Research of Ecology and Landscape Reconstruction of the River Floodplain In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Lifang; QI Anguo; ZHANG Yichuan

    2008-01-01

    The research of ecology and landscape reestablishment of river floodplain is considered favorable to its conservation and development. The similarity and difference among river floodplain, wetland, riverside and shore have been reviewed, as well as the progress in the research of floodplain ecology reestablishment in quantitative evaluation, vegetation restoration, the influence on animal habitat and the application of eco-engineering; and of the landscape reestablishment in resource development and utilization, landscape feature and changes, landscape function, structure and control. The potentially important fields are expected to be the change of landscape pattern in different scales, the reasonable protection and utilization in the floodplain tourism, the simulating and monitoring of landscape dynamics, the planning and designing methods of floodplain landscape and the management of floodplain ecosystems.

  17. The spatial optimism model research for the regional land use based on the ecological constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, K.; Lu, J.; Chi, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The study focuses on the Yunnan-Guizhou (i.e. Yunnan province and Guizhou province) Plateau in China. Since the Yunnan-Guizhou region consists of closed basins, the land resources suiting for development are in a shortage, and the ecological problems in the area are quite complicated. In such circumstance, in order to get the applicable basins area and distribution, certain spatial optimism model is needed. In this research, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and land use data are used to get the boundary rules of the basins distribution. Furthermore, natural risks, ecological risks and human-made ecological risks are integrated to be analyzed. Finally, the spatial overlay analysis method is used to model the developable basins area and distribution for industries and urbanization. The study process can be divided into six steps. First, basins and their distribution need to be recognized. In this way, the DEM data is used to extract the geomorphology characteristics. The plaque regions with gradient under eight degrees are selected. Among these regions, the total area of the plaque with the area above 8 km2 is 54,000 km2, 10% of the total area. These regions are selected to the potential application of industries and urbanization. In the later five steps, analyses are aimed at these regions. Secondly, the natural risks are analyzed. The conditions of the earthquake, debris flow and rainstorm and flood are combined to classify the natural risks. Thirdly, the ecological risks are analyzed containing the ecological sensibility and ecosystem service function importance. According to the regional ecologic features, the sensibility containing the soil erosion, acid rain, stony desertification and survive condition factors is derived and classified according to the medium value to get the ecological sensibility partition. The ecosystem service function importance is classified and divided considering the biology variation protection and water conservation factors. The fourth

  18. Establishing the Boundaries and Building Bridges: Research Methods Into the Ecology of the Refugee Parenting Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nombasa Williams

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the suitability of the focus group method for conducting research early in post-resettlement among refugee parents and carers in South Australia. This method was employed to uncover the refugee parenting experience in pre-resettlement contexts. There were three refugee focus groups, consisting of a Sudanese women’s group, an African men’s group, and an Afghani and Iraqi women’s group. To illustrate each group’s differential parenting ecologies in milieus of forced migration ecological matrixes were devised which are presented in the results section. An ecological matrix was also developed to unpack, code and analyse transcripts. The matrix was designed to include categories and actions so as to construct meaning units and subsequent condensed meaning units to determine the concluding themes. These provided an analytical framework with which to illuminate the constructed meanings participants attributed to their refugee parenting experiences. The findings provide insights into the ecology of the refugee parenting experience and might be of considerable importance for Australian resettlement services and state systems of child protection seeking to develop culturally appropriate and relevant services.

  19. Trends in Antarctic ecological research in Latin America shown by publications in international journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela C. Stotz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica is a highly interesting region for ecologists because of its extreme climatic conditions and the uniqueness of its species. In this article, we describe the trends in Antarctic ecological research participation by Latin American countries. In a survey of articles indexed by the ISI Web of Science, we searched under the categories “Ecology,” “Biodiversity Conservation” and “Evolutionary Biology” and found a total of 254 research articles published by Latin American countries. We classified these articles according to the country of affiliation, kingdom of the study species, level of biological organization and environment. Our main finding is that there is a steady increase in the relative contribution of Latin American countries to Antarctic ecological research. Within each category, we found that marine studies are more common than terrestrial studies. Between the different kingdoms, most studies focus on animals and most studies use a community approach. The leading countries in terms of productivity were Argentina, Chile and Brazil, with Argentina showing the highest rate of increase.

  20. Closing the data life cycle: using information management in macrosystems ecology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Janine; Gries, Corinna; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Bowen, Gabriel; Felzer, Benjamin; McIntyre, Nancy; Soranno, Patricia; Vanderbilt, Kristen; Weathers, Kathleen

    2014-02-01

    An important goal of macrosystems ecology research is to advance understanding of ecological systems at both fine and broad temporal and spatial scales. Our premise in this paper is that such projects require information management that is integrated into projects from their inception. Such efforts will lead to improved communication and sharing of knowledge among diverse project participants, better science outcomes, and more open science. We promote "closing the data life cycle" by publishing well-documented data sets, which allows for re-use of data to answer new and different questions from the ones conceived by the original projects. The practice of documenting and submitting data sets to publicly accessible data repositories ensures that research results and data are accessible to and useable by other researchers, thus fostering open science. Ecologists are often not familiar with the information management tools and requirements to effectively preserve data, however, and receive little institutional or professional incentive to do so. This paper describes recommended steps to these ends, and gives examples from current macrosystem ecology projects of why information management is so critical to ensuring that scientific results can be both reproduced and data shared for future use.

  1. Restoration in Its Natural Context: How Ecological Momentary Assessment Can Advance Restoration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Beute

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available More and more people use self-tracking technologies to track their psychological states, physiology, and behaviors to gain a better understanding of themselves or to achieve a certain goal. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA also offers an excellent opportunity for restorative environments research, which examines how our physical environment (especially nature can positively influence health and wellbeing. It enables investigating restorative health effects in everyday life, providing not only high ecological validity but also opportunities to study in more detail the dynamic processes playing out over time on recovery, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory (i.e., short-term effects and epidemiological (long-term effects research. We have identified four main areas in which self-tracking could help advance restoration research: (1 capturing a rich set of environment types and restorative characteristics; (2 distinguishing intra-individual from inter-individual effects; (3 bridging the gap between laboratory and epidemiological research; and (4 advancing theoretical insights by measuring a more broad range of effects in everyday life. This paper briefly introduces restorative environments research, then reviews the state of the art of self-tracking technologies and methodologies, discusses how these can be implemented to advance restoration research, and presents some examples of pioneering work in this area.

  2. The Legacy of Biosphere 2 for Biospherics and Closed Ecological System Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.; Alling, A.; Nelson, M.

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review these accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research accomplishments and publications which have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of leak detection and sealing, and achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trace gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal b ogeochemical cycling and ranges ofi atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained down to 15% oxygen could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and planetary/lunar settlements. The improved

  3. Hierarchical Linear Modeling for Analysis of Ecological Momentary Assessment Data in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhorst, Lauren; Beck, Kelly Battle; McKeon, Ashlee B; Graham, Kristin M; Ye, Feifei; Shiffman, Saul

    2017-08-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods collect real-time data in real-world environments, which allow physical medicine and rehabilitation researchers to examine objective outcome data and reduces bias from retrospective recall. The statistical analysis of EMA data is directly related to the research question and the temporal design of the study. Hierarchical linear modeling, which accounts for multiple observations from the same participant, is a particularly useful approach to analyzing EMA data. The objective of this paper was to introduce the process of conducting hierarchical linear modeling analyses with EMA data. This is accomplished using exemplars from recent physical medicine and rehabilitation literature.

  4. 种子生态学研究动态%Research Advances in Seed Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于顺利; 方伟伟

    2012-01-01

    A brief summary on the concept of seed ecology is presented, and then its four hot research topics are introduced in detail. They are seed rain and seed dispersal ecology, seed mass ecology, soil seed bank ecology, and seed geography. On the basis of previous published theories, their research methods, research content, scientific questions, conclusions, and future research directions are addressed and summarized. Seed ecology is a developing science which studies the relationships between seed and its environment, it has lots of research contents, in which the relationships between seed germination and environment have been received more attention; however other aspects of seed ecology research are comparatively scant. Future research in seed rain are as follows: (1) to investigate seed rain characteristics of community or population types; (2) to observe seed rain for a long term; (3) to trace final destiny of dispersed seeds, and (4) to explore the geographical dispersal patterns of seed rain characteristics, such as densities of seed rain and species richness of seed rain. Future research directions related to seed mass are: (1) to explore co-evolutionary between seed mass and more micro-biological traits, such as cell biology, plant anatomy, biological chemistry; (2) to collect seeds in more regions and to found more relationships between biological macro-characteristics and seed characteristics combined with sampling materials based on more species. As for soil seed banks, future research works are: (1) to investigate species composition and seed densities of soil seed bank and its inter-annual dynamics; (2) to explore geographical variation patterns of soil seed bank traits. In seed geography, the following research regions should be paid attention to: (1) the geography of seed morphology and anatomy characteristics; (2) the geography of seed biochemical components; (3) the geography of seed physiological traits; (4) the geography of seed cell biology; (5

  5. The Status and Trend of Research on Standards for Ecological Textile in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The products of ecological textile have represented nowadays the new trend of global consumption and production of textile while become an important means for some countries to utilize "green barrier" as a limitation of import of textile products. Following the entrance of China into the WTO, the position of "green barrier "becomes significantly important in the trade of textile products. As China is a big country of textile production,speeding up the research on standards for products of ecological textile, countering the latest situation appearing in international trade of textile, to take as quickly as possible responsive measures is a very urgent problem in port, to enhancing the ability of international market competition and to promoting the stable development of foreign oriented economy.

  6. The promise and peril of intensive-site-based ecological research: insights from the Hubbard Brook ecosystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy J. Fahey; Pamela H. Templer; Bruce T. Anderson; John J. Battles; John L. Campbell; Charles T. Driscoll; Anthony R. Fusco; Mark B. Green; Karim-Aly S. Kassam; Nicholas L. Rodenhouse; Lindsey Rustad; Paul G. Schaberg; Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur

    2015-01-01

    Ecological research is increasingly concentrated at particular locations or sites. This trend reflects a variety of advantages of intensive, site-based research, but also raises important questions about the nature of such spatially delimited research: how well does site based research represent broader areas, and does it constrain scientific discovery? We provide an...

  7. About the Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED) of EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED) conducts innovative research and predictive modeling to document and forecast the effects of pollutants on the integrity of watersheds and freshwater ecosystems.

  8. The Ecological Model Web Concept: A Consultative Infrastructure for Decision Makers and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, G.; Nativi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers want better information about what these changes will be and how various resources will be affected, while researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Although there are many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is only limited coordination among them, and accessible, openly shared models or model systems that can be consulted to gain insight on important ecological questions or assist with decision-making are rare. A "consultative infrastructure" that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit decision makers, researchers, as well as modelers. Of course, envisioning such an ambitious system is much easier than building it, but several complementary approaches exist that could contribute. The one discussed here is called the Model Web. This is a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases based on making models and their outputs available as services ("model as a service"). Initially, it might consist of a core of several models from which it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. However, a model web would not be a monolithic, rigidly planned and built system--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange standards. One difference from the WWW is that a model web is much harder to create, and has more pitfalls, and thus is a long term vision. However, technology, science, observations, and models have advanced enough so that parts of an ecological model web can be built and utilized now, forming a framework for gradual growth as well as a broadly accessible infrastructure. Ultimately, the value of a model

  9. The status of coral reef ecology research in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, M. L.; Hoey, A. S.; Bass, W. H.; Bouwmeester, J.; Catania, D.; Cochran, J. E. M.; Khalil, M. T.; Miyake, S.; Mughal, M. R.; Spaet, J. L. Y.; Saenz-Agudelo, P.

    2013-09-01

    The Red Sea has long been recognized as a region of high biodiversity and endemism. Despite this diversity and early history of scientific work, our understanding of the ecology of coral reefs in the Red Sea has lagged behind that of other large coral reef systems. We carried out a quantitative assessment of ISI-listed research published from the Red Sea in eight specific topics (apex predators, connectivity, coral bleaching, coral reproductive biology, herbivory, marine protected areas, non-coral invertebrates and reef-associated bacteria) and compared the amount of research conducted in the Red Sea to that from Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and the Caribbean. On average, for these eight topics, the Red Sea had 1/6th the amount of research compared to the GBR and about 1/8th the amount of the Caribbean. Further, more than 50 % of the published research from the Red Sea originated from the Gulf of Aqaba, a small area (biodiverse coral reef regions, the Red Sea may yet have a significant role to play in our understanding of coral reef ecology at a global scale.

  10. Ecological research at the offshore windfarm alpha ventus. Challenges, results and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorf, Anika; Wollny-Goerke, Katrin (eds.)

    2014-07-01

    At present and over the next few years, large-scale windfarms are being installed far off the coast of Germany in the North and Baltic Sea, making a major contribution to electricity generation from renewable energy sources. One of the German government's aims is to ensure the environmentally sound and sustainable development of offshore wind energy. Germany's first offshore test site, alpha ventus, was therefore accompanied from the construction phase to the first years of operation by an intensive environmental research programme, the StUKplus project, financed by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and coordinated by the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency. Marine and ecological aspects have been researched there for more than five years to improve the level of knowledge about the ecological impacts of offshore windfarms. This book provides a broad, richly illustrated overview of applied and new research methods and monitoring techniques. It summarises the key research findings on the impacts on benthic communities, fish, marine mammals and birds, also taking into account underwater sound and sediment measurements. Interpreting the results in the sense of lessons learned, new challenges and perspectives are discussed for future sustainable offshore development in German waters.

  11. Pollination ecology in the 21st Century: Key questions for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane C. Stout

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To inspire new ideas in research on pollination ecology, we list the most important unanswered questions in the field. This list was drawn up by contacting 170 scientists from different areas of pollination ecology and asking them to contribute their opinion on the greatest knowledge gaps that need to be addressed. Almost 40% of them took part in our email poll and we received more than 650 questions and comments, which we classified into different categories representing various aspects of pollination research. The original questions were merged and synthesised, and a final vote and ranking led to the resultant list. The categories cover plant sexual reproduction, pollen and stigma biology, abiotic pollination, evolution of animal-mediated pollination, interactions of pollinators and floral antagonists, pollinator behaviour, taxonomy, plant-pollinator assemblages, geographical trends in diversity, drivers of pollinator loss, ecosystem services, management of pollination, and conservation issues such as the implementation of pollinator conservation. We focused on questions that were of a broad scope rather than case-specific; thus, addressing some questions may not be feasible within single research projects but constitute a general guide for future directions. With this compilation we hope to raise awareness of pollination-related topics not only among researchers but also among non-specialists including policy makers, funding agencies and the public at large.

  12. Ecologic research of Acaroid mites%粉螨的生态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛卫中; 李朝品

    2008-01-01

    粉螨隶属于节肢动物门、蛛形纲、蜱螨亚纲.粉螨种类繁多,分布广泛,既可危害粮食作物及储藏物,造成经济损失;义能引起人畜疾病,如螨病、人体变应性疾病、人畜中毒等.因此,粉螨引起了很多研究者的关注.该文就粉螨个体生态学、种群生态学、群落生态学的研究作一综述.%The mites comprise a large group of Arlhropoda, belonging to the subclass Acari of the class Arachnida. Various species of mites often infest in crop and stored foodstuffs, and cause losses of food and crop products. Its infection in humans and animals can cause acariasis in several organs including lung, intestine and urinary tract. This review summarized the researches on individual ecology, population ecology and commu-nity ecology of Acaroid mite.

  13. Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

  14. From Less or No Waste Manufacturing and Cleaner Production to Recycle Economy -- A Review on the Theoretical Research and Practice of Ecological Enterprises in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYong

    2005-01-01

    Based on systematical research on the conception evolution of ecological enterprise, theoretical and practical development of constructing ecological enterprise, the paper makes conclusion that ecological enterprises are developing into a new stage in which governments are launching some pilot projects about constructing ecological enterprises. And after that, governments should make policies to spread construction of ecological enterprises, to construct ecological enterprises in legal system and conforming to the standard as soon as possibly. 5o that, the basic units of ecological economy that fit to the conditions of China will be set up.

  15. Fostering Complexity Thinking in Action Research for Change in Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin H. Rogers

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Complexity thinking is increasingly being embraced by a wide range of academics and professionals as imperative for dealing with today's pressing social-ecological challenges. In this context, action researchers partner directly with stakeholders (communities, governance institutions, and work resource managers, etc. to embed a complexity frame of reference for decision making. In doing so, both researchers and stakeholders must strive to internalize not only "intellectual complexity" (knowing but also "lived complexity" (being and practicing. Four common conceptualizations of learning (explicit/tacit knowledge framework; unlearning selective exposure; conscious/competence learning matrix; and model of learning loops are integrated to provide a new framework that describes how learning takes place in complex systems. Deep reflection leading to transformational learning is required to foster the changes in mindset and behaviors needed to adopt a complexity frame of reference. We then present three broad frames of mind (openness, situational awareness, and a healthy respect for the restraint/action paradox, which each encompass a set of habits of mind, to create a useful framework that allows one to unlearn reductionist habits while adopting and embedding those more conducive to working in complex systems. Habits of mind provide useful heuristic tools to guide researchers and stakeholders through processes of participative planning and adaptive decision making in complex social-ecological systems.

  16. Competitive exclusion: an ecological model demonstrates how research metrics can drive women out of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Hapgood, K.

    2012-12-01

    While universities are often perceived within the wider population as a flexible family-friendly work environment, continuous full-time employment remains the norm in tenure track roles. This traditional career path is strongly re-inforced by research metrics, which typically measure accumulated historical performance. There is a strong feedback between historical and future research output, and there is a minimum threshold of research output below which it becomes very difficult to attract funding, high quality students and collaborators. The competing timescales of female fertility and establishment of a research career mean that many women do not exceed this threshold before having children. Using a mathematical model taken from an ecological analogy, we demonstrate how these mechanisms create substantial barriers to pursuing a research career while working part-time or returning from extended parental leave. The model highlights a conundrum for research managers: metrics can promote research productivity and excellence within an organisation, but can classify highly capable scientists as poor performers simply because they have not followed the traditional career path of continuous full-time employment. Based on this analysis, we make concrete recommendations for researchers and managers seeking to retain the skills and training invested in female scientists. We also provide survival tactics for women and men who wish to pursue a career in science while also spending substantial time and energy raising their family.

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2. Ecological sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, B.E.

    1984-02-01

    The 1983 annual report highlights research in five areas funded by the Ecological Sciences Division of the Office of Energy Research. The five areas include: western semi-arid ecosystems; marine sciences; mobilization fate and effects of chemical wastes; radionuclide fate and effects; and statistical and quantitative research. The work was accomplished under 19 individual projects. Individual projects are indexed separately.

  18. [Process on researching methods of ecology of Chinese traditional medicine resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingqun; Cao, Hailu; Zhao, Runhuai; Chen, Shilin

    2011-02-01

    Though the study on ecology of Chinese traditional medicinal resources methods has achieved great progress in recent years, it is not able to catch the pace of the development of ecology science. Based on the analysis of recent literatures about ecology development trend and Chinese traditional medicinal ecology methods, the progress of Chinese traditional medicinal ecology methods was reviewed, and future study trend was discussed.

  19. Achieving Closure for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems: Engineering and Ecological Challenges, Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    Closed systems are desirable for a number of purposes: space life support systems where precious life-supporting resources need to be kept inside; biospheric systems; where global ecological pro-cesses can be studied in great detail and testbeds where research topics requiring isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) can be studied in isolation from the outside environment and where their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied. But to achieve and maintain closure raises both engineering and ecological challenges. Engineering challenges include methods of achieving closure for structures of different materials, and devel-oping methods of allowing energy (for heating and cooling) and information transfer through the materially closed structure. Methods of calculating degree of closure include measuring degradation rates of inert trace gases introduced into the system. An allied problem is devel-oping means of locating where leaks are located so that they may be repaired and degree of closure maintained. Once closure is achieved, methods of dealing with the pressure differen-tials between inside and outside are needed: from inflatable structures which might adjust to the pressure difference to variable volume chambers attached to the life systems component. These issues are illustrated through the engineering employed at Biosphere 2, the Biosphere 2 Test Module and the Laboratory Biosphere and a discussion of methods used by other closed ecological system facility engineers. Ecological challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro-and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, healthy air and

  20. The Value of Traditional Ecological Knowledge for the Environmental Health Sciences and Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Symma; Herne, Mose; Castille, Dorothy

    2017-08-29

    Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) is a term, relatively new to Western science, that encompasses a subset of traditional knowledge maintained by Indigenous nations about the relationships between people and the natural environment. The term was first shared by tribal elders in the 1980s to help raise awareness of the importance of TEK. TEK has become a construct that Western scientists have increasingly considered for conducting culturally relevant research with Tribal nations. The authors aim to position TEK in relation to other emerging schools of thought, that is, concepts such as the exposome, social determinants of health (SDoH), and citizen science, and to explore TEK's relevance to environmental health research. This article provides examples of successful application of TEK principles in federally funded research when implemented with respect for the underlying cultural context and in partnership with Indigenous communities. Rather than treating TEK as an adjunct or element to be quantified or incorporated into Western scientific studies, TEK can instead ground our understanding of the environmental, social, and biomedical determinants of health and improve our understanding of health and disease. This article provides historical and recent examples of how TEK has informed Western scientific research. This article provides recommendations for researchers and federal funders to ensure respect for the contributions of TEK to research and to ensure equity and self-determination for Tribal nations who participate in research. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP858.

  1. The status of coral reef ecology research in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-06-21

    The Red Sea has long been recognized as a region of high biodiversity and endemism. Despite this diversity and early history of scientific work, our understanding of the ecology of coral reefs in the Red Sea has lagged behind that of other large coral reef systems. We carried out a quantitative assessment of ISI-listed research published from the Red Sea in eight specific topics (apex predators, connectivity, coral bleaching, coral reproductive biology, herbivory, marine protected areas, non-coral invertebrates and reef-associated bacteria) and compared the amount of research conducted in the Red Sea to that from Australia\\'s Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and the Caribbean. On average, for these eight topics, the Red Sea had 1/6th the amount of research compared to the GBR and about 1/8th the amount of the Caribbean. Further, more than 50 % of the published research from the Red Sea originated from the Gulf of Aqaba, a small area (<2 % of the area of the Red Sea) in the far northern Red Sea. We summarize the general state of knowledge in these eight topics and highlight the areas of future research priorities for the Red Sea region. Notably, data that could inform science-based management approaches are badly lacking in most Red Sea countries. The Red Sea, as a geologically "young" sea located in one of the warmest regions of the world, has the potential to provide insight into pressing topics such as speciation processes as well as the capacity of reef systems and organisms to adapt to global climate change. As one of the world\\'s most biodiverse coral reef regions, the Red Sea may yet have a significant role to play in our understanding of coral reef ecology at a global scale. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. A review and synthesis of recreation ecology research supporting carrying capacity and visitor use management decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Resource and experiential impacts associated with visitation to wilderness and other similar backcountry settings have long been addressed by land managers under the context of “carrying capacity” decisionmaking. Determining a maximum level of allowable use, below which high-quality resource and experiential conditions would be sustained, was an early focus in the 1960s and 1970s. However, decades of recreation ecology research have shown that the severity and areal extent of visitor impact problems are influenced by an interrelated array of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors. This complexity, with similar findings from social science research, prompted scientists and managers to develop more comprehensive carrying capacity frameworks, including a new Visitor Use Management framework. These frameworks rely on a diverse array of management strategies and actions, often termed a “management toolbox,” for resolving visitor impact problems. This article reviews the most recent and relevant recreation ecology studies that have been applied in wildland settings to avoid or minimize resource impacts. The key findings and their management implications are highlighted to support the professional management of common trail, recreation site, and wildlife impact problems. These studies illustrate the need to select from a more diverse array of impact management strategies and actions based on an evaluation of problems to identify the most influential factors that can be manipulated.

  3. From Bathymetry to Bioshields: A Review of Post-Tsunami Ecological Research in India and its Implications for Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nibedita; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Kapoor, Vena; Arthur, Rohan; Koedam, Nico; Sridhar, Aarthi; Shanker, Kartik

    2010-09-01

    More than half a decade has passed since the December 26th 2004 tsunami hit the Indian coast leaving a trail of ecological, economic and human destruction in its wake. We reviewed the coastal ecological research carried out in India in the light of the tsunami. In addition, we also briefly reviewed the ecological research in other tsunami affected countries in Asia namely Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Thailand and Maldives in order to provide a broader perspective of ecological research after tsunami. A basic search in ISI Web of Knowledge using keywords “tsunami” and “India” resulted in 127 peer reviewed journal articles, of which 39 articles were pertaining to ecological sciences. In comparison, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Thailand and Maldives had, respectively, eight, four, 21 and two articles pertaining to ecology. In India, bioshields received the major share of scientific interest (14 out of 39) while only one study (each) was dedicated to corals, seagrasses, seaweeds and meiofauna, pointing to the paucity of research attention dedicated to these critical ecosystems. We noted that very few interdisciplinary studies looked at linkages between pure/applied sciences and the social sciences in India. In addition, there appears to be little correlation between the limited research that was done and its influence on policy in India. This review points to gap areas in ecological research in India and highlights the lessons learnt from research in other tsunami-affected countries. It also provides guidance on the links between science and policy that are required for effective coastal zone management.

  4. A Preliminary Research Plan for Development of a Photosynthetic Link in a Closed Ecological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, P. W.

    1979-01-01

    The use of higher plants in a closed ecological life support system for long duration space missions involving large numbers of people is considered. The approach to planning and developing both the habitat for a long term space mission and closed ecological life support systems are discussed with emphasis on environmental compatibility and integrated systems design. The requirements of photosynthetic processes are summarized and evaluated in terms of their availability within a closed ecological life support environment. Specific references are recommended as a data base for future research on this topic.

  5. The role played by social-ecological resilience as a method of integration in interdisciplinary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone A. Beichler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Today’s multifaceted environmental problems, including climate change, necessitate interdisciplinary research. It is however difficult to combine disciplines to study such complex phenomena. We analyzed the experience we gained in applying a particular method of interdisciplinary integration, the ‘bridging concept.’ We outlined the entire process of developing, utilizing, and adapting social-ecological resilience as a bridging concept in a research project involving seven different disciplines. We focused on the tensions and opportunities arising from interdisciplinary dialogue and the understandings and manifestations of resilience in the disciplines involved. By evaluating the specific cognitive and social functions of resilience as a method of integration, we call for placing greater emphasis on the quality and value of the actual interdisciplinary process, rather than concentrating solely on the output of interdisciplinary work.

  6. A Data Acquisition System (DAS) for marine and ecological research from aerospace technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The efforts of researchers at Mississippi State University to utilize space-age technology in the development of a self-contained, portable data acquisition system for use in marine and ecological research are presented. The compact, lightweight data acquisition system is capable of recording 14 variables in its present configuration and is suitable for use in either a boat, pickup truck, or light aircraft. This system will provide the acquisition of reliable data on the structure of the environment and the effect of man-made and natural activities on the observed phenomenon. Utilizing both self-contained analog recording and a telemetry transmitter for real-time digital readout and recording, the prototype system has undergone extensive testing.

  7. Status of the Southern Carpathian forests in the long-term ecological research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, Ovidiu; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Silaghi, Diana; Neagu, Stefan; Barbu, Ion; Iacoban, Carmen; Iacob, Corneliu; Guiman, Gheorghe; Preda, Elena; Seceleanu, Ioan; Oneata, Marian; Dumitru, Ion; Huber, Viorela; Iuncu, Horia; Dinca, Lucian; Leca, Stefan; Taut, Ioan

    2012-12-01

    Air pollution, bulk precipitation, throughfall, soil condition, foliar nutrients, as well as forest health and growth were studied in 2006-2009 in a long-term ecological research (LTER) network in the Bucegi Mountains, Romania. Ozone (O(3)) was high indicating a potential for phytotoxicity. Ammonia (NH(3)) concentrations rose to levels that could contribute to deposition of nutritional nitrogen (N) and could affect biodiversity changes. Higher that 50% contribution of acidic rain (pH Carpathian region levels. The observed nutritional imbalance could have negative effects on forest trees. Health of forests was moderately affected, with damaged trees (crown defoliation >25%) higher than 30%. The observed crown damage was accompanied by the annual volume losses for the entire research forest area up to 25.4%. High diversity and evenness specific to the stand type's structures and local climate conditions were observed within the herbaceous layer, indicating that biodiversity of the vascular plant communities was not compromised.

  8. Integrating research tools to support the management of social-ecological systems under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Miller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing resource management strategies in the face of climate change is complicated by the considerable uncertainty associated with projections of climate and its impacts and by the complex interactions between social and ecological variables. The broad, interconnected nature of this challenge has resulted in calls for analytical frameworks that integrate research tools and can support natural resource management decision making in the face of uncertainty and complex interactions. We respond to this call by first reviewing three methods that have proven useful for climate change research, but whose application and development have been largely isolated: species distribution modeling, scenario planning, and simulation modeling. Species distribution models provide data-driven estimates of the future distributions of species of interest, but they face several limitations and their output alone is not sufficient to guide complex decisions for how best to manage resources given social and economic considerations along with dynamic and uncertain future conditions. Researchers and managers are increasingly exploring potential futures of social-ecological systems through scenario planning, but this process often lacks quantitative response modeling and validation procedures. Simulation models are well placed to provide added rigor to scenario planning because of their ability to reproduce complex system dynamics, but the scenarios and management options explored in simulations are often not developed by stakeholders, and there is not a clear consensus on how to include climate model outputs. We see these strengths and weaknesses as complementarities and offer an analytical framework for integrating these three tools. We then describe the ways in which this framework can help shift climate change research from useful to usable.

  9. Integrating research tools to support the management of social-ecological systems under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Developing resource management strategies in the face of climate change is complicated by the considerable uncertainty associated with projections of climate and its impacts and by the complex interactions between social and ecological variables. The broad, interconnected nature of this challenge has resulted in calls for analytical frameworks that integrate research tools and can support natural resource management decision making in the face of uncertainty and complex interactions. We respond to this call by first reviewing three methods that have proven useful for climate change research, but whose application and development have been largely isolated: species distribution modeling, scenario planning, and simulation modeling. Species distribution models provide data-driven estimates of the future distributions of species of interest, but they face several limitations and their output alone is not sufficient to guide complex decisions for how best to manage resources given social and economic considerations along with dynamic and uncertain future conditions. Researchers and managers are increasingly exploring potential futures of social-ecological systems through scenario planning, but this process often lacks quantitative response modeling and validation procedures. Simulation models are well placed to provide added rigor to scenario planning because of their ability to reproduce complex system dynamics, but the scenarios and management options explored in simulations are often not developed by stakeholders, and there is not a clear consensus on how to include climate model outputs. We see these strengths and weaknesses as complementarities and offer an analytical framework for integrating these three tools. We then describe the ways in which this framework can help shift climate change research from useful to usable.

  10. Open Source and Open Content: a Framework for Global Collaboration in Social-Ecological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Schweik

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses opportunities for alternative collaborative approaches for social-ecological research in general and, in this context, for modeling land-use/land-cover change. In this field, the rate of progress in academic research is steady but perhaps not as rapid or efficient as might be possible with alternative organizational frameworks. The convergence of four phenomena provides new opportunities for cross-organizational collaboration: (1 collaborative principles related to "open source" (OS software development, (2 the emerging area of "open content" (OC licensing, (3 the World Wide Web as a platform for scientific communication, and (4 the traditional concept of peer review. Although private individuals, government organizations, and even companies have shown interest in the OS paradigm as an alternative model for software development, it is less commonly recognized that this collaborative framework is a potential innovation of much greater proportions. In fact, it can guide the collective development of any intellectual content, not just software. This paper has two purposes. First, we describe OS and OC licensing, dispense with some myths about OS, and relate these structures to traditional scientific process. Second, we outline how these ideas can be applied in an area of collaborative research relevant to the study of social-ecological systems. It is important to recognize that the concept of OS is not new, but the idea of borrowing OS principles and using OC licensing for broader scientific collaboration is new. Over the last year, we have been trying to initiate such an OS/OC collaboration in the context of modeling land use and land cover. In doing so, we have identified some key issues that need to be considered, including project initiation, incentives of project participants, collaborative infrastructure, institutional design and governance, and project finance. OS/OC licensing is not a universal solution suitable for all

  11. The Research on Wetland Park's Ecological Protection%湿地公园的生态保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晨玲; 孟浩; 李想

    2014-01-01

    本研究首先明确湿地公园的概念,梳理提炼出生态分区理论、环境承载力理论、生态恢复理论、深生态学理论等湿地公园的生态保护理论。在理论研究的基础上,提出我国湿地公园的生态保护现状及问题,结果表明湿地公园生态保护理论研究滞后,生态规划不足;湿地面积锐减,生物多样性降低;水体污染严重,环境破坏;法律体系不完善,生态保护责任难落实。针对湿地公园生态保护中存在的问题,提出相应的对策建议。%This research clear concept of Wetland Park, carding refines the ecological regionalization theory, environmental carrying capacity theory, ecological restoration theory, deep ecology, wetland park ecology protection theory. On the basis of theoretical research, and puts forward the ecological situation and protection of Wetland Park in China, the results of this study show that the theory of ecological protection of Wetland Park ecological planning lag, lack; wetland area decreased sharply, reducing biodiversity;serious water pollution, environmental destruction; legal system not perfect, ecological protection responsibility to fulfill. In view of the existing ecological wetland park in the problem, put forward the corresponding countermeasure and suggestion.

  12. How to successfully publish interdisciplinary research: learning from an Ecology and Society Special Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pohl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available What are the factors that hinder or support publishing interdisciplinary research? What does a successful interdisciplinary publishing process look like? We address these questions by analyzing the publishing process of the interdisciplinary research project titled "Mountland." Project researchers published most of their main results as a Special Feature of Ecology and Society. Using the story wall method and qualitative content analysis, we identified ten factors contributing to the success or failure of publishing interdisciplinary research. They can be assigned to four groups of resources: scientific resources, i.e., previous joint research, simultaneously written manuscripts; human resources, i.e., coordination, flexibility, composition of the team; integrative resources, i.e., vision of integration, chronology of results; and feedback resources, i.e., internal reviews, subject editors, external reviewers. According to this analysis, an ideal-typical publishing process necessitates, among other things, (1 a strong, interdisciplinary coordinator, (2 a clear shared vision of integration and a common framework, (3 flexibility in terms of money and time, (4 a certain sense of timing regarding when and how to exchange results and knowledge, (5 subject editors who are familiar with the specific project and its interdisciplinary merits, and (6 reviewers who are open minded about interdisciplinary efforts.

  13. Improving intercropping: a synthesis of research in agronomy, plant physiology and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rob W; Bennett, Alison E; Cong, Wen-Feng; Daniell, Tim J; George, Timothy S; Hallett, Paul D; Hawes, Cathy; Iannetta, Pietro P M; Jones, Hamlyn G; Karley, Alison J; Li, Long; McKenzie, Blair M; Pakeman, Robin J; Paterson, Eric; Schöb, Christian; Shen, Jianbo; Squire, Geoff; Watson, Christine A; Zhang, Chaochun; Zhang, Fusuo; Zhang, Junling; White, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    Intercropping is a farming practice involving two or more crop species, or genotypes, growing together and coexisting for a time. On the fringes of modern intensive agriculture, intercropping is important in many subsistence or low-input/resource-limited agricultural systems. By allowing genuine yield gains without increased inputs, or greater stability of yield with decreased inputs, intercropping could be one route to delivering ‘sustainable intensification’. We discuss how recent knowledge from agronomy, plant physiology and ecology can be combined with the aim of improving intercropping systems. Recent advances in agronomy and plant physiology include better understanding of the mechanisms of interactions between crop genotypes and species – for example, enhanced resource availability through niche complementarity. Ecological advances include better understanding of the context-dependency of interactions, the mechanisms behind disease and pest avoidance, the links between above- and below-ground systems, and the role of microtopographic variation in coexistence. This improved understanding can guide approaches for improving intercropping systems, including breeding crops for intercropping. Although such advances can help to improve intercropping systems, we suggest that other topics also need addressing. These include better assessment of the wider benefits of intercropping in terms of multiple ecosystem services, collaboration with agricultural engineering, and more effective interdisciplinary research.

  14. A Research Coordination Network for Ecological Applications of Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, T. D.; Strahler, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    Enhancing the development of terrestrial laser scanning for ecological applications is the objective of a Research Coordination Network (RCN) now funded by the US National Science Foundation. The activity has two primary goals: (1) development of a low-cost lidar scanner that will provide accurate estimates of above-ground forest biomass for carbon modeling and monitoring procedures; and (2) development of a range of new ecological applications for TLS, based on rapid forest structure measurements and 3-D reconstructions of forest plots and stands. The network, first constituted in 2015, presently includes 69 participants, including researchers, professors, postdocs, and students at 32 institutions from Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, Finland, Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States. It is led by a Steering Committee of 15 researchers from 12 of these institutions. A primary activity of the TLSRCN is to facilitate communication of TLS developments and applications both within the group and to the broader scientific community at meetings and workshops. In 2015, RCN participants presented 27 papers and posters at international meetings and forums, including the Annual Conference of the Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Society of the UK, SilviLaser 2015, and the Fall Meeting of the AGU. Within the group, bimonthly telecons allow the exchange of recent research developments and planning for group meetings and international conference presentations. Encouraging collaborative publications is also a focus of the RCN; 9 of 11 journal papers published in 2015 that reported TLS research by participants also combined authors from more than one research group participating in the network. The TLSRCN is supported by NSF Grant DBI-1455636 to Boston University, Alan Strahler Principal Investigator. Information for researchers interested in joining the network is available on the TLSRCN web site, tlsrcn.bu.edu. The image below shows a stand of Himalayan

  15. The need to integrate laboratory- and ecosystem-level research for assessment of the ecological impact of radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchignac, François

    2016-10-01

    Despite the fact that the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents have both stimulated research on the environmental impact of radiation, interpretations about the occurrence of ecological effects in the contaminated areas still do not converge. In an effort to improve the situation and progress toward better general scientific understanding of ecological impacts of radiation, reasons that may explain the disagreements and discrepancies are explored. The divergence in interpretations of the impacts from both nuclear accidents arises from differences in methodological and conceptual inference strategies (a cultural issue) more so than fundamental differences in the processes governing ecological harm. Improved integration of scientific communities that use different study approaches should be encouraged to better understand and monitor the determination of the ecological impacts of radiation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:673-676. © 2016 SETAC.

  16. Research on Methods of Ecological Security Assessment of the Middle and Lower Reaches of Liaohe River Based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Geng; Nie Baochi; Wang Lin; Wu Wei

    2005-01-01

    Ecological security assessment and early warning research possess the attributes of spatiality,non-linearity and randomicity, so we must process much spatial information. Spatial analysis and data management are the advantages of GIS, which can define distribution trend and spatial relations of environmental factors, and show ecological security pattern graphically. Spatial differences of ecological security assessment based on GIS are discussed in this paper, of which the middle and lower reaches of the Liaohe River is taken as a study case. First, to work out pressure-state-response (P-S-R) assessment indicators system, and investigate in person and gather information; second, to digitize the watershed; third,to quantize and calculate by the fuzzy method; last,to construct GIS grid database, and expound spatial differences of ecological security by GIS interpolation and assembly analysis.

  17. Lost and Found in Translation: An Ecological Approach to Bilingual Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Jagosh PhD

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Translation issues emerged from a qualitative study, conducted in French and English, that gathered patient perspectives on a newly implemented undergraduate medical curriculum entitled Physicianship: The Physician as Professional and Healer. French-speaking participants were interviewed using a translated interview guide, originally developed in English. A major finding that francophone participants contested the idea of the physician-healer in a manner not witnessed among the anglophone participants. Consultation with multilingual health professionals was undertaken to explore whether the contestation was the result of poor translation of the word healer. This process confirmed that no appropriate French equivalent could be found. With hindsight, the authors emphasize the importance of pretesting translated research instrumentation. An ecological perspective on language equivalency is also emphasized, in which emergent linguistic discrepancies are viewed as opportunities for learning about the culture-language relationship.

  18. Behavior of complex mixtures in aquatic environments: a synthesis of PNL ecological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Vaughan, B.E. (eds.)

    1984-06-01

    The term complex mixture has been recently applied to energy-related process streams, products and wastes that typically contain hundreds or thousands of individual organic compounds, like petroleum or synthetic fuel oils; but it is more generally applicable. A six-year program of ecological research has focused on four areas important to understanding the environmental behavior of complex mixtures: physicochemical variables, individual organism responses, ecosystems-level determinations, and metabolism. Of these areas, physicochemical variables and organism responses were intensively studied; system-level determinations and metabolism represent more recent directions. Chemical characterization was integrated throughout all areas of the program, and state-of-the-art methods were applied. 155 references, 35 figures, 4 tables.

  19. Research Advances on Marine Ecological Effect and Repairing Techniques of Coastal Mangrove Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na; LI; Pimao; CHEN; Peipei; QIAO; Chuanxin; QIN

    2014-01-01

    Coastal mangrove wetland is one of the areas whose global ecological environmental conditions have severely changed. Its ecosystem is vulnerable to damaged. The international community has paid attention to conservation and wisely use of mangrove wetland. This paper describes five parts of coastal mangrove wetland at home and abroad,including seawater’s purification effect of nitrogen and phosphorus,seawater’s adsorption of heavy metals,the functions of carbon sequestration and climate regulation,implant restoration techniques and the status of protection and management. And research trends of coastal mangrove wetland were proposed,in order to provide reference for the restoration and protection of China’s coastal mangrove wetland.

  20. Ecological Momentary Assessment in Eating Disorder and Obesity Research: a Review of the Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Scott G; Crosby, Ross D; Thomas, Graham; Bond, Dale; Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler; Steffen, Kristine J; Green, Dan D; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2016-04-01

    Our current understanding of the etiology and maintenance of eating disorders and obesity continues to be far from complete. Similarly, our understanding of determinants of both successful and unsuccessful weight loss surgery is also quite limited. While a number of research methodologies have been applied to these areas, one methodology that has recently seen a rise in popularity is the use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA). EMA allows one to study a variety of variables of interest in the natural environment. The study of eating disorders, obesity, and bariatric surgery has all been conducted using EMA recently. The current study is a review of these areas and summarizes the recent literature (past 3 years) in eating disorders, obesity, and bariatric surgery using EMA methodology.

  1. Ecological Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary; Rosen, Ori; Tanner, Martin A.

    2004-09-01

    This collection of essays brings together a diverse group of scholars to survey the latest strategies for solving ecological inference problems in various fields. The last half-decade has witnessed an explosion of research in ecological inference--the process of trying to infer individual behavior from aggregate data. Although uncertainties and information lost in aggregation make ecological inference one of the most problematic types of research to rely on, these inferences are required in many academic fields, as well as by legislatures and the Courts in redistricting, by business in marketing research, and by governments in policy analysis.

  2. Research on Influence Factors of Pig Farmers’ Ecological Farming Behavior: Based on the TPB and SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengying HAN; Zhenhong QI; Dongmin ZHANG; Xinrui LI

    2016-01-01

    China’s extensive development model of pig industry gives rise to serious resource and environment bottleneck restriction,it is urgent to transform the existing development model into ecological farming model. In this process,farmers’ behavior will play a key role. On the basis of summarizing development connotation and characteristics of ecological agriculture,using survey data of 323 pig farmers in 6 provinces,based on the Theory of Planned Behavior( TPB) it introduced individual characteristics and external environment constraint variables,and made an empirical analysis on factors influencing intention and behavior of pig farmers’ ecological farming using the Structural Equation Model( SEM). Results indicate:( i) ecological farming intention of pig farmers has the largest direct effect on their ecological farming behavior;( ii)ecological farming cognition of pig farmers has significant positive effect on their ecological farming behavior;( iii) external environment has the largest indirect effect on their ecological farming behavior,followed by the overall effect,and external environment has significant positive effect on ecological farming attitude and cognition of pig farmers;( iv) individual characteristics( educational level and income level) of pig farmers influence ecological farming behavior of pig farmers through their ecological farming attitude and intention,but the degree of influence is limited.

  3. MODEL FOR THE FORMATION OF ECOLOGICAL CULTURE OF THE MILITARY HIGH SCHOOL CADETS IN THE MUSEUM EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT IN THE PROCESS OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Khrabrova

    2014-01-01

    The article covers the formation of ecological culture of military high school cadets in the process of the museum’s research activities. The author defines the main mechanism of ecological culture formation, being characteristic of military high school cadets, and believes that the development of the cadets’ ecological culture, while they are engaged in the research process, will be effective, provided an innovative research context has been set up within the educational activities scope of ...

  4. Frontiers of torenia research: innovative ornamental traits and study of ecological interaction networks through genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Masahiro; Shimoda, Takeshi; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Arimura, Gen-Ichiro

    2013-06-26

    Advances in research in the past few years on the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia spps.) have made it notable as a model plant on the frontier of genetic engineering aimed at studying ornamental characteristics and pest control in horticultural ecosystems. The remarkable advantage of torenia over other ornamental plant species is the availability of an easy and high-efficiency transformation system for it. Unfortunately, most of the current torenia research is still not very widespread, because this species has not become prominent as an alternative to other successful model plants such as Arabidopsis, snapdragon and petunia. However, nowadays, a more global view using not only a few selected models but also several additional species are required for creating innovative ornamental traits and studying horticultural ecosystems. We therefore introduce and discuss recent research on torenia, the family Scrophulariaceae, for secondary metabolite bioengineering, in which global insights into horticulture, agriculture and ecology have been advanced. Floral traits, in torenia particularly floral color, have been extensively studied by manipulating the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in flower organs. Plant aroma, including volatile terpenoids, has also been genetically modulated in order to understand the complicated nature of multi-trophic interactions that affect the behavior of predators and pollinators in the ecosystem. Torenia would accordingly be of great use for investigating both the variation in ornamental plants and the infochemical-mediated interactions with arthropods.

  5. Radiological and Environmental Research Division Annual Report. Part III, Ecology, January-December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, R. E.; Eddington, D. N. [eds.

    1978-12-01

    Ecological studies continue to focus on the determination of the effects of energy-related pollutants on planktonic species typical of the Great Lakes. Also included were experimental studies of the effects of enclosure size on the response of zooplankton to stress by cadmium. A new mobile field laboratory was constructed to support studies of the effects of water temperatures regimes on rates of accumulation by salmonid fishes of persistent organic contaminants such as PCB's. A significant new addition to the Great Lakes Research Program was marked by the arrival and formal acceptance of the new research vessel, the R/V Ekos. Descriptions of the Ekos and its research capabilities are included. A variety of studies of the behavior of transuranic elements conducted in environments as diverse as the Irish Sea, Great Slave Lake, the Great Miami River, and the Great Lakes, have focused on changes in the oxidation state of plutonium, and the effects these changes have on the behavior of this important element in the aquatic environment. Twenty-six sections of the report were abstracted and indexed individually for inclusion on ERA/EDB and those in scope for INIS. (JGB)

  6. Bringing analysis of gender and social-ecological resilience together in small-scale fisheries research: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarazuka, Nozomi; Locke, Catherine; McDougall, Cynthia; Kantor, Paula; Morgan, Miranda

    2017-03-01

    The demand for gender analysis is now increasingly orthodox in natural resource programming, including that for small-scale fisheries. Whilst the analysis of social-ecological resilience has made valuable contributions to integrating social dimensions into research and policy-making on natural resource management, it has so far demonstrated limited success in effectively integrating considerations of gender equity. This paper reviews the challenges in, and opportunities for, bringing a gender analysis together with social-ecological resilience analysis in the context of small-scale fisheries research in developing countries. We conclude that rather than searching for a single unifying framework for gender and resilience analysis, it will be more effective to pursue a plural solution in which closer engagement is fostered between analysis of gender and social-ecological resilience whilst preserving the strengths of each approach. This approach can make an important contribution to developing a better evidence base for small-scale fisheries management and policy.

  7. Research on the ecology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens--methodological principles and caveats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Gray, Jeremy S; Kahl, Olaf; Lane, Robert S; Nijhof, Ard M

    2013-01-01

    Interest in tick-transmitted pathogens has experienced an upsurge in the past few decades. Routine application of tools for the detection of fragments of foreign DNA in ticks, together with a high degree of interest in the quantification of disease risk for humans, has led to a marked increase in the number of reports on the eco-epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. However, procedural errors continue to accumulate in the scientific literature, resulting in misleading information. For example, unreliable identification of ticks and pathogens, erroneous interpretations of short-term field studies, and the hasty acceptance of some tick species as vectors have led to ambiguities regarding the vector role of these arthropods. In this review, we focus on the ecological features driving the life cycle of ticks and the resulting effects on the eco-epidemiology of tick-transmitted pathogens. We review the factors affecting field collections of ticks, and we describe the biologically and ecologically appropriate procedures for describing tick host-seeking activity and its correlation with environmental traits. We detail the climatic variables that have biological importance on ticks and explain how they should be properly measured and analyzed. We also provide evidence to critically reject the use of some environmental traits that are being increasingly reported as the drivers of the behavior of ticks. With the aim of standardization, we propose unambiguous definitions of the status of hosts and ticks regarding their ability to maintain and spread a given pathogen. We also describe laboratory procedures and standards for evaluating the vectorial capacity of a tick or the reservoir role of a host. This approach should provide a coherent framework for the reporting of research findings concerning ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  8. Research on the ecology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens - methodological principles and caveats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín eEstrada-Peña

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in tick-transmitted pathogens has experienced an upsurge in the past few decades. Routine application of tools for the detection of fragments of foreign DNA in ticks, together with a high degree of interest in the quantification of disease risk for humans, has led to a marked increase in the number of reports on the eco-epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. However, procedural errors continue to accumulate in the scientific literature, resulting in misleading information. For example, unreliable identification of ticks and pathogens, erroneous interpretations of short-term field studies, and the hasty acceptance of some tick species as vectors have led to ambiguities regarding the vector role of these arthropods. In this review, we focus on the ecological features driving the life cycle of ticks and the resulting effects on the eco-epidemiology of tick-transmitted pathogens. We review the factors affecting field collections of ticks, and we describe the biologically and ecologically appropriate procedures for describing tick host-seeking activity and its correlation with environmental traits. We detail the climatic variables that have biological importance on ticks and explain how they should be properly measured and analyzed. We also provide evidence to critically reject the use of some environmental traits that are being increasingly reported as the drivers of the behavior of ticks. With the aim of standardization, we propose unambiguous definitions of the status of hosts and ticks regarding their ability to maintain and spread a given pathogen. We also describe laboratory procedures and standards for evaluating the vectorial status of a tick or the reservoir role of a host. Such harmonization in protocols and terms should provide a coherent framework for the reporting of research findings concerning ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  9. Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes--Proceedings of a Research Symposium, September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Theresa; Gibson, Caroline; Lowry, Dayv; Fagergren, Duane

    2013-01-01

    Locally and globally, there is growing recognition of the critical roles that herring, smelt, sand lance, eulachon, and other forage fishes play in marine ecosystems. Scientific and resource management entities throughout the Salish Sea, agree that extensive information gaps exist, both in basic biological knowledge and parameters critical to fishery management. Communication and collaboration among researchers also is inadequate. Building on the interest and enthusiasm generated by recent forage fish workshops and symposia around the region, the 2012 Research Symposium on the Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes was designed to elucidate practical recommendations for science and policy needs and actions, and spur further collaboration in support for the precautionary management of forage fish. This dynamic and productive event was a joint venture of the Northwest Straits Commission Forage Fish Program, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and The Puget Sound Partnership. The symposium was held on September 12–14, 2012, at the University of Washington, Friday Harbor Laboratories campus. Sixty scientists, graduate students, and fisheries policy experts convened; showcasing ongoing research, conservation, and management efforts targeting forage fish from regional and national perspectives. The primary objectives of this event were to: (1) review current research and management related to marine forage fish species; and (2) identify priority science and policy needs and actions for Washington, British Columbia, and the entire West Coast. Given the diversity of knowledge, interests, and disciplines surrounding forage fish on both sides of the international border, the organizing committee made a concerted effort to contact many additional experts who, although unable to attend, provided valuable insights and ideas to the symposium structure and discussions. The value of the symposium format was highlighted in

  10. 我国水生态足迹研究进展%Research Advances of Water Ecological Footprint in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义; 张合平; 郭琳

    2013-01-01

    生态足迹是评价可持续性发展与利用的有效方法,为对生态足迹的水域账户予以完善,介绍了水生态足迹内涵及其账户的不同理解,从理论研究、应用,影响因子及水资源可持续利用评价指标综述了水生态足迹研究成果,指出了基础理论、计算模型、扩展应用等方面还存在不足,并对其研究未来进行了展望.%The ecological footprint is an effective way to evaluate the sustainable development and utilization. In order to improve the water accounts of the ecological footprint, this paper introduces the different understandings on the connotation and accounts of water ecological footprint. It summarizes the research achievements of water ecological footprint from the perspective of theoretical research, application, influencing factor and water resource sustainable utilization evaluation index, and points out some drawbacks in basic theory, calculation model and extended application of water ecological footprint as well as puts forward some suggestions for further study.

  11. Geo-engineering, Governance, and Social-Ecological Systems: Critical Issues and Joint Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Galaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The debate about the possibilities to engineer the Earth's climate has changed drastically in the last years. Suggestions of large-scale technological interventions to combat climate change that a decade ago would have been discarded as science fiction are slowly moving into the center of international climate change discussions, research, and politics. In this article, I elaborate three joint key challenges to geo-engineering research from a resilience perspective, with a special emphasis on governance issues. First, I discuss the need to understand geo-engineering proposals from a "planetary boundaries" perspective. Second, I elaborate why the notion of Earth stewardship and geo-engineering are not necessarily in conflict, but instead could be viewed as complementary approaches. Last, I discuss the critical need to explore an institutional setting that is strong enough to weed out geo-engineering proposals that carry considerable ecological risk, but still allow for novelty, fail-safe experimentation, and continuous learning. These issues are critical for our understanding of how to effectively govern global environmental risks, complex systems, and emerging technologies in the Anthropocene.

  12. Research on Mechanism of Diversified Investment and Financing in Building Ecological Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Shiming; Lu Xiwu; Qin Xing

    2008-01-01

    Ecological city is the advanced mode of harmonious development of city.Constant improvement is being made in the development of ecological city.However,building ecological city is an enormous project that calls for a huge amount of capital.The government fund is far from adequate.This paper probes into the fund issue and discusses in detail the mechanism of investment and financing in building ecological city from various aspects such as diversification of the investment subjects and the modes of financing.

  13. Participatory scenario planning in place-based social-ecological research: insights and experiences from 23 case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Oteros-Rozas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Participatory scenario planning (PSP is an increasingly popular tool in place-based environmental research for evaluating alternative futures of social-ecological systems. Although a range of guidelines on PSP methods are available in the scientific and grey literature, there is a need to reflect on existing practices and their appropriate application for different objectives and contexts at the local scale, as well as on their potential perceived outcomes. We contribute to theoretical and empirical frameworks by analyzing how and why researchers assess social-ecological systems using place-based PSP, hence facilitating the appropriate uptake of such scenario tools in the future. We analyzed 23 PSP case studies conducted by the authors in a wide range of social-ecological settings by exploring seven aspects: (1 the context; (2 the original motivations and objectives; (3 the methodological approach; (4 the process; (5 the content of the scenarios; (6 the outputs of the research; and (7 the monitoring and evaluation of the PSP process. This was complemented by a reflection on strengths and weaknesses of using PSP for the place-based social-ecological research. We conclude that the application of PSP, particularly when tailored to shared objectives between local people and researchers, has enriched environmental management and scientific research through building common understanding and fostering learning about future planning of social-ecological systems. However, PSP still requires greater systematic monitoring and evaluation to assess its impact on the promotion of collective action for transitions to sustainability and the adaptation to global environmental change and its challenges.

  14. Pristine aquatic systems in a Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Bárbara Medeiros; de Mendonça-Galvão, Luciana

    2014-12-01

    The maintenance of limnological monitoring programs in the Cerrado Domain is crucial as a provision of useful information about temporal variations in land use and their respective water quality responses, considering its importance as water source for different Brazilian hydrographic basins. The purpose of this research was to describe limnological variables of low-order lotic systems located in the Cerrado Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site (Environmental Protection Area (APA) Gama and Cabeça de Veado, Federal District of Brazil). Altogether, nine different streams were considered in this study. Samplings were conducted between 2010 and 2012, concentrated in the dry and rainy seasons. The sampling sites were generally characterized by low nutrient concentrations (e.g., medians, TP = 14.8 μg L(-1), TN = 20.0 μg L(-1), NO3 = 13.8 μg L(-1)) and slightly acidic waters (median, pH = 5.3), with quite low electrical conductivity values (median = 6.4 μS cm(-1)). However, water quality degradation as a response to diffuse pollution was reported in some sampling points (e.g., Onça and Gama streams), expressed by relatively higher N and P concentrations, which were probably highlighted by the good water quality of the data set as whole. Although there was a trend to higher values of nitrogen forms during the dry season, significant statistical differences between the seasonal periods were reported only for the variables temperature and dissolved silica, which were higher in the dry and rainy season, respectively. The streams located in the preserved areas inside the ecological stations of APA Gama and Cabeça de Veado can still be considered good examples of reference lotic systems in the Cerrado Domain; notwithstanding, this study reported incipient signs of water quality degradation which cannot be overlooked in future limnological monitoring.

  15. Long-term oceanographic and ecological research in the Western English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southward, Alan J; Langmead, Olivia; Hardman-Mountford, Nicholas J; Aiken, James; Boalch, Gerald T; Dando, Paul R; Genner, Martin J; Joint, Ian; Kendall, Michael A; Halliday, Nicholas C; Harris, Roger P; Leaper, Rebecca; Mieszkowska, Nova; Pingree, Robin D; Richardson, Anthony J; Sims, David W; Smith, Tania; Walne, Anthony W; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2005-01-01

    Long-term research in the western English Channel, undertaken by the marine laboratories in Plymouth, is described and details of survey methods, sites, and time series given in this chapter. Major findings are summarized and their limitations outlined. Current research, with recent reestablishment and expansion of many sampling programmes, is presented, and possible future approaches are indicated. These unique long-term data sets provide an environmental baseline for predicting complex ecological responses to local, regional, and global environmental change. Between 1888 and the present, investigations have been carried out into the physical, chemical, and biological components (ranging from plankton and fish to benthic and intertidal assemblages) of the western English Channel ecosystem. The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom has performed the main body of these observations. More recent contributions come from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey, now the Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, dating from 1957; the Institute for Marine Environmental Research, from 1974 to 1987; and the Plymouth Marine Laboratory, which was formed by amalgamation of the Institute for Marine Environmental Research and part of the Marine Biological Association, from 1988. Together, these contributions constitute a unique data series-one of the longest and most comprehensive samplings of environmental and marine biological variables in the world. Since the termination of many of these time series in 1987-1988 during a reorganisation of UK marine research, there has been a resurgence of interest in long-term environmental change. Many programmes have been restarted and expanded with support from several agencies. The observations span significant periods of warming (1921-1961; 1985-present) and cooling (1962-1980). During these periods of change, the abundance of key species underwent dramatic shifts. The first period of warming saw changes in

  16. A social-ecological systems framework for food systems research: accommodating transformation systems and their products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham R. Marshall

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological systems (SES framework was developed to support communication across the multiple disciplines concerned with sustainable provision and/or appropriation of common-pool resources (CPRs. Transformation activities (e.g. processing, distribution, retailing in which value is added to resource units appropriated from CPRs were assumed in developing the framework to be exogenous to the SES of focal concern. However, provision and appropriation of CPRs are nowadays often closely integrated with the market economy, so significant interdependence exists between many CPR provision/appropriation activities and the activities in which appropriated resource units are transformed into the products ultimately marketed. This paper presents a modified version of the SES framework designed to better account for transformation activities in order to be more suitable for diagnosing those sustainability problems where it is inappropriate to define all such activities as exogenous to the SES of focal concern. The need for such modification was identified in a research project examining the challenges faced by Cambodian cattle-owning smallholders in accessing value chains for premium-priced beef. Hence the immediate focus was on strengthening the SES framework’s value for facilitating a multi-disciplinary diagnostic approach to food system research projects of this kind. The modified SES framework’s potential in this respect was illustrated by a preliminary application that drew on literature reviewed for the Cambodian project. Significant further potential exists in using the modified framework as a foundation from which to develop a version that is suitable for application to SESs in which transformation systems are appropriately represented as endogenous. Maintaining consistency with the standard SES framework will enable communication to occur more effectively between food system researchers and CPR scholars more generally.

  17. THE PERCEPTION ON ECOLOGICAL PRODUCTS – A RESEARCH ON THE URBAN CONSUMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase Laura Daniela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the consumers of organic products. The work is important because in Romania, although consumption data show a small percentage consumption of organic products, in words it is still high. The difference consists between the definition and the perception of the concept of ecological products in respondents’ eye. This work aims to study the consumer perception of such niche products from a narrow perspective and that of products certified or not. Trying to prove that there are differences in behaviour between the two groups. Problem arising in this field is that there are many concepts of period of environmentally-friendly. Marketing and criterion by which to do all the market report shows green products from the point of view as they are legal certificates. Only that in Romania, there are two different segments of shoppers. Those who buy green products certified and those who buy green products certified. These latter, which many call the peasant market supplies, are an interesting group of future investigation for this type of sale. This paper comes as a complete research done in this market and brings attention to a new variable of analysis for motivational research. This research is an exploratory research that proposed method is very common in research of this kind. We held three focus group meetings divided by a selection questionnaire. The first group of 7 persons included only persons who have declared that they have bought certified products and the second group of 9 persons included only people who bought uncertified products. The third group also of 9 persons included people in both categories. So we could identify what some say about others when they are face to face and also when they are not. The results are as expected. We can say says there difference between the two groups in terms of motivation choosing those types of products, the same reasons are for buyers and their family, taste and the appearance of

  18. Research on fast ecological restoration technology of high and steep rocky slope of highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xin

    2017-08-01

    Along with the development of the western region, the traffic construction in mountainous areas is booming. In the infrastructure, it produced a large number of secondary bare land. Soil erosion is serious. Based on the literature search and analysis of the domestic and international slope ecological restoration technology, this paper proposes a fast and efficient adaptive highway high steep rock slope ecological restoration technology (it has been authorized by the national patent). And it states the systemic structure, working principle and key construction technology. The ecological restoration technique combines the growth characteristics of the vegetation and the characteristics of the rock mass, which not only improves the survival rate of plants, but also stable slope. The results of this study make up for the shortcomings of the existing ecological restoration technology of slope. Compared with the prior art, which have obvious advantages and suitable for the ecological restoration of high steep rock slope.

  19. 生态足迹研究进展述评%A review of research on ecological footprint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 王力

    2011-01-01

    生态足迹模型自1992年被提出以来,引起了众多学者的关注,经过近20年来的发展,生态足迹模型研究发生了显著的变化,特别是在我国取得了长足的进步.通过简单介绍生态足迹的概念、计算方法以及优缺点,回顾国外的研究进展,重点介绍国内生态足迹的研究概况,展望生态足迹今后的研究方向.%Since 1992 the theory of ecological footprint model has been concerned by more and more researchers.In recent twenty years, a great progress has been made in the study of ecological footprint all over the world, especially in China.In this paper we briefly introduced the concept and the calculation methods of ecological footprint, stated its weakness and advantage, and reviewed its research progress abroad and at home.Finally, we argued the possible future research directions of ecological footprint.

  20. Robust Adaptation Research in High Mountains: Integrating the Scientific, Social, and Ecological Dimensions of Glacio-Hydrological Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham McDowell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate-related changes in glacierized watersheds are widely documented, stimulating adaptive responses among the 370 million people living in glacier-influenced watersheds as well as aquatic and riparian ecosystems. The situation denotes important interdependencies between science, society, and ecosystems, yet integrative approaches to the study of adaptation to such changes remain scarce in both the mountain- and non-mountain-focused adaptation scholarship. Using the example of glacio-hydrological change, it is argued here that this analytical limitation impedes the identification, development, and implementation of “successful” adaptations. In response, the paper introduces three guiding principles for robust adaptation research in glaciated mountain regions. Principle 1: Adaptation research should integrate detailed analyses of watershed-specific glaciological and hydro-meteorological conditions; glacio-hydrological changes are context-specific and therefore cannot be assumed to follow idealized trajectories of “peak water”. Principle 2: Adaptation research should consider the complex interplay between glacio-hydrological changes and socio-economic, cultural, and political conditions; responses to environmental changes are non-deterministic and therefore not deducible from hydrological changes alone. Principle 3: Adaptation research should be attentive to interdependencies, feedbacks, and tradeoffs between human and ecological responses to glacio-hydrological change; research that does not evaluate these socio-ecological dynamics may lead to maladaptive adaptation plans. These principles call attention to the linked scientific, social, and ecological dimensions of adaptation, and offer a point of departure for future climate change adaptation research in high mountains.

  1. [Application of "overlay-maps" model in prior period research of ecological planning of Shanghai Expo area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xi; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Tian-Hou; Liu, Yi-Ning; Wang, Kai-Yun

    2009-05-01

    An ecological planning approach for Shanghai Expo 2010 was constructed based on "overlay-maps" model, and the ecological elements and GIS visualization in Shanghai Expo 2010 area were investigated and analyzed from the aspects of human comfort degree, life health, and sustainable utilization of resources. This approach included the determination of objectives for ecological planning, the selection and in situ investigation of ecological elements, the construction of eco-database, and the integrative analysis of GIS visualization, being indispensable for the prior period research of ecological planning of Expo area. Based on the present situation of soil pollution in the Expo area, a tentative scheme of soil restoration and utilization was brought forward, with the concerns of green space demand and soil secondary pollution avoidance. To protect the wild life habitats in Expo area, a demarcation of conservation areas for plants and original landscape was made. A conception of using landscape elements to optimize air temperature, humidity, and ventilation in the process of urban design was proposed, aimed to promote the human comfort degree under tropical monsoon conditions.

  2. A review on the availability of ecological data aiming new researches in Peri Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Mello Petrucio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in population as well as the water resource demand has been intensifying the human influence in Peri Lagoon basin. A review on the availability of data concerning the ecology of Peri Lagoon was made, aiming at the development of new researches to understand the functioning of this ecosystem. This information can contribute to the elaboration of a conservation proposal and sustainable use of the Lagoon in the future. High cyanobacteria density (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii was detected in the Lagoon waters, which happens to be a risky situation for the ecosystem’s health and consequently for the population. The review highlights a lack of available information about the dynamics, functioning and structure of aquatic communities, as well as their relationships with the surrounding area and the infl uence of abiotic factors. Series of continuum data with respect to time are also considered to be lacking. Educational, political and social practices in environmental conservation are necessary, aiming at the management and sustainable use of Peri Lagoon basin. These practices will guarantee water resource quality and availability for the current and future generations.

  3. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M; Fuller, Mark R; Kie, John G; Bates, Kirk K

    2010-07-27

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS 'rapid fixing' technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives.

  4. Development of a UAS-based survey module for ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, R.; McMahon, A. M.; Serbin, S.

    2016-12-01

    The development of small unmanned aircraft system (UAS, learned related to FAA registration and COA procedures, requirements, and regulations in the US, accompanied by our hand-on experiences (our group currently have two COA granted and three more under review by FAA). We then introduce our design for a modular data collection software framework. This framework is open source (available on GitHub) and cross-platform compatible (written in Python), providing flexibility in development and deployment hardware configurations. In addition our framework uses a central module to coordinate the data acquisition, synchronization with the UAS control system and data storage through a common interface and interchangeable, hardware specific software modules. Utilizing this structure and a common data transfer format, the system can be easily reconfigured to meet the needs of a specific platform or operation, eliminating the need to redevelop acquisition systems for specific instrument/platform configurations. On-site data measurement tests of UAS-based survey module were conducted and data quality from multi-sensors (e.g. a high-resolution digital camera, spectroradiometer, and a thermal infrared camera) was reported. Finally, the results of this prototype study show that the UAS techniques can be used to develop a low-cost alternative for ecological research, but much effort is still needed to carefully deal with flight regulations and integrate off-the-shelf instrumentation, by the practitioner.

  5. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M.; Fuller, Mark R.; Kie, John G.; Bates, Kirk K.

    2010-01-01

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS 'rapid fixing' technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives.

  6. Review of Research on River Ecological Water Demand%河流生态需水量研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙甲岚; 雷晓辉; 蒋云钟; 王浩

    2012-01-01

    介绍了河流生态需水量基本概念的衍生过程、河流生态需水量的计算方法以及最新国内外的应用研究进展,讨论了几种常用计算方法如Tennant法、Texas法、生境模拟法以及整体分析法的适应性,总结了目前存在的主要研究问题.由于计算方法种类繁多,计算结果还需要一定的评价标准认可其有效性.最后结合我国水资源合理优化配置问题对今后河流生态需水量的主要研究方向进行了展望.%In recent years,the development and utilization of water resources may result in the destruction of water ecological system, thus protecting the water ecological system with sustainable development has received more and more attention. In order to coordinate the relationship between the development and utilization of water resources and the protection of the ecological environment, the river ecological water demand has become a hot spot. This paper introduces the basic concepts, the calculation methods,and the current research status of river ecological water demand,and discusses the applicability of several common calculation methods such as the Tennant method, the Texas method, the habitat simulation method,and the overall analysis method. Due to the variety of different calculation methods, the results obtained from these methods need the evaluation standards to assess their validities. Furthermore,this paper proposes the future research aspects on river ecological water demand based on the reasonable water resources optimal allocation in China.

  7. Establishing the boundaries and building bridges: a literature review on ecological theory: implications for research into the refugee parenting experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nombasa

    2010-03-01

    Currently an ecological model for conceptualizing and capturing the refugee parenting experience is lacking. After an extensive review of the literature related to the usages of Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of child development, a gap was found in knowledge and research centred on describing the environment of pre-resettlement (i.e. pre-flight, flight, migration, camp) contexts and their impact on refugee parents and carer experiences. The culture of the refugee parenting experience may be characterized by disruptions in and alterations to family structure and organization; values and norms; and gender roles. This paper begins by examining the definition and usages of existing ecological frameworks in the 20th and 21st century. Particular attention is drawn to the gaps in the existing literature and an ecological model is offered. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for practice. The outcomes of this paper suggest the need for practitioners, policymakers and researchers to engage and develop culturally competent, relevant and appropriate interventions (i.e. reconciling differing beliefs and behaviours concerning child-rearing practices; affirming positive parenting practices of these families during engagement protocols and processes; adopting a strengths-based orientation) in the area of child protection whilst at the same time safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children within pre- and post-resettlement contexts.

  8. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory interests and capabilities for research on the ecological effects of global climatic and atmospheric change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amthor, J.S.; Houpis, J.L.; Kercher, J.R.; Ledebuhr, A.; Miller, N.L.; Penner, J.E.; Robison, W.L.; Taylor, K.E.

    1994-09-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has interests and capabilities in all three types of research that must be conducted in order to understand and predict effects of global atmospheric and climatic (i.e., environmental) changes on ecological systems and their functions (ecosystem function is perhaps most conveniently defined as mass and energy exchange and storage). These three types of research are: (1) manipulative experiments with plants and ecosystems; (2) monitoring of present ecosystem, landscape, and global exchanges and pools of energy, elements, and compounds that play important roles in ecosystem function or the physical climate system, and (3) mechanistic (i.e., hierarchic and explanatory) modeling of plant and ecosystem responses to global environmental change. Specific experimental programs, monitoring plans, and modeling activities related to evaluation of ecological effects of global environmental change that are of interest to, and that can be carried out by LLNL scientists are outlined. Several projects have the distinction of integrating modeling with empirical studies resulting in an Integrated Product (a model or set of models) that DOE or any federal policy maker could use to assess ecological effects. The authors note that any scheme for evaluating ecological effects of atmospheric and climatic change should take into account exceptional or sensitive species, in particular, rare, threatened, or endangered species.

  9. Ecological Forestry in the Longleaf Pine Ecosystem: Linking Research, Adaptive Management, and Outreach for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, Kevin; Jack, Steven B.; Robert J. Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    The integration of scientific understanding, conservation values, and silvicultural systems is critical to ecologically sustainable forest management. The longleaf pine ecosystem is one of the rarest forest types in North America and, until recently, one of the least well understood in terms of its basic ecology. Models of management based on natural disturbance that utilize single tree selection are unique in their ability to maintain the conservation values of the longleaf ecosystem while g...

  10. Research on the Placement of the Ecological Shelter Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, N.; Ruan, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Three Gorges Dam is built on the middle reaches of Yangtze River (Changjiang) in south-central China, which is the world's third longest river. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR), including the entire inundated area and 19 administrative units (counties and cities) on both sides of the river, is regarded as an environmentally sensitive area. The total area of the TGRR is approximately 58000 km2. As the Three Gorges Dam fully operated, for the flood control, the water level should be kept in the range between 145 m and 175 m and the reservoir surface water area(over 1080 km2)at a water level of 175 m, with a length of 600 km. Many of cities, villages and farms have been submerged. Moreover, as a result of reservoir operation, the water-level alternation of the reservoir is opposite to the nature, which is low water level (145m) in summer and high water level (175m) in winter. The Hydro-Fluctuation Belt, with a height of 30m, will become a new pollution source due to the riparian being flooded and the submerged areas may still contain trace amounts of toxic or radioactive materials. The environmental impacts associated with large scale reservoir area often have significant negative impacts on the environment. It affects forest cover, species in the area, some endangered, water quality, increase the likelihood of earthquakes and mudslides in the area. To solve these problems, it is necessarily to construct the Ecological Shelter Zone (ESZ) along with the edge of the reservoir area. The function of the ESZ is similar to the riparian zone in reducing flood damage, improving water quality, decreasing the levels of the nonpoint source pollution load and soil erosion and rebuilding the migration routes of plant and wildlife. However, the research of the ESZ is mainly focused on rivers at field scale by now, lack of research method on reservoir at the watershed scale. As the special nature of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the construction of the ESZ in the TGRA is

  11. A data management proposal to connect in a hierarchical way nodes of the Spanish Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Daniel; Pérez-Luque, Antonio J.; Bonet García, Francisco J.; Moreno-LLorca, Ricardo A.; Sánchez-Cano, Francisco M.; Suárez-Muñoz, María

    2017-04-01

    The Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) network aims to provide the scientific community, policy makers, and society with the knowledge and predictive understanding necessary to conserve, protect, and manage the ecosystems. LTER is organized into networks ranging from the global to national scale. In the top of network, the International Long Term Ecological Research (ILTER) Network coordinates among ecological researchers and LTER research networks at local, regional and global scales. In Spain, the Spanish Long Term Ecological Research (LTER-Spain) network was built to foster the collaboration and coordination between longest-lived ecological researchers and networks on a local scale. Currently composed by nine nodes, this network facilitates the data exchange, documentation and preservation encouraging the development of cross-disciplinary works. However, most nodes have no specific information systems, tools or qualified personnel to manage their data for continued conservation and there are no harmonized methodologies for long-term monitoring protocols. Hence, the main challenge is to place the nodes in its correct position in the network, providing the best tools that allow them to manage their data autonomously and make it easier for them to access information and knowledge in the network. This work proposes a connected structure composed by four LTER nodes located in southern Spain. The structure is built considering hierarchical approach: nodes that create information which is documented using metadata standards (such as Ecological Metadata Language, EML); and others nodes that gather metadata and information. We also take into account the capacity of each node to manage their own data and the premise that the data and metadata must be maintained where it is generated. The current state of the nodes is a follows: two of them have their own information management system (Sierra Nevada-Granada and Doñana Long-Term Socio-ecological Research Platform) and

  12. 我国生态文化主题的研究%Research on Ecological Culture Theme in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石宝军; 郑艳玲; 高建山

    2013-01-01

    Ecological culture is an important part of advanced socialist culture with the core values of harmonious development between man and nature .In order to know current status of ecological culture ,track hotspot dy-namics and grasp the relationship between the structures of research areas .Through the methods of words fre-quency analysis ,co-words analysis ,clustering analysis and multidimensional scaling analysis ,all keywords about ecological culture theme research during 1989~2011 were analyzed by scientific knowledge map ,the inner rela-tionship between highly cited keywords was digged ,the structure and evolution of Chinese ecological culture subject field were showed by visualization in 20 years ,finally the characteristics of ecological culture theme re-search were concluded .It was expected to provide scientific reference for relevant researchers to track domestic ecological culture research frontier progresses and grasp the development trend .%生态文化是以人与自然和谐发展为核心价值观的文化,是社会主义先进文化的重要组成部分。为认识当前生态文化现状,追踪研究热点动态,从而把握研究领域之间的结构关系,利用词频分析、共词分析、聚类分析及多维尺度分析的方法,借助科学知识图谱,对我国1989~2011年间生态文化主题研究的所有期刊学术论文关键词进行分析,挖掘高被引关键词之间的内部关系,并以可视化的手段展现出20多年来我国生态文化主题领域的研究结构及演进情况,最终分析得出生态文化主题研究热点的诸多特征,以期为我国相关研究者跟踪国内生态文化研究前沿进展、掌握发展态势提供科学的参考。

  13. Diurnal cortisol rhythms in Tsimane' Amazonian foragers: new insights into ecological HPA axis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Colleen H

    2012-02-01

    Although a growing body of research has documented important pathways by which the HPA axis mediates the interface between the psychosocial world and individual health, there is a paucity of data from nonwestern populations, particularly from those populations with distinct nutritional and infectious disease ecologies. The specific objectives of this study are: (1) to document variation in diurnal cortisol rhythms among the Tsimane', a remote population in the Bolivian Amazon, (2) to explore this variation by age and by gender, and (3) to compare diurnal rhythms from this study to other population based studies of cortisol conducted in industrialized nations. Salivary cortisol samples were collected twice daily, immediately upon waking and before bed, for three consecutive days from 303 participants (age 1.6-82 years, 1564 samples) in conjunction with the Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study (TAPS). Cortisol rhythms showed strong age effects across the developmental span, with basal levels and slopes increasing into adulthood, although individuals older than 60 years demonstrated a precipitous flattening of the diurnal slope. Cortisol profiles were elevated in adult females compared to their age-matched male counterparts, and diurnal slopes, as well as mean cortisol concentrations among the Tsimane' were the lowest reported in any population based study of HPA axis function. Although the within-population variation in cortisol profiles was consistent with the established correlates of time of day, age, and sex, the between-population comparisons revealed dramatically lower levels of HPA activity among the Tsimane'. This study provides a benchmark against which to reference cortisol levels from industrialized populations, and expands the range of documented variation in HPA axis function in a nonwestern context.

  14. Research and Commentary on the Sports Ecology%体育生态学的研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏成龙

    2015-01-01

    The society in 21st century is the society of the construction of ecological civilization, and the pursuit of sustainable development. TO realize the sustainable development of physical education is also a hot topic that draws people’s attention. On the basic of reviewing the formation and development of ecology, this article focuses on exploring the status of producing and developing of sports ecology, which is a marginal discipline. In addition to, this article also analyze the insufficiency if sports ecology research:(1)Sports ecology lack of theoretical results, the integral frame need to be improved.(2)The ideas are not mature enough so that they need to be systematically researched.(3)The understanding of this subject needs to be deepened, and practice and accumulation need to be enriched.%21世纪是建设生态文明的社会,也是人类追求可持续发展的社会,实现体育的可持续发展同样也是人类关心的热门话题之一。本文在回顾生态学形成与发展的基础上,探讨体育生态学这一边缘学科在我国的孕育与发展的现状,分析其研究的不足:(1)理论研究成果欠缺,整体理论框架有待完善;(2)观点不够成熟,有待进一步系统化研究;(3)学科认识有待深化,实践积累有待进一步的盈实。

  15. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  16. Advance on Research Methods of Ecology of Forest Fire%林火生态研究方法进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋华; 舒立福; 李世友

    2009-01-01

    回顾了林火生态的发展历史,从火历史、火生态模型、火状况与生态系统特性、生态过程及景观研究等方面概述了林火生态学研究方法的演变与实践,指出应用景观生态学原理和方法,运用先进技术手段和数学方法,对火干扰后的森林群落动态进行研究是当前的重要内容.%Fire ecology is a branch of ecology. In the world, there are many forestry ecological systems which need fire disturbance to maintain their development. Reviews were made on history of fire ecology, its concepts and research contents. Suggestions were put forwarded to further study on forest community dynamics after fire with advanced technology and mathematic method.

  17. 大连市生态环境质量研究%Research on Ecological Environment Quality of Dalian City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾成林; 周健

    2012-01-01

    运用可持续发展理论和生态经济学原理,从白然、社会、经济的角度,选取了20个单项指标,构建了大连生态环境质量评价指标体系,采用专家打分法、层次分析法和模糊综合评判法构建出城市生态环境质量评价的模型。定量地对大连的生态环境进行了综合评价。%We analysed quality and problems of ecological environment in DaLian city on the basis of domestic and foreign documents and practical research. We constructed environmental quality evalualion index system for the city with 20 indexes of sustainable development and ecological economy theories. We made the comprehen- sive valuation of the ecological environment of DaLian city with methods of specialist score making, analytic hi- erarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and found out that the city~ ecological environment quality was generally good. Environmental quality of the center district of the city and ChangI-Iai county was ex- cellent. Environmental quality of JinZhou district, Lvshunko district, WaFangdian and Zhuanghe was good. Environmental quality of Pulandian was medium.

  18. Research on Purification of Domestic Sewage by Artificially Strengthened Ecological Filter Bed in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue; SHEN

    2013-01-01

    Artificially strengthened filter bed is an innovative wastewater treatment technology based on the coupling of eco-contact oxidation filters and artificial wetlands purification mechanism.By small scale laboratory equipment,the effects of cascade aeration,filter type,filter clogging and other ecological factors on the operation effect of artificial filter bed were studied.As indicated by the results,the pretreatment of cascade aeration had obvious effect and could satisfy the oxygen requirements of artificially strengthened ecological filter bed.Through the analysis on the purification results of volcanic and gravel filter,the effluent quality of volcanic filter was better than that of gravel filter.With the advantages of low operations costs and good effluent quality,the artificially strengthened ecological filter bed has great value to be popularized in North China.

  19. Research on Uncertainties in Evaluation Indicator System for Ecological Residential Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Sheng; GUAN Chen-yin; ZENG Guang-ming; LIU Jian-long; Zhou Jian-fei

    2009-01-01

    In the process of evaluating,the weights of indicators are firstly determined by AHP and Delphi methods:and the values of indicators are normalized by grey correlative coefficient method.A suit of means were put forward,by which a qualitative and quantitative evaluation indicator system suitable for the situation of China and uncertainties can be established.Both idiographic and operable methods and process were presented.Following the principle of elasticity,hiberarchy and maneuversbifity,a three-layer evaluation indicator system was established by AHP in Jiuyi ecological residential community, which includes 5 subsystems and 24 indica-tiors.The weights of indicators are measured by AHP and expert estimate and their best indicators values up to par were determined by fuzzy mathematics and optimization.The whole evaluation indicator system not only has an active and practical effect on estimating ecological residential community,but also guides ecological residential community planning.

  20. RESEARCH ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF COMPOSITES MADE OF ECOLOGICAL FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Luminita BRENCI, Camelia COSEREANU, Adriana FOTIN, Alexandru VASILACHE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the researchconducted to obtain new ecological composites thatcould be used for thermal insulation of buildings. Theobtained panels are made of ecological materials thatdo not affect the human health (wood chips andfibers, host of hemp, textile fibers, wool and reed.The testing was performed in eight points, for aninternal temperature of T=200C and an outdoortemperature situated in the range of -200C÷200C. Asthe tests conducted, the results showed that the bestinsulating capacity belonged to a composite whichhas wood fiber and wool in its structure, followed acomposite which has wood chips, hemp particles andwool in its structure.

  1. Economic Research on Ecological Environment of Frigid Region with Black Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun’e; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Suihua City in Heilongjiang Province is located in the heart of the frigid region with black earth and it has created abundant green property resources. However,the environmental issue of this place has caused wide attention,so the government should make full use of various means to solve the environment problem and protect the ecology in this region. Among the measures taken by the government,the tax means is the most effective economic device to solve the environmental problem. Economic means supplemented by lawful and administrative measures should be adopted to solve the ecological environmental problems in the frigid region with black earth.

  2. Biological collections and ecological/environmental research: a review, some observations and a look to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Graham H; Ehrlich, Paul R

    2010-05-01

    Housed worldwide, mostly in museums and herbaria, is a vast collection of biological specimens developed over centuries. These biological collections, and associated taxonomic and systematic research, have received considerable long-term public support. The work remaining in systematics has been expanding as the estimated total number of species of organisms on Earth has risen over recent decades, as have estimated numbers of undescribed species. Despite this increasing task, support for taxonomic and systematic research, and biological collections upon which such research is based, has declined over the last 30-40 years, while other areas of biological research have grown considerably, especially those that focus on environmental issues. Reflecting increases in research that deals with ecological questions (e.g. what determines species distribution and abundance) or environmental issues (e.g. toxic pollution), the level of research attempting to use biological collections in museums or herbaria in an ecological/environmental context has risen dramatically during about the last 20 years. The perceived relevance of biological collections, and hence the support they receive, should be enhanced if this trend continues and they are used prominently regarding such environmental issues as anthropogenic loss of biodiversity and associated ecosystem function, global climate change, and decay of the epidemiological environment. It is unclear, however, how best to use biological collections in the context of such ecological/environmental issues or how best to manage collections to facilitate such use. We demonstrate considerable and increasingly realized potential for research based on biological collections to contribute to ecological/environmental understanding. However, because biological collections were not originally intended for use regarding such issues and have inherent biases and limitations, they are proving more useful in some contexts than in others. Biological

  3. Ecologic Momentary Assessment: Perspectives on Applications and Opportunities in Research and Practice Regarding Nutrition Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Rosa K; Perzynski, Adam T

    2016-09-01

    Retrospective self-reported data have limitations, making it important to evaluate alternative forms of measurement for nutrition behaviors. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) attempts to overcome the challenges of recalled data with real-time data collection in a subject's natural environment, often leveraging technology. This perspective piece 1) introduces the concepts and terminology of EMA, 2) provides an overview of the methodological and analytical considerations, 3) gives examples of past research using EMA, and 4) suggests new opportunities (including combining assessment and intervention) and limitations (including the need for technology) for the application of EMA to research and practice regarding nutrition behaviors.

  4. Annual Research Review: What is Resilience within the Social Ecology of Human Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    Background: The development of Bronfenbrenner's bio-social-ecological systems model of human development parallels advances made to the theory of resilience that progressively moved from a more individual (micro) focus on traits to a multisystemic understanding of person-environment reciprocal processes. Methods: This review uses…

  5. Look, Think, Act: Using Critical Action Research to Sustain Reform in Complex Teaching/Learning Ecologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Leslie; Baldwin, Shelia; Araujo, Juan; Shearer, Ragina; Stewart, Mary Amanda

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that educators interested in sustainability should look to complexity science for guiding principles. When we view our classrooms and campuses as living, dynamic ecologies, we can, as insiders, make sense of what might otherwise seem chaotic or meaningless. This perspective enables us not only to describe and explain what is…

  6. Research Questions to Identify Ecological Indicators Most Useful for Linking Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods While the desirability of ecological indicators that foster social science interpretation and use as well as public comprehension is well established, guidelines for developing indicators that meet these needs are not as well developed. In the past f...

  7. Annual Research Review: What is Resilience within the Social Ecology of Human Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    Background: The development of Bronfenbrenner's bio-social-ecological systems model of human development parallels advances made to the theory of resilience that progressively moved from a more individual (micro) focus on traits to a multisystemic understanding of person-environment reciprocal processes. Methods: This review uses…

  8. Emerging issues in urban ecology: implications for research, social justice, human health, and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Myron F. Floyd; Danielle Shanahan; Christopher Coutts; Alex Sinykin

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization affects landscape structure and the overall human condition in numerous ways. Green spaces include vegetated land cover (e.g., urban forests, trees, riparian zones, parks) which play a distinctive role in urban ecology. This article reviews emergent literature on the linkages between urban green spaces, social justice, and human health. We explore this...

  9. Replicating research in ecology and evolution: feasibility, incentives, and the cost-benefit conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Parker, Timothy H

    2015-10-28

    We believe that replicating studies in ecology and evolution is extremely valuable, but replication within species and systems is troublingly rare, and even 'quasi-replications' in different systems are often insufficient. We make a case for supporting multiple types of replications and point out that the current incentive structure needs to change if ecologists and evolutionary biologist are to value scientific replication sufficiently.

  10. Inter-connections between human health and ecological integrity: An organizational framework for research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Pellston workshop entitled, Interconnections between Human Health and Ecological Integrity, was held in 2000. Jointly sponsored by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and the Society of Toxicology (SOT), the workshop was motivated by the concern of hum...

  11. Use and Evaluation of FCM as a Tool for Long Term Socio Ecological Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenberg, Martin; Bachhofer, Michael; Isak, Kirsten Grovermann Qvist

    2014-01-01

    -ecological systems. As part of ALTER-Net, we applied FCM to five cases and subsequently evaluated the approach by means of a SWOT framework. This examined the strengths and weaknesses of, and the opportunities and threats to FCM when applied as a tool in conservation management....

  12. Ecological Orientation Research on Cognitive Psychology%认知心理学的生态学取向研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵华; 葛鲁嘉

    2012-01-01

    简述了认知心理学的生态学研究取向的基本主张,总结了生态学取向下认知研究的几种观点。认为生态学方法论对整个心理学的影响是巨大的,随着对认知心理学中符号加工取向和联结主义取向的批判,人们越来越关注认知心理学的生态学研究取向。%The basic position of the study orientation of ecology of cognitive psychology is introduced, and several kinds of specific research ideas are summarized. The ecology methodology has enormous influence on whole psychology. Along with the criticism of orientation of symbol processing and orientation of connectionism of cognitive psychology, people are increasingly concerned about the ecological orientation research on cognitive psychology.

  13. Balkanized research in ecological engineering revealed by a bibliometric analysis of earthworms and ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  14. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  15. Development of virtual research environment for regional climatic and ecological studies and continuous education support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Lykosov, Vasily; Krupchatnikov, Vladimir; Bogomolov, Vasily; Gordova, Yulia; Martynova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Volumes of environmental data archives are growing immensely due to recent models, high performance computers and sensors development. It makes impossible their comprehensive analysis in conventional manner on workplace using in house computing facilities, data storage and processing software at hands. One of possible answers to this challenge is creation of virtual research environment (VRE), which should provide a researcher with an integrated access to huge data resources, tools and services across disciplines and user communities and enable researchers to process structured and qualitative data in virtual workspaces. VRE should integrate data, network and computing resources providing interdisciplinary climatic research community with opportunity to get profound understanding of ongoing and possible future climatic changes and their consequences. Presented are first steps and plans for development of VRE prototype element aimed at regional climatic and ecological monitoring and modeling as well as at continuous education and training support. Recently developed experimental software and hardware platform aimed at integrated analysis of heterogeneous georeferenced data "Climate" (http://climate.scert.ru/, Gordov et al., 2013; Shulgina et al., 2013; Okladnikov et al., 2013) is used as a VRE element prototype and approach test bench. VRE under development will integrate on the base of geoportal distributed thematic data storage, processing and analysis systems and set of models of complex climatic and environmental processes run on supercomputers. VRE specific tools are aimed at high resolution rendering on-going climatic processes occurring in Northern Eurasia and reliable and found prognoses of their dynamics for selected sets of future mankind activity scenaria. Currently the VRE element is accessible via developed geoportal at the same link (http://climate.scert.ru/) and integrates the WRF and «Planet Simulator» models, basic reanalysis and instrumental

  16. How the Social-Ecological Systems Concept Can Guide Transdisciplinary Research and Implementation: Addressing Water Challenges in Central Northern Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Liehr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at contributing to the further development of integrated water resources management needs to tackle complex challenges at the interface of nature and society. A case study in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in Namibia has shown how semi-arid conditions coinciding with high population density and urbanisation present a risk to people’s livelihoods and ecosystem health. In order to increase water security and promote sustainable water management, there is a requirement for problem-oriented research approaches combined with a new way of thinking about water in order to generate evidence-based, adapted solutions. Transdisciplinary research in particular addresses this issue by focusing on the problems that arise when society interacts with nature. This article presents the implementation of a transdisciplinary research approach in the above-mentioned case study. The concept of social-ecological systems (SES plays a key role in operationalising the transdisciplinary research process. Application of the SES concept helps to outline the problem by defining the epistemic object, as well as structure the research process itself in terms of formulating research questions and developing the research design. It is argued here that the SES concept is not merely useful, but also necessary for guiding transdisciplinary sustainability research and implementation. The study from Namibia clearly demonstrates that the introduction of technological innovations such as rainwater and floodwater harvesting plants requires a social-ecological perspective. In particular this means considering questions around knowledge, practices and institutions related to water resources management and includes various societal innovations alongside technologies on the agenda.

  17. Limnology of the Green Lakes Valley: Phytoplankton ecology and dissolved organic matter biogeochemistry at a long-term ecological research site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surface waters are the lowest points in the landscape, and therefore serve as excellent integrators and indicators of changes taking place in the surrounding terrestrial and atmospheric environment.Aims: Here we synthesise the findings of limnological studies conducted during the past 15 years in streams and lakes in the Green Lakes Valley, which is part of the Niwot Ridge Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) Site.Methods: The importance of these studies is discussed in the context of aquatic ecosystems as indicators, integrators, and regulators of environmental change. Specifically, investigations into climatic, hydrologic, and nutrient controls on present-day phytoplankton, and historical diatom, community composition in the alpine lake, Green Lake 4, are reviewed. In addition, studies of spatial and temporal patterns in dissolved organic matter (DOM) biogeochemistry and reactive transport modelling that have taken place in the Green Lakes Valley are highlighted.Results and conclusions: The findings of these studies identify specific shifts in algal community composition and DOM biogeochemistry that are indicative of changing environmental conditions and provide a framework for detecting future environmental change in the Green Lakes Valley and in other alpine watersheds. Moreover, the studies summarised here demonstrate the importance of long-term monitoring programmes such as the LTER programme.

  18. The Theory and Methods Research on Ecological Quality Control of Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ So far, most theories of economics and management are under the same premise that the natural resources are never exhausted and regenerated repeatedly. The magic of technology brought by industrial revolution endowed human with power that they can do anything they want. It also turns natural resources into industrial energy and enhances the development of human society and civilization. Human uses direct comparison of input and output and the satisfaction degree of demands to measure the production activities, the economic benefit and management performance, regardless of the change of ecology that serves as the natural resources. However, since the ecological environment has been changing worse recently and natural disaster happened frequently human's dream of conquering the nature has been broken.

  19. A social-ecological database to advance research on infrastructure development impacts in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M.; Valle, Denis; Moretto, Evandro Mateus; Pulice, Sergio Mantovani Paiva; Zuca, Nadia Lucia; Roquetti, Daniel Rondinelli; Beduschi, Liviam Elizabeth Cordeiro; Praia, Amanda Salles; Okamoto, Claudia Parucce Franco; da Silva Carvalhaes, Vinicius Leite; Branco, Evandro Albiach; Barbezani, Bruna; Labandera, Emily; Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2016-08-01

    Recognized as one of the world’s most vital natural and cultural resources, the Amazon faces a wide variety of threats from natural resource and infrastructure development. Within this context, rigorous scientific study of the region’s complex social-ecological system is critical to inform and direct decision-making toward more sustainable environmental and social outcomes. Given the Amazon’s tightly linked social and ecological components and the scope of potential development impacts, effective study of this system requires an easily accessible resource that provides a broad and reliable data baseline. This paper brings together multiple datasets from diverse disciplines (including human health, socio-economics, environment, hydrology, and energy) to provide investigators with a variety of baseline data to explore the multiple long-term effects of infrastructure development in the Brazilian Amazon.

  20. Research on the Coupling Development of Ecology Economic System Based on the PSR Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min

    The coupling of eco-economic system is a systematic project in region with soil erosion. The system coupling, harmony, rebalancing and self-evolution can be achieved by reducing system pressure, improving system state and enhancing positive human response. While there are basic requirements regarding availability of input and output boundary flows and sinks, sustainability is centrally a feature of system configuration. A system must provide a basis of positionally-balancing, wholeness-enhancing centers of activity. One aspect of this system balance is between efficiency and redundancy which can be measured in ecological and economic systems using information-based network analysis. This paper overviews these concepts and methods and provide examples from economic and ecological systems and discuss the meaning of the differences in outcome.

  1. The Research of Ecology-Oriented Reasonable Deployment of Water Resources at Shuangtaizi Estuary Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiaofeng; WANG Tieliang; SU Fangli; ZHOU Linfei; LI Bo

    2011-01-01

    Shuangtaizi estuary wetland, the largest natural conservation district in China, and one of the best preserved, largest ecological lands with the most complete vegetation types in the world, is located in Panjin city, Liaoning Province. In rccent years,the degradation of Shuangtaizi estuary wetland is very serious. In order to rescue lives in the wetland and protect valuable natural resources, the information system of Shuangtaizi estuary wetland was built with ‘3S' technology, and the minimum, optimum, and maximum eco-environmental water requirements were calculated respectively. Furthermore, for restoring the ecological functions of wetland and preventing wetland degradation, the balance between supply and demand of water resource was analyzed, and an optimal allocation scheme of water resources was proposed based on three kinds of equilibrium.

  2. Research on university culture construction in the view of ecological idea

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Xinggang; Jia Mingwei; Peng Chenggang

    2016-01-01

    With the progress of times, our spiritual pursuit becomes higher and higher, and it is especially true among modern youth. Therefore, establishment of university culture has gradually become the focus of attention. This paper firstly quantized university culture construction into four parts: material culture construction, spiritual culture construction, system culture construction, and behavioral culture construction. It then analogized each part as one population in ecological system; establ...

  3. Current status and scope of coral reef research in India: A bio-ecological perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, K.; Venkataraman, K.; Ingole, B.S.

    -ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE Ravindran et al., 2012 Wilson et al., 2005 Kumaraguru et al., 2005 Kumaraguru et al., 2003 Manikandan et al., 2016 Thinesh et al., 2015 Joshi & Marimuthu, 2015 Pereira &Verlecar. 2005 Kamalakannan et al., 2014..., 2011 Dhivya et al., 2012 Coral bleaching and other threats Jeyabaskaran & Rao, 2007 Krishnan et al., 2011 Marimuthu et al., 2013 Jha et al., 2013 Jogesh Kumar & Raghunathan, 2012 Marimuthu et al., 2011 Marimuthu & Wilson, 2005...

  4. A New Method for Noninvasive Genetic Sampling of Saliva in Ecological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Diana; Godinho, Raquel; Álvares, Francisco; López-Bao, José V; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive samples for genetic analyses have become essential to address ecological questions. Popular noninvasive samples such as faeces contain degraded DNA which may compromise genotyping success. Saliva is an excellent alternative DNA source but scarcity of suitable collection methods makes its use anecdotal in field ecological studies. We develop a noninvasive method of collection that combines baits and porous materials able to capture saliva. We report its potential in optimal conditions, using confined dogs and collecting saliva early after deposition. DNA concentration in saliva extracts was generally high (mean 14 ng μl(-1)). We correctly identified individuals in 78% of samples conservatively using ten microsatellite loci, and 90% of samples using only eight loci. Consensus genotypes closely matched reference genotypes obtained from hair DNA (99% of identification successes and 91% of failures). Mean genotyping effort needed for identification using ten loci was 2.2 replicates. Genotyping errors occurred at a very low frequency (allelic dropout: 2.3%; false alleles: 1.5%). Individual identification success increased with duration of substrate handling inside dog's mouth and the volume of saliva collected. Low identification success was associated with baits rich in DNA-oxidant polyphenols and DNA concentrations methods, and could advantageously allow detection of socially low-ranked individuals underrepresented in sources of DNA that are involved in marking behaviour (faeces or urine). Once adapted and refined, there is promise for this technique to allow potentially high rates of individual identification in ecological field studies requiring noninvasive sampling of wild vertebrates.

  5. Annotated genes and nonannotated genomes: cross-species use of Gene Ontology in ecology and evolution research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primmer, C R; Papakostas, S; Leder, E H; Davis, M J; Ragan, M A

    2013-06-01

    Recent advances in molecular technologies have opened up unprecedented opportunities for molecular ecologists to better understand the molecular basis of traits of ecological and evolutionary importance in almost any organism. Nevertheless, reliable and systematic inference of functionally relevant information from these masses of data remains challenging. The aim of this review is to highlight how the Gene Ontology (GO) database can be of use in resolving this challenge. The GO provides a largely species-neutral source of information on the molecular function, biological role and cellular location of tens of thousands of gene products. As it is designed to be species-neutral, the GO is well suited for cross-species use, meaning that, functional annotation derived from model organisms can be transferred to inferred orthologues in newly sequenced species. In other words, the GO can provide gene annotation information for species with nonannotated genomes. In this review, we describe the GO database, how functional information is linked with genes/gene products in model organisms, and how molecular ecologists can utilize this information to annotate their own data. Then, we outline various applications of GO for enhancing the understanding of molecular basis of traits in ecologically relevant species. We also highlight potential pitfalls, provide step-by-step recommendations for conducting a sound study in nonmodel organisms, suggest avenues for future research and outline a strategy for maximizing the benefits of a more ecological and evolutionary genomics-oriented ontology by ensuring its compatibility with the GO. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Application of hyperspectral remote sensing in research on ecological boundary in north farming-pasturing transition in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Kun; Xie, Ying-Zhong

    2009-06-01

    Studies of ecological boundaries are important and have become a rapidly evolving part of contemporary ecology. The ecotones are dynamic and play several functional roles in ecosystem dynamics, and the changes in their locations can be used as an indicator of environment changes, and for these reasons, ecotones have recently become a focus of investigation of landscape ecology and global climate change. As the interest in ecotone increases, there is an increased need for formal techniques to detect it. Hence, to better study and understand the functional roles and dynamics of ecotones in ecosystem, we need quantitative methods to characterize them. In the semi-arid region of northern China, there exists a farming-pasturing transition resulting from grassland reclamation and deforestation. With the fragmentation of grassland landscape, the structure and function of the grassland ecosystem are changing. Given this perspective; new-image processing approaches are needed to focus on transition themselves. Hyperspectral remote sensing data, compared with wide-band remote sensing data, has the advantage of high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to visualize transitional zones and to detect ecotone based on surface properties (e. g. vegetation, soil type, and soil moisture etc). In this paper, the methods of hyperspectral remote sensing information processing, spectral analysis and its application in detecting the vegetation classifications, vegetation growth state, estimating the canopy biochemical characteristics, soil moisture, soil organic matter etc are reviewed in detail. Finally the paper involves further application of hyperspectral remote sensing information in research on local climate in ecological boundary in north farming-pasturing transition in China.

  7. Frontiers for research on the ecology of plant-pathogenic bacteria: fundamentals for sustainability: Challenges in Bacterial Molecular Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Cindy E; Barny, Marie-Anne; Berge, Odile; Kinkel, Linda L; Lacroix, Christelle

    2017-02-01

    Methods to ensure the health of crops owe their efficacy to the extent to which we understand the ecology and biology of environmental microorganisms and the conditions under which their interactions with plants lead to losses in crop quality or yield. However, in the pursuit of this knowledge, notions of the ecology of plant-pathogenic microorganisms have been reduced to a plant-centric and agro-centric focus. With increasing global change, i.e. changes that encompass not only climate, but also biodiversity, the geographical distribution of biomes, human demographic and socio-economic adaptations and land use, new plant health problems will emerge via a range of processes influenced by these changes. Hence, knowledge of the ecology of plant pathogens will play an increasingly important role in the anticipation and response to disease emergence. Here, we present our opinion on the major challenges facing the study of the ecology of plant-pathogenic bacteria. We argue that the discovery of markedly novel insights into the ecology of plant-pathogenic bacteria is most likely to happen within a framework of more extensive scales of space, time and biotic interactions than those that currently guide much of the research on these bacteria. This will set a context that is more propitious for the discovery of unsuspected drivers of the survival and diversification of plant-pathogenic bacteria and of the factors most critical for disease emergence, and will set the foundation for new approaches to the sustainable management of plant health. We describe the contextual background of, justification for and specific research questions with regard to the following challenges: Development of terminology to describe plant-bacterial relationships in terms of bacterial fitness. Definition of the full scope of the environments in which plant-pathogenic bacteria reside or survive. Delineation of pertinent phylogenetic contours of plant-pathogenic bacteria and naming of strains

  8. Transforming an Exposure trip to Botanical Expedition: Introducing Ecological Research thru Exposure Trip in an Eco-tourism Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo C. Lunar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available – Fieldtrips can be considered as one of the three avenues through which science can be taught - through formal classroom teaching, practical work and field trips. An exposure trip at Bangkong Kahoy Valley Field Study Center was arranged for a class of BS Biology and BS Education students enrolled in Ecology Course. This approach purposefully transformed the usual exposure trip from being a casual site visit into a focused and productive learning experience. This transformation from exposure trip to a botanical expedition has exceeded the initial activity goals. Rather than a day off from learning, the time spent at the study center has been a meaningful opportunity to engage students in an active ecological research project while delivering valuable science content. Employing the descriptive survey design, the learning gains of the students were assessed and students were directed to do a guided reflection writing using the ORID Model of Focused Conversation. The learning gains and reflections of the students confirmed that students can collaboratively develop focused research questions, make meaning from a variety of sources, carry out a vegetation analysis and conduct surveys on socio-economic status, plant resource utilization and ecotourism assessment of the host community. As students prepared for their trip and synthesized their learning afterward, they were able to come up with very impressive and scientifically sound research outputs.

  9. MODEL FOR THE FORMATION OF ECOLOGICAL CULTURE OF THE MILITARY HIGH SCHOOL CADETS IN THE MUSEUM EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT IN THE PROCESS OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Khrabrova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the formation of ecological culture of military high school cadets in the process of the museum’s research activities. The author defines the main mechanism of ecological culture formation, being characteristic of military high school cadets, and believes that the development of the cadets’ ecological culture, while they are engaged in the research process, will be effective, provided an innovative research context has been set up within the educational activities scope of the high school’s museum. For this purpose, the author suggests both considering the formation of ecological culture of military high school cadets in the process of the museum’s research activities and revealing certain links between the following components: socio-cultural environment and the museum’s one, the cadets’ research activities and the setting up of the ecological display at the museum, which comprises the contents of the museum teaching science. The author considers this model to be efficient for the purposes of the formation of the cadets’ ecological culture within the museum educational environment, as it has been proved efficient at a civil high school.

  10. Ecological validity and infant research: An example from an experimental study on object individuation with familiar objects in 8-month-old infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, Peter

    shall attempt to apply an analysis based on the concept of ecological validity on a specific experimental study within the field of infant cognition. I will attempt to show that such an analysis can be worthwhile.The presentation falls in three sections. The first section is a presentation......  The concept of ecological validity is central when considering an ecological approach to experimental research. However, the concept of ecological validity seem to occur rather seldom in discussion sections in journal articles on experimental infant reseach. In this conference presentation I...... of the concept of ecological validity. The second section reports an original empirical study investigating whether familiar objects make a difference when 8-month-old infants attempt to individuate objects. Object individuation refers to the ability to decide the number of distinct objects present in a given...

  11. Characteristics, emerging needs, and challenges of transdisciplinary sustainability science: experiences from the German Social-Ecological Research Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Ruppert-Winkel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Transdisciplinary sustainability science (TSS is a prominent way of scientifically contributing to the solution of sustainability problems. Little is known, however, about the practice of scientists in TSS, especially those early in their career. Our objectives were to identify these practices and to outline the needs and challenges for early career scientists in TSS. To that end, we compiled 10 key characteristics of TSS based on a literature survey. We then analyzed research groups with 81 early career scientists against these characteristics. All of these research groups are funded by an ongoing federally funded German program for social-ecological research whose main feature is to promote sustainability-oriented inter- and transdisciplinary research. We found that the practices of the 12 groups generally correspond with the characteristics for TSS, although there is ample variation in how they were addressed. Three major challenges were identified: (1 TSS demands openness to a plurality of research designs, theories, and methods, while also requiring shared, explicit, and recursive use of TSS characteristics; (2 researchers in TSS teams must make decisions about trade-offs between achievements of societal and scientific impact, acknowledging that focusing on the time-consuming former aspect is difficult to integrate into a scientific career path; and (3 although generalist researchers are increasingly becoming involved in such TSS research projects, supporting the integration of social, natural, and engineering sciences, specialized knowledge is also required.

  12. Ecological epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilvitis, Holly J; Alvarez, Mariano; Foust, Christy M; Schrey, Aaron W; Robertson, Marta; Richards, Christina L

    2014-01-01

    Biologists have assumed that heritable variation due to DNA sequence differences (i.e., genetic variation) allows populations of organisms to be both robust and adaptable to extreme environmental conditions. Natural selection acts on the variation among different genotypes and ultimately changes the genetic composition of the population. While there is compelling evidence about the importance of genetic polymorphisms, evidence is accumulating that epigenetic mechanisms (e.g., chromatin modifications, DNA methylation) can affect ecologically important traits, even in the absence of genetic variation. In this chapter, we review this evidence and discuss the consequences of epigenetic variation in natural populations. We begin by defining the term epigenetics, providing a brief overview of various epigenetic mechanisms, and noting the potential importance of epigenetics in the study of ecology. We continue with a review of the ecological epigenetics literature to demonstrate what is currently known about the amount and distribution of epigenetic variation in natural populations. Then, we consider the various ecological contexts in which epigenetics has proven particularly insightful and discuss the potential evolutionary consequences of epigenetic variation. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions of ecological epigenetics research.

  13. A New Method for Noninvasive Genetic Sampling of Saliva in Ecological Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lobo

    Full Text Available Noninvasive samples for genetic analyses have become essential to address ecological questions. Popular noninvasive samples such as faeces contain degraded DNA which may compromise genotyping success. Saliva is an excellent alternative DNA source but scarcity of suitable collection methods makes its use anecdotal in field ecological studies. We develop a noninvasive method of collection that combines baits and porous materials able to capture saliva. We report its potential in optimal conditions, using confined dogs and collecting saliva early after deposition. DNA concentration in saliva extracts was generally high (mean 14 ng μl(-1. We correctly identified individuals in 78% of samples conservatively using ten microsatellite loci, and 90% of samples using only eight loci. Consensus genotypes closely matched reference genotypes obtained from hair DNA (99% of identification successes and 91% of failures. Mean genotyping effort needed for identification using ten loci was 2.2 replicates. Genotyping errors occurred at a very low frequency (allelic dropout: 2.3%; false alleles: 1.5%. Individual identification success increased with duration of substrate handling inside dog's mouth and the volume of saliva collected. Low identification success was associated with baits rich in DNA-oxidant polyphenols and DNA concentrations <1 ng μl(-1. The procedure performed at least as well as other noninvasive methods, and could advantageously allow detection of socially low-ranked individuals underrepresented in sources of DNA that are involved in marking behaviour (faeces or urine. Once adapted and refined, there is promise for this technique to allow potentially high rates of individual identification in ecological field studies requiring noninvasive sampling of wild vertebrates.

  14. A New Method for Noninvasive Genetic Sampling of Saliva in Ecological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Diana; Godinho, Raquel; Álvares, Francisco; López-Bao, José V.; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive samples for genetic analyses have become essential to address ecological questions. Popular noninvasive samples such as faeces contain degraded DNA which may compromise genotyping success. Saliva is an excellent alternative DNA source but scarcity of suitable collection methods makes its use anecdotal in field ecological studies. We develop a noninvasive method of collection that combines baits and porous materials able to capture saliva. We report its potential in optimal conditions, using confined dogs and collecting saliva early after deposition. DNA concentration in saliva extracts was generally high (mean 14 ng μl-1). We correctly identified individuals in 78% of samples conservatively using ten microsatellite loci, and 90% of samples using only eight loci. Consensus genotypes closely matched reference genotypes obtained from hair DNA (99% of identification successes and 91% of failures). Mean genotyping effort needed for identification using ten loci was 2.2 replicates. Genotyping errors occurred at a very low frequency (allelic dropout: 2.3%; false alleles: 1.5%). Individual identification success increased with duration of substrate handling inside dog’s mouth and the volume of saliva collected. Low identification success was associated with baits rich in DNA-oxidant polyphenols and DNA concentrations <1 ng μl-1. The procedure performed at least as well as other noninvasive methods, and could advantageously allow detection of socially low-ranked individuals underrepresented in sources of DNA that are involved in marking behaviour (faeces or urine). Once adapted and refined, there is promise for this technique to allow potentially high rates of individual identification in ecological field studies requiring noninvasive sampling of wild vertebrates. PMID:26496352

  15. The Construction of Higher Education Entrepreneur Services Network System a Research Based on Ecological Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jingxin

    The article aims to completely, systematically and objectively analyze the current situation of Entrepreneurship Education in China with Ecological Systems Theory. From this perspective, the author discusses the structure, function and its basic features of higher education entrepreneur services network system, and puts forward the opinion that every entrepreneurship organization in higher education institution does not limited to only one platform. Different functional supporting platforms should be combined closed through composite functional organization to form an integrated network system, in which each unit would impels others' development.

  16. Ecology in a walled city: researching urban wildlife in post-war Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmund, Jens

    2007-06-01

    The division of Berlin in the aftermath of World War II and the erection of the Wall in 1961 were not only of tremendous political, social and cultural significance, but also had implications for the way in which science was undertaken in this city. For ecologists living and working in the enclosed city part of West Berlin, the lack of accessible countryside motivated them to focus their fieldwork increasingly on urban sites and, thereby, to engage themselves in one of the most significant attempts to develop an ecology of the city.

  17. The ecological model web concept: A consultative infrastructure for researchers and decision makers using a Service Oriented Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Gary

    2010-05-01

    Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers such as natural resource managers want better information about what these changes will be and how the resources they are managing will be affected. Researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Nearly all these activities require computer models to make ecological forecasts that can address "what if" questions. However, despite many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is no coordinated model system—that is, a model infrastructure--that researchers or decision makers can consult to gain insight on important ecological questions or help them make decisions. While this is partly due to the complexity of the science, to lack of critical observations, and other issues, limited access to and sharing of models and model outputs is a factor as well. An infrastructure that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit researchers, decision makers of all kinds, and modelers. One path to such a "consultative infrastructure" for ecological forecasting is called the Model Web, a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases communicating using a Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). Initially, it could consist of a core of several models, perhaps made interoperable retroactively, and then it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. Because some models provide basic information of use to many other models, such as simple physical parameters, these "keystone" models are of particular importance in a model web. In the long run, a model web would not be rigidly planned and built--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange

  18. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  19. Differences in stress-related ratings between research center and home environments in dementia caregivers using ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonareva, Irina; Amen, Alexandra M; Ellingson, Roger M; Oken, Barry S

    2012-01-01

    Clinicians and researchers working with dementia caregivers typically assess caregiver stress in a clinic or research center, but caregivers' stress is rooted at home where they provide care. This study aimed to compare ratings of stress-related measures obtained in research settings and in the home using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). EMA of 18 caregivers (mean age 66.4 years ±7.8; 89% females) and 23 non-caregivers (mean age 66.4 years ±7.9; 87% females) was implemented using a personal digital assistant. Subjects rated their perceived stress, fatigue, coping with current situation, mindfulness, and situational demand once in the research center and again at 3-4 semi-random points during a day at home. The data from several assessments conducted at home were averaged for statistical analyses and compared with the data collected in the research center. The testing environment had a differential effect on caregivers and non-caregivers for the ratings of perceived stress (p caregivers rated their perceived stress as higher than non-caregivers (p = 0.02). Overall, caregivers reported higher perceived stress at home than in the research center (p = 0.02), and non-caregivers reported greater situational demand in the research center than at home (p natural environment provides a more sensitive measure of stress-related outcomes. EMA provides a convenient way to gather data when evaluating dementia caregivers.

  20. The Clinical Nutrition Research Agenda in Indonesia and beyond: ecological strategy for food in health care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukito, Widjaja; Wibowo, Lindawati; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2017-06-01

    Despite progress with the food-associated health agenda in the public health and clinical domains, much remains to be done in Indonesia. There are reasons to be optimistic which include economic development, increasing literacy, progress towards universal health coverage and community organizational arrangements across the archipelago which focus on health through some 10,000 puskesmas. These community health centres are variably staffed with voluntary cadres from the community, bidans (nurses) and general medical practitioners. For more effective prevention and management of nutritionally-related health problems, innovative community and clinical nutrition research and expertise is required. With rapid urbanisation, the growth of the digital economy, increasing socio-economic inequity and climate change, there are imperatives for ecologically sustainable, nonemployment dependent livelihoods which provide energy, food, water, education and health care security. A relevant health care workforce will include those who research and practice clinical nutrition. Here we gather together an account of an extensive body of published and emerging literature which makes a case collectively for a more ecological approach to nutrition and health and how it might revitalise the Indonesian and other health care systems.

  1. Parenting Across the Social Ecology Facilitated by Information and Communications Technology: Implications for Research and Educational Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Walker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To inform parenting research and aid educators seeking to deliver programs that support effective parenting, this study explored types of information and communications technology (ICT used to fulfill childrearing goals. Mothers’ (N = 1,804 reports of ICT activity frequency were examined from data collected from an online survey. Results suggest that mothers’ ICT use for parenting is less frequent than general use in adulthood. Mothers employ ICT to fulfill parenting goals within and across five domains of the parenting social ecology: (a parent development, (b parent-child relationships, (c child development, (d, family development, and (e culture and community. Several types of ICT activities may strengthen parenting in a single domain, and a single ICT activity may help fulfill multiple domains. Implications for research and for promoting and selecting ICT for effective parent learning and education design are discussed.

  2. An ecologic accompanying research on the fleet test electromobility. Final report; Oekologische Begleitforschung zum Flottenversuch Elektromobilitaet. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, Heinrich; Lambrecht, Udo; Joehrens, Julius; Pehnt, Martin; Liebich, Axel; Weiss, Uta; Kaemper, Claudia

    2013-06-15

    Mobility is a prerequisite for numerous economic and private activities and thus a central component of our life. The demand for mobility in Germany is predominantly covered by the road traffic. The Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany) carried out an ecologic accompanying research in the course of a fleet test in order to determine the potentials of environmental improvement of the vehicles tested in a field test. These potentials were perpetuated for future serial vehicles and projected to Germany. The main themes of this contribution are: (a) Production and disposal of plug-in-hybrids; (b) The TwinDrive in the fleet test; (c) Plug-in-hybrid serial vehicles 2020; (d) Perspective of electromobility in Germany 2030; (e) Strategic evaluation of the electomobility.

  3. Adapting JMARS for Earth: Blogging brings a new user community from the CAP LTER urban ecology research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, J.; Prashad, L. C.; Dickenshied, S.; Guha, A.; Burgess, E.; Metson, G.; Christensen, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    J-Earth is a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) application used for viewing and processing satellite and airborne remote sensing data and includes NASA imagery such as ASTER, Landsat, MODIS, TIMS, as well as other geological, ecological, and social datasets. The J-Earth team is working with the National Science Foundation-funded Central Arizona-Phoenix Long Term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER) to incorporate its data and develop functionality for J-Earth. J-Earth was developed by the Arizona State University Mars Space Flight Facility as part of the JMARS (Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing) suite of open-source tools. J-Earth has been enhanced to support the needs of CAP LTER users with the use of web tutorials, social networking, user surveys and interviews. CAP LTER consists of an interdisciplinary urban ecology research group with different needs in the area of socio-ecological systems. Adapting J-Earth for the CAP LTER community has provided a test of J-Earth’s functionality for interdisciplinary datasets and has shown the potential for expanding J-Earth to include future users within the entire LTER network. This project could potentially be expanded to bring data from the other twenty-six LTER sites into J-Earth. J-Earth utilizes the analytical tools of JMARS and makes them available to a broad range of users. J-Earth utilizes a layered system to view data from different sources that can be exported, scaled, colored and superimposed for quick comparisons. The functionality of JMARS is focused on the planetary geology community, while J-Earth has the potential to be used by geologists, geographers, sociologists, and ecologists as well as policy makers. This presentation will provide an overview of information and feedback gathered from users of J-Earth, especially those of the CAP LTER. Collecting additional feedback in the form of social networking, interviews, trainings, and tutorials will help make J-Earth more functional and

  4. Ecological ethics in captivity: balancing values and responsibilities in zoo and aquarium research under rapid global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Ben A; Collins, James P

    2013-01-01

    Ethical obligations to animals in conservation research and management are manifold and often conflicting. Animal welfare concerns often clash with the ethical imperative to understand and conserve a population or ecosystem through research and management intervention. The accelerating pace and impact of global environmental change, especially climate change, complicates our understanding of these obligations. One example is the blurring of the distinction between ex situ (zoo- and aquarium-based) conservation and in situ (field-based) approaches as zoos and aquariums become more active in field conservation work and as researchers and managers consider more intensive interventions in wild populations and ecosystems to meet key conservation goals. These shifts, in turn, have consequences for our traditional understanding of the ethics of wildlife research and management, including our relative weighting of animal welfare and conservation commitments across rapidly evolving ex situ and in situ contexts. Although this changing landscape in many ways supports the increased use of captive wildlife in conservation-relevant research, it raises significant ethical concerns about human intervention in populations and ecosystems, including the proper role of zoos and aquariums as centers for animal research and conservation in the coming decades. Working through these concerns requires a pragmatic approach to ethical analysis, one that is able to make trade-offs among the many goods at stake (e.g., animal welfare, species viability, and ecological integrity) as we strive to protect species from further decline and extinction in this century.

  5. Research proposal : ecology of coyotes and badgers on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for a masters research project on badgers and coyotes at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA). The primary objective of this research is to gain more...

  6. Description of the terrestrial ecology of the Oak Ridge Environmental Research Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchings, T.; Mann, L.K.

    1976-10-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has begun to develop research and administrative foundations necessary to establish and operate an Environmental Research Park (ERP) on the Energy Research and Development Administration Reservation at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Important in developing a functional research area is a description and inventory of the species and ecosystems which comprise the Research Park. This report describes some of the floral and faunal components of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Emphasis is placed on the relationship of faunal communities to the vegetation type in which they occur. Unique vegetational areas and rare and endangered species are also discussed.

  7. 植物种群生态研究进展%Trends and Advances in Researches on Plant Population Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟章成; 曾波

    2001-01-01

    The trends and advances in all aspects of plant population ecology over past 20 years are summarized as follows:   (1) Due to the introduction and progress of molecular biology and biotechnology, plant population physiological ecology not only moves forward to the studies of large scale, but also to the studies on levels of organ, cell and molecule.   (2) Studies of plant population reproductive ecology are chiefly focused on the aspects of reproductive allocation and reproductive effort, currencies in reprod uctive allocation, reproductive value, life history evolution, reproductive timi ng and reproductive frequency, etc.   (3) As to clonal plant ecology, the research of it mainly focuses on clonality, physiological integration, clonal growth patterns, clonal growth forms, hierarch ical selection models and spatial mobility, etc.   (4) Modular dynamics, relations between morphology and modular dynamics are much considered in plant modular ecology.   (5) Population genetical structure, variance, differentiation, adaptation and it s relations to environments, ecotypes and their genetic background, and polymorp hism, etc. are chiefly researched in genetical ecology.   (6) Foraging behaviour is the most focal aspect in study of plant behavioural ec ology presently. Owing to this situation, resource allocation patterns, phenotyp ic plasticity, resource heterogeneity, foraging behaviour and evolution are bein g concentrated.   (7) Plant population demography mainly touches on diagrammatic models and transi tion matrix models.   (8) Plant population physiological ecology, reproductive ecology, genetical ecol ogy and population dynamics are all related to some extent to molecular mechanis ms, therefore are becoming the research front of plant population ecology.%对植物种群生态学近20年在其各个领域所取得的进展及其动态作如下归纳:(1)植物种群生理生态学在向宏观方向发展的同时, 由于分子生

  8. Physical profiles collected by the R/V Laurence M. Gould in the Southern Oceans to support the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research for the purpose of ecosystem and physical oceanography research, January 6 - February 1, 2003 (NODC Accession 0039429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (PAL-LTER) Temperature and Salinity profile data collected west of the Antarctic Peninsula. These data from January/February...

  9. Physical profiles collected by the R/V Laurence M. Gould in the Southern Oceans to support the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research for the purpose of ecosystem and physical oceanography research, January 7 - January 31, 2004 (NODC Accession 0039427)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (PAL-LTER) Temperature and Salinity profile data collected west of the Antarctic Peninsula. These data from January 2004 are...

  10. Physical profiles collected by the R/V Laurence M. Gould in the Southern Oceans to support the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research for the purpose of ecosystem and physical oceanography research, January 7 - February 3, 2006 (NODC Accession 0039224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (PAL-LTER) Temperature and Salinity profile data collected west of the Antarctic Peninsula. These data from January/February...

  11. Physical profiles collected by the R/V Laurence M. Gould in the Southern Ocean to support the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research for the purpose of ecosystem and physical oceanography research, January 4 - January 31, 2005 (NODC Accession 0039426)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (PAL-LTER) Temperature and Salinity profile data collected west of the Antarctic Peninsula. These data from January 2005 are...

  12. Experimental Research on the Application of Water Hyacinths to the Ecological Restoration of Water Bodies with Eutrophication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Fa-kuo; SHAO; Xiao-long; SUN; Yi-chao; LIU; Hong-lei; YUAN; Min; XIE; Hua-sheng; LI; Li; YU; Dan; LIU; Xu

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aims to discuss the application of water hyacinths to the ecological restoration of water bodies with eutrophication through simulation experiments. [Method] In this study, water hyacinths were used to restore the simulated eutrophic water with green algae as the dominant algae species, and then the restoration effect of the simulated eutrophic water by water hyacinths was analyzed. [Result] In the simulation test without sediment, the peak chlorophyll concentration was 434.6 mg/m3 in the tank without water hyacinths, which decreased to 285 and 119 mg/m3 respectively in the tanks with 1 and 4 water hyacinths. In the experiment with sediment, compared with the control tank without water hyacinths, a 58% reduction in chlorophyll concentration could be observed in the tank with 4 water hyacinths planted (with a coverage of 51%). The results showed that water hyacinths could inhibit alga growth notably, but there was likely a density threshold (51% coverage), and no significant eco-restoration effect was observed in the simulated eutrophic water with too few water hyacinths planted. [Conclusion] The research could provide scientific references for the ecological restoration of eutrophic water bodies.

  13. [Development of sanitary microbiology researches at the A. N. Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Kiev)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdiuk, A M; Surmasheva, E V; Korchak, G I

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the main stages of development of sanitary bacteriological studies at the leading hygiene research institute of Ukraine--the A. N Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology. These researches have made a substantial contribution to the formation and development of hygiene science in the former Soviet Union. The current and promising areas in sanitary microbiology in Ukraine are considered.

  14. The tetrahedron of knowledge acquisition : A meta-model of the relations among observation, conceptualization, evaluation and action in the research on socio-ecological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, G.O.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-model which integrates different approaches in the research on socio-ecological systems. The relations between hypothetical-deductive, empirical-inductive and interpretive-phenomenological holistic research approaches are visualized schematically together with their interr

  15. Multiple successional pathways in human-modified tropical landscapes: new insights from forest succession, forest fragmentation and landscape ecology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Melo, Felipe P L; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Bongers, Frans; Chazdon, Robin L; Meave, Jorge A; Norden, Natalia; Santos, Bráulio A; Leal, Inara R; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2017-02-01

    Old-growth tropical forests are being extensively deforested and fragmented worldwide. Yet forest recovery through succession has led to an expansion of secondary forests in human-modified tropical landscapes (HMTLs). Secondary forests thus emerge as a potential repository for tropical biodiversity, and also as a source of essential ecosystem functions and services in HMTLs. Such critical roles are controversial, however, as they depend on successional, landscape and socio-economic dynamics, which can vary widely within and across landscapes and regions. Understanding the main drivers of successional pathways of disturbed tropical forests is critically needed for improving management, conservation, and restoration strategies. Here, we combine emerging knowledge from tropical forest succession, forest fragmentation and landscape ecology research to identify the main driving forces shaping successional pathways at different spatial scales. We also explore causal connections between land-use dynamics and the level of predictability of successional pathways, and examine potential implications of such connections to determine the importance of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation in HMTLs. We show that secondary succession (SS) in tropical landscapes is a multifactorial phenomenon affected by a myriad of forces operating at multiple spatio-temporal scales. SS is relatively fast and more predictable in recently modified landscapes and where well-preserved biodiversity-rich native forests are still present in the landscape. Yet the increasing variation in landscape spatial configuration and matrix heterogeneity in landscapes with intermediate levels of disturbance increases the uncertainty of successional pathways. In landscapes that have suffered extensive and intensive human disturbances, however, succession can be slow or arrested, with impoverished assemblages and reduced potential to deliver ecosystem functions and services. We conclude that: (i

  16. 西安市生态足迹与生态承载力动态变化与预测%Research on Dynamic Change Analysis and Prediction of Ecological Footprint and Ecological Carrying Capacity in Xi’an City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁钟; 赵牡丹; 刘蕊娟; 王静

    2016-01-01

    Ecological footprint method by converting the regional resources and energy consumption to the area of various kinds of land of the production providing this kind of material flow , and compare with the same land area that can provide the ecological productive (ecological carrying capacity),it can quantitatively determine whether the development of a region in the scope of the ecological carrying capacity. In this paper, using the method of ecological footprint and ARIMA model to calculate account of biological and energy resources of ecological footprint of Xi' an from 1994 to 2013,and research on dynamic change,predict ecological footprint and ecological capacity in Xi ’an city.The results showed that ecological footprint is greater than the ecological capacity in Xi’an in 2013.ecological footprint is eight times of ecological carrying capacity from 1994 to 2013 in Xi 'an, and sustained severe ecological deficit. The intensity of production and life is more than the carrying capacity of the ecosystem, it ’s under the excessive exploitation and utilization of the human.ARIMA model prediction shows that the ecological footprint has a tendency in the next five years, but the gap between ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity is very large. Through the analysis of influence degree of pressure of human activities on the natural ecological system.it can provide new train of thought and direction for urban ecological research, ecological construction and sustainable development . With strengthening the construction of urban ecological , optimizing the urban management mode and the industrial structure,it is an effective way to sustainable development and ecological security in Xi’an.%生态足迹法通过将区域的资源和能源消费转化为提供这种物质流所必须的各种生物生产土地的面积,并同区域能提供的生态生产型土地面积(生态承载力)进行比较,能定量判断一个区域的发展是否处于生

  17. Linking research and education: an undergraduate research apprenticeship focusing on geologic and ecological impacts of the Elwha River Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston, A. S.; Eidam, E.; Webster, K. L.; Hale, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    Experiential learning is becoming well-rooted in undergraduate curriculum as a means of stimulating interest in STEM fields, and of preparing students for future careers in scientific research and communication. To further these goals in coastal sciences, an intensive, research-focused course was developed at the UW Friday Harbor Labs. The course revolved around an active NSF-funded research project concerning the highly publicized Elwha River Restoration project. Between 2008 and 2014, four groups of research "apprentices" spent their academic quarter in residence at a small, coastal marine lab in a learning environment that integrated interdisciplinary lectures, workshops on data analysis and laboratory methods, and the research process from proposal to oceanographic research cruise to publication. This environment helped students gain important skills in fieldwork planning and execution, laboratory and digital data analyses, and manuscript preparation from start to finish—all while elevating their knowledge of integrated earth science topics related to a coastal restoration project. Students developed their own research proposals and pursued their individual interests within the overall research topic, thereby expanding the overall breadth of the NSF-funded research program. The topics of student interest were often beyond the researcher's expertise, which ultimately led to more interdisciplinary findings beyond the quarter-long class. This also provided opportunities for student creativity and leadership, and for collaboration with fellow course participants and with students from many other disciplines in residence at the marine lab. Tracking the outcomes of the diverse student group undertaking this program indicates that these undergraduate (and post-bac) students are generally attending graduate school at a high rate, and launching careers in education, coastal management, and other STEM fields.

  18. The last decade in ecological climate change impact research: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, Anja; Bittner, Torsten; Jentsch, Anke; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is increasingly affecting organisms and ecosystems. The amount of research and the number of articles in this field is overwhelming. However, single studies necessarily consider limited aspects. Hence, there is an increasing need for structuring the research approaches and findings in climate change research in order to direct future action in an efficient way towards research gaps and areas of uncertainty. Here, we review the current state of knowledge accumulated over the last 10 years (2003-2012) about impacts of climate change on species and ecosystems. Almost 1,200 articles of the scientific literature listed in the ISI Web of Science are analysed. We explore the geographical distribution of knowledge gain, the studied taxonomic groups, ecosystems and environmental parameters as well as the applied methods. Several knowledge gaps arise. Most of the first authors of the analysed articles are residents of North America, Australia or Europe. A similar pattern is found for the study areas. Vascular plants and therewith forests are the most studied taxonomic group and ecosystem. The use of models to estimate potential impacts of climate change is well established in climate change impact research and is continuously developing. However, there is a lack of empirical data derived from experimental climate change simulations. In a rapidly evolving research landscape, this review aims at providing an overview of the current patterns of knowledge distribution and research demands arising from knowledge gaps and biases. Our results should help to identify future research needs and priorities.

  19. Openings for Researching Environment and Place in Children's Literature: Ecologies, Potentials, Realities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alan; Payne, Phillip G.; Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This not quite "final" ending of this special issue of "Environmental Education Research" traces a series of hopeful, if somewhat difficult and at times challenging, openings for researching experiences of environment and place through children's literature. In the first instance, we draw inspiration from the contributors who…

  20. Proceedings. Larch genetics and breeding. Research findings and ecological-silvicultural demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Owe [ed.

    1995-12-31

    The genus Larix Mill. (larch) represents a great part of the boreal and alpine forests. Larch species are the most common conifers in Siberia and they have an important role in European and North American forest ecosystems and forest economies. The value of these group of species are expected to increase in the future. There are at least three different reasons for that assumption: 1. Larch has highly appreciated technical wood properties., 2. Intensive cutting during the past three centuries has made larch a threatened group of species in some parts of the world., 3. Increasing access to Siberia will make forestry and forest harvest of larch an important part of the forest economy and ecology. In August 1995 a group of forest scientists gathered under the framework of IUFRO working group S2.02-07 in southern Sweden for exchange of experience in the fields of breeding and silviculture of larch. This proceedings was compiled on the basis of the presentations of this working group. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 12 of the 17 papers

  1. Research on rural sewage treatment using biological-ecological coupling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang SHI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing low-investment, low-energy consumption and low-maintenance sewage treatment process is important for sewage treatment in rural areas. An upflow anaerobic filter (UAF without energy consumption and a subsurface flow wetland (SFW are utilized as a biological-ecological coupling process to treat rural domestic sewage. The effect of the coupling process on treatment performance of domestic sewage under different hydraulic retention time (HRT is investigated. The removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in the SFW is improved by increasing plant density. The results show that the coupling process of UAF and SFW has no power consumption and is maintenance-free, suitable for rural sewage treatment; the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus mainly happens in the SFW phase; increasing the density of reed plants in the SFW can obviously enhance the capacity to remove nitrogen and phosphorus, and ensure that the efficient performance of the coupling process of UAF and SFW is stabilized in a high level. When the HRTs of UAF and SFW are 18 h and 3 d, respectively, the concentrations of COD, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the final effluent treated by UAF and SFW process are 44.07, 4.25, 13.36 and 0.44 mg/L, respectively, meeting the requirement of first grade class A in Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002.

  2. Radiological and Environmental Research Division: ecology. Annual report, January-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-09-01

    This is the annual report of the Radiological and Environmental Division of the Argonne National Laboratory for 1982. Studies of the effects of ozone on crop growth and yield have been carried out by the Terrestrial Ecology Group for winter wheat and for sorghum. The Microcosms for Acid Rain Studies (MARS) facility was completed in the early summer. Controlled investigations of plant and soil responses in acid rain were initiated with crop plants grown in two different midwestern soil types. The Transuranics Group has found that the solubility and adsorptive behavior of plutonium previously observed at fallout concentrations in natural waters (approx. 10/sup -16/ to 10/sup -18/ M) is applicable at plutonium concentrations as high as 10/sup -8/ M. The Lake Michigan eutrophication model has been adapted to operation in a Monte Carlo mode. Simulations based on yearly phosphorus loadings and winter conditions were selected at random from prescribed probability distributions and used to estimate some of the uncertainties associated with model forecasts of Lake Michigan water quality.

  3. The social ecology of girls' bullying practices: exploratory research in two London schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Farah; Bonell, Chris; Harden, Angela; Lorenc, Theo

    2015-06-01

    This exploratory study adopts a socio-ecological approach to examine the context of school bullying. It asks: (1) what are students' accounts of bullying practices?; (2) how are these enabled and constrained by the school-environment?; (3) how is gender implicated? Qualitative data were collected from girls in two schools in London via focus groups (one in each school; students aged 12-15) and seven semi-structured interviews (in one school; students aged 16-18); and from school policy documents. Our interpretation of girls' accounts, informed by Giddens' structuration theory, suggests that bullying practices were spatially patterned in the schools and often characterised by the regulation of girls' sexuality and sexual-harassment. Repeated acts of aggression were fluid with regard to the bully and victim role, challenging the dominant view of bullying as characterised by consistent disparities in power between individuals. Schools structured bullying behaviour via policies and practices that ignored these forms of abuse and which focused on and may have been complicit in the making of stable 'bully' and 'victim' roles, thus indirectly contributing to the reproduction of unhealthy relationships between students. In terms of gender, traditional gendered and sexual discourses appear to structure the identities of the schools and girls in our study.

  4. 基于生态足迹的海岛旅游生态安全评价模型研究%Research on Island Tourism Ecological Security Evaluation Model Based on the Ecological Footprints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林东

    2012-01-01

    在分析国内外相关研究的基础上,提出以海岛旅游地本底刚性生态足迹、海岛旅游地旅游刚性生态足迹、海岛旅游地生态承载力为生态足迹法评价海岛旅游地旅游生态安全的三大关键要素.根据海岛旅游地特点,建立这三者的数学模型,在此基础上,设计了海岛旅游地旅游生态安全系数与海岛旅游地旅游生态效率指数这两个评价海岛旅游生态安全指标,并确定了这两个指标不同状态下的临界值.据此,从两个维度对海岛旅游地旅游生态安全与可持续发展程度进行较为准确的度量.%Based on the analysis of the domestic and foreign researches, the paper puts forward three key elements to evaluate the island tourism ecological security by the method of ecological footprint, which are the rigid background ecological footprint of the tourist destination islands, the rigid tourism ecological footprint and the ecosystem carrying capacity, and based on the island characteristics, a mathematical model involving the three key elements is established, on the foundation of which a two ecological security indices ecological security index and ecological efficiency index is designed to evaluate island tourism ecological security, and the critical value of the two indices under different conditions is also worked out. Thereby, ac- curate measurement of the island's tourism ecological security and the sustainable development degree is made possible from the two dimensions.

  5. 人类生态学研究现状与发展趋势%Research and Development Trends of Human Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘术一

    2012-01-01

    The author of this paper collects related information about Human Ecology by means of literature and internet,and does related processing to obtain the third intelligence products of this research.The author explains both domestic and foreign research status of Human Ecology and its future trends,in order to provide some references for Human Ecology research.%通过文献、网络等多种手段采集了人类生态学相关信息,并进行整理加工处理,形成了三次情报产品,阐述了人类生态学国内研究现状、国外研究现状以及未来发展趋势,为人类生态学研究提供参考。

  6. Soil data for a vegetation gradient located at Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research Site, interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manies, Kristen L.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Xu, Xiaomei; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-07-28

    Boreal soils play an important role in the global carbon cycle owing to the large amount of carbon stored within this northern region. To understand how carbon and nitrogen storage varied among different ecosystems, a vegetation gradient was established in the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site, located in interior Alaska. The ecosystems represented are a black spruce (Picea mariana)–feather moss (for example, Hylocomium sp.) forest ecosystem, a shrub-dominated ecosystem, a tussock-grass-dominated ecosystem, a sedge-dominated ecosystem, and a rich fen ecosystem. Here, we report the physical, chemical, and descriptive properties for the soil cores collected at these sites. These data have been used to calculate carbon and nitrogen accumulation rates on a long-term (decadal and century) basis (Manies and others, in press).

  7. Research proposal : The Seasonal Spatial Ecology and Movements of the Bullsnake, Pituophis catenifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This research proposal details a two year study of the bullsnakes (Pituophis catenifer) at Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge. The primary goal of this...

  8. Vegetation and Vertebrates of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Outline of Ecology and Annotated Lists 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an extensive list of vegetation and vertebrates at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center based on information gathered during the years 1936-1946.

  9. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  10. Photosynthesis, environmental change, and plant adaptation: Research topics in plant molecular ecology. Summary report of a workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    As we approach the 21st Century, it is becoming increasingly clear that human activities, primarily related to energy extraction and use, will lead to marked environmental changes at the local, regional, and global levels. The realized and the potential photosynthetic performance of plants is determined by a combination of intrinsic genetic information and extrinsic environmental factors, especially climate. It is essential that the effects of environmental changes on the photosynthetic competence of individual species, communities, and ecosystems be accurately assessed. From October 24 to 26, 1993, a group of scientists specializing in various aspects of plant science met to discuss how our predictive capabilities could be improved by developing a more rational, mechanistic approach to relating photosynthetic processes to environmental factors. A consensus emerged that achieving this goal requires multidisciplinary research efforts that combine tools and techniques of genetics, molecular biology, biophysics, biochemistry, and physiology to understand the principles, mechanisms, and limitations of evolutional adaptation and physiological acclimation of photosynthetic processes. Many of these basic tools and techniques, often developed in other fields of science, already are available but have not been applied in a coherent, coordinated fashion to ecological research. The efforts of this research program are related to the broader efforts to develop more realistic prognostic models to forecast climate change that include photosynthetic responses and feedbacks at the regional and ecosystem levels.

  11. Cross-species approaches to pathological gambling: a review targeting sex differences, adolescent vulnerability and ecological validity of research tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Ruud; Davies, William; Dellu-Hagedorn, Francoise; Goudriaan, Anna E; Granon, Sylvie; Homberg, Judith; Rivalan, Marion; Swendsen, Joel; Adriani, Walter

    2013-12-01

    Decision-making plays a pivotal role in daily life as impairments in processes underlying decision-making often lead to an inability to make profitable long-term decisions. As a case in point, pathological gamblers continue gambling despite the fact that this disrupts their personal, professional or financial life. The prevalence of pathological gambling will likely increase in the coming years due to expanding possibilities of on-line gambling through the Internet and increasing liberal attitudes towards gambling. It therefore represents a growing concern for society. Both human and animal studies rapidly advance our knowledge on brain-behaviour processes relevant for understanding normal and pathological gambling behaviour. Here, we review in humans and animals three features of pathological gambling which hitherto have received relatively little attention: (1) sex differences in (the development of) pathological gambling, (2) adolescence as a (putative) sensitive period for (developing) pathological gambling and (3) avenues for improving ecological validity of research tools. Based on these issues we also discuss how research in humans and animals may be brought in line to maximize translational research opportunities.

  12. Ecological Momentary Assessment in Behavioral Research: Addressing Technological and Human Participant Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A; Kriska, Andrea; Smailagic, Asim; Siewiorek, Daniel; Ewing, Linda J; Chasens, Eileen; French, Brian; Mancino, Juliet; Mendez, Dara; Strollo, Patrick; Rathbun, Stephen L

    2017-01-01

    Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) assesses individuals’ current experiences, behaviors, and moods as they occur in real time and in their natural environment. EMA studies, particularly those of longer duration, are complex and require an infrastructure to support the data flow and monitoring of EMA completion. Objective Our objective is to provide a practical guide to developing and implementing an EMA study, with a focus on the methods and logistics of conducting such a study. Methods The EMPOWER study was a 12-month study that used EMA to examine the triggers of lapses and relapse following intentional weight loss. We report on several studies that informed the implementation of the EMPOWER study: (1) a series of pilot studies, (2) the EMPOWER study’s infrastructure, (3) training of study participants in use of smartphones and the EMA protocol and, (4) strategies used to enhance adherence to completing EMA surveys. Results The study enrolled 151 adults and had 87.4% (132/151) retention rate at 12 months. Our learning experiences in the development of the infrastructure to support EMA assessments for the 12-month study spanned several topic areas. Included were the optimal frequency of EMA prompts to maximize data collection without overburdening participants; the timing and scheduling of EMA prompts; technological lessons to support a longitudinal study, such as proper communication between the Android smartphone, the Web server, and the database server; and use of a phone that provided access to the system’s functionality for EMA data collection to avoid loss of data and minimize the impact of loss of network connectivity. These were especially important in a 1-year study with participants who might travel. It also protected the data collection from any server-side failure. Regular monitoring of participants’ response to EMA prompts was critical, so we built in incentives to enhance completion of EMA surveys. During the first 6 months of

  13. Ecologies of Learning: Culture, Context and Outcomes of Workplace LES. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to connect workplace learning and essential skills to a larger domain of workplace learning in general. To do this, the contexts in which learning takes place, and the cultures of the actors and environments involved, should be taken into consideration. Although research on the direct effects of contexts and cultures on workplace…

  14. Use and Evaluation of FCM as a Tool for Long Term Socio Ecological Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenberg, Martin; Bachhofer, Michael; Isak, Kirsten Grovermann Qvist

    2014-01-01

    A halt in loss of biodiversity is an important issue in conservation management across Europe. As landscapes tend to be perceived as a combination of natural and social elements, and people’s values and attitudes, research supporting conservation management is dealing with landscapes as socio...

  15. Student Participation in Ecological Research: Preliminary Insights from Students' Experiences in the Smoky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Lara B.; Miller, Craig; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Students participating in summer research internships at the Great Smoky Mountain National Park kept electronic journals to document their experiences. We used a combined content analysis to quantify the responses from the students in particular areas of interest and to understand the essence of experiences from the explanations provided in their…

  16. Long-term socio-ecological forest research in southeast France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teissier du Cros, E.; Bariteau, M.; Kramer, K.

    2004-01-01

    France concentrates its research involving Mediterranean forests and related land-use on a series of long-term study sites meant to assess the effect of historical land-use on the current distribution of forest tree species and on the adaptability of these ecosystems to natural and anthropogenic pre

  17. The Role of Ecology in Public Health: Research and Educational Opportunities Using EnviroAtlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growing area of public-health research and practice concerns the relationships between physical and visual access to urban green space, and stress, physical fitness, cognitive function and other aspects of health and wellness. Natural features can modify adverse effects of nois...

  18. 道路生态学研究及其对我国道路生态景观建设的思考%Research on Road Ecology and Consideration of Road Ecological Landscape Construction in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷利华; 万敏; 姚忠勇

    2011-01-01

    快速城市化导致我国大量道路短时间内建成,长而宽的硬化道路扰乱了稳定的生态环境,繁重的交通对生态造成了大范围、持久深远的影响,因此,我们有必要重视道路生态学的相关研究.首先梳理了国外道路生态学的研究进程,将其发展分为萌芽期、生长期、成熟期,并对3个阶段的研究内容、原理、方法进行了文献综述;其次分析了我国道路生态学的发展状况,结合案例研究,总结了道路生态学对我国道路生态景观建设理论和实践的积极指导作用,并尝试提出我国道路生态景观建设的措施和建议.%Rapid urbanization in China has led to a large number of roads built in a short time. Long and wide hardening roads disrupt the stability of the habitats, and the heavy traffic causes large-scale and longtime ecological impact along the roads. Therefore, road ecology and related research need to be emphasized. The paper summarized the literature review on road ecology in foreign countries from 3 steps: germination stage, growth stage, mature stage in their research contents, theories and methods. It combined with the development of road ecology in China and based on two case studies. The paper pointed out that the studies on road ecology could help on ecological road landscape construction on the level of theory and practice. Finally, the authors tried to give some suggestion on road constructions of ecological landscape.

  19. The Review of Ecological and Genetic Research of Ponto-Caspian Gobies (Pisces, Gobiidae in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Goran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Ponto-Caspian gobies (monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis, round goby Neogobius melanostomus and bighead goby Ponticola kessleri have recently caused dramatic changes in fish assemblage structure throughout European river systems. This review provides summary of recent research on their dietary habits, age and growth, phylogenetic lineages and gene diversity. The principal food of all three species is invertebrates, and more rarely fish, which depends on the type of habitat, part of the year, as well as the morphological characteristics of species. According to the von Bertalanffy growth model, size at age is specific for the region, but due to its disadvantages it is necessary to test other growth models. Phylogenetic analysis of monkey goby and round goby indicates separation between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea haplotypes. The greatest genetic diversity is found among populations of the Black Sea, and the lowest among European invaders. The lack of molecular research on bighead goby requires further studies.

  20. Research progress on the use of plant allelopathy in agriculture and the physiological and ecological mechanisms of allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eCheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is a common biological phenomenon by which one organism produces biochemicals that influence the growth, survival, development, and reproduction of other organisms. These biochemicals are known as allelochemicals and have beneficial or detrimental effects on target organisms. Plant allelopathy is one of the modes of interaction between receptor and donor plants and may exert either positive effects (e.g., for agricultural management, such as weed control, crop protection, or crop re-establishment or negative effects (e.g., autotoxicity, soil sickness, or biological invasion. To ensure sustainable agricultural development, it is important to exploit cultivation systems that take advantage of the stimulatory / inhibitory influence of allelopathic plants to regulate plant growth and development and to avoid allelopathic autotoxicity. Allelochemicals can potentially be used as growth regulators, herbicides, insecticides and antimicrobial crop protection products. Here, we reviewed the plant allelopathy management practices applied in agriculture and the underlying allelopathic mechanisms described in the literature. The major points addressed are as follows: (1 Description of management practices related to allelopathy and allelochemicals in agriculture. (2 Discussion of the progress regarding the mode of action of allelochemicals and the physiological mechanisms of allelopathy, consisting of the influence on cell micro- and ultra-structure, cell division and elongation, membrane permeability, oxidative and antioxidant systems, growth regulation systems, respiration, enzyme synthesis and metabolism, photosynthesis, mineral ion uptake, protein and nucleic acid synthesis. (3 Evaluation of the effect of ecological mechanisms exerted by allelopathy on microorganisms and the ecological environment. (4 Discussion of existing problems and proposal for future research directions in this field to provide a useful reference for future studies on

  1. Research Progress on the use of Plant Allelopathy in Agriculture and the Physiological and Ecological Mechanisms of Allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Allelopathy is a common biological phenomenon by which one organism produces biochemicals that influence the growth, survival, development, and reproduction of other organisms. These biochemicals are known as allelochemicals and have beneficial or detrimental effects on target organisms. Plant allelopathy is one of the modes of interaction between receptor and donor plants and may exert either positive effects (e.g., for agricultural management, such as weed control, crop protection, or crop re-establishment) or negative effects (e.g., autotoxicity, soil sickness, or biological invasion). To ensure sustainable agricultural development, it is important to exploit cultivation systems that take advantage of the stimulatory/inhibitory influence of allelopathic plants to regulate plant growth and development and to avoid allelopathic autotoxicity. Allelochemicals can potentially be used as growth regulators, herbicides, insecticides, and antimicrobial crop protection products. Here, we reviewed the plant allelopathy management practices applied in agriculture and the underlying allelopathic mechanisms described in the literature. The major points addressed are as follows: (1) Description of management practices related to allelopathy and allelochemicals in agriculture. (2) Discussion of the progress regarding the mode of action of allelochemicals and the physiological mechanisms of allelopathy, consisting of the influence on cell micro- and ultra-structure, cell division and elongation, membrane permeability, oxidative and antioxidant systems, growth regulation systems, respiration, enzyme synthesis and metabolism, photosynthesis, mineral ion uptake, protein and nucleic acid synthesis. (3) Evaluation of the effect of ecological mechanisms exerted by allelopathy on microorganisms and the ecological environment. (4) Discussion of existing problems and proposal for future research directions in this field to provide a useful reference for future studies on plant

  2. Ecological Schoolyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2000-01-01

    Presents design guidelines and organizational and site principles for creating schoolyards where students can learn about ecology. Principles for building schoolyard ecological systems are described. (GR)

  3. Conflicting research on the demography, ecology, and social behavior of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogland, John L.; Cully, Jack F.; Rayor, Linda S.; Fitzgerald, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) are rare, diurnal, colonial, burrowing, ground-dwelling squirrels. Studies of marked individuals living under natural conditions in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s showed that males are heavier than females throughout the year; that adult females living in the same territory are consistently close kin; and that females usually mate with the sexually mature male(s) living in the home territory. Research from 2007 through 2010 challenges all 3 of these findings. Here we discuss how different methods might have led to the discrepancies.

  4. THE BUILDING OF THE SPATIAL DATABASE OF THE SATCHINEZ ORNITHOLOGICAL RESERVE AS A PREMISE OF MODERN ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Török-Oance

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of a database for the Ornithological Reserve “The Satchinez Marshes” was a necessity for a modern and complex ecological research. This database offers the possibility of a precise localization of the species of plants and animals identified in the field and it is a genuine base for the identification of the main types of habitats and ecosystems in the reserve. With the help of the Terrain Numerical Model, the analysis, at the level of pixels, of the abiotical factors involved in the repartition of ecosystems was made possible, as well as the three-dimensions visualizations of all the results. With the help of the aerophotograms taken in 1963 and 1973, we reconstructed the situation of the reserve at that time, by creating a database of the terrain usage at that time. The same thing was done in 2004, using more diverse sources: cadastral planes, images taken from the satellite, air photos taken in the same year and last, but not least, data collected in the field in 2003-2004. At the same time, this database can be considered a bench-mark (for the year 2004 for the identification of the modifications that occurred during 1963 and 2004, but for future research as well.

  5. How to Set Up a Research Framework to Analyze Social-Ecological Interactive Processes in a Rural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Deconchat

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary research frameworks can be useful in providing answers to the environmental challenges facing rural environments, but concrete implementation of them remains empirical and requires better control. We present our practical experience of an interdisciplinary research project dealing with non-industrial private forestry in rural landscapes. The theoretical background, management, and methodological aspects, as well as results of the project, are presented in order to identify practical key factors that may influence its outcomes. Landscape ecology plays a central role in organizing the project. The efforts allocated for communication between scientists from different disciplines must be clearly stated in order to earn reciprocal trust. Sharing the same nested sampling areas, common approaches, and analytical tools (GIS is important, but has to be balanced by autonomy for actual implementation of field work and data analysis in a modular and evolving framework. Data sets are at the heart of the collaboration and GIS is necessary to ensure their long-term management and sharing. The experience acquired from practical development of such projects should be shared more often in networks of teams to compare their behavior and identify common rules of functioning.

  6. 水库生态调度研究实践及展望%Reservoir Ecological Operation Research, Practice and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴旭; 魏传江; 申晓晶; 阳眉剑

    2016-01-01

    combined with some scholars at home and abroad for the reservoir ecological operation definition, this paper gave the reservoir ecological operation definition is that a new type of storage operation scheme, which based on ensuring the water of national economy and of the flood control safety to eliminate the negative impacts of reservoir construction as the key point,storages and discharges incoming runoff in a planned way. It emphatically expounded the research and practice of reservoir ecological operation at home and abroad and determined the three major concerns of ecological operation of reservoirs in the future:the determination of protection and the quantitative technical indicators of reservoir ecological operation;the evaluation of benefit of reservoir ecological operation and; the research of management mechanism of reservoir ecological operation. The conclusion is that reservoir ecological operation is lack of integrity of system in the current,microcosmic in⁃depth quantitative research and long⁃term regular schedule effectively is the key to consummating the reservoir ecological operation system.%综合国内外学者对水库生态调度的定义,认为水库生态调度是以保障国民经济和防洪安全为基础,以消除水库工程对河流及其沿岸与水有关的生态系统、生物群落的不利影响,恢复流域生态为重点,合理有效地蓄泄入库径流的一种新型调度方案。阐述了国内外关于水库生态调度的研究成果和实践过程,提出了今后研究的三大关注点:水库生态调度保护对象的确定以及调度技术指标的量化;水库生态调度效益的评定;水库生态调度管理体制的研究。最后得出结论:当前水库生态调度缺乏完整的体系,微观深入地定量研究和长期有效地常规调度是完善水库生态调度体系的关键。

  7. Ecological/Developmental Theory, Context-Based Best Practice, and School-Based Action Research: Cornerstones of School Psychology Training and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Maurice J.; Dilworth, Janean E'guya

    2003-01-01

    Presents a response to Gifford-Smith and Brownell's "Childhood Peer Relationships: Social Acceptance, Friendships, and Peer Networks" (this issue). Suggests that an ecological/developmental perspective of the development of peer relationships, the contextualization of knowledge, and the utilization of action research as essential to the future of…

  8. Key features for more successful place-based sustainability research on social-ecological systems: A Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS) perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balvanera, P.; Daw, T.M.; Gardner, T.A.; Martín-López, B.; Norström, A.V.; Ifejika Speranza, C.; Spierenburg, M.J.; Bennett, E.M.; Farfán, M.; Hamann, M.; Kittinger, J.N.; Luthe, T.; Maass, M.; Peterson, G.D.; Pérez-Verdin, G.

    2017-01-01

    The emerging discipline of sustainability science is focused explicitly on the dynamic interactions between nature and society and is committed to research that spans multiple scales and can support transitions toward greater sustainability. Because a growing body of place-based social-ecological

  9. Between Design and Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mona Chor

    such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on local forbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that, after three...... colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology....

  10. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  11. Between Design and Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mona Chor

    such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on local forbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that, after three...... colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology....

  12. Research Progress of Marine Benthos Ecology%海洋底栖生物生态学的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯广杰; 陈丕茂; 陈勇; 贾晓平

    2009-01-01

    对海洋底栖生物,尤其是人工鱼礁生态系统中底栖生物生态学研究的过去和现状进行了总结,剖析了我国人工鱼礁系统底栖生物生态学研究存在的不足及与国际研究的差距,为制定未来的研究方向提供一定的参考依据.%The progress of researches about marine benthos ecology were summavized, especially in artificial habitat ecosystem, anatomied the deficiency of researches about benthos ecology in artificial habitat ecosystem and the difference comparing with researches in international, which also can provide some bases for researches in the future.

  13. Agro-Ecology and Irrigation Technology : Comparative Research on Farmer-Management Irrigation Systems in the Mid- Hills of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parajuli, U.N.

    1999-01-01

    Design and management of irrigation infrastructure in farmer managed irrigation systems (FMISs) are strongly influenced by social and agro-ecological conditions of an area. This thesis analyzes the elements of social and agro-ecological conditions in FMISs in the mid-hills of Nepal and examines thei

  14. The Role of Field Exercises in Ecological Learning and Values Education: Action Research on the Use of Campus Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhontapatipak, Chutamas; Srikosamatara, Sompoad

    2012-01-01

    Providing undergraduate biology students with ecological knowledge and environmental awareness is critical for developing professionalism in sustainable development. In addition to the cognitive and psychomotor development, outdoor ecological exercises combining place-based education and experiential learning can stimulate the affective domain of…

  15. The Role of Field Exercises in Ecological Learning and Values Education: Action Research on the Use of Campus Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhontapatipak, Chutamas; Srikosamatara, Sompoad

    2012-01-01

    Providing undergraduate biology students with ecological knowledge and environmental awareness is critical for developing professionalism in sustainable development. In addition to the cognitive and psychomotor development, outdoor ecological exercises combining place-based education and experiential learning can stimulate the affective domain of…

  16. Research into Behaviour Patterns Typical for Consumers of Construction Material as the Mission of Ecological Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Zinaida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the co-authors is to study the motivation of purchasers of construction/finishing materials and the criteria that govern their selection. No systemic studies of consumer behavioral models and stereotypes in respect of residential housing have been performed so far. However, the environmentally determined management techniques, applicable to the production of building materials and construction of residential housing, are highly relevant both worldwide and in the Russian Federation. The co-authors have developed an original research methodology, drafted a questionnaire, and conducted a pilot survey. Its findings have proven that the price and quality of construction materials are the main factors that influence the decision making process in favor of particular items. Mere 14% of the respondents chose environmental friendliness as the decision making criterion. The findings of the focus group projects have also proven the trustworthiness of the stereotypes and behavioral models identified by the co-authors. The co-authors make a conclusion that further sociological surveys are needed to implement the patterns of environmentally determined management and to influence the value paradigms of the population.

  17. Long-term ecological research on Italian forest ecosystems: perspectives and conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo MARCHETTO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the contents of the present volume devoted to forest research in Italy, within the National Programme for Forest Ecosystem Monitoring (CONECOFOR, part of the Level II forest monitoring, and other linked regional and provincial monitoring activities. The coordination of the project, through a National Focal Centre and a Task Force for the Integrated and Combined Evaluation of results, made up of the foremost Italian experts working in the field, is outlined. No clear signals of strong negative impacts emerge from the papers, although the results of several studies indicate nitrogen and ozone as possible causes of disturbances in a number of plots. The effects of the deposition of acidity are largely buffered by the nature of the soils, while nitrate is leached from the plots where runoff is analysed, indicating N saturation of soils. This paper describes the main activities of the Task Force as regards data validation and elaboration, aimed at providing reliable information leading to sustainable forest management in Italy as well as making a useful contribution to international activities in a Pan-European context.

  18. Engineering and Ecological Constraction and Mechanization, National Research University Moscow State University of Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Александрович Величкин

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The noise in the construction of an important factor. It can interfere with the transmission of information through communication channels, especially if the signals of low power and information to be transmitted over a long distance. Thus, the noise would be a great hindrance in the field of automation facilities, where no transmission of information on large and small distance not oboytis.Analiticheskoe study durations of noise emissions rather difficult. Rice was an approximate distribution of the duration of the intervals between the moments of crossing the zero level noise. Later, it has been proposed as solutions to approximate sufficiently high urovney.Pervye experimental data on the distribution of time intervals between zeros in normal noise were obtained by Campbell [1] .Nedavno published his research Bletekier [2], we obtain the distribution of noise emission duration, passed through a filter with a band transmittance 440 -10 250 MCPA levels from 0 to 1.69 .In this article made a complete study and results are provided.

  19. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Ecological Modeling Research and Education at Mid America Remote Sensing Center (MARC): Field and Laboratory Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Haluk

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to establish a new hyperspectral remote sensing laboratory at the Mid-America Remote sensing Center (MARC), dedicated to in situ and laboratory measurements of environmental samples and to the manipulation, analysis, and storage of remotely sensed data for environmental monitoring and research in ecological modeling using hyperspectral remote sensing at MARC, one of three research facilities of the Center of Reservoir Research at Murray State University (MSU), a Kentucky Commonwealth Center of Excellence. The equipment purchased, a FieldSpec FR portable spectroradiometer and peripherals, and ENVI hyperspectral data processing software, allowed MARC to provide hands-on experience, education, and training for the students of the Department of Geosciences in quantitative remote sensing using hyperspectral data, Geographic Information System (GIS), digital image processing (DIP), computer, geological and geophysical mapping; to provide field support to the researchers and students collecting in situ and laboratory measurements of environmental data; to create a spectral library of the cover types and to establish a World Wide Web server to provide the spectral library to other academic, state and Federal institutions. Much of the research will soon be published in scientific journals. A World Wide Web page has been created at the web site of MARC. Results of this project are grouped in two categories, education and research accomplishments. The Principal Investigator (PI) modified remote sensing and DIP courses to introduce students to ii situ field spectra and laboratory remote sensing studies for environmental monitoring in the region by using the new equipment in the courses. The PI collected in situ measurements using the spectroradiometer for the ER-2 mission to Puerto Rico project for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS). Currently MARC is mapping water quality in Kentucky Lake and

  20. Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER): An Integrated Remote Sensing Experiment on Hydrological and Ecological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Liu, S.; Xiao, Q.; Ma, M.; Jin, R.; Che, T.

    2012-12-01

    A major research plan entitled "Integrated research on the eco-hydrological process of the Heihe River Basin" was launched by the National Natural Science Foundation of China in 2010. One of the key aims of this research plan is to establish a research platform that integrates observation, data management, and model simulation to foster 21st-century watershed science in China. Based on the diverse needs of interdisciplinary studies within this research plan, a program called the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) is implemented. The overall objective of HiWATER is to improve the observability of hydrological and ecological processes, to build a world-class watershed observing system and to enhance the application ability of remote sensing in integrated eco-hydrological study and water recourse management at basin scale. We introduce the background, scientific objectives and experimental design of the HiWATER. The highlights are using flux observing matrix and eco-hydrological wireless sensor network to capture multi-scale heterogeneities, in order to challenge the complex issues such as heterogeneity, scaling, uncertainty, and closing water cycle at watershed scale. HiWATER has formally kicked off in May 2012 and will last four years till 2015. HiWATER encompasses fundamental experiments, thematic experiments, application experiments, remote sensing methods development and products generation, and an integrated information system. (1) Fundamental experiments: a) Microwave radiometer, imaging spectrometer, thermal imaging camera, light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and other sensors are used in the airborne missions to observe key eco-hydrological parameters. b) A comprehensive hydrometeorological observation network has been established in the entire Heihe River Basin, in order to provide more representative model parameters and forcing data. c) An eco-hydrological wireless sensor network (WSN) has been installed to capture the spatial

  1. Research on the water resources regulation ability model of dams in the Huai He River Basin considering ecological and management factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Y.; Liu, H. C.; Li, L. H.; Yu, G. G.; Liu, J.

    2016-08-01

    Research that assesses the scheduling ability of dams gamers a great deal of attention due to the global water resource crisis. These studies can provide useful and practical suggestions for scheduling the water resources of dams to solve problems, such as addressing ecological water needs and so on. Recent studies have primarily evaluated the schedule ability of dams according to their quantifiable attributes, such as water quantity, flow velocity, etc. However, the ecological and management status can directly determine the possibility and efficiency of a dam's water resource scheduling. This paper presents an evaluation model to assess the scheduling capacity of dams that takes into consideration ecological and management factors. In the experiment stage, this paper takes the Sha Ying river of the Huai He River Basin as an example to evaluate the scheduling ability of its dams. The results indicate that the proposed evaluation model can provide more precise and practical suggestions.

  2. The Lost Seal: A Scientific Children's Book from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network Schoolyard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, S.

    2006-12-01

    A true story about an encounter between LTER scientists and a young Weddell seal in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica has inspired a new children's book, The Lost Seal. Written by Diane McKnight, professor of environmental engineering at the University of Colorado and fellow of the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR), the book is an engaging introduction to Antarctica and the Dry Valleys. McKnight tells the story of the seal in the context of the harsh Dry Valleys environment and the LTER scientific work taking place there. The book includes information about hydrology, limnology, and microbial ecology. Artwork by professional illustrator Dorothy Emerling connects young readers with the environment and wildlife of Antarctica, while artwork from children in Australia, England, New Zealand, and the United States emphasizes the international nature of interest in the Antarctic. The Lost Seal has been published in time for the International Polar Year and is the second book in the NSF-supported LTER children's book series. The Lost Seal is at the center of many outreach activities: classroom activities in four countries; a colorful children's book distributed to schools and sold in national parks; a teacher's edition of the book; curriculum development in Boulder, Colorado schools; an educational web site (www.mcmlter.org/lostseal); and workshops for scientists on how to create scientific children's literature. This session will describe the various outreach activities and show how lessons learned from publication of The Lost Seal might apply to other IPY outreach efforts.

  3. A Probabilistic Method of Assessing Carbon Accumulation Rate at Imnavait Creek Peatland, Arctic Long Term Ecological Research Station, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jonathan E.; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Frolking, Steve; Karavias, John

    2017-01-01

    Arctic peatlands are an important part of the global carbon cycle, accumulating atmospheric carbon as organic matter since the Late glacial. Current methods for understanding the changing efficiency of the peatland carbon sink rely on peatlands with an undisturbed stratigraphy. Here we present a method of estimating primary carbon accumulation rate from a site where permafrost processes have either vertically or horizontally translocated nearby carbon-rich sediment out of stratigraphic order. Briefly, our new algorithm estimates the probability of the age of deposition of a random increment of sediment in the core. The method assumes that if sediment age is measured at even depth increments, dates are more likely to occur during intervals of higher accumulation rate and vice versa. Multiplying estimated sedimentation rate by measured carbon density yields carbon accumulation rate. We perform this analysis at the Imnavait Creek Peatland, near the Arctic Long Term Ecological Research network site at Toolik Lake, Alaska. Using classical radiocarbon age modeling, we find unreasonably high rates of carbon accumulation at various Holocene intervals. With our new method, we find accumulation rate changes that are in improved agreement within the context of other sites throughout Alaska and the rest of the Circum-Arctic region.

  4. The ecology of citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coates, Robert; Garmany, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This article calls into question the relationship between citizenship, space and ecological stability. Drawing on case study research from urban Brazil, we argue that while space may be crucial to Western perspectives of citizenship – particularly in urban areas – the ecological coproduction of thes

  5. Geomorphological and ecological researches inferring swamp areas inside endorheic cacthment basin: The Asso graben-polje case study (south Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Rose, M.; Beccarisi, L.; Zuccarello, V.

    2009-04-01

    Peoples living inside flat karstic areas frequently deal with both socio-economic and environmental problems related to the superficial waters management. Karst morphologies, such as dolines and water sinks mostly, characterize the plane territory of Salento (southern Italy). Since their first settlements, Salento landscapes had been modified to drain surface waters, discharge floods and reclaim marshlands. This contribution deals with the Asso graben-polje which is about 200 kmq wide and lies in a regional lowered tectonic structure. It is highly vulnerable owing to both flooding and groundwater pollution and the hazard due to the occurrence of sinkholes is impending. The Asso streams is network of natural and artificial channels which was linked to six water sinks about 75 years ago, i. e. during the last extensive hydrographic arrangement to solve flooding and epidemiological problems. At present, the terminal sinks of the Asso fluvial-karst system absolved the functions of: storm water drainage wells, aquifer remediation-related wells and underground injection regulated wastewater disposal systems. So, the water management of the system is an hard task, being the mitigation of the amplitude of flooding events, achieved by means of the increasing of water sinks discharge, in contrast with the safeguard aquifers by pollutant displacements and the need to protect the public health. In spite of the efforts made till now by Public Bodies, the knowledge related to the speleogenesis and the hydraulic properties of the sinks is disregarded by the current water resource management. The carried out geomorphological researches allow us to distinguish natural, partially modified and human bored water sinks. Some of the natural water sinks can be described us collapse dolines, but a number of them present different origin and development, as karst wells and karst shaft. To each water sink type, specific drainage properties can be assigned. Even if the depressions prone to

  6. Research advances and perspectives on the ecology of wild giant pandas%野生大熊猫生态学研究进展与前瞻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏辅文; 张泽钧; 胡锦矗

    2011-01-01

    Among the order Camivora, the giant panda {Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most attractive animals, possessing high value for scientific research and being a symbol of worldwide nature conservation. In early 1980s, the Chinese government, cooperating with the WWF in initiated a research project on wild giant pandas in Wolong Nature Reserve. Since then, extensive research activities have been conducted in different mountain ranges inhabited by the animal. The application of new techniques such as 3S (GIS, RS, GPS) and molecular markers in the ecological study of the giant panda has greatly improved our understanding of its ecology. To date, a huge body of knowledge and information has been accumulated, potentially helpful for developing adaptive conservation strategies. In this paper, we summarize research findings and progress in understanding the ecology of wild giant pandas during the past 30 years on various aspects, including habitat ecology, feeding ecology, reproductive ecology, behavioral ecology, molecular ecology, population ecology and community ecology. Meanwhile, given the demands of research and management, future research directions are suggested.%在现代食肉目动物中,大熊猫无疑是最为引人注目的物种之一,既在科学上具有重要的研究价值,同时亦是世界自然保护的象征.自20世纪80年代初期我国政府与世界自然基金会合作开展野生大熊猫生态学研究以来,迄今已积累了大量有关该物种及其柄息地的生态学知识,近年来3S技术及分子生物学技术的推广应用将野生大熊猫生态学研究提升到了一个崭新的高度.本文在综合大量历史文献的基础上,从柄息地生态学、觅食生态学、繁殖生态学、行为生态学、分子生态学、种群生态学和群落生态学等不同方面就野生大熊猫生态学的研究现状进行了梳理,力图归纳已有研究发现,阐明研究结果的科学价值及在保护生物学上的意

  7. 中国医学革螨生态学研究现状%The ecological researches of medical gamasid mites in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任天广; 郭宪国

    2008-01-01

    医学革螨是一大类非昆虫类节肢动物的统称,可以作为多种疾病的传播媒介.医学革螨生态学研究是革螨研究的一个重要组成部分.在很长的一段时间里,人们主要集中在革螨个体生态学的研究,忽视了对革螨种群生态学和群落生态学的研究,随着医学节肢动物研究的发展,革螨种群生态学和群落生态学的研究逐渐增多,并且革螨群落生态学的研究已成为中国革螨生态学研究的一个新的重要内容.该文结合国内关于革螨生态学研究的诸多文献报道,从个体生态学、种群生态学和群落生态学的不同层次,归纳总结了我国医学革螨生态学研究的动态、现状和进展,并指出了现阶段中国医学革螨生态学研究中存在的一些问题.%Gamasid mites,a branch of mesostigmatic mites,are a large group of non-insect arthropods and some of them are the ectoparasites of mammals,especially rodents and some other small mammals.The ectoparasitic gamasid mites are usually regarded as the category of medical mites since some of them are transmitting vectors of some diseases(especially some zoonoses).The ecological research iS an important issue in the field of studies on gamasid mites.For a long period of time.scientists concentrated their researches on the individual ecology of gamasid mites and neglected the population ecology and community ecology.With the development of medical arthropodology,the population ecology and community ecology of gamasid mites have gradually aroused scientists interest.The ecological research on the community of gamasid mites has become a new important branch in the field of studies on gamasid mites.Based on lots of domestic literatures,this paper reviewed some important advances as well as some related problems on the ecological researches of gamasid mites in China covering individual ecology,population ecology and community ecology.

  8. Report: Results of Technical Network Vulnerability Assessment: EPA’s National Health & Environment Effects Research Laboratory, Western Ecology Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #11-P-0429, August 3, 2011. Vulnerability testing of EPA’s NHEERL Western Ecology Division network conducted in March 2011 identified Internet Protocol addresses with numerous high-risk and medium-risk vulnerabilities.

  9. Review of the Research on Ecological Psychotherapy%生态心理治疗研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安倩

    2015-01-01

    In academia, psychologists hold that the real obtain-ment of happiness and health cannot be realized merely relying on certain principle or method, instead, it needs the comprehen-sive consideration of human and nature, using psychotherapy methods to improve and solve the ecological crisis of the contem-porary worlds. Thus, ecological psychotherapy formed. In view of the development status of ecological psychotherapy, this paper will analyze the definition, characteristics, history and current situation, value, ecological self and treatment methods of ecologi-cal psychotherapy.%在学术界,心理学家认为人们要想获得真正的幸福和健康,并不能单独依靠某种原理或方法,而是要与自然综合考虑,利用心理治疗的方法来改善、解决当今世界存在的生态危机.由此,逐步衍生出了生态心理治疗这一理论.针对生态心理治疗发展状况,本文将从生态心理治疗概念、特点、历史与现状、价值、生态自我及治疗方法加以分析.

  10. 国际生态学研究发展态势文献计量分析%A bibliometrical analysis of competitive situation in international ecological research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 曲建升; 王金平

    2011-01-01

    目前,全球的生态环境问题已经引起了各国政府和人民的高度关注,而生态学研究可以为人类与自然生态系统的共存提供理论依据和行动指南.利用Thomson Data Analyzer、NetDraw和Aureka等分析工具,结合Pathfinder算法,对SCIE和SSCI数据库中国际生态学研究相关文献进行统计分析,发现:北美、欧洲、澳大利亚等国及其研究机构在生态学领域的论文影响力较大,论文质量较高;美国是全球生态学研究合作网络的中心,其次是英国和德国;在机构层面上,加州大学戴维斯分校和马普学会是两个比较明显的合作中心;我国在生态学研究领域发文量上具有一定的优势,但论文总体质量仍有待继续提高,目前我国在生态学领域的主要合作国家有美国、英国、加拿大、德国、日本、澳大利亚和法国;2008-2010年国际生态学研究热点主要集中在生物多样性、气候变化、基因变异、物种间相互作用和性选择等研究领域.%Nowadays, ecological and environmental problems have attracted much attention of governments and people, because ecological research can provide the theoretical basis and guideline for the coexistence between humans and the natural ecosystem.In this paper, analytical tools such as Thomson Data Analyzer, NetDraw and Aureka in combined with “pathfinder” algorithm were used to analyze the data of ecological research in the SCIE and SSCI databases.We find that the papers of the Northern America, Europe,Australia and their institutions have stronger impact on international ecological research and their quality is better.Meanwhile, the United States is the international center of the cooperative research web in ecology, followed by the United Kingdom and Germany.At institutional level, University of California Davis and Max Planck Institute are two distinctive centers for cooperative research in ecology.The numbers of papers on ecological research in China is

  11. Key features for more successful place-based sustainability research on social-ecological systems: a Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Balvanera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The emerging discipline of sustainability science is focused explicitly on the dynamic interactions between nature and society and is committed to research that spans multiple scales and can support transitions toward greater sustainability. Because a growing body of place-based social-ecological sustainability research (PBSESR has emerged in recent decades, there is a growing need to understand better how to maximize the effectiveness of this work. The Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS provides a unique opportunity for synthesizing insights gained from this research community on key features that may contribute to the relative success of PBSESR. We surveyed the leaders of PECS-affiliated projects using a combination of open, closed, and semistructured questions to identify which features of a research project are perceived to contribute to successful research design and implementation. We assessed six types of research features: problem orientation, research team, and contextual, conceptual, methodological, and evaluative features. We examined the desirable and undesirable aspects of each feature, the enabling factors and obstacles associated with project implementation, and asked respondents to assess the performance of their own projects in relation to these features. Responses were obtained from 25 projects working in 42 social-ecological study cases within 25 countries. Factors that contribute to the overall success of PBSESR included: explicitly addressing integrated social-ecological systems; a focus on solution- and transformation-oriented research; adaptation of studies to their local context; trusted, long-term, and frequent engagement with stakeholders and partners; and an early definition of the purpose and scope of research. Factors that hindered the success of PBSESR included: the complexities inherent to social-ecological systems, the imposition of particular epistemologies and methods on the wider research group

  12. The Research On Ecological Security In Qixia Mountain Scenery District%栖霞山风景区生态安全研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊勇吉; 唐晓岚; 包文渊; 周明峰; 左万力

    2016-01-01

    Applied pressure-state-response (P-S-R) model to established a theoretical framework of ecological security evaluation in Qixia mountain scenery district, according to the characteristics of ecological environment in Qixia mountain scenery district, based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to constrution the index system by 32 indexes of ecological security evaluation, and get results ESI (Ecological security of scenery district )=3.0998 from data standardization. Research shows that: although the ecological condition of Qixia mountain scenery district at a relatively safe state, but there are also have several risks such as ecological land decreasing, air polution pressure and soil environment deterioration etc.%应用压力-状态-响应(P-S-R)模型构建栖霞山风景区生态安全评价的理论框架,根据栖霞山风景区生态环境特点,按照层次分析法构建由32个指标组成的生态安全评价指标体系,并将评价数据进行标准化处理得到ESI(风景区生态安全度)=3.0998的结果。研究表明:栖霞山风景区的生态虽然处在比较安全的状态,但也存在生态用地递减、空气污染压力和土壤环境恶化等隐患。

  13. New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Badea, Ovidiu; Barbu, Ion; Fleischer, Peter; Fraczek, Witold; Gancz, Vladimir; Godzik, Barbara; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Grodzki, Wojciech; Karnosky, David; Koren, Milan; Krywult, Marek; Krzan, Zbigniew; Longauer, Roman; Mankovska, Blanka; Manning, William J; McManus, Michael; Musselman, Robert C; Novotny, Julius; Popescu, Flaviu; Postelnicu, Daniela; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Skawiński, Paweł; Skiba, Stefan; Szaro, Robert; Tamas, Stefan; Vasile, Cristian

    2003-06-01

    An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and other ecosystems caused by air pollution in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania and in the Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians on the Polish-Slovak border. Both of these important mountain ranges have the status of national parks and are Man & the Biosphere Reserves. In the Retezat Mountains, the primary research objective was to evaluate how air pollution may affect forest health and biodiversity. The main research objective in the Tatra Mountains was to evaluate responses of natural and managed Norway spruce forests to air pollution and other stresses. Ambient concentrations of ozone (O(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) as well as forest health and biodiversity changes were monitored on densely distributed research sites. Initial monitoring of pollutants indicated low levels of O(3), SO(2), and NO(x) in the Retezat Mountains, while elevated levels of O(3) and high deposition of atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have characterized the Tatra Mountains. In the Retezat Mountains, air pollution seems to have little effect on forest health; however, there was concern that over a long time, even low levels of pollution may affect biodiversity of this important ecosystem. In contrast, severe decline of Norway spruce has been observed in the Tatra Mountains. Although bark beetle seems to be the immediate cause of that decline, long-term elevated levels of atmospheric N and S depositions and elevated O(3) could predispose trees to insect attacks and other stresses. European and US scientists studied pollution deposition, soil and

  14. Climate change, land use conflicts, predation and ecological degradation as challenges for reindeer husbandry in northern Europe: what do we really know after half a century of research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Roland; Löffler, Jörg

    2012-07-01

    Reindeer grazing has been entitled as ecological keystone in arctic-alpine landscapes. In addition, reindeer husbandry is tightly connected to the identity of the indigenous Sámi people in northern Europe. Nowadays, reindeer husbandry is challenged in several ways, of which pasture degradation, climate change, conflicting land uses and predation are the most important. Research on reindeer-related topics has been conducted for more than half a century and this review illuminates whether or not research is capable to match these challenges. Despite its high quality, traditional reindeer-related research is functionally isolated within the various disciplines. The meshwork of ecology, socio-economy, culture and politics, however, in which reindeer husbandry is embedded by various interactions, will remain unclear and difficult to manage, if actors and relationships are kept separate. We propose some targets for new integrative research approaches that incorporate traditional knowledge and focus on the entire human-ecological system 'reindeer husbandry' to develop solutions for its challenges.

  15. Ecological Requirements for Pallid Sturgeon Reproduction and Recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: A Research Synthesis 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Simpkins, Darin G.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Bonnot, Tom W.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Korschgen, Carl E.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Mac, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a synthesis of results obtained between 2005 and 2008 from the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program, an interagency collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Missouri River Recovery - Integrated Science Program. The goal of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program is to improve fundamental understanding of reproductive ecology of the pallid sturgeon with the intent that improved understanding will inform river and species management decisions. Specific objectives include: *Determining movement, habitat-use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; *Understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; *Determining origin, transport, and fate of drifting pallid sturgeon larvae, and evaluating bottlenecks for recruitment of early life stages; *Quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages; and *Managing databases, integrating understanding, and publishing relevant information into the public domain. Management actions to increase reproductive success and survival of pallid sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River have been focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. Integration of 2005-08 Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program research provides insight into linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and pallid sturgeon reproduction and survival. The research approach of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program integrates opportunistic field studies, field-based experiments, and controlled laboratory studies. The field study plan is designed to explore the role of flow regime and associated environmental cues using two complementary approaches. An upstream-downstream approach compares sturgeon reproductive behavior between an upstream section of the Lower Missouri River with highly

  16. 红树植物分子生态与进化研究进展%Review of Molecular Ecology and Evolution Research on Mangrove Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军丽; 王伯荪; 王峥峰; 张炜银; 李鸣光

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviewed the population ecology and systematic researches using molecular markers and cytological methods in mangrove plants and looked forward to the further prospects of molecular ecology in mangrove conservation and management according to the research references in these fields: The molecular evolutionary evidence of some species in Rhizophoraceae using ITS,matK rbcL sequencing conformed to the morphological systematic relationship with much earlier differentiation time than that from fossil records.The mangrove species populations based on isoenzyme and RAPD analyses showed that the lower genetic diversity and higher differentiation in those pan-distributed species populations dealing with the continental drift.This indicated that the relatively fragile ecosystem of mangrove needed to be protected urgently from more human activities.

  17. 苔藓植物生态学研究的数量分析方法%On The Methods of Quantitative Analysis for Ecological Research of Bryophyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元明; 郭水良; 曹同; 潘伯荣

    2001-01-01

    植被数量分析方法在苔藓植被中的应用起步较晚,仅有20多年的研究历史,但发展却十分迅速。这里介绍了目前苔藓植物生态学研究中应用较为普遍的数量分析方法,并探讨了各自的优缺点。%The method of quantitative analysis applied in research of bryophyte ecology becomes increasingly prevailing nowadays, though it used in bryophyte only 20 years long. The present paper mainly deals with those methods, which are applied rather commonly in the research of bryophyte ecology.

  18. Ecology for a changing earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.H. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Roughgarden, J. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1990-02-06

    To forecast the ecological impact of global change, research initiatives are needed on the explicit role of humans in ecological systems, and on how ecological processes functioning at different spatial and temporal scales are coupled. Furthermore, to synthesize the results of ecological research for Congress, policymakers, and the general public, a new agency, called the United States Ecological Survey (USES) is urgently required. Also, a national commitment to environmental health, as exemplified by establishing a National Institutes of the Environment (NIE), should be a goal.

  19. Several Key Issues of Ecological Compensation Research%生态补偿研究中的几个关键问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪雁; 李巍; 王学良

    2012-01-01

    ecological compensation that is positive incentives and conditionality, and summarizes the challenges that the Coasean conception of ecological compensation has faced in practice. Finally, the paper points out the key issues that ecological complementation should consider, that includes the production and supplying mechanism of ecosystem service, financing mechanism and payment mechanism, the incentives mode choice, spatial targeting of ecological compensation, equity and efficiency, leakout, additionally and improper incentive, and the high leverage of intermediaries. And we should reconcile the ecological compensation theory and practice viewpoint, and create the comprehensive dialogue mechanism between the theoretical researcher and the practitioner.

  20. TRANSLATING ECOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND POPULATION GENETICS RESEARCH TO MEET THE CHALLENGE OF TICK AND TICK-BORNE DISEASES IN NORTH AMERICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria D; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Patino, Ramiro; Li, Andrew Y; Medina, Raul F; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger Iván

    2016-05-01

    Emerging and re-emerging tick-borne diseases threaten public health and the wellbeing of domestic animals and wildlife globally. The adoption of an evolutionary ecology framework aimed to diminish the impact of tick-borne diseases needs to be part of strategies to protect human and animal populations. We present a review of current knowledge on the adaptation of ticks to their environment, and the impact that global change could have on their geographic distribution in North America. Environmental pressures will affect tick population genetics by selecting genotypes able to withstand new and changing environments and by altering the connectivity and isolation of several tick populations. Research in these areas is particularly lacking in the southern United States and most of Mexico with knowledge gaps on the ecology of these diseases, including a void in the identity of reservoir hosts for several tick-borne pathogens. Additionally, the way in which anthropogenic changes to landscapes may influence tick-borne disease ecology remains to be fully understood. Enhanced knowledge in these areas is needed in order to implement effective and sustainable integrated tick management strategies. We propose to refocus ecology studies with emphasis on metacommunity-based approaches to enable a holistic perspective addressing whole pathogen and host assemblages. Network analyses could be used to develop mechanistic models involving multihost-pathogen communities. An increase in our understanding of the ecology of tick-borne diseases across their geographic distribution will aid in the design of effective area-wide tick control strategies aimed to diminish the burden of pathogens transmitted by ticks. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. An Ecological Footprint for an Early Learning Centre: Identifying Opportunities for Early Childhood Sustainability Education through Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNichol, Heidi; Davis, Julie Margaret; O'Brien, Katherine R.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, engineers and educators worked together to adapt and apply the ecological footprint (EF) methodology to an early learning centre in Brisbane, Australia. Results were analysed to determine how environmental impact can be reduced at the study site and more generally across early childhood settings. It was found that food, transport…

  2. Looking for attitudes related to amphibian species decline: how are peer-reviewed publications of education activities compared to ecological research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROGER P. MORMUL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biodiversity decline has been the focus of discussions in the last decade, especially on the amphibian species decline. After a scientometric analysis using international databases, we found that the number of peer-reviewed articles considering education practices related to the theme increased along with the number of ecological researches. However, the increase in ecological researches is much higher than the increase in publications of education practices. Studies suggest that conservation attitudes are important and that education practices are an important tool for improving human perceptions on this subject. In this sense, increase the publication of projects and programs results related to local education practices in international journals could help the dissemination of efficient methods for conservation, as well as facilitating access to information internationally, since species decline, especially for amphibians, is a global concern. Then, we suggest that educational practices, at least when related to conservation, should follow a more standardized protocol, and be published in international journals, as the efficiency of such practices should be evaluated and methods once published could help other nations to improve their ecological literacy.

  3. Looking for attitudes related to amphibian species decline: how are peer-reviewed publications of education activities compared to ecological research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormul, Roger P; Mormul, Tayla D S; Santos, Gustavo M B; Santana, Ana R A

    2017-05-01

    Biodiversity decline has been the focus of discussions in the last decade, especially on the amphibian species decline. After a scientometric analysis using international databases, we found that the number of peer-reviewed articles considering education practices related to the theme increased along with the number of ecological researches. However, the increase in ecological researches is much higher than the increase in publications of education practices. Studies suggest that conservation attitudes are important and that education practices are an important tool for improving human perceptions on this subject. In this sense, increase the publication of projects and programs results related to local education practices in international journals could help the dissemination of efficient methods for conservation, as well as facilitating access to information internationally, since species decline, especially for amphibians, is a global concern. Then, we suggest that educational practices, at least when related to conservation, should follow a more standardized protocol, and be published in international journals, as the efficiency of such practices should be evaluated and methods once published could help other nations to improve their ecological literacy.

  4. Landscape ecology in North America: past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica G. Turner

    2005-01-01

    Landscape ecology offers a spatially explicit perspective on the relationships between ecological patterns and processes that can be applied across a range of scales. Concepts derived from landscape ecology now permeate ecological research across most levels of ecological organization and many scales. Landscape ecology developed rapidly after ideas that originated in...

  5. Nutrition, ecology and nutritional ecology: towardan integrated framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Steven J.; Mayntz, David

    2009-01-01

    1. The science of nutritional ecology spans a wide range of fields, including ecology, nutrition, behaviour, morphology, physiology, life history and evolutionary biology. But does nutritional ecology have a unique theoretical framework and research program and thus qualify as a field of research...... in its own right? 2. We suggest that the distinctive feature of nutritional ecology is its integrative nature, and that the field would benefit from more attention to formalizing a theoretical and quantitative framework for developing this. 3. Such a framework, we propose, should satisfy three minimal...... requirements: it should be nutritionally explicit, organismally explicit, and ecologically explicit. 4. We evaluate against these criteria four existing frameworks (Optimal Foraging Theory, Classical Insect Nutritional Ecology, the Geometric Framework for nutrition, and Ecological Stoichiometry), and conclude...

  6. 我国生态化学计量学研究综述%Review of Researches on Ecological Stoichiometry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵梅香; 覃林; 谭玲

    2012-01-01

    C、N、P的平衡关系对于认识生态系统碳汇潜力和生态系统如何响应未来气候变暖具有重要意义.主要介绍我国生态化学计量学的研究进展并提出了生态化学计量学的主要发展趋势.%The balance of C, N, P was of great significance to understanding the ecosystem carbon sequestration potential and how ecosystems responded to future climate warming. Research progress in ecological stoichiometry in China was reviewed, and the main development trends of ecological stoichiometry in the future were discussed.

  7. Research of environmental bioecosensing technology using ecological information. Part 2; Seitaikei joho ni yoru kankyo bio ecosencing gijutsu ni kansuru chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Basic considerations of exploring and cultivating environmental reporter organisms are summarized. Mechanism of genetic engineering amplification and molecular biological amplification, and approach to combining them to a hardware as a bioindicator system are investigated. For the current status of molecular biological measurement technology for measuring ecological environment and its application, environmental diagnosis from a phyropathological viewpoint, environmental diagnosis using microorganisms, test fabrication of genetic sensor, and overseas examples of environmental monitoring network are described. For the application of ecological information and functions for developing innovative environmental remediation technology, issues and potential areas for research and development regarding the bioremediation technology in which the US has achieved a progress for the benefit of soil environment remediation are summarized. For the phytoremediation, an area of bioremediation, the metabolism of microorganisms which live in the rhizosphere, and the technology for controlling the microorganisms in the soil through plants are investigated. 66 refs., 50 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. 生态指标研究的若干问题%Some problems on ecological indicator research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杨明; 于秀波; 鄢帮有

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing global environmental issues, the global government and public care deeply about what is happening to their surrounds. How to measure the ecosystem changing is becoming the priority of the ecologists and policy makers. Ecological indicator is a kind of measurable characteristics related to the structure, composition, or function of ecosystem. Ecological indicator can monitor the changes of ecosystem and assess the effectivity of ecological and environmental policy. The concept, application and progress of ecological indicator were reviewed in this paper. And some important problems about ecological indicator were discussed, such as the monitoring goal and selecting criteria, the applicable temporal-spatial scale, the sensitivity and steadiness, the combining with the social and economic indicators. In order to use the ecological indicators effectively, some rules should be followed: the monitoring target of ecological indicators should be clear and definite; the reference status of ecological indicators should be identified; the accuracy of quantification should be under control; the reason which cause the change of the ecological indicators should be identified; and the ecological indicators should be linked to the social and economic indicators. In fact, the ecological indicator that developed by ecologists together with policy makers can translate the complicated ecological knowledge to the public and policy makers in an easy understanding way, which make the informed decisions with ecological knowledge more effectively. In a word, the ecological indicators can play an important role in both ecological sciences and policy-making.%  随着全球生态与环境问题的日益严峻,各国政府和公众对生态系统状况的关注程度日益增加,如何度量生态系统状况成为了生态学者和管理者面临的重大课题。生态指标是生态系统的组成、结构和功能方面的可度量的特征,它是监测生态

  9. 水源地生态补偿机制研究进展%Research Progress for Ecological Compensation Mechanism of Water Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟浩; 白杨; 黄宇驰; 王敏; 鄢忠纯; 石登荣; 黄沈发; 王璐

    2012-01-01

    Ecological compensation for drinking water is one of the effective economic means for the protection of water sources. Firstly, the current development and problems of ecological compensation of the water source is reviewed from the aspects of the concept, characteristics, objectives and principles, analysis of subject and object, the standard of compensation and compensation methods. Ecological compensation for drinking water in foreign countries started early and developed mature, while it is relatively late and incomplete in China. For example, compensation standards are too low, the source of funding is unitary, and supervision and evaluation system is almost empty. Through the review of the study and cases of the assessment of implementation benefit of ecological compensation for drinking water, it was found that, relevant scholars have begun to evaluate the implementation effect of ecological compensation. However, methods of effective monitoring and benefit evaluation of the ecological compensation were lacked. To solve the above problems, the paper gives following suggestions on the improvement of the ecological compensation for drinking water: expanding funding channels, and guiding the market-oriented fund-raising; integrate multiple compensation ways according to local circumstances; establishing benefit assessment mechanism of ecological compensation for drinking water. Finally, the future research direction of ecological compensation of water resources is put forward: with the combination of qualitative description and quantitative indicators, We should explore a comprehensive, effective and viable water sources evaluation system to supervise and evaluate the effectiveness of implementation of ecological compensation strategy for drinking water resources.%水源地生态补偿机制是一种调动水源地生态保护的经济手段.本文首先从生态补偿的概念、特征、目标与原则、主客体分析、补偿标准和补偿方式等方面

  10. 农业生态补偿研究进展与展望%Progress and Prospect in Research of Ecological Compensation for Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严立冬; 田苗; 何栋材; 袁浩; 邓远建

    2013-01-01

    Ecological compensation for agriculture,as a key to guarantee the sustainable development of ecological agriculture and balance the farmer's benefits,its theoretical study and practical exploration have become a hot spot in the field of ecological compensation in recent years.By searching and studying of literatures on it,the author gives comparative analysis on the ecological compensation for agriculture research status,research features,the existing problems,and the trend of development.The results show that,most researches mainly concentrate on the definition of agro-ecological compensation,anatomy of the compensation theory basis,construction of compensatory mechanism,policy support,host-guest definition,compensation criterion,and compensation mode.Research methods are mainly based on the experience of other countries,such as combination of qualitative research and quantitative calculation,combination of theoretical research and empirical analysis.The definition of ecological compensation for agriculture and host-guest legal status are the open questions.New constructive method,space optimal development,and performance evaluation deepening are analyzed in the study of the trend of ecological compensation for agriculture.%农业生态补偿是确保农业生态可持续发展与农民经济利益平衡的关键,其理论研究和实践探索近年来成为生态补偿领域的研究热点.通过文献检索与研读,对农业生态补偿领域的研究现状、研究特点、存在问题及未来研究趋势进行了比较分析.结果表明,目前研究内容主要集中在对农业生态补偿内涵界定,补偿理论基础剖析,补偿机制建立与政策支持、补偿主客体确定,补偿标准核算及补偿方式选择.研究方法主要集中在借鉴国外相关成果,将定性研究与定量推算、理论研究与实证分析相结合.研究存在问题主要集中在内涵界定不一致,主客体法律地位不确定.在此基础上,对农业生

  11. Increasing Public Access to Scientific Research through Stakeholder Involvement: Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.; DeLorme, D. E.; Ruple, D.; Graham, L.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) has the potential to have a myriad of deleterious effects on coastal ecology and human infrastructure. Stakeholders, including managers of coastal resources, must be aware of potential consequences of SLR and adjust their plans accordingly to protect and preserve the resources under their care. Members of the public, particularly those who live or work in coastal areas, should also be informed about the results of scientific research on the effects of SLR. However, research results are frequently published in venues or formats to which resource managers and the broader public have limited access. It is imperative for scientists to move beyond traditional publication venues in order to more effectively disseminate the results of their research (Dennison, W. 2007, Estu. Coast. Shelf Sci. 77, 185). One potentially effective way to advance public access to research is to incorporate stakeholder involvement into the research project process in order to target study objectives and tailor communication products toward stakeholder needs (Lemos, M. & Morehouse, B. 2005, Glob. Env. Chg. 15, 57). However, it is important to manage communication and clarify participant expectations during this type of research (Gawith, M. et al. 2009, Glob. Env. Chg. 19, 113). This presentation describes the process being undertaken by an ongoing 5-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM), to improve accessibility and utility of scientific research results through stakeholder engagement. The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing the ecological risks from SLR along the Mississippi, Alabama and Florida Panhandle coasts, coastal habitats, and floodplains. It has incorporated stakeholder involvement throughout the research process so as to better target and tailor the emerging research products to meet resource managers' needs, as well as to facilitate eventual public dissemination of results. An

  12. Ecological Territory New Research Perspectives for the Urban Ecological Carrying Capacity%生态版图——城市生态承载力研究的新视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃盟琳; 吴承照

    2011-01-01

    城市生态版图是城市发展消费的各种生态系统服务在地球表层形成的空间格局,心距是城市生态版图的主要度量指标,城市生态版图空间结构变化会影响到城市的生态效率、生态质量、生态安全、生态公平.城市生态版图是城市生态足迹空间分布格局的理论概括,城市生态版图边界是动态的,超越城市行政边界.比较义乌和南充两个城市的生态版图,获得义乌生态效率比南充低、义乌城市生态质量好转而南充恶化、义乌存在生态安全隐患、义乌城市发展模式加剧区域生态公平失衡等结论.基于生态版图理论的城市发展策略包括土地、空间、人口、生态补偿等4个方面的策略.%The urban ecological territory is the spatial pattern of ecosystem services that supplies ecological resources for urban development. The five factors, namely the ecological efficiency, the ecological quality, the ecological security, the ecological fairness, and the ecological service distance, are the main parameters of an urban ecological territory. The urban ecological territory is a theoretical concept of spatial distribution pattern of the urban ecological foot-print, and the boundary of urban ecological territory is dynamic, which is different from the boundary of urban administration.Based on a comparison between the ecological territories of Yiwu city and Nanchong city, the paper suggests that the distance of ecological services immediately influences the transportation cost of ecological resources. That is, the longer the ecological service distance, the lower the urban ecological efficiency. Ecologically, Yiwu city is invasive while Nanchong city is the opposite. The ecosystem of Yiwu city is abundant with positive ecological reserve rate . The ecosystem of Nanchong city is coercive with negative ecology reserve rate. Based on ecological territory theory, urban development strategies should includes several aspects

  13. Ecological Perspectives in HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blevis, Eli; Bødker, Susanne; Flach, John;

    The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess...... the potential of ecological perspectives in HCI for supporting rich and meaningful analysis, as well as innovative design, of interactive technologies in real-life contexts...

  14. A review and synthesis of recreation ecology research findings on visitor impacts to wilderness and protected natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeff; Leung, Yu-Fai; Eagleston, Holly; Burroughs, Kaitlin

    2016-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of the US Wilderness Act of 1964 presents a worthy opportunity to review our collective knowledge on how recreation visitation affects wilderness and protected natural area resources. Studies of recreation impacts, examined within the recreation ecology field of study, have spanned 80 years and generated more than 1,200 citations. This article examines the recreation ecology literature most relevant to wilderness and backcountry, with a focus on visitor impacts to vegetation, soil, wildlife, and water resources. We also review relationships with influential factors, such as the amount of use, visitor behavior, and vegetation type. An understanding of these impacts and their relationships with influential factors is necessary for land managers seeking to identify acceptable limits of impact or selecting management actions that will effectively avoid or minimize resource impacts.

  15. 生态建筑节能系统研究%Research on Ecological Building Energy-saving System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江素霞; 张泽彤

    2014-01-01

    The ecological building energy-saving system of AEP (air-energy-plants) is characterized in that it can obtain IAQ (indoor air quality) and IEQ (indoor environment quality) and reduction of PM 2. 5 while reaching the energy saving targets, thereby providing a solution to ecological energy-saving project with low cost for building energy-saving and improvement of indoor air quality and realizing the leaping development in integration of applications of building electric and other disciplines. The paper introduces the concept of ecological building energy-saving system of AEP, relationship between AEP system and IAQ, IEQ and plants greenness as well as the application examples of ecological building energy-saving system.%AEP (空气-能量-植物)生态建筑节能系统的特点在于获得节能目标的同时得到高品质的室内空气质量 IAQ 和室内环境质量 IEQ,减少PM2.5,为建筑节能和提高室内空气质量提供一个低成本的生态节能工程解决方案,在建筑电气与其他学科应用层面的结合上迈出了跨越性的一步。介绍AEP 生态建筑节能系统的概念; AEP系统与室内空气质量、室内环境质量、植物绿量的关系;生态建筑节能系统的应用实例。

  16. New frontiers in nematode ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, H

    1993-09-01

    Future areas of emphasis for research and scholarship in nematode ecology are indicated by pressing agricultural and environmental issues, by new directions in applied nematology, and by current technological advances. Studies in nematode ecology must extend beyond observation, counting, and simple statistical analysis. Experimentation and the testing of hypotheses are needed for understanding the biological mechanisms of ecological systems. Opportunities for fruitful experimentation in nematode ecology are emerging at the ecosystem, community, population, and individual levels. Nematode ecologists will best promote their field of study by closely monitoring and participating in the advances, initiatives, developments, and directions in the larger field of ecology.

  17. What is dental ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 河西走廊生态体育发展现状研究%Research on Current Development Situation of Ecological Sports in Hexi Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建民; 香成福; 毛建民; 谢芳; 徐宏毅; 高永平

    2015-01-01

    According to the character of natural ecological sports resources, and garden landscape resources and humanity resources in Hexi corridor, from forest, and mountains, and prairie, and Gobi, and desert,and water, and glacier, and snow, and geological landforms, and artificial landscape, and humanity monuments, and venues, and folk culture resources and other aspects, the paper researches that the project was carried out and the movement race was held at present in Hexi corridor, and combines status, analyzes the development way of ecological sports in order to provide theory reference for sustainable development of ecological sports in Hexi corridor.%根据河西走廊自然生态体育资源、园林景观资源和人文资源的特点,从森林、山脉、草原、戈壁、沙漠、水利、冰川、雪地、地质地貌、人工景观、人文古迹、场馆、民俗文化资源等方面,研究了河西走廊目前生态体育开展的项目及举办的运动竞赛,并结合开展现状,分析了河西走廊生态体育发展的途径,为进一步促进生态体育的可持续发展提供理论参考。

  19. 我国大型体育赛事生态环境问题研究进展述评%Progress made in researches on issues about big sports events and ecological environment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于萌; 荆雯

    2014-01-01

    对中国知网(CNKI)2003-2013年关于大型体育赛事与生态环境研究的论文进行分析。我国关于大型体育赛事与生态环境问题的研究主要集中在大型体育赛事与环境承载能力以及评估体系构建、大型体育赛事对生态环境的改善作用、大型体育赛事对生态环境的危害、大型体育赛事生态环境可持续发展策略等方面。研究方法局限于社会学的研究方法,生态学的研究方法鲜有出现。今后的研究应将生态学的生态足迹和能值理论等研究方法应用其中。%The authors analyzed research theses on big sports events and ecological environment, published on China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) between 2003 and 2013. Researches on issues about big sports events and ecological environment in China mainly focused on the following aspects:big sports events and envi-ronment’s load bearing capacity as well as evaluation system construction, roles played by big sports events in im-proving ecological environment, hazards caused by big sports events to ecological environment, strategies for the sustainable development of big sports events and ecological environment etc. Research methods were limited to so-ciological research methods;ecological research methods were rarely seen. Researches henceforward should apply research methods such as ecological footprint and emergy theory in ecology etc.

  20. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  1. Soil data for a thermokarst bog and the surrounding permafrost plateau forest, located at Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research Site, Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manies, Kristen L.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Jones, Miriam C.; Waldrop, Mark P.; McGeehin, John P.

    2017-01-19

    Peatlands play an important role in boreal ecosystems, storing a large amount of soil organic carbon. In northern ecosystems, collapse-scar bogs (also known as thermokarst bogs) often form as the result of ground subsidence following permafrost thaw. To examine how ecosystem carbon balance changes with the loss of permafrost, we measured carbon and nitrogen storage within a thermokarst bog and the surrounding forest, which continues to have permafrost. These sites are a part of the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site and are located within Interior Alaska. Here, we report on methods used for core collection analysis as well as the cores’ physical, chemical, and descriptive properties.

  2. From Less or No Waste Manufacturing and Cleaner Production to Recycle Economy--A Review on the Theoretical Research and Practice of Ecological Enterprises in China%从少废无废工艺到清洁生产再到循环经济--中国生态效率企业理论研究与实践综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇

    2005-01-01

    Based on systematical research on the conception evolution of ecological enterprise, theoretical and practical development of constructing ecological enterprise, the paper makes conclusion that ecological enterprises are developing into a new stage in which governments are launching some pilot projects about constructing ecological enterprises. And after that, governments should make policies to spread construction of ecological enterprises, to construct ecological enterprises in legal system and conforming to the standard as soon as possibly. So that, the basic units of ecological economy that fit to the conditions of China will be set up.

  3. Research progress of the edge effect of ecological landscape%生态景观边缘效应研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍巍; 贺达汉

    2012-01-01

    边缘效应是景观生态学中一个极为重要的概念,在研究群落景观的能量流、物质流以及有机体流等生态过程中,边缘效应起着非常重要的作用.与此同时,边缘效应对于生物多样性的研究和保护具有特定的价值.通过对边缘效应的概念与内涵、影响因素、研究概况及其在生物多样性保护上的应用等方面进行了概述,便于他人在这一领域开展进一步的基础研究.%The edge effect is one of the important concepts of landscape ecology, which play an important role in ecological processes of energy flow, material flow, and organisms flow in the research community landscape. At the same time, the edge effect has a specific value in the study and protection of biodiversity. The concept and meaning, influencing factors, research profile and the application of biodiversity conservation of the edge effect were elaborated in this paper, so as to develop further work in the field of basic research.

  4. Scientist-teacher collaboration: Integration of real data from a coastal wetland into a high school life science ecology-based research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Wendy L.

    Project G.R.O.W. is an ecology-based research project developed for high school biology students. The curriculum was designed based on how students learn and awareness of the nature of science and scientific practices so that students would design and carry out scientific investigations using real data from a local coastal wetland. This was a scientist-teacher collaboration between a CSULB biologist and high school biology teacher. Prior to implementing the three-week research project, students had multiple opportunities to practice building requisite skills via 55 lessons focusing on the nature of science, scientific practices, technology, Common Core State Standards of reading, writing, listening and speaking, and Next Generation Science Standards. Project G.R.O.W. culminated with student generated research papers and oral presentations. Outcomes reveal students struggle with constructing explanations and the use of Excel to create meaningful graphs. They showed gains in data organization, analysis, teamwork and aspects of the nature of science.

  5. Field-Based Teacher Research: How Teachers and Scientists Working Together Answers Questions about Turtle Nesting Ecology while Enhancing Teachers' Inquiry Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, J. M.; Jungblut, D.; Catena, A. N.; Rubenstein, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    Providing rigorous academic supplement to a professional development program for teachers, QUEST is a fusion of Drexel University's environmental science research department with Princeton University's Program in Teacher Preparation. Completed in the summers of 2012 (in partnership with Earthwatch) and 2013 in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, QUEST's terrapin field research program enhances K-12 teachers' ecological knowledge, develops inquiry-based thinking in the classroom, and builds citizen science engagement. With a focus on quality question development and data analysis to answer questions, teachers are coached in developing, implementing, and presenting independent research projects on diamondback terrapin nesting ecology. As a result, teachers participating in QUEST's week long program bring a realistic example of science in action into their classrooms, helping to develop their own students' critical thinking skills. For teachers, this program provides training towards educating students on how to do real and imaginative science - subsequently sending students to university better prepared to engage in their own independent research. An essential component of the collaboration through QUEST, in addition to the teacher's experience during and after the summer institute, is the research data collected which supplements that of the Principal Investigator. In 2012, by documenting terrapin nest site predators, teachers gained valuable scientific experience, while Drexel acquired important ecological data which would have not been able to be collected otherwise. In 2013, teachers helped answer important questions about terrapin nesting success post Superstorm Sandy. In fact, the 2013 QUEST teachers are the first to visualize the frighteningly increased erosion of a primary terrapin nesting site due to Sandy; showing how most terrapin nests now lie in the bay, instead of safe on shore. Teachers comment that interacting with scientists in the field, and contributing to

  6. Sound Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Duffy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  7. Sound ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  8. Sound Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Duffy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  9. Statistical ecology comes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T; Morgan, Byron J T; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1-4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data.

  10. Statistical ecology comes of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T.; Morgan, Byron J. T.; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M.; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M.; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1–4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data. PMID:25540151

  11. How is shrimp aquaculture transforming coastal livelihoods and lagoons in Estero Real, Nicaragua? The need to integrate social-ecological research and ecosystem-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benessaiah, Karina; Sengupta, Raja

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystem-based approaches to aquaculture integrate environmental concerns into planning. Social-ecological systems research can improve this approach by explicitly relating ecological and social dynamics of change at multiple scales. Doing so requires not only addressing direct effects of aquaculture but also considering indirect factors such as changes in livelihood strategies, governance dynamics, and power relations. We selected the community of Puerto Morazán, Nicaragua as a case study to demonstrate how the introduction of small-scale aquaculture radically transformed another key livelihood activity, lagoon shrimp fishing, and the effects that these changes have had on lagoons and the people that depend on them. We find that shrimp aquaculture played a key role in the collapse, in the 1990s, of an existing lagoon common-property management. Shrimp aquaculture-related capital enabled the adoption of a new fishing technique that not only degraded lagoons but also led to their gradual privatization. The existence of social ties between small-scale shrimp farmers and other community members mitigated the impacts of privatization, illustrating the importance of social capital. Since 2008, community members are seeking to communally manage the lagoons once again, in response to degraded environmental conditions and a consolidation of the shrimp industry at the expense of smaller actors. This research shows that shrimp aquaculture intersects with a complex set of drivers, affecting not only how ecosystems are managed but also how they are perceived and valued. Understanding these social-ecological dynamics is essential to implement realistic policies and management of mangrove ecosystems and address the needs of resource-dependent people.

  12. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological features shape people’s goals, strategies, and behaviors. Our research suggests that social perceivers possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Moreover, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups may actually reflect their stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. In a series of studies, we demonstrate that (i) individuals possess ecology-dri...

  13. 生态文明制度体系建设的路径选择%Research on the Route Choice of Ecological Civilization’ s System Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵成; 于萍

    2016-01-01

    生态文明制度建设是生态文明建设由政治理念、战略规划走向社会实践的基本途径和关键。在“五位一体”的视域下,生态文明建设离不开社会其他领域的建设,其制度体系建设存在着五重维度即环保维度、政治法律管理维度、经济科技维度、文化维度、社会生活维度;而从其制度构成的层次结构看,则存在着双层结构即核心制度体系与支撑制度体系的构建问题。为此,深入研究生态文明核心制度体系及其支撑制度体系的构建,对于实现生态文明建设目标以及“五位一体”战略目标都具有重要意义。%The system construction of ecological civilization is the basic way and key to which the con⁃struction of ecological civilization transforms from political philosophy and strategic planning to social practice. In the perspective of"Five in One", the construction of ecological civilization is inseparable from the develop⁃ment of other areas. The system construction has five dimensions:environmental protection dimension, politi⁃cal and legal management dimension, economic and technological dimension, cultural dimension and social life dimension; while from the perspective of hierarchical structure of the institutional composition, there is a problem on the construction of the two-layer structure which consists of the core institutional system and sup⁃porting institutional system. To this end, it has great significance to have a deep research on the construction of the core institutional system of ecological civilization and its supporting system for the realization of ecological civilization construction and "Five in One" strategic objectives.

  14. Ecological effects of environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Gloria M; Hochberg, Michael E; Holyoak, Marcel; Hossaert, Martine; Gaill, Françoise; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-05-01

    This Special Issue of Ecology Letters presents contributions from an international meeting organised by Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and Ecology Letters on the broad theme of ecological effects of global environmental change. The objectives of these articles are to synthesise, hypothesise and illustrate the ecological effects of environmental change drivers and their interactions, including habitat loss and fragmentation, pollution, invasive species and climate change. A range of disciplines is represented, including stoichiometry, cell biology, genetics, evolution and biodiversity conservation. The authors emphasise the need to account for several key ecological factors and different spatial and temporal scales in global change research. They also stress the importance of ecosystem complexity through approaches such as functional group and network analyses, and of mechanisms and predictive models with respect to environmental responses to global change across an ecological continuum: population, communities and ecosystems. Lastly, these articles provide important insights and recommendations for environmental conservation and management, as well as highlighting future research priorities.

  15. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  16. Ecological Modernization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Globalization provides a thorough understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of globalization as well as the various historical and analytical interpretations. Consisting of over 400 entries, coverage includes key cultural, ecological, economic, geographical, historical, poli

  17. Cognitive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

  18. Eco-economic research and construction of harmonious society in China: a survey of the 7th Biennial Conference of Chinese Ecological Economics Society, 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Shaolun

    2007-01-01

    The 7th Biennial Conferenceof Chinese Ecological Economics Society (CEES) was held from 5th to 7th, Nov.2006 in Qingdao University, The paper summarizes the major viewpoint presented at the conference: eco-economic research and construction of a harmonious society in China. The conference put forward that it is an objectivity and inevitability for human being to enter the harmonious society, that eco-economics is one of the theoretical bases for the construction of the harmonious society, and that the research of eco-economics in China should reflect new contents developed in the process of madernization in China and make proper contributions to the construction of the harmonious society.

  19. [Trends of faunistic-ecological researches in the Department of Parasitology in Wrocław University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulewicz, Anna; Lonc, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    Paper deals with the results of systematic-ecological investigations of host-parasite relationships in the context of 45 year history of the Parasitological Department at the University of Wrocław. Achievements are concentrated on the presentations of new taxonomic units and rearrangement of classification of parasitic protozoans and tapeworms (J. Janiszewska), nematodes (A. Okulewicz), lice (J. Złotorzycka, E. Lonc, M. Modrzejewska). Faunistic and biometrical data of parasitic commities of fishes, birds and mammals, mainly rodents as well as the vector role of ticks and mosquitoes at Wroclaw area are also discussed. Localities of those parasites and their hosts, collected mainly from the Lower Silesia region are rearranged according to new system of physicogeographic differentiation of Poland and its regional position at biogeographical map of world.

  20. Exploring How to Walk the Talk: Examining the Practical Application of Models of Science Communication in Long-Term Ecological Research Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartock, L.; Rickard, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    This research investigates the relationship between science communication at a theoretical level and the practice of science communication in long-term ecological research sites (LTERs). In particular, we examine if and how the work of LTER science communication practitioners, individuals with the responsibility to communicate, report, or interpret the findings of his/her LTER with any other group, excluding through K-12 educational programs, aligns with theoretically established models of science communication. Broadly speaking, as over two decades of research in science communication attests, these models tend to emphasize the deficit approach, dialogue with and between audiences, and/or audience participation. Does the practitioners' work fall neatly into these three "ideal type" categories, or do their practices blur the boundaries of established models? Do practitioners appeal to more than one type of model in the course of their work? Is there evidence of hybrid approaches, or other, new models that have not yet been identified in the literature? Participating organizations will be selected from the Long Term Ecological Research Network, an organization of LTERs funded by the National Science Foundation. The LTER network is actively involved in science communication, as shown by the most recent LTER Strategic Communication Plan. Science communicators may be involved in variety of practices, such as creating translational materials for policymakers to better understand the findings of LTERs, developing training courses for conservation professionals, or organizing site tours for journalists or funders. Practitioners will participate in semi-structured interviews covering how their practices relate to established models of science communication, how they view their roles and responsibilities, and how they view their audience(s). This presentation will cover emerging results from ongoing analysis of interviews conducted with a purposive sample of these

  1. Tourism social-ecological systems and resilience research%旅游社会-生态系统及其恢复力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娅玲; 杨新军

    2011-01-01

    人地关系和谐是区域旅游可持续发展的根本保障,合理、准确的耦合旅游社会-生态系统、探讨其内部运行规律将有利于人类加深认识变化中的旅游活动同环境的相互作用关系。文中在国内外相关研究的基础上,提出了基于旅游活动的社会-生态系统的概念及研究框架,探讨受外界及自身干扰下的旅游社会-生态系统的特征及动态运行机制。在此基础上,进一步提出并重点讨论了旅游社会-生态系统中恢复力的概念、内涵及评价指标体系,简要分析了未来旅游社会-生态系统的恢复力测度的方法及趋向。最终目的是建立适应性管理机制,增强各利益相关者学习能力,为应对旅游发展与生态环境间日益严峻的矛盾、促进区域旅游的可持续研究提供一个新的视角。%Good relations between human beings and the environment will be conducive to regional tourism development.It is conducive to better understand the changing international relationship between tourism and environment that we could reasonably and accurately couple tourism social-ecological systems and find their internal operating rules.The research of regional tourism needs a integrated perspective with ecological,economic and social dimension.Based on the summary of domestic and international social-ecological systems and resilience relevant theoretical research,we build a new concept and framework of social-ecological systems,and attempt to use an overall integrated perspective to analysis characteristic and dynamic mechanism of tourism social-ecological systems with external disturbance and perturbation.More over,this article presents and discusses emphatically resilience's concept,connotation and the evaluation index systems,and briefly analyzes the measurement method and recent advance of resilience.The aim is to build adaptive management mechanism and sufficiently cope with the contracdition between tourism

  2. Fundamental ecology is fundamental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. The challenges of long-term ecological research in springs in the northern and southern Alps: indicator groups, habitat diversity, and medium-term change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia WIEDENBRUG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available After extensive exploratory investigations into crenic habitats at the beginning of the 1990s, a number of springs were selected and long-term ecological research programmes independently initiated in the Berchtesgaden National Park (north-eastern Alps, Bavaria and the Adamello-Brenta Nature Park (south-eastern Alps, Trentino. Following more than a decade of standardized work, this paper presents a selection of results from both sides of the Alps, with a focus on zoobenthos in Bavaria and on pro- and eukaryotic algae in Trentino. In order to test the assumption that permanent springs are particularly suitable habitats for long-term ecological research, the following topics are addressed: (1 taxonomic diversity and relationships between diversity and spring typology; (2 transverse gradients in crenic habitats, hygrophilous terrestrial invertebrates and xerotolerant algae; (3 possibilities of documenting changes in species composition over decadal time scales ("medium-term" based on emergence traps, benthos, and benthic algae. The data obtained show that: (1 crenic habitats support particularly high biological diversity (but a thorough documentation of insect diversity is impossible without emergence studies; (2 helocrenes are the most species-rich habitats, for both invertebrates and diatoms; (3 dynamic (unstable and occasionally-impacted springs show identifiable signs of medium-term change, whilst particularly complex and stable crenic habitats seem to be controlled by internal processes. Our results suggest that: (1 the meiofauna is likely to react directly to environmental change, while emergers and the hygrophilous terrestrial fauna are indirectly affected, and (2 diatoms react both to direct effects of environmental change, e.g. discharge and hydrochemistry, and to indirect effects on the surroundings of the spring. Based on our results, long-term research strategies are discussed. For long-term studies, we propose a focus on meiofauna and

  4. Ecological Anthropological Research on the Vertical Agriculture of Lisu People: A Case Study of Tongle Village in Weixi County of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanbai; HAN; Mingkun; CUI; Qingwen; MIN

    2013-01-01

    Tongle Village in Weixi County of Yunnan Province,a typical Lisu village in Lancang River basin,is located at the national protection zone of traditional culture of Lisu people and named as the ecological cultural village by UNESCO. Based on the distinctive climatic characteristics at different altitudes,Lisu people have developed an effective vertical agriculture system. They cultivate rice and wheat in the river basin at an altitude of 1 740 m; plant corns,nuts,fruits and vegetables around the village at an altitude of 1 840m and buckwheat,potato, herbs in the upper " swidden land" at an altitude of 2 000 m. They also herd animals in the alpine meadow at an altitude of 2 500 m. Based on a fieldwork,this paper studied the vertical agriculture system by applying the theories of Ecological Anthropology and employing several field work methods such as participant observation and in-depth interviews. According to the research findings,Lisu people have not only properly utilized local natural resources,but also developed a related cultural system to facilitate their agriculture production. But the vertical system also faces great challenges with the economic and social development of local areas. To respond positively,sustainable development is a way for Lisu people to enhance their living standards and maintain their traditional culture.

  5. Research advances in heavy metals pollution ecology of diatom%硅藻重金属污染生态学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁腾达; 倪婉敏; 张建英

    2012-01-01

    Diatom, due to its high sensitivity to environmental change, is one of the bio-indicators of aquatic ecosystem health, and some typical diatom species have been applied to indicate the heavy metals pollution of water body. With the focus on the surface water heavy metals pollution, this paper reviewed the research advances in the toxic effect of heavy metals pollution on diatom, biosorption and bioaccumulation of heavy metals by diatom, ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom to heavy metals pollution, and roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals pollution. The growth tendency of diatom and the morphological change of frustule under heavy metals pollution as well as the differences in heavy metals biosorption and bioaccumulation by diatom, the ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom on heavy metals surface complex-ation and ion exchange, and the roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals polluted water body were also discussed. This review could provide scientific evidences for the prevention of aquatic ecosystems heavy metals pollution and related early warning techniques.%硅藻是水生生态系统健康的指示生物之一,对环境变化极为敏感,某些典型硅藻已应用于指示水体重金属污染.本文围绕地表水重金属污染,从毒性效应、生物吸附和累积、生态适应机制及生物指示与生态修复作用等方面,综述了硅藻重金属污染生态学研究进展,阐述重金属污染下硅藻的生长趋势和硅壳形态的变化,硅藻对重金属生物吸附和生物累积的差别,硅藻对重金属的表面络合和离子交换等生态适应机制,以及硅藻对水体重金属污染的指示作用和生态修复作用,为水生生态系统的重金属污染防治与预警技术提供科学依据.

  6. Ecological Networks in Urban Landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    This research focuses on the topic of ecological networks in urban landscapes. Analysis and planning of ecological networks is a relatively new phenomenon and is a response to fragmentation and deterioration of quality of natural systems. In agricultural areas and with existing nature preserves this

  7. Information Retrieval for Ecological Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Helen R.; Beyer, Fiona R.

    2015-01-01

    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with…

  8. Ecology under lake ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hampton, Stephanie E.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Powers, Stephen M.; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H.; Batt, Ryan D.; Labou, Stephanie G.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R.; Stanley, Emily H.; North, Rebecca L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M.; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L., Jr.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M.; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N.; Jolley, Jeff C.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J.; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W.; Mariash, Heather L.; Mckay, Robert M.; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Noges, Peeter; Noges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C.; Post, David M.; Pruett, Matthew J.; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S.; Roberts, Sarah L.; Ruecker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A.; Smith, Derek E.; Sterner, Robert W.; Swann, George E. A.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R.; Vogt, Richard J.; Watson, Susan B.; Whiteford, Erika J.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experi-ence periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems,due to a historical research focus on summer ‘growing seasons’. We executed the first global

  9. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  10. EMA--An Ecologism-orientated Research Model%EMA——一种生态主义取向的研究模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵华; 吕晓峰

    2011-01-01

    生态瞬时评估(EMA)不是一个单一的研究方法,而是一种研究模式,它强调现实世界中实时数据的采集和反复的评估,并能阐释变量间自然存在和变化的相互关系,具有很高的生态学效度。EMA的使用会加强我们对个体与环境之间的动态交互作用的理解。EMA的基本设计思路包括基于事件的设计、基于时间的设计和联合设计。在EMA的使用中还有一些问题如软硬件的发展、伦理、数据等问题等需要研究者注意。目前EMA应用最广泛的领域是临床心理学和行为研究方面。%Although Ecological Momentary Assessment( EMA )was created in 1994, the research about EMA had been active for decades abroad. EMA is not a single research method, but a paradigm. It emphasizes the research, evaluation, and observation of individuals' mind and behavior in real life. EMA breaks through the limitations of retrospective recall. It emphasizes the real-time data collection and repeated assessment of the real world, and illustrates the relationship between the natural existence and change in variables, thus maximizing ecological validity. Phenomena are captured at the moment they occur or very shortly thereafter. This helps greatly reduce or eliminate retrospective recall biases. The introduction about EMA is still scattered in China, so a systematic introduction is essential to enriching the research methods of psychology, promoting the ecological orientation research of psychology, and understanding profoundly people's mind in daily life. No one is diagnosed or treated because of how they behave in a laboratory or consulting room. Yet, behavior is seldom studied, assessed, or observed as it unfolds in the real world. The use of EMA can enhance our understanding of the active interaction between individuals and environment. The basic design idea of EMA includes Event-Based I:~igns, Time-Based Designs and Combination Designs, and the specific

  11. Empirical test of the influence of global warming and forest disturbance on ant fauna at the Gwangneung Forest Long Term Ecological Research site, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kwon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of forest disturbance and climate change on the ant fauna at the Long Term Ecological Research site in Gwangneung Forest, Korea in 2003 and 2012. After forest disturbance, the occurrence and abundance of ants belonging to the functional groups of forest ground forager and soil and litter dweller are predicted to decrease, while the occurrence and abundance of ants belonging to the open land forager and forest vegetation forager functional groups are predicted to increase. In terms of the effects of climate change, if the optimum temperature of the ants is lower than the annual average temperature in the survey area, the occurrence and abundance of the ants are predicted to decrease and vice versa. Ant surveys were carried out using pitfall traps. Changes in the dominant species, occurrence, and abundance mostly corresponded to the predictions for forest disturbance, but did not match the prediction for an increase in temperature.

  12. 当代中国农民生态理性研究的体系与思路--农民生态理性研究述评%The System and Thinking of Ecological Rational Research of Contemporary Chinese Farmers---Comments on the Research of Famers'Ecological Rationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立嘉

    2014-01-01

    The ecological rational research on farmers mainly focuses on the argument and illustration about the farmers 'rationality, a-nalysis of its necessity , the status analysis of the contemporary Chinese farmers , the reason of their rationality lack , and the way of con-structing the contemporary Chinese farmers'ecological rationality .Meanwhile, based on the above exploration , the system and thinking of the farmers'ecological rationality could be constructed .%目前农民生态理性研究主要包括农民具有理性的论证、农民生态理性内涵阐释、农民生态理性必要性分析、当代中国农民生态理性现状分析、当代中国农民生态理性缺失的原因探讨、构建当代中国农民生态理性的途径等六个方面。对于这六方面的研究正好可以建构起我们对于农民生态理性研究的体系和思路。

  13. Ecological functions of bryophyte:Recent research progress%苔藓植物生态功能研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田维莉; 孙守琴

    2011-01-01

    苔藓植物是一种形体微小、结构简单的高等植物,是水生向陆生的一种过渡形式,是高等植物中最原始的类群.随着研究的发展,人们越来越意识到苔藓植物在生态系统结构和功能中具有非常重要的作用,而且对苔藓在生物监测、水土保持、森林更新等方面已有一些研究和综述.本文针对目前环境科学研究中的一些热点问题,从全球气候变化、生态系统C、N、P循环等方面对近年来苔藓植物的生态功能研究方面的新进展进行了综述,以期加深人们对苔藓的认识并促进苔藓植物生态功能的进一步深入研究.%Bryophyte is a kind of higher plants with small size and simple structure, being the transitional form from aquatic to terrestrial and the most original group of existing higher plants.With the development of scientific research, people realized more and more the important roles of bryophyte in the structure and function of ecosystem.Some researches were made on the roles of bryophyte in environmental bio-monitoring, water and soil conservation, and forest regeneration.Aiming at the hotspots in environmental sciences research, and from the viewpoints of global climate change and ecosystem carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles, this paper summarized the recent research progress in the ecological functions of bryophyte, which could be helpful to deepen our understanding on bryophyte and to promote the researches of its ecological functions.

  14. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  15. Visual ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Thomas W; Johnsen, Sönke; Marsahll, N. Justin; Warrant, Eric

    2014-01-01

    ... ecology. . Physiology, Comparative. . Eye- Evolution. I. Title. QP.C  .'- dc British Library Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available This book...

  16. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker...

  17. Biodiversity in Benthic Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Carl, J. D.

    Foreword: This proceeding is based on a set of papers presented at the second Nordic Benthological Meeting held in Silkeborg, November 13-14, 1997. The main theme of the meeting was biodiversity in benthic ecology and the majority of contributions touch on this subject. In addition, the proceeding...... contains papers which cover other themes thus continuing with the spirit of the meetings in the Nordic Benthological Society (NORBS) by being an open forum for exchanging knowledge on all aspects of benthic ecology. Overall, we feel the proceeding contains a wide selection of very interesting papers...... representing the state-of-the-art of benthic ecology research within, and to a lesser degree, outside the Nordic countries. We wish to thank all the authors for their inspirational contributions to the proceeding, but we feel that a special thanks is due to the invited speakers for their readiness to produce...

  18. Coevolutionary ecological economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallis, Giorgos [ICREA Researcher, ICTA, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, ETSE, QC/3095, 08193 Bellatera, Barcelona (Spain); Norgaard, Richard B. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California at Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3050 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    This paper maps a coevolutionary research agenda for ecological economics. At an epistemological level coevolution offers a powerful logic for transcending environmental and social determinisms and developing a cross-disciplinary approach in the study of socio-ecological systems. We identify four consistent stories emerging out of coevolutionary studies in ecological economics, concerning: environmental degradation and development failure in peripheral regions; the lock-in of unsustainable production-consumption patterns; the vicious cycle between human efforts to control undesirable micro-organisms and the evolution of these organisms; and the adaptive advantages of other-regarding, cooperative behaviors and institutions. We identify challenges in the conceptualization of coevolutionary relationships in relation to: the interaction between different hierarchical levels of evolution; the role of space and social power; uneven rates of change and crises. We conclude with the political implications of a coevolutionary perspective based on the premises of pragmatism. (author)

  19. Applying the ecological Shannon′s diversity index to measure research collaboration based on coauthorship: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Voutilainen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the usefulness of a slightly modified Shannon's diversity index (H as a numerical measure of intragroup research collaboration diversity based on coauthorship. Altogether, 527 peer-reviewed scientific papers by two university departments were used as the study material. Nonrandom rationalized sampling was executed to enable the confirmation of the authors' affiliations. The smallest unit of collaboration, i.e., a pair of authors, was created by matching every author with each of the coauthors from the same department he or she collaborated with. H was calculated at the department level and compared with the previously published, coauthorship based measures of research collaboration: The collaborative index (CI, degree of collaboration (DC and collaboration diversity index (CDI. Obviously, H expressed a different aspect of research collaboration than the existing indexes. Compared to CI, DC, and CDI, H revealed novel aspects of collaboration when the abundance of collaboration increased and the distribution of collaborative relations between coauthors moved closer to the uniform distribution at the same time. H can provide additional information about collaborative relationships between researchers based on coauthorship, and it should be considered as a partial indicator of research collaboration.

  20. Research on the Environment for the Growth of Innovative Talents Based on Ecological Management Theory%基于生态管理理论的创新型人才成长环境研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德议; 张向前

    2012-01-01

    创新型人才的成长环境直接关系到创新型人才的培养和创新成果的先进程度.从生态管理理论的视角着手,界定和明确了生态管理理论的内涵及其目标,在此基础上分析认为创新型人才成长环境包括政治生态因子、经济生态因子、文化生态因子、科技生态因子、自然生态因子等宏观环境和家庭生态因子、启蒙教育生态因子、高等教育生态因子及工作组织生态因子等微观环境;研究建议构建基于生态管理理论的创新型人才成长环境需要政府、家庭、教育机构和用人单位齐心共建.%Environment for the growth of innovative talents is directly related to the cultivation of innovative talents and advanced degree of the innovation efforts. From the perspective of ecological management theory the research clears and defines the connotation and its objectives of ecological management theory. Based on the above analysis, this study thinks that the environment for the growth of innovative talents includes macro environment and micro environment. Macro environment includes political ecological factor, economic ecological factor, cultural ecological factor, science and technology ecological factor, and the natural ecological factor. Micro environment includes family ecological factor, elementary education ecological factor, higher education ecological factor and work organization ecological factor. The study recommends that building the environment for the growth of innovative talents based on ecological management theory needs the efforts from governments, families, educational institutions and employing units.

  1. Urban sound ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Krogh Groth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Within recent years, there has been a renewed focus on sound in urban environments. From sound installations in public space to sound festivals in alternative settings, we find a common interest in sound art relating to the urban environment. Artworks or interventions presented in such contexts share the characteristics of site specificity. However, this article will consider the artwork in a broader context by re-examining how sound installations relate to the urban environment. For that purpose, this article brings together ecology terms from acoustic ecology of the sound theories of the 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel. The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point to how artists working with new information and media technologies create inventive ways of inserting sound and image into urban environments.

  2. Online ecological and environmental data

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, Virginia Ann

    2014-01-01

    Discover important Internet resources for research data made public individually and collectively by researchers from a variety of entities in the fields of environmental studies and ecology Online Ecological and Environmental Data explores innovative projects from a diverse array of institutions that have made environmental and ecological research information freely available online. You will find a wealth of Web site listings with URLs and complete descriptions, data field descriptions, controlled vocabulary examples, and Web screen shots that demonstrate how to use a specific site. The book will help you locate the data, procedures, instruments, notes, and other descriptive information that scientists and engineers need for replicating and building on the research of others. With Online Ecological and Environmental Data, you''ll gain a better understanding of: * the cooperative design, development, and management of interdisciplinary data * cataloging multidisciplinary environmental data * data netw...

  3. Research of ecology-friendly technology for elimination of ammonium from waste water through the use of floating bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makisha Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article touches upon integrated treatment of sewage. It reveals description of the research with use of floating feed. Experiment data were the basis to prove effectiveness of floating feed as a way to intensify treatment processes in aeration tanks. The article also includes math treatment of the results to correspond them with laws of enzymatic kinetics.

  4. Understanding controls on flow permanence in intermittent rivers to aid ecological research: integrating meteorology, geology and land cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermittent rivers, those channels that periodically cease to flow, constitute over half of the total discharge of the global river network and will likely increase in their extent due to climatic shifts and/or water resources development. Burgeoning research on intermittent riv...

  5. Teachers in the desert: Creating ecological research opportunities for teachers and students on the US-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable research provides evidence for the value of teaching science using enhanced context strategies. These strategies include making learning relevant to students by using real-world examples and problems as well as taking students out of the classroom to learn about the topic. Unfortunately...

  6. Understanding controls on flow permanence in intermittent rivers to aid ecological research: integrating meteorology, geology and land cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermittent rivers, those channels that periodically cease to flow, constitute over half of the total discharge of the global river network and will likely increase in their extent due to climatic shifts and/or water resources development. Burgeoning research on intermittent riv...

  7. Agro-ecological zonation, characterization and optimization of rice-based cropping systems : proceedings of the SARP applications workshop on the application programs 'Agro-ecological zonation and characterzation' and 'Crop rotation optimization', held at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Banos, Philippines, 18 April - 6 May, 1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansigan, F.P.; Bouman, B.A.M.; Laar, van H.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this volume of the SARP research proceedings two 'Application Programs' are introduced. Five papers are presented on agro-ecological zonation and characterization, dealing with rainfall mapping, GIS and soil data base investigation. Nine papers are presented on crop rotation optimization, having

  8. The Organizational Ecology of Institutional Research: An Exploration of the Factors behind the Fragmentation of the Institutional Research Enterprise. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, James C.; Corcoran, Mary E.

    Theories concerning the organizational dynamics underlying the dispersion of institutional research activities within colleges are proposed. Two theoretical arguments concern whether or not a centralized, monopolistic institutional research office will be found on a given campus: the informational legitimacy argument and the limited attention…

  9. Research on the significance of the establishment of the cultural ecological compensation in the continuous destitute areas%论连片特困地区文化生态补偿机制建立的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨枫

    2014-01-01

    After years of practice,the ecological compensation in China has achieved certain results, especially in the natural ecological protection.But for the cultural ecological compensation which is closely related to the natural ecological compensation, there is more research blank. Study how to combine the natural and the cultural ecological compensation,design the cultural ecological compensation policy, establish corresponding mechanism, which would have the profound significance for promoting the development of the continuous destitute areas in economic and cultural in our country.%我国生态补偿经过多年实践,在自然生态保护方面都取得了一定成效。但对于自然生态补偿密切相关的文化生态补偿,却存在较多的研究空白。自然生态补偿与文化生态补偿相结合,设计文化生态补偿政策,建立相应机制,对于推动我国连片特困地区经济与文化同步发展具有深远的意义。

  10. The development history and research progress of molecular microbial ecology%微生物分子生态学发展历史及研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓然; 吕毅; 宫路路; 柳陈坚

    2012-01-01

    Microbial community diversity is an essential issue in both microbial ecology and environmental microbiology. The features and characteristics of uncultured microorganisms, also known as the majority population in environments, could be accomplished because of the introduction of molecular methods. Ribosomal RNA ( rRNA) is the most widely used and useful molecular marker for molecular ecological researches, which is caused by its highly functional conservation and diverse mutation rates in different positions. Phylogenetic analysis at different taxonomic level could be done by the comparison of rRNA sequences. Metagenomic methods of environmental samples by the analysis of total genomes of microbial community fully display the environmental microbial metabolic pathway and greatly expand the understanding on microorganisms. The rapid development of next generation sequencing methods have greatly promoted the microbial ecological technologies and brought new breakthroughs.%微生物群落多样性是微生物生态学和环境学研究的重点之一.分子生物学方法应用于微生物群落结构分析使得对环境样品中占大多数的不可培养微生物的研究成为了可能.由于功能上高度保守,序列上的不同位置具有不同的变异速率,核糖体RNA(rRNA)是目的在微生物分子生态学上最为有用以及应用最广泛的分子标记,通过rRNA序列比对,可以分析不同分类水平的系统发育关系.元基因组学研究方法通过对环境样品中的各种微生物群落的总的基因组进行分析,充分展示了环境微生物代谢途径,极大地扩展了对微生物的认识.快速发展的高通量测序极大地促进了各项微生物生态学技术的发展,带来了新的突破.

  11. Research Advances of Soils and Plants Ecological Stoichiometry%土壤与植物生态化学计量学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓光; 乌云娜; 宋彦涛; 霍光伟; 张凤杰

    2016-01-01

    生态化学计量学是一门新兴科学,主要研究生态作用和生态过程中能量平衡及碳、氮、磷等多重化学元素的平衡,有机统一了生物学不同层次(分子、细胞、个体、种群、生态系统以及全球尺度)的研究理论。陆地生态系统的生态化学计量学研究具有重要意义,土壤和植物的碳、氮、磷比例关系可以表征生态系统的养分限制状况以及有机质的分解程度及其对土壤肥力的潜在贡献等。主要综述了生态化学计量学的概念、起源及研究简史,重点概述了陆地生态系统(主要为草原生态系统)中土壤与植物碳、氮、磷的生态化学计量学特征及其对气候因子及人为干扰等因素的响应。%Ecological stoichiometry is a new science which mainly studies the energy balance and the mass balance of multiple chemical elements, especially carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. This new science incorporates the theories of different levels of biology from molecular, cellulate, or-ganismal, population and ecosystem to global. It is significant to study the ecological stoichiometry of terrestrial ecosystem, because the C:N:P stoichiometry ratios of soils and plants can reflect the nutrients limiting status as well as the decomposition degree of the organic matters and its con-tribution to soil fertility of terrestrial ecosystems. This paper summarized the concepts, origin and research history of ecological stoichiometry. The characteristics of C:N:P stoichiometry ratios in soils and plants of terrestrial ecosystems ( especially grassland) and their responses to climatic fac-tors, human disturbances and so forth were also reviewed in this paper.

  12. Contrasting total carbon and nitrogen stocks between ecological site types in a Sub-Boreal research forest in central British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bois, C.H.; Janzen, D.T. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Ecosystem Science and Management Program; Sanborn, P.T.; Fredeen, A.L. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Ecosystem Science and Management Program]|[Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Natural Resources and Environmental Studies Inst.

    2006-07-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration and carbon stocks within managed and natural forests have become topical issues since the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol. A multi-year study was conducted to evaluate the total C stocks present in a 10 km{sup 2} area of University of British Columbia's Aleza Lake Research Forest located 60 km east of Prince George in the Sub-Boreal Spruce biogeoclimatic zone of east-central British Columbia. The purpose was to address gaps in knowledge about forest C budgets, total pool sizes, dynamics of forest floor and mineral soil carbon by studying the effects of forest management. Sampling plots were chosen randomly within strata composed of the dominant ecological site classes, soil textures and management histories. The study involved the creation of 137 plots, of which 108 and 29 were located on fine and coarse textured soils, respectively. Sampling was reduced in these strata due to a shortage of middle-aged stands and the near lack of coarse textured soils. Data collection and sampling methodology were adapted from the National Forest Inventory Ground Sampling Guidelines of the Canadian Forest Service. Carbon stocks were measured in forest floor and mineral soil to a depth of 1 metre. The Dumas-combustion method was used to determine C and nitrogen (N) concentrations. It was determined that stand age did not decidedly change the forest floor or mineral soil total C and N in either fine or coarse textured soil plots. However, forest floor C and N were considerably higher in coarse textured soils compared to C and N measured in fine soil plots. Mineral soil C concentration decreased methodically with depth from 4.6 per cent C at 0 cm to 0.2 per cent at 100 cm. The paper also addressed the breakdown of forest floor and mineral soil C and N pools according to ecological site series.

  13. Research of ecological buddhist temple architecture design%生态佛寺建筑设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永诚; 甘甜; 吴冠烨; 张琦

    2014-01-01

    佛寺建筑在国内已形成中国自己的佛教寺院建筑。生态佛寺建筑是佛学思想与生态学思想契合的结果。生态佛寺建筑设计,需要一个设计目标。在设计内容中,需要研究佛寺建筑的文化属性和传承以及文化的相融和共生;研究佛寺建筑与人和自然环境的相互影响和内容;研究适宜的经济建设和运营方式;研究技术的适宜性、经济性和可行性;整体协调是一个重要的研究内容。%In the design of content,need to study cultural property and heritage of Buddhist architecture,considering a variety of cultural blending and symbiotic,researching buddhist temples、human and natural environment interaction,the impact of approach and content,researching favorable economic construction and the way they operate,forming a virtuous circle of economic operation of the system,researching suitability of technical,economic and feasibility.Whole coordination is an important research.Under the governing design goal,it coordinates all design elements into a whole eco-system of temple architecture.

  14. Theoretical ecology as etiological from the start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donhauser, Justin

    2016-12-01

    The world's leading environmental advisory institutions look to ecological theory and research as an objective guide for policy and resource management decision-making. In addition to the theoretical and broadly philosophical merits of doing so, it is therefore practically significant to clear up confusions about ecology's conceptual foundations and to clarify the basic workings of inferential methods used in the science. Through discussion of key moments in the genesis of the theoretical branch of ecology, this essay elucidates a general heuristic role of teleological metaphors in ecological research and defuses certain enduring confusions about work in ecology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Ecology for a changing earth. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.H. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roughgarden, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1990-02-06

    To forecast the ecological impact of global change, research initiatives are needed on the explicit role of humans in ecological systems, and on how ecological processes functioning at different spatial and temporal scales are coupled. Furthermore, to synthesize the results of ecological research for Congress, policymakers, and the general public, a new agency, called the United States Ecological Survey (USES) is urgently required. Also, a national commitment to environmental health, as exemplified by establishing a National Institutes of the Environment (NIE), should be a goal.

  16. Evaluation Research on Ecological and Clean Small-watershed Based on Ecological Footprint Model%基于生态足迹的生态清洁小流域评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄聪; 冯宝平; 张展羽

    2011-01-01

    The ecological and clean small-watershed management is the development and improvement of comprehensive management of small-watersheds, which is an important part of the Construction of New Socialist Countryside. In recent years, our country upfolds pilot projects of ecological and clean small-watershed small-watershed for soil and water conservation, and obtains fairly good effectiveness. This paper uses modified ecological footprint methodology to evaluate the construction effect of ecological and clean small-watersheds, dividing small-watershed ecological footprint into three parts, thereby providing new ways for evaluation of ecological and clean small-watersheds.%生态清洁小流域治理是小流域综合治理的发展和完善,是我国"社会主义新农村建设"的重要组成部分.近年来我国开展了水土保持生态清洁型小流域试点工程,取得了较好效果.采用改进的生态足迹方法评价生态清洁小流域建设效果,将小流域生态足迹分为生物资源账户生态足迹、能源消费账户生态足迹、污染消纳账户生态足迹3部分,从而为建设生态清洁小流域评价提供新的思路.

  17. Enhancing Research Ethics Review Systems in Egypt: The Focus of an International Training Program Informed by an Ecological Developmental Approach to Enhancing Research Ethics Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Hillary Anne; Hifnawy, Tamer; Silverman, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Recently, training programs in research ethics have been established to enhance individual and institutional capacity in research ethics in the developing world. However, commentators have expressed concern that the efforts of these training programs have placed 'too great an emphasis on guidelines and research ethics review', which will have limited effect on ensuring ethical conduct in research. What is needed instead is a culture of ethical conduct supported by national and institutional commitment to ethical practices that are reinforced by upstream enabling conditions (strong civil society, public accountability, and trust in basic transactional processes), which are in turn influenced by developmental conditions (basic freedoms of political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security). Examining this more inclusive understanding of the determinants of ethical conduct enhances at once both an appreciation of the limitations of current efforts of training programs in research ethics and an understanding of what additional training elements are needed to enable trainees to facilitate national and institutional policy changes that enhance research practices. We apply this developmental model to a training program focused in Egypt to describe examples of such additional training activities.

  18. Synthesizing research and education: Ecology and genetics of independent fern gametophytes and teaching science inquiry and content through simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Aaron M.

    Two of the main areas of focus in university academics are research and education. The mission statements of Utah State University and the Department of Biology emphasize both areas, as do the requirements of funding agencies. I attempted to integrate research and education by using tools that I developed to support and inform my biological research projects to teach science. Ferns have a life cycle with alternating haploid and diploid life stages, both of which are free-living and potentially long-lived. The haploid gametophytes of some ferns reproduce asexually and may have different environmental requirements than the diploid sporophytes, so it is possible for populations of gametophytes to exist without sporophytes. This dissertation includes a description of surveys for Hymenophyllum wrightii, a fern with independent gametophytes in the Pacific Northwest, and improves our understanding of the range, distribution, and habitat requirements of these plants which were previously assumed to be rare. It also describes an attempt to explore the population genetics of gametophytes of Crepidomanes intricatum, a widespread fern in the Appalachian Mountains for which no sporophytes have ever been found. To help visualize evolutionary processes in independent gametophyte populations I developed the Virtual Population Genetics Simulator (VPGsim) to simulate populations of ferns in a 3-dimensional environment. This dissertation includes a description of VPGsim, a learning module using it to teach undergraduate genetics, and a study demonstrating its effectiveness at improving students' understanding of science content and confidence in their ability to perform science inquiry. That simulation tool led to a collaboration to find other ways to teach science with simulations, and to the development of a Virtual Plant Community simulator (VPCsim) for teaching middle school students about the effects of the environment and human impacts on living organisms. This dissertation

  19. Research progress on ecological restoration of abandoned farmland%退耕地生态恢复的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 赵沛义; 任永峰; 高宇; 路战远; 程玉臣; 徐文俊

    2015-01-01

    The research progress of abandoned farmland at home and abroad was reviewed in this paper with emphasize on the effect of succession rules on plant community of abandoned farmland as well as the relationship between succession of plant community and abandoned time.Furthermore,the changes of soil moisture and nutrient of abandoned farmland caused by different abandoned time and vegetation was discussed and the research progress of ecological restoration of vegetation and soil of abandoned farmland by means of natural restoration and artificial improvement was introduced.%综述了国内外退耕地的相关研究进展,重点阐述了演替规律对退耕地植物群落的影响及植物群落的演替与退耕年限之间的关系,探讨了退耕地土壤水分、养分等受不同退耕年限与不同植被影响而发生的变化.此外,还介绍了通过自然恢复与人工改良的方式开展退耕地的植被与土壤恢复工作的研究进展.

  20. Carbon-based stock feed additives: a research methodology that explores ecologically delivered C biosequestration, alongside live weights, feed use efficiency, soil nutrient retention, and perennial fodder plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Mark P

    2010-01-30

    There is considerable interest in reliable and practical methods to sequester carbon (C) into agricultural soils to both reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and improve conventional productivity. This article outlines a research methodology to refine the efficacy and economics of using long-lived C species (biochars) as stock feed additives, produced from farm waste biomass, for ecologically delivered soil biosequestration, while generating renewable bioenergy. This article also draws attention to potential parallel outputs including annual feed use efficiency, fodder species expansion, soil nutrient retention, aquatic habitat protection, and forestry revegetation, using nitrogen-fixing perennial fodder plant species. A methodology to generate parallel results including standing fodder tree C sequestration, optimised production of Acacia spp. biochar, animal growth on high-tannin fodder with biochar feed additives, soil nutrient and stable C fractions, and economics of Acacia spp. bioenergy production. This form of research is contextually dependent on the regional agricultural production system, legislation, and surrounding ecosystem. Therefore, this article suggests the use of a scenario approach to include regionally specific levels of biochar integration with respect to the local prices for C, fossil fuels, meat and livestock, fertilisers, fodder, feed additives, water, renewable energy, revegetation and capital. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Sustaining Broader Impacts through Researcher-Teacher Collaboration (A Model Based on Award Abstract #1334935: Collaborative Research: Investigating the Ecological Importance of Iron Storage in Diatoms.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, M.; Marchetti, A.

    2016-02-01

    Broader impacts have become a vital component of scientific research projects. A variety of outreach avenues are available to assist scientists in reaching larger audiences, however, the translation of cutting-edge scientific content and concepts can be challenging. Collaborating with educators is a viable option to assist researchers in fulfilling NSF's broader impact requirements. A broader impacts model based on collaborations between a teacher and 28 researchers from 14 institutions will demonstrate successful science outreach and engagement through interactions between teachers, researchers, students, and general audiences. Communication styles (i.e., blogs, social media) and outreach data incorporated by researchers and the teacher will be shared to illustrate the magnitude of the broader impacts achieved with this partnership. Inquiry-based investigations and activities developed to translate the science into the classroom will also be demonstrated, including the use of real scientific data collected during the research cruise. "Finding Microbe Needles in a Haystack of Oceans" provides an understanding of how remote sensing technology is used to locate specific ocean environments (e.g. High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll - HNLC) that support diverse microbial food webs. A board game ("Diatom Adventures©") designed to explore the physiology of microbial organisms and microscopic food webs will also be demonstrated. The tentative nature of science requires a constant vigil to stay abreast of the latest hypotheses and discoveries. Researcher/Teacher collaborations allow each professional to focus on his/her strengths while meeting broader impact requirements. These partnerships encourage lifelong learning as educators observe and work with scientists first-hand and then follow appropriate scope, sequence, and pedagogy to assist various audiences in understanding the innovative technologies being used to explore new scientific frontiers.

  2. Historical ecology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter

    2015-11-01

    The term 'historical ecology' has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and common publication forums. Knowledge of the development of historical ecology is also limited. As a result, the current multitude of definitions of historical ecology is accompanied by divergent opinions as to where the origins of the field are to be sought. In this review, I follow the development of historical ecology from the 18th century to the present. In the first part, I briefly describe some early examples of historical ecological investigations, followed by a description of the various scientific strands in the 20th century that contributed to the formation of historical ecology. In the second part, I discuss the past five decades of historical ecological investigations in more detail, focusing mostly (but not exclusively) on works that their respective authors identified as historical ecology. I also examine the appearance and interconnectedness of the two main trends (ecological and anthropological) in historical ecological research. In the last part, I attempt to outline the future of historical ecology based on common features in existing research. It appears that at present historical ecology is at a crossroads. With rapidly growing interest in historical ecological research, it may move towards institutionalization or remain an umbrella term.

  3. Ecological restoration of mineland with particular reference to the metalliferous mine wasteland in China: A review of research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M S

    2006-03-15

    Despite a principal contributor to the rapid economic growth, the mining industry in China produced a large amount of wasteland and caused water pollution and soil erosion as well as other environmental damages. In 2002, this industry generated 265.4 Mt tailings, 130.4 Mt gangue and 107.8 Mt smelting slags. The degraded land associated with mining is estimated to be 3.2 Mha by the end of 2004, deteriorating the land shortage of China. Restoration of mine wasteland began in late 1970s but the restoration process was sluggish. The overall restoration rate (the ratio of reclaimed land area to the total degraded land area) of mine wasteland was some 10-12% with a higher rate for coal mine spoils but a lower rate for metal-mined derelict land. From 1994 to 2004, 149 research papers were published about the restoration of China's mining wasteland, of which 70 were on metal-mined land and 61 on the non-metal-mined land. Although 37 institutions in China were involved in the restoration research, only a few remained active and productive. Metal-mined derelict land is often more metal toxic and deficient of macronutrients and is tougher for revegetation. Many substrate amelioration techniques were proposed and tolerant plant species were tested for use of reclamation of the metal-mined tailings. Five hyperaccumulator species have been reported in China for the potential use in phytoremediation. However, these accomplishments were all at laboratory or small-scale field demonstration stage and still far from the practical use in reality. To accelerate the restoration and utilization of mine wasteland, several recommendations are put forward in this review. Above these suggestions, the commitment and efficiency of the government at all levels are vital.

  4. Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe – from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, D. Johan; Brandmayr, Pietro; Casale, Achille; Dauffy-Richard, Emmanuelle; Dekoninck, Wouter; Koivula, Matti J.; Lövei, Gábor L.; Mossakowski, Dietrich; Noordijk, Jinze; Paarmann, Wilfried; Pizzolotto, Roberto; Saska, Pavel; Schwerk, Axel; Serrano, José; Szyszko, Jan; Taboada, Angela; Turin, Hans; Venn, Stephen; Vermeulen, Rikjan; Zetto, Tullia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a) is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently). Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed, 40 years

  5. Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe – from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Johan Kotze

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently. Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed

  6. Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe - from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, D Johan; Brandmayr, Pietro; Casale, Achille; Dauffy-Richard, Emmanuelle; Dekoninck, Wouter; Koivula, Matti J; Lövei, Gábor L; Mossakowski, Dietrich; Noordijk, Jinze; Paarmann, Wilfried; Pizzolotto, Roberto; Saska, Pavel; Schwerk, Axel; Serrano, José; Szyszko, Jan; Taboada, Angela; Turin, Hans; Venn, Stephen; Vermeulen, Rikjan; Zetto, Tullia

    2011-01-01

    'Carabidologists do it all' (Niemelä 1996a) is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists' Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the "taxon cycle" theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently). Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed, 40 years of carabidological

  7. A Response to Scott's Concerns about the Relevance of Environmental Education Research: Applying Social-Ecological Systems Thinking and Consilience to Defining Research Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.

    2009-01-01

    In William Scott's plenary address at the World Environmental Education Conference, he expressed concerns about the relevance of environmental education research in a world facing global environmental and demographic change. In responding to Scott's concerns, I argue that addressing challenges related to development and the environment requires…

  8. Chasing Ecological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Basic research on biodiversity has concentrated on individual species—naming new species, studying distribution patterns, and analyzing their evolutionary relationships. Yet biodiversity is more than a collection of individual species; it is the combination of biological entities and processes that support life on Earth. To understand biodiversity we must catalog it, but we must also assess the ways species interact with other species to provide functional support for the Tree of Life. Ecological interactions may be lost well before the species involved in those interactions go extinct; their ecological functions disappear even though they remain. Here, I address the challenges in studying the functional aspects of species interactions and how basic research is helping us address the fast-paced extinction of species due to human activities. PMID:27631692

  9. Agro-ecology and irrigation technology : comparative research on farmer-managed irrigation systems in the Mid-hills of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parajuli, U.N.

    1999-01-01

    Design and management of irrigation infrastructure in farmer managed irrigation systems (FMISs) are strongly influenced by social and agro-ecological conditions of an area. This thesis analyzes the elements of social and agro-ecological conditions in FMISs in the mid-hills of Nepal and

  10. Loch Vale Watershed Long-Term Ecological Research and Monitoring Program: Quality Assurance Report, 2003-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Eric E.; Baron, Jill S.

    2011-01-01

    The Loch Vale watershed project is a long-term research and monitoring program located in Rocky Mountain National Park that addresses watershed-scale ecosystem processes, particularly as they respond to atmospheric deposition and climate variability. Measurements of precipitation depth, precipitation chemistry, discharge, and surface-water quality are made within the watershed and elsewhere in Rocky Mountain National Park. As data collected for the program are used by resource managers, scientists, policy makers, and students, it is important that all data collected in Loch Vale watershed meet high standards of quality. In this report, data quality was evaluated for precipitation, discharge, and surface-water chemistry measurements collected during 2003-09. Equipment upgrades were made at the Loch Vale National Atmospheric Deposition Program monitoring site to improve precipitation measurements and evaluate variability in precipitation depth and chemistry. Additional solar panels and batteries have been installed to improve the power supply, and data completeness, at the NADP site. As a result of equipment malfunction, discharge data for the Loch Outlet were estimated from October 18, 2005, to August 17, 2006. Quality-assurance results indicate that more than 98 percent of all surface-water chemistry measurements were accurate and precise. Records that did not meet quality criteria were removed from the database. Measurements of precipitation depth, precipitation chemistry, discharge, and surface-water quality were all sufficiently complete and consistent to support project data needs.

  11. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2013-01-01

    on how to reconcile environmental and social concerns. Based on this broad variety of pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, a new ecological macroeconomics is emerging, but the contours are still vague. This chapter seeks to outline some of this topography and to add a few pieces of its own by highlighting the need......The economic decline that began in 2008 opened a window of opportunity for consideration about how to combine macroecononomic and environmental concerns. This discussion is far from new, as evidenced, for instance, by the European Commission’s White Paper from 1993, which explained how a greening...

  12. Graphic Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Weld Muller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes strategic approaches to graphic representation associated with critical environmental engagement and that build from the idea of works of architecture as stitches in the ecological fabric of the city. It focuses on the building up of partial or fragmented graphics in order to describe inclusive, open-ended possibilities for making architecture that marry rich experience and responsive performance. An aphoristic approach to crafting drawings involves complex layering, conscious absence and the embracing of tension. A self-critical attitude toward the generation of imagery characterized by the notion of ‘loose precision’ may lead to more transformative and environmentally responsive architectures.

  13. Report on the 13th symposium on invertebrate neurobiology held 26-30 August 2015 at the Balaton Limnological Institute, MTA Centre for ecological research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Tihany, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisford, Anna; Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes the lectures and posters presented at the International Society for Invertebrate Neurobiology's 13th symposium held 26-30 August 2015, at the Balaton Limnological Institute, MTA Centre for Ecological Research, Tihany, Hungary. The symposium provided an opportunity for scientists working on a range of topics in invertebrate neurobiology to meet and present their research and discuss ways to advance the discipline.

  14. 基于水生态文明建设的地方水环境资源立法研究%Research on Local Water Environmental Legislation Based on Water Ecological Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海轮

    2016-01-01

    水生态文明是生态文明的重要组成和基础保障,是实现生态文明的重要支撑.进行水生态文明建设的重要基础保障是法律,而法律保障中最基础的一个环节就是立法,因此通过立法来保障水生态文明建设成为必然的趋势.选取江苏这一地区,从地方法治的角度出发,分析江苏省水生态文明建设在立法取得的成果以及存在的应当注意的问题.在此基础上结合江苏省的特殊省情,从立法的重点内容、立法程序以及立法监督三个方面提出完善地方水生态文明立法的建议.%Ecological civilization is an important basis and guarantee of ecological civilization. It is an important support to re-alize ecological civilization. Law is the basis for protecting ecological civilization construction, and legislation is the most basic step. So by legislation for the protection of water ecological civilization construction has become an inevitable trend. Selecting Jiangsu Province from the point of view of the rule of law, this study research on water ecological civilization construction in Jiang-su Province in the legislative achievements of and problems should be noted. Combined with the special situation in the province of Jiangsu Province, it discussed legislative procedures and proposed legislation to improve oversight of local water ecological civi-lization legislative proposals from the three key elements of legislation.

  15. The National Ecological Observatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michener, W. K.

    2006-05-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a research platform designed to advance understanding of how ecosystems and organisms respond to variations in climate and changes in land use. NEON is the first long-term ecological observatory conceived as a continental-scale network; equipped with standardized sensors, cyberinfrastructure, and data-collection protocols across the network; and designed to simultaneously address a common set of research questions and support investigator-driven ecological research in all regions of the United States. The Observatory focuses on variations in climate and land use because they are primary drivers of the Nation's environmental challenges, as identified by the National Research Council--i.e., biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles, climate change, hydroecology, infectious disease, invasive species, and land use. At the broadest scale, NEON links the complexity of climate variation to the behavior of ecological systems, a core aspect of ecological complexity. At the same time, because of the complexity of the interactions among humans and ecosystems, the network design includes NEON sites in wild, managed and urban systems within climate domains. Observatory data will also be part of a national education program designed to advance ecological science literacy through new programs and activities that develop and promote scientific ways of thinking.

  16. Ground level environmental protein concentrations in various ecuadorian environments: potential uses of aerosolized protein for ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Sarah J.R.; Woodward, Andrea; Castillo, Josemar A.; Swing, Kelly; Hayes, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    ecosystems with high canopies or in areas needing high spatial and temporal resolution. Further research to expand understanding of the applicability of bioaerosol concentrations for environmental monitoring is supported by this pilot study.

  17. 关于农村留守妇女生态权益保障研究综述%The Research Summary of Protecting the Ecological Interests of Rural Remaining Wives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云航

    2016-01-01

    Rural remaining wives has greatest impact on rural development at present, but it is the group that lack of social attention. Today, more serious deterioration of the ecological environment in rural areas, guarantee of the ecological rights of left at home women more important. Based on a review of existing research, the paper discusses the connotation of ecological interest, rural environmental pollution situation and hazards, the reasons of remaining wives ecological interests damage, the measure of protect remaining wives ecological interests.%留守妇女是现阶段对农村发展影响最大的群体,但却是最缺乏社会各界关注的群体。如今,农村生态环境恶化越发严重,留守妇女的生态权益保障问题越发突出。本文在回顾已有研究的基础上,探讨了生态权益的内涵、农村环境污染现状及危害、留守妇女生态权益受损的困境分析、留守妇女生态权益保障的对策思考这四个方面。

  18. Ocean thermal energy conversion ecological data report from OSS Researcher in Gulf of Mexico, (GOTEC-01), July 12-23, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinby-Hunt, M.S. (comp.)

    1979-06-01

    Ecological measurements important for environmental assessment of the effect of an operating Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plant were initiated in July 1977 at the proposed Gulf of Mexico site off the coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida. The initial cruise of the OSS Researcher, in a joint effort with the Atlantic Oceanic and Meteorological Laboratories (AOML) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) took place from 12 to 23 July 1977. The measurements were taken at 15 oceanographic stations to a maximum depth of 1000 m. Water was analyzed for trace metals, nutrients and chlorophyll a and ATP. Physical data, salinity and dissolved oxygen measurements were supplied by NOAA-AOML. Two bioassays were carried out using indigenous phytoplankton to estimate the effect of deep water on the rates of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ uptake of photic zone algae. The Deep Scattering Layer (DSL) was monitored at the site by a continuously recording 12 kHz depth sounder at the Mobile site. This report presents data collected during the cruise.

  19. Small-scale variations of climate change in mountainous forested terrain - a regional study from H.J. Andrews Long Term Ecological Research site in Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honzakova, Katerina; Hoffmann, Peter; Jones, Julia; Thomas, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    There has been conflicting evidence as to whether high elevations are experiencing more pronounced climate warming than lower elevations in mountainous regions. In this study we analyze temperature records from H.J. Andrews Long Term Ecological Research, Oregon, USA and several nearby areas, comprising together 28 stations located in Cascade Mountains. The data, starting in 1958, are first checked for quality and homogenized using the Standard Normal Homogeneity Test. As a reference, composite climate time series based on the Global Historic Climate Network is created and together with cross-referencing against station records used to correct breaks and shifts in the data. In the next step, we investigate temperature patterns of the study site from 1958 to 2016 and compare them for valley and hill stations. In particular, we explore seasonality and inter-annual variability of the records and trends of the last day of frost. Additionally, 'cold' sums (positive and negative) are calculated to obtain a link between temperature and ecosystems' responses (such as budbreaks). So far, valley stations seem to be more prone to climate change than ridge or summit stations, contrary to current thinking. Building on previous knowledge, we attempt to provide physical explanations for the temperature records, focusing on wind patterns and associated phenomena such as cold air drainage and pooling. To aid this we analyze wind speed and direction data available for some of the stations since 1996, including seasonality and inter-annual variability of the observed flows.

  20. Advances in Research of Molecular Ecology of Carbon Fixation Microorganism%固碳微生物分子生态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁红朝; 秦红灵; 刘守龙; 聂三安; 魏文学; 吴金水

    2011-01-01

    diversity of the CO2 fixation microorganisms in different ecological systems. The previous molecular analysis of microbial carbon fixation has emphasized on aquatic systems, revealing the characteristics of carbon fixation microbial communities and the response to the different habitats. Recent studies on the terrestrial systems have found out that CO2 fixation microorganism also numerous and widespread in soils whereas the functional implication of those autotrophies is not clear, and need to be future identified. Domestic researches on the molecular ecology of soil CO2 fixation microorganism as yet have not been reported. In the present paper, the species of carbon fixation microorganism, the dynamics of CO2 fixation and the current status concerning the carbon fixation by microorganism were reviewed, the main problems and further researches of the molecular ecology of carbon fixation in agricultural ecosystems were also discussed. The aim of this study is to provide useful information for Chinese molecular ecology research of CO2 fixation microorganism.

  1. Chemical ecology of marine plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Emily R; Poulin, Remington X; Mojib, Nazia; Kubanek, Julia

    2016-07-28

    Covering: January 2013 to online publication December 2014This review summarizes recent research in the chemical ecology of marine pelagic ecosystems, and aims to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the field in the time period covered. In order to highlight the role of chemical cues and toxins in plankton ecology this review has been organized by ecological interaction types starting with intraspecific interactions, then interspecific interactions (including facilitation and mutualism, host-parasite, allelopathy, and predator-prey), and finally community and ecosystem-wide interactions.

  2. Missing ecology: integrating ecological perspectives with the social-ecological system framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Epstein

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological systems framework was designed to provide a common research tool for interdisciplinary investigations of social-ecological systems. However, its origin in institutional studies of the commons belies its interdisciplinary ambitions and highlights its relatively limited attention to ecology and natural scientific knowledge. This paper considers the biophysical components of the framework and its epistemological foundations as it relates to the incorporation of knowledge from the natural sciences. It finds that the mixture of inductive and deductive reasoning associated with socially-oriented investigations of these systems is lacking on the ecological side, which relies upon induction alone. As a result the paper proposes the addition of a seventh core sub-system to the social-ecological systems framework, ecological rules, which would allow scholars to explicitly incorporate knowledge from the natural sciences for deductive reasoning. The paper shows, through an instructive case study, how the addition of ecological rules can provide a more nuanced description of the factors that contribute to outcomes in social-ecological systems.

  3. [Evolution and discrimination of ecological planning and its related conceptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuan; Mao, Hui-ping; Niu, Dong-jie; Bao, Cun-kuan

    2013-08-01

    Ecological planning is one of the most important tools in realizing city's sustainable development. The ecological planning in China was started in the 1980s, and on the basis of assimilating the existing theoretical and practical experiences from western countries, basically formed a theoretical system in accordance with the Chinese characteristics and acquired a series of practical results. This paper reviewed the research and development processes of China' s ecological planning. It is considered that the study of our ecological planning was derived from the geographical principles of land resources ecological utilization, the ecological principles of complex ecological system theory, and the combination of these two principles. The ecological planning has experienced three research stages, i. e., single-disciplinary exploration, multi-disciplinary and multi-perspective study (including landscape ecology, ecology and urban planning), and interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary collaboration research. The ecological planning and the related conceptions, primary principles, main academic points, and representatives at each research stage were summarized, and through the discrimination of the basic conceptions of ecological planning and other related plans, it was pointed out that ecological planning is an general conception which includes land ecological planning, urban ecological planning, and eco-city planning, and the principles and theories of ecological planning should be integrated into, led and restricted the present planning system to promote the city's and regional sustainable development.

  4. Enabling innovative research by supporting the life cycle of high frequency streaming sensor data in the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, C.; Read, J. S.; Winslow, L. A.; Hanson, P. C.; Weathers, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON) is an international community of scientists, educators and citizens with the mission to conduct innovative science by sharing and interpreting high-resolution sensor data to understand, predict and communicate the role and response of lakes in a changing global environment. During its almost ten years of existence and continual growth, GLEON has inspired innovative science, new modeling approaches, and accumulated extensive experience in the management of streaming, high resolution, and large volume data. However, a recent 'data task force' identified inhibiting data infrastructure issues, including providing access to data, discovering distributed data, and integrating data into useful data products for scientific research and management. Accordingly, in support of the complete data lifecycle, tools are being developed by the GLEON community and integrated with innovative technology from other groups to improve environmental observations data management in the broader community. Specifically we will discuss raw data handling with tools developed by the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences (CUAHSI, Observation Data Model and DataLoader), quality control practices using a newly developed R package (sensorQC), data access with HydroDesktop, or webservices delivering WaterML, data analysis with the R package rLakeAnalyzer, and final storage of the quality controlled, harmonized and value added data product in a DataONE member node. Such data product is then discoverable, accessible for new analyses and citable in subsequent publications. Leveraging GLEON's organizational structure, community trust, extensive experience, and technological talent the goal is to develop a design and implementation plan for a data publishing and sharing system that will address not only GLEON's needs, but also those of other environmental research communities.

  5. The AmazonFACE research program: assessing the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 on the ecology and resilience of the Amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapola, David; Quesada, Carlos; Norby, Richard; Araújo, Alessandro; Domingues, Tomas; Hartley, Iain; Kruijt, Bart; Lewin, Keith; Meir, Patrick; Ometto, Jean; Rammig, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The existence, magnitude and duration of a supposed "CO2 fertilization" effect in tropical forests remains largely undetermined, despite being suggested for nearly 20 years as a key knowledge gap for understanding the future resilience of Amazonian forests and its impact on the global carbon cycle. Reducing this uncertainty is critical for assessing the future of the Amazon region as well as its vulnerability to climate change. The AmazonFACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) research program is an integrated model-experiment initiative of unprecedented scope in an old-growth Amazon forest near Manaus, Brazil - the first of its kind in tropical forest. The experimental treatment will simulate an atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of the future in order to address the question: "How will rising atmospheric CO2 affect the resilience of the Amazon forest, the biodiversity it harbors, and the ecosystem services it provides, in light of projected climatic changes?" AmazonFACE is divided into three phases: (I) pre-experimental ecological characterization of the research site; (II) pilot experiment comprised of two 30-m diameter plots, with one treatment plot maintained at elevated [CO2] (ambient +200 ppmv), and the other control plot at ambient [CO2]; and (III) a fully-replicated long-term experiment comprised of four pairs of control/treatment FACE plots maintained for 10 years. A team of scientists from Brazil, USA, Australia and Europe will employ state-of-the-art methods to study the forest inside these plots in terms of carbon metabolism and cycling, water use, nutrient cycling, forest community composition, and interactions with environmental stressors. All project phases also encompass ecosystem-modeling activities in a way such that models provide hypothesis to be verified in the experiment, which in turn will feed models to ultimately produce more accurate projections of the environment. Resulting datasets and analyses will be a valuable resource for a broad community

  6. Molecular ecological network analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Ye

    2012-05-01

    Network Analysis Pipeline (MENAP, which is open-accessible now (http://ieg2.ou.edu/MENA. Conclusions The RMT-based molecular ecological network analysis provides powerful tools to elucidate network interactions in microbial communities and their responses to environmental changes, which are fundamentally important for research in microbial ecology and environmental microbiology.

  7. Ecology under lake ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Stephanie E; Galloway, Aaron W E; Powers, Stephen M; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H; Batt, Ryan D; Labou, Stephanie G; O'Reilly, Catherine M; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R; Stanley, Emily H; North, Rebecca L; Stockwell, Jason D; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L; Carey, Cayelan C; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N; Jolley, Jeff C; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W; Mariash, Heather L; McKay, Robert M; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C; Post, David M; Pruett, Matthew J; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S; Roberts, Sarah L; Rücker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A; Smith, Derek E; Sterner, Robert W; Swann, George E A; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R; Vogt, Richard J; Watson, Susan B; Whiteford, Erika J; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

    2017-01-01

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experience periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems, due to a historical research focus on summer 'growing seasons'. We executed the first global quantitative synthesis on under-ice lake ecology, including 36 abiotic and biotic variables from 42 research groups and 101 lakes, examining seasonal differences and connections as well as how seasonal differences vary with geophysical factors. Plankton were more abundant under ice than expected; mean winter values were 43.2% of summer values for chlorophyll a, 15.8% of summer phytoplankton biovolume and 25.3% of summer zooplankton density. Dissolved nitrogen concentrations were typically higher during winter, and these differences were exaggerated in smaller lakes. Lake size also influenced winter-summer patterns for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with higher winter DOC in smaller lakes. At coarse levels of taxonomic aggregation, phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition showed few systematic differences between seasons, although literature suggests that seasonal differences are frequently lake-specific, species-specific, or occur at the level of functional group. Within the subset of lakes that had longer time series, winter influenced the subsequent summer for some nutrient variables and zooplankton biomass. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Enfoques de investigación sostenible, ecologista y productivista: influencias en los científicos(as Research approaches sustainable, ecological and productivist: influences on scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Reyes-Muro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Los científicos(as agropecuarios(as están influenciados(as por diversos factores para definir su enfoque de investigación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar aspectos demográficos y profesionales, institucionales e influencias internas-externas asociados al enfoque sostenible, ecologista o productivista de los científicos(as en Aguascalientes, México en 2008. Los enfoques fueron sometidos a un análisis de correlación con 44 factores de influencia. El enfoque sostenible correlacionó positivamente con la especialidad, la solución de problemas de interés institucional, investigación en terrenos de productores e investigación en sistemas de producción y negativamente con investigación básica y biotecnología. El enfoque ecologista correlacionó positivamente con la opinión del grupo interdisciplinario en la definición del problema a investigar. El enfoque productivista correlacionó positivamente con la especialidad, opinión del usuario y colegas en la definición del problema, estudios en terrenos de productores y en la estación experimental, trabajos por componente tecnológico y con la objetividad del investigador(a, y negativamente con la disciplina ecología. El modelo de regresión logística para la investigación con enfoque sostenible se explica por el origen de los investigadores(as, estancias de investigación, tipo de institución, fuente de financiamiento, investigación por demanda del usuario y prioridad institucional, trabajo interdisciplinario, estudios tanto en sistemas de producción como por componente tecnológico. El modelo ecologista se explica por las estancias de investigación, aprobación del proyecto por un comité técnico, investigación en terrenos de productores, trabajo interdisciplinario y estudios en sistemas de producción. El modelo productivista tuvo las variables explicatorias tipo de institución y trabajo en sistemas de producción.Agricultural scientists are influenced by several

  9. Improving radiation data quality of USDA UV-B monitoring and research program and evaluating UV decomposition in DayCent and its ecological impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maosi

    Solar radiation impacts many aspects of the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere. The total solar radiation impacts the atmospheric temperature profile and the Earth's surface radiative energy budget. The solar visible (VIS) radiation is the energy source of photosynthesis. The solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation impacts plant's physiology, microbial activities, and human and animal health. Recent studies found that solar UV significantly shifts the mass loss and nitrogen patterns of plant litter decomposition in semi-arid and arid ecosystems. The potential mechanisms include the production of labile materials from direct and indirect photolysis of complex organic matters, the facilitation of microbial decomposition with more labile materials, and the UV inhibition of microbes' population. However, the mechanisms behind UV decomposition and its ecological impacts are still uncertain. Accurate and reliable ground solar radiation measurements help us better retrieve the atmosphere composition, validate satellite radiation products, and simulate ecosystem processes. Incorporating the UV decomposition into the DayCent biogeochemical model helps to better understand long-term ecological impacts. Improving the accuracy of UV irradiance data is the goal of the first part of this research and examining the importance of UV radiation in the biogeochemical model DayCent is the goal of the second part of the work. Thus, although the dissertation is separated into two parts, accurate UV irradiance measurement links them in what follows. In part one of this work the accuracy and reliability of the current operational calibration method for the (UV-) Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), which is used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP), is improved. The UVMRP has monitored solar radiation in the 14 narrowband UV and VIS spectral channels at 37 sites across U.S. since 1992. The improvements in the quality of the data result

  10. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests inBenin

  11. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests inBenin

  12. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests in

  13. Microbial ecology of biotechnological processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fraraccio, Serena

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of phylogenetic diversity and functionality of complex microbial communities in relation to changes in the environmental conditions represents a major challenge of microbial ecology research. Nowadays, particular attention is paid to microbial communities occurring at environmental sites contaminated by recalcitrant and toxic organic compounds. Extended research has evidenced that such communities evolve some metabolic abilities leading to the partial degradation or complete...

  14. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS VS ECONOMIC(AL ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  15. Research on Existing Problems and Developmental Tendency of Ecological Monitoring in China%中国生态监测存在问题及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐杨; 于洋; 刘海江; 董贵华; 何立环; 翟超英

    2015-01-01

    Based on ecological theory, this paper discussed the scientific connotation, object and purpose of ecological monitoring. The object of ecological monitoring is ecological system. The goal of ecological monitoring is to recognize the Status and Evolution of the ecosystem, and provide a scientific support for the management and decision-making. We analyzed the problems of ecological monitoring including:Lack of unified management, interdepartmental task is repeated;Have no complete technical standards, and it ’ s difficult in information integration and utilization; National ecological monitoring network construction progress is too slow; Lack of Environment monitoring legal support; Ecological monitoring capability need to improve. Finally, from the practical needs of the country, as well as the laws of history, ecological monitoring technology development, we discussed the future development trend of ecological monitoring in China.%在生态学的基本理论基础上,探讨了生态监测的科学内涵,明确了生态监测对象就是生态系统,目标是认识反映生态系统的状态和演变趋势,为管理和决策提供科学依据。深入分析了中国生态监测存在的5个问题:生态监测缺乏统一管理,部门间任务存在交叉和重复;生态监测技术不够规范,信息整合与利用困难;生态监测网络松散,国家级生态监测网络建立缓慢;环境监测法律依据不足,法制保障力度亟待加强;生态监测能力水平普遍较低,亟待建设。最后,从国家现实需求、生态监测现状以及监测技术发展的历史规律,探讨了未来中国生态监测的总体发展趋势。

  16. Bathymetric patterns in standing stock and diversity of deep-sea nematodes at the long-term ecological research observatory HAUSGARTEN (Fram Strait)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelak, Katarzyna; Kotwicki, Lech; Hasemann, Christiane; Soltwedel, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Bathymetric patterns in standing stocks and diversity are a major topic of investigation in deep-sea biology. From the literature, responses of metazoan meiofauna and nematodes to bathymetric gradients are well studied, with a general decrease in biomass and abundance with increasing water depth, while bathymetric diversity gradients often, although it is not a rule, show a unimodal pattern. Spatial distribution patterns of nematode communities along bathymetric gradients are coupled with surface-water processes and interacting physical and biological factors within the benthic system. We studied the nematode communities at the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) observatory HAUSGARTEN, located in the Fram Strait at the Marginal Ice Zone, with respect to their standing stocks as well as structural and functional diversity. We evaluated whether nematode density, biomass and diversity indices, such as H0, Hinf, EG(50), Θ- 1, are linked with environmental conditions along a bathymetric transect spanning from 1200 m to 5500 m water depth. Nematode abundance, biomass and diversity, as well as food availability from phytodetritus sedimentation (indicated by chloroplastic pigments in the sediments), were higher at the stations located at upper bathyal depths (1200-2000 m) and tended to decrease with increasing water depth. A faunal shift was found below 3500 m water depth, where genus composition and trophic structure changed significantly and structural diversity indices markedly decreased. A strong dominance of very few genera and its high turnover particularly at the abyssal stations (4000-5500 m) suggests that environmental conditions were rather unfavorable for most genera. Despite the high concentrations of sediment-bound chloroplastic pigments and elevated standing stocks found at the deepest station (5500 m), nematode genus diversity remained the lowest compared to all other stations. This study provides a further insight into the knowledge of deep-sea nematodes

  17. Research on the Ecological Governance Measures of the Chapuchi Ditch%卡布其沟生态治理措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周风华; 哈佳; 陈牧邦

    2013-01-01

    为改善卡布其沟干沟荒滩的形象,解决防洪和城市生态景观之间的矛盾,对该沟的生态治理措施进行研究,提出了“三槽治理”方案,解决了防洪与生态景观的矛盾,节约了水资源,通过挡水建筑物形成了宽阔的水面,并使巧妙设计的挡水建筑物成为河道上的亮点;通过补水泵站使干涸的河道有了生态保证,通过防渗与生态措施的结合,使河道具备了一些生态基底环境,为人与自然和谐共生提供了条件。%In order to solve the image of the dry ditch desolated beaches of Chapuchi and solve the contradiction between flood control and urban ec-ological landscape,it studied the ecological management measures of the ditch. The results show that a)The train of thought of“three slot govern-ance”has solved the contradiction between flood control and ecological landscape,saved water resources,through the water retaining structure formed large stretches of open water,and made the ingenious design of water retaining structure become a highlight of the river. b)Provide ecologi-cal guarantee for the dry river by the pumping station of water supply. c)Through the combination of seepage controls and ecological measures,the river has some ecological base environment and provided the conditions of harmonious coexistence between human and nature.

  18. 云南省洱海流域国内游客生态意识调查研究%Research on the Investigation of Domestic Tourists’ Ecological Consciousness in Erhai Lake Basin in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建芹

    2016-01-01

    The consciousness of ecological civilization is one of the forms of social ideology, and it is a progressive idea of protecting the na-ture and maintaining the ecological security.Tourists as the main body of tourism activities, their behavior and awareness are closely related to the ecological protection of tourist destination.The essay takes the Erhai Lake Basin as an example to investigate the basic situation of the do-mestic tourists’ ecological consciousness.By applying the quantitative method such as average and variance to analyze the data inputted into Excel, it is concluded that, the domestic tourists to the Erhai Lake generally have a higher ecological consciousness; their ecological con-sciousness coincides with their behavior;their ecological consciousness are affected by many factors.Based on the conclusions of the above re-search, this study puts forward reasonable suggestions for the formation of the ecological consciousness of the tourists in Erhai Lake Basin.%生态文明意识是社会意识形态的形式之一,是人们关于保护大自然和维护生态安全的进步思想观念。游客作为旅游活动的主体,其行为与意识都与旅游地生态保护息息相关。以大理洱海流域为个案,调查国内旅游者生态意识的基本情况。利用EXCEL进行数据录入,利用平均数、平均方差等定量法进行分析。主要结论为:洱海流域国内游客生态意识普遍较高,生态意识与旅游行为吻合度较高,而生态意识的高低受多种因素影响。基于上述调研结论,提出有助于洱海流域旅游者生态意识形成的相关建议。

  19. Wordsworthian Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文宣

    2014-01-01

    Wordsworth devoted himself to the ideal of a harmonious relation between human and nature, between man and soci-ety, between man and the ego. In this sense, Wordsworth improved the development of ecology. This argument will be support-ed by the approach of eco-criticism and Heidegger’s eco-philosophy. And it is supported by the following points.The first part points out that Wordsworth’s love of nature led to his love of man, which was reflected by his care for common people. Part Two shows Wordsworth’s solicitude for dwelling. His notion of dwelling had aspect of poetic dwelling. The harmonious hu-man-nature relationship reveals thee essence of free dwelling. His poetic experiment agreed with Heidegger ’s argument on poet-ic creation. His discussion of free labour was like Heidegger’s interpretation of“merit”. Part Three tells about Wordsworth’s great effort to amend the alienated human nature by treasuring the Child’s nature, imagination and human feelings.In this way, the conclusion can be got:although it would be a huge project to reinterpret Wordsworth with the approaches of eco-criticism and Heidegger’s eco-philosophy, it is still worth making the effort.

  20. 媒介生态视野下少数民族村寨生态文明建设研究%Research on the Development of Ecological Civilization in Ethnic Villages from the Perspective of Media Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱昊

    2015-01-01

    随着社会媒介化进程步伐的加快,少数民族村寨也被媒介之网编织到其中,因此这些地区的生态文明建设必须充分考虑到“媒介环境”的影响,使少数民族村寨中的媒介、社会、人和自然通过相互作用、相互依存,形成动态平衡,以更好地适应现代媒介化社会对生态文明建设和发展提出的要求。%With rapid growth of social mediumalization,in which movement ethnic villages are also woven into the web of the media,full consideration must be given to the effect of “media environment”in those areas during the development of ecological civilization.Only when a dynamic equilibrium is achieved through interactions,interdependences of media,society,people and nature in ethnic villages,can the needs of the modern media society and the development of ecological civilization be better meet.

  1. Changes in biodiversity and trade-offs among ecosystem services, stakeholders, and components of well-being: the contribution of the International Long-Term Ecological Research network (ILTER to Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Maass

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The International Long-Term Ecological Research (ILTER network comprises > 600 scientific groups conducting site-based research within 40 countries. Its mission includes improving the understanding of global ecosystems and informs solutions to current and future environmental problems at the global scales. The ILTER network covers a wide range of social-ecological conditions and is aligned with the Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS goals and approach. Our aim is to examine and develop the conceptual basis for proposed collaboration between ILTER and PECS. We describe how a coordinated effort of several contrasting LTER site-based research groups contributes to the understanding of how policies and technologies drive either toward or away from the sustainable delivery of ecosystem services. This effort is based on three tenets: transdisciplinary research; cross-scale interactions and subsequent dynamics; and an ecological stewardship orientation. The overarching goal is to design management practices taking into account trade-offs between using and conserving ecosystems toward more sustainable solutions. To that end, we propose a conceptual approach linking ecosystem integrity, ecosystem services, and stakeholder well-being, and as a way to analyze trade-offs among ecosystem services inherent in diverse management options. We also outline our methodological approach that includes: (i monitoring and synthesis activities following spatial and temporal trends and changes on each site and by documenting cross-scale interactions; (ii developing analytical tools for integration; (iii promoting trans-site comparison; and (iv developing conceptual tools to design adequate policies and management interventions to deal with trade-offs. Finally, we highlight the heterogeneity in the social-ecological setting encountered in a subset of 15 ILTER sites. These study cases are diverse enough to provide a broad cross-section of contrasting

  2. Support for Integrated Ecosystem Assessments of NOAA’s National Estuarine Research Reserves System (NERRS), Volume II: Assessment of Ecological Condition and Stressor Impacts in Subtidal Waters of the North Carolina NERRS

    OpenAIRE

    Cooksey, Cynthia; Hyland, Jeff; Wirth, Ed; Balthis, W. Leonard; Fulton, Mike; Whitall, David; White, Susan

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the status of ecological condition and potential human-health risks in subtidal estuarine waters throughout the North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERRS) (Currituck Sound, Rachel Carson, Masonboro Island, and Zeke’s Island). Field work was conducted in September 2006 and incorporated multiple indicators of ecosystem condition including measures of water quality (dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, pH, nutrients and chlorophyll, s...

  3. Research progress on environmental and ecological effects of reclaimed water irrigation%再生水灌溉环境生态效应研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴亮; 颜明; 陈永莲; 刘荣豪; 蒋树芳

    2012-01-01

    Reclaimed water irrigation is one of the effective measures to deal with the scarcity of water resources. The research results of irrigation technologies with reclaimed water on environmental and ecological effects at home and abroad in recent years were summarized and the prospect of reclaimed water irrigation and the key points of future research were analyzed in accordance with the problems in our country. The future investigation should focus on the below aspects, including new technology and system for reclaimed water irrigation, new treatment technique for reclaimed water, making reclaimed water irrigation standards, the transfer and migration rule of phosphorus, nitrogen, organism and heavy metal, safe and high efficiency irrigation technologies, coupled increasing production effects with relained water irrigation and fertilizer and suitable fertilizing amount after irrigating, establishing the indexes and methods for environment impact and healthy risk evaluation.%再生水灌溉是解决水资源短缺的有效途径之一.本文从再生水灌溉对地下水及地表水的水质、土壤质量和作物生长几个方面综述了近年来国内外对再生水灌溉对环境生态的影响所取得的研究成果,并针对我国再生水灌溉存在的问题,对再生水灌溉今后的发展进行了展望,指出未来研究的重要方向是:研究再生水处理新工艺及再生水灌溉新技术和新制度;制定再生水灌溉标准;再生水灌溉条件下磷、氮、有机物、重金属在土壤植被系统中的迁移转化规律;再生水安全高效灌溉技术、再生水灌溉和施肥耦合增产效应及灌溉后农田适宜的灌溉施肥量;建立再生水灌溉对环境影响和健康风险评价指标与评价方法.

  4. Ecological planning: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Frederick; Brooks, Kenneth

    1981-11-01

    Beginning with the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969, the federal government of the United States has enacted numerous pieces of legislation intended to protect or conserve the environment. Other national governments have also enacted environmental legislation during the past two decades. State and local governments have also adopted policies concerned with environmental planning and management. Multiple laws and overlapping governmental agency responsibilities have confused development and resource management efforts. A comprehensive methodology that integrates the legal mandates and the agency missions into a common and unified framework is needed. Ecological planning offers such a method. Application of the method allows planners and resource managers to better understand the nature and character of the land and/or resource and therefore make better decisions about its appropriate use or management. The steps taken in an ecological planning process—1) goal setting, 2) inventory and analysis of data, 3) suitability analysis, 4) developing alternatives, 5) implementation, 6) administration, and 7) evaluation—are outlined and explained. Hand-drawn overlays and computer programs as techniques for handling ecological planning information are compared. Observations and suggestions for further research are offered.

  5. 不同尺度生态学中植物叶性状研究概述%Research Advances of Plant Leaf Traits at Different Ecology Scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛伟; 李玉霖; 张铜会; 赵学勇; 黄迎新; 宋琳琳

    2012-01-01

    植物叶性状与植物个体、群落、生态系统功能的基本行为和功能具有密切相关性,可反映植物适应环境变化所形成的生存对策。目前有关叶性状的研究非常多,从不同尺度(个体尺度、功能群尺度、群落尺度和区域及全球尺度)对叶的性状进行了研究。个体尺度叶性状的研究着重于揭示单个或多个植物种叶性状对不同环境因子(如温度、土壤水分等)的响应;不同功能群之间植物性状的分异表明环境因子对功能群而言存在选择压力(如低氮),但在功能群内部,选择压力较弱;随群落结构的改变,群落叶性状平均值和建群种叶性状均存在显著变化;大尺度(区域和全球)的研究有助于定量化阐述叶性状分异规律及其与气候等环境因子之间的相关性。目前的研究没有从机理上阐述清楚植物叶性状对环境因子的响应、群落构建过程中植物叶性状的指示作用、叶性状分异的生物地理格局等,在未来的研究中应予以更多关注。%Plant leaf traits are associated with fundamental behavior and function of plant individual,community,and ecosystem.It can reflect plant survival strategy response to different environmental factors.We synthesize the research advance on leaf traits at different ecology scale,such as individual scale,functional group scale,community scale and global scale.Individual scale focuses on the leaf traits response to environment factor or muti-factors,such as temperature,soil moisture and soil nutrient.The differences of leaf traits occur among different functional groups,it probably is an outcome of environment selection,and the selective pressure is relatively weak within each group.As the community structure changes,the leaf traits average value of the community and the leaf traits of the dominate species also changes.Studies at large-scale reveal that high level of trait disparity is observed within community

  6. Major Research Progresses on the Ecosystem Service and Ecological Safety of Main Terrestrial Ecosystems in China%中国主要陆地生态系统服务与生态安全研究的重要进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅伯杰; 吕一河; 高光耀

    2012-01-01

    The major research progresses of the 973 project "Ecosystem Service and Ecological Safety of Main Terrestrial Ecosystems in China" in the past three years are introduced. The main results include the mechanism of ecosystem processes and ecosystem services, comprehensive research of regional ecosystem, integrated assessment of national ecosystem structures and services, and ecosystem service valuation and ecological safety. Besides, the future research plan of this 973 project is briefly presented.

  7. Vulnerability to coastal cholera ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Andrew E

    2003-10-01

    The battle to completely control cholera continues. Multiple strains, high levels of morbidity in some regions of the world, and a complex of influences on its distribution in people and the environment are accompanied by only rough resolution prediction of outbreaks. Uncertainty as to the most effective array of interventions for one of the most researched infectious diseases thwarts further progress in providing cost-effective solutions. Progress on the research front consistently points towards the importance of disease ecology, coastal environments, and the sea. However, evaluation of the link between cholera in people and environment can only be effective with analysis of human vulnerability to variable coastal cholera ecologies. As there are some clear links between the organism, cholera incidence and the sea, it is appropriate that cholera research should examine the nature of coastal population vulnerability to the disease. The paper reviews the cholera risks of human-environment interactions in coastal areas as one component of the evaluation of cholera management. This points to effective intervention through integrative knowledge of changing human and environmental ecologies, requiring improved detection, but also an acceptance of complex causality. The challenge is to identify indicators and interventions for case specific ecologies in variable locales of human vulnerability and disease hazard. Further work will therefore aim to explore improved surveillance and intervention across the socio-behavioural and ecological spectrum. Furthermore, the story of cholera continues to inform us about how we should more effectively view emergent and resurgent infectious disease hazards more generally.

  8. [Ecological and hygienic problems of nanotech progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshevskaia, N I; Strekalova, A S

    2012-01-01

    In article necessity of development of new directions of researches--nanoecology (ecology of nanoindustry) and nanohygiene (hygiene of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials) is proved. On the basis of the spent review key ecological and hygienic problems of nanoindustrial development are systematized and also debatable questions are allocated. The conclusion is drawn on necessity of an intensification of studying of ecological and hygienic aspects of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials.

  9. Research on Ecological Environment Reconstruction in Hydropower Project Construction%水电工程建设与生态环境再造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周厚贵

    2011-01-01

    For coordinating the construction of hydropower projects and the ecological environment protection, the advantages and disadvantages of constructing hydropower projects on ecological environment are analyzed based on the essential relationship between natural laws and human activities. The key issue of ecological environment protection in hydropower project construction is to realize the ecological environment improvement by the interaction of construction activities and natural evolution on the premise of following natural laws, that is, the idea of ecological environment reconstruction in hydropower project construction. The basic principles of the idea of ecological environment reconstruction are systematically analyzed herein. In hydropower project construction, the ecological environment reconstruction can not only improve the ecological environment by the resultant force of natural laws and human activities, but also improve the economic, social and eco-environmental benefits together.%针对如何协调水电工程建设与生态环境的相互关系问题,从自然规律与人类活动的关系出发,分析了水电工程建设对生态环境的有利和不利影响,指出了水电工程建设中生态环境保护的关键在于:在遵循自然规律的前提下,实现水电工程建设与自然演化共同改善生态环境的目的,即提出水电工程建设生态环境再造理念,系统分析探讨了水电工程建设生态环境再造理念的基本原则.水电工程建设生态环境再造可以通过人力与自然力的共同作用达到改善生态环境的目的,实现水电工程建设经济效益、社会效益、生态环境效益的共同提高.

  10. Ecology Beyond Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    As the designers of the WWf building in Zeist, The Netherslands a CO2-neutral, self-sufficient office complex, RAU has set the bar for sustainable research and design. Guesteditor Terri Peters visited the firm's studio in Amsterdam to talk to principal Thomas Rau. As Peters relates, Rau prefers t...... to put on the dwindling supply of raw materials rather than the immidiate problems of energy consumption for which there are solutions within reach. With the emphasis on a more far-reaching approach, he places buildings in a wider context of ecological thinking and systems....

  11. Editorial: Pedagogical Media Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee M. Meister

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From educational gaming through portable e-readers to cell phones, media are interpenetrating educational spaces and activities. Accordingly, understanding media in environmental or ecological terms has become increasingly important for education internationally. In North America, for example, the centenary of McLuhan’s birth has focused attention on approaches to media – whether oral, textual, electronic or digital– as a kind of environment in which education takes place. In parts of Europe, the so-called mediatic turn – following on the linguistic and iconic turns – has similarly emphasized the role of media as a condition for the possibility of educational activities and programs. With a few exceptions1 the papers in this special issue were first presented at the conference «Educational Media Ecologies: International Perspectives» which took place at the University of Paderborn, Germany, on March 27–28, 2012.2 The event was an interdisciplinary and transatlantic endeavor to bring together a wide range of perspectives on various issues relevant to educational media ecologies,3 and on related debates on mediation, medialization, mediatization, and mediality.4 The purpose of this volume, like the conference, is to foster and deepen international dialogue in the area of educational media. Areas of research and scholarship relevant to this dialogue include educational media, media literacy, educational philosophy, and media and cultural studies. The contributions, described below, put conceptual issues as well as social practices and applications at the center of the debate. Klaus Rummler opens the issue by clarifying the concept of ecology itself. Referencing a range of work over the past 50 years, Rummler describes how ecological models have been cast in sociological, semiotic, cultural, mediatic and other terms, and he explains the implications of these various perspectives for the study of educational contexts. Rummler also

  12. THE EMERGENCE OF ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING AS A DISCIPLINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioneering efforts in the field of ecological engineering research and practice have proven to be tremendous strides toward establishing a new engineering discipline with a science base in ecology. Case studies, demonstrations and applications pertaining to restoration, rehabili...

  13. An Analysis of Domestic and Foreign Research on Confucian Ecological Ethics in Recent Years%近年来国内外儒家生态伦理研究简析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵传森; 傅德田

    2012-01-01

    This article consists of four parts: 1) the unity of heaven and man is the core idea of Confucianism Ecological Ethics.2) The deduction of Confucian "human ethics" to "ecological ethics": For one thing,someone regard "Ren" as the common morality of heaven and man so as to directly make the conclusion of Confucianism Ecological Ethics;for another,someone gradually deduct the ecological ethics from the angle of human ethics.3) "finding pleasure in hills and rivers" as the emotion of Confucianism Ecological Ethics.4) The focus of overseas scholars and the comparison of domestic and foreign research.%文章从四个方面对近年来国内外儒家生态伦理的研究进行梳理与比较:一、"天人合一"——儒家生态伦理的核心理念。二、儒家"人的伦理"到"生态伦理"的推演:一种思路是将"仁"视为天道与人道共有的德行,从而直接导出儒家生态伦理思想;另一种思路则由"天人合一"中所包含的人际伦理关系来层层导出生态伦理。三、"乐山乐水"——儒家生态伦理的情感。四、国外学者关注点以及国内外研究比较。

  14. 生态补偿对象空间选择的研究进展及展望%The Research Advances and Perspectives of Spatial Selection of Ecological Compensation Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴其文; 赵雪雁; 徐伟; 董霞; 白如山

    2009-01-01

    生态补偿作为一种将外在的、非市场环境服务转化为当地参与者提供生态系统服务的财政激励机制而备受世界关注.为了全面认识国际生态补偿对象空间选择的状况与成果,促进国际生态补偿对象空间选择研究的交流与合作,论文在分析国际相关理论和实践研究的基础上,概括介绍了生态补偿对象空间选择的相关概念和研究背景,对不同补偿对象选择方案进行了归纳梳理和比较分析,简要介绍了得分函数法、距离函数法和GAP分析法等研究方法,比较分析了研究方法的优缺点,最后提出了思考和展望:选择方案的设计既要注重资金效益,又要兼顾公平;努力建立生态补偿效果的评价机制,逐步完善生态补偿对象选择方案,健全生态补偿机制.%Ecological compensation have attracted increasing interest as a mechanism to transform external, non-market values of the environment into real financial incentives for local actors to provide environmental services. Based on the analysis of international theory and practice, this paper firstly introduces summarily the background and some related concepts of spatial selection of ecological compensation objects, analyzes the necessity of spatial selection from spatial heterogeneity of ecosystem service, destroy risk of ecosystem and participation costs and capital efficiency of ecological compensation. The research of spatial selection of ecological compensation objects has experienced the development process from a single goal and a single criterion to multi-objectives and multi-criteria. Secondly, in accordance with the summarization and comparison of the four selected criterions of ecological compensation objects, it finds out that except the flat payment , the others select sites with the highest ratio of total environment benefits to total cost, the standard of compensation increases from opportunity costs to participation costs (the sum of

  15. Research Progress on Regional Ecological Security Pattern Planning and Discussion of Planning Techniqueflow%区域生态安全格局规划研究进展及规划技术流程探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧定华; 夏建国; 张莉; 赵智

    2015-01-01

    The regional ecological security pattern planning is an effect way to resolve conflicts between ecological protection and economic development, an important method to achieve smart growth and smart protection as well, thus, the research on regional ecological security pattern planning has important theoretical and practical significance. However, there is a lack of systematic carding and summary on the related literatures of conception, supporting theories as well as technical methods for regional ecological security pattern planning. Therefore, through consulting a large number of literature as well as summarizing and analyzing relevant researches at home and abroad, this paper not only clarified the logical relationship among different conceptions of regional ecological security pattern thus exactly defined regional ecological security pattern planning, but also systematically summarized the supporting theories and technical methods on regional ecological security pattern planning in different areas, such as landscape ecological classification and ecological suitability assessment, landscape pattern change analysis and dynamic simulation, ecological security warning and spatial planning decisions technical methods, and the conclusions are as follows: research on reliability verification of theory constructing and classification results on landscape ecological classification index is relatively weak;methods widely used on landscape ecological suitability assessment can be divided into traditional method including“thousand layer cake”method, analytic hierarchy process, and modern artificial intelligence method including artificial neural network, genetic algorithm, cellular automata;quantitative identification on driving factors of landscape pattern change is relatively deficient and dissicution on interaction relationship among all driving factors is superficial, what’s more, self-adaptive and feedback effct of landscape pattern itself reacting to driving

  16. 重庆市城市化水平与生态压力关系研究%Research on the Relationship Between Level of Urbanization and Ecological Pressure in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓仪; 林天应; 董治宝; 刘新颜

    2011-01-01

    文章采用多指标综合评价法测度了重庆市1997-2008年的城市化水平综合得分,依据生态足迹的理论和方法,计算了重庆市1997-2008年生态足迹、生态承载力、生态盈余/赤字,构建生态压力定量模型,即生态压力指数.结果表明:1997-2008年,重庆市人均生态足迹从1.035 4 hm2增长至1.452 3 hm2,人均生态承载力则从0.506 8hm2下降至0.454 2 hm2,人均生态盈余/赤字处于生态赤字状态,从-0.528 6 hm2变化至-0.998 1 hm2,生态压力指数从0.243 0 增长至3.197 5.将城市化水平与生态压力指数做相关分析和回归分析,相关系数R=0.91,回归方程为Y=0.005 0X+2.432 1(R=0.94,F=599.22,F0.01=10.044 2,Y代表生态压力指数,X代表城市化水平),揭示出重庆市城市化水平提高导致区域生态压力增大.结合重庆市的实际情况,从发展周边区县,调整产业结构,合理规划城市土地,保护生态环境几个方面提出解决城市化进程中生态压力增大矛盾的途径.%It is urgent to research the influence of urbanization and ecological environment during ecological civilization construction in Chongqing. Based on ecological civilization construction and theory and method of ecological footprint, this calculated ecological footprint, ecological capacity and ecological surplus/deficit in Chongqing from 1997 to 2008 and then constructed quantificational model of ecological pressure, that is, index of ecological pressure. Results show that per capita average ecological footprint in Chongqing increases from 1. 035 4 hm2 in 1997 to 1. 452 3 hm2 in 2008 per capita average ecological capacity in Chongqing reduces form 0.560 8 hm2 in 1997 to 0. 454 2 hm2 in 2008 per capita average ecological surplus/deficit is deficit which changes from -0.528 6 hm2 in 1997 to -0.998 1 hm2 in 2008, index of ecological pressure increases from 0. 243 0 in 1997 to 3. 1975 in 2008. Correlation analysis and regression analysis are made between ecological pressure

  17. Translating ecology, physiology, biochemistry and population genetics research to meet the challenge of tick and tick-borne diseases in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging and re-emerging tick-borne diseases threaten public health and the wellbeing of domestic animals and wildlife globally. The adoption of an evolutionary ecology framework aimed to diminish the impact of tick-borne diseases needs to be part of strategies to protect human and animal population...

  18. 山东省生态农业发展政策研究%A Research on Policies to Develop Ecological Agriculture in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红玉

    2015-01-01

    In view of increasingly serious agricultural environment,this paper expounded the key to achieving the healthy and sustainable development of agriculture for Shangdong province which is magnate in economy and agriculture is to transform agro-ecology and proposed that it is important and necessary to lay emphasis on the construction of the system in respect to the development of ecological agriculture and the perfection of relevant policies to achieve the transformation of agro-ecology and develop agro-ecology smoothly.%针对农业环境日趋严重的问题,论述了山东省作为经济强省和农业大省,要实现农业健康可持续发展,农业生态转型是关键,提出了实现农业生态转型、发展好生态农业,必须注重生态农业发展的制度体系建设和相关政策的完善建议。

  19. 《诗经》的生态学研究%The Book of Poetry's Research in the Field of Ecological Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于伟

    2011-01-01

    诗与思同源,《诗经》之思是无邪的,生态的,《诗经》之诗也是无邪的、生态的。《诗经》之诗人,运无邪、生态之思,仰观宇宙之大、俯察品类之盛,寂然凝虑,思接千载;悄焉动容,视通万里。如此运思,如此作诗,如此对待自然,思考宇宙人生的态度,恰恰是我们所汲汲以求的生态智慧。%Thoughts in the Book of Poetry is not evil, but ecological, similarly, lyrics in the "lyrics" is not evil, but ecological Poets of Book of Poetry are in the thoughts of innocence and ecology, will look up immenseness of the universe, overlook diverseness of category. It is that in silence they mediate that enables them to inherit the marrow in the thought passed down in thousands of years ; it is that in silence they are touched that enables us to reach a far greater sight. It is this attitude of medita- ting, versifying, self - treating that they take to ponder over the life and universe is the ecological wisdom which we assiduously seeking for.

  20. A truly ecological epigenetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossdorf, Oliver; Zhang, Yuanye

    2011-04-01

    Until a few years ago, epigenetics was a field of research that had nothing to do with ecology and that virtually no ecologist had ever heard of. This is now changing, as more and more ecologists learn about epigenetic processes and their potential ecological and evolutionary relevance, and a new research field of ecological epigenetics is beginning to take shape. One question that is particularly intriguing ecologists is to what extent epigenetic variation is an additional, and hitherto overlooked, source of natural variation in ecologically important traits. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Herrera & Bazaga (2011) provide one of the first attempts to truly address this question in an ecological setting. They study variation of DNA methylation in a wild population of the rare, long-lived violet Viola cazorlensis, and they use these data to explore interrelations between environmental, genetic and epigenetic variation, and in particular the extent to which these factors are related to long-term differences in herbivore damage among plants. They find substantial epigenetic variation among plant individuals. Interestingly, this epigenetic variation is significantly correlated with long-term differences in herbivory, but only weakly with herbivory-related DNA sequence variation, which suggests that besides habitat, substrate and genetic variation, epigenetic variation may be an additional, and at least partly independent, factor influencing plant–herbivore interactions in the field. Although the study by Herrera & Bazaga (2011) raises at least as many new questions as it answers, it is a pioneering example of how epigenetics can be incorporated into ecological field studies, and it illustrates the value and potential novel insights to be gained from such efforts.

  1. The early history of modern ecological economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a historical perspective for the discussion on ecological economics as a special field of research. By studying the historical background of ecological economics, the present discussions and tensions inside the field might become easier to understand and to relate to. The stud...

  2. Accelerate synthesis in ecology and environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthesis of diverse knowledge is a central part of all sciences, but especially those such as ecology and environmental sciences which draw information from many disciplines. Research and education in ecology are intrinsically synthetic, and synthesis is increasingly needed to find solutions for en...

  3. Barriers to adaptive reasoning in community ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Athol J; Ladle, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    Recent high-profile calls for a more trait-focused approach to community ecology have the potential to open up novel research areas, generate new insights and to transform community ecology into a more predictive science. However, a renewed emphasis on function and phenotype also requires a fundamental shift in approach and research philosophy within community ecology to more fully embrace evolutionary reasoning. Such a subject-wise transformation will be difficult due to at least four factors: (1) the historical development of the academic discipline of ecology and its roots as a descriptive science; (2) the dominating role of the ecosystem concept in the driving of contemporary ecological thought; (3) the practical difficulties associated with defining and identifying (phenotypic) adaptations, and; (4) scaling effects in ecology; the difficulty of teasing apart the overlapping and shifting hierarchical processes that generate the observed environment-trait correlations in nature. We argue that the ability to predict future ecological conditions through a sufficient understanding of ecological processes will not be achieved without the placement of the concept of adaptation at the centre of ecology, with influence radiating outwards through all the related (and rapidly specializing) sub-disciplines. © 2010 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2010 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  4. An Research on British Pastoral Poems in the Perspective of Ecological Criticism%生态批评视角下的英国田园诗歌解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩利敏; 梁晓冬

    2012-01-01

    英国田园诗歌源远流长,是人类文明史上宝贵的精神财富,但长期以来田园诗歌一直被视作消极遁世的文学而没有进入研究的焦点。然而纵观整个英国田园诗歌,不难发现大量诗作中表达出超前、明显的自然意识和生态思想。兴起于20世纪70年代的生态批评理论为研究田园诗歌提供了新的视角,本文试从生态批评的视角,结合文本细读的方法客观全面地重新解读田园诗歌,探寻其中蕴含的积极生态思想及其对生态理解的狭隘性和局限性,从而有助于实现人与自然的和谐发展,进一步推动国内外对田园诗歌多视角、多元化的批评与解读。%British pastoral poems, as invaluable spiritual wealth in human civilization, are longstanding and well - established. However, for a long time they were regarded as negative, pessimistic and evasive literature, unable to enter critics' research focus, and accordingly research on them at home and abroad were far from sufficient. Through an overview of the whole British pastoral poems, it could be discovered that farseeing, obvious natural and ecological senses or thoughts were expressed in many pastoral poems. Fortunately, the ecological criticism, coming into being in 1970s, provided a new perspective for the study on pastoral poems. Therefore, this thesis will have an objective and overall analysis of pastoral poems in the perspective of ecological theory and dig out the positive ecological thoughts and their narrow - minded and limited understanding on ecology or nature as well. This thesis helps to build the harmony between human and nature and it will also help to boost the multi - perspective and multi - layered research on pastoral poems.

  5. The Knowledge Structure and Academic Perspective of China’s Media Ecology Research%中国媒介生态学研究的知识结构与学术视野

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐钱立

    2014-01-01

    Since 2001,the media ecology research has gradually become a hot topic in the academic circle of media and communication.Although the research started only over a decade ago,it has already formed a complete knowledge structure comprising its main issue,core concepts,and basic propositions. With ten years of exploration,media ecology research in China has produced impressive academic a-chievements,and formed a number of major research directions.%自2001年以来,媒介生态研究逐渐成为传播学界的热门话题。虽然开展时间不长,但其已形成了包括主干问题、核心概念、基本命题在内的完整知识结构。经过十多年的探索,我国的媒介生态学研究已产生了可观的学术成果,形成了若干重点研究方向。

  6. Research on Foreign Economic Development and Ecological Environment%对外经济发展与生态环境研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖国强

    2005-01-01

    Since China's opening to the outside world a large amount of foreign investment has flowed into the country. The domestic economy has been full of vigor and vitality after adopting the socialist market economy, which contributes to a higher economic growth. However, ecological environment has a close relationship with the foreign economic development. The good ecological environment and natural resources are the foundation of foreign economic development. With the expansion of its market economy, China is confronted with a series of sustainable development challenges related to population, resources and environmental protection, etc. How we should prevent and control effectively the impact of economic development upon the environment and avoid serious effect and damages on environmental quality are the key points this paper will discuss.

  7. 生态赤字税:理论与实证研究框架%Ecological Deficit Tax:A Theoretical and Empirical Research Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克强; 熊振兴; 刘红梅

    2016-01-01

    Based on price system determined by ecological footprint analysis and eco-logical service value theory,this paper calculates ecological deficits and their value,propo-ses environmental tax plan of value compensation,constructs green social accounting ma-trix and environmental tax CGE model by regarding ecological occupation as an input fac-tor,and analyzes the environmental,employment,growth,distribution and trade effects of tax plan under 5%,10% and 30% of compensation intensity through comparative anal-ysis of numerical simulation.It comes to the results as follows:firstly,the ecological defi-cit tax plan has a double dividend effect on the reduction in ecological occupation and em-ployment growth;secondly,the total output and intermediate inputs decline as a whole;the nominal GDP increases and the green GDP grows faster,but the real GDP declines,in-dicating that tax policies can result in the rise in price indexes to a certain extent;thirdly, owing to higher-level ecological deficit compensation ,government tax revenues improve greatly,and their growth rate is higher than the growth rates of labor and capital factors, but the proportions of income of residents and corporate revenues decline slightly.Based on the proportions of resources related tax and environmental tax in total tax revenues,as well as the tax structures and changing trends of OECD nations,this paper finally suggests that compensatory rate of the ecological deficit tax should be lower than 5%.%文章基于生态足迹核算方法和生态服务价值理论所确定的价格体系,在核算生态赤字及其价值并提出其价值补偿的环境税方案的基础上,将生态占用作为一种要素投入,构建绿色社会核算矩阵和环境税 CGE 模型,通过数值模拟比较分析了在5%、10%和30%的补偿强度下税收方案的环境效应、就业效应、增长效应、分配效应和贸易效应。模拟结果表明:(1)生态赤字税方案具有减少生

  8. Epidemiology and ecology of enterococci, with special reference to antibiotic resistant strains, in animals, humans and the environment - Example of an ongoing project within the European research programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, I.; Iversen, A.; Burman, L. G.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the present study are to generate knowledge of the ecology and epidemiology of enterococci in the food chain by studying the following: (1) the population structure (in measures of abundance, number of vancomycin resistant strains, antibiotic resistance patterns, diversity...... and vancomycin resistant enterococcal populations in each sample have been enumerated and more than 12 000 isolates have been characterised by phenotyping. Representative isolates are further species identified and characterised by genotyping and MIC determination and from antibiotic resistant isolates...

  9. 杭州湾滨海生态绿地小气候效应研究%Research on Micro-climate Effects of Hangzhou Bay Coastal Ecological Greenland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周和锋; 邵学新; 房聪玲; 吴明; 孙海菁

    2012-01-01

    通过对杭州湾滨海生态绿地小气候效应的实地调查和定位观测,结果表明:生态绿地植物生长季节可提高空气湿度,空气相对湿度(平均为85.25%)明显高于无林荒地(平均为80.32%);滨海生态绿地的冠层截留效应明显,林冠层全年截留降水量为226.2 mm,占全年降水量的16.92%;滨海绿地全年月平均大气压的变化呈S形,树木在生长季节内有降低大气压的作用,树木停止生长后林木有增加大气压的作用;滨海生态绿地具有降低风速的作用,绿地内可降低风速约75.94%,防风能力较强,降低风速的效率为67.42%;滨海绿地对改变风向也有较大的作用。%The micro-climate effects of Hangzhou Bay coastal ecological greenland were researched. The results indicated that ecological greenland has a role in regulating the temperature and humidity. Compared to non-forest land, the forests in the summer can adjust to reduce the temperature, and play an opposite role in the winter. The ecological greenland can increase the air humidity during the growing season of plants and have a significantly higher air relative humidity (average 85.25%) than non-forest land (an average of 80.32%). The retention effect of canopy is significant in ecological greenland, which can trap precipitation of 226.2 mm throughout the year, accounting for 16.92% of the annual precipitation. The Annual monthly average atmospheric pressure changes with S-shaped trend. The trees can lower atmospheric pressure in the growing season and increase atmospheric pressure when stop growing. The ecological greenland can lower 75.94% of the wind speed with the reduce efficiency of about 67.42%. It also plays a role in change the wind direction. Overall, the micro-climate effects of Hangzhou Bay coastal ecological greenland are significant.

  10. 转基因鱼类生态安全的研究进展%Research Advances in Ecological Safety of Transgenic Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晗; 姜鹏; 白俊杰

    2013-01-01

    为了转基因鱼类在商业化进程中进行生态安全的评估.本研究介绍了生态安全的概念,并以两类进入到生态安全评估阶段的转基因鱼为例,从转基因鱼在模拟环境下对生态系统中生物多样性的影响和遗传改良后自身适合度的变化两方面探讨其对生态安全可能产生的影响,同时阐述了为防止转基因鱼逃逸所采取的一些应对措施.%The assessment of ecological safety was very important in the commercialize progress of transgenic fish. This paper described the concept of ecological safety, and took two kinds of transgenic fish as example to discuss the possible effects of transgenic fish on ecological safety from two aspects: the possible effects of transgenic fish on the biological diversity in contained facilities and the fitness changes in genetically engineered fish. Meanwhile, containment measures to prevent transgenic fish from escaping ware also reviewed in this paper.

  11. VISUALIZATION ANALYSIS OF THEORY BASE AND RESEARCH HOT SPOTS OF DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL ECOLOGICAL COMPENSATION%国内外生态补偿基础理论与研究热点的可视化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小飞; 傅春; 陈伏生; 廖志娟

    2012-01-01

    With the aggravation of the ecological and environmental problems faced by humanity,the ecological compensation has become a hot topic of widespread concerns amongst domestic and foreign scholars.In order to understand the advances of ecological compensation,we carries out statistical analysis about the time of its publication based on 929documents from Web of Science and the Chinese Social Science Citation Index(CSSCI) database on the subject of ecology compensation in the time period of 1998-2011,and analyzes co-citation of literary documents and keyword co-occurrence using the CiteSpace Ⅱ software.Meanwhile,the key scholarly documents are listed,and research topics of eco-compensation are briefly concluded using knowledge mapping visual tool.We found the number of ecological compensation paper presented the trend of fluctuation growth from 1998to 2011.Research on eco-compensation of carbon sinks and REDD in the context of global climate change,eco-compensation zones and evaluation on the implementation of ecological compensation,strengthening the ecological compensation standards of the wetlands,nature reserves,watersheds and other ecosystem,application of computer management software(such as GIS,SWAT,InVEST) would become the focus issues in the future research on eco-compensation.Our results also showed that the domestic scholars had made great progress in the theory of eco-compensation,and the practice researches in forests,watersheds,nature reserves and other areas were strengthened in recent years.%随着人类面临的生态环境问题加重,生态补偿已成为国内外学者广泛关注的热点问题。为清晰地了解国内外生态补偿的研究现状和未来发展,以Web of Science、中文社会科学引文索引(CSSCI)数据库中1998~2011年有关生态补偿的929篇文献为基础,应用CiteSpace Ⅱ软件分析了论文发表数量、文献共被引和关键词共现等特征,并以知识图谱可视化的方式,归纳了近年来

  12. 分子生态学在生物膜微生物研究中的应用前景%Prospects of molecular ecology in biofilm microbiology research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妙婉; 于衍真; 冯岩

    2013-01-01

    Use molecular ecology technology to analyze bacteria populations in biofilm, which has a very important significance for effective sewage treatment and improvement of nitrogen and phosphorus removal rate. This article described the extraction of total DNA, PCR, DGGE, RFLP, SSCP, FISH and other common molecular ecology techniques, summarized researches at domestic and foreign, discussed the application prospects of molecular e-cology techniques for study of microbial communities in biofilm, broadened the idea of exploring the diversity of microorganisms, the structure and distribution, as well as the dynamic.%利用分子生态学技术分析研究生物膜内细菌种群,对有效处理污水,提高氮磷去除率有着极为重要的意义.本文介绍了提取总DNA、PCR、DGGE、RFLP、SSCP和FISH等常见分子生态学技术,综述了国内外的研究进展,探讨了分子生态学技术在生物膜内微生物群落研究的应用前景,为探寻生物膜内微生物的多样性、结构与分布以及动态性拓宽了思路.

  13. Research on Localization MOOC Service for University Library Based on Information Ecology Chain%基于信息生态链的高校图书馆本土化MOOC服务研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯林丽

    2016-01-01

    This paper firstly makes a short review about the status of MOOC Service for university Library. Then based on information ecology theory and the characteristics of MOOC service, proposes the information ecology chain of MOOC service for university library which starting with information consumer. Lastly combined 5W1H method, proposes the information ecology chain of localization MOOC service for university library, and analyses al elements from information consumer, information producer, information store and information organization four aspects. It opens up a fresh perspective for researching how to actualize MOOC service for university library.%在简要回顾国内外高校图书馆慕课(MOOC)服务研究现状的基础上,结合信息生态学理论和MOOC服务的特性,提出以信息消费为驱动点的高校图书馆MOOC服务生态链;并结合5W1H法,从信息消费、信息生产、信息存储和信息组织四个方面进行高校图书馆本土化MOOC服务生态链的要素分析,为高校图书馆MOOC服务的开展提供一个新的研究视角。

  14. Research Progress of Ecological Restoration Theory and Technology in Coal Mine Area%煤矿区生态恢复理论与技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴历勇

    2012-01-01

    煤矿的开采占用和破坏了大量土地,改变了矿区及周围区域水体结构,破坏了动植物区系,导致矿区生态环境退化与环境污染,进而引发了一系列社会、经济与生态环境问题.矿区的生态恢复已经在社会上引起了广泛关注,成为当今较为活跃的研究热点之一.综述了国内外煤矿区生态恢复在理论与技术研究上取得的进展及存在的主要问题.%Coal mine exploitation occupies and destroys a large number of land. The structure of waters around the mine has changed. The changes also causes huge destruction of flora and fauna, results in eco - environmental degradation and environmental pollution in mining areas, and further triggers a series of social, economic and ecological environment problems. Mine ecological restoration has aroused widespread attention in society and becomes the focus of research. This paper summarized the progress and existing main problems in ecological restoration of domestic and international coal mine area in the theory and technology.

  15. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important for the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread.

  16. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread. 

  17. An Open-Path Tunable Diode Laser Sensor for Measurement of Greenhouse Gases at the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research Site near Fairbanks, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D. Michelle; Adkins, Erin; Miller, Houston

    2016-04-01

    Permafrost makes up one-quarter of the Earth's terrestrial surface and, as global temperatures continue to increase, it is at risk of thawing. Thawing permafrost has the potential to release twice the amount of carbon than is currently in the atmosphere. A multi-year field campaign has begun in collaboration with the University of Alaska - Fairbanks, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and our group at George Washington University to study carbon feedbacks during a springtime thaw at the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research site near Fairbanks, Alaska. Here we present initial results from our near-infrared open-path instrument for the detection of ground-level concentrations of carbon dioxide (in subsequent field campaigns a second channel for methane detection will be added). The optics launch-box portion of the instrument couples a near-infrared distributed feedback laser operating near 1605 nm for carbon dioxide detection with a visible laser for alignment purposes. The outgoing beam is directed through a 3.2-mm hole in a parabolic mirror and the launch-box is oriented using a two axis, alt-azi telescope mount so that the beam will hit the retroreflector target at a set distance downfield. The beam then retraces the path back to the launch-box where the light is collected on the surface of the parabolic mirror and focused onto a multi-mode fiber for detection. Using a National Instruments data acquisition system we are able to collect 500 scans per second which allows for long-term data averaging and subsequently increases the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of our signal. In June 2015, the instrument was deployed to a thermokarst collapse scar bog in the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest. With a 90 meter total pathlength we were able to resolve carbon dioxide absorption signals on the order of 0.5% utilizing direct-absorption spectroscopy. We also present the lab-scale implementation of wavelength modulation spectroscopy to increase the sensitivity of our

  18. 环境艺术设计中的生态理念问题%Research on Ecological Concept in Environmental Art Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 陈文福

    2013-01-01

    21世纪,工业文明在带给人们方便、舒适的同时,也带来了严重的水污染、大气污染、硫酸雨、资源枯竭等环境、生态问题。生态危机逐步引发了人们有关生活方式、生存空间和价值观念的反思,于是导致了环境艺术设计的快速发展。遗憾的是,人们关注更多的是环境艺术设计中的生态理念以及生态理念在环境艺术设计中的应用。为解决相关问题,重点介绍了环境艺术设计的概念和内容,以及环境艺术设计中所运用的生态理念的基本特征与基本原则,从而进一步探讨了生态理念在环境艺术设计中具体的应用及其实践内容。%In the 21st century, the industrial civilization brings humans not only comfort and convenience but serious environmental problems, such as water and air pollution, sulfur acid rain, resource depletion, etc. Ecological crisis has gradually sparked human relfection on their lifestyle, living space and values, which is a stepping stone for the development of environmental art design as well. On the contrary, people pay more attention to the ecological concept in the environmental art design and the application of ecological concept in the environmental art design. This paper mainly introduces the concept and contents of environmental art design. Besides, the essential features and basic principles of the ecological concept in the environmental art design are also concerned, which are made to further expound the concrete application and practice in the process of ecological concept in the environmental art design.

  19. 海南城镇化与生态文明协调发展对策研究%Hainan Urbanization and Ecological Civilization Coordinated Development Countermeasure Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 王曦

    2015-01-01

    The ecological environment as restricting the comprehensive promotion of urbanization and regional benign competition of the urgent need to solve the key factors, determines the strength of governance of the ecological environment protection and social harmony and sustainable development achievements. Overall, properly handle the relationship between urbanization and ecological civilization development, deal in Hainan's economic and social development, especially the key problem in the process of urbanization needs priority. Hainan is in a stage of rapid development of urbanization, also in the implementation of the key period of the scientific concept of development and building a conservation oriented harmonious society, therefore the urbanization and eco-environment coordination mechanism and regulation of the relationship between the study of great significance. This article from the connotation of Hainan urbanization and ecological environment of view, pointing out the outstanding problems during the development of urbanization and ecological environment, puts forward the corresponding suggestions on.%生态环境作为制约全面推进城镇化以及地区间良性竞争的亟需解决关键因素,决定着生态环境的保护与治理力度以及社会和谐可持续发展的成效.妥善处理、综合统筹城镇化建设与生态文明发展的关系,处理好海南经济社会发展过程中,特别是城镇化进程中亟需首要解决的关键问题.海南正处在城镇化快速发展阶段,也处于落实科学发展观、构建节约型和谐社会的关键时期,因此对城市化与生态环境协调机制及其调控关系的研究极具意义.该文从海南城镇化与生态环境的内涵出发, 指出了城镇化与生态环境发展过程中存在的突出问题,并对此提出相应的建议.

  20. Research on accounting recognition and measurement of forest ecological assets%森林生态资产的特征、会计确认与计量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅娟; 温作民; 魏远竹

    2012-01-01

    现行的会计准则及制度从未涉及森林生态资产的核算规定.随着当今人们对森林生态问题前所未有的关注及其会计信息披露的需要,其核算问题也成为会计界研究的前沿与热点问题,有关它的特殊性及会计确认与计量等深层次问题都亟待解决.在阐述森林生态资产特殊性及其对会计确认与计量影响的基础上,分析认为森林生态资产的会计确认应该在评估的基础上进行,森林生态资产的初始及后续的会计计量均比较适合采用公允价值计量模式,其公允价值的获取途径应更多地考虑非市场价值的评估技术,而其估价技术方法应充分采纳现行成熟的生态经济学或环境经济学价值评价方法.%Current accounting standards and systems do not include the accounting of forest ecological assets. With the increasing attention that people pay to forest ecological issues and the needs for accounting information disclosure, its value accounting has become a forefront issue and hot topic in the accounting profession. The profound issues about its particularities, accounting recognition and measurements are to be solved. Based on the analysis of the features of forest ecological assets and its impacts on accounting recognition and measurement, this paper proposes that accounting recognition should be based on the appraisal and a fair value model is suggested for initial and further measurement of forest ecological assets. For the fair value measurement, the appraisal techniques of non-market values should be given more consideration. And its value appraisal methods should refer to the existing mature ecological economic or environmental economic appraisal methods.

  1. Ecologies of Learning, Ecologies of Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Helene

    in the light of the new Danish school reform. How can different learning institutions contribute to a “joint” ecology of learning? What would the benefits be from this in terms of young people’s literacies? On what theoretical basis can such an ecology and co-creation take place? And what kind of didactics...

  2. The Rauischholzhausen agenda for road ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roedenbeck, I.A.; Fahrig, L.; Findlay, C.S.; Houlahan, J.E.; Jaeger, J.A.G.; Klar, N.; Kramer-Schadt, S.; Grift, van der E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the documented negative effects of roads on wildlife, ecological research on road effects has had comparatively little influence on road planning decisions. We argue that road research would have a larger impact if researchers carefully considered the relevance of the research questions addr

  3. Ecology, sexual selection and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maan, Martine E; Seehausen, Ole

    2011-06-01

    The spectacular diversity in sexually selected traits among animal taxa has inspired the hypothesis that divergent sexual selection can drive speciation. Unfortunately, speciation biologists often consider sexual selection in isolation from natural selection, even though sexually selected traits evolve in an ecological context: both preferences and traits are often subject to natural selection. Conversely, while behavioural ecologists may address ecological effects on sexual communication, they rarely measure the consequences for population divergence. Herein, we review the empirical literature addressing the mechanisms by which natural selection and sexual selection can interact during speciation. We find that convincing evidence for any of these scenarios is thin. However, the available data strongly support various diversifying effects that emerge from interactions between sexual selection and environmental heterogeneity. We suggest that evaluating the evolutionary consequences of these effects requires a better integration of behavioural, ecological and evolutionary research. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Ecological and Environmental Protection:An Important Research Dimension of Bioethics%生态与环境保护:生命伦理的重要研究向度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕永直

    2014-01-01

    全球性的生态环境问题不仅是人与自然关系的失调,更从根本上反映出人与人之间社会关系的矛盾与冲突,其关涉到人类生命质量与人类文明的发展,受到自然科学、生物学、伦理学、社会学等学界的高度关注。将生态与环境保护纳入生命伦理的研究视域,从处理人与自然关系的人类环境价值观视角、人与人关系的人类道德行为规则视角探索生态与环境保护的实践路径,不仅是对人类走出生态困境的有益探索,同时对于生命伦理亦具有深远的意义。%Global ecological environmental problems not only indicate the imbalance between human and nature , but also fundamentally reflect the contradiction and conflict of social relationships among people ,which relate to the quality of human life and the development of human civilization ,and receive high attention from natural science ,biology ,ethics ,sociology and other academic fields .Incorporating ecological and environmental protection into the research vision of life ethics ,and exploring the practice path of ecological and environmental protection from the perspective of human environment values for handling the relationship between human and nature ,and the perspective of human moral behavior rules for the relationship among people ,are not only beneficial exploration on human to get rid of the ecological predicament ,but also have far-reaching significance for life ethics .

  5. Interim balance: Ecology. Oekologische Zwischenbilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogon, E.; Jungk, R.

    1981-03-01

    The world wide ecology problem is discussed with examples of energy, transportation, chemistry, agriculture and food industry, and water supply. Destruction of nature and human discord is considered. Conservative in our political parties and their views on environmental protection are presented, including alliance between reds and 'greens''. The Rhine initiative is discussed. Lead respects no borders accounts experiences of citizens' action groups in Lothringia and the Saar district. International airport Munich-II/comments by a protestant. 'Give priority to life is hearing on environmental protection. Other subjects include: 'Green's in the Bremen Senate; policy in a hard-hearing world psychology of citizens' action groups; critical ecological research and scientific establishment; full productivity and ecology; the deluge to follow/hints on how to build an ark; symbiosis is more than coexistence/ecologists' social theory; throwing in two hundred elementary particles/on the way to an ecological concept of science; scientific journals; alternative literature; and a teaching model for a teaching subject' ecology'.

  6. Ecological Challenges for Closed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    2012-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the sustaining of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and measures and options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  7. Ecology through time, an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Giovanni; Bramanti, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    This brief review is an attempt to condense the major events in the history of Ecology into short 10 sections. In little more than two generations, a new science has emerged and developed into a fundamental part of our lives, spurred on by increasing interest in "natural systems" and concerns over the environmental changes we are witnessing. Ecology, rather neglected until the early decades of last century, flourished and established itself as mature science during the mid-1900s, producing many theories, models, hypothesis and trends of thought. Ecology deals with interacting natural systems and eclectically applies tools drawn from several different sciences (Biology, Mathematics, Statistics, Chemistry, Geology, Physics and so on). The beauty of the subject and its multidisciplinary approach makes Ecology extremely intriguing for researchers. One of the main goals of Ecology is to forecast population, community and ecosystem trends over time. Ecological systems are complex: they are composed of such a large number of different, interacting components that their overall behavior can only be understood in terms of emerging properties. Therefore, some interactions and effects are difficult to predict. However, some insights into population and community trends can be inferred from exhaustive data sets and sufficiently long-term, time-series data and dynamic models. Unfortunately, due to the limited funding of environmental data collection, only a few exhaustive, long-term samplings have been carried out, and systematic record keeping for the purposes of ecological research has only recently become widespread. However, it is still possible to garner some insights from historical reports (proxies), which clearly show how the population structures of most of today's communities have been affected by human activities. This short review is based on a talk given at Arcidosso (Grosseto, Italy) during the September, 2005 workshop: "Scientific research and society during the

  8. Ecological improvement and sustainable development in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In light of an S&T cooperation agreement between the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and CAS signed on August 2005, the CAS Academic Divisions started in 2006 a research project on ecological improvement and sustainable development strategy in Xinjiang.

  9. Ecological Growth Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluszcz, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The trends of the society for the continuous growth, combined with the demographic changes, today have led to the important ecological problems on a global scale, which include, among others: the increased use of non-renewable natural resources, an increase of the greenhouse gas emissions, contamination of soil, water, air and the progressive degradation of ecosystems. In the face of such serious threats the global initiatives of all countries are important to limit the results of the excessive consumption. The aim of the article is to present the methods of measurement of the consumption level of natural resources by the societies and the examination of relationships between the level of development of the societies and the use of resources. The popular measure - the ecological footprint - was used as a measurement method for the consumption of the today's generations in relation to the regenerative possibilities of the natural environment. On the other hand, as the assessment method for the level of development of societies - the Human Development Index (HDI), including three basic areas: the life expectancy, GDP level per capita and education was used. The results of the research indicate that the current trend of the unlimited consumption of the highly developed countries takes place at the expense of the future generations.

  10. ECOLOGICAL GROWTH BOUNDARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna BLUSZCZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The trends of the society for the continuous growth, combined with the demographic changes, today have led to the important ecological problems on a global scale, which include, among others: the increased use of non-renewable natu-ral resources, an increase of the greenhouse gas emissions, contamination of soil, water, air and the progressive degra-dation of ecosystems. In the face of such serious threats the global initiatives of all countries are important to limit the results of the excessive consumption. The aim of the article is to present the methods of measurement of the consump-tion level of natural resources by the societies and the examination of relationships between the level of development of the societies and the use of resources. The popular measure – the ecological footprint – was used as a measurement method for the consumption of the today’s generations in relation to the regenerative possibilities of the natural envi-ronment. On the other hand, as the assessment method for the level of development of societies – the Human Develop-ment Index (HDI, including three basic areas: the life expectancy, GDP level per capita and education was used. The results of the research indicate that the current trend of the unlimited consumption of the highly developed countries takes place at the expense of the future generations.

  11. The Ecological Culture of Russian and American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaeva, P. O.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative research data show that there is both a high level of ecological concern and a high level of ecological passivity among students in Russia, indicating that their ecological culture exists only on the symbolic level. The "green" culture of American college students, in contrast to that of Russia's college students, has…

  12. The Ecological Culture of Russian and American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaeva, P. O.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative research data show that there is both a high level of ecological concern and a high level of ecological passivity among students in Russia, indicating that their ecological culture exists only on the symbolic level. The "green" culture of American college students, in contrast to that of Russia's college students, has become…

  13. Do College Introductory Biology Courses Increase Student Ecological Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Ye, Xuemei

    2012-01-01

    College introductory biology educators have an opportunity to increase ecological literacy. This research used a pre-/postsurvey design to ask the following questions: (a) What level of ecological literacy do underclass science majors have? (b) What demographic factors are related to ecological literacy? and (c) Does taking introductory organismal…

  14. A road map for molecular ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rose L; Bernatchez, Louis; Bonin, Aurélie; Buerkle, C Alex; Carstens, Bryan C; Emerson, Brent C; Garant, Dany; Giraud, Tatiana; Kane, Nolan C; Rogers, Sean M; Slate, Jon; Smith, Harry; Sork, Victoria L; Stone, Graham N; Vines, Timothy H; Waits, Lisette; Widmer, Alex; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2013-05-01

    The discipline of molecular ecology has undergone enormous changes since the journal bearing its name was launched approximately two decades ago. The field has seen great strides in analytical methods development, made groundbreaking discoveries and experienced a revolution in genotyping technology. Here, we provide brief perspectives on the main subdisciplines of molecular ecology, describe key questions and goals, discuss common challenges, predict future research directions and suggest research priorities for the next 20 years.

  15. BMC Ecology image competition: the winning images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    BMC Ecology announces the winning entries in its inaugural Ecology Image Competition, open to anyone affiliated with a research institute. The competition, which received more than 200 entries from international researchers at all career levels and a wide variety of scientific disciplines, was looking for striking visual interpretations of ecological processes. In this Editorial, our academic Section Editors and guest judge Dr Yan Wong explain what they found most appealing about their chosen winning entries, and highlight a few of the outstanding images that didn’t quite make it to the top prize. PMID:23517630

  16. Turning ecology and evolution against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Kirill S; Xavier, Joao B; Gore, Jeff

    2014-05-01

    The fight against cancer has drawn researchers from a wide variety of disciplines, ranging from molecular biology to physics, but the perspective of an ecological theorist has been mostly overlooked. By thinking about the cells that make up a tumour as an endangered species, cancer vulnerabilities become more apparent. Studies in conservation biology and microbial experiments indicate that extinction is a complex phenomenon, which is often driven by the interaction of ecological and evolutionary processes. Recent advances in cancer research have shown that tumours, like species striving for survival, harbour intricate population dynamics, which suggests the possibility to exploit the ecology of tumours for treatment.

  17. Ecological, Pedagogical, Public Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Nathaniel A.; Weber, Ryan P.

    2011-01-01

    Public rhetoric pedagogy can benefit from an ecological perspective that sees change as advocated not through a single document but through multiple mundane and monumental texts. This article summarizes various approaches to rhetorical ecology, offers an ecological read of the Montgomery bus boycotts, and concludes with pedagogical insights on a…

  18. Bayesian inference with ecological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Link, William A

    2009-01-01

    This text is written to provide a mathematically sound but accessible and engaging introduction to Bayesian inference specifically for environmental scientists, ecologists and wildlife biologists. It emphasizes the power and usefulness of Bayesian methods in an ecological context. The advent of fast personal computers and easily available software has simplified the use of Bayesian and hierarchical models . One obstacle remains for ecologists and wildlife biologists, namely the near absence of Bayesian texts written specifically for them. The book includes many relevant examples, is supported by software and examples on a companion website and will become an essential grounding in this approach for students and research ecologists. Engagingly written text specifically designed to demystify a complex subject Examples drawn from ecology and wildlife research An essential grounding for graduate and research ecologists in the increasingly prevalent Bayesian approach to inference Companion website with analyt...

  19. The ecological dimensions of vector-borne disease research and control Dimensões ecológicas do controle e gerenciamento de doenças transmitidas por vetores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R. Ellis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alarming trends in the resurgence of vector-borne diseases are anticipated to continue unless more effective action is taken to address the variety of underlying causes. Social factors, anthropogenic environmental modifications and/or ecological changes appear to be the primary drivers. The ecological dimension of vector-borne disease research and management is a pervasive element because this issue is essentially an ecological problem with biophysical, social, and economic dimensions. However there is often a lack of clarity about the ecological dimension, the field of ecology (e.g. role, limitations, and related concepts pertinent to ecosystem approaches to health. An ecological perspective can provide foresight into the appropriateness of interventions, provide answers to unexpected vector control responses, and contribute to effective management solutions in an ever-changing environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the ecological dimension of vector-borne diseases and to provide further clarity about the role of "ecological thinking" in the development and implementation of vector control activities (i.e. ecosystem approaches to vector-borne diseases.A tendência alarmante em direção ao ressurgimento de doenças transmitidas por vetores continuará, a menos que ações eficazes sejam tomadas para controlar suas causas primárias. Fatores sociais, mudanças ambientais causadas pelo homem e/ou mudanças ecológicas são, aparentemente, a base do problema. A dimensão ecológica da pesquisa e do gerenciamento dessas doenças é um elemento difuso e constante, já que consiste, essencialmente, em um problema de caráter ecológico com dimensões biofísica, social e econômica. No entanto, há pouca discussão sobre a dimensão ecológica, sobre o campo da ecologia (p.ex.: seu papel e suas limitações e sobre os conceitos relacionados à abordagem ecossistêmica na saúde. Uma perspectiva ecológica poderá permitir uma an

  20. Research on Low-carbon Tourism Development in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone%鄱阳湖生态经济区低碳旅游发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻智辉

    2014-01-01

    在鄱阳湖生态经济区探索发展低碳旅游业,有利于保护生态环境,发挥资源优势,促进产业生态化和生态产业化。通过政府、企业和游客共同参与,构筑区域低碳旅游循环体系。根据旅游地的生态环境和资源特点,构筑旅游地资源循环利用系统,合理规划生态承载量,对旅游资源进行优化配置,引导旅游者进入低碳旅游方式;旅游景区设施提倡简便、实用、安全、满足消费功能;在施工上选用环保、节能、耐用建材和太阳能、沼气等可再生能源技术;旅游饭店要推行低碳消费,实施绿色行业标准,制定节能减排指标,创建绿色旅游饭店;旅游者要将低碳理念贯穿在“吃、住、行、游、购、娱”各个环节中,实现真正的低碳旅游体验和享受。通过发展低碳旅游业,带动生态经济区其他生态产业的联动发展,从而实现生态与经济协调发展。%Research on low-carbon tourism development in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone, is help-ful to protect the ecological environment, to make good use of the superiority of resources, and to promote indus-trial ecology and eco-industrialization. By the participation of governments, businesses and visitors, a regional cir-cular system of low-carbon tourism can be built. According to the ecological environment and the characteristics of resources in the tourism area, a circular system of resources is to be built, with a rational plan of ecological car-rying capacity, an optimal allocation of tourism resources, and a guide of the tourists into low-carbon tourism. And facilities in tourist attractions are advocated to be simple, practical, safe, to meet the consumption function. Envi-ronmental protection, energy saving and durable building materials, and solar, biogas and other renewable energy technologies are to be selected in the construction. For building green tourist hotels, low